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Sample records for zarei-e tolide ion-haye

  1. Síndrome de Hay-Wells: relato de caso Hay-Wells syndrome: a case report

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    Dário Júnior de Freitas Rosa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Hay-Wells é uma forma rara de displasia ectodérmica, descrita inicialmente em 1976 por Hay e Wells, de caráter autossômico dominante com expressão variável, composta por anomalias congênitas da pele, cabelos, dentes, unhas e glândulas sudoríparas. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente de 17 anos, filho de pais não consangüíneos, que apresentava anquiloblefaron filiforme adenatum, displasia ectodérmica e fenda palatina ao nascimento, sinais considerados cardinais pela maioria dos autores. Destacamos também a importância do acompanhamento multidiscliplinar dos pacientes.Hay-Wells syndrome is a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia initially described by Hay and Wells in 1976. It is an autosomal dominant disorder with varying forms of expression featuring congenital abnormalities of the skin, hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. The present report describes the case of a 17-yearold white boy, the son of nonconsanguineous parents, who presented ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum, ectodermal dysplasia and a cleft palate at birth, which are considered cardinal signs of this syndrome by most authors. We also highlight the importance of implementing multidisciplinary follow-up of these patients.

  2. Effects of haying on breeding birds in CRP grasslands

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    Igl, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a voluntary program that is available to agricultural producers to help protect environmentally sensitive or highly erodible land. Management disturbances of CRP grasslands generally are not allowed unless authorized to provide relief to livestock producers during severe drought or a similar natural disaster (i.e., emergency haying and grazing) or to improve the quality and performance of the CRP cover (i.e., managed haying and grazing). Although CRP grasslands may not be hayed or grazed during the primary bird-nesting season, these disturbances may have short-term (1 yr after disturbance) and long-term (≥2 yr after disturbance) effects on grassland bird populations. We assessed the effects of haying on 20 grassland bird species in 483 CRP grasslands in 9 counties of 4 states in the northern Great Plains, USA between 1993 and 2008. We compared breeding bird densities (as determined by total-area counts) in idle and hayed fields to evaluate changes 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after haying. Haying of CRP grasslands had either positive or negative effects on grassland birds, depending on the species, the county, and the number of years after the initial disturbance. Some species (e.g., horned lark [Eremophila alpestris], bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) responded positively after haying, and others (e.g., song sparrow [Melospiza melodia]) responded negatively. The responses of some species changed direction as the fields recovered from haying. For example, densities for common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis), and clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) declined the first year after haying but increased in the subsequent 3 years. Ten species showed treatment × county interactions, indicating that the effects of haying varied geographically. This long-term evaluation on the effects of haying on breeding birds provides important information on the strength and direction of changes in

  3. Consumo e digestibilidades aparentes total e parciais do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis Intake, total and partial apparent digestibilities of Stylosanthes guianensis hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ladeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se sete carneiros, sem raça definida, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, para avaliar o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL e hemicelulose (HCEL do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis. Os animais receberam apenas feno de S. guianensis mais sal mineral como componentes da dieta. O fornecimento do feno foi ad libitum, sendo a quantidade calculada para permitir sobras de 20%. Utilizou-se óxido crômico como indicador para estimar a produção de fezes e o fluxo de digesta no duodeno. Os consumos de MS e MO do S. guianensis foram 67,71 e 64,70 g/kg0,75, respectivamente. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO, PB, FDN e FDA foram 49,2, 51,3, 61,2, 42,0 e 42,7%, respectivamente. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminais da MS, MO, FDN e FDA foram 75,8, 84,7, 89,6 e 90,6%, respectivamente, em função do total digerido. A digestibilidade ruminal da PB foi 21,3%. Concluiu-se que o feno de S. guianensis, colhido em estádio de maturidade avançada, pode ser indicado para ruminantes, pois seu consumo é capaz de atender às necessidades energéticas de mantença já que seus valores, apesar de sua digestibilidade não ser elevada, são ligeiramente maiores do que os de outras forrageiras tropicais.Seven rumen and duodenal cannulated lambs were used to evaluate the intake and the total and the partial apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL and hemicellulose (HCEL of the Stylosanthes guianensis hay. The diet was composed by the hay of S. guianensis plus mineral salt. The hay was offered ad libitum with the refusals estimated for being 20%. Chromium oxide was used as an external marker, to estimate fecal production and digesta

  4. Allergies and Hay Fever

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    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient ... life more enjoyable. Why does the body develop allergies? Allergy symptoms appear when the immune system reacts ...

  5. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth / For Parents / Seasonal Allergies (Hay ... español Alergia estacional (fiebre del heno) About Seasonal Allergies "Achoo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit of ...

  6. Effect of a commercial anion dietary supplement on acid-base balance, urine volume, and urinary ion excretion in male goats fed oat or grass hay diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton-Phelps, Meri; House, John K

    2004-10-01

    To determine whether feeding a commercial anionic dietary supplement as a urinary acidifier to male goats may be useful for management of urolithiasis. 8 adult sexually intact male Toggenburg, Saanen, and Nubian goats. Goats were randomly assigned by age-, breed-, and weight-matched pairs to an oat or grass hay diet that was fed for 12 days. On days 13 to 14 (early sample collection time before supplementation), measurements were made of blood and urine sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, and sulfur concentrations; blood and urine pH; urine production; and water consumption. During the next 28 days, the anionic dietary supplement was added to the oat and grass hay diets to achieve a dietary cation-anion difference of 0 mEq/100g of dry matter. Blood and urine samples were analyzed during dietary supplementation on days 12 to 13 (middle sample collection time) and 27 to 28 (late sample collection time). Blood bicarbonate, pH, and urine pH of goats fed grass hay and goats fed oat hay were significantly decreased during the middle and late sample collection times, compared with the early sample collection time. Water consumption and urine production in all goats increased significantly during the late sample collection time, compared with the early sample collection time. The anionic dietary supplement used in our study increases urine volume, alters urine ion concentrations, and is an efficacious urinary acidifier in goats. Goats treated with prolonged anionic dietary supplementation should be monitored for secondary osteoporosis from chronic urinary calcium loss.

  7. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Differences in the Dynamics of Colonization and Degradation of Grass vs. Hay by Rumen Microbes with Minor Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Belanche

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the efficiency of utilization of fresh and preserved forage is a key target for ruminant science. Vitamin E is often used as additive to improve product quality but its impact of the rumen function is unknown. This study investigated the successional microbial colonization of ryegrass (GRA vs. ryegrass hay (HAY in presence of zero or 50 IU/d supplementary vitamin E, using a rumen simulation technique. A holistic approach was used to link the dynamics of feed degradation with the structure of the liquid-associated (LAB and solid-associated bacteria (SAB. Results showed that forage colonization by SAB was a tri-phasic process highly affected by the forage conservation method: Early colonization (0–2 h after feeding by rumen microbes was 2× faster for GRA than HAY diets and dominated by Lactobacillus and Prevotella which promoted increased levels of lactate (+56% and ammonia (+18%. HAY diets had lower DM degradation (-72% during this interval being Streptococcus particularly abundant. During secondary colonization (4–8 h the SAB community increased in size and decreased in diversity as the secondary colonizers took over (Pseudobutyrivibrio promoting the biggest differences in the metabolomics profile between diets. Secondary colonization was 3× slower for HAY vs. GRA diets, but this delay was compensated by a greater bacterial diversity (+197 OTUs and network complexity resulting in similar feed degradations. Tertiary colonization (>8 h consisted of a slowdown in the colonization process and simplification of the bacterial network. This slowdown was less evident for HAY diets which had higher levels of tertiary colonizers (Butyrivibrio and Ruminococcus and may explain the higher DM degradation (+52% during this interval. The LAB community was particularly active during the early fermentation of GRA and during the late fermentation for HAY diets indicating that the availability of nutrients in the liquid phase reflects the dynamics

  8. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  9. Nutritional value of silk flower hay for lambs Valor nutritional do feno de flor-de-seda para cordeiros

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    Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated four levels of silk flower (Calotropis procera S.W. hay (SFH as a substitute of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hay (SBH in diet for lambs. Nutritional value of silk-flower hay was determined based on aparent digestibility and on metabolic, productive and economical performance of Santa Inês lambs. It was used twenty-four castrated males at 15.72 ± 1.92 kg body weight randomly distributed in four diets with silk-fklower and sorghum hay ratios (100:0, 66:33, 33:66, 0:100, and supplemented with a concentrate mixture based on 50% roughage:50% concentrate (weight/weight. Increase in the levels of silk-flower hay in the diet reduced weight gain and nutrient intake and it increased feed conversion and digestibility coeficients of all the nutrients. Nitrogen balance was similar in all levels of silk-flower hay, although there was a tendency of reduction in nitrogen retention at levels 66% and 100% of silk-flower hay. At the levels 0 and 33% of silk-flower hay in the diet, dry matter ingestion (170 and 180 g/day, daily average weight gain (84 and 89 g/kg0.75and feed conversion (4.99 and 5.02 were satisfactory. Silk-flower hay can represent up to 16.5% of the total food ingestion or 33% of the roughage in diet for lambs.Avaliaram-se quatro níveis de feno de flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera S.W. em substituição ao feno de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor na dieta de cordeiros. O valor nutricional do feno de flor-de-seda foi determinado com base na digestibilidade aparente e no desempenho metabólico, produtivo e econômico de cordeiros Santa Inês. Utilizaram-se 24 machos castrados com peso corporal de 15,72 kg ± 1,92 kg distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro dietas com relações entre feno de flor-de-seda e de sorgo (100:0, 66:33, 33:66 e 0:100 e suplementadas com uma mistura concentrada à base de 50% de volumos e 50% de concentrado (peso/peso. O aumento nos níveis de feno de flor-de-seda na dieta diminuiu o ganho de peso e a ingestão de

  10. Preliminary results of a novel hay-hole fall prevention initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Erich K; Gross, Brian W; Jammula, Shreya; Bradburn, Eric H; Baier, Ronald D; Reihart, Michael J; Murphy, Dennis; Moyer, Kay; Hess, Joseph; Lackmann, Susan; Miller, Jo Ann; Rogers, Frederick B

    2018-02-01

    Hay-hole falls are a prevalent source of trauma among Anabaptists-particularly Anabaptist youth. We sought to decrease hay-hole falls in South Central Pennsylvania through the development and distribution of all-weather hay-hole covers to members of the at-risk Anabaptist community. Following the creation of a rural trauma prevention syndicate, hay-hole cover prototypes co-designed and endorsed by the Pennsylvania Amish Safety Committee were developed and distributed throughout South Central Pennsylvania. Preintervention and postintervention surveys were distributed to recipients to gain an understanding of the hay-hole fall problem in this population, to provide insight into the acceptance of the cover within the community, and to determine the efficacy of the cover in preventing falls. A total of 231 hay-hole covers were distributed throughout eight rural trauma-prone counties in Pennsylvania. According to preintervention survey data, 52% of cover recipients reported at least one hay-hole fall on their property, with 46% reporting multiple falls (median fall rate, 1.00 [1.00-2.00] hay-hole falls per respondent). The median self-reported distance from hay-hole to ground floor was 10.0 (8.00-12.0) feet, and the median number of hay-holes present on-property was 3.00 (2.00-4.00) per respondent. Postintervention survey data found 98% compliance with hay-hole cover installation and no subsequent reported hay-hole falls. With the support of the Pennsylvania Amish Safety Committee, we developed a well-received hay-hole cover which could effectively reduce fall trauma across other rural communities in the United States. Epidemiological study, Level III.

  11. Similarity, Induction, Naming, and Categorization (SINC): Generalization or Inductive Reasoning? Reply to Heit and Hayes (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.; Fisher, Anna V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a response to E. Heit and B. K. Hayes's comment on the target article "Induction and Categorization in Young Children: A Similarity-Based Model" (V. M. Sloutsky & A. V. Fisher, 2004a). The response discusses points of agreement and disagreement with Heit and Hayes; phenomena predicted by similarity, induction, naming, and…

  12. Motivation for hay: effects of a pelleted diet on behavior and physiology of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Jamie B; Erb, Hollis N; Houpt, Katherine Albro

    2010-12-02

    The natural diet of free-ranging horses is grass, which is typically high in fiber and calorically dilute, however diets for high performance domestic horses are often low in fiber and calorically dense. The aim of the study was to determine the motivation of horses for hay when fed a low roughage diet. Their motivation could be used to determine if low roughage diets compromise the welfare of horses. Eight mares were fed two different diets in counterbalanced order: ad libitum orchard grass hay; a complete pelleted feed (pellets). Each trial lasted three weeks, with a one-week transition period between diets. To determine the motivation of horses for fiber they were taught to press a panel to obtain a food reward. The fixed ratio (FR) was increased using a progressive ratio ((1,2,4,7,11…) technique. When fed pellets, the horses worked for a median FR of 1 (Range=1-497) to attain pellets, and when fed hay, they worked for a median FR of 25.5 (4-497) to attain pellets. When fed hay, the horses worked for a median FR of 0 (0-0) to attain hay, and when fed pellets, they worked for a FR of 13 (2-79) to attain hay. These results indicate a greater motivation for hay, a high fiber diet, when fed a low fiber diet. The horses spent 10 (5-19.4)% of their time during a 24-hour period eating pellets compared to 61.5 (29-76) % of their time eating hay. Horses spent 58% of their time standing when fed the pellets and only 37% of their time standing when fed hay. Searching behavior (i.e. sifting through wood shaving bedding for food particles) took up 11.5 (1.4-32) % of the horse's day when fed pellets, but only 1.2 (0-3.5) % of the daily time budget when fed hay. Horses chew more times when eating a hay diet (43,476chews/day) than when eating a pellet diet (10,036chews/day). Fecal pH was lower in horses fed the pelleted diet. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

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    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  14. Valor nutritivo e utilização do feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham para coelhos em crescimento Nutritional feeding value and use of Leucaena hay (Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Fontana Figueiredo

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cv.Cunningham para coelhos em crescimento. No ensaio de digestibilidade foram utilizados 28 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, com 40 dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos e 14 repetições. Foram utilizadas duas dietas, uma referência e uma teste na qual o feno de leucena substituiu 25% da matéria seca da dieta-referência. Os teores de matéria seca digestível, matéria orgânica digestível, proteína digestível, fibra em detergente neutro digestível e energia digestível do feno de leucena foram, respectivamente, de 26,87%; 25,30%; 5,32%; 14,66% e 1.286Kcal/kg. No experimento de desempenho foram utilizados 80 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, de 35 a 70 dias de idade. Os animais foram distribuídos num delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (cinco níveis de inclusão de feno de leucena: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%, em substituição ao feno de alfafa, oito repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os níveis crescentes de substituição do feno de alfafa pelo feno de leucena, não afetaram o desempenho dos coelhos durante o período experimental. Os dados mostram que o feno de leucena substituiu eficientemente o feno de alfafa em dietas para coelhos em crescimento.Two trial were carried out to determine the performance of rabbits fed on diets which included Leucaena hay (Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunninghan. Twenty-eight 40-day old White New Zealand rabbits were employed for the digestibility trial, in a completely randomized design with two treatments and 14 replications. Reference and test diets were used in which Leucaena hay replaced 25% of the dry matter in the reference diet. Digestible dry matter, digestible organic matter, digestible protein, digestible F.D.N. and digestible energy contents of

  15. Variations in carotenoids, vitamins A and E, and color in cow's plasma and milk following a shift from hay diet to diets containing increasing levels of carotenoids and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, F; Chauveau-Duriot, B; Pradel, P; Martin, B; Graulet, B; Doreau, M; Nozière, P

    2007-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the variations in carotenoid, vitamins A and E concentrations, and color in the plasma and milk of dairy cows following a shift from a hay diet to diets containing increasing levels of carotenoids and vitamin E. This study was performed on 32 multiparous Montbéliarde dairy cows in midlactation. After a 6-wk preexperimental period on a diet based on hay and concentrates, the cows were allocated to 4 homogeneous groups, and thereafter fed for 6 wk on isoenergetic experimental diets where the hay was replaced by an experimental feed rich in carotenoids and vitamin E, consisting in 75% grass silage and 25% alfalfa protein concentrate (PX Agro Super Desialis, Châlons en Champagne, France). The hay-to-experimental feed ratios were 100/0 in group 1, 67/33 in group 2, 33/67 in group 3, and 0/100 in group 4, providing 1.6, 3.6, 5.4, and 7.4 g/d of total carotenoids, respectively. Variations in carotenoid, vitamins A and E concentrations as well as variations in color index (CI) were monitored from d -7 through to d 42 on the experimental diets. Zeaxanthin, lutein, 13-cis-beta-carotene, and all-trans-beta-carotene accounted for an average 3, 10, 9, and 78%, respectively, of total carotenoids in plasma and 0, 17, 12, and 71%, respectively, of total carotenoids in milk. The switch from preexperimental to experimental diets only slightly affected zeaxanthin, lutein, and vitamin A concentrations in plasma and milk. A rapid increase in vitamin E and beta-carotene (BC) was observed during the first week in both plasma and milk. For vitamin E, the time to reach a plateau was from 8 d (group 2) to 28 d (group 4) in plasma, and 5 d (groups 2-4) in milk. Plasma concentrations of BC had stabilized after 28 d in group 2 but were not stabilized after 42 d in groups 3 and 4, whereas milk concentrations of BC plateaued from d 21 in group 2 and d 28 in groups 3 and 4. At the end of the experimental period, BC and vitamin E concentrations in

  16. Intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Maria Alice; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Vilmar Kozloski, Gilberto; Reiter, Tatiana; Dall Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Dallabrida, Ademar Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (DEG, Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. The experimental treatments consisted of DEG hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (DM)), which were tested in eight Texel × Suffolk crossbred wethers in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Both organic matter (OM) and digestible OM intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in animals receiving the legume forage. Total apparent OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) at an increased grass regrowth age. Ruminal OM digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with legume inclusion and at a higher grass regrowth age. The nitrogen (N) intake was higher (P < 0.05) in legume treatments and lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased, but retention of N was not affected by treatments. Duodenal flow of both, non-ammonia N and microbial N, were not affected by legume inclusion and were lower (P < 0.05) as grass regrowth age increased. The efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (ERMPS) was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by legume inclusion and was lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased. Supplementation of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at the vegetative stage with peanut legume hay improves nutritional supply to wethers due to an increase in the forage intake.

  17. Estimating the causal effect of body mass index on hay fever, asthma and lung function using Mendelian randomization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, T; Taylor, A E; Thuesen, B H

    2018-01-01

    effects. We examined the causal effect of BMI on asthma, hay fever, allergic sensitization, serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), forced expiratory volume in one-second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). METHODS: We included 490 497 participants in the observational and 162 124 participants...... support the conclusion that increasing BMI is causally related to higher prevalence of asthma and decreased lung function, but not with hay fever or biomarkers of allergy....

  18. Genetic and environmental contributions to hay fever among young adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Suppli Ulrik, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    environment, whereas the aetiology of 'sporadic' hay fever was mainly genetic. CONCLUSIONS: The susceptibility to develop hay fever is attributable to major genetic influences. However, effects of family environment and upbringing are also of importance in families where asthma is present. These results......BACKGROUND: The susceptibility to develop hay fever is putatively the result both of genetic and environmental causes. We estimated the significance and magnitude of genetic and environmental contributions to hay fever among young adult twins. METHODS: From the birth cohorts 1953-82 of The Danish...... effects accounted for 29% of the individual susceptibility to hay fever. The same genes contributed to the susceptibility to hay fever both in males and in females. In families with asthma, the susceptibility to develop hay fever was, in addition to genes, to a great extent ascribable to family...

  19. Comportamento ingestivo e ingestão de água em caprinos e ovinos alimentados com feno e silagem de Maniçoba Ingestive behavior and water intake in goats and sheep fed with Maniçoba hay and silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ricardo de Farias Zumba

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo e consumo de água de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com feno ou silagem de maniçoba (Manihot epruinosa Pax & Hoffmann. Foram empregados sete caprinos sem padrão racial definido, com peso médio inicial de 14,6kg e oito ovinos da raça Santa Inês de 13,9kg. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais e distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (forma de conservação x espécie animal. Foram avaliados os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, extrato etéreo, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não fibrosos. Para estudo de comportamento ingestivo, os animais foram observados a cada cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais alimentados com feno de maniçoba mostraram maior consumo de proteína bruta e extrato etéreo (56 e 24 g/dia em relação àqueles que receberam a maniçoba conservada pela fermentação (42 e 14g/dia, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre os tempos de alimentação (405,00 e 399,38 min, ruminação (625,63 e 599,38 min e ócio (413,13 e 44,01 min entre os animais alimentados com silagem e feno de maniçoba, respectivamente. No entanto, os animais alimentados com maniçoba conservada mediante fermentação apresentaram menor consumo de água no bebedouro (0,473vs 0,990kg/dia para silagem e feno, respectivamente. Assim, conclui-se que o método de conservação de maniçoba não interferiu no comportamento ingestivo, mas a ingestão da maniçoba conservada mediante fermentação leva ao menorThe objective of this study was to evaluate the ingestive behavior and water intake of goats and sheep fed Manihot epruinosa Pax & Hoffmann silage or hay. Seven goats (average live weight 14,6 ± 1,24kg and eight sheep (average live weight 13,8 ± 1,22kg were allotted to individual pens. They were distributed in a completely randomized design, 2 x 2 factorial outline composed of

  20. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  1. A new identification method for energetic ion ΔE-E telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Cesar; Bronchalo, Enrique; Medina, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A new ion identification method for ΔE-E telescopes is presented. The method works by counting data points under ΔE(E) curves on ΔE-E diagrams. These curves are obtained by simulating the telescope response to a flux of energetic ions. The method is checked against three published methods applied to several experimental data sets

  2. A new identification method for energetic ion {delta}E-E telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Cesar [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts, Universitaet zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Bronchalo, Enrique [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avda. Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche, Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: ebronchalo@umh.es; Medina, Jose [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-11-21

    A new ion identification method for {delta}E-E telescopes is presented. The method works by counting data points under {delta}E(E) curves on {delta}E-E diagrams. These curves are obtained by simulating the telescope response to a flux of energetic ions. The method is checked against three published methods applied to several experimental data sets.

  3. Digestibility by lambs offered alfalfa hay treated with a propionic acid hay preservative and baled at different concentrations of moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighteen crossbred wether lambs (76.1 ± 8.18 lb initial BW) were used for a 2 period digestion study to evaluate the effect of hay preservative concentration (0, 0.56, or 0.98% buffered propionic acid) and hay moisture concentration at baling (19.6, 23.8, or 27.4% moisture) on digestibility of alfal...

  4. Round-bale feeder design affects hay waste and economics during horse feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, K; Wilson, J; Cleary, K; Lazarus, W; Thomas, W; Hathaway, M

    2012-03-01

    Many horse owners find round bales convenient, less labor intensive, and more affordable than other hay types, but report an inability to control horse BW gain and excessive hay waste. The objectives were to compare hay waste, hay intake, and payback of 9 round-bale feeders and a no-feeder control when used during horse feeding. Nine round-bale feeders were tested: Cinch Net, Cone, Covered Cradle, Hayhut, Hay Sleigh, Ring, Tombstone, Tombstone Saver, and Waste Less. Each feeder design was placed on the ground in a dirt paddock. Five groups of 5 horses were fed in rotation for a 4-d period with each feeder. Every fourth day, groups were rotated among paddocks and a new round bale was placed in each feeder. In the 5 paddocks used, 5 feeders were installed for d 1 through 20, and the remaining 4 feeders and no-feeder control were installed for d 21 through 40. Groups of horses were sequentially assigned to feeders using two 5 × 5 Latin squares, the first for d 1 through 20, the second for d 21 through 40. Horse groups of similar age, BW, breed, and sex were formed from 25 Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred geldings and open mares (means: 11 yr; 541 kg of BW). Hay on the ground surrounding the feeder was collected daily, dried, and weighed. The total amount of hay removed around each feeder for a 4-d period was considered waste. Dry matter intake was estimated as the difference between hay disappearance and waste. Number of months for the reduction in waste to repay feeder cost (payback) were calculated using hay valued at $110/t, and improved feeder efficiency over the control. Feeder design did not affect hay intake (P > 0.05); all feeders resulted in an estimated hay intake of 2.0 to 2.4% BW; the no-feeder control resulted in a reduced intake of 1.3% BW (P = 0.001). Mean percentage of hay waste differed among feeders (P feeder control, 57%. Feeder design also affected payback (P feeder design affected hay waste and payback, but not estimated hay intake or BW change

  5. Degradabilidade ruminal do feno de alguns alimentos volumosos para ruminantes Ruminal degradability of some roughage hays for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.P. Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose dos fenos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, palma (Opuntia ficus, guandu (Cajanus cajan e parte aérea da mandioca (Manihot esculenta utilizando três bovinos mestiços machos, castrados, canulados no rúmen e mantidos em regime de pasto. Amostras de 4g de cada alimento foram incubadas em duplicata no rúmen dos animais, nos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. A degradabilidade potencial da PB dos fenos de capim-elefante e guandu foi semelhante, 83,9 e 81,2%, respectivamente. Os maiores valores foram observados para os fenos de palma (94,2% e parte aérea da mandioca (91,7%. A degradabilidade efetiva (DE foi obtida considerando as taxas de passagem de 2, 5 e 8%/hora. A maior DE observada para MS (60,5%, PB (81,1%, FDN (21,6%, FDA (27,9% e HEM (58,0%, na taxa de passagem de 5%/h, ocorreu com o feno de palma.The ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose (HEM of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, forage cactus (Opuntia ficus, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta hays was evaluated using three cannulated crossbred steers, kept on pasture. Samples of four grams of each hay were incubated in the rumen for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours. The CP potential degradability (PD for elephantgrass and pigeon pea hays was similar, 83.9 and 81.2%, respectively. Higher values were observed either for forage cactus (94.2% or cassava foliage (91.7% hays. The effective degradability (ED was obtained considering the passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/hour. The forage cactus hay, at a passage rate of 5%/h, showed the highest ED for DM (60.5%, CP (81.1%, NDF (21.6%, ADF (27.9% and HEM (58.0%.

  6. Substituting oat hay or maize silage for portion of alfalfa hay affects growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility of weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The impact of forage feeding strategy on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in post-weaning calves was investigated. Methods Forty-five female Holstein calves (body weight [BW] = 79.79±0.38 kg were enrolled in the 35-d study at one week after weaning and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. All diets were fed as total mixed ration containing 60% (dry matter [DM] basis of basal starter feed and 40% (DM basis of forage, but varied in composition of forage source including i alfalfa (40% DM, AH; ii alfalfa hay (26.7% DM+oat hay (13.3% DM; OH; iii alfalfa hay (26.7% DM+corn silage (13.3% DM; WS. Results Dry matter intake was not different among treatment groups (p>0.05. However, BW (p<0.05 and average daily gain (p<0.05 of calves fed AH and OH were greater than WS-fed calves, whereas heart girth was greater in OH-fed calves than those fed AH and WS (p<0.05. Ruminal fermentation parameters including proportion of butyric acid, acetated-to-propionate ratio, concentration of total volatile fatty acid, protozoal protein, bacterial protein, and microbial protein in rumen were the highest in OH (p<0.05 and the lowest in WS. Compared with the AH and WS, feeding oat hay to postweaning calves increased crude protein digestibility (p<0.05, and decreased duration of diarrhea (p<0.05 and fecal index (p<0.05. Conclusion Our results suggested that partially replacing alfalfa hay with oat hay improved ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, and reduced incidence of diarrhea in post-weaning dairy calves.

  7. FastStats: Allergies/Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Allergies and Hay Fever Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 12 months: 7.5% Number with reported respiratory allergies in the past 12 months: 7.6 million ...

  8. Valor nutritivo do capim-elefante (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, do feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa, L. e do feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. para eqüinos Nutritive value of elephant grass (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, L. and coast-cross grass hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Vieira de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes nos alimentos volumosos capim-elefante, feno de alfafa e feno de capim coast-cross em eqüinos adultos. Dezoito éguas adultas da raça Mangalarga Marchador foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos, que consistiram em dietas contendo os seguintes alimentos volumosos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - feno de alfafa e T3 - feno de capim coast-cross. Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia. O período experimental constituiu de uma fase de oito dias para adaptação às dietas e cinco dias para a coleta total das fezes. Não houve diferenças no consumo diário de matéria seca (MS das forragens, sendo observados valores médios de 6,27 kg MS, 68,41 g MS/kg0,75 ou 1,51%PV. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade aparente do capim-elefante e dos fenos de alfafa e capim coast-cross foram de 43,10; 55,20; e 49,80% para a MS; 41,60; 53,40; e 47,90% para a energia bruta; 24,60; 71,20; e 56,10% para a proteína bruta; e 40,60; 35,50; e 63,30% para a fibra em detergente neutro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients of elephant grass forages, alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays in adult horses. Eighteen adult Mangalarga Marchador mares were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments that consisted on diets with the following forages: T1 - elephant grass, T2 - alfalfa hay, T3 - coast-cross grass hay. The animals were ad libitum fed twice a day. The experimental period was constituted by a phase of eight days for diet adaptation and a phase of five days for total collection of feces. There were no differences of forage dry matter intake, with average values of 6.27 kg DM, 68.41 g DM/kg0,75 or 1.51% LW. The average coefficients of apparent digestibility of elephant grass and alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays were 43.10, 55

  9. Analysis of the potentiality haying of native forage species in semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoque de Sousa Leão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential hay production from Spiny Amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus, Hairy Woodrose (Merremia aegyptia, Malva (Sida galheirensis, Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens and Ervanço (Froelichia humboldtiana, native forage species of the semiarid region of Brazil by observing morphological components of the plant, such as the dehydration curve, crude protein loss (CPL curve, chemical composition of plant and hay and hay degradability in situ. There were differences (P < 0.05 among species on leaf, stem and inflorescence quantification with Ervanço, Hairy Woodrose, and Mucuna having a greater number of leaves. There was a linearly increasing response for the dehydration curve of the five forage plants species. Mucuna forage had the greatest hay point at 800 g kg-1 dried matter (DM after 11.8 hours and Woodrose had a lower dehydration efficiency, which required 25 hours of sun exposure. There was no difference in CPL. Mucuna had the lowest crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF content, 8.4, 67.7 and 73.8 g kg DM-1 in hay in relation to the plant, respectively. Ervanço, Spiny Amaranth, Hairy Woodrose and Malva hay had more of soluble fraction “a” of DM of 31.0, 26.2, 22.1 and 9.7 g kg-1 DM than Mucuna, respectively. Spiny Amaranth and Malva hay had values of 335.4 and 193.2 g kg-1 DM of fraction “b” more than Ervanço hay, respectively. For fraction “a’’ of CP, Spiny Amaranth and Hairy Woodrose hay obtained 312.6 and 227.4 g kg-1 CP more than that observed for Malva, respectively. Mucuna had better hay potential among the forage studied in the semiarid region of Brazil.

  10. Substituting oat hay or maize silage for portion of alfalfa hay affects growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility of weaned calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Zou, XinPing; Li, XiZhi; Guo, Gang; Ji, Peng; Wang, Yan; Li, ShengLi; Wang, YaJing; Cao, ZhiJun

    2018-01-01

    Objective The impact of forage feeding strategy on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in post-weaning calves was investigated. Methods Forty-five female Holstein calves (body weight [BW] = 79.79±0.38 kg) were enrolled in the 35-d study at one week after weaning and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. All diets were fed as total mixed ration containing 60% (dry matter [DM] basis) of basal starter feed and 40% (DM basis) of forage, but varied in composition of forage source including i) alfalfa (40% DM, AH); ii) alfalfa hay (26.7% DM)+oat hay (13.3% DM; OH); iii) alfalfa hay (26.7% DM)+corn silage (13.3% DM; WS). Results Dry matter intake was not different among treatment groups (p>0.05). However, BW (pcalves fed AH and OH were greater than WS-fed calves, whereas heart girth was greater in OH-fed calves than those fed AH and WS (pfeeding oat hay to postweaning calves increased crude protein digestibility (pcalves. PMID:28728373

  11. Influence of feeding hay on the alopecia of breeding guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerold, S; Huisinga, E; Iglauer, F; Kurzawa, A; Morankic, A; Reimers, S

    1997-08-01

    Animals with partial alopecia were seen frequently in a breeding colony of guinea pigs. No pathologic aetiology could be determined. An influence of nutrition on the density of the hair coat was considered. Breeding groups were fed one of the commercial guinea pig diets of differing composition, with or without the addition of hay. Observation occurred over a period of months and the quality of the hair coat was evaluated periodically using a semi-quantitative scoring system. More extensive and more frequent fur defects were found is guinea pigs receiving a breeding diet with a high content of crude protein (23%) and a low level of crude fibre (12%), offered hay only restrictively compared with animals receiving a diet with a lower content of crude protein (15.5%) and a higher level of crude fibre (19.5%), offered the same amount of hay. The amount of hay offered is of paramount importance. Animals fed only the diet with the higher level of crude fibre (19.5%), according to the manufacturer's instructions as a complete food, without the addition of hay, showed a less dense hair coat within 4 weeks. In our colony a group of five breeding animals and their young required 200 g of hay daily in order to improve their hair coat quality to normal. Conversely, animals receiving less hay had progressively deteriorating hair coat density. Not only the amount of hay offered, but also the accessibility for all animals plays a role in preventing alopecia in guinea pigs. In larger cages (twice the usual ground surface area) fur defects were seen when the same amount of hay (200 g) was offered in only one central area, rather than spread out evenly throughout the cage. Hair loss was observed to be the result of trichophagia between adult animals kept in the same cage. The need for crude fibre of breeding animals does not appear to be completely met by pellets rich in fibre segments.

  12. The combined effects of family size and farm exposure on childhood hay fever and atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuneit, Jon; Strachan, David P; Büchele, Gisela; Weber, Juliane; Loss, Georg; Sozanska, Barbara; Boznanski, Andrzej; Horak, Elisabeth; Heederik, Dick; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; von Mutius, Erika

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to farming environments and siblings is associated with reduced risks of childhood hay fever and atopy. We explored the independence and interaction of these protective effects in the GABRIELA study. Questionnaire surveys on farming, asthma, and allergies were conducted in four central European areas among 79,888 6-12-yr-old children. Aeroallergen-specific serum IgE was measured in a stratified sample of 8,023 children. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare gradients in allergy prevalence by sibship size across three categories of exposure to farming environments. The prevalence of hay fever ranged from 2% (95% confidence interval 1.6%; 2.7%) among farmers' children with more than two siblings to 12% (11.2%; 13.0%) among children with no farm exposure and no siblings. Farming families were larger on average. More siblings and exposure to farming environments independently conferred protection from hay fever and atopy. There was no substantial effect modification between family size and exposure to farming environments. The odds ratios for hay fever per additional sibling were 0.79 among unexposed non-farm children, 0.77 among farm-exposed non-farm children, and 0.72 among children from farming families (2df interaction test: p = 0.41). The inverse association of exposure to farming environments with hay fever is found in all sizes of family, with no substantial tendency to saturation or synergism. This suggests that different biological mechanisms may underlie these two protective factors. Combinations of a large family and exposure to farming environments markedly reduce the prevalence of hay fever and indicate the strength of its environmental determinants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  14. Residue studies of Methabenzthiazuron in Soil, Lentils and Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maghrabi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    Over two years, replicate plots of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) were treated before seeding with methabenzthiazuron at a rate of 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1. In each year representative soil, lentil and hay samples were randomly collected from plots of each treatment. Soil samples were tested for residues 24 hours after treatment and harvest. Lentil and hay samples were tested at harvest. A cleanup step was conducted after extraction. Gas chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen/phosphorus detector was used to detect methabenzthiazuron. Overall average of residue levels in soil decreased significantly from 1.16+-0.15 mg kg, 24 hours after treatment, 0.12 +-0.01 mg kg at harvest. No significant difference in the maximum average residue was found in lentil and hay samples collected from various plots and tested at harvest (0.10+-0.01 and 0.19 +-0.02 mg kg in lentils and hay, respectively). Recovery tests were conducted with each group of samples tested in order to determine the efficiency of analytical procedure. (author)

  15. The HayWired earthquake scenario—We can outsmart disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Wein, Anne M.; Cox, Dale A.; Porter, Keith A.; Johnson, Laurie A.; Perry, Suzanne C.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; LaPointe, Drew

    2018-04-18

    The HayWired earthquake scenario, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), anticipates the impacts of a hypothetical magnitude-7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault. The fault is along the east side of California’s San Francisco Bay and is among the most active and dangerous in the United States, because it runs through a densely urbanized and interconnected region. One way to learn about a large earthquake without experiencing it is to conduct a scientifically realistic scenario. The USGS and its partners in the HayWired Coalition and the HayWired Campaign are working to energize residents and businesses to engage in ongoing and new efforts to prepare the region for such a future earthquake.

  16. Ron Hays: A Story of Art as Self Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robin M. N.; Hays, Nancy Scheller

    2016-01-01

    Ronald E. Hays is the former Director of the Hahnemann Creative Arts in Therapy Department at Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the cofounder of the graduate art therapy program at Eastern Virginia Medical School in Norfolk, Virginia. At the age of 62 he was diagnosed with early onset Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia. In…

  17. INTAKE AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF Andropogon gayanus HAY AT THREE DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cayô Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, fiber fractions, energy, and the nitrogen balance of Andropogon gayanus hay at three different stages (56, 84 and 112 days. The statistical design was completely randomized, with three treatments and six replicates. Dry matter, fiber fractions, and energy apparent digestibility were higher (P<0.05 for hay harvested at 56 and 84 days. Crude protein intake and apparent digestibility of A. gayanus hay harvested at 56 days of growth were greater (P<0.05 than the hay harvested at 84 and 112 days. The A. gayanus hay showed the best voluntary intake and digestibility at 56 and 84 days of age. Keywords: forage; nutritive value; sheep.

  18. Consumo e digestibilidade de feno de baixa qualidade suplementado com nitrogênio não protéico em bovinos Intake and digestibility of low-quality hay with nonprotein nitrogen supplementation in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mateus Mallmann

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de níveis de inclusão de nitrogênio não protéico, em suplementos fornecidos a tourinhos Hereford, com 17 meses e peso médio de 220 kg, alimentados com feno de tifton (Cynodon dactylon ad libitum. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: feno + suplemento sem uréia; feno + suplemento com 0,28 g de uréia kg-1 PV0,75; feno + suplemento com 0,55 g de uréia kg-1 PV0,75; feno + suplemento com 0,83 g de uréia kg-1 PV0,75 e feno + suplemento com 1,11 g de uréia kg-1 PV0,75. O feno apresentou, na média, 3,86% de proteína bruta e 84,66% de fibra em detergente neutro. Não se constatou efeito da suplementação sobre a digestibilidade da matéria orgânica, matéria orgânica do feno, fibra em detergente neutro, celulose e hemicelulose; o consumo total desses itens respondeu quadraticamente à suplementação com níveis crescentes de nitrogênio não protéico. A suplementação não afetou a excreção fecal metabólica de matéria orgânica, o que sugere aumento na taxa de passagem (variação no consumo e na taxa de digestão (digestibilidade constante. O consumo de matéria orgânica digestível apresentou comportamento quadrático com aumento dos níveis de uréia na dieta. Quando o nível de proteína degradável no rúmen foi equivalente a 8,1% da matéria orgânica digestível, a relação de consumo entre esses componentes foi otimizada.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nonprotein nitrogen supplementation levels on the digestibility of low-quality hay (Cynodon dactylon, which was offered ad libitum to Hereford bulls aging 17 months and weighing 220 kg. The evaluated treatments were: hay + no urea supplement; hay + supplement with 0.28 g urea kg- 1 BW0.75; hay + supplement with 0.55 g urea kg-1 BW0.75; hay + supplement with 0.83 g urea kg- 1 BW0.75 and hay + supplement with 1.11 g urea kg- 1 BW0.75. Hay composition presented 3.86% of crude protein and 84.66% of neutral

  19. Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior

  20. Effect of mid-summer haying on growth and reproduction in prairie forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky Begay; Helen M. Alexander; Erin Questad

    2011-01-01

    Mid-summer haying is a common management practice for prairies; plant species could differ in the effect of haying on subsequent growth and reproduction. We examined the effect of haying on prairie species by performing a clipping experiment. For each of seven species, sixteen plants were chosen and half were randomly assigned to a clipping treatment and half to a...

  1. A different voice: Mary Hays's the Memoirs of Emma Courtney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A

    2001-01-01

    Mary Hays wrote in the decade of the 1790s, a period of intense creative flowering in England. Writing in a period enshrined to the works of the canonical Wordsworth and Coleridge, Hays explored through her Jacobinical novel, The Memoirs of Emma Courtney, the contentious relationship between self and society. Like other Jacobin women writers - Elizabeth Inchbald, Charlotte Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft - Mary Hays too used her novel to explode the insidious connection between education and gender construction. Emma Courtney is a landmark novel that wrestles with the paradigm of decorum and propriety which disallows women from voicing their aspirations. In the process, Hays merges the plots of the domestic novel of courtship and love with the novel of ideas to create a searing portrait of women's intellectual confinement and psychic dissonance in a society that only projects them in terms of their gender construction. Memoirs of Emma Courtney is a remarkable novel in its depiction of the emotional imbalance created by thwarted desire: intellectual and sexual.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Lovarelli, Daniela; Tedesco, Doriana; Pretolani, Roberto; Ferrante, Valentina

    2018-09-01

    On-farm production of hay and high-protein-content feed has several advantages such as diversification of on-farm cultivated crops, reduction of off-farm feed concentrates transported over long distances and a reduction in runoff during the winter season if grown crops are perennial. Among those crops cultivated for high-protein-content feed, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important in the Italian context. Nevertheless, up to now, only a few studies have assessed the environmental performance of alfalfa hay production. In this study, using the Life Cycle Assessment approach, the environmental impact of alfalfa hay production in Northern Italy was analyzed. More in detail, two production practices (without and with irrigation) were compared. The results show that alfalfa hay production in irrigated fields has a better environmental performance compared to non-irrigated production, mainly because of the yield increase achieved with irrigation. In particular, for the Climate Change impact category, the impact is equal to 84.54 and 80.21kgCO 2 /t of hay for the scenario without and with irrigation, respectively. However, for two impact categories (Ozone Depletion and Human Toxicity-No Cancer Effect), the impact of irrigation completely offsets the yield increase, and the cultivation practice without irrigation shows the best environmental performance. For both scenarios, the mechanization of harvest is the main environmental hotspot, mostly due to fuel consumption and related combustion emissions. Wide differences were highlighted by comparing the two scenarios with the Ecoinvent process of alfalfa hay production; these differences are mostly due to the cultivation practice and, in particular, to the more intensive fertilization in Swiss production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicosis in dairy cattle exposed to poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in hay: isolation of Conium alkaloids in plants, hay, and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galey, F D; Holstege, D M; Fisher, E G

    1992-01-01

    Cattle in two herds developed signs of bloating, increased salivation and lacrimation, depression, respiratory distress, ataxia, and death after ingestion of hay that contained large amounts of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). Twenty of 30 Angus cows and calves were affected in the first herd (2 died). In the second herd, 5 of 30 Holstein heifers were affected (1 died). The Conium alkaloids, coniine and gamma-coniceine, were quantified in the hay, the plants from the responsible hayfield, and the urine of affected animals.

  4. Hay fever & homeopathy: a case series evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vinita

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever) is common and can considerably reduce the quality of life of sufferers. Despite the wide everyday application and promising results with homeopathy, scientific evidence of its effectiveness for most ailments is scarce. The assessment of the clinical effectiveness of homeopathic remedies in the alleviation of hay fever symptoms in a typical clinical setting. We performed a clinical observational study of eight patients in the treatment of hay fever symptoms over a two-year period (2012 and 2013) using Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) self-evaluation questionnaires at baseline and again after two weeks and four weeks of homeopathic treatment. The individualized prescription - either a single remedy or multiple remedies - was based on the totality of each patient's symptoms. The average MYMOP scores for the eyes, nose, activity and wellbeing had improved significantly after two and four weeks of homeopathic treatment. The overall average MYMOP profile score at baseline was 3.83 (standard deviation, SD, 0.78). After 14 and 28 days of treatment the average score had fallen to 1.14 (SD, 0.36; PHomeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Complementary scattered and recoiled ion data from TOF-E heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.

    1998-01-01

    The advantage of Time of Flight and Energy (ToF-E) Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) over Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis is its mass and energy dispersive capabilities. The mass resolution of ToF-E HIERDA deteriorates for very heavy elements. The limitation is related to the poor energy resolution of Si detectors for heavy ions. While the energy spectra from ToF-E HIERDA data are normally used to extract depth profiles, this work discusses the benefits of using the time spectra of both the recoiled and the scattered ions for depth profiling. The simulation of the complementary scattered and recoiled ion time spectra improves depth profiling and reduced current limitations when dealing with very heavy ions, such as Pt, Bi, Ta. (authors)

  6. The e+, e- background at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) generated by beam crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades-Brown, M.J.; Ludlam, T.; Wu, J.; Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.

    1990-01-01

    At the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), fully stripped heavy ions will circulate in each of two rings up to beam energies of 250 (Z/A) GeV/u. During the beam crossing, the peripheral electromagnetic interaction between the heavy ions is sufficient to induce copious production of di-lepton pairs. These pairs are a potential source of background for the detectors at RHIC. In this paper we discuss the expected number of e + ,e - pairs, given the accepted initial luminosity value L of the collider. More importantly, we also calculate the differential cross sections for the angle, energy, rapidity and momentum distribution of the leptons. Using the luminosity L of the collider, these differential cross sections are normalized to the expected number of leptons per second. We restrict ourselves to e + ,e - production, a discussion of μ + ,μ - and τ + τ - distributions will be published later. The results are presented for the expected worst case, namely 197 Au 79+ ions at a beam kinetic energy of 100 GeV/u. This is forseen to be the heaviest ion for high luminosity experiments at RHIC. We note for a given energy, the cross section for e + ,e - production scales as Z 4 , where Z is the atomic number of the ions

  7. An Investigation of Hayes and Wheelwright’s Practices: Empirical Evidence from The Indonesia’s Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakhid Slamet Ciptono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The research extracts sixty seven Hayes and Wheelwright’s practices from the Hayes and Wheel-wright’s six principles. These items formed the basis of a questionnaire sent to over 2800 managers at the SBUs level in the Indonesia’s oil and gas companies. The empirical result indicates that All Hayes and Wheelwright’s six principles collectively have positive impact on an overall construct that may be termed world-class company (WCC. Result also points out that Hayes and Wheelwright’s six principles can be reduced into four meaningful factors of world-class company—as operations strategies—for the Indonesia’s oil and gas industry— Workforce skills and capabilities, Management technical competence, Competing through quality, and Workforce participation. These meaningful factors of WCC were shown to be reliable and valid, and offer new insights into the understanding of operations strategy implementation in an oil and gas industry.Based on the oil and gas managers (the SBU level, operations strategies (four meaningful factors of WCC can be viewed as the effective use of production and operations capability and technology for achieving business and corporate goals. Operations strategy, therefore, is to help a company’s operations organization define the common ground where it can play a proactive and collaborative role with other company functions or cross-functional relationships (Hayes et al., 1996.  Oil and gas managers in Indonesia can use these meaningful factors in concert with other critical qual-ity management practices to help them in there word-class company initiatives. Researchers can also use these factors to build structural model linking such factors to various organizational performance measures (i.e., Critical Success Factors of TQM, Operational Excellence, Six Sigma Quality Management, and Good Corporate Governance.Keywords: Hayes and wheelwright’s six principles, Hayes and Wheelwright practices, World

  8. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options.

  9. The effect of lucerne ( Medicago sativa ) hay quality on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of lucerne hay quality on the milk production potential and milk composition of Jersey cows was investigated. Three different grades of lucerne hay (Prime, Grade 1, Grade 2; selected according to the New Lucerne Quality Index) were included in a total mixed ration (TMR) and fed to lactating cows. The three ...

  10. Effect of feed restriction with voluntary hay intake on the performance and quality of laying hen eggs=Efeito da restrição alimentar com oferta de feno sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Abe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of a quantitative feed restriction on the voluntary intake of hay, the performance of laying hens, and on egg quality. A total of 150 Hisex Brown laying hens at 51-weeks old were distributed into five treatments and five replications of six hens each. The treatments consisted of control, with supply of 100 g of feed bird-1 day-1 without hay; and the others consisting of a feed restriction of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of the diet offered to the birds in the control treatment, along with an ad libitum supply of cunhã hay (CH, leucaena leaf meal (LLM and tifton hay (TH. A linear increase was found in the hay intake with increasing level of dietary restriction. However, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion decreased linearly. Yolk color was affected by the treatments. Birds with 20% feed restriction presented the greatest yolk pigmentation. In conclusion, laying hens can be subjected to a 5% feed restriction with supply of hay ad libitum.O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da restrição alimentar sobre a ingestão voluntária de feno, o desempenho das aves e a qualidade dos ovos. Foram utilizadas 150 poedeiras da linhagem Hisex Brown com 51 semanas de idade. As aves foram distribuídas em cinco tratamentos com cinco repetições de seis aves cada. O tratamento controle consistiu no fornecimento de 100 g de ração ave-1 dia-1 sem oferta de feno e os demais na oferta de 95, 90, 85 e 80 g de ração ave-1 dia-1, que corresponderam, respectivamente, às restrições de 5, 10, 15 e 20% da quantidade de ração, com o fornecimento de feno à vontade. Foram utilizados os fenos de cunhã, das folhas de leucena e de tifton. Com o aumento no nível de restrição, houve aumento no consumo diário de feno, redução na produção, na massa de ovo, no peso médio das aves e piora na conversão alimentar. Em relação às características de qualidade dos ovos, apenas a coloração da gema variou

  11. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  12. Steam explosion pretreatment for enhancing biogas production of late harvested hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Lizasoain, Javier; Theuretzbacher, Franz; Agger, Jane W; Rincón, María; Menardo, Simona; Saylor, Molly K; Enguídanos, Ramón; Nielsen, Paal J; Potthast, Antje; Zweckmair, Thomas; Gronauer, Andreas; Horn, Svein J

    2014-08-01

    Grasslands are often abandoned due to lack of profitability. Extensively cultivating grassland for utilization in a biogas-based biorefinery concept could mend this problem. Efficient bioconversion of this lignocellulosic biomass requires a pretreatment step. In this study the effect of different steam explosion conditions on hay digestibility have been investigated. Increasing severity in the pretreatment induced degradation of the hemicellulose, which at the same time led to the production of inhibitors and formation of pseudo-lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis showed that the maximum glucose yields were obtained under pretreatment at 220 °C for 15 min, while higher xylose yields were obtained at 175 °C for 10 min. Pretreatment of hay by steam explosion enhanced 15.9% the methane yield in comparison to the untreated hay. Results indicate that hay can be effectively converted to methane after steam explosion pretreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 1.8. Brand*, HA Badenhorst, FK 8iebrits and EH Kemm JP Hayes et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brand*, H.A. Badenhorst, F.K. 8iebrits and E.H. Kemm. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 1675, Republic of South Africa. J.P. Hayes. Department of Poultry Science, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, Republic of South Africa. The experiment was conducted to compare the ...

  14. Distribution and dynamics of the invasive native hay-scented fern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Peter Gould; Melanie Kaeser; Kim. Steiner

    2010-01-01

    The spread and dominance of the invasive native hay-scented fern in the understory is one of the most significant changes to affect the forest ecosystems in the northeastern United States in the last century. We studied changes in the distribution and dynamics of hay-scented fern at a large scale over a 10-yr period in Pennsylvania. The study included 56 stands...

  15. Effects of hay management and native species sowing on grassland community structure, biomass, and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Bryan L; Kindscher, Kelly; Houseman, Greg R; Murphy, Cheryl A

    2009-10-01

    Prairie hay meadows are important reservoirs of grassland biodiversity in the tallgrass prairie regions of the central United States and are the object of increasing attention for conservation and restoration. In addition, there is growing interest in the potential use of such low-input, high-diversity (LIHD) native grasslands for biofuel production. The uplands of eastern Kansas, USA, which prior to European settlement were dominated by tallgrass prairie, are currently utilized for intensive agriculture or exist in a state of abandonment from agriculture. The dominant grasslands in the region are currently high-input, low-diversity (HILD) hay fields seeded to introduced C3 hay grasses. We present results from a long-term experiment conducted in a recently abandoned HILD hay field in eastern Kansas to evaluate effects of fertilization, haying, and native species sowing on community dynamics, biomass, and potential for restoration to native LIHD hay meadow. Fertilized plots maintained dominance by introduced grasses, maintained low diversity, and were largely resistant to colonization throughout the study. Non-fertilized plots exhibited rapid successional turnover, increased diversity, and increased abundance of C4 grasses over time. Haying led to modest changes in species composition and lessened the negative impact of fertilization on diversity. In non-fertilized plots, sowing increased representation by native species and increased diversity, successional turnover, and biomass production. Our results support the shifting limitations hypothesis of community organization and highlight the importance of species pools and seed limitations in constraining successional turnover, community structure, and ecosystem productivity under conditions of low fertility. Our findings also indicate that several biological and functional aspects of LIHD hay meadows can be restored from abandoned HILD hay fields by ceasing fertilization and reintroducing native species through

  16. Genome-wide association analysis identifies 11 risk variants associated with the asthma with hay fever phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuel A R; Matheson, Melanie C; Tang, Clara S; Granell, Raquel; Ang, Wei; Hui, Jennie; Kiefer, Amy K; Duffy, David L; Baltic, Svetlana; Danoy, Patrick; Bui, Minh; Price, Loren; Sly, Peter D; Eriksson, Nicholas; Madden, Pamela A; Abramson, Michael J; Holt, Patrick G; Heath, Andrew C; Hunter, Michael; Musk, Bill; Robertson, Colin F; Le Souëf, Peter; Montgomery, Grant W; Henderson, A John; Tung, Joyce Y; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Brown, Matthew A; James, Alan; Thompson, Philip J; Pennell, Craig; Martin, Nicholas G; Evans, David M; Hinds, David A; Hopper, John L

    2014-06-01

    To date, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) has considered the combined phenotype of asthma with hay fever. Previous analyses of family data from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study provide evidence that this phenotype has a stronger genetic cause than asthma without hay fever. We sought to perform a GWAS of asthma with hay fever to identify variants associated with having both diseases. We performed a meta-analysis of GWASs comparing persons with both physician-diagnosed asthma and hay fever (n = 6,685) with persons with neither disease (n = 14,091). At genome-wide significance, we identified 11 independent variants associated with the risk of having asthma with hay fever, including 2 associations reaching this level of significance with allergic disease for the first time: ZBTB10 (rs7009110; odds ratio [OR], 1.14; P = 4 × 10(-9)) and CLEC16A (rs62026376; OR, 1.17; P = 1 × 10(-8)). The rs62026376:C allele associated with increased asthma with hay fever risk has been found to be associated also with decreased expression of the nearby DEXI gene in monocytes. The 11 variants were associated with the risk of asthma and hay fever separately, but the estimated associations with the individual phenotypes were weaker than with the combined asthma with hay fever phenotype. A variant near LRRC32 was a stronger risk factor for hay fever than for asthma, whereas the reverse was observed for variants in/near GSDMA and TSLP. Single nucleotide polymorphisms with suggestive evidence for association with asthma with hay fever risk included rs41295115 near IL2RA (OR, 1.28; P = 5 × 10(-7)) and rs76043829 in TNS1 (OR, 1.23; P = 2 × 10(-6)). By focusing on the combined phenotype of asthma with hay fever, variants associated with the risk of allergic disease can be identified with greater efficiency. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6......, 11 and 15 years in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever and mental health problems assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was linked to register data on demographics and parental socioeconomic position. 9215 (47...... with eczema, asthma or hay fever had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems, but not peer problems, compared with children without these diseases. Atopic diseases added equally to the burden of mental health problems independent of socioeconomic position....

  18. Long-term agricultural management maximizing hay production can significantly reduce belowground C storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sochorová, L.; Jansa, J.; Verbruggen, E.; Hejcman, M.; Schellberg, J.; Kiers, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Liming and fertilization of grasslands have been used for centuries to sustain hay production. Besides improving hay yields, these practices induce compositional shifts in plant and soil microbial communities, including symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. However, in spite of increasing

  19. Electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.) multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1978-01-01

    High charge state ions can be produced by electron bombardment inside targets when the target electron density n (cm -3 ) multiplied by the ion transit time through the target tau (sec) is: n tau > 5.10 9 cm -3 sec. The relative velocity between electrons and ions determines the balance between stripping and capture i.e. the final ion charge state. (In a stripper foil fast ions interact with slow electrons involving typically n approximately 10 24 cm -3 , tau approximately 10 -14 sec). In the E.C.R. source a cold ion plasma created in a first stage diffuses slowly through a second stage containing a hot E.C.R. plasma with n > 3.10 11 cm -3 and tau > 10 -2 sec. Continuous beams of several μA of C 6+ N 7+ Ne 9+ A 11+ are extracted from the second stage with normalized emittances of approximately 0.5 π mm mrad. The absence of cathodes and plasma arcs makes the source very robust, reliable and well-fitted for cyclotron injection. A super conducting source is under development

  20. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  1. Effect of dietary restriction and hay inclusion in the diet of slow-growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla P. Picoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.

  2. Ultra-low-energy (<10 eV/u) ion beam bombardment effect on naked DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Decelerated ultra-low energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. • DNA form change induced by ion bombardment was investigated. • N-ion bombardment at 32 eV induced DNA single and double strand breaks. • Ar-ion bombardment at a-few-hundreds eV induced DNA single strand break. - Abstract: Since ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range, it is very interesting to know effects from ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA for understanding ion-beam-induced genetic mutation. Tens-keV Ar- and N-ion beams were decelerated to ultra-low energy ranging from 20 to 100 eV, or only a few to 10 eV/u, to bombard naked plasmid DNA. The bombarded DNA was analyzed using gel electrophoresis for DNA form changes. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks after bombarded by tens-eV ion beam. N-ion beam was found more effective in inducing DNA change and mutation than Ar-ion beam. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was able to break DNA strands and thus potentially to cause genetic modification of biological cells. The experimental results were discussed in terms of direct atomic collision between the ions and DNA atoms.

  3. Ultra-low-energy (<10 eV/u) ion beam bombardment effect on naked DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thopan, P.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Decelerated ultra-low energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. • DNA form change induced by ion bombardment was investigated. • N-ion bombardment at 32 eV induced DNA single and double strand breaks. • Ar-ion bombardment at a-few-hundreds eV induced DNA single strand break. - Abstract: Since ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range, it is very interesting to know effects from ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA for understanding ion-beam-induced genetic mutation. Tens-keV Ar- and N-ion beams were decelerated to ultra-low energy ranging from 20 to 100 eV, or only a few to 10 eV/u, to bombard naked plasmid DNA. The bombarded DNA was analyzed using gel electrophoresis for DNA form changes. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks after bombarded by tens-eV ion beam. N-ion beam was found more effective in inducing DNA change and mutation than Ar-ion beam. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was able to break DNA strands and thus potentially to cause genetic modification of biological cells. The experimental results were discussed in terms of direct atomic collision between the ions and DNA atoms

  4. Dung matters : An experimental study into the effectiveness of using dung from hay-fed livestock to reconstruct local vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Mans; Van Haaster, Henk

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between standing vegetation and dung from hay-fed cattle and sheep. In an experimental study, hay is retrieved from a known hay field, surrounded by a semi-open landscape of hedgerows, forests and heather fields. The hay is fed to cattle and sheep, after which

  5. Fermentation characteristics in hay from Cynodon and crop stubble treated with exogenous enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yânez André Gomes Santana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of treatment with xylanase and β-glucanase was evaluated for gas production and the ruminal degradation of nutrients from the hay of Tifton 85 grass and the stubble of maize, sorghum, peanut, sunflower and sesame crops. Two commercial fibrolytic enzymes were used (Dyadic xylanase PLUS - Xylanase; BrewZyme LP-β-glucanase, added to the hay at doses of 7.5 units of endoglucanase and 0.46 units of xylanase per 500 mg/gDM, for the cellulase and xylanase products respectively. The chemical composition of the hay was determined for no enzyme application and 24 hours after enzyme treatment, and the in vitro gas production and in situ microbial degradation was estimated for dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and truly-degradable organic matter after 24 hours of incubation in the rumen. Enzyme treatment of the hay from Tifton 85 grass and the stubble of maize, sorghum, sunflower, peanut and sesame crops with the exogenous fibrolytic enzymes β-glucanase and xylanase influences in vitro gas production, and the in situ degradation of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and truly-degradable organic matter in the rumen. This variation can be attributed to differences in the chemical composition of the hay from the grass and the crop stubble, and to the different ways the enzymes act upon the cell wall.

  6. Effects of feeding ratio of beet pulp to alfalfa hay or grass hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity in Holstein dry cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kenichi; Unno, Chigusa

    2010-04-01

    The influence of the feeding ratio of a non-forage fiber source and hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity was evaluated in dairy dry cows. Cows were fed four different diets: the ratios of alfalfa hay (AH) to beet pulp (BP) were 8:2 (dry matter basis, A8B2) and 2:8 (A2B8), and those of grass hay (GH) to BP were 8:2 (G8B2) and 2:8 (G2B8). Total eating time was decreased with increasing BP content (P rumination time for AH was shorter than that for GH (P content (P ruminal mat was detected by using a penetration resistance test of the rumen digesta. Penetration resistance value (PRV) of ruminal mat was highest with the G8B2 diet and PRV decreased with increasing BP content (P ruminal mat was greater for increasing BP content (P ruminal mat PRV on total rumination time resulted in a high positive correlation (r = 0.744; P ruminal mat stimulated rumination activity and a ruminal mat could be formed, although it was soft even when cows were offered a large quantity of BP.

  7. Treatment of hay fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S F

    1989-01-01

    The range of treatments for hay fever available to the general practitioner has changed considerably in recent years. New antihistamines have addressed the problem of sedation and moved towards one daily dose; nasally applied corticosteroids avoid the need for systemic steroid therapy and its potential adverse effect; and regulatory decisions have set a trend away from immunotherapy in general practice. However, knowledge about the mechanism of action of immunotherapy is increasing and new developments with improved safety profiles include allergen polymers, allergoids, oral immunotherapy and nasal immunotherapy. Choice of treatment depends, as always, on the individual circumstances of the patient and his or her disease. PMID:2556545

  8. Characterisation of Arabica Coffee Pulp - Hay from Kintamani - Bali as Prospective Biogas Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendroko Setyobudi Roy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of coffee pulp waste is an environmental problem. Anaerobic fermentation is one of the alternative solutions. However, availability of coffee pulp does not appear for year-round, whereas biogas needs continuous feedstocks for digester stability. This research uses coffee pulp from Arabica Coffee Factory at Mengani, Kintamani, Bali–Indonesia. The coffee pulp was transformed into coffee pulp-hay product by sun drying for preservations to extend the raw materials through the year. Characterization of coffee pulp-hay was conducted after to keep for 15 mo for review the prospect as biogas feedstocks. Several parameters were analyzed such as C/N ratio, volatile solids, carbohydrate, protein, fat, lignocellulose content, macro-micro nutrients, and density. The review results indicated that coffee pulp-hay is prospective raw material for biogas feedstock. This well-proven preservation technology was able to fulfill the continuous supply. Furthermore, some problems were found in the recent preliminary experiment related to the density and fungi growth in the conventional laboratory digester. Further investigation was needed to implement the coffee pulp – hay as biogas feedstocks.

  9. Health service use among children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer-Helmich L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lene Hammer-Helmich,1,2 Allan Linneberg,1,3,4 Simon Francis Thomsen,5,6 Line Tang,1 Charlotte Glümer1,7 1Research Center for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 2Department of Real World Evidence and Epidemiology, H. Lundbeck A/S, Valby, 3Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Rigshospitalet, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 5Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 7Department of Health Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Background: Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. Methods: We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register information on use and costs of health services and prescribed medication and parental education. In total 9,720 children participated (50.5%. Results: We found increased health service use (number of additional consultations per year [95% confidence interval] among children with current eczema symptoms (1.77 [1.29–2.26], current asthma symptoms (2.53 [2.08–2.98], and current hay fever symptoms (1.21 [0.74–1.67], compared with children without these symptoms. We also found increased use of prescribed medication and most subtypes of health services. Current asthma symptoms and current eczema symptoms, but not current hay fever symptoms, increased the health

  10. Hay se agt Bybelse beginsels vir die ekonomiese lewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. van Zyl

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Hay’s eight Biblical principles for economic lifeDonald Hay used the idea of stewardship to derive eight Biblical principles for economic life. The purpose of this article is to contribute commentary on and criticism of Hay's approach. The eight Biblical principles cover three main issues, namely creation and man's dominion, man and his work, and the distribution of goods. While social principles can be in conflict with each other, Biblical principles ought not to be in conflict. The test to determine whether the principles have been correctly derived is to revert back to the original text constantly. Upon further reflection it is possible to arrive at further applications of Biblical principles in relation to the sphere of economic life.

  11. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter in the Nelson/Hayes estuarine system (Hudson Bay, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, C.; Mokhtar, M.; Perroud, A.; McCullough, G.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study (2009-2012) investigating the mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Nelson/Hayes estuary (Hudson Bay). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored DOM, and humic-like DOM decreased with increasing salinity (r2 = 0.70-0.84). Removal of DOM was noticeable at low to mid salinity range, likely due to degradation and/or adsorption to particles. DOM photobleaching rates (i.e., decrease in DOM signal resulting from exposure to solar radiation) ranged from 0.005 to 0.030 h- 1, corresponding to half-lives of 4.9-9.9 days. Dissolved organic matter from the Nelson and Hayes Rivers was more photoreactive than from the estuary where the photodegradation of terrestrial DOM decreased with increasing salinity. Coincident with the loss of CDOM absorption was an increase in spectral slope S, suggesting a decrease in DOM molecular weight. Marked differences in photoreactivity of protein- and humic-like DOM were observed with highly humidified material being the most photosensitive. Information generated by our study will provide a valuable data set for better understanding the impacts of future hydroelectric development and climate change on DOM biogeochemical dynamics in the Nelson/Hayes estuary and coastal domain. This study will constitute a reference on terrestrial DOM fate prior to building additional generating capacity on the Nelson River.

  13. Mechanisms of ion-bombardment-induced DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K. [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Phanchaisri, B. [Institute of Science and Technology Research, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Singkarat, S. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Ion bombardment could induce DNA transfer into E. coli cells. • The DNA transfer induction depended on ion energy and fluence. • The mechanism was associated with the bacterial cell envelope structure. • A mechanism phase diagram was proposed to summarize the mechanism. - Abstract: As a useful ion beam biotechnology, ion-bombardment-induced DNA transfer into bacterial Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells has been successfully operated using argon ions. In the process ion bombardment of the bacterial cells modifies the cell envelope materials to favor the exogenous DNA molecules to pass through the envelope to enter the cell. The occurrence of the DNA transfer induction was found ion energy and fluence dependent in a complex manner. At ion energy of a few keV and a few tens of keV to moderate fluences the DNA transfer could be induced by ion bombardment of the bacterial cells, while at the same ion energy but to high fluences DNA transfer could not be induced. On the other hand, when the ion energy was medium, about 10–20 keV, the DNA transfer could not be induced by ion bombardment of the cells. The complexity of the experimental results indicated a complex mechanism which should be related to the complex structure of the bacterial E. coli cell envelope. A phase diagram was proposed to interpret different mechanisms involved as functions of the ion energy and fluence.

  14. Mechanisms of ion-bombardment-induced DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Sangwijit, K.; Prakrajang, K.; Phanchaisri, B.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Thopan, P.; Singkarat, S.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion bombardment could induce DNA transfer into E. coli cells. • The DNA transfer induction depended on ion energy and fluence. • The mechanism was associated with the bacterial cell envelope structure. • A mechanism phase diagram was proposed to summarize the mechanism. - Abstract: As a useful ion beam biotechnology, ion-bombardment-induced DNA transfer into bacterial Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells has been successfully operated using argon ions. In the process ion bombardment of the bacterial cells modifies the cell envelope materials to favor the exogenous DNA molecules to pass through the envelope to enter the cell. The occurrence of the DNA transfer induction was found ion energy and fluence dependent in a complex manner. At ion energy of a few keV and a few tens of keV to moderate fluences the DNA transfer could be induced by ion bombardment of the bacterial cells, while at the same ion energy but to high fluences DNA transfer could not be induced. On the other hand, when the ion energy was medium, about 10–20 keV, the DNA transfer could not be induced by ion bombardment of the cells. The complexity of the experimental results indicated a complex mechanism which should be related to the complex structure of the bacterial E. coli cell envelope. A phase diagram was proposed to interpret different mechanisms involved as functions of the ion energy and fluence

  15. Volatile fatty acid profile for grass hay or alfalfa hay fed to alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, C L; Robinson, T F; Hunter, Z R; Taylor, L; White, J; Johnston, N P

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal composition and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and to determine VFA composition and concentration differences between stomach compartment 1 (C1) and caecum of alpacas fed grass and alfalfa hay. The study was divided into two experiments. In Experiment 1 (EXP 1), 10 male alpacas (3+ years old, 65 kg BW) were divided into two groups, housed in drylot pens, provided ad libitum water and fed alfalfa (AH) or grass hay (GH) for 30 days. The alpacas were slaughtered and the digestive tract collected, divided into sub-tract sections, weighed and digesta sampled for pH, dry matter (DM) and NDF. Volatile fatty acid composition and concentration were determined on C1 and caecal material. Four adult male (3+ years old, 60 kg BW), C1 fistulated alpacas were housed in metabolism crates and divided into two forage groups for Experiment 2 (EXP 2). Alpacas were fed the forages as in EXP 1. Diurnal C1 VFA samples were drawn at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. There were no differences between forages for tract weight, C1 and caecum digesta DM or NDF. Differences were noted (p alpacas and the diurnal VFA patterns. Composition of VFA is similar to other ruminant species. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Passage kinetics of digesta in horses fed with coastcross hay ground to different degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pimentel Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the kinetics, physicochemical characteristics and particle size of digesta in the right ventral colon (RVC of horses fed coastcross hay ground to different degrees. Four horses fitted with cannulae in the RVC were used and were fed the following forms of hay: long, chopped, ground to 5 mm and ground to 3 mm. A Latin Square 4x4 study design was used. Each experimental period included 10 days for diet adaptation, four days for feces collection and one day for digesta collection. The kinetics of the particulate and solute phases of digesta were evaluated based on the mean retention time (MRT, passage rate (k and transit time (TT using two external markers: Cr-NDF and Co-EDTA. The TT of solid phase digesta was 3 hours longer (P0.05 in k or MRT in either the liquid or solid phase of digesta as a function of the different degrees of hay grinding. However, the liquid phase of digesta presented a higher k than the solid phase, with values of 3.28 and 2.73 h-1 being obtained, respectively. The smallest particle size and the lowest neutral detergent fiber contents in colon digesta were observed when hay ground to 3 mm was offered, leading to values of 0.51 mm and 53.46%, respectively. Grinding the hay increased the transit time of the liquid phase in the digestive tract of the horses, whereas no change in the kinetics of the solid phase digesta was observed. The grinding of hay reduced the NDF and the average particle size in the right ventral colon.

  17. Ammoniated babassu palm hay in anglo-nubian goat diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Leidiana Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaves of babassu may be used in diets for goats under maintenance, however, it is a low-quality roughage due to its high fiber content. The chemical treatment by ammonia causes reduction in the proportion of the cell wall, in addition to providing non-protein nitrogen for the microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Babassu palm hay ammoniated with 4% urea (BHAU4% was evaluated in this study as a substitute for guinea grass hay in the maintenance diets of goats in terms of intake, digestibility in vivo, and the partitioning of energy and nitrogen compounds. Twenty Anglo-Nubian male goats were used in a randomised block design with four treatments (diets containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% BHAU4% and five replicates (animals/block. The chemical compositions of the feeds, leftovers, faeces, nitrogen and crude energy of the urine were evaluated. In addition, the rumen fluid pH, the rumen N-NH3, and the blood serum urea were evaluated. The digestibility of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crud protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDFap and detergent acid (ADFap, corrected for ash and protein, declined (P<0.05 0.0939, 0.0722, 0.0953, 0.1113, and 0.2666%, respectively, with the 1% inclusion of babassu palm hay in the diet. A negative linear effect (P<0.05 was observed in the ingested nitrogen (N, excretion of N in the urine, retained N, and N balance, with decreases of 0.15711, 0.0225 and 0.1071 g/day and 0.1388%, respectively, per percentage unit of the babassu palm hay included in the diet. The intake and digestibility of the DM and nutrients are reduced with the inclusion of BHAU4% in maintenance diets for goats, with positive nitrogen balance and stability of the ruminal pH and N-NH3 as well as blood urea, which presented values within the normal physiological range for goats.

  18. Chevilly Larue, L'Hay les Roses: twin geothermal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Chevilly Larue/L'Hay les Roses (Paris region, France) low energy geothermal plants are interconnected and thus represent the greatest geothermal heat network in Europe. The two plants are 2.5 km apart and supply 13000 collective lodgings in energy using a 60 km network with a 75 MW power. Gas or fuel auxiliary heating systems are used in winter to increase water temperature up to 105 C, but the part of energy released by geothermics remains of about 70 to 80%. The network will be extended in the next years to Fresnes and Villejuif neighbouring towns. In 1996, the SEMHACH company, which manage the two plants, will put into service a mixed electricity and heat production plant in L'Hay les Roses. (J.S.). 2 photos

  19. Anatomia e cinética de degradação do feno de Manihot glaziovii = Anatomy and kinetics of degradation of Manihot glaziovii Hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Araújo de França

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a composição química, o teor de compostos secundários, adegradabilidade in situ, a anatomia e a degradabilidade dos tecidos do feno de maniçoba, a partir de plantas em início de frutificação, oriundas de uma vegetação de caatinga em Ibimirim, Estado do Pernambuco. O caule apresentou células com variados graus de lignificação, destacando-se a presença de fibras gelatinosas, parênquima medular lignificado e espessas paredes celulares no xilema. As folhas se destacam pela presença da estrutura girder, caracterizam-se pela grande quantidade de mesofilo, constituído por células com paredes delgadas, contribuindo para a degradabilidade de matéria seca. Idioblastos contendo drusas de oxalato foram encontrados nos tecidos vasculares, na nervura principal da folha. Eles funcionam como mecanismos de defesa do vegetal contra herbívoros e podem afetar a disponibilidade de minerais para o animal. O feno demaniçoba, apesar de obtido de planta em avançado estágio de maturidade (início da frutificação, possui adequada composição química e baixos teores de ácido cianídrico e taninos. Os principaislimitantes à degradabilidade são o espessamento e a lignificação das paredes celulares, especialmente nos tecidos do caule. Adicionalmente, os diversos aspectos aqui relatados induzem à continuidade de pesquisas em diversos focos e visam ao melhoramento e à utilização desta espécie como forrageira.This study the structural components of cell wall with its degradability, chemical composition, secondary compounds, in situ degradability, anatomy and tissue degradability of the hay of “maniçoba” (wild cassava from plants in early fruiting, from savanna vegetation in Ibimirim, Pernambuco. The stem showed cells with varied degrees of lignification, highlighting the presence of gelatinousfibers, lignified pith parenchyma and thick cell walls inside the xylem. The leaves were highlighted by the presence of a girder

  20. Electron capture by multicharged ions at eV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havener, C.C.; Huq, M.S.; Meyer, F.W.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    A multicharged ion-atom merged-beams apparatus has been used in conjunction with the ORNL-ECR ion source to measure accurate absolute electron-capture cross sections in the energy range from below 1 eV/amu to 1500 eV/amu. Measurements for N/sup 3+,4+,5+/ /plus/ H(D) collisions indicate good agreement with available theoretical calculations. However, measurements with O 5+ /plus/ H(D) show an unexpected low-energy behavior which may be attributable to the ion-induced-dipole attraction between the reactants. Scaled Landau-Zener calculations presented here identify a transfer plus excitation channel which has the correct energy dependence at low energies. This finding suggest the need for a comprehensive coupled channel calculation which would include such product states. 25 refs., 8 figs

  1. Rumen volatile fatty acids and milk composition from cows fed hay, haylage, or urea-treated corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingoethe, D J; Voelker, H H; Beardsley, G L; Parsons, J G

    1976-05-01

    Alfalfa-brome hay, haylage, .5% urea-treated corn silage, or .5% urea plus 1% dried whey-treated corn silage was fed as the only forage to one of four groups of 10 lactating cows per group for a lactation trial of 10 wk. Rumen samples were collected via stomach tube 3 to 4 h after the morning feeding. The pH of the rumen samples from cows fed hay was higher than for cows fed haylage, urea-treated corn silage, and urea-whey corn silage, 6.69 versus 6.36, 6.40, and 6.50. Total volatile fatty acids and propionate were highest from cows fed urea-whey corn silage and were higher on all three fermented forages than cows fed hay. Acetate/propionate ratio was highest from cows fed hay and lowest from cows fed corn silages. Butyrate was highest from cows fed haylage or hay. Milk protein composition was not affected by ration although nonprotein nitrogen of milk was highest from cows fed the urea-treated corn silages. Oleic acid and total unsaturated fatty acids were lowest in milk fat from cows fed hay while palmitic acid was highest from cows fed hay and haylage. These results suggest that type of forage fed may cause small changes in rumen fermentation and in milk composition. The importance of these changes is unknown but may affect properties of dairy products produced from this milk.

  2. Tratamento do feno de braquiária pelo fungo Pleurotus ostreatus Pretreatment effects on fiber degradation of brachiaria hay by Pleurotus ostreatus fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A inoculação de forragens com fungos lignocelulolíticos é uma opção para melhorar a qualidade destas sem adição de produtos químicos. O tratamento do substrato influencia a ação do fungo e a qualidade final do produto. Neste experimento, aplicaram-se quatro tratamentos (compostagem do feno inteiro, compostagem do feno picado, hidratação do feno em água fria e hidratação do feno em água quente a um feno de Brachiaria decumbens. Aos tratamentos seguiu-se inoculação com o fungo Pleurotus ostreatus e incubação por 35 dias, sob temperatura controlada. Usou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e medidas repetidas. Amostras foram colhidas semanalmente para acompanhar a degradação do substrato, mediante a análise química do feno. Observou-se aumento linear, com o decorrer do tempo, no teor de proteína bruta (PB e na proporção de lignina na parede celular (LIG-FDN, e decréscimo linear nos valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, celulose e hemicelulose. Não se observou efeito de tratamento no teor de FDA. Os tratamentos com compostagem apresentaram maiores valores de PB, lignina e LIG-FDN e menores de FDN e hemicelulose. Não se observou diferença entre os tratamentos com hidratação. O tratamento do feno de braquiária com o fungo propiciou degradação da fração fibrosa e aumento no teor de PB, com efeito mais intenso nos tratamentos que usaram compostagem. A ação do fungo foi mais efetiva sobre a hemicelulose que sobre os demais componentes da fibra.The innoculation of forages with lignocellulolytic fungi is an option for improving quality without adding chemical products. Substrate quality influences fungal activity and endproduct quality. The effects of four treatments (composting of whole hay, composting of chopped hay, soaking in cool water and soaking in hot water on a Brachiaria decumbens hay were evaluated. The treatments were followed by innoculation with Pleurotus ostreatus

  3. Fibrolytic enzyme and ammonia application effects on the nutritive value, intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass hay in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Shin, J H; Staples, C R; Brown, W F; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to compare the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (Biocellulase A20) or anhydrous ammonia (4% DM) treatment on the nutritive value, voluntary intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cultivar Coastal) hay harvested after 2 maturities (5- and 13-wk regrowths). Six individually housed, ruminally cannulated Brangus steers (BW 325 ± 10 kg) were used in an experiment with a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 3 (additives) × 2 (maturities) factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7, 4, 1, 1, and 4 d for measuring in vivo digestibility, in situ degradability, no measurements, rumen liquid fermentation and passage indices, and rate of solid passage, respectively. Steers were fed hay for ad libitum intake and supplemented with sugarcane molasses and distillers grain (supplement total of 2.88 kg DM/d). Enzyme did not affect the nutritional composition of hay but ammonia treatment decreased hay NDF, hemicellulose, and ADL concentrations and increased the CP concentration particularly for the mature lignified 13-wk hay. The enzyme increased NDF and hemicellulose digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased those of the 13-wk hay. Ammoniation decreased intake of hay but increased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, hemicellulose, ADF, and cellulose and increased the ruminal in situ soluble and potentially digestible fractions and the rate of DM degradation of the 13-wk hay. Also, ammoniation increased the concentrations of ruminal NH3, total VFA, acetate, and butyrate but enzyme treatment did not. Neither enzyme addition nor ammoniation affected rate of liquid and solid passage. In conclusion, ammoniation decreased the concentration of most fiber fractions, decreased the intake of hays, and increased their CP concentration, in vivo digestibility, and in situ degradability at both maturities whereas enzyme application increased fiber digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased it in the case of

  4. [A review on studies and applications of near infrared spectroscopy technique(NIRS) in detecting quality of hay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wu-Rong; Gan, You-Min; Guo, Xu-Sheng; Yang, Fu-Yu

    2009-02-01

    The quality of hay can directly affect the price of hay and also livestock productivity. Many kinds of methods have been developed for detecting the quality of hay and the method of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used with consideration of its fast, effective and nondestructive characteristics during detecting process. In the present paper, the feasibility and effectiveness of application of NIRS to detecting hay quality were expounded. Meanwhile, the advance in the study of using NIRS to detect chemical compositions, extent of incursion by epiphyte, amount of toxicant excreted by endogenetic epiphyte and some minim components that can not be detected by using chemical methods were also introduced detailedly. Based on the review of the progresses in using NIRS to detect the quality of hay, it can be concluded that using NIRS to detect hay quality can avoid the disadvantages of time wasting, complication and high cost when using traditional chemical method. And for better utilization of NIRS in practice, some more studies still need to be implemented to further perfect and improve the utilization of NIRS for detecting forage quality, and more accurate modes and systematic analysis software need to be established in times to come.

  5. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  6. Uudised : Isaac Hayes loobub koka rollist. Bergeni festival soomestub

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Satiirilises animaseriaalis "South Park" mustanahalise koolikoka rollis lugenud soulilauljast Isaak Hayes'ist. 24. maist 6. juunini kestval Bergeni kultuurifestivalil Norras tulevad esitusele Jean Sibeliuse sümfooniad, Magnus Lindbergi heliteosed, koreograaf Tomi Paasoneni teos "Olotila" ja pianist Juho Pohjoneni klverikontsert

  7. Composição química e digestibilidade de fenos tratados com amônia anidra ou uréia Chemical composition and digestibility of the ammoniated hays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Reis

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para se avaliarem as alterações na composição química e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS dos fenos de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf, colhidos no estádio de maturação das sementes e tratados com amônia anidra (3,0% MS ou uréia (5,4% MS. A análise dos dados demonstra que a amonização diminuiu os conteúdos de FDN e hemicelulose com a mesma eficiência. Os tratamentos químicos não alteraram os teores de FDA, celulose e lignina. Observou-se aumento nos teores de compostos nitrogenados, como N total e N insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA em resposta à amonização. A relação NIDA/NT diminuiu com a amonização, aumentando a quantidade de N disponível para a digestão. A DIVMS aumentou em resposta às alterações observadas na composição química da fração fibrosa e incremento no conteúdo de N prontamente digestível dos fenos tratados.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes on the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of the Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf, jaragua (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf hays, harvested following the seed ripening stage and treated with anhydrous ammonia (3.0% DM or urea (5.4% DM. The data showed that anhydrous ammonia and urea decreased NDF and hemicellulose contents with the same efficiency. The treatments did not change ADF, cellulose, and lignin contents. It was observed an increase in the nitrogen as compounds, TN and ADIN due to the ammoniation. The ADIN/TN ratio was reduced due to the ammoniation. The IVDMD increased due to the changes observed in the chemical composition of the fiber, and the increase of the readily digestible nitrogen of the hays.

  8. Digestibility Nutrient Contents on Acacia Seyal, Balanities Aegyptiaca and Chloris Gayana Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiliti, J.K

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried to determine the nutrients and their digestibility in Acacia seyal and Balanities aegyptiaca legume browses and compared with Chloris gayana hay. Samples were taken from these two leguminous forages at Mogotio and Emining divisions of Koibatek district and fed to sheep in a change over design. The sheep were housed in individual pens and fitted with faecal collection bags. They were fed and faeces collected twice daily. An adaptation period of 14 days, Faecal collection of 7 days and changeover of 10 days were enforced. Nutrients analysed for during digestibility included DM, OM, CP, NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose. The nutrients compositions were 651, 916, 112, 370, 339, 59 and 84; 665, 920, 152, 443, 341, 89 and 80, 845, 924, 68, 730, 463, 57, and 76 for DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and ash in Acacia seal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay. The in vivio digestibility results were different (p<0.05) for all nutrients. The digestibilities of DM, OM, CP NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose in Acacia seyal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay were 54.7, 66.5, 32.8, 40.3, 51.7, and 82.7; 48.5, 58.9, 67.4, 36.9, 36.3, and 40.6 and 48.1, 50.4, 41.7, 53.7, 63.0 and 62.3% respectively. The two legume forages had nutrients that had higher digestibility than hay except for fibre

  9. Effects of feeding steers extruded flaxseed on its own before hay or mixed with hay on animal performance, carcass quality, and meat and hamburger fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P; Rolland, D C; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Proctor, S D; Guan, L L; Prieto, N; López-Campos, Ó; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to determine if carcass quality and fatty acid profiles of longissimus thoracis (LT) and hamburger would be affected by feeding steers extruded flaxseed on its own followed by hay (non-TMR) compared to when hay and extruded flaxseed were fed together (TMR). Forty-eight steers in six pens were assigned to TMR or non-TMR for an average of 242days. Dry matter intake was lower for non-TMR versus TMR steers (10.56 vs. 11.42kg/d; P=0.02), but final live weight (610±0.50kg) and average daily gain (1.18±0.02kg/d) did not differ. Compared to TMR, feeding non-TMR enriched LT and hamburger with α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) by 14%, vaccenic acid (VA; t11-18:1) by 44%, rumenic acid (RA; c9,t11-18:2) by 40%, and conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) by 58%. Overall, feeding extruded flaxseed separately from hay in a non-TMR was more effective at enhancing deposition of ALA, VA, RA and CLnA in beef. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On the extension of (e,2e) theory to coincidence studies of ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, A.L.; Kampp, Marco; Sulik, B.; Walters, H.R.J.; Whelan, Colm T.

    2007-01-01

    The extension of (e,2e) theory to the coincidence studies of ion-atom collisions is considered. The simultaneous ionization of projectile and target is discussed and results are presented for transfer ionization

  11. Sporotrichosis outbreak and mouldy 
hay in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Deeksha; Durrheim, David; Porigneaux, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute/chronic fungal infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The fungus thrives on organic matter including hay, wood, moss, soil and plants. Zoonotic transmission has also been reported. Lesions present as superficial skin nodules that become purulent and ulcerate. Lymphocutaneous spread is common. Haematogenous spread is uncommon and case fatality is rare. The aim of this article is to describe an outbreak of sporotrichosis in New South Wales. A cluster of six cases was identified in the NSW mid-north coast area in the first half of 2013. Telephone interviews were conducted in an attempt to identify possible exposures. General practitioners were contacted to report on patients with chronic non-healing skin lesions. A batch of mouldy hay supplied by a local farmer was identified as the potential source of exposure. Despite effective treatment with oral antifungals, diagnosis of sporotrichosis is often delayed and prolonged courses of antibiotics are unnecessarily prescribed. Timely detection and management (including referral to a dermatologist or infectious diseases specialist) significantly reduces morbidity. Personal protection is the key to prevention.

  12. 34 CFR 664.40 - Can participation in a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad be terminated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 664.40 Can participation in a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad be terminated? (a) Participation may be terminated only by the J. William... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can participation in a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects...

  13. Greenhouse gas fluxes of grazed and hayed wetland catchments in the U.S. Prairie Pothole Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Tangen, Brian A.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Wetland catchments are major ecosystems in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) and play an important role in greenhouse gases (GHG) flux. However, there is limited information regarding effects of land-use on GHG fluxes from these wetland systems. We examined the effects of grazing and haying, two common land-use practices in the region, on GHG fluxes from wetland catchments during 2007 and 2008. Fluxes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2), along with soil water content and temperature, were measured along a topographic gradient every other week during the growing season near Ipswich, SD, USA. Closed, opaque chambers were used to measure fluxes of soil and plant respiration from native sod catchments that were grazed or left idle, and from recently restored catchments which were seeded with native plant species; half of these catchments were hayed once during the growing season. Catchments were adjacent to each other and had similar soils, soil nitrogen and organic carbon content, precipitation, and vegetation. When compared with idle catchments, grazing as a land-use had little effect on GHG fluxes. Likewise, haying had little effect on fluxes of CH4 and N2O compared with non-hayed catchments. Haying, however, did have a significant effect on combined soil and vegetative CO2 flux in restored wetland catchments owing to the immediate and comprehensive effect haying has on plant productivity. This study also examined soil conditions that affect GHG fluxes and provides cumulative annual estimates of GHG fluxes from wetland catchment in the PPR.

  14. Game and Digital Culture: A Study on Hay Day Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital games are a commercial product developed and distributed by media companies and often uses characters or scenarios of movies, books, and comics. The digital game play comes from individual media consumption patterns. Playing digital games also offer experience and satisfaction based on interactive communication technologies and immersive gameplay. In this digital age, digital games became more social-based, which means they implement the need to invite friends on social media to come into play and help each other in the game. The problems of this study was to determine what factors make Hay Day popular among the players and to find out how Hay Day changing the social patterns interaction of the players. This study aims to look at the functions of digital games in the context of communication with relations in social media and why certain games can achieve very high popularity, while other games failed miserably. This research focuses on Hay Day. The method used is descriptive qualitative approach with case study method. Data collection is using interviews with players active in the game, as well as observation and literature studies. The results showed that a game may gain popularity if someone has a social media environment prior to play. Interactive concept, simulation, and fantasy game technology are also the reason Hay Day became very popular. The perception that the digital game player who formerly regarded as anti-social experience has shifted in the concept of digital game-based social bookmark. Players who have a lot of friends in games are seen as someone who has a lot of friends and a high social level. This is in line with the functions of a traditional game in Indonesian culture, where the region has a wide variety of games to be played together and motivate positive social interaction. Function of digital games also increased, other than playing the game as entertainment, but also now the game became one of the effective

  15. Feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing mulberry hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.

  16. PENGARUH CARA PENGAWETAN TERHADAP KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN EFISIENSI DALAM BENTUK HAY DAN SILASE PADA DAUN 16 PROVENAN GAMAL (GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Puger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available RINGKASAN Percobaan yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh cara pengawetan terhadap kandungan zat-zat makanan dan efisiensinya pada daun 16 provenan gamal telah dilaksanakan selama 3 bulan. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap yang terdiri atas 3 perlakuan pengawetan (gamal segar, gamal hay, dan gamal silase dan 3 blok sebagai ulangan. Setiap perlakuan terdiri atas 16 provenan, yaitu 6 dari Mexico (M, 4 dari Guatemala (G, dan satu provenan masing-masing dari Colombia (C, Indonesia (I, Nicaragua (N, Panama (P, Costa Rica (R, dan Venezuela (V. Sampel setiap daun (helai dan tangkai provenan sebelum dan setelah diawetkan dianalisis kandungan zat-zat makanannya dan dihitung efisiensinya setelah dibuat hay dan silase. Kandungan DM dan CP dari hay adalah tertinggi (P0,05 setelah diawetkan menjadi hay dan silase, sedangkan efisiensi DM, OM, dan CP dari hay lebih tinggi (P<0,05 daripada silase. Provenan P13, R12, dan M34 mengandung zat-zat makanan lebih tinggi; sementara provenan G14 dan G17 lebih efisien bila diawetkan dalam bentuk hay dan silase. Pada pertanian lahan kering pengawetan gamal dalam bentuk hay lebih efektif dan efisien jika dibandingkan dengan dalam bentuk silase.

  17. Weaned beef calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay have an enriched nasal microbiota compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Isaiah, Anitha; Estill, Charles T; Pirelli, Gene J; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral important for immune function and overall health of cattle. The nasopharyngeal microbiota in cattle plays an important role in overall respiratory health, especially when stresses associated with weaning, transport, and adaptation to a feedlot affect the normal respiratory defenses. Recent evidence suggests that cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease complex have significantly less bacterial diversity. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding weaned beef calves Se-enriched alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay for 9 weeks in a preconditioning program prior to entering the feedlot alters nasal microbiota. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 45) were blocked by sex and body weight, randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups with 3 pens of 5 calves per treatment group, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 9 weeks. Alfalfa hay was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium selenate at a rate of 0, 45.0 or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected biweekly and analyzed for whole-blood Se concentrations. Nasal swabs were collected during week 9 from one or two calves from each pen (total n = 16). Calculated Se intake from dietary sources was 3.0, 15.6, and 32.2 mg Se/head/day for calves consuming alfalfa hay with Se concentrations of 0.34 to 2.42 and 5.17 mg Se/kg dry matter, respectively. Whole-blood Se concentrations after 8 weeks of feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay were dependent upon Se-application rates (0, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha) and were 155, 345, and 504 ng/mL (PLinear Microbial DNA was extracted from nasal swabs and amplified and sequenced. Alpha rarefaction curves comparing the species richness (observed OTUs) and overall diversity (Chao1, Observed OTU, and Shannon index) between calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay compared with control calves showed that Se-supplementation tended to be associated with an enriched nasal microbiota. ANOSIM of unweighted UniFrac distances showed that calves

  18. Weaned beef calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay have an enriched nasal microbiota compared with healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A.; Isaiah, Anitha; Estill, Charles T.; Pirelli, Gene J.; Suchodolski, Jan S.

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral important for immune function and overall health of cattle. The nasopharyngeal microbiota in cattle plays an important role in overall respiratory health, especially when stresses associated with weaning, transport, and adaptation to a feedlot affect the normal respiratory defenses. Recent evidence suggests that cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease complex have significantly less bacterial diversity. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding weaned beef calves Se-enriched alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay for 9 weeks in a preconditioning program prior to entering the feedlot alters nasal microbiota. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 45) were blocked by sex and body weight, randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups with 3 pens of 5 calves per treatment group, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 9 weeks. Alfalfa hay was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium selenate at a rate of 0, 45.0 or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected biweekly and analyzed for whole-blood Se concentrations. Nasal swabs were collected during week 9 from one or two calves from each pen (total n = 16). Calculated Se intake from dietary sources was 3.0, 15.6, and 32.2 mg Se/head/day for calves consuming alfalfa hay with Se concentrations of 0.34 to 2.42 and 5.17 mg Se/kg dry matter, respectively. Whole-blood Se concentrations after 8 weeks of feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay were dependent upon Se-application rates (0, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha) and were 155, 345, and 504 ng/mL (PLinear calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay compared with control calves showed that Se-supplementation tended to be associated with an enriched nasal microbiota. ANOSIM of unweighted UniFrac distances showed that calves fed high Se-biofortified alfalfa hay clustered separately when compared with control calves in the PCoA plot (R = 0.216, P = 0.04). The bacterial orders Lactobacillales and Flavobacteriales were increased in healthy

  19. The effect of five different wetting treatments on the nutrient content and microbial concentration in hay for horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriel Jean Scott Moore-Colyer

    Full Text Available Five different hays were used to determine the effect of 5 different soaking and steaming treatments on the water soluble carbohydrate and microbial (bacteria and mould contents of UK hay. Hays were subjected to the following 5 treatments: 1. Dry; 2. Steamed for 50 minutes in the Haygain- 600 steamer; 3. Soaked in water at 16°C for 9 hours; 4. Steamed then soaked and 5. Soaked then steamed. Post treatment hays were tested for water soluble carbohydrates, bacteria and mould contents. Differences between means were determined using ANOVA and least significant difference with hay (5, bale (3 and treatment (5 as fixed factors, thus n = 75. Protein and ash proportions were unaltered in any of the treatments. Soaked, steamed then soaked and soaked then steamed treatments were all equally effective at reducing water soluble carbohydrates, with significantly (P<0.05 lower mean contents (79-83 g/kg DM compared with 126 and 122 g/kg dry matter (DM for dry and steamed respectively. Steamed and soaked then steamed had significantly (P<0.05 less bacteria (1.04×103 and 4.9×102 CFU/g DM compared with soaked which increased CFU/g DM from 6.0×104 in dry hay up to 3.5×105. Mould contents CFU/g DM were significantly (P<0.05 reduced by steaming (2 and soaking then steaming (1.9 but no difference was seen between dry (1148, soaked (692 or steamed then soaked (501. Soaking for 9 hours followed by steaming for 50 minutes in the Haygain steamer was the most effective method for reducing water soluble carbohydrates and microbial contamination in hay. Soaking or steaming+soaking lowered water soluble carbohydrates but significantly reduced the hygienic quality of the hay which could potentially compromise the health of the horse.

  20. Cinética ruminal do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis Ruminal kinetics of Stylosanthes guianensis hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ladeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Sete carneiros fistulados no rúmen e no duodeno foram alojados em gaiolas metabólicas e alimentados com feno de Stylosanthes guianensis à vontade. Foi empregada a técnica de sacos de náilon para determinação da degradabilidade in situ do feno, utilizando-se os tempos de 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas para as retiradas dos sacos do rúmen. A taxa de passagem dos sólidos foi determinada utilizando-se cromo mordante como indicador. Os valores de pH no líquido ruminal foram medidos nos tempos de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas após a alimentação e a concentração de amônia nos tempos de 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 e 11 horas após a alimentação. A taxa de degradação da matéria seca (MS foi de 8,5%/h, a degradabilidade potencial 38,1% e a degradabilidade efetiva 30,3%. A taxa de degradação da proteína bruta (PB foi de 9,7%/h, a degradabilidade potencial 56,0% e a degradabilidade efetiva 47,5%. A celulose apresentou maior degradabilidade efetiva que a hemicelulose, com valores de 22,5 e 8,9%, respectivamente. A taxa de passagem dos sólidos foi 2,7%/h. O pH diminuiu linearmente à medida que os tempos de coleta aumentaram. Para o tempo de 5,13 horas após a alimentação, foi estimada a concentração máxima de amônia de 12,18mg/100ml. O feno de S. guianensis apresentou alta taxa de degradação e baixa degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB.Seven rumen and duodenal cannulated lambs, were allocated in metabolic cages and were fed ad libitum with Stylosanthes guianensis hay. The in situ technique was used for determination of the degradability of the hay, at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. The passage rate of solids was determined using chromium mordant as external marker. The pH of the rumen liquid was measured at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after feeding and the ammonia concentration at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 hours after feeding. The degradation rate, the potential degradability, and the effective degradability of dry matter (DM were 8.5%/h, 38

  1. Comparison of hay and haylage from permanent Alpine meadows in winter dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Giaccone, D; Mimosi, A; Tabacco, E

    2007-12-01

    In an Alpine environment, diets based on local forage resources are needed to maintain the link with the territory and confer special characteristics to typical cheeses. Harvesting at a late stage of maturity, high mechanical losses, and frequent rainfall often make the hay that is harvested of a poor quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 different conservation methods (late hay, LH, vs. early haylage, ES) of natural permanent meadows on milk production in dairy cows, on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of the milk, and on the quality of the cheese over the winter period. Haylage and hay were harvested from the same permanent meadow at the Vittorino Vezzani experimental farm in Sauze d'Oulx (45 degrees 02'N, 6 degrees 53'E, Italy). The ES forage was cut 4 wk earlier than traditional hay, wilted for 30 h, baled at a dry matter (DM) content of about 50%, wrapped with 6 layers of stretch film, and stored in a protected area. The LH forage was harvested later, when the weather conditions were favorable and, after a 3-d wilting, it was baled and stored indoors. After an 8-mo storage period, the ES had a greater crude protein concentration, organic matter digestibility, and net energy for lactation than LH and a lower neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Forty multiparous lactating Aosta Red Pied cows were used in a 19-d period crossover design to assess the nutritional value of the stored forages. The diets included ES fed ad libitum and 3.5 kg of DM per cow of concentrate or LH fed ad libitum and 5.1 kg of DM per cow of concentrate. The dietary DM was 90.1% for the LH and 59.9% for the ES. The diets contained 12.6 and 13.0% crude protein and 48.6 and 48.0% neutral detergent fiber, for the LH and ES, respectively. The forage intake was greater in the ES treatment than in the LH treatment. The ES treatment produced more milk (1.7 kg/d) and more 3.5% fat-corrected milk (1.5 kg/d) than the cows on the LH treatment. The

  2. Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  3. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yuxi; Gruninger, Robert; Patton, Donald; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim

    2014-04-26

    Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and β-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and β-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw.

  4. Performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed corn silage and oat hay/ Desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias alimentados com silagem de milho e feno de aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pereira da Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives to evaluate the performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed with different roughage sources in confinement. Thirty animals out of Corriedale ewes mated to Hampshire Down, Ile de France and Suffolk rams, were used. After weaning the animals were fedlot and distributed in one of the following treatments: T1 – Corn silage + concentrate; T2 – Corn silage and oat hay (50% each + concentrate; and T3 – Oat hay + concentrate. It was used a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio, dry matter basis. At the beginning of the experiment the animals weighed 11.51, 12.46 and 12.33 kg (P>0.05, and after nine weeks of feedlot the weights were 17.53, 19.34 and 19.35 kg (P>0.05, respectively, for T1, T2 e T3. Average daily weight gain was similar (P>0.05 among treatments. It was not observed differences (P>0.05 in weights and weight gains among the genetic groups. However, male lambs presented greater average daily weight gain than female lambs (0.120 x 0.091 kg. There were no differences in feed conversion among the treatments, however, animals from the T2 had greater dry matter intake. It can be concluded that either corn silage or oat hay can be used for feeding weaned lambs.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias e alimentados com diferentes fontes de volumosos em confinamento. Foram utilizados 30 animais oriundos de cruzamentos entre ovelhas Corriedale e carneiros Hampshire Down, Ile de France e Suffolk. Logo após o desmame os animais foram confinados, sendo distribuídos para receberem um dos tratamentos: T1 – Silagem de milho mais concentrado; T2 – Silagem de milho e feno de aveia (50% do volumoso cada mais concentrado; e T3 – Feno de aveia mais concentrado. A proporção volumoso:concentrado utilizada foi de 60:40, base seca. Os pesos médios dos animais no início do experimento foram de 11,51; 12,46 e 12,33 kg (P>0,05 e os pesos finais, após nove semanas de

  5. Effects of phenolic acid structures on meadow hay digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeira, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate effects of phenolic acid content and composition on the digestibility of six meadow hays from Northern Portugal. Digestibility was assessed by gas production, in vitro and in situ degradation methods. Four cows fed diets at energy maintenance were used for in situ

  6. Consumo, digestibilidade, desempenho, desenvolvimento ponderal e economicidade de dietas com polpa cítrica em substituição ao feno de capim-tifton 85 para novilhas leiteiras Effects of partial replacement of Tifton 85 hay with citrus pulp on intake, performance, and development of dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Mendes Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o consumo, a digestibilidade, o desempenho, o desenvolvimento ponderal, a conversão alimentar e a economicidade de dietas com polpa cítrica em substituição ao feno de tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pear para novilhas leiteiras. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis (0; 16,6; 33,3 e 50% de substituição do feno por polpa cítrica. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com sete repetições. Utilizaram-se 28 novilhas holandesas (12 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 184 kg mantidas em baias individuais. Os consumos de MS, MO, PB, CT e NDT aumentaram linearmente e o de FDN decresceu à medida que o feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. O consumo de EE elevou de forma quadrática com aumento dessa substituição, apresentando valor mínimo quando 2,27% do feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. Os consumos de Ca e P aumentaram com o aumento dos níveis de substituição do feno. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da MS, MO, PB e FDN reduziram linearmente, enquanto os de EE e CT não foram influenciados pela substituição. O ganho de peso aumentou linearmente, mas o crescimento de altura de cernelha foi menor e o de altura de garupa não foi influenciado pelos níveis de substituição. Observou-se aumento linear no perímetro torácico à medida que o feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. A polpa cítrica pode ser utilizada em até 35% da dieta total na alimentação de novilhas leiteiras de acordo com a conveniência econômica e a disponibilidade de alimentos volumosos, como alternativa para o produtor reduzir a idade à primeira cobertura e ao primeiro parto, com menor custo de alimentação.The objective of this trial was to evaluate intake, digestibility, performance, development, feed efficiency and feeding costs in dairy heifers fed increasing levels of citrus pulp that partially replaced Tifton-85 hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pear in the

  7. E parallel B energy-mass spectrograph for measurement of ions and neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Real-time measurement of plasma composition and energy is an important diagnostic in fusion experiments. The Thomson parabola spectrograph described here utilizes an electric field parallel to a magnetic field (E parallel B) and a two-dimensional imaging detector to uniquely identify the energy-per-charge and mass-per-charge distributions of plasma ions. An ultrathin foil can be inserted in front of the E parallel B filter to convert neutral atoms to ions, which are subsequently analyzed using the E parallel B filter. Since helium exiting an ultrathin foil does not form a negative ion and hydrogen isotopes do, this spectrograph allows unique identification of tritium ions and neutrals even in the presence of a large background of 3 He. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Composição química e digestibilidade in vitro do feno de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. tratado com uréia Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. hay treated with urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Fernanda Gobbi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição de uréia em níveis crescentes sobre a composição química e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS do feno de Brachiaria decumbens colhida no estádio de pós-florescimento. O feno foi tratado com seis níveis de uréia (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10%, com base na matéria seca (MS. A uréia foi dissolvida em quantidade de água suficiente para elevar o teor de umidade do feno para 30%. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. O feno tratado foi armazenado em sacos plásticos (2 kg/saco vedados, por 35 dias, e, após abertura, foram coletadas amostras para as análises químicas. Verificou-se que o teor de nitrogênio total (NT aumentou linearmente em função dos níveis crescentes de uréia. Os teores de NIDN e NIDA, em relação ao nitrogênio total (NIDN/NT e NIDA/NT, tiveram redução linear em função dos níveis crescentes de uréia, demonstrando aumento nos teores de nitrogênio disponível no material amonizado. A adição de uréia promoveu redução no teor de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e celulose. Os teores de hemicelulose e lignina não foram alterados pelo tratamento com uréia. A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS foi influenciada de forma quadrática pelos níveis de uréia, estimando-se valor máximo de 68, 9% para o nível de 7, 15% de uréia. A amonização com uréia alterou a composição química e a digestibilidade do feno de Brachiaria decumbens, melhorando o valor nutritivo do material tratado.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of urea treatment on the chemical-bromatologic compounds and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of Brachiaria decumbens hay. The hay were reconstituted with water to get final forage moisture concentration of 30%, and treated with urea at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% of the forage dry matter. A completely randomized design with three

  9. The nutritional value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) as an alternate forage source for sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.T.; Khan, N.A.; Bezabih, M.; Qureshi, M.S.; Rahman, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and feeding value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) produced under tropical environment as an alternate forage resource for sheep. Peanut hay was appreciably high in crude protein [CP; 105 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and lower in neutral detergent

  10. Weaned beef calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay have an enriched nasal microbiota compared with healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace mineral important for immune function and overall health of cattle. The nasopharyngeal microbiota in cattle plays an important role in overall respiratory health, especially when stresses associated with weaning, transport, and adaptation to a feedlot affect the normal respiratory defenses. Recent evidence suggests that cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease complex have significantly less bacterial diversity. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding weaned beef calves Se-enriched alfalfa (Medicago sativa hay for 9 weeks in a preconditioning program prior to entering the feedlot alters nasal microbiota. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 45 were blocked by sex and body weight, randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups with 3 pens of 5 calves per treatment group, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 9 weeks. Alfalfa hay was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium selenate at a rate of 0, 45.0 or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected biweekly and analyzed for whole-blood Se concentrations. Nasal swabs were collected during week 9 from one or two calves from each pen (total n = 16. Calculated Se intake from dietary sources was 3.0, 15.6, and 32.2 mg Se/head/day for calves consuming alfalfa hay with Se concentrations of 0.34 to 2.42 and 5.17 mg Se/kg dry matter, respectively. Whole-blood Se concentrations after 8 weeks of feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay were dependent upon Se-application rates (0, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha and were 155, 345, and 504 ng/mL (PLinear < 0.0001. Microbial DNA was extracted from nasal swabs and amplified and sequenced. Alpha rarefaction curves comparing the species richness (observed OTUs and overall diversity (Chao1, Observed OTU, and Shannon index between calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay compared with control calves showed that Se-supplementation tended to be associated with an enriched nasal microbiota. ANOSIM of unweighted Uni

  11. Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2011-07-01

    Research to date has suggested that access to forage before weaning can limit rumen development in calves, but no research has yet addressed the role of forage for calves fed higher quantities of milk. This study compared performance and rumen development of calves provided high volumes (equivalent to approximately 20% of calf birth weight) of milk with and without access to hay. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly assigned to treatment (either ad libitum access to chopped grass hay or no forage; n=15 calves per treatment, 10 heifers, and 5 bulls). All calves were provided ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were offered 8L of milk/d from a nipple bottle from d 3 to 35, 4 L/d from d 36 to 53, and 2L/d until weaning at d 56. Solid feed intake and growth parameters were monitored from d 3 to 70. At d 70, males from both treatments were slaughtered to measure rumen development parameters. Overall dry matter (DM) intake from solid feed did not differ between treatments before wk 5. However, during wk 6 to 10, calves fed forage consumed more total DM (starter plus hay) than did calves fed no forage. Hip and wither height, heart girth, and body barrel at d 3, 56, and 70 did not differ between treatments. Reticulorumen weight was heavier in calves fed hay versus those fed only starter (12.77±1.29 vs. 7.99±0.69 kg with digesta; 1.89±0.05 vs.1.60±0.09 kg without digesta). Body weight without digesta was similar in calves fed forage or no forage. Mean rumen pH was higher in calves fed hay compared with those fed no forage (5.49±0.08 vs. 5.06±0.04). In conclusion, provision of chopped hay to calves fed high volumes of milk can promote solid feed DM intake and rumen development without affecting BW gain. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program: Malaysia 1995. Participants' Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These reports and lesson plans were developed by teachers and coordinators who traveled to Malaysia during the summer of 1995 as part of the U.S. Department of Education's Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. Sections of the report include: (1) "Gender and Economics: Malaysia" (Mary C. Furlong); (2) "Malaysia: An Integrated,…

  13. Electromyographic evaluation of masseter muscle activity in horses fed (i) different types of roughage and (ii) maize after different hay allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervuert, I; Brüssow, N; Bochnia, M; Cuddeford, D; Coenen, M

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were to monitor electromyographic (EMG) activity of masseter muscle in healthy horses fed (i) different types of roughage and (ii) maize after different hay allocations. Four horses were offered the following three diets ad libitum: hay, haylage or straw/alfalfa chaff (SAC). In a second trial, four horses were fed cracked maize (CM) and hay in three different orders: (i) CM after a 12-h overnight fast; (ii) CM immediately after restricted hay intake (0.6 kg hay/100 kg BW); or 3) CM after hay intake ad libitum. The activity of the masseter muscle was determined by EMG (IED(®) ), and the following were measured: amplitude (muscle action potential = MAP, maximum voltage) and duration of MAP (s). The intake of hay or haylage was associated with intense masseter muscle activity (MAP: hay, 10 ± 1.7 V; haylage, 11 ± 3.3 V; and duration of MAP: hay, 0.31 ± 0.04 s; haylage, 0.30 ± 0.04 s). Similar intense chewing was measured for SAC (MAP 13 ± 3.8 V), although duration of the chewing cycle was relatively short (0.22 ± 0.03 s, diet p haylage or SAC was associated with intensive masseter muscle activity that was likely to stimulate salivary flow rate. In contrast to roughage, concentrates like CM are consumed rapidly with less intensive masseter muscle activity. This situation is associated with a low salivary flow that may have an adverse effect on gastric function. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes em cabras Moxotó recebendo dietas com diferentes níveis de feno de maniçoba Intake and digestibility of nutrients in Moxotó dairy goats fed diets with different Maniçoba hay levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Jácome de Araújo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a utilização do feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. em diferentes níveis (30, 40, 50 e 60% sobre os consumos e as digestibilidades de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, energia bruta (EB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e os consumos de água e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Moxotó, multíparas, com aproximadamente 60 dias de lactação, pesando 44,26 ± 4,23 kg, em delineamento quadrado latino duplo 4 × 4, com quatro tratamentos, quatro períodos e quatro animais. Cada período teve duração de 15 dias (10 de adaptação dos animais às dietas e 5 para coleta de dados. Utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAi como indicador interno para estimativa da produção de matéria seca fecal. A utilização do feno de maniçoba nos níveis de 30, 40, 50 e 60% nas dietas para cabras em lactação não alterou os consumos de MS, MO, PB, EE, MM e CT. Os consumos de CNF, NDT e água diminuíram linearmente com o aumento no nível de feno de maniçoba nas dietas, enquanto os de FDN e FDA (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 aumentaram linearmente. A digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, PB, EE, CT, CNF, EB e FDA reduziu linearmente, enquanto a da FDN não se alterou com o aumento dos níveis de feno na dieta.This research was conducted with the objective of evaluating the use of different Maniçoba hay (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg levels (30, 40, 50 and 60% on intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, gross energy (GE, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (TCHT, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, water intake (WI, besides total digestible nutrients intake (TDNI. Eight multiparous Moxotó dairy goats with initial

  15. The Glaser–Hay reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Mie Højer; Jensen, Jonas; Tortzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative Glaser–Hay coupling of two terminal alkynes to furnish a butadiyne is a key reaction for acetylenic scaffolding. Although the reaction is performed under rather simple conditions [CuCl/TMEDA/O2 (air)], the mechanism is still under debate. Herein we present detailed studies...... on the scope of this reaction by using both 13C NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopic methods. The former method was used to study the kinetics of the coupling of aryl-substituted alkynes as the aryl carbon resonances of the reactants and products have similar NOEs and relaxation times. The reaction was found...... to be zero-order with respect to the terminal alkyne reactant under standard preparative conditions. Moreover, as the reaction proceeded, a clear change to slower reaction kinetics was observed, but it was still apparently zero-order. The onset of this change was found to depend on the catalyst loading...

  16. Mineral content of hay harvested in Bavarian and Swiss horse farms. Predictive value of cutting time, number of cut, botanical composition, origin and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, E; Möllmann, F; Nater, S; Wanner, M; Wichert, B

    2008-12-01

    Hay samples from 29 horse farms in Southern Upper Bavaria and 31 horse farms in Switzerland were taken and analysed for minerals such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. The content of herbs and legumes in the hay was determined and the Weende analysis was performed. Comparison between Bavaria and Switzerland resulted in comparable calcium contents of approximately 4 g Ca/kg dry matter (DM) in grass hay. Hay with more than 10% of herbs and legumes found only in Switzerland showed higher Ca contents of >7 g Ca/kg DM in hay. The mineral contents of phosphorus and potassium were lower in hay from Switzerland (P: 1.8 +/- 0.7 g/kg DM, K: 15.4 +/- 5.1 g/kg DM) than from Bavaria (P: 3.8 +/- 0.6 g/kg DM, K: 20.0 +/- 6.0 DM), whereas the magnesium content of the hay showed no difference between the regions ( approximately 1.5 g Mg/kg DM). Very late first grass hay cuts showed low magnesium and calcium (<4 g/kg DM) contents. Further minerals in the hay for horses differed from those in dairy cattle in the same region. Fertilization showed only small effects on the mineral contents of the hay produced for horses. Therefore, in calculation of ration and production of supplements for horses, these differences should be taken into account.

  17. Survey of 0.1- to 16-keV/e plasma sheet ion composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartsson, W.; Shelley, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    A large statistical survey of the 0.1- to 16-keV/e plasma sheet ion composition has been carried out using data obtained by the Plasma Composition Experiment on ISEE 1 between 10 and 23 R/sub E/ during 1978 and 1979. This survey includes more than 10 times the quantity of data used in earlier studies of the same topic and makes it possible to investigate in finer detail the relationship between the ion composition and the substorm activity. The larger data base also makes it possible for the first time to study the spatial distribution of the principal ion species. As found in previous studies, the ion composition has a large variance at any given value of the AE index, but a number of distinct trends emerge when the data are averaged at each activity level. During quiet conditions the plasma sheet is dominated by ions of solar origin (H + and He ++ ), as found in earlier studies, and these ions are most numerous during extended periods of very low activity (AE< or approx. =30 γ). The quiet time density of these ions is particularly large in the flanks of the plasma sheet (GSM Yapprox. +- 10 R/sub E/), where it is about twice as large as it is near the central axis of the plasma sheet (Y = Z = 0). In contrast, the energy of these ions peaks near the central axis

  18. Avaliação de fontes de urease na amonização de fenos de Brachiaria brizantha com dois teores de umidade Evaluation of urease sources in the ammoniation of Brachiaria brizantha hays with two moisture levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liandra Maria Abaker Bertipaglia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da amonização com uréia (5,0% matéria seca do feno de Brachiaria brizantha, com dois teores de umidade (15 ou 30% de umidade, associado a três fontes de urease (feno de capim Brachiaria decumbens, capim-elefante [Pennisetum purpureum] e leucena [Leucaena leucocephala], foi avaliado. Foram determinados os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fração solúvel (A, frações de proteína verdadeira solúvel e insolúvel em borato fosfato (B1 e B2, fração de proteína potencialmente degradável (B3 e fração da proteína insolúvel em detergente ácido (C. Avaliaram-se os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HEM e lignina (LIG e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 10 tratamentos (dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, sem uréia e sem urease; dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, com uréia e sem urease; seis combinações de fontes de urease e conteúdo de umidade e três repetições. A amonização dos fenos com diferentes conteúdos de umidade, associados a fontes de urease, aumentou os teores de PB e da fração A, mas não afetou B1 e B2. Contudo, as frações B3 e C diminuíram em reposta à amonização. A aplicação de uréia nos fenos de 30% de umidade, associados ou não a fontes de urease, diminuiu os teores de FDN. A adição de fontes de urease não alterou os teores dos constituintes da parede celular, quando comparada aos tratamentos amonizados com uréia. Os tratamentos aplicados não proporcionaram efeitos consistentes sobre os teores de FDA e de CEL dos fenos e não afetaram os teores de LIG. A aplicação de uréia associada a 15 ou 30% de umidade foi favorável para aumentar o nitrogênio solúvel do feno de Brachiaria brizantha e diminuir o nitrogênio indisponível para o ruminante.The urea ammoniation (5.0% dry matter effects in Brachiaria brizanta hay baled with two

  19. Comparison of silage and hay of dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) fed to Thai native beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapato, Chaowarit; Wanapat, Metha

    2018-03-23

    Both quantity and quality of forages are important in dry season feeding. Eight Thai native beef bulls were arranged in a Completely randomized design to evaluate dwarf Napier namely Sweet grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mahasarakham) preserved as silage or hay on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The animals were fed with forage ad libitum supplemented with concentrate mixture at 1.0% of BW for 21 days; data were collected during the last 7 days. The results showed that there were differences (P  0.05) in animals fed silage and hay. Sweet grass is better preserved as hay rather than silage.

  20. Supplementary feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L with late harvested hay. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rehbinder

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the fodder available for roedeer during wintertime, late harvested hay was placed on racks early in November in three consecutive years. Freeezing kept the hay dry and fresh during all three winters. In the first winter, with much snow, the bulk of the hay was consumed whereas consumption in the two subsequent mild winters was low and selective. The crude protein content of the hay was low (3.5 - 8.4% dry matter. Metabolizable energy estimated from digestion in vitro was 3.5 — 5.6 MJ per kg dry matter. Rumen liquor from roe deer during a mild winter gave lower in vitro digestion than liquor from sheep fed with ordinary rations. The value of this poor hay for roe deer is discussed with respect to the animals requirements, seasonal adaption, the energy and protein content of the hay, water consumption and normal behavior. The results indicate that late harvested hay may be more suitable than regularly harvested hay or concentrates to help roe deer to survive spells of severe winter conditions. With late harvested hay placed out at several localized feeding sites, the risks of indigestion and dehydration, associated with a more concentrated, feed, are minimized and the ranking among the roe deer in particular will be less important and thus more animals will have improved prospects of gaining access to the fodder.Tilskottsutfodring av rådjur (Capreolus capreolus L med sent skordat ho. En pilotstudie.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: I avsikt att, for rådjur, oka mångden tillgångligt foder under vintertid, skordades och håssjades ho i borjan av november under tre på varandra foljande år. Hoet fros torn och holl sig fårskt alla vintrarna. Forstå vintern med mycket sno konsumerades huvuddelen av hoet medan de två foljande milda vintrarna konsumptionen var låg och selektiv. Mångden råprotein i hoet var lågt (3.5 — 8.4 % i torrsubstans. Innehållet av omsåttbar energi beråknad från digestion in vitro var 3

  1. Religious Literacy or Spiritual Awareness? Comparative Critique of Andrew Wright's and David Hay's Approaches to Spiritual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipsone, Anta

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a comparison of the educational approaches of Andrew Wright and David Hay this paper illustrates the persisting problem of dichotomising cognitive and trans-cognitive aspects of spiritual development and education. Even though both Wright and Hay speak of the same topic--spirituality and spiritual education--they define these terms…

  2. Towards Detection of Cutting in Hay Meadows by Using of NDVI and EVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Halabuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main requirement for preserving European hay meadows in good condition is through prerequisite cut management. However, monitoring these practices on a larger scale is very difficult. Our study analyses the use of MODIS vegetation indices products, namely EVI and NDVI, to discriminate cut and uncut meadows in Slovakia. We tested the added value of simple transformations of raw data series (seasonal statistics, first difference series, compared EVI and NDVI, and analyzed optimal periods, the number of scenes and the effect of smoothing on classification performance. The first difference series transformation saw substantial improvement in classification results. The best case NDVI series classification yielded overall accuracy of 85% with balanced rates of producer’s and user’s accuracies for both classes. EVI yielded slightly lower values, though not significantly different, although user accuracy of cut meadows achieved only 67%. Optimal periods for discriminating cut and uncut meadows lay between 16 May and 4 August, meaning only seven consecutive images are enough to accurately detect cutting in hay meadows. More importantly, the 16-day compositing period seemed to be enough for detection of cutting, which would be the time span that might be hopefully achieved by upcoming on-board HR sensors (e.g., Sentinel-2.

  3. A model for assessing Medicago Sativa L. hay quality | Scholtz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to identify chemical parameters and/or models for assessing. Medicago sativa L. (L) hay quality, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis and Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) milk prediction as a criterion of accuracy. Milk yield (MY) derived from the ...

  4. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children:a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang Møllehave, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6, 11 and 15?years in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever and mental health problems assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnair...

  5. Report on intercomparison IAEA/V-10 of the determination of trace elements in hay powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.

    1985-07-01

    Hay plays an important role in the natural production circle of human nutrition. The level of its pollution is an important factor which can effect various branches of the food industry. The aim of the reported exercise organized by the IAEA was to provide the participating laboratories an opportunity to check their analytical performance by comparing their results with the results of other laboratories and to establish the concentration level of trace elements for certification purposes. The hay powder was analyzed by 50 laboratories from 25 countries for 42 elements. Neutron activation, atomic absorption, atomic emission and X-ray spectroscopy were predominantly used as analytical methods. The results provided by the participants of the reported intercomparison exercise have enabled to certify the concentration of eighteen trace and minor elements and to establish non-certified information values for the concentration of an additional twelve elements in Hay Powder IAEA/V-10

  6. Apparent digestibility of diets with combinations of soybean hulls and coastcross (Cynodon sp. hay offered to ram lambs Digestibilidade aparente de dietas com combinações de casca de soja e feno de "coastcross" (Cynodon sp. oferecidas para cordeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Canonenco de Araujo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean hulls (SH are an alternative fiber source that may be used to maintain neutral detergent fiber (NDF concentration while increasing the energy concentration of ruminant diets. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing coastcross (Cynodon sp. hay NDF by SH NDF on the apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance of Santa Inês ram lambs. Twenty-four animals (42.5 ± 3.6 kg of body weight and six months old were placed in metabolism crates and assigned in a randomized complete block design defined by body weight (BW. Experimental diets provided a similar concentration of NDF (52% and crude protein (15%. Hay NDF from a 70% roughage-based diet was replaced with SH NDF by 33%, 67%, and 100%, resulting in 0, 25, 52, and 77% of SH in the dietary dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a linear increase (p 0.05 on water intake when SH replaced hay. The SH can replace forage and may be included up to 77% in the dietary DM of ram lambs with satisfactory values of nutrient digestibilities.A casca de soja (CS é uma fonte de fibra alternativa que visa manter o teor de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e aumentar a concentração energética da dieta de ruminantes. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar os efeitos da substituição da FDN de feno de "coastcross" (Cynodon sp. pela FDN da CS sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e balanço de nitrogênio em cordeiros Santa Inês. Vinte e quatro animais (42,5 ± 3,6 kg de peso vivo e seis meses de idade foram colocados em gaiolas para ensaio de digestibilidade e arranjados em delineamento blocos completos casualizados definidos pelo peso vivo (PV. As dietas isonitrogenadas (15% de proteína bruta continham concentrações semelhantes de FDN (52%. O tratamento controle foi composto de 70% de feno na matéria seca (MS da dieta, sendo a FDN proveniente do feno substituída em 33%, 67% e 100% pela FDN proveniente da CS, correspondendo a 0, 25, 52 e 77% de

  7. Sample preparation of Medicago sativa L. hay for chemical analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the grinding procedure on the moisture and crude protein concentration of a ground Medicago sativa L. hay sample for quality grading. An additional aim was to investigate the accuracy of electronic moisture testers (EMT). Variance of analyses revealed significant ...

  8. Changes in fibre-adherent and fluid-associated microbial communities and fermentation profiles in the rumen of cattle fed diets differing in hay quality and concentrate amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevenhusen, Fenja; Petri, Renee M; Kleefisch, Maria-Theresia; Khiaosa-Ard, Ratchaneewan; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-09-01

    The rumen microbiota enable important metabolic functions to the host cattle. Feeding of starch-rich concentrate feedstuffs to cattle has been demonstrated to increase the risk of metabolic disorders and to significantly alter the rumen microbiome. Thus, alternative feeding strategies like the use of high-quality hay, rich in sugars, as an alternative energy source need to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in rumen microbial abundances in the liquid and solid-associated fraction of cattle fed two hay qualities differing in sugar content with graded amounts of starchy concentrate feeds using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Operational taxonomic units clustered separately between the liquid and the solid-associated fraction. Phyla in the liquid fraction were identified as mainly Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, whereas main phyla of the fibre-associated fraction were Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres and Firmicutes. Significant alterations in the rumen bacterial communities at all taxonomic levels as a result of changing the hay quality and concentrate proportions were observed. Several intermicrobial correlations were found. Genera Ruminobacter and Fibrobacter were significantly suppressed by feeding sugar-rich hay, whereas others such as Selenomonas and Prevotella proliferated. This study extends the knowledge about diet-induced changes in ruminal microbiome of cattle. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The effect of feeding barley or hay alone or in combination with molassed sugar beet pulp on the metabolic responses in plasma and caecum of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R B; Austbø, Dag; Blache, D

    2016-01-01

    only (HAY), hay and molassed SBP (HAY + SBP), hay and pelleted barley (BAR), and hay, pelleted barley and molassed SBP (BAR + SBP). The amount of barley (2 g starch/kg body weight (BW)) fed in the test meals was similar for the BAR and BAR + SBP diets. Each diet was fed for 16 days followed by data...... to the large intestine in response to the dietary carbohydrate composition. In conclusion, there was no effect of adding molassed SBP to a meal of barley compared to feeding barley alone, and fluctuations in plasma and caecal variables were more stable when feeding hay and molassed SBP than feeding barley...

  10. E1-forbidden transition rates in ions of astrophysical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Träbert, E

    2014-01-01

    Transition rates in atomic systems may appear to be of little importance in steady-state plasmas that are observed at great distances from Earth. However, some of the transition rates compete with collision rates, and in these cases certain line intensity ratios are affected and can serve as remote indicators of density. In the low-density environments of stellar coronae and planetary nebulae, the transition rates of interest are mostly spin-forbidden E1 decays, higher-multipole order transitions (M1, E2, M2, M3), and hyperfine-induced transitions. On Earth, measurements of the long upper level lifetimes of these atomic systems require the use of ion traps. A fair number of test cases with lifetimes in the range from nanoseconds to many seconds have been treated successfully, and the evolution of calculations along with the experimental progress is notable. A new generation of cold ion traps is expected to extend the atomic lifetime measurements on multiply charged ions into the range of many minutes. (paper)

  11. Precision and accuracy of the NDF rumen degradability of hays measured by the Daisy fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zanfi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of 162 hay samples from Austrian permanent grasslands was used to obtain information about the precision of the in vitro NDF degradability (NDFd measured by the Daisy fermenter and its accuracy to predict in situ NDFd. The within forage standard error of the in vitro NDFd triplicate, obtained in five consecutive incubations, was equal to 2.8%, while the effect of the four jar positions in the fermenter was not significant. The cutting frequency had a great impact on the in situ effective NDFd of hays, which ranged (P<0.01 from values of 32.9, 43.1 and 48.3% in hays obtained from 2, 3 and 4 cuts/season, respectively. The regression analysis between the in vitro and in situ NDFd values (measured at 48h and effective, k=3%/h allowed to obtain medium degrees of correlation (r2 = 0.69 – 0.71; P<0.01 and low levels of accuracy (RSE = 4.0 -4.6 %.

  12. In vitro rumen fermentation kinetics of diets containing oldman saltbush hay and forage cactus, using a cattle inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.L. Tosto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate, by means of the semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, fermentation kinetics of carbohydrates and degradability of dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM of diets containing oldman saltbush hay levels (8.4; 18.8; 31.2 and 48.3% associated to forage cactus in natura. Pressure readings of the gases were done with a pressure transducer at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 17, 20, 24, 28, 34, 48, 72 and 96h post-inoculation. The rumen kinetics was described by the following parameters: maximum potential of gas production, lag time and production rates of gas (k, fibrous carbohydrates (FC and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC. It could be observed that the addition of oldman saltbush hay to the diets promoted a quadratic effect in the production of gases originated from NFC. However, there was no significant effect on the production of gases originated from FC and on production rates of gases from NFC and FC. The degradability of DM and OM did not differ due to the addition of oldman saltbush hay. The use of 8.4% hay and 74.9% forage cactus promoted the maximum potential of production of gases from the fibrous fraction of diets containing cactus and oldman saltbush hay.

  13. Micelle-Mediated Extraction and Cloud Point Pre-concentration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. A. Reza Zarei F. Gholamian ... metric determination of phenol in water samples after .... Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality, Chlorinated Phenols: Criteria for .... 50 V.A.Lemos,J.S.Santos,P.X.Baliza,J. Braz. Chem.

  14. Variation of runoff source areas under different soil wetness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-03

    Apr 3, 2018 ... and dry antecedent soil wetness (the dominant soil moisture ... the initial abstraction of rainfall to be equal to 20% of the maximum potential soil water ...... ZAREI H (2012) Baseflow separation using isotopic techniques and.

  15. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    processing data using wavelet transform and PCA based on support vector regression and gene expression programming for river flow simulation. Abazar Solgi Amir Pourhaghi Ramin Bahmani Heidar Zarei. Volume 126 Issue 5 July 2017 Article ...

  16. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis for studying Clostridium cell response to conversion of enzymatically hydrolyzed hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Nescerecka, Alina; Tihomirova, Kristina; Mezule, Linda; Juhna, Talis

    2013-07-01

    Grass hay is one of assailable cellulose containing non-food agricultural wastes that can be used as a carbohydrate source by microorganisms producing biofuels. In this study three Clostridium strains Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium tetanomorphum, capable of producing acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) were adapted to convert enzymatically hydrolyzed hay used as a growth media additive. The results of growth curves, substrate degradation kinetics and FT-IR analyses of bacterial biomass macromolecular composition showed diverse strain-specific cell response to the growth medium composition.

  17. Substitution of lucerne hay by ammoniated wheat straw in growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucerne hay (LH) was substituted by urea-ammoniated wheat straw (AWS) in four lamb-growth diets, all containing 60% roughage. ... Die ekonomiese voordeel van die verplasing van 'n hoë kwaliteit ruvoer, soos LH, met'n goedkoper bron (AKS), moet opgeweeg word teen die laer DMI en GDT, sowel as die nadelige effek ...

  18. Comparison of (e,2e), photoelectron and conventional spectroscopies for the Ar2 ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Uylings, P.; Poppe, R.

    1978-05-01

    States of the Ar2 ion whose eigenvectors contain large components of single-hole configurations are observed in the (e,2e) and (γ,e) reactions on the Ar1 atom. The cross section is regarded as being proportional to the spectroscopic factor, that is the state expectation value of the single-hole configuration in the eigenvector. State expectation values obtained from these reactions for 1/2 + states are compared with ones obtained by diagonalizing an effective hamiltonian in a model space, with radial matrix elememts determined by fitting spectra for bound states. (e,2e) and conventional spectroscopy are compatible and provide complementary information about structure. Simple analysis of present (γ,e) data does not lead to compatible information on spectroscopic factors

  19. Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Bimrew; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-10-01

    The study was carried out at Woreta, Ethiopia, to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) change, and profitability of Farta sheep fed pasture hay alone or supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) consisting of noug seed meal (NSM) and rice bran in 2:1 ratio. Twenty yearling intact male Farta sheep with BW of 16.9 +/- 1.68 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The dietary treatments consisting of sole natural pasture hay (T1, control), hay +200 g of CM dry matter (DM) (T2, low), hay +300 g of CM DM (T3, medium), and hay +400 g of CM DM (T4, high) were randomly assigned to sheep within each block. Common salt and water were available to animals all the time. The supplements were offered twice daily in equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Supplementation with the CM increased (P profitability. Among the supplemented treatments, the high level of supplementation resulted in better (P profitability. Thus, the high level of supplementation is recommended based on biological performance and profitability under conditions of this study.

  20. A broader definition of occupancy: Comment on Hayes and Monfils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Martha M. Ellis; Courtney L. Amundson

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy models are widely used to analyze presence-absence data for a variety of taxa while accounting for observation error (MacKenzie et al. 2002, 2006; Tyre et al. 2003; Royle and Dorazio 2008). Hayes and Monfils (2015) question their use for analyzing avian point count data based on purported violations of model assumptions incurred by avian mobility....

  1. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  2. Food hygiene assessment in catering establishments in Hay Hassani district-Casablanca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmiri, Nadia El; Bakouri, Halima; Bassir, Fatima; Barmaki, Saadia; Rachad, Laila; Nadifi, Sellama; Kadmiri, Omar El; Amina, Bouleghmane

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated food is responsible for a significant amount of illnesses. In Morocco, it has become a worrying concern. Numerous awareness campaigns are conducted to warn the population against the risks of such scourge in ways that will prevent foodborne illness. Lawful commissions are in charge of examining and ensuring food safety in production and catering establishments, in addition to the assessment of food poisoning risks. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hygienic quality of food handling, preparation, and storage in catering establishments within Hay Hassani prefecture in Casablanca. During the period 2006-2012 a total of 1765 food samples were taken and examined for microbiological quality tests. As analyzed, 562 per 1765 samples are declared unhealthy for consumption. We note that some products were highly contaminated as compared to other products (p <0.001), specifically vegetable dishes, and meat dishes. In Hay Hassani district food is generally prepared and sold under unhygienic conditions, adequate corrective measures have been announced to improve hygienic practices.

  3. Radioimmunological allergy diagnostics in infants suffering from asthmatoid bronchitis, bronchial asthma, and hay fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siafarikas, K.; Glaubitt, D.; Wanzeck, E.; Staedtische Krankenanstalten Krefeld

    1975-01-01

    The occurence of circulating specific antibodies against milk protein, hen protein, fish (cod), against cat, dog and horse epithelium as well as against 2 types of house dust was investigated with 11 children in the age of 1-6 years having asthmatoid bronchitis, 23 children aging from 2-15 years with bronchial asthma and 3 children aging from 6-13 years with hay fever, using the radioallergosorbens test (RAST). Children having asthmatoid bronchitis for the first time exhibited a smaller number and a lesser extent of positive radioallergosorben test results then children with bronchial asthma. The children with hay fever exhibited exclusively negative test results. (orig./LN) [de

  4. Predicting TDN losses from heat damaged hays and haylages with NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the storage of hay or haylage, heating damage may occur and lead to losses of available protein and digestible nutrients. Recent research indicates that losses of TDN may be more significant economically than losses of available protein. Our objectives for this study were to establish a near-...

  5. Hayes Receives 2012 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshin, Laurie A.

    2013-10-01

    Alexander G. Hayes Jr. received the 2012 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science at the 2012 AGU Fall Meeting, held 3-7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes significant early-career contributions to planetary science.

  6. Fermentation and nutritive value of silage and hay made from the aerial part of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Padrão de fermentação e valor nutritivo das silagens e do feno da parte aérea de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zambello de Pinho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, although native to Brazil, is still underutilized, especially when it comes to using its aerial part. In order to study the potential of the cassava plant for use as animal feed, the present work evaluated the characteristics of the aerial part of cassava when submitted to the processes of ensiling and haymaking. Treatments consisted of: aerial part of the plant ensiled without wilting (PAS; aerial part ensiled after wilting (PAE, and aerial part made into hay (PAF. Chemical analyses were run in order to evaluate the traits that determine the nutritional value of silage and hay. Wilting increased dry matter concentration from 25% to 27.7%, without changing the concentration of soluble carbohydrates (33.3 and 35.5% in the PAS and PAE, respectively, as well as buffer capacity (204 mmol kg-1 DM in PAS and 195 mmol kg-1 DM in PAE. Neither pH (3.57 in fresh silage and 3.60 in PAE nor the ADIN concentration (11.32% of total nitrogen in PAS and 9.99% of total nitrogen in PAE differed between the silages, but ADIN concentration was higher in hay (15.39%. Wilting caused an increase in the concentration of ammonia (from 6.5% of total nitrogen in PAS to 13.0 of total nitrogen in PAE. The levels of volatile fatty acids did not change with wilting. The ensiling process reduced the concentrations of free hydrocyanide (HCN, without, however, affecting cyanohydrin.A mandioca, apesar de ser nativa do Brasil, ainda é sub-utilizada principalmente quando a questão é o aproveitamento da sua parte aérea. Com o objetivo de estudar o potencial da mandioca para alimentação animal, o presente trabalho avaliou as características da parte aérea da planta quando submetida os processos de ensilagem e fenação. Os tratamentos consistiram de: parte aérea ensilada sem emurchecimento (PAS; parte aérea ensilada após 24 horas de emurchecimento (PAE e parte aérea fenada (PAF. As análises químicas foram realizadas a fim de avaliar os

  7. Quality of aged shoulder from lambs fed with different oldman saltbush hay levels (Atriplex nummularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharcilla Isabella Rodrigues Costa Alvarenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of different levels of oldman saltbush hay and ageing time on the physical characteristics of Santa Inês lamb meat. Sixty shoulders from 32 male lambs fed with 30, 40, 50 or 60% oldman saltbush hay for 60 days were vacuum-packaged and stored in a refrigerator at 0 ± 1°C for 0, 7 or 14 days of ageing. The shear force, cooking loss and water holding capacity were 3.06kgf cm-2, 37.28% and 76.71%, respectively, and there were no significant changed by studied factors (P>0.05

  8. Diversity of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Jandt, Ute; Bruelheide, Helge; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Perrin, Philip M.; Kacki, Zygmunt; Willner, Wolfgang; Fernández-González, Federico; Chytrý, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Questions: Which are the main vegetation types of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe? What are the main environmental gradients that drive patterns of species composition? Is it possible to classify these grasslands to phytosociological alliances that reflect management

  9. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program 1992: Morocco and Tunisia. Final Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMIDEAST, Washington, DC.

    The projects described in this document were submitted by U.S. teachers who spent time in Morocco and Tunisia as part of the 1992 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. The following are among the titles of the projects included: "Formal Education in Rural Morocco: Problems and Constraints" (Victoria Baker); "Continuity and Change…

  10. Komposisi Kimia, Degradasi Nutrien dan Produksi Gas Metana in Vitro Rumput Tropik yang Diawetkan dengan Metode Silase dan Hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Six grass species (Pennisetum purpureum, Pennisetum purpureophoides, Sorghum sudanense, Brachiaria brizantha, Imperata cylindrica, and Panicum maximum were harvested at 49 days and preserved as silage or as hay. Samples of silage and hay were evaluated by an in vitro gas production and in vitro nutrient degradability. Total gas production at 24 and 48 h as well as CH4 were higher (P<0.01 in silage than in hay. Brachiaria brizantha had the highest (P<0.01 gas production compared to other species, whereas P. purpureum had the highest CH4 production (mM/g organic matter degraded. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM degradations were higher (P<0.01 in silage than hay. When compared with hay, silage had higher (P<0.01 ammonia-N concentration (20.3 vs. 10.6 mg/100 ml and higher (P<0.05 butyric acid concentration (7.9 vs. 7.0 mM. Non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC and crude protein contents were positively correlated with gas production (r = 0.51; P<0.05 and CH4 production (r = 0.64; P<0.01 at 48 h of in vitro incubation. However total gas and CH4 productions were negatively correlated with neutral detergent fiber (NDF content. There were positive correlation between DM (r = 0.90; P<0.01, OM (r = 0.93; P<0.01, and NDF (r = 0.84; P<0.01 degradations and gas production.

  11. Localized Beampipe Heating due to $e^{-}$ Capture and Nuclear Excitation in Heavy Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, S R

    2001-01-01

    At heavy ion colliders, two major sources of beam loss are expected to be $e^+e^-$ production, where the $e^-$ is bound to one of the nuclei, and photonuclear excitation and decay via neutron emission. Both processes alter the ions charged to mass ratio by well defined amounts, creating beams of particles with altered magnetic rigidity. These beams will deposit their energy in a localized region of the accelerator, causing localized heating, The size of the target region depends on the collider optics. For medium and heavy ions, at design luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider, local heating may be more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. This could cause magnet quenches if the local cooling is inadequate. The altered-rigidity beams will also produce localized radiation damage. The beams could also be extracted and used for fixed target experiments.

  12. Effects of alfalfa hay and its physical form (chopped versus pelleted) on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Mahjoubi, E; Hossein Yazdi, M; Cardoso, F C; Drackley, J K

    2015-06-01

    Inclusion of forage and its physical form in starter may affect rumen development, average daily gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI) of dairy calves. To evaluate the effects of forage and its physical form (chopped vs. pelleted) on growth of calves under a high milk feeding regimen, 32 Holstein calves (38.8±1.1kg) were assigned at birth to 1 of 3 treatments in a completely randomized block design. Dietary treatments (% of dry matter) were (1) 100% semi-texturized starter (CON); (2) 90% semi-texturized starter + 10% chopped alfalfa hay (mean particle size=5.4mm) as a total mixed ration (TMR; CH); and (3) 90% semi-texturized starter + 10% pelleted alfalfa (mean=5.8mm) hay as a TMR (PH). Data were subjected to mixed model analysis with contrasts used to evaluate effect of forage inclusion. Calves were weaned at 76 d of age and the experiment finished 2 wk after weaning. Individual milk and solid feed consumption were recorded daily. Solid feed consumption and ADG increased as age increased (effect of week), but neither forage inclusion nor physical form of forage affected these variables pre- or postweaning. Plasma urea N was affected by treatments such that the CON group had a lower concentration than forage-fed groups. Forage inclusion, but not physical form, resulted in increased total protein in plasma. Although days with elevated rectal temperature, fecal score, and general appearance were not affected by dietary treatments, calves fed alfalfa hay during the first month of life had fewer days with respiratory issues, regardless of physical form of hay. We concluded that provision of forage does have some beneficial effects in calves fed large amounts of milk replacer, but pelleted alfalfa hay did not result in any improvement in calf performance or health. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A broader definition of occupancy: A reply to Hayes and Monofils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatif, Quresh; Ellis, Martha M.; Amundson, Courtney L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupancy models are widely used to analyze presence–absence data for a variety of taxa while accounting for observation error (MacKenzie et al. 2002, 2006; Tyre et al. 2003; Royle and Dorazio 2008). Hayes and Monfils (2015) question their use for analyzing avian point count data based on purported violations of model assumptions incurred by avian mobility. Animal mobility is an important consideration, not just for occupancy models, but for a variety of population and habitat models (Boyce 2006, Royle et al. 2009, Manning and Goldberg 2010, Dormann et al. 2013, Renner et al. 2015). Nevertheless, we believe the ultimate conclusions of Hayes and Monfils are shortsighted mainly due to a narrow interpretation of occupancy. Rather than turn away from the use of occupancy models, we believe they remain an appropriate method for analyzing many data sets collected from avian point count surveys. Further, we suggest that there is value in having a broader and more nuanced interpretation of occupancy that incorporates the potential for animal movement. 

  14. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Blanchard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  15. Kajian Mutu dan Palatibilitas Silase dan Hay Ransum Komplit Berbasis Sampah Organik Primer pada Kambing Peranakan Etawah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmadi Yusmadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality and palatibility of silage and hay complete ration based on organic primer garbage in peranakan etawah (PE poad ABSTRACT. This research was conducted to study the quality and palatability of silage and hay complete ration based on organic primer garbage in nine heads of Peranakan Etawah (PE Goat. The quality of silage and hay was evaluated By measuring pH, total number of lactic acid Bacteria (LAB, palatability, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM aroma and color of silage. Nine heads of peranakan etawah were grouped based on their lactation periode and randomly assigned to one of tree dietary treatments. The treatments were (1 Control rations; (2 silage complete ration (SRK; and (3 Hay complete ration (HRK. The results indicated that the silage had PH 4.15 and total number of LAB was 2.4 x 10 cfu/g of silage. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility of SRK were better than those of HRK. The palatability of SRK was higher than HRK but less than control. Storage of SRK for did not change dry matter and organic matter content. Organoleptic analysis indicated that texture and color of HRK were changed at after storage, while SRK was still constant. It is concluded that silage composed of organic primer garbage has high quality in terms of physical, chemical and microbial characteristics, prolong storage.

  16. Modeling of drainage and hay production over the Crau aquifer for analyzing the impact of global change on aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olioso, Albert; Lecerf, Rémi; Baillieux, Antoine; Chanzy, André; Ruget, Françoise; Banton, Olivier; Lecharpentier, Patrice; Alkassem Alosman, Mohamed; Ruy, Stéphane; Gallego Elvira, Belen

    2013-04-01

    proportion of irrigation water that contributes to the recharge of aquifer was evaluated to 75 %, which represent 80% of the total recharge; - increase in temperature in the future leads to an increase in hay production (+ 10% in 2030 compared to now) - increase in potential evapotranspiration in the future leads to an increase of meadow evapotranspiration by 10% which has a significant impact on the amount of irrigation water required to sustain the level of aquifer recharge and the level of the water table - decrease in irrigated surfaces (-10% forecasted for 2030) results in a significant decrease of aquifer recharge (- 8%) that may affect water resources in the area (amount almost equivalent to water withdrawal for domestic use in the area) - reduction in available water for irrigation directly affect the aquifer recharge: e.g. 30% reduction in irrigation level result in a 35% reduction in drainage at the aquifer scale; however, the production of hay would be just slightly affected. This work was performed in the frame of Astuce et Tic project (French ministries financial support) and Sirrimed project (European FP7 financial support).

  17. Coast cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. hay and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. millsp digestibility and nutrients average intake by sheep under two feeding systems/ Consumo médio e digestibilidade do feno de capim “Coast cross” (Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. e feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp em carneiros submetidos a dois regimes alimentares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Waldemar de Oliveira Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out with the objectives of determining the daily average intake (DAI, apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of coast cross hay and pigeon pea nutrients and to evaluate thenitrogen balance in sheep. Ten wethers with average weight of 27.50 kg, alloted to suitable cages, were used. A completely randomized design with two treatments (T1= 80% coast cross hay + 20% pigeon peaand T2= 60% coast cross hay + 40% pigeon pea and five replicates, was used. The treatments were evaluated under two feeding systems (voluntary and restrict. Animals receiving ration of T2 presentedhigher DAI (g/kg PV 0.75 (PO experimento foi realizado com os objetivos de determinar o consumo médio diário (CMD, o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA dos nutrientes do feno de capim Coast cross e feijão guandu e avaliar o balanço de nitrogênio (BN em ovinos. Foram utilizados dez ovinos machos, castrados, com peso médio de 27,50 kg, alojados em gaiolas para metabolismo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos (T1 = 80% de feno de Coast cross + 20% de guandu e T2 = 60% de feno de Coast cross + 40% de guandu e cinco repetições por tratamento. Os tratamentos foram avaliados sob dois regimes alimentares (consumo voluntário e restrito. Os animais recebendo ração do T2 apresentaram maior CMD (g/kg PV0,75 (p < 0,05 de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra bruta (FB, matéria orgânica (MO e extrato não nitrogenado (ENN, do que aqueles animais recebendo ração do T1. O CDA da FB da ração T2 foi maior (p < 0,05 do que o da ração T1. O BN dos animais que receberam 40% de guandu (13,15g N/ dia foi superior aos daqueles que receberam 20% desta leguminosa (10,29g N/dia. Conclui-se que o feijão guandu pode ser utilizado como fonte protéica na alimentação de ruminantes, possibilitando CDA da MS próximo de 52% para animais em regime de consumo voluntário, e 81% para animais em regime de consumo restrito. O

  18. Towards a political ontology of state power: a comment on Colin Hay's article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Bob

    2014-09-01

    This article offers some critical realist, strategic-relational comments on Colin Hay's proposal to treat the state as an 'as-if-real' concept. The critique first develops an alternative account of ontology, which is more suited to analyses of the state and state power; it then distinguishes the 'intransitive' properties of the real world as an object of investigation from the 'transitive' features of its scientific investigation and thereby provides a clearer understanding of what is at stake in 'as-if-realism'; and it ends with the suggestion that a concern with the modalities of state power rather than with the state per se offers a more fruitful approach to the genuine issues raised in Hay's article and in his earlier strategic-relational contributions to political analysis. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  19. Ion-beam doping of GaAs with low-energy (100 eV) C + using combined ion-beam and molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tsutomu; Makita, Yunosuke; Kimura, Shinji; Winter, Stefan; Yamada, Akimasa; Fons, Paul; Uekusa, Shin-ichiro

    1995-01-01

    A combined ion-beam and molecular-beam-epitaxy (CIBMBE) system has been developed. This system consists of an ion implanter capable of producing ions in the energy range of 30 eV-30 keV and conventional solid-source MBE. As a successful application of CIBMBE, low-energy (100 eV) carbon ion (C+) irradiation during MBE growth of GaAs was carried out at substrate temperatures Tg between 500 and 590 °C. C+-doped layers were characterized by low-temperature (2 K) photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering, and van der Pauw measurements. PL spectra of undoped GaAs grown by CIBMBE revealed that unintentional impurity incorporation into the epilayer is extremely small and precise doping effects are observable. CAs acceptor-related emissions such as ``g,'' [g-g], and [g-g]β are observed and their spectra are significantly changed with increasing C+ beam current density Ic. PL measurements showed that C atoms were efficiently incorporated during MBE growth by CIBMBE and were optically well activated as an acceptor in the as-grown condition even for Tg as low as 500 °C. Raman measurement showed negligible lattice damage of the epilayer bombarded with 100 eV C+ with no subsequent heat treatment. These results indicate that contamination- and damage-free impurity doping without postgrowth annealing can be achieved by the CIBMBE method.

  20. Ion-beam doping of GaAs with low-energy (100 eV) C(+) using combined ion-beam and molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lida, Tsutomu; Makita, Yunosuke; Kimura, Shinji; Winter, Stefan; Yamada, Akimasa; Fons, Paul; Uekusa, Shin-Ichiro

    1995-01-01

    A combined ion-beam and molecular-beam-epitaxy (CIBMBE) system has been developed. This system consists of an ion implanter capable of producing ions in the energy range of 30 eV - 30 keV and conventional solid-source MBE. As a successful application of CIBMBE, low-energy (100 eV) carbon ion (C(+)) irradiation during MBE growth of GaAs was carried out at substrate temperatures T(sub g) between 500 and 590 C. C(+)-doped layers were characterized by low-temperature (2 K) photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering, and van der Pauw measurements. PL spectra of undoped GaAs grown by CIBMBE revealed that unintentional impurity incorporation into the epilayer is extremely small and precise doping effects are observable. C(sub As) acceptor-related emissions such as 'g', (g-g), and (g-g)(sub beta) are observed and their spectra are significantly changed with increasing C(+) beam current density I(sub c). PL measurements showed that C atoms were efficiently incorporated during MBE growth by CIBMBE and were optically well activated as an acceptor in the as-grown condition even for T(sub g) as low as 500 C. Raman measurement showed negligible lattice damage of the epilayer bombarded with 100 eV C(+) with no subsequent heat treatment. These results indicate that contamination- and damage-free impurity doping without postgrowth annealing can be achieved by the CIBMBE method.

  1. Effect of increasing the level of alfalfa hay in finishing beef heifer diets on intake, sorting, and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, A; González, L A; Mainau, E; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2018-02-15

    Eight rumen cannulated Simmental heifers (BW = 281.4 ± 7.28 kg) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design to ascertain the effects of increasing levels of alfalfa hay on intake, sorting, and feeding behavior in comparison to barley straw as forage source. Treatments tested were four total mixed rations with: 1) 10% barley straw (10BS) with 7.0% NDF from forage, 2) 13% alfalfa hay (13AH) and less NDF from forage (5.7%) than 10BS, 3) 16% alfalfa hay (16AH) and the same NDF from forage (7.0%) as 10BS, and 4) 19% alfalfa hay (19AH) and more NDF from forage (8.3%) than 10BS. Each experimental period consisted of 3 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for sampling. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa hay in the diet linearly increased (P comparison to the 10BS diet. In the same way, intake of long, medium, and short particle size was greater in this diet. Moreover, heifers fed 19AH sorted for medium particle size and tended to sort for long and short particles size, and against fine particle size. Sorting behavior and meal length increased in the 19AH diet, which leads us to think that sorting feed ingredients requires time and therefore lengthens the meal. Time spent ruminating was greater in heifers fed 19AH, thus reducing the risk of ruminal acidosis when animals are fed high concentrate diets.

  2. Organic vs. conventional grassland management: do (15)N and (13)C isotopic signatures of hay and soil samples differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Valentin H; Hölzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the δ(15)N and δ(13)C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used Δδ(15)N (δ(15)N plant - δ(15)N soil) to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in δ(13)C in hay and δ(15)N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that δ(13)C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. Δδ(15)N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only δ(13)C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be efficiently

  3. Organic vs. Conventional Grassland Management: Do 15N and 13C Isotopic Signatures of Hay and Soil Samples Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Valentin H.; Hölzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the δ15N and δ13C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used Δδ15N (δ15N plant - δ15N soil) to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in δ13C in hay and δ15N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that δ13C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. Δδ15N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only δ13C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be efficiently used in practice

  4. Effects of feeding pregnant beef cows selenium-enriched alfalfa hay on selenium status and antibody titers in their newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L G; Bobe, G; Vorachek, W R; Dolan, B P; Estill, C T; Pirelli, G J; Hall, J A

    2017-06-01

    In newborn dairy calves, it has been demonstrated that supranutritional maternal and colostral Se supplementation using Se yeast or sodium selenite, respectively, improves passive transfer of IgG. In beef cattle, agronomic biofortification with Se is a more practical alternative for Se supplementation, whereby the Se concentration of hay is increased through the use of Se-containing fertilizer amendments. It has been previously demonstrated that agronomic Se biofortification is an effective strategy to improve immunity and performance in Se-replete weaned beef calves. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding beef cows Se-enriched alfalfa () hay during the last 8 to 12 wk of gestation on passive transfer of antibodies to calves. At 10 wk ± 16 d before calving, 45 cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups with 3 pens (5 cows/pen) per treatment: Control cows were fed non-Se-fortified alfalfa hay plus a mineral supplement containing 120 mg/kg Se from sodium selenite, Med-Se cows were fed alfalfa hay fertilized with 45.0 g Se/ha as sodium selenate, and High-Se cows were fed alfalfa hay fertilized with 89.9 g Se/ha as sodium selenate; both the Med-Se and the High-Se groups received mineral supplement without added Se. Colostrum and whole blood (WB) were collected from cows at calving, and WB was collected from calves within 2 h of calving and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h of age. Concentrations of IgG1 and J-5 antibody in cow colostrum and calf serum were quantified using ELISA procedures. Selenium concentrations linearly increased in WB ( cows and in WB of newborn calves ( cows fed Se-biofortified alfalfa hay, but J-5 antibody ( = 0.43) concentrations were not. Calf serum IgG1 ( = 0.43) and J-5 antibody ( = 0.44) concentrations during the first 48 h of age were not affected by prior Se treatment of cows. These data suggest that feeding Se-biofortified alfalfa hay promotes the accumulation of Se and antibodies in colostrum but does not

  5. Willet M. Hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, A F; Stoehr, H

    2003-01-01

    Willet M. Hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the American Genetic Association (AGA). We commemorate the AGA's centennial. We mined university archives, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. Willet Hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. He developed useful plant breeding methods. He selected superior flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), wheat (Triticum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties, and discovered Grimm alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); all became commercially important. He initiated branch stations for better performance testing. Willet Hays befriended colleagues in other universities, in federal stations, in a London conference, and in Europe. He gathered and spread the scientific plant breeding gospel. He also improved rural roads and initiated animal breeding records and agricultural economics records. He started the AGA in 1903, serving as secretary for 10 years. He became assistant secretary of agriculture in 1904. He introduced the project system for agricultural research. He authored or coauthored the Nelson Amendment, the Smith-Lever Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the protocol leading to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization-all involved teaching agricultural practices that improved the world.

  6. Meat quality of lambs fed silk flower hay (Calotropis procera SW in the diet Qualidade de carne de cordeiros alimentados com feno de flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera SW na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Germano Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of using silk flower hay replacing corn and soybean meal on physical-chemical and sensorial traits of lamb meat. It was used 32 intact Morada Nova male lambs (12.7 ± 2 kg initial body weigth on feedlot system, distributed in a completely randomized design with four levels (0, 15, 30 and 45% on dry matter basis. The use of silk flower hay in the diet influenced quality of meat and carcass, leg weight, tissue composition, moisture, juiciness and flavor. Replacing corn (26.67% and soybean (3.33% with silk flower hay does not affect the tissue composition, ratios and muscularity index of leg and physical-chemical parameters of semimembranosus muscle of Morada Nova lambs.Objetivou-se avaliar a influência do uso de feno de flor-de-seda em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais da carne de cordeiros. Utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros Morada Nova, machos não-castrados (12,7 ± 2 kg de peso vivo inicial, em confinamento, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro níveis (0, 15, 30 e 45% com base na MS. A utilização de feno de flor-de-seda na dieta influenciou a qualidade da carcaça e da carne, o peso da perna, a composição tecidual, a umidade, a suculência e o sabor. A substituição do milho (26,67% e da soja (3,33% pelo feno de flor-de-seda não altera composição tecidual, relação e índice de muscularidade da perna e os parâmetros físico-químicos do músculo semimembranosus de cordeiros Morada Nova.

  7. Low-energy plasma immersion ion implantation to induce DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangwijit, K. [Biotechnology Unit, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Bang Khen, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Pitakrattananukool, S. [School of Science, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Biotechnology Unit, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) at low energy was for the first time applied as a novel biotechnology to induce DNA transfer into bacterial cells. Argon or nitrogen PIII at low bias voltages of 2.5, 5 and 10 kV and fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} treated cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Subsequently, DNA transfer was operated by mixing the PIII-treated cells with DNA. Successes in PIII-induced DNA transfer were demonstrated by marker gene expressions. The induction of DNA transfer was ion-energy, fluence and DNA-size dependent. The DNA transferred in the cells was confirmed functioning. Mechanisms of the PIII-induced DNA transfer were investigated and discussed in terms of the E. coli cell envelope anatomy. Compared with conventional ion-beam-induced DNA transfer, PIII-induced DNA transfer was simpler with lower cost but higher efficiency.

  8. The bacterial population adherent to plant particles in the rumen of reindeer fed lichen, timothy hay or silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Alterskjær Olsen

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves taken from a natural winter pasture were given ad lib. access to lichen (n = 3, timothy silage (n = 3 and hay (n = 3 for 7 weeks. Median numbers of viable anaerobic bacteria adherent to the plant particles (cells/g wet weight of rumen solids, growing on a habitat simulating medium (M8V, were significantly higher (P = 0.05 in the rumen of reindeer fed lichen (26.5 x 109- 53.0 x 109 and hay (4.0 x 109- 40.5 x 109, compared to reindeer fed silage (1.15 x 109 - 3.25 x 109. Anaerobic bacterial strains (n = 551 from the plant particles obtained from the rumen of the nine reindeer examined, were isolated using an acid swollen cellulose medium (M8SC and tested for their ability to hydrolyse carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. The proportion of CMC hydrolysing adherent bacteria isolated from M8SC was significantly higher in reindeer fed hay (21.5% compared ro animals fed lichen (5.3% and silage (2.7% (P = 0.05. The CMC hydrolysing bacterial srrains (n=42 isolated from reindeer fed hay where characterised as non-cellulolytic Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (9.5%, cellulolytic B. fibrisolvens (50.0%, Clostridium sp. (2.4% and unknowns (38.1%, while CMC hydrolysing strains (n=11 isolated from animals fed lichen and strains (n=4 isolated from animals fed silage where all characterised as B. fibrisolvens. None of the bacterial strains isolated from the rumen solids of reindeer fed lichen or silage were found to be cellulolytic. This study suggests that both lichen and timothy silage have a negative influence, compared to hay, on the numbers of cellulolytic bacteria adherent to the plant particles in the rumen of reindeer.

  9. 75 FR 26945 - International Education Programs Service-Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    .... Schools and/or departments of education have a role to play in creating greater exposure since they are... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION International Education Programs Service--Fulbright-Hays Group Projects... Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of proposed priorities. SUMMARY: The Assistant...

  10. High-energy high-luminosity electron-ion collider eRHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Webb, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference. The replacement cost of the RHIC facility is about two billion US dollars, and the eRHIC will fully take advantage and utilize this investment. We plan adding a polarized 5-30 GeV electron beam to collide with variety of species in the existing RHIC accelerator complex, from polarized protons with a top energy of 325 GeV, to heavy fully-striped ions with energies up to 130 GeV/u. Brookhaven's innovative design, is based on one of the RHIC's hadron rings and a multi-pass energy-recovery linac (ERL). Using the ERL as the electron accelerator assures high luminosity in the 10 33 -10 34 cm -2 sec -1 range, and for the natural staging of eRHIC, with the ERL located inside the RHIC tunnel. The eRHIC will provide electron-hadron collisions in up to three interaction regions. We detail the eRHIC's performance in Section 2. Since first paper on eRHIC paper in 2000, its design underwent several iterations. Initially, the main eRHIC option (the so-called ring-ring, RR, design) was based on an electron ring, with the linac-ring (LR) option as a backup. In 2004, we published the detailed 'eRHIC 0th Order Design Report' including a cost-estimate for the RR design. After detailed studies, we found that an LR eRHIC has about a 10-fold higher luminosity than the RR. Since 2007, the LR, with its natural staging strategy and full transparency for polarized electrons, became the main choice for eRHIC. In 2009, we completed technical studies of the design and dynamics for MeRHIC with 3-pass 4 GeV ERL. We learned much from this evaluation, completed a bottom-up cost estimate for this $350M machine, but then shelved the design. In the same year, we turned again to considering the cost-effective, all-in-tunnel six-pass ERL for our design of the high-luminosity eRHIC. In it

  11. Effect of inclusion of oyster mushroom substrate on the in vitro fermentation kinetics of Brachiaria brizantha hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo da Silva Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of exhausted substrate of Pleurotus ostreatus on the in vitro fermentation of Brachiaria brizantha hay-based diets. The experiment was conducted using the semi-automated gas production technique. The ruminal inoculum was collected from three fistulated cattle kept on Brachiaria brizantha pasture. Brachiaria brizantha hay and exhausted substrate of Pleurotus production were used for composition of the diets: ES (100% exhausted substrate, BH (100% Brachiaria brizantha hay, ES5 (5% ES + 95% BH, ES20 (20% ES + 80% BH, and ES30 (30% ES + 70% BH. The experimental design was a 5x3 factorial scheme consisting of five treatments and three ruminal inocula. The degradation kinetics of dry matter (DM was determined after 96 hours of fermentation [D (96h]. No significant differences in the cumulative volume of gas (A were observed between BH (262.6 mL/g DM, ES5 (284.3 mL/g MS, ES20 (256.6 mL/g MS and ES30 (261.7 mL/g MS, indicating that inclusion of the substrate did not affect hay fermentation. A lower gas volume (165.9 mL and lower degradability (52% were observed for the ES diet, showing a lower nutritional value of this substrate compared to Brachiaria brizantha hay, probably due to the action of enzymes that degrade structural carbohydrates found in the mycelia of Pleurotus. The ES diet exhibited a shorter colonization time (L=2.6 h; P<0.05, a finding that may be attributed to the interaction between the mycelium and substrate, facilitating initial colonization. The inclusion of exhausted substrate did not increase microbial growth or degradation compared to the BH diet, but seems to have favored initial colonization of this substrate. The use of ES does not negatively affect colonization and may be used as an ingredient of ruminant diets.

  12. Asthma, hay fever, and food allergy are associated with caregiver-reported speech disorders in US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Mark A; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-09-01

    Children with asthma, hay fever, and food allergy may have several factors that increase their risk of speech disorder, including allergic inflammation, ADD/ADHD, and sleep disturbance. However, few studies have examined a relationship between asthma, allergic disease, and speech disorder. We sought to determine whether asthma, hay fever, and food allergy are associated with speech disorder in children and whether disease severity, sleep disturbance, or ADD/ADHD modified such associations. We analyzed cross-sectional data on 337,285 children aged 2-17 years from 19 US population-based studies, including the 1997-2013 National Health Interview Survey and the 2003/4 and 2007/8 National Survey of Children's Health. In multivariate models, controlling for age, demographic factors, healthcare utilization, and history of eczema, lifetime history of asthma (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.18 [1.04-1.34], p = 0.01), and one-year history of hay fever (1.44 [1.28-1.62], p speech disorder. Children with current (1.37 [1.15-1.59] p = 0.0003) but not past (p = 0.06) asthma had increased risk of speech disorder. In one study that assessed caregiver-reported asthma severity, mild (1.58 [1.20-2.08], p = 0.001) and moderate (2.99 [1.54-3.41], p speech disorder; however, severe asthma was associated with the highest odds of speech disorder (5.70 [2.36-13.78], p = 0.0001). Childhood asthma, hay fever, and food allergy are associated with increased risk of speech disorder. Future prospective studies are needed to characterize the associations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A quadrupole ion trap as low-energy cluster ion beam source

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, N; Kanayama, T

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic energy distribution of ion beams was measured by a retarding field energy analyzer for a mass-selective cluster ion beam deposition system that uses a quadrupole ion trap as a cluster ion beam source. The results indicated that the system delivers a cluster-ion beam with energy distribution of approx 2 eV, which corresponded well to the calculation results of the trapping potentials in the ion trap. Using this deposition system, mass-selected hydrogenated Si cluster ions Si sub n H sub x sup + were actually deposited on Si(111)-(7x7) surfaces at impact kinetic energy E sub d of 3-30 eV. Observation by using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) demonstrated that Si sub 6 H sub x sup + cluster ions landed on the surface without decomposition at E sub d =3 eV, while the deposition was destructive at E sub d>=18 eV. (author)

  14. Intake and apparent digestibility of rations containing different proportions of Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. hay plus ground soybean grain and sheep eating behaviour/ Consumo e digestibilidade aparente de rações com diferentes proporções de feno de capim Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. e soja crua moída e comportamento alimentar de ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rodrigues Casimiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment were to determine the average daily intake (ADI and the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of rations containing two levels of coastcross hay and ground soybean grain, as well as, to study the behavior of sheep fed on these rations. Ten wethers averaging 40.0 kg of live weight were allocated in feeding trial cages for this experiment. A completely randomized design with two treatments (T1= 80% coastcross hay + 20% soybean grain and T2= 60% coast cross hay + 40% soybean grain and five replicates, were used. The treatments were evaluated under two feeding systems (voluntary and restrict. There were two experimental periods of seven days with fifteen days of previous adaptation each. The animals were fed twice a day with rations containing half of the estimated daily intake. The behaviours studied were times spent eating, ruminating and resting in a five minutes interval observation during twelve hours. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 between treatments for nutrientsADI but for crude protein and ether extract (EE. The ADC for dry matter (DM, fiber (F and total carbohydrates (TC were significantly greater (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o consumo médio e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de rações contendo dois níveis de feno de capim coast-cross e soja crua moída, bem como estudar o comportamento de ovinos alimentados com essas rações. Foram utilizados dez ovinos machos, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 40,0 kg, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos (T (T1= 80% de feno de coastcross picado + 20% de soja crua moída e T2= 60% de feno de coastcross picado + 40% de soja crua moída e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram avaliados em regimes de consumo voluntário e consumo restrito. O ensaio compreendeu um período de adaptação de 15 dias, seguido de dois períodos de coleta de sete dias cada. A ração foi fornecida em duas refei

  15. Electron capture by multicharged ions from hydrogen atoms at eV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havener, C.C.; Nesnidal, M.P.; Porter, M.R.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    To quantitatively study electron capture during collisions of multiply charged ions with neutral atoms at near-thermal energies, keV-energy multicharged ion beams are merged with ground-state beams of H or D atoms of chosen velocity such that collisions in the relative energy range 1--1000 eV/amu result. Recent data for O 3+ , O 4+ + H(D) are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Recently completed modifications to the apparatus are described that will provide a significant improvement in signal-to-background and angular collection. These improvements will allow measurements to be extended to lower energies, where effects due to the ion-induced dipole attraction may be evident

  16. The effect of a hay grid feeder on feed consumption and measurement of the gastric pH using an intragastric electrode device in horses: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, F; Nieto, J; Yamout, S; Snyder, J

    2014-07-01

    Obesity and gastric ulceration are highly prevalent in horses. Management modifications for preventing squamous gastric ulceration include frequent feeding and free access to pasture; however, these practices may predispose horses to obesity. To compare the percentage of hay consumed, intragastric pH and horse activity between feeding from the ground and a hay grid feeder. Crossover experimental study. A pH electrode was inserted into the stomach to record the intragastric pH for 48 h. Horses received 1% of their body weight in grass hay twice a day. Horses were assigned to be fed from the ground or a commercial hay grid feeder for 24 h and then switched to the opposite protocol for an additional 24 h. Horses were continuously video-recorded and the percentage of time spent eating or drinking, walking or standing, and lying down were calculated. Two point data were compared by paired t test and pH over time was compared by repeated measures ANOVA. Horses consumed significantly greater amounts of grass hay when fed on the ground compared with a hay grid feeder (n = 9; PpH values (n = 6; P = 0.97), mean intragastric pH over time (n = 6; P = 0.45) the length of time the pH was below 4.0 (n = 6; P = 0.54), and the percentage of time horses spent eating or drinking (n = 9; P = 0.52), walking or standing (n = 9; P = 0.3), or lying down (n = 9; P = 0.4). Within each group horses spent more time eating during the day compared with the night (n = 9; hay grid feeder P = 0.003; ground feeding P = 0.007). The hay grid feeder studied may be used to reduce the amount of hay ingested by horses without reducing the time horses spend eating. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  17. The HayWired earthquake scenario—Engineering implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2018-04-18

    The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Engineering Implications is the second volume of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5013, which describes the HayWired scenario, developed by USGS and its partners. The scenario is a hypothetical yet scientifically realistic earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after a magnitude-7 earthquake (mainshock) on the Hayward Fault and its aftershocks.Analyses in this volume suggest that (1) 800 deaths and 16,000 nonfatal injuries result from shaking alone, plus property and direct business interruption losses of more than $82 billion from shaking, liquefaction, and landslides; (2) the building code is designed to protect lives, but even if all buildings in the region complied with current building codes, 0.4 percent could collapse, 5 percent could be unsafe to occupy, and 19 percent could have restricted use; (3) people expect, prefer, and would be willing to pay for greater resilience of buildings; (4) more than 22,000 people could require extrication from stalled elevators, and more than 2,400 people could require rescue from collapsed buildings; (5) the average east-bay resident could lose water service for 6 weeks, some for as long as 6 months; (6) older steel-frame high-rise office buildings and new reinforced-concrete residential buildings in downtown San Francisco and Oakland could be unusable for as long as 10 months; (7) about 450 large fires could result in a loss of residential and commercial building floor area equivalent to more than 52,000 single-family homes and cause property (building and content) losses approaching $30 billion; and (8) combining earthquake early warning (ShakeAlert) with “drop, cover, and hold on” actions could prevent as many as 1,500 nonfatal injuries out of 18,000 total estimated nonfatal injuries from shaking and liquefaction hazards.

  18. Shared genetic origin of asthma, hay fever and eczema elucidates allergic disease biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Manuel A; Vonk, Judith M; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Marenholz, Ingo; Tian, Chao; Hoffman, Joshua D; Helmer, Quinta; Tillander, Annika; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; van Dongen, Jenny; Lu, Yi; Rüschendorf, Franz; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Medway, Chris W; Mountjoy, Edward; Burrows, Kimberley; Hummel, Oliver; Grosche, Sarah; Brumpton, Ben M; Witte, John S; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zheng, Jie; Rodríguez, Elke; Hotze, Melanie; Franke, Andre; Revez, Joana A; Beesley, Jonathan; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bain, Lisa M; Fritsche, Lars G; Gabrielsen, Maiken E; Balliu, Brunilda; Nielsen, Jonas B; Zhou, Wei; Hveem, Kristian; Langhammer, Arnulf; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Løset, Mari; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Willer, Cristen J; Arnold, Andreas; Homuth, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten O; Thompson, Philip J; Martin, Nicholas G; Duffy, David L; Novak, Natalija; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-01-01

    Asthma, hay fever (or allergic rhinitis) and eczema (or atopic dermatitis) often coexist in the same individuals, partly because of a shared genetic origin. To identify shared risk variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 360,838) of a broad allergic disease phenotype that

  19. Intake and ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Alexandre Fernandes; de Paula Homem Neto, Sansão; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Santos, Edson Mauro; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Bezerra, Higor Fábio Carvalho; Campos, Fleming Sena; de Freitas Junior, José Esler

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diets with ammoniated buffel grass hay on the ingestive behavior of feedlot lambs. Thirty-two sheep of no defined breed with an average body weight of 17.7 ± 1.8 kg were used. A completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 18, 36, and 54 g/kg dry matter (DM) basis) and eight repetitions was used. Ingestive behavior, rumination, and idle time were similar (P > 0.05) among the diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay, with mean values of 294.5, 554.44, and 594.25 min per day, respectively. Regarding the chews, all of the variables resulted in similar behavior (P > 0.05). The quadratic effect (P  0.05) on the efficiency of DM and NDF consumption. However, the rumination efficiency of DM and NDF showed a quadratic effect (P ingestive behavior by increasing the rumination efficiency, increased intake, and feed utilization.

  20. CHANGES OF IMMUNE INDEXES DURING SUBLINGUAL ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH HAY FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Gaiduk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: evaluation of immunological parameters in course of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy with tree pollen mixture in children with hay fever.Materials and methods: the study included one-hundred patients 5 to 18 years of age with hay fever (pollen rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was administered pre-seasonally for three consecutive years. Cytokinechanges were studied in blood serum and in lavages from nasal cavity. Samples assessed before treatment and after 2nd and 3rd courses SLIT completion.Results: increased serum concentrations of IL-10, IFNγ, and decreased IL-4 contents were revealed in the course of treatment. No significant changes in cytokineconcentrations were detectable in nasal lavages.Conclusions: the changes revealed correspond to a shift of T cell response profile towards Th1 pathway, thus confirming pathogenetic effects of sublingual allergen-specific

  1. Effects of alfalfa germplasm and stage of maturity on digestive process and productive response of dairy cows fed alfalfa hay-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the digestive process and the productive performances of dairy cows fed diets containing alfalfa hay from  different germplasms and maturity were assessed in the present study. Three different lots of first-cut alfalfa hay were  used in the study: the improved variety “Boreal”, harvested at two consecutive maturity stages (early flowering and full  flowering and the ecotype “Vogherese”, at full flowering. Cutting the plant at an earlier stage of maturity improved hay  quality in comparison with the more mature forages (crude protein: 21.4 vs 16.5% DM; P  DM; P  er lignin content for the latter (8.6 vs 8.2% DM; P  tating cows were formulated using an equal amount of corn silage and the maximum inclusion of one of the tested hays  as forage base. The better quality of the early cut hay made it possible to increase its inclusion in the diet up to 44% of  total dietary DM, while the two more mature hays covered only 36% of total DM of the respective diets. According to a  3 x 3 Latin square design, the diets were fed to 3 Italian Brown cows (initial average days in milk 121 ± 24 and milk  yield 20 kg ± 1.3 fitted with ruminal cannula in 3 consecutive periods of 28 d each. Alfalfa stage of maturity and  germplasm did not affect dietary DM intake (average 16 kg/d. Degradability parameters of dietary DM, calculated by in  situ nylon bags technique, showed similar kinetics of rumen disappearance for all diets. No differences were noticed in  the ruminal rate of passage of the solid phase among diets, while the liquid phase showed a slower rate of passage for  the early flowering hay diet. Consistent with the degradation process, the stage of maturity or the alfalfa germplasm did  not affect the rumen fluid data or the in vivo digestibility coefficients of the diets. Milk yield did not show any change due  to either alfalfa maturity or cultivar, while milk protein was lowered when cows received the early cut hay

  2. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay...... in fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  3. Pre-processing data using wavelet transform and PCA based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abazar Solgi

    2017-07-14

    Jul 14, 2017 ... Pre-processing data using wavelet transform and PCA based on support vector regression and gene expression programming for river flow simulation. Abazar Solgi1,*, Amir Pourhaghi1, Ramin Bahmani2 and Heidar Zarei3. 1. Department of Water Resources Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of ...

  4. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  5. A first comparison of irregularity and ion drift velocity measurements in the E-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Makarevich

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available E-region irregularity velocity measurements at large flow angles with the STARE Finland coherent VHF radar are considered in context of the ion and electron velocity data provided by the EISCAT tristatic radar system, CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, and IMAGE fluxgate magnetometers. The data have been collected during a special experiment on 27 March 2004 during which EISCAT was scanning between several E- and one F-region altitudes along the magnetic field line. Within the E-region, the EISCAT measurements at two altitudes of 110 and 115 km are considered while the electron velocity is inferred from the EISCAT ion velocity measurements at 278 km. The line-of-sight (l-o-s VHF velocity measured by STARE VHF los is compared to the ion and electron velocity components (Vi0 comp and Ve0 comp along the STARE l-o-s direction. The comparison with Ve0 comp for the entire event shows that the measurements exhibit large scatter and small positive correlation. The correlation with Ve0 comp was substantial in the first half of the interval under study when Ve0 comp was larger in magnitude. The comparison with Vi0 comp at 110 and 115 km shows a considerable positive correlation, with VHF velocity being typically larger (smaller in magnitude than Vi0 comp at 110 km (115 km so that VVHF los appears to be bounded by the ion velocity components at two altitudes. It is also demonstrated that the difference between VVHF los and Vi0 comp at 110 km can be treated, in the first approximation, as a linear function of the effective backscatter height heff also counted from 110 km; heff varies in the range 108–114 km due to the altitude integration effects in the scattering cross-section. Our results are consistent with the notion that VHF

  6. Dissociative scattering of low-energy SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions (5-200 eV) on Cu(100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Baba, Yuji; Sasaki, T A [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Dissociative scattering of molecular SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions from a Cu(100) single crystal surface has been investigated in the incident energy range from 5 eV to 200 eV with a scattering angle of 77deg. The scattered ion intensity of dissociative ions and parent molecular ions were measured as a function of incident ion energy. The observed data show that onset energies of dissociation for SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions are 30 eV and 40 eV, respectively. The obtained threshold energies are consistent with a impulsive collision model where the dissociation of incident ion is caused by vibrational excitation during collision. (author)

  7. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang Møllehave, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-10-14

    This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6, 11 and 15 years in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever and mental health problems assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was linked to register data on demographics and parental socioeconomic position. 9215 (47.9%) children were included in the analyses. Linear regression analyses showed that children with current eczema symptoms had higher SDQ scores (mean difference, 95% CI) of emotional problems (0.26, 0.12 to 0.39), conduct problems (0.19, 0.09 to 0.29) and hyperactivity problems (0.32, 0.16 to 0.48); children with current asthma symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.45, 0.32 to 0.58), conduct problems (0.28, 0.18 to 0.38) and hyperactivity problems (0.52, 0.35 to 0.69); and children with current hay fever symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.57, 0.42 to 0.72), conduct problems (0.22, 0.11 to 0.33), hyperactivity problems (0.44, 0.26 to 0.61) and peer problems (0.14, 0.01 to 0.26), compared with children without current symptoms of the relevant disease. For most associations, parental socioeconomic position did not modify the effect. Children with eczema, asthma or hay fever had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems, but not peer problems, compared with children without these diseases. Atopic diseases added equally to the burden of mental health problems independent of socioeconomic position. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (Pmeat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The HayWired Scenario - How Can the San Francisco Bay Region Bounce Back Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Wein, A. M.; Cox, D. A.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K.; Johnson, L. A.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical yet scientifically realistic and quantitative depiction of a moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 earthquake occurring on April 18, 2018, at 4:18 p.m. on the Hayward Fault in the east bay part of the San Francisco Bay area, California. The hypothetical earthquake has its epicenter in Oakland, and strong ground shaking from the scenario causes a wide range of severe impacts throughout the greater bay region. In the scenario, the Hayward Fault is ruptured along its length for 83 kilometers (about 52 miles). Building on a decades-long series of efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the SF Bay area, the hypothetical HayWired earthquake is used to examine the well-known earthquake hazard of the Hayward Fault, with a focus on newly emerging vulnerabilities. After a major earthquake disaster, reestablishing water services and food-supply chains are, of course, top priorities. However, problems associated with telecommunication outages or "network congestion" will increase and become more urgent as the bay region deepens its reliance on the "Internet of Things." Communications at all levels are crucial during incident response following an earthquake. Damage to critical facilities (such as power plants) from earthquake shaking and to electrical and telecommunications wires and fiber-optic cables that are severed where they cross a fault rupture can trigger cascading Internet and telecommunications outages, and restoring these services is crucially important for emergency-response coordination. Without good communications, emergency-response efficiency is reduced, and as a result, life-saving response functions can be compromised. For these reasons, the name HayWired was chosen for this scenario to emphasize the need to examine our interconnectedness and reliance on telecommunications and other lifelines (such as water and electricity). Earthquake risk in the SF Bay area has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for

  10. The influence of feedback on hay pastures. | N.F.G. | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding of hay to sheep or cattle on an Eragrostis curvula pasture during the winter months has a most beneficial effect on the response of the pasture to fertilization in subsequent seasons. Low rates of feedback (10 t/ha) had an effect for two seasons whilst the effect of 30 t/ha lasted for at least three seasons and was ...

  11. Interaction of bale size and preservative rate for large-round bales of alfalfa hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, two studies conducted at the US Dairy Forage Research Center have reported inconsistent storage responses following the application of propionic-acid-based preservatives to alfalfa or alfalfa-orchardgrass hays. One of these studies utilized 5-foot-diameter round bales, and produced disappo...

  12. Hyperthermal (1-100 eV) nitrogen ion scattering damage to D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongwu; Bald, Ilko; Illenberger, Eugen; Huels, Michael A

    2007-10-14

    Highly charged heavy ion traversal of a biological medium can produce energetic secondary fragment ions. These fragment ions can in turn cause collisional and reactive scattering damage to DNA. Here we report hyperthermal (1-100 eV) scattering of one such fragment ion (N(+)) from biologically relevant sugar molecules D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose condensed on polycrystalline Pt substrate. The results indicate that N(+) ion scattering at kinetic energies down to 10 eV induces effective decomposition of both sugar molecules and leads to the desorption of abundant cation and anion fragments. Use of isotope-labeled molecules (5-(13)C D-ribose and 1-D D-ribose) partly reveals some site specificity of the fragment origin. Several scattering reactions are also observed. Both ionic and neutral nitrogen atoms abstract carbon from the molecules to form CN(-) anion at energies down to approximately 5 eV. N(+) ions also abstract hydrogen from hydroxyl groups of the molecules to form NH(-) and NH(2) (-) anions. A fraction of OO(-) fragments abstract hydrogen to form OH(-). The formation of H(3)O(+) ions also involves hydrogen abstraction as well as intramolecular proton transfer. These findings suggest a variety of severe damaging pathways to DNA molecules which occur on the picosecond time scale following heavy ion irradiation of a cell, and prior to the late diffusion-limited homogeneous chemical processes.

  13. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  14. Measurement of the Dissociation-Equilibrium Constants for Low Affinity Antibiotic Binding Interaction with Bacterial Ribosomes by the T2 (CPMG) and Line-Broadening Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, L.; Gharbi-Benarous, J.; Bertho, G.; Mauvais, P.; Girault, J.-P.

    1999-10-01

    In this study the dissociation constants of the low antibiotic-ribosomes interaction were determined by the T2 (CPMG), the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin-echo decay rate and the line-broadening methods. Three MLSB antibiotics were studied, a macrolide roxithromycin, a ketolide HMR 3647 and a lincosamide clindamycin for their weak interaction with three bacterial ribosomes, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus sensitive and resistant to erythromycin. Nous avons mesuré la constante de dissociation, Kd correspondant à l'interaction faible antibiotique-ribosome bactérien pour des antibiotiques de différentes classes, un macrolide (roxithromycine), un kétolide (HMR 3647) et une lincosamide (clindamycine) avec des ribosomes de différentes souches bactériennes (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus sensible ou résistant à l'erythromycin) par deux méthodes : l'une basée sur la variation des largeurs de raies et l'autre sur les temps de relaxation transversaux T2 en utilisant une séquence CPMG.

  15. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large, round bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from two cuttings that were harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large, round bales. A total of 87 large...

  16. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8-24 eV photon energy range

    KAUST Repository

    Schwell, Martin; Bé nilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie Claire; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Garcí a, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; Champion, Norbert; Leach, Sydney Sydney

    2012-01-01

    A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8-24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1 2A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1 2A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH 3, NH 2, NH 3, CO, HCCO and NH 2CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sputtering of carbon using hydrogen ion beams with energies of 60–800 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, Dmitry S., E-mail: dmitrisidoroff@rambler.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarina Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod Region 603950 (Russian Federation); Chkhalo, Nikolay I., E-mail: chkhalo@ipm.sci-nnov.ru [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, Academicheskaya Str. 7, Afonino, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Kstovsky District, Kstovo Region 603087 (Russian Federation); Mikhailenko, Mikhail S.; Pestov, Alexey E.; Polkovnikov, Vladimir N. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, Academicheskaya Str. 7, Afonino, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Kstovsky District, Kstovo Region 603087 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    This article presents the result of a study on the sputtering of carbon films by low-energy hydrogen ions. In particular, the etching rate and surface roughness were measured. The range of energies where the sputtering switches from pure chemical to a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms was determined. It is shown that Sigmund’s theory for ion etching does not work well for fields of energy less than 150 eV and that it accurately describes the dependence of a sputtering coefficient on ion energy for energies greater than 300 eV. A strong smoothing effect for the surface of carbon film was also found. This result is interesting in itself and for its significance for the manufacture of super-smooth surfaces for X-ray applications.

  18. Intake, Rumen Degradation and Utilisation of Urea-Ammoniated Grass Hay by Kacang Goats as Affected by Supplementation of Sun-dried Fish or Fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Weibsjerg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Six mature male Kacang goats were involved in an experiment arranged following a duplicate 3 x 3 Latin Square Design. The objectives of this experiment was to study the effect of supplementation of dried fish as compared to fishmeal on intake, digestion, rumen environment and nitrogen used by the local meat type Kacang goats maintained on urea-treated low quality grass hay. The treatments were G: goats were fed with ad libitum access of urea treated grass hay and 100 g/d putak, SDF: G plus 18.4 g sun dried fish, and FM: G plus 19.7 g/d fishmeal. The supplement in SDF and FM were at equal CP level. Intake of urea treated grass hay tended to increase (P=0.08 with supplementation. Dry matter digestibility particularly that of CP was improved by supplementation. Rumen environment was slightly modified by supplementation. Rumen pH was reduced while ammonia concentration was increased. Rumen degradation of the treated grass hay did not differ when incubated in the rumen of goats with different diets. Nitrogen balance was significantly improved (P<0.05 by fishmeal supplementation. In all parameters measured in this experiment, the incremental effects did not differ between fishmeal type. This indicate that there is no further advantage of preparing fishmeal other than sun-drying in improving the utilisation of low quality urea-treated grass hay.

  19. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility meaurements in ponies fed different grass hays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F.J.W.C.; Doorn, van D.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Wartena, F.C.; Zoon, van M.; Blok, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements of feedstuffs for equines were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming four grass-hay diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Diets contained either a low (L), medium (M), high (H), or very high (VH) ADF content (264, 314, 375, or 396 g·kg-1

  20. Consumo e digestibilidade do feno de capim-braquiária em bovinos de corte sob suplementação com mistura contendo sulfato de amônio, caseína e uréia Intake and digestibility of palisade grass hay by beef cattle supplemented with a mixture containing ammonium sulphate, casein and urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Gomes da Silva de Rezende

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de dietas contendo feno de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG4 de baixa qualidade e de diferentes níveis protéicos. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle (somente feno e feno com adição crescente, via infusão ruminal, da mistura sulfato de amônio, caseína e uréia (0,5:1,0:4,5 de modo a elevar em +2, +4, +6 e +8% o nível de PB das dietas. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento quadrado latino, com cinco níveis de suplementação, cinco animais e cinco períodos. A adição de quantidades crescentes de nitrogênio não-protéico (NNP à dieta teve efeito quadrático sobre os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e extrato etéreo (EE. O maior consumo de MS foi observado com o nível de 10,5% PB. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de PB sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, MO, FDN e EE. Houve efeito linear crescente sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade da PB, que apresentou valores de 57,4; 66,9; 73,6; 77,3 e 81,7% nos níveis de PB de 6,3; 8,5; 10,5; 12,63 e 14,8%, respectivamente. O nível de 10,5% de PB foi o ponto crítico para a obtenção de resposta máxima para os consumos de MS (7,7 kg/dia e MO (7,2 kg/dia. A suplementação com compostos nitrogenados em quantidades que permitam elevar o nível protéico da dieta a 10,5% otimiza o uso de forragens de baixa qualidade.The intake and digestibilility of the nutrients of diets containing palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG4 hay of low quality and different protein levels were evaluated. The evaluated treatments were control (only hay and hay with crescent addition, by rumen infusion, of the mixture containing ammonium sulphate, casein end urea (0.5:1.0:4.5 in way to elevate in +2, +4, +6 and +8% the CP level in the diets. A Latin square experimental design with five levels supplementation, five animals and five periods was used. The

  1. Substituição do feno de coastcross por casca de soja na alimentação de cabras em lactação Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in diets for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Shinkai Gentil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a resposta de cabras em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo casca de soja em substituição ao feno de coastcross. Trinta e seis cabras (38±5 dias em lactação; 2,1±0,4 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados e confinadas por oito semanas. As dietas foram compostas de 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado e com o mesmo teor de fibra em detergente neutro. A casca de soja substituiu o feno de coastcross em 0, 33, 67 ou 100% da matéria seca (MS. O consumo de matéria seca e a eficiência alimentar apresentaram resposta quadrática aos teores de casca de soja na dieta. A produção de leite e a variação do peso corporal não foram alteradas, porém a concentração de gordura e lactose do leite aumentou e os tempos gastos com ruminação e mastigação decresceram com a inclusão da casca de soja na dieta. A casca de soja pode substituir totalmente o feno de coastcross em dietas para cabras em lactação, pois essa substituição não prejudica a produção de leite e aumenta o teor de gordura e lactose do leite. Em comparação ao feno picado de coastcross, a casca de soja apresenta menor efetividade em estimular a ruminação e a mastigação.The objective of this experiment was to verify the response of lactating goats fed diets with different levels (content of soybean hulls replacing coastcross hay (Cynodon sp. on performance. Thirty-six lactating Saanen goats (38±5 days of lactation; 2.1±0.4 kg/day were assigned to a randomized complete blocks design and housed for 8 weeks. Goats were fed diets of 50% roughage and 50% concentrate, but with the same amount of neutral detergent fiber. Soybean hulls replaced hay by 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the dry matter (DM. Dry matter and NDF intake and feed efficiency showed a quadratic response to the levels of soybean hulls in the diet. Milk yield and body weight variations did not change; however, milk fat

  2. Full and Partial Thickness Burns from Spontaneous Combustion of E-Cigarette Lithium-Ion Batteries with Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treitl, Daniela; Solomon, Rachele; Davare, Dafney L; Sanchez, Rafael; Kiffin, Chauniqua

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased worldwide. Most electronic nicotine delivery systems use rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which are relatively safe, but in rare cases these batteries can spontaneously combust, leading to serious full and partial thickness burn injuries. Explosions from lithium-ion batteries can cause a flash fire and accelerant-related burn injuries. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 3 patients with lithium-ion battery burns seen at our Level I community-based trauma center. Clinical presentation, management, and outcome are presented. All 3 patients sustained burn injuries (total body surface area range 5-13%) from the spontaneous combustion of lithium-ion batteries used for e-cigarettes. All patients were treated with debridement and local wound care. All fully recovered without sequelae. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians can expect to treat burn cases due to spontaneous lithium-ion battery combustion as e-cigarette use continues to increase. The cases presented here are intended to bring attention to lithium-ion battery-related burns, prepare physicians for the clinical presentation of this burn mechanism, and facilitate patient education to minimize burn risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic consequences of earthquakes: bridging research and practice with HayWired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A. M.; Kroll, C.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey partners with organizations and experts to develop multiple hazard scenarios. The HayWired earthquake scenario refers to a rupture of the Hayward fault in the Bay Area of California and addresses the potential chaos related to interconnectedness at many levels: the fault afterslip and aftershocks, interdependencies of lifelines, wired/wireless technology, communities at risk, and ripple effects throughout today's digital economy. The scenario is intended for diverse audiences. HayWired analyses translate earthquake hazards (surface rupture, ground shaking, liquefaction, landslides) into physical engineering and environmental health impacts, and into societal consequences. Damages to life and property and lifeline service disruptions are direct causes of business interruption. Economic models are used to estimate the economic impacts and resilience in the regional economy. The objective of the economic analysis is to inform policy discourse about economic resilience at all three levels of the economy: macro, meso, and micro. Stakeholders include businesses, economic development, and community leaders. Previous scenario analyses indicate the size of an event: large earthquakes and large winter storms are both "big ones" for California. They motivate actions to reduce the losses from fire following earthquake and water supply outages. They show the effect that resilience can have on reducing economic losses. Evaluators find that stakeholders learned the most about the economic consequences.

  4. Viga on öelda, et me ei vaja PRi / Roger Hayes, Alasdair Sutherland ; interv. Tiiu Värbu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hayes, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Suhtekorraldajate Liidu 5. aastapäeva seminaril osalevad Rahvusvahelise Kommunikatsiooni Instituudi direktor R. Hayes ja maailma ühe juhtiva suhtekorraldusfirma Manning, Selvage & Lee asepresident A. Sutherland

  5. Microbial load and phytochemicals stability of camel hay (Cymbopogon Schoenanthus L) leaves as affected by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, H. A. A.; Ahmed, E. E.; Osman, G. A. M.; Ludwig-muller, J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma irradiation on microbial load and chemical quality of camel hay (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) leaves was evaluated at doses of 0, 5,10, and 15 kGy in a cobalt-60 package irradiator. The results revealed that, immediately after irradiation, gamma irradiation was found to cause significant reduction in microbial load proportionate to the doses delivered. TLC analysis indicated that irradiation of camel hay leaves extract with 15 kGy doses of gamma radiation had no effect on flavonoids concentrations, however, increase in total phenols and tannins was observed. In addition, the chemical constituents of camel hay leaves as represented by HPLC retention time (min) at different wave lengths showed that the compounds of retention time 8.42, 29.08, 8.38, 16.93, 14.80 and 42.80 min remained approximately unchanged, while the compound of retention times 16.95 min was eliminated. The compounds of retention times 9.66, 2.03 and 29.35 min were decreased from 16.56 to 11.77, 14.06 to 9.88 and 8.25 to 2.88 min respectively. An increase in the chemical constituents, was observed in the compounds of the retention times 14.37 and 35.42 min from 33.76 to 40.11 and 5.64 to 10.05, respectively. (Author)

  6. Design of the compact ECR ion source for heavy-ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.; Sato, Y.; Yamada, S.; Hattori, T.; Shibuya, S.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy ion cancer treatment is successfully being done at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Design philosophy for the ion sources for medical facilities are as follows: sufficient beam intensity, a few hundred eμA; long lifetime with good stability; easy operation and easy maintenance; and compactness. In order to develop such source for future heavy-ion facilities, we have tested compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources using permanent magnets both for axial and radial confinement of hot electrons. Since the yield of C 2+ ion in the firstly-developed source (2.45 GHz ECR) was 15 eμA and far below the medical requirement (-150 eμA for the HIMAC), a new source has been proposed, having the frequency of 10 GHz. The extracted intensity of C 4+ (and C 2+ ) ions is expected to be higher than 200 eμA. (author)

  7. Scanning ion microscopy with low energy lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twedt, Kevin A.; Chen, Lei; McClelland, Jabez J.

    2014-01-01

    Using an ion source based on photoionization of laser-cooled lithium atoms, we have developed a scanning ion microscope with probe sizes of a few tens of nanometers and beam energies from 500 eV to 5 keV. These beam energies are much lower than the typical operating energies of the helium ion microscope or gallium focused ion beam systems. We demonstrate how low energy can be advantageous in ion microscopy when detecting backscattered ions, due to a decreased interaction volume and the potential for surface sensitive composition analysis. As an example application that demonstrates these advantages, we non-destructively image the removal of a thin residual resist layer during plasma etching in a nano-imprint lithography process. - Highlights: • We use an ion source based on photoionization of laser-cooled lithium atoms. • The ion source makes possible a low energy (500 eV to 5 keV) scanning ion microscope. • Low energy is preferred for ion microscopy with backscattered ions. • We use the microscope to image a thin resist used in nano-imprint lithography

  8. A single dose desensitization for summer hay fever. Results of a double blind study-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, P; Brostoff, J

    1990-01-01

    A new type of desensitising vaccine, enzyme potentiated was subjected to a double-blind randomised study during the hay fever season. The vaccine is a convenient single injection given in March and the results show good protection throughout the grass pollen season.

  9. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8–24 eV photon energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwell, Martin; Bénilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Es-Sebbar, Et.; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; Champion, Norbert; Leach, Sydney

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the VUV photoionization of acetamide in the 8–24 eV photon energy range. ► Electron/ion coincidence measurements are performed using synchrotron radiation. ► The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide is determined by TPEPICO measurements. ► VUV induced fragmentation pathways of acetamide are assigned and discussed. - Abstract: A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8–24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1 2 A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1 2 A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH 3 , NH 2 , NH 3 , CO, HCCO and NH 2 CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Lopez Celia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT and negative (treated, T control groups (treatment with albendazole. On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05. At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers. However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and

  11. Eficiência microbiana, fluxo de compostos nitrogenados no abomaso, amônia e pH ruminais, em bovinos recebendo dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 de diferentes idades de rebrota Microbial efficiency, abomasal nitrogen compounds flow, ruminal ammonia and ruminal pH in cattle fed diets containing tifton 85 bermudagrass hays at different regrowth ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Guimarães Ribeiro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a eficiência de síntese microbiana, o fluxo de compostos nitrogenados no abomaso, o balanço de compostos nitrogenados, a taxa de passagem da digesta ruminal, a concentração de amônia e o pH ruminais, em bovinos recebendo rações contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 de diferentes idades de rebrota. Utilizaram-se quatro animais zebu, com peso médio de 340 kg, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, distribuídos em um delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4. Todas as rações continham 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado. O volumoso foi constituído de feno de capim-tifton 85 de 28, 35, 42 e 56 dias de idade e o concentrado continha fubá de milho e mistura mineral. Os microorganismos ruminais foram quantificados utilizando-se as bases purinas como indicador. O pH e N-amoniacal foram mensurados, no fluido ruminal, antes e 2; 4 e 6 horas após o fornecimento da ração. A taxa de passagem foi determinada pelo modelo unicompartimental, utilizando-se o óxido crômico como indicador. As eficiências de síntese microbiana não foram influenciadas pela idade do feno na ração, apresentando valores médios de 31,32 g Nbact/kg MODR; 30,74 g Nbact/kg CHODR; 337,4 g MSbact/kg CHODR; e 12,5 g PBbact/100 g NDT. Estimaram-se máximos fluxos de compostos nitrogenados totais, amoniacais e não-amoniacais, de 119,0; 9,76; e 109,6 g/dia, com a inclusão de feno com 39,7; 37,6; e 39,9 dias de idade, respectivamente, e fluxo de compostos nitrogenados bacterianos de 80,54 g/dia, em média. O balanço de nitrogênio, a taxa de passagem, as concentrações de amônia e o pH ruminais também não foram influenciados pela idade do feno na ração, encontrando-se valores de 30,67 g/dia; 3,2%/h; 9,7 mg/100mL (máximo às 1,38h e 6,08 (mínimo às 6,64h, respectivamente.The microbial efficiency synthesis, the abomasum nitrogen compounds flow, the nitrogen compounds balance, the passage rate of ruminal digest, the ruminal ammonia concentration and ruminal pH in

  12. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e comportamento ingestivo de bovinos da raça Holandesa alimentados com dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 com diversos tamanhos de partícula Intake, apparent digestibility and ingestion behavior in Holstein steers fed diets containing Tifton 85 hay with different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes da dieta e o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos recebendo dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 com diferentes tamanhos de partícula (5, 7, 10 mm e inteiro. Utilizaram-se quatro novilhos da raça Holandesa, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 300 kg e idade média de 20 meses, em delineamento quadrado latino 4 × 4, com quatro animais e quatro períodos. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos não foram influenciados pelos perfis granulométricos das dietas experimentais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca diferiram significativamente entre as dietas com feno com partículas de 7 e 10 mm (67,31 e 54,95%, respectivamente. No entanto, os resultados obtidos com essas dietas foram semelhantes aos encontrados com partículas de 5 mm e com feno inteiro, cujos valores foram intermediários, com média de 63,62%. O tempo de alimentação dos animais não diferiu entre as dietas com feno em artículas de 7 e 10 mm e inteiro. O tamanho de partícula do feno de capim-tifton 85 não influenciou o consumo, a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos da raça Holandesa alimentados com dietas completas.The intake, the apparent digestibility of nutrients and the ingestion behavior of four Holstein steers with average weight of 300 kg and 20 months of age, receiving diets containing Tifton 85 hay with different particle sizes (5, 7, 10 mm and whole were evaluated. A 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four steers and four periods was used. Intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrates and non-structural carbohydrates were not influenced by the different granulometric profiles of the experimental diets. The

  13. Digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing old man saltbush hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, water balance, and performance of lambs fed diets containing old man saltbush hay associated with a concentrate. Thirty-two castrated feedlot Santa Inês lambs at approximately eight months of age, with 22 ± 1.97 kg body weight, were distributed into a completely randomized experimental design. Acid detergent fiber intake increased (P < 0.05, whereas non-fibrous carbohydrates intake decreased (P < 0.01. Inclusion of old man saltbush in the diet reduced (P < 0.01 the digestibility of dry and organic matter, neutral and acid detergent fiber, and non-fibrous carbohydrates. The intakes of digestible dry and organic matter, ether extract, total carbohydrates, and digestible non-fibrous carbohydrates also decreased (P < 0.01. Inclusion of old man saltbush did not influence water consumption from the trough by the sheep, averaging 4,327.20 mL/day?1. Body weight at slaughter and daily weight gain decreased linearly (P < 0.05 and feed conversion worsened as old man saltbush hay was added to the diet. Inclusion of old man saltbush at up to 40% replacing the concentrate in feedlot lamb diets does not compromise the performance of these animals.

  14. Hay-Wells syndrome is caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the SAM domain of p63.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, J.A.; Duijf, P.H.; Doetsch, V.; Irvine, A.D.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Vanmolkot, K.R.; Wessagowit, V.; Kelly, A.E.; Atherton, D.J.; Griffiths, W.A.; Orlow, S.J.; Haeringen, A. van; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Yang, A.; McKeon, F.; Bamshad, M.; Brunner, H.G.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Hay-Wells syndrome, also known as ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (AEC) syndrome (OMIM 106260), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital ectodermal dysplasia, including alopecia, scalp infections, dystrophic nails, hypodontia, ankyloblepharon and cleft lip

  15. Hay-Wells syndrome is caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the SAM domain of p63

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, JA; Duijf, PHG; Doetsch, [No Value; Irvine, AD; de Waal, R; Vanmolkot, KRJ; Wessagowit, [No Value; Kelly, A; Atherton, DJ; Griffiths, WAD; Orlow, SJ; van Haeringen, A; Ausems, MGEM; Yang, A; McKeon, F; Bamshad, MA; Brunner, HG; Hamel, BCJ; van Bokhoven, H

    2001-01-01

    Hay-Wells syndrome, also known as ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (AEC) syndrome (OMIM 106260), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital ectodermal dysplasia, including alopecia, scalp infections, dystrophic nails, hypodontia, ankyloblepharon and cleft lip

  16. Scaling law for (e, 2e) cross sections for isoelectronic hydrogen- and alkali-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancarani, L U; Hervieux, P-A

    2003-01-01

    Triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) for (e, 2e) processes on the valence electrons of H-, Li-, Na- and K-like positive ions are calculated for asymmetric coplanar geometries and intermediate incident energies. Although the proper boundary conditions are not respected, both the long-range Coulomb interaction in the initial and final channels, and the short-range effects, are taken into account in the Coulomb Born approximation through the use of two effective charges. The latter are obtained within the framework of the frozen-core Hartree-Fock approximation which is also used for describing the bound state wavefunctions. An approximate scaling law for the TDCSs is predicted for the ionization of sequences of isoelectronic ions, provided the incident and ejected energies are properly scaled. The calculations illustrate that the scaling is generally well verified, in particular for increasing ionicity within a sequence. Moreover, as one moves from the H- to K-like sequences, more TDCS structure is observed. Two main peaks are always situated close to the direction of the momentum transfer and opposite direction, although with strong shifts. Contrary to what is observed for the ionization of outer-shells electrons in neutral atoms, the dominant peak of all cross sections is in the opposite direction to the momentum transfer, a signature of strong elastic scattering from the nucleus

  17. An (e, 2e + ion) study of low-energy electron-impact ionization and fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran with high mass and energy resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueguang; Pflüger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Baek, Woon Yoon; Rabus, Hans; Ullrich, Joachim; Dorn, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    We study the low-energy (E0 = 26 eV) electron-impact induced ionization and fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran using a reaction microscope. All three final-state charged particles, i.e., two outgoing electrons and one fragment ion, are detected in triple coincidence such that the momentum vectors and, consequently, the kinetic energies for charged reaction products are determined. The ionic fragments are clearly identified in the experiment with a mass resolution of 1 amu. The fragmentation pathways of tetrahydrofuran are investigated by measuring the ion kinetic energy spectra and the binding energy spectra where an energy resolution of 1.5 eV has been achieved using the recently developed photoemission electron source. Here, we will discuss the fragmentation reactions for the cations C4H8O+, C4H7O+, C2H3O+, C3H_6^+, C3H_5^+, C3H_3^+, CH3O+, CHO+, and C2H_3^+.

  18. Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N.; Valle-Cerdán, José L.; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4 × 4...... were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P

  19. Avaliação de fontes de amônia para o tratamento de fenos de gramíneas tropicais. 1. Constituintes da parede celular, poder tampão e atividade ureática Evaluation of ammonia sources to tropical grasses hays treatment. 1. Cell wall contents, buffer capacity and urease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Reis

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as alterações da fração fibrosa e as características químicas dos fenos de braquiária decumbens (Brachiaria decumbnes Stapf e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf não-tratados, tratados com uréia (U-5,4% da MS, uréia (UL-5,4% da MS mais labe-labe (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, cv. Highworth-3,0% da MS ou amônia anidra (NH3 -3,0% da MS. O tratamento químico com uréia ou NH3 aumentou o pH e a digestibilidade in vitro verdadeira dos fenos. A amonização não alterou os teores de fibra em detergente ácido e celulose, mas diminuiu os de fibra em detergente neutro, hemicelulose e lignina. O uso do labe-labe como fonte adicional de urease não aumentou a eficiência da uréia no tratamento dos volumosos. As avaliações do conteúdo de umidade, do poder tampão e da atividade ureática são técnicas que podem auxiliar na previsão das respostas dos volumosos à amonização com o uso de uréia.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes on the chemical composition and the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of the Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf hays, untreated, treated with urea (5.4% DM, urea (UL-5.4% DM and lab lab (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, cv. Highworth-3.0% DM; and anhydrous ammonia (NH3 3.0% DM. The chemical treatment increased the pH and the in vitro digestibility of the hays Ammoniation did not affect ADF and cellulose contents. The NDF, hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased due to ammoniation with NH3. The urea utilization had the same efficiency that anhydrous ammonia on the hemicellulose content of the hays. The use of an external source of urease did not affect the urea treatment efficiency. The evaluation of the chemical characteristics of the forages, as the dry matter content, buffering capacity, and urease activity can be helpful on the prediction of their responses to the ammoniation.

  20. Substituição do feno de "Coastcross" (Cynodon sp. por casca de soja na alimentação de borregas confinadas Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in ewe lambs diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Barreto de Morais

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e oito borregas da raça Santa Inês (23,1kg de peso vivo e 124 dias de idade foram utilizadas para avaliar os efeitos da substituição do feno de "Coastcross" por casca de soja (CS no desempenho em confinamento. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos completos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. As dietas experimentais foram isonitrogenadas e continham a mesma quantidade de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. A casca de soja foi incluída nas proporções de 0; 12,5; 25 e 37,5% da matéria seca das dietas correspondendo aos tratamentos experimentais 0CS, 12,5CS, 25CS e 37,5CS, respectivamente. A FDN da CS substituiu 0; 25; 50 e 75% da FDN do feno. Houve efeito linear crescente (PForty-eight Santa Ines ewe lambs (23.1kg BW and 124 days old were used to evaluate the replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls on feedlot performance. Animals were assigned to a complete randomized block design with four diets and six replicates. All diets were isonitrogenous and contained the same amount of NDF. Soybean hulls replaced hay at 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 37.5% on DM basis, corresponding to the experimental treatments OCS, 12.5CS, 25CS and 37.5CS, respectively. Soybean hulls NDF replaced hay NDF at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. There was a linear increased response (P<0.01 on dry matter intake (0.95, 1.02, 1.08 and 1.20kg day-1 and average daily gain (113, 137, 150 and 187g day-1 and a linear improvement (P<0.01 on feed conversion (8.55, 7.20, 7.11 and 6.25kg of DM kg of gain-1 when soybean hulls were added to the diet. When soybean hulls are added to the diet (up to 37.5%, DM basis there is an improvement on animal performance and the ewe lambs attain breeding weight faster.

  1. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  2. Low-altitude ion heating with downflowing and upflowing ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.; James, G.; Miles, D.; Cogger, L. L.; Perry, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanisms that energize ions at the initial stage of ion upflow are still not well understood. We statistically investigate ionospheric ion energization and field-aligned motion at very low altitudes (330-730 km) using simultaneous plasma, magnetic field, wave electric field and optical data from the e-POP satellite. The high-time-resolution (10 ms) dataset enables us to study the micro-structures of ion heating and field-aligned ion motion. The ion temperature and field-aligned bulk flow velocity are derived from 2-D ion distribution functions measured by the SEI instrument. From March 2015 to March 2016, we've found 17 orbits (in total 24 ion heating periods) with clear ion heating signatures passing across the dayside cleft or the nightside auroral regions. Most of these events have consistent ion heating and flow velocity characteristics observed from both the SEI and IRM instruments. The perpendicular ion temperature goes up to 4.5 eV within a 2 km-wide region in some cases, in which the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) sees broadband extremely low frequency (BBELF) waves, demonstrating significant wave-ion heating down to as low as 350 km. The e-POP Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) and Magnetic Field (MGF) instruments show that many events are associated with active aurora and are within downward current regions. Contrary to what would be expected from mirror-force acceleration of heated ions, the majority of these heating events (17 out of 24) are associated with the core ion downflow rather than upflow. These statistical results provide us with new sights into ion heating and field-aligned flow processes at very low altitudes.

  3. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  4. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Hochlef, H.; Ben Salem, L.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  5. Electro-microscopic observations of liver lesions after intravenous inoculation of mouldy hay extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmi, A; Griffel, B

    1985-01-01

    With the aid of the electron microscope, a number of histopathological changes in the liver of mice caused by mycotoxins from mouldy hay were examined and studied. These changes were observed in the mitochondria, the cell nucleus, and the cell membranes, and included fatty and parenchymal degeneration, plasma granulation, vacuolisation and vesiculation, glycogen secretion, incorporation into RNA, karyolysis and karyolaxis, and space of Disse constriction.

  6. Efeito da substituição do feno de Tifton 85 pelo caroço de algodão como fonte de fibra na dieta de bezerros Effect of substitution of Tifton 85 hay by whole cotton seed as fiber source in the diets of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Bernardes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a substituição do feno Tifton 85 pelo caroço de algodão como fonte de fibra na dieta foram utilizados 24 bezerros da raça Holandesa, distribuídos em dois grupos. O grupo-feno recebeu feno e concentrado separados, fornecidos à vontade, e o grupo- algodão recebeu caroço de algodão incorporado ao concentrado (13,5%, à vontade. O consumo de alimentos, o peso, as alturas da cernelha e do íleo, as circunferências torácica e abdominal, a concentração de glicose sangüínea, as concentrações de acetato, propionato e butirato, o pH do fluido ruminal e os pesos dos compartimentos do estômago foram mensurados. O consumo de alimentos, o desenvolvimento ponderal dos animais, as concentrações de acetato, propionato e butirato, o pH do fluido ruminal, as concentrações de glicose sangüíneas e o peso dos compartimentos do estômago foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. À necropsia, não foram observadas alterações sugestivas de intoxicação por gossipol. Concluiu-se que o caroço de algodão substituiu, sem prejuízos, o feno como fonte de fibra na dieta de bezerros.Twenty-four Holstein calves divided into two groups were used to evaluate Tifton 85 hay or whole cotton seed as fiber source in their diets. One group received Tifton 85 hay and concentrate ad libitum (hay group and the other received ad libitum (cotton group only concentrate with whole cotton seed incorporated (13,5%. Feed intake; weight; whither and ileum heights; thoracic and abdominal circumferences; acetate, propionate and butyric concentrations; pH of ruminal content; blood glucose; and rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum weights were measured. Feed intake; animal performance; acetate, propionate and butyric concentrations; pH of ruminal content; blood glucose and weight of stomach compartments did not differ between the groups (P>0.05. No clinical evidence of gossypol intoxication was observed. It was concluded that whole cotton seed

  7. Ion Elevators and Escalators in Multilevel Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Cox, Jonathan T.; Garimella, Venkata BS; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-01-19

    We describe two approaches based upon ion ‘elevator’ and ‘escalator’ components that allow moving ions to different levels in structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM). Guided by ion motion simulations we designed elevator and escalator components providing essentially lossless transmission in multi-level designs based upon ion current measurements. The ion elevator design allowed ions to efficiently bridge a 4 mm gap between levels. The component was integrated in a SLIM and coupled to a QTOF mass spectrometer using an ion funnel interface to evaluate the m/z range transmitted as compared to transmission within a level (e.g. in a linear section). Mass spectra for singly-charged ions of m/z 600-2700 produced similar mass spectra for both elevator and straight (linear motion) components. In the ion escalator design, traveling waves (TW) were utilized to transport ions efficiently between two SLIM levels. Ion current measurements and ion mobility (IM) spectrometry analysis illustrated that ions can be transported between TW-SLIM levels with no significant loss of either ions or IM resolution. These developments provide a path for the development of multilevel designs providing e.g. much longer IM path lengths, more compact designs, and the implementation of much more complex SLIM devices in which e.g. different levels may operate at different temperatures or with different gases.

  8. Ion Elevators and Escalators in Multilevel Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M; Hamid, Ahmed M; Cox, Jonathan T; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Smith, Richard D

    2017-02-07

    We describe two approaches based upon ion "elevator" and "escalator" components that allow moving ions to different levels in structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM). Guided by ion motion simulations, we designed elevator and escalator components based upon ion current measurements providing essentially lossless transmission in multilevel designs. The ion elevator design allowed ions to efficiently bridge a 4 mm gap between levels. The component was integrated in a SLIM and coupled to a QTOF mass spectrometer using an ion funnel interface to evaluate the m/z range transmitted as compared to transmission within a level (e.g., in a linear section). The analysis of singly charged ions of m/z 600-2700 produced similar mass spectra for both elevator and straight (linear motion) components. In the ion escalator design, traveling waves (TW) were utilized to transport ions efficiently between two SLIM levels. Ion current measurements and ion mobility (IM) spectrometry analysis illustrated that ions can be transported between TW-SLIM levels with no significant loss of either ions or IM resolution. These developments provide a path for the development of multilevel designs providing, e.g., much longer IM path lengths, more compact designs, and the implementation of much more complex SLIM devices in which, e.g., different levels may operate at different temperatures or with different gases.

  9. Ruminal variables in steers fed with Tifton 85 (Cynodon Spp hay with different particle sizes / Variáveis ruminais em novilhos alimentados com feno de Tifton 85 com diferentes tamanhos de partículas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 concentration and the pH were determined with the objective of evaluating the effect of different particle sizes (5, 7, 10mm and whole of Tifton 85 hay in the diet of Holstein steers, with average live weight of 300kg and age of 20 months. A completely randomized design, with four replicates, in a split-plot arrangement was used. The plots were the experimental treatments (5, 7, 10mm and whole hay and the subplots were the times of collection (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h. The use of diets including hay with particle sizes of 5mm and whole, did not affect (P>0,05 the ruminal pH; average values were 6.14 and 6.61, respectively. A linear reduction in the ruminal pH was verified in the steers fed on diets constituted by 10mm particles. For the diets including Tifton hay with particle size of 7mm, it was observed a quadratic effect, where the minimum pH (5.39 was observed 8:00 h after the feed was furnished. Concentrations of N-NH3 were affected by collection time in a quadratic way. Maximum concentrations of N-NH3, 15.55, 15.83, 18.32, 12.0 mg/100 mL, were observed at 4:28, 3:58, 2:99 and 2:80h after feeding, for the diets including Tifton 85 hay with 5, 7, 10mm and whole particle sizes, respectively. It was concluded that all diets allowed normal nycterohemeral patterns of fermentation.As concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 e pH foram determinadas objetivando avaliar o efeito de diferentes tamanhos de partículas de feno de Tifton 85 (5, 7, 10mm e inteiro na dieta de novilhos holandeses, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 300kg e idade média de 20 meses. As determinações das concentrações de amônia ruminal (N-NH3 e o pH foram analisadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcela subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas os tratamentos experimentais (5, 7, 10mm e feno inteiro e nas sub-parcelas os tempos de coleta (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h, com quatro repetições. A utilização de dietas constituídas com

  10. Produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com fenos de alfafa e de tifton-85 e silagem de milho Milk production and composition of Holstein cows fed with alfafa and tifton-85 hays and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da ingestão dos fenos de alfafa e tifton-85 e da silagem de milho na produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa, multíparas, com peso vivo médio de 460 kg, em início de lactação, num experimento em triplo quadrado latino, simultâneo, com três linhas (vacas e três colunas (volumoso. Não houve efeito (p > 0,05 dos diferentes volumosos na produção e na composição do leite, nem nas porcentagens e produções de gordura, de proteína, de lactose e de sólidos totais. Também a contagem de células somáticas não foi afetada pelos tratamentos. Os resultados da análise econômica mostraram que a silagem de milho proporcionou maior margem líquida por litro de leite/dia produzido.This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of intake of alfalfa and tifton-85 hays and corn silage on the milk production and composition of multiparous Holstein cows, averaging 460 kg in body weight, at the beginning of lactation, using a triple Latin square, simultaneous, with three lines (cows and three columns (forages. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of the different types of forage on the milk production and composition, or on the percentage the production of fat, protein, lactose, total solids, and somatic cell count. The results of the economic analysis showed that the corn silage provided a larger liquid margin for liters of milk produced per day.

  11. Collisions of singly and doubly charged ions with oxygen molecules in the energy range 1 - 1800 (3600) eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuen, I.; Howorka, F.

    1983-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for the excitation of optically emitting states in collisions of He + , Ne + , Ar + , Kr + , B + , He ++ , Ne ++ and Ar ++ with oxygen molecules are measured, the energy range of the ion being1 - 1800 eV Lab for the singly charged and 1 - 3600 eV for the doubly charged ions. Seven important processes can be distinguished: charge exchange excitation of O 2 + band, O I, O II, X I and X II lines (X + , X ++ being the primary ion), direct excitation of X II and double charge exchange excitations. The energy dependences of the excitation cross sections are remarkably different for different processes but similar for one process with different ions. The sum total of all cross sections together for excitations which lead to light emission is on the order of a few square angstroms at 1000 eV c.m. energy. The results are of interest for surface investigations, plasma diagnostics and laser work. (Author)

  12. Effect of lactic acid-lactobacillus preservative and moisture concentration at baling on intake and digestibility of crabgrass hay by lambs and in-situ digestibility by heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabgrass is a warm-season annual forage that has greater nutritive value than most other warm-season grasses and is highly palatable, but curing time for crabgrass hay is typically longer than for bermudagrass. Crabgrass hay was either not treated or treated with a lactic acid-lactobacillus preserv...

  13. Ion species stratification within strong shocks in two-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Brett D.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Taitano, William T.; Chacón, Luis

    2018-03-01

    Strong collisional shocks in multi-ion plasmas are featured in many environments, with Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments being one prominent example. Recent work [Keenan et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 053203 (2017)] answered in detail a number of outstanding questions concerning the kinetic structure of steady-state, planar plasma shocks, e.g., the shock width scaling by the Mach number, M. However, it did not discuss shock-driven ion-species stratification (e.g., relative concentration modification and temperature separation). These are important effects since many recent ICF experiments have evaded explanation by standard, single-fluid, radiation-hydrodynamic (rad-hydro) numerical simulations, and shock-driven fuel stratification likely contributes to this discrepancy. Employing the state-of-the-art Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP, along with multi-ion hydro simulations and semi-analytics, we quantify the ion stratification by planar shocks with the arbitrary Mach number and the relative species concentration for two-ion plasmas in terms of ion mass and charge ratios. In particular, for strong shocks, we find that the structure of the ion temperature separation has a nearly universal character across ion mass and charge ratios. Additionally, we find that the shock fronts are enriched with the lighter ion species and the enrichment scales as M4 for M ≫ 1.

  14. Hay fever, a post industrial revolution epidemic: a history of its growth during the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, M B

    1988-05-01

    Although other forms of allergic disease were described in antiquity, hay fever is surprisingly modern. Very rare descriptions can be traced back to Islamic texts of the 9th century and European texts of the 16th century. It was only in the early 19th century that the disease was carefully described and at that time was regarded as most unusual. By the end of the 19th century it had become commonplace in both Europe and North America. This paper attempts to chart the growth of hay fever through the medical literature of the 19th century. It is hoped that an understanding of the increase in prevalence between 1820 and 1900 may provide an insight for modern researchers and give some clues into possible reasons for the epidemic nature of the disease today.

  15. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  16. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  17. Association between parental socioeconomic position and prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    with a decreased risk of atopic eczema and eczema symptoms. There was no independent association between household income and any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma and hay fever, but not atopic eczema, increased with increasing age. Atopic eczema was associated with high parental educational...

  18. Fricção em braquetes gerada por fios de aço inoxidável, superelásticos com IonGuard e sem IonGuard Friction force on brackets generated by stainless steel wire and superelastic wires with and without IonGuard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Campos Braga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a fricção no braquete (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3,2mm, largura 0,022" x 0,030", Torque -2° e angulação +13°, Morelli®, Brasil, utilizando fios ortodônticos retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" de aço inoxidável (Morelli®, Brasil e de níquel-titânio superelásticos Bioforce com IonGuard e sem IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, EUA. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 24 conjuntos braquetes/segmento de fio, divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o fio. Cada conjunto braquete/segmento de fio foi testado 3 vezes e obtida uma média. Os ensaios foram realizados em máquina universal de ensaios EMIC DL2000®. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância com significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: o fio retangular Bioforce com IonGuard apresentou fricção significativamente menor que o Bioforce sem IonGuard, porém sem diferença do fio de aço inoxidável. Entretanto, o coeficiente de variação dos fios Bioforce com e sem IonGuard foi menor que o do fio de aço inoxidável. CONCLUSÃO: os fios retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" Bioforce com IonGuard apresentam menor fricção que o fio Bioforce sem IonGuard, sem diferença para o fio de aço inoxidável.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the friction forces on brackets (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3.2 mm, width 0.022" x 0.030 ", Torque -2° and angulation +13°, Morelli®, Brazil, with stainless steel orthodontic rectangular wire (Morelli®, Brazil and nickel titanium superelastic Bioforce wires with and without IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, USA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four brackets/wire segment combinations were used, distributed into three groups according to the orthodontic wire. Each bracket/wire segment combination was tested three times. The tests were performed in a universal testing machine Emic DL2000®. The data was submitted to ANOVA one way followed by Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: The rectangular orthodontic Bioforce wire

  19. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-01

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C(5+) ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C(5+) ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 eμA of C(5+) ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  20. Effects on the equine colon ecosystem of grass silage and haylage diets after an abrupt change from hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, S; Julliand, V; Lindberg, J E; Bertilsson, J; Jansson, A

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an abrupt change from grass hay (81% DM) to grass silage (36% DM) or grass haylage (55% DM), fed at similar DM intakes, and to compare the effects of silage and haylage on the composition and activities of the colon microflora. The forages were from the same swath harvested on the same day. Four adult colon-fistulated geldings were randomly assigned to diets in a crossover design. The study started with a preperiod when all 4 horses received the hay diet, followed by an abrupt feed change to the haylage diet for 2 horses and the silage diet for 2 horses. All 4 horses then had a new second preperiod of hay, followed by an abrupt feed change to the opposite haylage and silage diet. The periods were 21 d long, and the forage-only diets were supplemented with minerals and salt. The abrupt feed changes were made at 0800 h. Colon samples were taken before the abrupt feed change, 4 and 28 h after the feed change, and 8, 15, and 21 d after the feed change, all at 1200 h. Colon bacterial counts, VFA, pH, and DM concentrations were unchanged throughout the first 28 h after the abrupt feed change from hay to haylage and silage. Also, fecal pH and DM concentrations were unchanged during the first 28 h. During the weekly observations, colon lactobacilli counts increased (P = 0.023) in horses receiving the silage diet and were greater than on the haylage diet at 21 d. Streptococci counts decreased (P = 0.046) in horses receiving the haylage diet and were less than on the silage diet at 15 and 21 d. Total VFA concentrations and colon and fecal pH did not differ between diets and were unchanged throughout the weekly observations. The DM concentration of colon digesta and feces decreased (P = 0.030 and 0.049, respectively) on both diets during the weekly observations. The results suggest that in horses fed at the maintenance level of energy intake, an abrupt feed change from grass hay to grass silage or grass haylage from

  1. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  2. Digestão do feno de capim-elefante anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott sob diferentes níveis de consumo em ovinos Dwarf elephant grass hay (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott digestion by sheep at different levels of intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucileia Aparecida da Silva Morais

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados doze ovinos Texel × Corriedale machos, castrados, com 12 meses de idade e peso vivo (PV inicial médio de 27kg, mantidos em gaiolas de metabolismo, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, conduzido em dois períodos, para avaliar o efeito do nível de consumo (base matéria seca (MS de feno de capim elefante anão (CEA (1,50; 1,75; 2,00; 2,25; 2,50% do PV e ad libitum sobre a digestão nesses animais. A digestibilidade aparente da MS, da matéria orgânica (MO e do nitrogênio (N, bem como a digestibilidade verdadeira do N, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais e a síntese de proteína microbiana ruminal não foram afetados, mas a retenção de N (em g dia-1 e como % do N consumido foi sempre positiva e aumentou linearmente (PTwelve one year old Texel x Corriedale castrated male sheep, with 27kg mean live weight (LW, housed in metabolic cages, were used in a completely randomized experiment, carried out in two periods, to evaluate the effect of level of intake (dry matter (DM basis of dwarf elephant grass (1.5; 1.75; 2.0; 2.25; 2.5% of LW and ad libitum on digestion. DM, organic matter (OM and nitrogen (N apparent digestibility, as well as the N true digestibility, total digestible nutrients (TDN contents and rumen microbial protein synthesis were not affected by level of hay intake. N retention (as g day-1 and as % of N intake was always positive and increased linearly (P<0.05 as the level of hay intake increased. However, neutral (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF apparent digestibility, as well as OM true digestibility decreased linearly (P<0.05 with increasing intake. Passage rate and mean retention time in the cecum-colon were not affected, whereas passage rate through the reticulum-rumen increased and mean retention time decreased (P<0.05 as the level of intake increased. Fibre and OM true digestibility decreased as hay intake increased (P<0.05, mainly due to a decreasing in retention time of particles into the

  3. Climatic change: back to the IIF talk at La Haye; Changements climatiques: retour sur la communication de l'IIF a La Haye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, J.L.

    2002-07-01

    This document reprints the communication given by F. Billiard, head of the international institute of refrigeration (IIF), at the COP-6 conference of La Haye (November 2000). In his talk, F. Billiard explains the contribution of the refrigeration industry to the global warming which is mainly due to the leaks of refrigerants (CFC, HCFC, HFC) and to the carbon dioxide emissions corresponding to the electric power consumption of refrigerating machineries, air-conditioners and heat pumps. Thus, the abatement of these greenhouse gas emissions requires an improvement of the confinement of the refrigeration equipments and a continuous optimization of their energy efficiency. A second part analyzes the key points of this communication and the choice of some objective appreciation criteria for the remedial actions to be implemented. A glossary completes the document. (J.S.)

  4. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S.; Hassayoun, L.

    2005-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH 3 -N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 ± 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P 0.05). However, those supplemented with acacia without PEG (D3) had

  5. A high-flux low-energy hydrogen ion beam using an end-Hall ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhoven, J. van; Sligte, E. te; Janssen, J.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Most ion sources that produce high-flux hydrogen ion beams perform best in the high energy range (keV). Alternatively, some plasma sources produce very-lowenergy ions (<< 10 eV). However, in an intermediate energy range of 10-200 eV, no hydrogen ion sources were found that produce high-flux beams.

  6. Production of highly charged ion beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields, and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECRISs. So far at continuous wave (CW) mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ , and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ , and U 34+ were produced from ECRISs. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ , and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I≥60enA) were also achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECRISs to produce the highly charged ion beams. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  7. Growth performance of indigenous sheep fed Sporobolus virginicus grass hay grown in saline desert lands and irrigated with high salt content ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadrami, G A; Al-Shorepy, S A; Yousef, A M

    2010-12-01

    Twenty-eight indigenous ewe lambs (6 months of age and 14.4 kg body weight (BW)) were used to evaluate the effect of feeding Sporobolus grass hay (SGH) as the only source of forage on growth, and feed and water intakes. The ewe lambs were randomly and equally allocated to two treatment groups (14 lambs/group). The ewe lambs in group 1 (treatment 1) received SGH, while lambs in group 2 (treatment 2) received Rhodes grass hay (RGH) as the only source of forage. Water was available at all times for both treatment groups. Sporobolus grass was irrigated with brackish water of high salt content (20,000 ppm) and grown in saline desert lands (sabkha) in the United Arab Emirates. The average daily dry matter intake was significantly (P  .05) between the two groups at all stages. From these data, we conclude that SGH can replace Rhodes hay in sheep diet without significant effect on sheep performance.

  8. Supplementation of native grass hay with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata hay, wilted leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala forage, wilted tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis forage or a wheat middling for young Friesian x Zebu (Boran crossbred steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Varvikko

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A 100-day experiment of a randomized block design was conducted with forty Friesian x Zebu (Boran crossbred growing steers to compare the value of wheat middling, an agro-industrial by-product (diet W, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata hay (diet C, and wilted forages of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, diet L and tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis, diet T as cattle feed. These feeds were fed daily at a level of 1.5 kg (on an air dry basis to supplement the basal diet (diet H of native hay. A mineral supplement containing 50 g bone meal and 10 g common salt was also given daily. The steers were group-fed, but during the last two weeks at the end of the experiment the animals were housed individually in feeding pens to estimate the feed intake and apparent digestibilities of the diets. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment, thereafter every two weeks, and finally at the end of the experiment. The animals consumed all the offered supplements, except for tagasaste forage, of which one third remained unconsumed. The mean daily total dry matter intake during the individual feeding period ranged from 4.0 to 5.0 kg between the diets (P

  9. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yun, E-mail: caoyun@impcas.ac.cn; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-02-15

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  10. Decreased Sensitivity to Changes in the Concentration of Metal Ions as the Basis for the Hyperactivity of DtxR(E175K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Aquino, J. Alejandro; Denninger, Andrew R.; Moulin, Aaron G.; D’Aquino, Katharine E.; Ringe, Dagmar; (Harvard-Med); (Brandeis)

    2010-01-12

    The metal-ion-activated diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is responsible for the regulation of virulence and other genes in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. A single point mutation in DtxR, DtxR(E175K), causes this mutant repressor to have a hyperactive phenotype. Mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis transformed with plasmids carrying this mutant gene show reduced signs of the tuberculosis infection. Corynebacterial DtxR is able to complement mycobacterial IdeR and vice versa. To date, an explanation for the hyperactivity of DtxR(E175K) has remained elusive. In an attempt to address this issue, we have solved the first crystal structure of DtxR(E175K) and characterized this mutant using circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry, and other biochemical techniques. The results show that although DtxR(E175K) and the wild type have similar secondary structures, DtxR(E175K) gains additional thermostability upon activation with metal ions, which may lead to this mutant requiring a lower concentration of metal ions to reach the same levels of thermostability as the wild-type protein. The E175K mutation causes binding site 1 to retain metal ion bound at all times, which can only be removed by incubation with an ion chelator. The crystal structure of DtxR(E175K) shows an empty binding site 2 without evidence of oxidation of Cys102. The association constant for this low-affinity binding site of DtxR(E175K) obtained from calorimetric titration with Ni(II) is K{sub a} = 7.6 {+-} 0.5 x 10{sup 4}, which is very similar to the reported value for the wild-type repressor, K{sub a} = 6.3 x 10{sup 4}. Both the wild type and DtxR(E175K) require the same amount of metal ion to produce a shift in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, but unlike the wild type, DtxR(E175K) binding to its cognate DNA [tox promoter-operator (toxPO)] does not require metal-ion supplementation in the running buffer. In the timescale of these experiments, the Mn(II)-DtxR(E175K)-toxPO complex

  11. Energy use and sustainability in hay production in a intensive system of milk production; Uso de energia e sustentabilidade na producao de feno em sistema intensivo de producao de leite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir; Navarine, Franciele Clenice [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), M.C. Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose Roberto Correa; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the energy balance and the sustainability in the hay production through seven years data from a Intensive System of Milk Production, located in the region of Coronel Pacheco/MG Brazil. To the energy matrix determination, the categories of direct and indirect energy were considered. The energy inputs occurred in the implanting and establishing of the crop were distributed in the years considered as useful life. The direct energy, relative to the inputs, had larger participation that the indirect one, being the percentiles found of 93.05 and 6.95, respectively. The main consumer of indirect energy was the tractor, which turns on all the implements, followed by the irrigation system. The estimated energy efficiency by the process was of 3.19. Most of the used direct energy was that derived from fossil resources, in the form of fuel (diesel). The use of organic fertilizer, of poultry litter, promoted a relative reduction in the consumption of energy originated from fertilizer derived from fossil resources. With the obtained results, it was concluded that, despite of the several sources of energy consumption, the production of alfalfa hay is sustainable and efficient in the energy conversion. (author)

  12. Representación de raza, clase y moral en la televisión del Perú. Un análisis social de “Magaly TeVe” y “Al fondo hay sitio”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Sánchez Dávila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone analizar la representación de raza, clase y moral en los programas televisivos “Magaly TeVe” y “Al fondo hay sitio” desde una mirada antro-pológica de la televisión, comprendiendo sus dimensiones comunicativas, discursivas y sociales. Por un lado, al analizar el discurso de “Magaly TeVe” fue fácil constatar que el porqué y el cómo del éxito de la estrategia comunicativa de este fenómeno televisivo alu-dían estrechamente a códigos morales socialmente compartidos y a un modo configurado de organización, relación e interacción ya validados en nuestro tejido social. Por otro lado, al examinar el discurso de “Al fondo hay sitio” fue sencillo comprobar que hemos confundido, ingenuamente, inclusión con eventuales redenciones dentro de un marco de convergencia espacio-temporal de dos códigos culturales contradictorios y que perma-nentemente se relacionan e interactúan desde directrices de raza y clase que funcionan como núcleos semánticos que configuran, por un lado, la construcción narrativa y, por el otro, una determinada relación e interacción social de poder y violencia simbólica entre sus personajes.

  13. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) with subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal in diets of Najdi goats: effect on digestion activity of rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Jolazadeh, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level). Bacterial and fungi activity and rumen fermentation parameters of animals fed experimental diets were determined. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) was unaffected by replacing SLM with alfalfa hay for both rumen bacteria and fungi in different incubation times, except for 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria, which decreased for SLM group (P > 0.05). NDF disappearance (NDFD) and ADF disappearance (ADFD) after 24 and 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria was not affected by experimental diets (P > 0.05). However, 72 h after incubation, NDFD in SLM treatment decreased (P > 0.05). Gas production parameters of rumen bacteria were similar for both experimental diets, but partitioning factor (PF), efficiency microbial biomass production (EMBP), microbial protein production (MP), and organic matter truly digested (OMTD) decreased (p alfalfa hay by SLM had no major effect on rumen microorganisms' activity of Najdi goats, so it may be used as an alternative for alfalfa (at 50% level) in susceptible areas.

  14. Sin latencia no hay adolescencia. There is not adolescence without latency.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fuente, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    There is not adolescence without latency.Resumen ¿Cuándo comienza la adolescencia? ¿Hay un tiempo para saber de la sexualidad? Si este saber se da en la infancia. ¿Cuáles son sus consecuencias? ¿Qué relación tiene este saber con lo que se nombra como alta erotizacion? Consentir ser objeto del deseo del Otro. ¿Qué tiene con la repetición y qué es lo que se repite? Estas son preguntas que se abordan a partir de una lectura de los textos freudianos y una interpretación a partir de conceptos laca...

  15. Chemical composition, intake by sheep, and in situ disappearance in cannulated cows of bermudagrass hayed at two moisture concentrations and treated with a non-viable lactobacillus-lactic acid preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] is commonly used for grazing and haying in the southern USA, but hay curing can be challenging due to frequent rainfall events during spring and early summer. An existing stand of ‘Greenfield’ bermudagrass was divided into 12 plots using a randomized comple...

  16. An ion beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-energy ion bombardment of naked DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuldyuld@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► An ion beam deceleration lens was designed and constructed. ► The deceleration lens was installed and tested. ► The decelerated ion beam energy was measured using an electrical field. ► Decelerated ultra-low-energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. ► Ion beam with energy of a few tens of eV could break DNA strands. -- Abstract: Study of low-energy ion bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-energy ion beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range. To investigate effects from very-low-energy ion bombardment on biological materials, an ion beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform ion energy lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary ion beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized ion beam line. The final decelerated-ion energy was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen ion beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells.

  17. An ion beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-energy ion bombardment of naked DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An ion beam deceleration lens was designed and constructed. ► The deceleration lens was installed and tested. ► The decelerated ion beam energy was measured using an electrical field. ► Decelerated ultra-low-energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. ► Ion beam with energy of a few tens of eV could break DNA strands. -- Abstract: Study of low-energy ion bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-energy ion beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range. To investigate effects from very-low-energy ion bombardment on biological materials, an ion beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform ion energy lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary ion beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized ion beam line. The final decelerated-ion energy was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen ion beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells

  18. Helicon plasma ion temperature measurements and observed ion cyclotron heating in proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, C. J.; Goulding, R. H.; Isler, R. C.; Martin, E. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Caneses, J. F.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Kafle, N.; Rapp, J.

    2018-01-01

    The Prototype-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) linear plasma device is a test bed for exploring and developing plasma source concepts to be employed in the future steady-state linear device Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) that will study plasma-material interactions for the nuclear fusion program. The concept foresees using a helicon plasma source supplemented with electron and ion heating systems to reach necessary plasma conditions. In this paper, we discuss ion temperature measurements obtained from Doppler broadening of spectral lines from argon ion test particles. Plasmas produced with helicon heating alone have average ion temperatures downstream of the Helicon antenna in the range of 3 ± 1 eV; ion temperature increases to 10 ± 3 eV are observed with the addition of ion cyclotron heating (ICH). The temperatures are higher at the edge than the center of the plasma either with or without ICH. This type of profile is observed with electrons as well. A one-dimensional RF antenna model is used to show where heating of the plasma is expected.

  19. Studies of relativistic heavy ion collisions at the AGS (E814/E877)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts have continued in the area of peripheral and central collisions of relativistic heavy ions. In the area of peripheral collisions, the analysis of the 1n and 2p decay channels has been completed. In the area of central collisions, the first measurement of the E T distributions in Au + Au collisions, through the use of the participant calorimeter, was completed, and the results were compared with those obtained in collisions with Si projectiles. In addition, a thorough study of two-particle correlation functions was carried out by use of the data from the silicon pad multiplicity detector. Differential cross sections for 14.6-GeV/c 28 Si on Al, Cu, and Pb, and 11.4-GeV/c 197 Au on Al, Cu, Au, and Pb are given. 32 figs., 4 tabs., 24 refs

  20. Evaluation of the effect of fortified and concentrated hay supplementation on the production of bovine milk (Bos taurus L. during the dry season in the Achaca-Tiahuanacu community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty-Quispe Magda Hortencia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the Achaca Community of the Municipality of Tiahuanacu, with the objective of evaluating the effect of supplementation with fortified and concentrated hay on milk production, feed conversion, total solids and production costs in three periods (Control, adaptation and supplementation during the dry season (October and November. 12 Holstein mestizo cows were used between 4 and 6 months of lactation. The design used was completely randomized blocks with factorial arrangement of 2Ax3Bx (3 with three replicates. The average milk yield of 4.69 kg of cows supplemented with fortified hay and 6.24 kg with concentrate were higher than the production of 3.94 and 5.11 kg respectively in the adaptation period and finally the production of 3.58 and 3.42 kg in the control period. The feed conversion with fortified hay supplementation of 2.60 kg was greater than 2.12 and 1.90 kg respectively. While feed conversion between supplements was 1.61 and 1.78 kg with concentrate in the adaptation period and finally with 2.12 and 2.60 kg with fortified hay in the supplementation period. The total solids content of 10.52 ºBrix was superior to the adaptation period of 10.30 ºBrix and control with 10.05 ºBrix. Meanwhile, total solids between supplements were 10.19 ºBrix with fortified hay and 10.39 ºBrix with concentrate.

  1. Malaysia/Singapore: Where Asian Cultures Meet. Participants' Papers. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Malaysia and Singapore).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    The general objective of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program is to help U.S. educators enhance their international understanding and increase their knowledge of the people and culture of other countries. This particular program offered participants an overview of life in Malaysia and Singapore through seminars and other activities.…

  2. Associations of genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations with hay fever and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Taylor, Amy E; Jacobsen, Rikke K

    2017-01-01

    Background/objectives: Studies of the effect of vitamin B12 and folate on the risk of asthma and hay fever have shown inconsistent results that may be biased by reverse causation and confounding. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to examine a potential causal effect of vitamin B12 and fo...

  3. Ion-Ion Plasmas Produced by Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, R. F.; Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S. G.; Meger, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    The ability of plasmas to etch deep, small-scale features in materials is limited by localized charging of the features. The features charge because of the difference in electron and ion anisotropy, and thus one solution now being explored is to use ion-ion plasmas in place of electron-ion plasmas. Ion-ion plasmas are effectively electron-free and consist mainly of positive and negative ions. Since the two ion species behave similarly, localized charging is largely eliminated. However, the only way to produce ion-ion plasmas at low gas pressure is to convert electrons into negative ions through two-body attachment to neutrals. While the electron attachment rate is large at low electron temperatures (Te < 1 eV) in many of the halogen gases used for processing, these temperatures occur in most reactors only during the afterglow when the heating fields are turned off and the plasma is decaying. By contrast, Te is low nearly all the time in plasmas produced by electron beams, and therefore electron beams can potentially produce ion-ion plasmas continuously. The theory of ion-ion plasmas formed by pulsed electron beams is examined in this talk and compared with experimental results presented elsewhere [1]. Some general limitations of ion-ion plasmas, including relatively low flux levels, are discussed as well. [1] See the presentation by D. Leonhardt et al. at this conference.

  4. Custo energético de construção de uma instalação para armazenagem de feno Energy inputs used for building a hay storage structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Torres Campos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo obter uma estimativa da energia empregada na construção de uma estrutura utilizada para armazenamento de fardos de feno, em um sistema de produção animal. Para tanto utilizaram-se os coeficientes energéticos levantados pela Fundação Centro Tecnológico de Minas Gerais (CETEC. O valor obtido foi de 587,09 MJ.m-2, o qual foi amplamente diferente daqueles observados na literatura. Da energia total empregada na construção da instalação os itens fechamentos, estrutura de cobertura, piso e fundações representaram 50,35, 27,71, 18,72 e 3,22%, respectivamente. Considerando o sistema de produção de feno de alfafa e "coast-cross" como um todo, a instalação contribuiu com somente 0,14 e 0,16% da composição do custo energético anual destas culturas, respectivamente.The study objective was to estimate the energy involved in the construction of the structure to store hay bales in a animal production system. Data on energy coefficients published by Fundação Centro Tecnológico de Minas Gerais was used. The value of 587.09 MJ.m-2 was obtained, which is thoroughly different from those observed in the literature. In the total spent energy in the construction of the installation, the items walls, roof structure, floor and foundations represented 50.35, 27.71, 18.72 and 3.22%, respectively. Considering the whole alfalfa and coast-cross hay production system, the installation contributed with only 0.14 and 0.16% of the annual energy cost composition of these crops, respectively.

  5. Nutritional Value And Yield of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa Fusca Linn) Hay and Its Effect on Reproductive Performance of Awassi Ewes Using Progesterone Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M R..; Zarkawi, M.; Khalifa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional value of Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca Linn) hay (whole plant), a salt-tolerant plant, was estimated by determinning its composition (ash, crude protein CP, crude fibre CF, ether extract EE, neutral-detergent fiber NDF, acid-detergent fiber ADF, acid-detergent lignin ADL); and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy of lactation (NEL) and gross energy (GE). Moreover, dry matter, energy and protein yields per hectar were also estimated. The effects of feeding Kallar grass hay to pregnant Awassi ewes on reproductive performance, serum progesterone changes using radioimmunoassay, and on birth and weaning weights of lambs born were also determined. Experimental ewes received daily 300 g of Kallar grass hay in addition to lentil straw and concentrates to cover their nutritional requirements. The results indicated that the nutritive components of Kallar grass were (g kg -1 dry matter): ash 96, CP 93, CF 290, EE 21, NDF 755, ADF 416 and ADL 94. IVOMD was 49.3%, and energy values (MJ kg -1 dry matter) were: GE 26.88, ME 6.41 and NEL 3.02. Dry matter and crude protein yields of Kallar grass hay were 7875 and 732 kg ha -1 , respectively, and the energy produced (MJ ha -1 ) was: GE 211680, ME 50479 and NEL 23783. Kallar grass had no effects on the reproductive performance of pregnant Awassi ewes duration, of pregnancy (150.1 ± 2.2 days), progesterone patterns, birth (4.7±1.0 kg) or on weaning weights (22.7 ± ≤ 5.5 kg) of lambs.

  6. Divalent Metal Ions Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3E1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshou; Su, Wenta; Chen, Pohung; Huang, Teyang

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds blended with biochemical signal molecules with adequate osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties have attracted significant interest in bone tissue engineering regeneration. The divalent metal ions can gradually release from the scaffold into the culture medium and then induced osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3E1. These MC3T3E1 cells expressed high activity of alkaline phosphatase, bone-related gene expression of collagen type I, Runx2, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and significantly enhanced deposited minerals on scaffold after 21 days of culture. This experiment provided a useful inducer for osteogenic differentiation in bone repair.

  7. Effects of a propionic-acid based preservative on storage characteristics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay in large-rectangular bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    For many years, various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, most specifically for use on hays that could not be field-dried to moisture concentrations low enough to reduce or eliminate spontaneous heating during storage. These preservatives are often propionic-acid-bas...

  8. Correlations of intake, digestibility and performance with the ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fernandes Perazzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the correlations of intake, digestibility and performance with the ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay. Buffel grass hay was treated with four levels of urea (0, 18, 36 and 54 g/kg DM basis and eight repetitions. Thirty-two sheep with no defined breed and an average body weight of 17.7 ± 1.8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. It was observed positive correlations were found between the feeding time and the intake of dry matter (r = 0.3120, organic matter (r = 0.3242, neutral detergent fiber (r = 0.3800, total carbohydrates (r = 0.3343 and total digestible nutrients (r = 0.3233. Positive correlations (P < 0.05 were found among the rumination efficiencies, g of DM/h and g of NDF/h with nutrient intake variables, except for ether extract intake. Positive correlations were observed (P < 0.05 between both total weight gain (TWG and average daily gain (ADG and the rumination efficiency, g of DM/h (r = 0.3330 and g of NDF/h (r = 0.3304. The feeding and rumination efficiencies have a positive relationship with the total digestible nutrients. The correlation among intake, digestibility and performance variables with the ingestive behavior, it was important for the understanding of diet containing ammoniated buffel grass hay, in which the positive correlation of rumination efficiency with intake and weight gain explained the favorable effect on productive performance of feedlot sheep.

  9. Effects of different levels of sunflower residue silage replacement with alfalfa hay on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razzagzadeh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with different levels of sunflower residual silage (SRS on fattening performance of Azari male buffalo calves. Thirty calves with 138.33 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 5 groups and 6 replicates. The five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent replacement of alfalfa hay with SRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 5, respectively, however there was no significant difference between the groups 2, 3, and 4 with control. Daily weight gain (DWG was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. Group 5 had significantly lower DWG than groups 1, 2 and 3, furthermore there were no significant difference between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly different among the groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference among the groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. But these groups had significantly better FCR than the group 5. The best FCR was obtained for group3. It may conclude that alfalfa hay can be substituted with SRS at 50 % level with no negative effects on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  10. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  11. Energy loss straggling in Aluminium foils for Li and C ions in fractional energy loss limits (ΔE/E) ∼10-60%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, P. K.; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Shyam; Sharma, V.; Khan, S. A.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    The energy loss straggling of Li and C ions in Al foils of various thicknesses has been measured, within the fractional energy loss limit (∆E/E) ∼ 10-60%. These measurements have been performed using the 15UD Pelletron accelerator facility available at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The measured straggling values have been compared with the corresponding predicted values adopting popularly used collisional straggling formulations viz Bohr, Lindhard and Scharff, Bethe-Livingston, Titeica. In addition, the experimental data has been compared to the Yang et al. empirical formula and Close Form Model, recently proposed by Montanari et al. The straggling values derived by Titeica theory were found to be in better agreement with the measured values as compared to other straggling formulations. The charge-exchange straggling component has been estimated from the measured data based on Titeica's theory. Finally, a function of the ion effective charge and the energy loss fraction within the target has been fitted to the latter straggling component.

  12. Effects of feeding different proportions of silver leaf desmodium (Dismodium uncinatum) with banana (Musa paradisiaca) leaf on nutrient utilization in Horro sheep fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chali, Diriba; Nurfeta, Ajebu; Banerjee, Sandip; Eik, Lars Olav

    2018-03-02

    The objective was to evaluate feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass characteristics of sheep fed a basal diet of hay supplemented with banana leaves and silver leaf desmodium. Thirty yearling lambs with an average initial body weight of 15.85 ± 1.6 kg were grouped into six blocks of five rams in each block. The treatments were: hay alone (T1), hay + 100% banana leaf (T2), hay + 67% banana leaf + 33% desmodium leaf (T3), hay + 33% banana leaf + 67% desmodium leaf (T4) and hay + 100% desmodium leaf (T5). Three hundred grams of treatment diets were offered daily on as fed basis. The feeding and digestibility trial lasted for 84 and 7 days, respectively, followed by carcass evaluation. The total dry matter (DM) intake for T3, T4 and T5 were greater (P T4 > T3 > T2 > T1. Rams lambs receiving supplementary diets had higher (P<0.05) DM, OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility compared with the control diet. The empty body weight and slaughter weight was highest (P<0.05) in rams receiving T3, T4 and T5 diets. The average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency was highest (P<0.05) in rams receiving the supplementary diets. The DP on the basis of hot carcass weight linearly increased with increasing levels of desmodium. Rams reared on supplementary diet had higher (P<0.05) rib eye area compared with the control diet. In conclusion, when banana leaf is used as a supplement to poor quality grass, better response was obtained when fed in combination with desmodium.

  13. Applications of simultaneous ion backscattering and ion-induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musket, R.G.

    1983-05-01

    Simultaneous ion backscattering and ion-induced x-ray emission (E/sub x/greater than or equal to 300 eV) analyses have been performed using helium ions as probes of the first few hundred nanometers of various materials. These studies serve as a demonstration of the complementary nature of the two types of information obtained. Uncertainties associated with each of the individual techniques were reduced by performing both analyses. The principal advantages of simultaneous analyses over sequential analyses have been delineated

  14. Diversification of mowing regime increases arthropods diversity in species-poor cultural hay meadows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, O.; Zámečník, J.; Tropek, Robert; Kočárek, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2012), s. 215-226 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA MŽP SP/2D3/62/08 Grant - others:Czech Agency for Nature Conservation(CZ) PPK-35a/62/06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : hay meadows * arthropods conservation * mowing regimes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.muzeumhk.cz/files/jaroslav_zamecnik/2012_cizek_zamecnik.pdf

  15. Morocco and Senegal: Faces of Islam in Africa. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Morocco and Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Morocco and Senegal in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the United States and different grade levels and subject areas. The 13 curriculum projects in the collection are: (1) "Doorway to Morocco: A Student Guide" (Sue Robertson); (2)…

  16. Information security risk management for computerized health information systems in hospitals: a case study of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei, Javad; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Javad Zarei,1 Farahnaz Sadoughi2 1Health Information Management, Health Management and Economics Research Center, School of Health Management and Information Science, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 2Health Information Management Department, School of Health Management and Information Science, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran Background: In recent years, hospitals in Iran – similar to those in other...

  17. IL-33 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of hay fever and reduced regulatory T cells in a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Paul C; Casaca, Vera I; Illi, Sabina; Schieck, Maximilian; Michel, Sven; Böck, Andreas; Roduit, Caroline; Frei, Remo; Lluis, Anna; Genuneit, Jon; Pfefferle, Petra; Roponen, Marjut; Weber, Juliane; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Riedler, Josef; Lauener, Roger; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Pekkanen, Juha; von Mutius, Erika; Kabesch, Michael; Schaub, Bianca

    2016-11-01

    IL-33 polymorphisms influence the susceptibility to asthma. IL-33 indirectly induces Th2-immune responses via dendritic cell activation, being important for development of atopic diseases. Furthermore, IL-33 upregulates regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are critical for healthy immune homeostasis. This study investigates associations between IL-33 polymorphisms during the development of childhood atopic diseases and underlying mechanisms including immune regulation of Tregs. Genotyping of IL-33-polymorphisms (rs928413, rs1342326) was performed by MALDI-TOF-MS in 880 of 1133 PASTURE/EFRAIM children. In 4.5-year-old German PASTURE/EFRAIM children (n = 99), CD4 + CD25 high FOXP3 + Tregs were assessed by flow cytometry following 24-h incubation of PBMCs with PMA/ionomycin, LPS or without stimuli (U). SOCS3, IL1RL1, TLR4 mRNA expression and sST2 protein levels ex vivo were measured in PASTURE/EFRAIM children by real-time PCR or ELISA, respectively. Health outcomes (hay fever, asthma) were assessed by questionnaires at the age of 6 years. rs928413 and rs1342326 were positively associated with hay fever (OR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.02-3.08; OR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.04-3.11) and CD4 + CD25 high FOXP3 + Tregs (%) decreased in minor allele homozygotes/heterozygotes compared to major allele homozygotes (p(U) = 0.004; p(LPS) = 0.005; p(U) = 0.001; p(LPS) = 0.012). SOCS3 mRNA expression increased in minor allele homozygotes and heterozygotes compared with major allele homozygotes for both IL-33-polymorphisms (p(rs928413) = 0.032, p(rs1342326) = 0.019) and negatively correlated to Tregs. IL-33-polymorphisms rs928413 and rs1342326 may account for an increased risk of hay fever with the age of 6 years. Lower Tregs and increased SOCS3 in combined heterozygotes and minor allele homozygotes may be relevant for hay fever development, pointing towards dysbalanced immune regulation and insufficient control of allergic inflammation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. In situ degradability and selected ruminal constituents of sheep fed with peanut forage hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gisele Machado; Possenti, Rosana Aparecida; Teixeira de Mattos, Waldssimiler; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida; Junior, Evaldo Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Because legumes are a very important feed source for ruminants, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ideal inclusion level of hay Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte in sheep diets by measuring the dry matter intake (DMI), concentration of volatile fatty acids, ammonia-nitrogen concentration, ruminal pH and the in situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP). In the experiment with four sheep, a 4 × 4 Latin Square design was used with four periods and four treatments (0%, 30%, 60% and 100% Arachis replacing grass hay). Significant interactions were observed between treatments and sampling times for ammonia-nitrogen and acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by interaction between treatments and sampling time. The degradation of DM and CP was similar, rising with the increasing content of Arachis, showing a linear effect. The treatment containing 60% of Arachis showed best results, with good levels of daily weight gain and higher ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids. The legume showed high levels of CP, high digestibility and appropriate levels of fibre, with excellent standards of degradation and ruminal characteristics. The use of the legume  Arachis for ruminants is a promising option of nutrient supply to meet production demands of these animals.

  19. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of…

  20. CALCIUM SOURCE EFFECT ON APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF GRASS HAY Brachiaria decumbens Staph cv. Basiliski EFEITO DA FONTE DE CÁLCIO (calcário vs Lithothamnium calcareum NA DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE DE CAPIM Brachiaria decumbens Staph cv. Basiliski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Gonçalves Rodrigues

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    An experiment was developed to determine the effect of addition of the marine alga Lithothamnium calcareum in the apparent digestibility of a low quality forage. Twelve adult lambs were kept in metabolical individual cages using a randomly design with three replications and four treatments as follows: I - Brachiaria decumbens grass hay, processed after the seed harvest; II - Hay plus 1000 ppm of calcium from CaCO3 (p.a.; III - Hay plus 1000 ppm of calcium from mineral supplement of alga; IV - Hay plus 2000 ppm of calcium from mineral supplement of alga. The mineral supplement of alga increased the digestibility of crude protein in 7,5% with dosage 1000 ppm and in 12% with dosage of 2000 ppm, when compared with control treatment, but such changes were not significant (P < 0,05. No differences were observed for dry matter and crude fiber.

    Um experimento foi conduzido para determinar o efeito da adição de alga marinha Lithothamnium calcareum na digestibilidade aparente de uma forragem de baixa qualidade. Doze carneiros adultos foram distribuídos em gaiolas metabólicas, inteiramente casualizadas com três repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: I - Feno de capim Brachiaria decumbens, confeccionado após a colheita das sementes; II - Feno mais 1000 ppm de cálcio proveniente do carbonato de cálcio (p.a.; III - Feno mais 1000 ppm de cálcio proveniente do suplemento mineral de alga (L.C. - 400; IV - Feno mais 2000 ppm de cálcio proveniente do suplemento mineral de alga (L.C. - 400. O suplemento mineral aumentou a digestibilidade da proteína bruta em 7,5% na dosagem de 1000 ppm e em l2% na dosagem de 2000 ppm, quando comparados ao tratamento controle, mas tais mudanças não foram significativas (P < 0,05. Não alterou a digestibilidade da matéria seca e fibra bruta.

  1. Ion-acoustic solitons in a plasma with electron beam; Amvaj-e solitoni-ye yon-e soti-e dar hozur-e barik-e-ye kelasiki dar plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfandyari, A R; Khorram, S

    2001-07-01

    Ion-acoustic solitons in a collisionless plasma consisting of warm ions, hot isothermal electrons and a electron beam are studied by using the reductive perturbation method. The basic set of fluid equations is reduced to Korteweg-de Vries and modified Korteweg-de Vries temperature and electron beam on ion acoustic equations. The effect of ion solitons are investigated.

  2. Neutralization of an ion beam from the end-Hall ion source by a plasma electron source based on a discharge in crossed E × H fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostanko, A. P.; Golosov, D. A.

    2009-10-01

    The possibility of using a plasma electron source (PES) with a discharge in crossed E × H field for compensating the ion beam from an end-Hall ion source (EHIS) is analyzed. The PES used as a neutralizer is mounted in the immediate vicinity of the EHIS ion generation and acceleration region at 90° to the source axis. The behavior of the discharge and emission parameters of the EHIS is determined for operation with a filament neutralizer and a plasma electron source. It is found that the maximal discharge current from the ion source attains a value of 3.8 A for operation with a PES and 4 A for operation with a filament compensator. It is established that the maximal discharge current for the ion source strongly depends on the working gas flow rate for low flow rates (up to 10 ml/min) in the EHIS; for higher flow rates, the maximum discharge current in the EHIS depends only on the emissivity of the PES. Analysis of the emission parameters of EHISs with filament and plasma neutralizers shows that the ion beam current and the ion current density distribution profile are independent of the type of the electron source and the ion current density can be as high as 0.2 mA/cm2 at a distance of 25 cm from the EHIS anode. The balance of currents in the ion source-electron source system is considered on the basis of analysis of operation of EHISs with various sources of electrons. It is concluded that the neutralization current required for operation of an ion source in the discharge compensation mode must be equal to or larger than the discharge current of the ion source. The use of PES for compensating the ion beam from an end-Hall ion source proved to be effective in processes of ion-assisted deposition of thin films using reactive gases like O2 or N2. The application of the PES technique makes it possible to increase the lifetime of the ion-assisted deposition system by an order of magnitude (the lifetime with a Ti cathode is at least 60 h and is limited by the

  3. Utilization of conserved Lucerne Hay as a Protein Supplement in the Diet of Calves on Smallholder Farms of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.W.; Tamminga, S.; Mitaru, B.N.

    1999-01-01

    The nutritive value and the conserved lucerne hay as a protein supplement in the diet of calves reared on the smallholder farms of Kenya was studied in relation to feed intake, growth rate and efficiency of feed utilization. Forty Friesian calves aged one week were allocate in a completely randomised design experiment to the following five dietary treatments: Napier Grass only (N) and supplemented with 33% lucerne (NL33), 50% lucerne (NL50), 67% lucerne (NL67) and 100% lucerne hay (L100) in the diet of calves. Results showed that increasing the level of lucerne supplementation in the ratio of dairy calves from 50 to 100% lucerne hay significantly (P <0.01) increased the crude protein content the mixed ration from 13.8 t o 16.88% CP which would meet the protein, requirement of the growing ruminants. The growth rate of calves increased linearly (P < 0.001) with the levels of lucerne supplements fro 50 to 100 % lucerne hay resulting in 0.02 kg gain more growth per day per kg additional feed supplement given. The cost of production per kg gain decreased with increase in the level of lucerne supplementation and cost of could further reduced by farmers growing lucerne on the smallholder farms for use in compounding home-made ration at the farm level. Result of these study further shows that lucerne as a leguminous forage has ability to fix Nitrogen in the soil which has significantly effect on soil fertility, increased crop yields and reduction in the cost of fertilisers. It is recommended that an acre of lucerne could yield five to seven tons of dry matter per year sufficient to rear a herd of 15 to 20 calves for a period of 1 year. This research has further shown that a pure stand of lucerne crop which is very deep rooted crop has a longevity of five to seven years in the same field and that pest and diseases are not of a serious problem to lucerne, thus making it excellent supplementary legume to the Napier grass in the diet of calves on smallholder farms of Kenya

  4. CACTÁCEAS NATIVAS ASSOCIADAS A FENOS DE FLOR DE SEDA E SABIÁ NA ALIMENTAÇÃO DE BORREGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ GERALDO MEDEIROS DA SILVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization effects of two native cacti named mandacaru (Cereus jamacaru DC. and xiquexique [Pilosocereus gounellei (A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly ex Rowl.] associated with sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. and flor de seda (Calotropis procera (Ait. R.Br. about the nutrient intake, daily weight gain, and feed conversion in sheep feedlot. Twenty Morada Nova male hair sheep with an average weight of 15.40, were allocated in a randomized block design, with four treatments and five replicates. The experimental treatments consisted of four diets (30% native cacti + 30% shrub hay + 40% concentrate, on dry matter basis: T1- xiquexique + sabiá hay; T2- xiquexique + flor de seda hay; T3- mandacaru + sabiá hay e T4- mandacaru + flor-de-seda hay. The concentrate consisted of 100.0% algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw DC pods. No significant difference was observed for daily weight gain which averaged 88.77 g, and also for voluntary intakes of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, total carbohydrates, nonfiber carbohydrates, total digestible nutrients and digestible energy in relation to g/day, %BW and g/kg0.75. Significant differences were observed for intake of water in g/day.

  5. U.S. Department of Education Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program, Malaysia June 26 - July 24, 1993. Participants' Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    This document contains reports by 14 participants of a Fulbright-Hays seminar in Malaysia. Participants were introduced to Malaysia and the Malaysian way of life through talks, discussion and field trips to schools, and educational institutions and cultural centers throughout the country. At every location the group was given presentations on…

  6. Reproductive Response of Ewes Fed with Taiwan Grass Hay ( Schum. Supplemented with Duckweed ( sp. and sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zetina-Córdoba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of duckweed (DW supplementation was evaluated on dry matter intake (DMI, presence and duration of estrus, percentage of ewes repeating estrus and pregnancy rate, as well as the concentration of progesterone (P4 in multiparous crossbred ewes from Pelibuey, Dorper, and Katahdin breeds, fed with Taiwan grass hay (TWH. Eighteen ewes with 39.7±4 kg mean body weight, kept in individual pens, were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: T1: TWH, T2: TWH plus 200 g DW, T3: TWH plus 300 g DW. The ewes were synchronized with 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA and 400 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the GLM procedure. DW supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (p>0.05; however, a slight decrease of TWH intake was observed as DW supplementation increased. No differences (p>0.05 were found in the beginning of estrus, percentage of ewes presenting it, its duration, or pregnancy rate. There were no differences (p>0.05 on P4 concentration among treatments, or treatmentxperiod interaction (p>0.05. However the period was significant (p<0.01, since the P4 levels increased as time increased after the removal of the FGA device and eCG application.

  7. Stoichiometric carbon nitride synthesized by ion beam sputtering and post nitrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valizadeh, R.; Colligon, J.S.; Katardiev, I.V.; Faunce, C.A.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Carbon nitride films have been deposited on Si (100) by ion beam sputtering a vitreous graphite target with nitrogen and argon ions with and without concurrent N2 ion bombardment at room temperature. The sputtering beam energy was 1000 eV and the assisted beam energy was 300 eV with ion / atom arrival ratio ranging from 0.5 to 5. The carbon nitride films were deposited both as single layer directly on silicon substrate and as multilayer between two layers of stoichiometric amorphous silicon nitride and polycrystalline titanium nitride. The deposited films were implanted ex-situ with 30 keV nitrogen ions with various doses ranging from 1E17 to 4E17 ions.cm -2 and 2 GeV xenon ion with a dose of 1E12 ions.cm -2 . The nitrogen concentration of the films was measured with Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) and Parallel Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (PEELS). The nitrogen concentration for as deposited sample was 34 at% and stoichiometric carbon nitride C 3 N 4 was achieved by post nitrogen implantation of the multi-layered films. Post bombardment of single layer carbon nitride films lead to reduction in the total nitrogen concentration. Carbon K edge structure obtained from PEELS analysis suggested that the amorphous C 3 N 4 matrix was predominantly sp 2 bonded. This was confirmed by Fourier Transforrn Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the single CN layer which showed the nitrogen was mostly bonded with carbon in nitrile (C≡N) and imine (C=N) groups. The microstructure of the film was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which indicated that the films were amorphous

  8. Measurement of ion species produced due to bombardment of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with hydrocarbons-covered surface of tungsten: Formation of tungsten nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhatt, P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Singh, B.K.; Singh, B.; Prajapati, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Shanker, R., E-mail: shankerorama@gmail.com [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-08-01

    A laboratory experiment has been performed to study the ions that are produced due to collisions of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with a hydrocarbons-covered surface of polycrystalline tungsten at room temperature. Using a TOF mass spectrometry technique, the product ions formed in these collisions have been detected, identified and analyzed. Different ion–surface reaction processes, namely, neutralization, reflection, surface induced dissociation, surface induced chemical reactions and desorption are observed and discussed. Apart from the presence of desorbed aliphatic hydrocarbon and other ions, the mass spectra obtained from the considered collisions show the formation and sputtering of tungsten nitride (WN). A layer of WN on tungsten surface is known to decrease the sputtering of bulk tungsten in fusion devices more effectively than when the tungsten is bombarded with other seeding gases (He, Ar). It is further noted that there is a negligible diffusion of N in the bulk tungsten at room temperature.

  9. Effect of feeding alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with or without a cellulase enzyme on performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J K; Castro, J J; Mullis, N A; Adesogan, A T; West, J W; Morantes, G

    2010-11-01

    Forty-four lactating Holstein cows (173±30 DIM, 42.5±6.8 kg of milk, 4.03±0.69% fat, 674±78 kg of body weight) were used in an 8-wk, completely randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of forage source and supplemental cellulase enzyme on performance. Treatments included 2 forage combinations (corn silage plus 12.2% dry matter, DM, from either alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage) with or without a commercial cellulase enzyme applied to the total mixed ration at the rate of 4 g/head per day (Promote N.E.T.-L, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Experimental diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of protein (16.5% of DM), energy (1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM), and neutral detergent fiber (41.7% of DM) and were fed once daily as a total mixed ration behind Calan doors for ad libitum intake. The cellulase enzyme provided 1,200 cellulase units of activity/g of product and was applied to the total mixed ration and allowed to mix for 5min before feeding. Before beginning the trial, all cows were trained to use Calan (American Calan, Northwood, NH) doors and then fed the alfalfa hay-based diet for 2 wk. Data collected during wk 2 were used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. At the beginning of the 6-wk experimental period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of the 4 experimental diets. No interactions were observed between forage and enzyme for any measures. Daily DM intake; milk yield; concentrations of milk fat, true protein, lactose, and solids not fat; energy-corrected milk yield; and dairy efficiency were not different among alfalfa or Tifton 85 bermudagrass rations with or without cellulase enzyme supplementation. The results of this trial indicate that Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage can replace alfalfa hay in diets fed to high-producing, lactating dairy cows without depressing DM intake or milk yield when rations are balanced for NDF. Although

  10. Effect of undigested neutral detergent fiber content of alfalfa hay on lactating dairy cows: Feeding behavior, fiber digestibility, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustini, M; Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Mammi, L; Pacchioli, M T; Sniffen, G C J; Grant, R J; Cotanch, K W; Formigoni, A

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF 240 ). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40.2 and 31.2% and 53.6 and 45.7% for low- (LD) and high-digestibility (HD) hays, respectively. The 4 experimental diets (Hu-HD, Lu-HD, Hu-LD, and Lu-LD) contained 46.8, 36.8, 38.8, and 30.1% of alfalfa hay, respectively, 8.6% wheat straw, and 35.3% corn (50% flake and 50% meal; DM basis). Soy hulls and soybean meal were used to replace hay to balance protein and energy among diets. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (average milk production = 46.0 ± 5.2 kg/d, 101 ± 38 d in milk, and 662 ± 42 kg of average body weight) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 2 wk of adaptation and a 1-wk collection period. Dry matter and water intake, rumination time, ruminal pH, and milk production and composition were measured. Diets and feces were analyzed for NDF on an organic matter basis (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and uNDF 240 to estimate total-tract fiber digestibility. Dry matter intake and rumination times were higher in HD diets compared with LD diets, regardless of forage amount. Rumination time was constant per unit of dry matter intake but differed when expressed as a function of uNDF 240 , aNDFom, or physically effective NDF intake. No differences were found among treatments on average ruminal pH, but the amount of time with pH digestible neutral detergent fiber fraction digestibility was higher for the LD diets (88.3 versus 85.8% aNDFom in HD), for which lower feed intakes were also observed. The

  11. Effect of Coulomb collision on the negative ion extraction mechanism in negative ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, I; Miyamoto, K; Nishioka, S; Mattei, S; Lettry, J; Abe, S; Hatayama, A

    2016-02-01

    To improve the H(-) ion beam optics, it is necessary to understand the energy relaxation process of surface produced H(-) ions in the extraction region of Cs seeded H(-) ion sources. Coulomb collisions of charged particles have been introduced to the 2D3V-PIC (two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle-in-cell) model for the H(-) extraction by using the binary collision model. Due to Coulomb collision, the lower energy part of the ion energy distribution function of H(-) ions has been greatly increased. The mean kinetic energy of the surface produced H(-) ions has been reduced to 0.65 eV from 1.5 eV. It has been suggested that the beam optics of the extracted H(-) ion beam is strongly affected by the energy relaxation process due to Coulomb collision.

  12. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  13. Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 (micro)s pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA/cm2 at 30 cm from the source and with strongly axially directed ion energy of about 80 eV, and sub-eV transverse temperature. The source has good reproducibility and spatial uniformity. Control of the current density during the pulse has been demonstrated with a novel modulator coil method which allows attenuation of the ion current density without significantly affecting the beam quality. This project was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 used source configurations adapted from light ion sources to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase 2 the performance of the source was enhanced and quantified in greater detail, a modulator for controlling the pulse shape was developed, and experiments were conducted with the ions accelerated to >40 kV

  14. Hay que preparar a Colombia para el turismo de naturaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Becerra

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available El turismo que se basa en su entorno natural es responsable por aproximadamente el 40% de los ingresos de turismo y es un mercado en crecimiento. Sin embargo, el turismo ha sido una actividad que ha generado graves impactos ambientales y sociales a nivel mundial. En el contexto ambiental ha transformado áreas de alto valor de conservación en ciudades de cemento y ladrillo, ha contaminado los recursos hídricos, ha erosionado terrenos, ha disminuido los hábitats de muchos animales ante la presencia no planificada de las actividades humanas y ha interrumpido el flujo de especies y de información genética ante la construcción de carreteras, complejos turísticos y otras edificaciones, entre otros impactos. En el contexto social, ha transformado culturalmente a muchas poblaciones locales, sin que hayan tenido la posibilidad y la capacidad de decidir sobre sus mejores opciones económicas y sociales. En muchos casos las poblaciones locales no han tenido la oportunidad, por fallas institucionales y de mercado, de participar activamente en la captura de beneficios de la actividad turística. Estos son ejemplos de los impactos negativos de la globalización cuando no hay la información, la capacidad y la participación ciudadana para la toma de decisión acertadas. Este artículo demuestra, mediante el uso de casos prácticos, cómo un turismo de naturaleza bien manejado, que permita la toma de buenas decisiones por parte de las personas relacionadas directa e indirectamente de sus actividades y que disminuya al máximo sus impactos negativos sociales y ambientales, es una actividad deseable para el desarrollo sostenible de una región y un país como Colombia.

  15. Ion Selectivity Mechanism in a Bacterial Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hailong; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. Recent emergence of a high resolution crystal structure of GLIC captured in a potentially open state allowed detailed, atomic-level insight into ion conduction and selectivity mechanisms in these channels. Herein, we have examined the barriers to ion conduction and origins of ion selectivity in the GLIC channel by the construction of potential of mean force (PMF) profiles for sodium and chloride ions inside the transmembrane region. Our calculations reveal that the GLIC channel is open for a sodium ion to transport, but presents a ∼10 kcal/mol free energy barrier for a chloride ion, which arises primarily from the unfavorable interactions with a ring of negatively charged glutamate residues (E-2) at the intracellular end and a ring of hydrophobic residues (I9) in the middle of the transmembrane domain. Our collective findings further suggest that the charge selection mechanism can, to a large extent, be attributed to the narrow intracellular end and a ring of glutamate residues in this position their strong negative electrostatics and ability to bind cations. By contrast, E19 at the extracellular entrance only plays a minor role in ion selectivity of GLIC. In addition to electrostatics, both ion hydration and protein dynamics are found to be crucial for ion conduction as well, which explains why a chloride ion experiences a much greater barrier than a sodium ion in the hydrophobic region of the pore.

  16. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, A; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, S; Jincho, K; Okada, T; Yamamoto, M; Hattori, T G; Biri, S; Baskaran, R; Sakata, T; Sawada, K; Uno, K

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C/sup 4+/ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e mu A for C/sup 4+/ and 1.1e mA for Ar/sup 8+/, respectively. (14 refs).

  17. Effect of Lactic Acid Lactobacillus Preservative and Moisture Level at Baling on In-situ Digestibility of Crabgrass Hay by Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) is a warm-season annual that offers an advantage over many perennial warm-season grasses because of its greater nutritive value and high palatability. However, little is known about how baling crabgrass hay at high moisture affects ruminal forage ...

  18. Channeled-ion implantation of group-III and group-V ions into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, T.; Nishi, H.; Inada, T.; Sakurai, T.

    1978-01-01

    Implantation of group-III and group-V ions along [111] and [110] axes of silicon have been performed using a backscattering technique, and the depth profiles of implanted ions have been measured by the C-V method. The range of channeled Ga ions is the largest among the present data, and a p-type layer of about 6 μm is obtained by implantation at only 150 keV. The carrier profiles of channeled Al and Ga ions with deep ranges do not show any distinguishable channeled peak contrasting with the B, P, and As channeling which gives a well-defined peak. The electronic stopping cross section (S/sub e/) of channeled P ions agree well with the results of Eisen and Reddi, but in B channeling, the discrepancies of 10--20% are observed among S/sub e/ values obtained experimentally by three different groups

  19. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasqualotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM. The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm. In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt. The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, internal CO2 concentration (Ci, transpiration (T, water use efficiency (WUE, and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi. In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment, baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were

  20. Effect of Coulomb collision on the negative ion extraction mechanism in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, I., E-mail: goto@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Nishioka, S.; Abe, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    To improve the H{sup −} ion beam optics, it is necessary to understand the energy relaxation process of surface produced H{sup −} ions in the extraction region of Cs seeded H{sup −} ion sources. Coulomb collisions of charged particles have been introduced to the 2D3V-PIC (two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle-in-cell) model for the H{sup −} extraction by using the binary collision model. Due to Coulomb collision, the lower energy part of the ion energy distribution function of H{sup −} ions has been greatly increased. The mean kinetic energy of the surface produced H{sup −} ions has been reduced to 0.65 eV from 1.5 eV. It has been suggested that the beam optics of the extracted H{sup −} ion beam is strongly affected by the energy relaxation process due to Coulomb collision.

  1. An experimental study of the ion chemistry and thermal balance in the E- and F-regions above Wallops Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, L. H.; Mayr, H. G.; Pharo, M. W., III; Scott, L. R.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    E and F region positive ion composition, electron concentration and thermal balance vertical profile, discussing ionizing radiation spectrum, plasma cooling, primary chemical reaction rates and ionospheric formation

  2. Gas-phase ion/ion reactions of peptides and proteins: acid/base, redox, and covalent chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Boone M; McLuckey, Scott A

    2013-02-01

    Gas-phase ion/ion reactions are emerging as useful and flexible means for the manipulation and characterization of peptide and protein biopolymers. Acid/base-like chemical reactions (i.e., proton transfer reactions) and reduction/oxidation (redox) reactions (i.e., electron transfer reactions) represent relatively mature classes of gas-phase chemical reactions. Even so, especially in regards to redox chemistry, the widespread utility of these two types of chemistries is undergoing rapid growth and development. Additionally, a relatively new class of gas-phase ion/ion transformations is emerging which involves the selective formation of functional-group-specific covalent bonds. This feature details our current work and perspective on the developments and current capabilities of these three areas of ion/ion chemistry with an eye towards possible future directions of the field.

  3. Polyatomic ions from a high current ion implanter driven by a liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, W.; Laufer, P.; Tajmar, M.; Böttger, R.; Bischoff, L.

    2017-12-01

    High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements. To overcome the lack of only very small treated areas by applying a focused ion beam equipped with such sources, the technology taken from space propulsion systems was transferred into a large single-end ion implanter. The main component is an ion beam injector based on high current LMAISs combined with suited ion optics allocating ion currents in the μA range in a nearly parallel beam of a few mm in diameter. Different types of LMAIS (needle, porous emitter, and capillary) are presented and characterized. The ion beam injector design is specified as well as the implementation of this module into a 200 kV high current ion implanter operating at the HZDR Ion Beam Center. Finally, the obtained results of large area surface modification of Ge using polyatomic Bi2+ ions at room temperature from a GaBi capillary LMAIS will be presented and discussed.

  4. Effects of including saponins (Micro-aid®) on intake, rumen fermentation, and digestibility in steers fed low-quality prairie hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen ruminally-cannulated crossbred steers (529 ± 45 kg initial body weight, BW) were used to evaluate in situ dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (aNDF), and N degradation characteristics of low quality prairie hay, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and rumen fermentation parameters in steers provi...

  5. Screened ion-ion interaction in mercury-chain compounds: Single chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, M.M.; Griffin, A.

    1985-01-01

    At room temperature, the mercury chains in Hg/sub 3-delta/AsF 6 exhibit phonons characteristic of a one-dimensional lattice. We calculate the screening of the Hg ion-ion interaction in a single chain by electrons moving in a cylindrical potential of finite radius, within the random-phase approximation. The resulting Bohm-Staver-type expression for the phonon velocity is (Z 2 mN/sub I//MN/sub e/)/sup 1/2/v/sub F/, where Z is the Hg ionic charge and N/sub I/ (N/sub e/) is the number of ions (electrons) per unit length. Use of the Tomonaga-Luttinger solution for the electronic response function (keeping only the small-momentum scattering processes) just renormalizes the Fermi velocity in this expression

  6. Working group report on ion-impact excitation: Recommended database for ion-impact excitation of atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, W.; Olson, R.E.; Schartner, K.H.; Belkic, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses (i) proton impact excitation, and (ii) excitation by ion collisions (from helium ions to iron ions) of atomic hydrogen, both for H(1s) and H(n>1), where where n = the principal quantum number, in the energy range from 1 keV/amu to 2 MeV/amu and 10 MeV/amu, respectively. For the range of ions considered, a few generic plots are given for the total cross section as a function of E/q, where E is the beam energy, for different values q (ion charge in units of proton charge) and different final principal quantum numbers. 12 refs, 3 figs

  7. Children and adolescents' health-related quality of life in relation to eczema, asthma and hay fever: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matterne, Uwe; Schmitt, Jochen; Diepgen, Thomas L; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Several studies have looked at the relationship between childhood atopic disease and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but existing research is limited by selected populations, small samples or lack to consider each of the three atopic conditions simultaneously. Impact of 4-week and 12-month occurrences of the three conditions on HRQoL were analysed by the use of complex sample general linear models alone and adjusted for the other atopic conditions, sociodemographics and mental health in a population-based sample (n = 6,518) of children and adolescents aged 11-17. In univariate analyses, total HRQoL was significantly impacted by eczema and hay fever but not asthma with stronger effects for 4-week occurrence. In multivariate analyses, 12-month occurrence of hay fever and 4-week occurrence of eczema and hay fever significantly impacted on total HRQoL. Although most of the variance in HRQoL was explained by mental health, independent effects of the atopic conditions remained. Atopic conditions impact HRQoL over and above mental health. When analysing the relationship between atopic conditions and HRQoL, it is important to consider more immediate versus less immediate effects of the conditions. Extent of impairment and the domains affected appear to vary when different time intervals are used.

  8. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors

  9. Energies, fine structures, and transitions of the core-excited sextet states "6S"e","o(n) and "6P"e","o(n) (n=1–5) of B-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Dong Dong; Mei, Mao Fei; Zhang, Chun Mei; Han, Chong; Hu, Feng; Gou, Bing Cong

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical study of atomic characteristics of energy levels and transitions for the core-excited "6S"e","o(n) and "6P"e","o(n) (n=1–5) states of the boron isoelectronic sequence (Z=6–14) are investigated by the Rayleigh–Ritz variation method and multi-configuration interaction wavefunctions. The relativistic corrections and mass polarization effects are included by first-order perturbation theory. The configuration structures of the high-lying sextet series "6S"e","o(n) and "6P"e","o(n) (n=1–5) of the B-like ions are assigned. The transition rates and wavelengths for the electric dipole transitions "6S"e","o(n)—"6P"o","e(n) (n=1–5) of the B-like ions are calculated and compared with currently available theoretical and experimental data. Furthermore, the radiative transition rates and wavelengths for the important dipole transitions are discussed with the increase of nuclear charge number Z. The calculations will provide useful data for identification of spectral lines arising from the solar atmosphere and the experimental study in future work. - Highlights: • Energy and transition data of core-excited sextet states of B-like ions are studied. • Relativistic corrections, mass polarization effects are included in the calculation. • Radiative rates and transition wavelengths are discussed with the increase of Z. • Variation trend of transition rates and wavelengths are present with the n increase. • Some energy levels and transition data are reported for the first time.

  10. Indium-tin-oxide thin film deposited by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, J.W.; Kim, J.S.; Yeom, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrates at low temperatures (<90 deg. C) by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system, where one gun (gun 1) is facing ITO flux and the other gun (gun 2) is facing the substrate. In this experiment, effects of rf power and oxygen flow rate of ion gun 2 on the electrical and optical properties of depositing ITO thin films were investigated. At optimal deposition conditions, ITO thin films deposited on the PC substrates larger than 20 cmx20 cm showed the sheet resistance of less than 40 Ω/sq., the optical transmittance of above 90%, and the uniformity of about 5%

  11. Confirmed Datura poisoning in a horse most probably due to D. ferox in contaminated tef hay : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gerber

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Two out of a group of 23 mares exposed to tef hay contaminated with Datura ferox (and possibly D. stramonium developed colic. The 1st animal was unresponsive to conservative treatment, underwent surgery for severe intestinal atony and had to be euthanased. The 2nd was less seriously affected, responded well to analgesics and made an uneventful recovery. This horse exhibited marked mydriasis on the first 2 days of being poisoned and showed protracted, milder mydriasis for a further 7 days. Scopolamine was chemically confirmed in urine from this horse for 3 days following the colic attack, while atropine could just be detected for 2 days. Scopolamine was also the main tropane alkaloid found in the contaminating plant material, confirming that this had most probably been a case of D. ferox poisoning. Although Datura intoxication of horses from contaminated hay was suspected previously, this is the 1st case where the intoxication could be confirmed by urine analysis for tropane alkaloids. Extraction and detection methods for atropine and scopolamine in urine are described employing enzymatic hydrolysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS.

  12. Mass spectrometric analysis of small negative ions (e/m < 100) produced by Trichel pulse negative corona discharge fed by ozonised air

    OpenAIRE

    Skalny, J.D.; Horvath, G.; Mason, N.

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of small negative ions (e/m < 100) produced by DC negative corona discharge in ozonised wet air both in flow and flow-stopped regimes was conducted at pressure of 30 kPa. The point-to-plain electrode system has been used. The yield of individual ions is strongly affected by trace concentrations of ozone in both regimes. Ozone concentration greater than 25 ppm is sufficient to completely suppress the appearance of O2- and a NO2- ion as well as theirs clusters in the...

  13. Estado nutricional y aspectos alimentarios de mujeres indígenas del departamento de Presidente Hayes, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Echagüe; Valentina Díaz; Laura Mendoza; Pamela Mongelos; Graciela Giménez; Malvina Paez; Florentina Laspina; Amalia Castro; María Isabel Rodríguez; Patricia Araújo; Wilberto Castro; Ramón Marecos; Santiago Evers; Gerardo Deluca; Alejandra Picconi

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Las comunidades indígenas presentan un mayor riesgo de inseguridad alimentaria y malnutrición, menor disponibilidad de recursos, y una creciente dependencia de alimentos más baratos aunque con un alto grado de procesamiento. Objetivo: Identificar el estado nutricional y aspectos alimentarios en mujeres indígenas de tres comunidades del Departamento de Presidente Hayes, Chaco Paraguayo. Metodología: Estudio observacional de diseño transversal con componente analítico, que incluyó...

  14. Study of the effects of E × B fields as mechanism to carbon-nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation on stainless steel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillaca, E. J. D. M.; Ueda, M.; Oliveira, R. M.; Pichon, L.

    2014-08-01

    Effects of E × B fields as mechanism to carbon-nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) have been investigated. This magnetic configuration when used in PIII allows obtaining high nitrogen plasma density close to the ion implantation region. Consequently, high ions dose on the target is possible to be achieved compared with standard PIII. In this scenario, nitrogen and carbon ions were implanted simultaneously on stainless steel, as measured by GDOES and detected by X-ray diffraction. Carbon-tape disposed on the sample-holder was sputtered by intense bombardment of nitrogen ions, being the source of carbon atoms in this experiment. The implantation of both N and C caused changes on sample morphology and improvement of the tribological properties of the stainless steel.

  15. Sputtering of molybdenum and tungsten nano rods and nodules irradiated with 150 eV argon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.M.; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Neff, Anton L.; Allain, Jean-Paul; Williams, Brian; Sharghi-Moshtaghin, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The work was motivated by the idea of designing material surface architecture, using the CVD process, that can result in a reduction in the surface sputtering rate as compared to planar surfaces. • We present an experimental investigation of the effects of low energy (150 eV) Ar ions on surface sputtering, amorphization of near-surface layers, and the formation of surface ripples in Mo and W nano-rods and nano-nodules at room temperature. • We show that the sputtering rate decreases in all nano-architecture surfaces as compared to planar surfaces. • We discovered that energy deposition in the near surface layer in W leads to its amorphization at room temperature, to a depth of 5–10 nm. • We also show that surfaces of nano rods become rippled as a result of an ion-induced roughening instability. - Abstract: The influence of surface nano architecture on the sputtering and erosion of tungsten and molybdenum is discussed. We present an experimental investigation of the effects of low energy (150 eV) Ar ions on surface sputtering in Mo and W nano-rods and nano-nodules at room temperature. Measurements of the sputtering rate from Mo and W surfaces with nano architecture indicate that the surface topology plays an important role in the mechanism of surface erosion and restructuring. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is utilized as a material processing route to fabricate nano-architectures on the surfaces of W and Mo substrates. First, Re dendrites form as needles with cross-sections that have hexagonal symmetry, and are subsequently employed as scaffolding for further deposition of W and Mo to create nano rod surface architecture. The sputtering of surface atoms in these samples shows a marked dependence on their surface architecture. The sputtering rate is shown to decrease at normal ion incidence in all nano-architecture surfaces as compared to planar surfaces. Moreover, and unlike an increase in sputtering of planar crystalline surfaces, the

  16. Nanostructures by ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B.

    Ion beam techniques, including conventional broad beam ion implantation, ion beam synthesis and ion irradiation of thin layers, as well as local ion implantation with fine-focused ion beams have been applied in different fields of micro- and nanotechnology. The ion beam synthesis of nanoparticles in high-dose ion-implanted solids is explained as phase separation of nanostructures from a super-saturated solid state through precipitation and Ostwald ripening during subsequent thermal treatment of the ion-implanted samples. A special topic will be addressed to self-organization processes of nanoparticles during ion irradiation of flat and curved solid-state interfaces. As an example of silicon nanocrystal application, the fabrication of silicon nanocrystal non-volatile memories will be described. Finally, the fabrication possibilities of nanostructures, such as nanowires and chains of nanoparticles (e.g. CoSi2), by ion beam synthesis using a focused Co+ ion beam will be demonstrated and possible applications will be mentioned.

  17. Behavior of pellet injected Li ions into heliotron E plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Christou, C.; Ida, K.

    1996-07-01

    Li pellet injection has provided a complex plasma with a large fraction of Li ions, which is characterized by intense emissions from Li I and III. The spatial profiles of the fully ionized Li 3+ ions are measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy with a resolution of 13 mm, and the local decay time of the injected Li ion has been estimated. The spectral profile of the charge exchange recombination line of Li 2+ from n=5 to n=4 shows a complicated structure, which depends of Li 3+ density. The effects on other intrinsic impurities and recycled Li are also discussed. (author)

  18. Magnetized retarding field energy analyzer measuring the particle flux and ion energy distribution of both positive and negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane; Dudin, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field energy analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative ion analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic ion energy barrier allowing both positive and negative ions to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for ion-ion beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier created in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the ion energy resolution below 5 eV. The effective ion transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the ion energy. It is found that the ion transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing ion energy in the low-energy range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high ion energies. The ion transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate ion flux and ion energy distribution measurements in various experimental setups with ion beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with ion energies above 10 eV

  19. EISCAT measurements of ion temperatures which indicate non-isotropic ion velocity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraut, S.; Brekke, A.; Hubert, D.

    1984-01-01

    Substantial increases of the ion temperature can be observed at high latitudes as a consequence of strong convection electric fields. We have measured, with EISCAT, three independent components of the ion velocity vector and temperature in the same scattering volume, at about 300 km. During periods of strong variations in ion velocity (consequently of the E-field), the ion temperatures derived at the 3 sites are different. This difference, which appears to be systematic for the two experiments studied, can be interpreted in terms of different ion temperature perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field, i.e. Tsub(i perpendicular) greater than Tsub(i parallel). Assuming that a bi-Maxwellian distribution is present for convection electric field strengths as large as 50 mV m -1 , one obtains an anisotropy factor of approximately 1.5. It also appears that resonant charge exchange is the dominant collision process. During the evening sector events studied, the electron density was decreasing, whereas the electron temperature was generally increasing. Such events are strongly related to variations in the magnetic H component detected on the ground. (author)

  20. Ion - biomolecule interactions and radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlathoelter, T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The biological effects of ionizing radiation in living cells are not a mere result of the direct impact of high energy quanta of radiation. Secondary particles such as low energy electrons, radicals and (multiply charged) ions are formed within the track. The interaction of these secondary particles with biologically relevant molecules is responsible for a large fraction of biological radiation damage to a cell, as well. Singly and multiply charged ions can be of importance as both, primary and secondary particles, and are known to cause severe biological damage. For instance, in heavy ion therapy and proton therapy the pronounced Bragg peak of fast (typically a few 100 MeV/u) ions in biological tissue is utilized. The Bragg peak is located at a depth, where the ions (mostly C q+ or protons) are slowed down to about 100 keV/u and have their maximum linear energy transfer (LET) to the medium. This depth is reasonably well defined and depends on the initial ion kinetic energy. Since the ions are rapidly stopped in this energy range, penetration beyond the Bragg peak is weak and it is thus possible to 'scan' the Bragg peak through a malignant tumour without excessive damage of the surrounding tissue by mere variation of the ion kinetic energy (i.e. the penetration depth). Severe biological damage is almost only possible, when the track of a primary quantum of ionizing radiation crosses the nucleus of a cell. Particularly the induction of double strand breaks of DNA or clustered DNA lesions is potentially lethal or mutagenic. A primary particle interacting with individual molecules within this environment leads to molecular excitation, ionization and fragmentation. In the process, the primary particle looses energy and slow secondary electrons and ions are formed, which might induce further damage. For a deep understanding of biological radiation damage on the level of individual molecules it is thus important to quantify excitation, ionization and

  1. Molecular Ions in Ion Upflows and their Effects on Hot Atomic Oxygen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, V.; Yau, A. W.; Shizgal, B.

    2017-12-01

    We present new direct ion composition observations of molecular ions in auroral ion upflows from the CASSIOPE Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP). These observed molecular ions are N2+, NO+, and possibly O2+, and are found to occur at all e-POP altitudes starting at about 400 km, during auroral substorms and the different phases of magnetic storms, sometimes with upflow velocities exceeding a few hundred meters per second and abundances of 5-10%. The dissociative recombination of both O2+ and NO+ was previously proposed as an important source of hot oxygen atoms in the topside thermosphere [Hickey et al., 1995]. We investigate the possible effect of the observed molecular ions on the production of hot oxygen atoms in the storm and substorm-time auroral thermosphere. We present numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation for the steady-state oxygen energy distribution function, taking into account both the production of the hot atoms and their subsequent collisional relaxation. Our result suggests the formation of a hot oxygen population with a characteristic temperature on the order of 0.3 eV and constituting 1-5% of the oxygen density near the exobase. We discuss the implication of this result in the context of magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling.

  2. The Hayes principles: learning from the national pilot of information technology and core generalisable theory in informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon; Krause, Paul

    2010-01-01

    There has been much criticism of the NHS national programme for information technology (IT); it has been an expensive programme and some elements appear to have achieved little. The Hayes report was written as an independent review of health and social care IT in England. To identify key principles for health IT implementation which may have relevance beyond the critique of NHS IT. We elicit ten principles from the Hayes report, which if followed may result in more effective IT implementation in health care. They divide into patient-centred, subsidiarity and strategic principles. The patient-centred principles are: 1) the patient must be at the centre of all information systems; 2) the provision of patient-level operational data should form the foundation - avoid the dataset mentality; 3) store health data as close to the patient as possible; 4) enable the patient to take a more active role with their health data within a trusted doctor-patient relationship. The subsidiarity principles set out to balance the local and health-system-wide needs: 5) standardise centrally - patients must be able to benefit from interoperability; 6) provide a standard procurement package and an approved process that ensures safety standards and provision of interoperable systems; 7) authorise a range of local suppliers so that health providers can select the system best meeting local needs; 8) allow local migration from legacy systems, as and when improved functionality for patients is available. And finally the strategic principles: 9) evaluate health IT systems in terms of measureable benefits to patients; 10) strategic planning of systems should reflect strategic goals for the health of patients/the population. Had the Hayes principles been embedded within our approach to health IT, and in particular to medical record implementation, we might have avoided many of the costly mistakes with the UK national programme. However, these principles need application within the modern IT

  3. Damage of copper by low energy xenon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad-Zakhryapin, A.A.; Popenko, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the copper crystal structure bombarded by xenon ions with 30-150 eV energy are studied. Foils of MOb copper mark, 10 mm in diameter and 100 μm thickness, are irradiated. The initial specimens are annealed in vacuum during 1 h at 900 K temperature. The specimens are bombarded by xenon ions in a water-cooled holder. A TE-O type accelerator serves as a xenon ion source. The ion energy varies within 30 to 150 eV range. The ion flux density is 8x10 16 ion/(cm 2 xs). It is shown that crystal structure variations at deep depths are observed not only at high (>1 keV), but at low ion energies down to several dozens of electronvolt as well. The crystal structure variation on copper irradiation by xenon ions with 30-150 eV energy is followed by formation of defects like dislocation loops, point defects in the irradiated target bulk

  4. He2+ molecular ion and the He- atomic ion in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, J. C. Lopez; Turbiner, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    We study the question of existence, i.e., stability with respect to dissociation of the spin-quartet permutation- and reflection-symmetric 4(-3) +g (Sz=-3 /2 ,M =-3 ) state of the (α α e e e ) Coulomb system: the He2 + molecular ion, placed in a magnetic field 0 ≤B ≤10 000 a.u. We assume that the α particles are infinitely massive (Born-Oppenheimer approximation of zero order) and adopt the parallel configuration, when the molecular axis and the magnetic field direction coincide, as the optimal configuration. The study of the stability is performed variationally with a physically adequate trial function. To achieve this goal, we explore several helium-containing compounds in strong magnetic fields, in particular; we study the spin-quartet ground state of the He- ion and the ground (spin-triplet) state of the helium atom, both for a magnetic field in 100 ≤B ≤10 000 a.u. The main result is that the He2 + molecular ion in the state 4(-3) +g is stable towards all possible decay modes for magnetic fields B ≳120 a .u . and with the magnetic field increase the ion becomes more tightly bound and compact with a cigar-type form of electronic cloud. At B =1000 a .u . , the dissociation energy of He2 + into He-+α is ˜702 eV and the dissociation energy for the decay channel to He +α +e is ˜729 eV , and both energies are in the energy window for one of the observed absorption features of the isolated neutron star 1E1207.4-5209.

  5. Radiocaesium transfer to ewes fed contaminated hay after the Chernobyl accident: effect of vermiculite and AFCF (ammonium ferricyanoferrate) as countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Archimbaud, Y.; Cousi, J.; Fayart, G.; Hoffschir, D.; Chevallereau, I.; Le Creff, H.; Gueguen, L.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated hay harvested in the south-east of France in June 1986 was fed to lactating and non-lactating ewes for 50-60 days. The mean transfer coefficients observed were 0.075 days litre -1 to milk and 0.11 days kg -1 to meat. Adding vermiculite to feed pellets decreased the transfer coefficients by a factor of 2.5 to both milk and meat if given at 30 g day -1 ; a factor of 8 difference was reached using 60 g day -1 added vermiculite or 2 g day -1 ammonium ferricyanoferrate (AFCF). No adverse effects on intake rates, animal weight or milk production were observed during the administration period (90-100 days, 50-60 days during the oral contamination and 40 days during the depletion period), whatever the treatment. Three lactating goats were fed the same contaminated hay, but chopped and mixed with powdered maize, for 15 days. The mean milk transfer coefficient was lower than that for ewes at 0.032 days litre -1 . (author)

  6. Substituição do milho e do feno de capim-tifton por palma forrageira. Produção de proteína microbiana e excreção de uréia e de derivados de purina em vacas lactantes Effects of replacing of corn and Tifton hay with forage cactus on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com os objetivos de estimar a produção e a eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana utilizando-se a excreção total de derivados de purinas (DP e avaliar as concentrações de uréia na urina, de uréia e N-uréia no plasma e no leite de vacas holandesas em lactação alimentadas com dietas formuladas com diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição total ao milho (Zea mays L. e parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas holandesas distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias, dez para adaptação dos animais à dieta e sete para coleta de dados. O volume urinário foi estimado em amostras spot de urina obtidas 4 horas após a alimentação. O volume urinário (27,62 L, a excreção urinária de ácido úrico (35,78 mmol/dia, alantoína na urina (288,42 mmol/dia, alantoína no leite (18,11 mmol/dia e alantoína total (306,54 mmol/dia, a excreção de derivados de purina total (342,33 mmol/dia e de purinas absorvidas (350,03 mmol/dia, a síntese de proteína microbiana (1.376,07g/dia e a eficiência da síntese de proteína microbiana (115,38 g/kgNDTconsumido não foram afetados pela substituição do milho e do feno de tifton por palma na dieta. A excreção de uréia na urina (mg/kg PV e as concentrações de uréia e N-uréia no plasma (mg/dL decresceram de forma linear, enquanto a excreção e as concentrações de uréia e N-uréia no leite e de glicose plasmática não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de palma na dieta. O milho pode ser substituído integralmente e o feno, parcialmente, por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas holandesas em lactação, pois a substituição não afetou a produção de proteína microbiana ou as perdas do nitrogênio dietético pela excreção de uréia.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of replacing

  7. Ion acoustic solitons/double layers in two-ion plasma revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Singh, S. V.; Kakad, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Ion acoustic solitons and double layers are studied in a collisionless plasma consisting of cold heavier ion species, a warm lighter ion species, and hot electrons having Boltzmann distributions by Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. In contrast to the previous results, no double layers and super-solitons are found when both the heavy and lighter ion species are treated as cold. Only the positive potential solitons are found in this case. When the thermal effects of the lighter ion species are included, in addition to the usual ion-acoustic solitons occurring at M > 1 (where the Mach number, M, is defined as the ratio of the speed of the solitary wave and the ion-acoustic speed considering temperature of hot electrons and mass of the heavier ion species), slow ion-acoustic solitons/double layers are found to occur at low Mach number (M < 1). The slow ion-acoustic mode is actually a new ion-ion hybrid acoustic mode which disappears when the normalized number density of lighter ion species tends to 1 (i.e., no heavier species). An interesting property of the new slow ion-acoustic mode is that at low number density of the lighter ion species, only negative potential solitons/double layers are found whereas for increasing densities there is a transition first to positive solitons/double layers, and then only positive solitons. The model can be easily applicable to the dusty plasmas having positively charged dust grains by replacing the heavier ion species by the dust mass and doing a simple normalization to take account of the dust charge

  8. The effect of cellulose crystallinity on the in vitro digestibility and fermentation, kinetics of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Fonseca, A.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeria, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cellulose crystallinity on in vitro digestibility (IVD) and fermentation kinetics was investigated in samples of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws. A saturated solution of potassium permanganate was used to isolate the celluloses, and their crystallinity was evaluated in a

  9. Datura contamination of hay as the suspected cause of an extensive outbreak of impaction colic in horses : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Naudé

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available atura poisoning of horses is extensively reviewed. An outbreak of intractable impaction colic affecting 18 of 83 horses was stopped by withdrawing dried tef hay contaminated with young Datura plants. The dried, botanically identified Datura stramonium and D. ferox contained respectively 0.15 % mass/mass (m/m hyoscyamine as well as 0.16 % m/m hyoscine (scopolamine and only hyoscine at a concentration of 0.11 % m/m. Immature, unidentifiable plants resembling D. stramonium, contained 0.14 % m/m and 0.12 % m/m of the 2 respective tropane alkaloids. The outbreak was characterised by protracted and repeated colic attacks due to impaction of the large colon and/or caecum without any other anti-muscarinic signs. Comparative analyses of single specimens of dried seed of the 2 species collected from both fertilised and waste areas revealed that young South African Datura spp. had levels of tropane alkaloids comparable to those in the well-known toxic seed and were, consequently, equally toxic. The inherent danger of tef hay being contaminated with Datura is emphasised. To our knowledge this is the 1st field case of poisoning in horses ascribed to the vegetative parts of Datura spp.

  10. Tissue composition of the leg and meat quality of sheep fed castor bean hulls in replacement of tifton hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Antas Urbano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls (0, 33, 66 and 100% on the leg tissue composition, chemical composition, physicochemical parameters and sensorial traits of sheep meat were studied. A total of 28 non-castrated sheep averaging seven months in age with an average initial weight of 19.5±4.3 kg were assigned to a randomized block design with four treatments and seven replicates and were slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. At slaughter, body weight and leg, muscle and bone weights decreased linearly, whereas the muscle-to-bone ratio increased linearly according to the treatments. There was a quadratic effect on yellow intensity (maximum of 8.05 with replacement of 54.5% and the percentage of cooking losses (minimum of 33.8% with replacement of 45.17%. The treatment employed did not affect either the chemical composition or sensorial traits of the lamb meat. Although replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls alters the tissue composition of the leg as well as some physicochemical parameters of the meat, the sensory analysis indicated good acceptability of the meat, regardless of the inclusion of this byproduct.

  11. Origin of energetic ions in the polar cusp inferred from ion composition measurements by the Viking satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetospheric ion composition spectrometer MICS on the Swedish Viking satellite provided measurements of the ion composition in the energy range 10.1 keV/e\\leqE/Q\\leq326.0 keV/e. Data obtained during orbit 842 were used to investigate the ion distribution in the northern polar cusp and its vicinity. The satellite traversed the outer ring current, boundary region, cusp proper and plasma mantle during its poleward movement. H+ and He++ ions were encountered in all of these regions. He+ ions were present only in the ring current. The number of O+ and O++ ions was very small. Heavy high-charge state ions typical for the solar wind were observed for the first time, most of them in the poleward part of the boundary region and in the cusp proper. The H+ ions exhibited two periods with high intensities. One of them, called the BR/CP event, appeared at energies up to 50 keV. It started at the equatorward limit of the boundary region and continued into the cusp proper. Energy spectra indicate a ring current origin for the BR/CP event. Pitch angle distributions show downward streaming of H+ ions at its equatorward limit and upward streaming on the poleward side. This event is interpreted as the result of pitch angle scattering of ring current ions by fluctuations in the magnetopause current layer in combination with poleward convection. The other of the two periods with high H+ ion intensities, called the accelerated ion event, was superimposed on the BR/CP event. It was restricted to energies \\leq15 keV and occurred in the poleward part of the boundary region. This event is regarded as the high-energy tail of magnetosheath ions that were accelerated while penetrating into the magnetosphere. The cusp region thus contains ions of magnetospheric as well as of magnetosheath origin. The appearance of the ions depends, in addition to the ion source, on the magnetic field configuration and dynamic processes inside and close to the cusp.

  12. Measurement of line overlap for resonant photopumping of transitions in neonlike ions by nickel-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Nilsen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement is made of the 3d-4f transition energies in the Ni-like ions Re 47+ , Ir 49+ , Pt 50+ , Au 51+ , and Bi 55+ and the 2p-4d transition energies in the Ne-like ions Br 25+ , Kr 26+ , Rb 27+ , and Y 29+ using the Livermore electron-beam ion trap. The ions studied are candidates for an x-ray laser scheme based on resonant photopumping which predicts lasing among the 3p-3s transitions in a Ne-like ion. The results of the measurements are compared to multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations and systematic differences are found. The best resonance is found for the Pt-Rb pair at 2512 eV, whose energies differ by 0.4±0.1 eV, that is, by only 160 ppm

  13. Electron cyclotron resonance multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1975-01-01

    Three ion sources, that deliver multiply charged ion beams are described. All of them are E.C.R. ion sources and are characterized by the fact that the electrons are emitted by the plasma itself and are accelerated to the adequate energy through electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.). They can work without interruption during several months in a quasi-continuous regime. (Duty cycle: [fr

  14. Hayıt (Vitex agnus-castus), Çam ve Karışım Çiçek Balının Bazı Kalite Kriterleri Açısından Karşılaştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    UÇAK KOÇ, Aytül; KARACAOĞLU, Mete; DOĞAN, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Bu araştırma, Aydın yöresinde üretilen hayıt balının bazı kalite parametrelerinin belirlenerek, çam ve karışım çiçek balları ile karşılaştırılması amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmada, Aydın ili sınırları içinde üretilmiş ve yeni hasat edilmiş hayıt balı, çam balı ve yöre arıcılarının Orta Anadolu’da ürettiği karışım çiçek ballarının bazı kimyasal parametreleri belirlenmiştir. Üç bal grubunda her bir özelliğe ait veriler basit varyans analizi (ANOVA) ile değerlendirilmiştir. Tüm özellikle...

  15. Experiments on Ion-Ion Plasmas From Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Darrin; Walton, Scott; Blackwell, David; Murphy, Donald; Fernsler, Richard; Meger, Robert

    2001-10-01

    Use of both positive and negative ions in plasma processing of materials has been shown to be advantageous[1] in terms of better feature evolution and control. In this presentation, experimental results are given to complement recent theoretical work[2] at NRL on the formation and decay of pulsed ion-ion plasmas in electron beam generated discharges. Temporally resolved Langmuir probe and mass spectrometry are used to investigate electron beam generated discharges during the beam on (active) and off (afterglow) phases in a variety of gas mixtures. Because electron-beam generated discharges inherently[3] have low electron temperatures (<0.5eV in molecular gases), negative ion characteristics are seen in the active as well as afterglow phases since electron detachment increases with low electron temperatures. Analysis of temporally resolved plasma characteristics deduced from these measurements will be presented for pure O_2, N2 and Ar and their mixtures with SF_6. Oxygen discharges show no noticeable negative ion contribution during the active or afterglow phase, presumably due to the higher energy electron attachment threshold, which is well above any electron temperature. In contrast, SF6 discharges demonstrate ion-ion plasma characteristics in the active glow and are completely ion-ion in the afterglow. Comparison between these discharges with published cross sections and production mechanisms will also be presented. [1] T.H. Ahn, K. Nakamura & H. Sugai, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 5, 139 (1996); T. Shibyama, H. Shindo & Y. Horiike, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 5, 254 (1996). [2] See presentation by R. F. Fernsler, at this conference. [3] D. Leonhardt, et al., 53rd Annual GEC, Houston, TX.

  16. Retenção do fósforo de fenos de gramíneas tropicais em ovinos Phosphorus balance in sheep fed on tropical grass hays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Reis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediu-se a retenção do fósforo de quatro gramíneas tropicais, capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactilon e capim-colonião (Panicum maximum, em cinco ovinos por meio de ensaios de balanço de fósforo. O experimento constou de quatro fases, cada uma com duração de 21 dias (14 dias de adaptação à dieta e sete dias de colheita de fezes, totalizando 20 observações. A análise dos dados foi feita por polinômios ortogonais, testando-se os efeitos de tratamento, de período e de animal, e os contrastes foram comparados pelo teste F. A retenção de fósforo foi negativa nos fenos dos capins gordura, braquiária e coastcross e positiva no feno do capim-colonião. Por análise de regressão, a perda fecal do fósforo endógeno foi estimada em 15,5mg/kg PV/dia e o coeficiente médio de retenção foi de 0,37. Pela razão entre o balanço e a ingestão, estimou-se que o consumo de fósforo necessário para alcançar o equilíbrio foi de 44mg/kg PV/dia.One experiment was conducted using five adult sheep fed on four tropical grass hays to determine phosphorus (P retention. The experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days (14 days adaptation and seven days faeces collection. The treatments were: A molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora, B brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens, C coastcross grass (Cynodon dactilon and D Guinea grass (Panicum maximum. Phosphorus concentrations were 0.05%, 0.07%, 0.11% and 0.18% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The effects of treatment, period and animal were evaluated by ortogonal polynomials and the contrasts by F test. Negative P balances were produced in treatments A, B and C (-13.05, -9.36 and -8.26mg/kg LW/day, respectively which were not significantly different from each other. Positive P balance of 8.14mg/kg LW/day was produced in treatment D, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than treatments A, B and C. Endogenous losses

  17. State of the Art ECR Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source which produces highly-charged ions is used in heavy ion accelerators worldwide. Applications also found in atomic physics research and industry ion implantation. ECR ion source performance continues to improve, especially in the last few years with new techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating and better methods to provide extra cold electrons, combined with higher magnetic mirror fields. So far more than 1 emA of multiply-charged ions such as He 2+ and O 6+ , and 30 eμA of Au 32+ , 1.1 eμA of 238 U 48+ , and epA currents of very high charge states such as 86 Kr 35+ and 238 U 60+ have been produced

  18. Electric force on plasma ions and the momentum of the ion-neutrals flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A.; Zoler, D.; Boxman, R. L.

    2018-05-01

    The electric force on ions in plasma and the momentum flux carried by the mixed ion-neutral flow were measured and found to be equal. The experiment was performed in a direct-current gas discharge of cylindrical geometry with applied radial electric field and axial magnetic field. The unmagnetized plasma ions, neutralized by magnetized electrons, were accelerated radially outward transferring part of the gained momentum to neutrals. Measurements were taken for various argon gas flow rates between 13 and 100 Standard Cubic Centimeter per Minute, for a discharge current of 1.9 A and a magnetic field intensity of 136 G. The plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential were measured at various locations along the flow. These measurements were used to determine the local electric force on the ions. The total electric force on the plasma ions was then determined by integrating radially the local electric force. In parallel, the momentum flux of the mixed ion-neutral flow was determined by measuring the force exerted by the flow on a balance force meter (BFM). The maximal plasma density was between 6 × 1010 cm-3 and 5 × 1011 cm-3, the maximal electron temperature was between 8 eV and 25 eV, and the deduced maximal electric field was between 2200 V/m and 5800 V/m. The force exerted by the mixed ion-neutral flow on the BFM agreed with the total electric force on the plasma ions. This agreement showed that it is the electric force on the plasma ions that is the source of the momentum acquired by the mixed ion-neutral flow.

  19. Effects of Different Combinations of Oat Hay and Whole Corn Silage on Ruminal Fermentation of Sheep%燕麦干草与全株玉米青贮不同组合对绵羊瘤胃发酵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毕阳; 赵桂琴; 焦婷; 柴继宽; 苟智强; 许兴泽; 闫车太

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different combinations of oat hay and whole corn silage on ruminal fermentation of sheep. Nine cross breed ( Merino×Mongolian) rams with similar body condition, body weight of (70.24±2.03) kg and fitted with permanent rumen cannulas were selected and divided into three groups with three sheep per group according to the weighting result of transitional period, and their diets were grouped as three according to the ratio of oat hay and whole corn silage in the roughage ( dry matter basis) , i. e. , A1 ( 100% whole corn silage ) , A2 ( 50% oat hay+50% whole corn silage ) and A3 (100% oat hay), and the concentrate?to?forage ratio of three diets was 35:65. A 3×3 Latin square design was used. Three trial periods were conducted with 22 days for each period ( 15 days for pretest and 7 days for for?mal test) . Samples were taken at the last 3 days of the formal test. The results showed as follows:1) compared with 100% whole corn silage, taking 50% oat hay+50% whole corn silage or 100% oat hay as roughage had no significant effects on pH and total nitrogen concentration in ruminal fluid, but significantly reduced the means of ruminal fluid urea nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen ( NH3?N) , and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations ( P0.05) . The mean of ruminal fluid NH3?N concentration in A2 group was significantly lower than that in A3 group (P0.05),但显著降低了瘤胃液氨态氮(NH3?N)、尿素氮和血浆尿素氮浓度平均值(P0.05),而瘤胃液NH3?N浓度平均值则显著低于A3组(P0.05),升高了瘤胃液乙酸、丁酸摩尔比以及乙酸/丙酸平均值,且A3组与A1组差异显著(P<0.05).由此可知,在精料相同、精粗比为35:65的条件下,用50%全贮玉米青贮和50%燕麦干草混合作为粗饲料可以改善绵羊的瘤胃内环境而适宜瘤胃微生物生长,提高瘤胃微生物活性及其对氨(NH3)的利用率,有助于微生物蛋白的合成,升高瘤胃乙酸的摩尔比及乙酸/丙酸.

  20. From e+e- to Heavy Ion Collisions - Proceedings of the XXX International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csörgő, Tamás Hegyi, Sándor Kittel, Wolfram

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * QCD IN MULTIPARTICLE PRODUCTION * QCD and multiparticle production - The status of the perturbative cascade * Test of QCD predictions for multiparticle production at LEP * Multijet final states in e+e- annihilation * Tests of QCD in two photon physics at LEP * Interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD in three-jet events * QCD and hadronic final states at the LHC * Transverse energy and minijets in high energy collisions * Multiparticle production at RHIC and LHC: A classical point of view * High energy interaction with the nucleus in the perturbative QCD with Nc → ∞ * DIFFRACTIVE PRODUCTION AND SMALL-x * Introduction to low-x physics and diffraction * Low-x physics at HERA * Diffractive structure functions at the Tevatron * What is the experimental evidence for the BFKL Pomeron? * Self-organized criticality in gluon systems and its consequences * Scale anomaly and dipole scattering in QCD * Pomeron and AdS/CFT correspondence for QCD * INTERPLAY BETWEEN SOFT AND HARD PHENOMENA * Inclusive jet cross sections and BFKL dynamics searches in dijet cross sections * Soft and hard interactions in p bar{p} Collisions at √ s = 1800 and 630 GeV * Recent results on particle production from OPAL * New results on αs and optimized scales * Preliminary results of the standard model Higgs boson search at LEP 2 in 2000 * Ways to go between hard and soft QCD * Alternative scenarios for fragmentation of a gluonic Lund String * A simultaneous measurement of the QCD colour charges and the strong coupling from LEP multijet data * Branching processes and Koenigs function * Soft and hard QCD dynamics in J/ψ hadroproduction * HADRONIC FINAL STATES IN 1+1, 1+h AND h+h REACTIONS * Universality in hadron production in electron-positron, lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron reactions * Search for gluonic mesons in gluon jets * Vector-to-pseudoscalar and meson-to-baryon ratios in hadronic Z decays at LEP

  1. Avaliação da liberação de flúor e da capacidade de recarga em diferentes cimentos de ionômero de vidro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Mendes Pupo

    Full Text Available Objetivo Avaliar a liberação e a capacidade de recarga de flúor de diferentes cimentos de ionômero de vidro, durante a simulação de desafio cariogênico. Material e método Foram confeccionados 12 corpos de prova para cada grupo experimental, com cimentos de ionômero de vidro convencionais – Maxxion R (FGM, Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE; cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina – Vitrebond (3M ESPE, e resina composta, Filtek™ Z350XT (3M ESPE, como controle negativo. Os corpos de prova foram imersos alternadamente em sistema de ciclagem de pH, permanecendo 6 horas na solução de desmineralização e 18 horas na de remineralização, sendo mantidos em estufa a 37°C. Liberação de flúor foi verificada 1, 2, 7 e 14 dias antes e após a recarga com flúor, com eletrodo específico acoplado ao aparelho analisador de pH/fluoretos, calibrado a cada medição com soluções de fluoreto de sódio a 1 e 10 ppm, preparadas com TISAB II. Para leitura, foi adicionado 0,5 mL da amostra a igual volume de TISAB II. Recarga foi realizada com flúor neutro 2% por 4 minutos nas amostras, lavadas e imersas novamente nas soluções do sistema de ciclagem de pH. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey (α=0,05. Resultado A liberação inicial de fluoreto (μgF/cm2 foi de 45,36; 37,49, e 26,35 para Maxxion R, Vitrebond e Ketac Molar EasyMix, respectivamente. Diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os materiais foram verificadas antes e após a recarga (p=0,001. Após a aplicação tópica de flúor, os cimentos de ionômero de vidro apresentaram capacidade de recarga de flúor. Conclusão Cimentos de ionômero de vidro avaliados foram capazes de liberar flúor em soluções de ciclagem de pH e podem recarregar flúor através da aplicação tópica.

  2. Ion beam deposited epitaxial thin silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrman-Rossiter, K.G.; Al-Bayati, A.H.; Armour, D.G.; Donnelly, S.E.; Berg, J.A. van den

    1991-01-01

    Deposition of thin films using low energy, mass-separated ion beams is a potentially important low temperature method of producing epitaxial layers. In these experiments silicon films were grown on Si (001) substrates using 10-200 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at substrate temperatures in the range 273-1073 K, under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions (deposition pressure -7 Pa). The film crystallinity was assessed in situ using medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Films of crystallinity comparable to bulk samples were grown using 10-40 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at deposition temperatures in the range 623-823 K. These experiments confirmed the role of key experimental parameters such as ion energy, substrate temperature during deposition, and the surface treatment prior to deposition. It was found that a high temperature in situ anneal (1350-1450 K) gave the best results for epitaxial nucleation, whereas low energy (20-40 eV) Cl + ion bombardment resulted in amorphous film growth. The deposition energy for good epitaxial growth indicates that it is necessary to provide enough energy to induce local mobility but not to cause atomic displacements leading to the buildup of stable defects, e.g. divacancies, below the surface layer of the growing film. (orig.)

  3. Recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.; Doerner, R.; Jagutzki, O.; Mergel, V.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Spielberger, L.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) is a novel technique to determine the charge state and the complete final momentum vector P R of a recoiling target ion emerging from an ionising collision of an atom with any kind of radiation. It offers a unique combination of superior momentum resolution in all three spatial directions of ΔP R = 0.07 a.u. with a large detection solid angle of ΔΩ R /4π≥ 98%. Recently, low-energy electron analysers based on rigorously new concepts and reaching similar specifications were successfully integrated into RIM spectrometers yielding so-called ''reaction microscopes''. Exploiting these techniques, a large variety of atomic reactions for ion, electron, photon and antiproton impact have been explored in unprecedented detail and completeness. Among them first kinematically complete experiments on electron capture, single and double ionisation in ion-atom collisions at projectile energies between 5 keV and 1.4 GeV. Double photoionisation of He has been investigated at energies E γ close to the threshold (E γ = 80 eV) up to E γ = 58 keV. At E γ >8 keV the contributions to double ionisation after photoabsorption and Compton scattering were kinematically separated for the first time. These and many other results will be reviewed in this article. In addition, the experimental technique is described in some detail and emphasis is given to envisage the rich future potential of the method in various fields of atomic collision physics with atoms, molecules and clusters. (orig.)

  4. The Hayes principles: learning from the national pilot of information technology and core generalisable theory in informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2010-06-01

    Conclusions Had the Hayes principles been embedded within our approach to health IT, and in particular to medical record implementation, we might have avoided many of the costly mistakes with the UK national programme. However, these principles need application within the modern IT environment. Closeness to the patient must not be interpreted as physical but instead as a virtual patient-centred space; data will be secure within the cloud and we should dump the vault and infrastructure mentality. Health IT should be developed as an adaptive ecosystem.

  5. Effects of energy variations of ions influencing a target on implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, V.P.; Rubtsov, V.A.; Aranovich, R.M.; Pavlov, P.V.

    1981-01-01

    In cases of phosphorus and boron ion implantation into silicon the dependence of electrophysical properties of ion-doped layers and target material near the layer boundaries on energy variation conditions of influencing ions is observed. A physical model explaining the dependence is proposed. It is found that for the target, being at room temperature, after successive annealing the qualitative characteristics of conditions (i.e. energy increase and decrease) on implantation of phosphorus ions into p-silicon and boron ions into n-silicon, as well as the value of energy stages, define rhosub(l) ion-doped layer resistivity and tausub(mc) nonequilibrium minority carrier lifetime in the base of p-n transitions. The essence of the effects observed is that for equal sets of Esub(i) ion energy values and PHIsub(i) corresponding phases at maximum energy used exceeding 30 keV, successive energy increase during implantation, when E 1 2 1 mode), leads to smaller rhosub(e) values and greater tausub(mc) than in case of successive energy decrease, when E 1 >E 2 >...E(E 2 mode) for any fixed annealing temperature. In cases when the maximum energy does not exceed 30 KeV, the E 1 and E 2 modes lead to analogous rhosub(e) and tausub(mc) values. The E 2 mode leads to enrichment of the ion-implanted layer with associations and complexes on the basis of interstitial atoms in comparison with the E 1 mode. The associations and complexes on thermal treatment are reformed into the higher-temperature interstitial complexes increasing rhosub(e) and decreasing tausub(mc). Supposition about the effect of these complexes and processes of structural transformations on annealing, hampering-improvement of structural properties of the ion-implanted layer and a crystal region bordered on it [ru

  6. Development of ECR ion source for the HIMAC medical accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Yamada, S.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the ECR ion source for the HIMAC injector is reported. The HIMAC facility has two types of the ion source, one is the PIG ion source and the other is the ECR ion source. The ECR ion source is especially expected long lifetime, easy operation, and easy maintenance for the medical use. Now, the system of the ion source is under construction. However, the tests of fundamental performances have been started. In the present tests, the output electrical currents of Ions are 1300 eμA of He 1+ , 210 eμA of Ne 3+ , and 100 eμA of Ar 6+ . And the good stability of the extracted beam is acquired. These performances satisfied the requirements for the radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Ion-induced particle desorption in time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, S.; Primetzhofer, D.

    2018-05-01

    Secondary ions emitted from solids upon ion impact are studied in a time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering (ToF-MEIS) set-up. In order to investigate characteristics of the emission processes and to evaluate the potential for surface and thin film analysis, experiments employing TiN and Al samples were conducted. The ejected ions exhibit a low initial kinetic energy of a few eV, thus, requiring a sufficiently high acceleration voltage for detection. Molecular and atomic ions of different charge states originating both from surface contaminations and the sample material are found, and relative yields of several species were determined. Experimental evidence that points towards a predominantly electronic sputtering process is presented. For emitted Ti target atoms an additional nuclear sputtering component is suggested.

  8. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  9. Spectroscopy of highly charged tungsten ions with Electron Beam Ion Traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Morita, Shigeru; Murakami, Izumi; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Ohashi, Hayato; Yatsurugi, Junji; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present spectra of highly charged tungsten ions in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) by using electron beam ion traps. The electron energy dependence of spectra is investigated of electron energies from 490 to 1440 eV. Previously unreported lines are presented in the EUV range, and some of them are identified by comparing the wavelengths with theoretical calculations. (author)

  10. The gridless plasma ion source (GIS) for plasma ion assisted optical coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Dawei; Li Xiaoqian; Wang Yu; Lin Yongchang

    2004-01-01

    High-quality optical coating is a key technology for modern optics. Ion-assisted deposition technology was used to improve the vaporized coating in 1980's. The GIS (gridless ion source), which is an advanced plasma source for producing a high-quality optical coating in large area, can produce a large area uniformity>1000 mm (diameter), a high ion current density ∼0.5 mA/cm 2 , 20 eV-200 eV energetic plasma ions and can activate reactive gas and film atoms. Now we have developed a GIS system. The GIS and the plasma ion-assisted deposition technology are investigated to achieve a high-quality optical coating. The GIS is a high power and high current source with a power of 1 kW-7.5 kW, a current of 10 A- 70 A and an ion density of 200 μA/cm 2 -500 μA/cm 2 . Because of the special magnetic structure, the plasma-ion extraction efficiency has been improved to obtain a maximum ion density of 500 μA/cm 2 in the medium power (∼4 kW) level. The GIS applied is of a special cathode structure, so that the GIS operation can be maintained under a rather low power and the lifetime of cathode will be extended. The GIS has been installed in the LPSX-1200 type box coating system. The coated TiO 2 , SiO 2 films such as antireflective films with the system have the same performance reported by Leybold Co, 1992, along with a controllable refractive index and film structure. (authors)

  11. Diffusion of Li+ ion on graphene: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiming; Ren Zhaoyu; Guo Ping; Fang Li; Fan Jun

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory investigations show that the Li + ion is stabilized at Center of hexagonal carbon ring with the distance of 1.84 Å from graphene surface. The potential barrier of Li + ion diffusion on the graphene surface, about 0.32 eV, is much lower than that of Li + ion penetrating the carbon ring which is 10.68 eV. When a vacancy of graphene exists, potential barrier about 10.25 eV for Li + ion penetrating the defect is still high, and the ability of the vacancy to sizing the Li + ion is also observed. Electronic densities of states show that the formation of a localized bond between Li atom and edge carbon of vacancy is the main reason for high potential barrier when Li + ion penetrate a vacancy. While Coulomb repulsion is the control factor for high potential barrier in case of Li + ion penetrating a carbon ring.

  12. Ion pair formation in the vacuum ultraviolet region of NO studied by negative ion imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Kaneyasu, T.; Shigemasa, E.

    2007-01-01

    The pair formation of positive and negative fragment ions has been studied in the vacuum ultraviolet region of NO, with negative ion imaging spectroscopy. The negative ion yield curve obtained in the photon energy region of 19-25 eV exhibits many structures which are absent from the photoabsorption spectrum in the same region. The partial yields and asymmetry parameters associated with the dissociations into individual ion pair limits have been extracted from the negative ion images observed. On the basis of these quantities, the assignments for the structures exhibited on the negative ion yield curve are given and the dynamical properties on the ion pair dissociation are discussed

  13. Fragmentation and reactivity of energy-selected ferrocenium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestdagh, H.; Dutuit, O.; Heninger, M.; Thissen, R.; Alcaraz, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, results concerning the discussion of state-selected ferrocenium ions (c-C 5 H 5 ) 2 Fe + commonly called Cp 2 Fe + , as well as their reactions with methanol and ethanol are presented. Parent ions Cp 2 Fe + were produced by vacuumultraviolett (VUV) photoionization of neutral ferrocene using synchrotron radiation, and selected in internal energy by threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidences. The apparatus is divided into three differentially pumped regions: the source, the reaction and the detection zones. In source, state-selected parent ions are formed and can be selected in mass by a first quadrupole filter. State-selected ions are then injected in the second zone which is a RF octopole ion guide where reaction product ions are mass analyzed by a second quadrupole filter and detected by microchannelplates. In addition, the long flight time in the octopoles (several hundreds of microseconds) allows studying long-lived metastable ions. Total mass spectra were recorded at different photon energies, in addition to the main CpFe + and Fe + fragments, several minor fragments were detected such as C 10 H 10 + which reflects the formation of a C-C bond between the two Cp ligands. Losses of CH 3 , C 2 H 2 and C-4H 4 also indicate that important structure rearrangements take place before cleavage. The appearance energies of each mass-selected fragment ion were measured by recording fragment ion yields as a function of photon energy. Surprisingly, all fragments were found to have the same energy onset, i.e. 13.2 eV photon energy, except for C 3 H 3 Fe + (m/z 95). For Fe + ions, a sharp increase was observed at 17 eV, above the thermochemical onset of Fe + + 2 Cp. The 13.2 eV appearance energy of Fe + is thus assigned to the formation of Fe - + C 10 H 10 . The reactivity of ferrocenium ion with methanol and ethanol was investigated as a function of photon energy. While no reaction occurs at lower photon energies, several reaction products appear at 13.0 e

  14. Fully kinetic simulation of ion acoustic and dust-ion acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini Jenab, S. M.; Kourakis, I.; Abbasi, H.

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations is presented, based on a recurrence-free Vlasov kinetic model using kinetic phase point trajectories. All plasma components are modeled kinetically via a Vlasov evolution equation, then coupled through Poisson's equation. The dynamics of ion acoustic waves in an electron-ion and in a dusty (electron-ion-dust) plasma configuration are investigated, focusing on wave decay due to Landau damping and, in particular, on the parametric dependence of the damping rate on the dust concentration and on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio. In the absence of dust, the occurrence of damping was observed, as expected, and its dependence to the relative magnitude of the electron vs ion temperature(s) was investigated. When present, the dust component influences the charge balance, enabling dust-ion acoustic waves to survive Landau damping even in the extreme regime where T e ≅ T i . The Landau damping rate is shown to be minimized for a strong dust concentration or/and for a high value of the electron-to-ion temperature ratio. Our results confirm earlier theoretical considerations and contribute to the interpretation of experimental observations of dust-ion acoustic wave characteristics.

  15. Digestão de carboidratos em equinos alimentados com dietas compostas de volumoso ou de volumoso suplementado com concentrado e/ou óleo de soja Carbohydrate digestion in horses fed diets composed by roughages or roughages supplemented with concentrate and/or soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S Morgado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se as frações dos carboidratos não fibrosos, hidrolisáveis e rapidamente fermentáveis em diferentes dietas e estimou-se a digestibilidade aparente desses nutrientes em dois ensaios com equinos. No ensaio I, utilizaram-se quatro equinos em delineamento quadrado latino 4x4, que consumiram dietas compostas por: feno de tifton-85; feno de tifton-85 e feno de alfafa; feno de tifton-85, feno de alfafa e concentrado; feno de tifton-85 e concentrado. No ensaio II, utilizaram-se 15 equinos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, que consumiram dietas com 5, 13 e 21% de extrato etéreo, obtidos com a inclusão de diferentes proporções de óleo de soja. A inclusão de concentrado nas dietas aumentou a digestibilidade dos carboidratos não fibrosos e de suas frações, sem afetar a digestibilidade da fibra, enquanto, em dietas com 13% de extrato etéreo, a digestibilidade das frações dos carboidratos fibrosos e a dos não fibrosos não foram afetadas. Nas dietas com 21% de extrato etéreo, houve redução na digestibilidade da celulose e dos carboidratos não fibrosos e suas frações hidrolisáveis e rapidamente fermentáveis. A análise dos carboidratos não fibrosos é uma boa estimativa do valor nutricional dos alimentos, podendo ser incluída na avaliação da qualidade dos alimentos e dietas dos equinos.The fractions of nonfiber carbohydrates, hydrolyzable carbohydrates, and rapidly fermentable carbohydrates of diets and the apparent digestibility of these nutrients were evaluated in horses in two digestion assays. In assay I, four horses in 4x4 latin square diets: tifton-85 hay; tifton-85 hay and alfafa hay; tifton-85 hay, alfafa hay, and concentrate; and tifton-85 hay and concentrate. In assay II, fifteen horses were used in a completely randomized design, diets with 5, 13, and 21% ether obtained with the inclusion of different proportions of soybean oil. Results showed that inclusion of concentrate in diets increased

  16. Cross-sections of charge and electronic states change of particles at ion-ion and ion-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, M.N.; Afrosimov, V.V.; Basalaev, A.A.; Guschina, N.A.; Nikulin, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions of protons and alpha-particles with hydrocarbons are investigated. A quantum-mechanical computation of the electronic structure of all hydrocarbons from methane to butane and its fragment ions was performed in the Hartree-Fock RHF/UHF approximation using a GAMESS program (General Atomic Molecular Electron Structure System). The correlation energy was taken into account within the framework of MP2 perturbation theory. The structural parameters of the hydrocarbon molecules and their charged and neutral fragments were calculated in two cases: in the geometry of the parent molecule or of the relaxation states. The difference of the full energy of the same fragments in and out of brackets gives us the vibration excitation energies of the fragments at the moment of creation. Additional Mulliken effective charges (in electron charge units) of atoms in the fragments have been calculated. The calculations show that removing one electron from the ethane molecule without electronic excitation produced a single charged molecular ion in vibration state with binding energy of hydrogen atoms, some decimal eV. As results we obtain C 2 H 6 + and C 2 H 5 + . Additional fragmentation of hydrocarbon needs electronic excitation of produced single charged ions. Cross sections for electron capture and excitation processes in collisions between the hydrogen-like He + , B 4+ and O 7+ ions have been evaluated. The purpose of the theory within this project during the period under review was to get for the first time new data on Single-Electron Capture (SEC) and Excitation Processes (EP) in collisions of He + (1s) ions with hydrogen-like impurity ions B 4+ (1s) and O 7+ (1s) in the energy range for He + ions from 0.2 MeV to 3.0 MeV. The calculations were carried out by using the method of close-coupling equations with basis sets of eleven and ten quasimolecular two-electron states for reactions (1, 2) and (3, 4), respectively (entrance channel, seven charge transfer channels

  17. EUV spectrum of highly charged tungsten ions in electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, H.A.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Nakamura, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present spectra of highly charged tungsten ions in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) by using electron beam ion traps. The electron energy dependence of spectra was investigated for electron energy from 540 to 1370 eV. Previously unreported lines were presented in the EUV range, and comparing the wavelengths with theoretical calculations identified them. (author)

  18. Development of Li+ alumino-silicate ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Kwan, J.

    2009-01-01

    To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, one strategy is to deposit most of the ion energy at the peak of energy loss (dE/dx) with a low (E < 5 MeV) kinetic energy beam and a thin target. Lower mass ions have a peak dE/dx at a lower kinetic energy. To this end, a small lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate source has been fabricated, and its emission limit has been measured. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1000-1150 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Alumino-silicates sources of K+ and Cs+ have been used extensively in beam experiments, but there are additional challenges for the preparation of high-quality Li+ sources: There are tighter tolerances in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. We report on recent measurements ofhigh ( up to 35 mA/cm2) current density from a Li+ source. Ion species identification of possible contaminants is being verified with a Wien (E x B) filter, and via time-of-flight.

  19. In vivo and in situ measurements of the digestive characteristics of sainfoin in comparison with lucerne fed to sheep as fresh forages at two growth stages and as hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufrère, J; Dudilieu, M; Poncet, C

    2008-09-01

    In vivo and in situ digestive characteristics of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L., a tannin-rich forage) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L., a tannin-free forage) were compared to evaluate the effects of condensed tannins (CT) and growth stage (vegetative v. early flowering) in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the hays of the two forages, harvested at early flowering, were compared. Ingestibility, organic matter digestibility (OMD) and nitrogen (N) retention were measured in sheep fed sainfoin and lucerne fresh forages and hays. The loss of dry matter (DM) and N from polyester bags suspended in the rumen, abomasum and small intestine was also measured using rumen fistulated sheep and other intestine fistulated sheep. Nitrogen content was lower in sainfoin than in lucerne. Content of CT in sainfoin decreased with growth stage (3.5 to 2.5 g CT/kg DM) and was lower for sainfoin hay (0.6 g CT/kg DM). Ingestibility and OMD did not differ between fresh-fed forage species. Total N tract digestibility in vivo was much lower for sainfoin than for lucerne fresh forages (mean value 0.540 v. 0.721, P forages. Nitrogen degradability in the rumen determined by the nylon bag technique (DegN) was lower for sainfoin than for lucerne when forages were studied both fresh (mean value 0.608 and 0.818, respectively) and as hays (0.631 and 0.767). The efficiency of forage N digestion (ENd) was higher for sainfoin at the vegetative stage. Compared with lucerne, sainfoin greatly increased the in situ estimate of forage N escaping the rumen but decreased its intestinal digestibility.

  20. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  1. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for heavy ion physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhof, P.; Kraft-Bermuth, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2005-05-01

    Calorimetric low temperature detectors have the potential to become powerful tools for applications in many fields of heavy ion physics. A brief overview of heavy ion physics at present and at the next generation heavy ion facilities is given with a special emphasis on the conditions for heavy ion detection and the potential advantage of cryogenic detectors for applications in heavy ion physics. Two types of calorimetric low temperature detectors for the detection of energetic heavy ions have been developed and their response to the impact of heavy ions was investigated systematically for a wide range of energies (E=0.1-360 MeV/amu) and ion species ({sup 4}He.. {sup 238}U). Excellent results with respect to energy resolution, {delta}E/E ranging from 1 to 5 x 10{sup -3} even for the heaviest ions, and other basic detector properties such as energy linearity with no indication of a pulse height defect, energy threshold, detection efficiency and radiation hardness have been obtained, representing a considerable improvement as compared to conventional heavy ion detectors based on ionization. With the achieved performance, calorimetric low temperature detectors bear a large potential for applications in various fields of basic and applied heavy ion research. A brief overview of a few prominent examples, such as high resolution nuclear spectroscopy, high resolution nuclear mass determination, which may be favourably used for identification of superheavy elements or in direct reaction experiments with radioactive beams, as well as background discrimination in accelerator mass spectrometry, is given, and first results are presented. For instance, the use of cryogenic detectors allowed to improve the sensitivity in trace analysis of {sup 236}U by one order of magnitude and to determine the up to date smallest isotope ratio of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U = 6.1 x 10{sup -12} in a sample of natural uranium. Besides the detection of heavy ions, the concept of cryogenic detectors also

  2. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelhof, P.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Mainz Univ.

    2005-07-01

    Calorimetric low temperature detectors have the potential to become powerful tools for applications in many fields of heavy ion physics. A brief overview of heavy ion physics at present and at the next generation heavy ion facilities is given with a special emphasis on the conditions for heavy ion detection and the potential advantage of cryogenic detectors for applications in heavy ion physics. Two types of calorimetric low temperature detectors for the detection of energetic heavy ions have been developed and their response to the impact of heavy ions was investigated systematically for a wide range of energies (E=0.1-360 MeV/amu) and ion species ( 4 He.. 238 U). Excellent results with respect to energy resolution, ΔE/E ranging from 1 to 5 x 10 -3 even for the heaviest ions, and other basic detector properties such as energy linearity with no indication of a pulse height defect, energy threshold, detection efficiency and radiation hardness have been obtained, representing a considerable improvement as compared to conventional heavy ion detectors based on ionization. With the achieved performance, calorimetric low temperature detectors bear a large potential for applications in various fields of basic and applied heavy ion research. A brief overview of a few prominent examples, such as high resolution nuclear spectroscopy, high resolution nuclear mass determination, which may be favourably used for identification of superheavy elements or in direct reaction experiments with radioactive beams, as well as background discrimination in accelerator mass spectrometry, is given, and first results are presented. For instance, the use of cryogenic detectors allowed to improve the sensitivity in trace analysis of 236 U by one order of magnitude and to determine the up to date smallest isotope ratio of 236 U/ 238 U = 6.1 x 10 -12 in a sample of natural uranium. Besides the detection of heavy ions, the concept of cryogenic detectors also provides considerable advantage for X

  3. Monitoring Ion Activities In and Around Cells Using Ion-Selective Liquid-Membrane Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Parker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the effective concentration (i.e., activity of ions in and around living cells is important to our understanding of the contribution of those ions to cellular function. Moreover, monitoring changes in ion activities in and around cells is informative about the actions of the transporters and/or channels operating in the cell membrane. The activity of an ion can be measured using a glass microelectrode that includes in its tip a liquid-membrane doped with an ion-selective ionophore. Because these electrodes can be fabricated with tip diameters that are less than 1 μm, they can be used to impale single cells in order to monitor the activities of intracellular ions. This review summarizes the history, theory, and practice of ion-selective microelectrode use and brings together a number of classic and recent examples of their usefulness in the realm of physiological study.

  4. Composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. em cinco estádios de corte Chemical composition of the hay of the Bauhinia glabra Jacq. in five periods of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Soares Batista

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. aos 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias de crescimento, após o corte de uniformização. Delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições foi usado. O feno foi obtido em uma área de pastagem nativa rebaixada/raleada de 7200 m², subdividida em parcelas de 360 m². Não houve diferenças para os teores de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, hemicelulose e fósforo (P. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose, lignina e cálcio (Ca apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. Os teores médios para a composição químico-bromatológica foram: 88,90% MS, 94,17% MO, 5,51% MM, 17,97% PB, 58,12% FDN, 40,88% FDA, 17,11% hemicelulose, 27,33% celulose, 12,77% lignina, 0,29% Ca e 0,15% P. Os fenos avaliados são recomendáveis para suplementação protéica em dietas para ruminantes. Com o avançar do estádio vegetativo, aumentaram linearmente os constituintes da parede celular e o Ca.This research was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq hay at 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days of growth after uniformity cut. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and four replicates, was used. The hay was obtained from an area of native pasture lowed and cleaned of 7200 m², which were subdivided in plots of 360 m². There were no differences for the content of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose and phosphorus (P. However, differences were observed for the neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose, lignin and calcium (Ca contents among the treatments. The average contents for the chemical composition were: 88.90% DM, 94.17% OM, 5.51% ash, 17.97% CP, 58.12% NDF, 40.88% ADF, 17.11% hemicellulose, 27

  5. Development of exploding wire ion source for intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Y.; Murata, T.; Ito, H.; Masugata, K.

    2012-01-01

    A Novel exploding wire type ion source device is proposed as a metallic ion source of intense pulsed heavy ion beam (PHIB) accelerator. In the device multiple shot operations is realized without breaking the vacuum. The basic characteristics of the device are evaluated experimentally with an aluminum wire of diameter 0.2 mm, length 25 mm. Capacitor bank of capacitance 3 μF, charging voltage 30 kV was used and the wire was successfully exploded by a discharge current of 15 kA, rise time 5.3 μs. Plasma flux of ion current density around 70 A/cm 2 was obtained at 150 mm downstream from the device. The drift velocity of ions evaluated by a time-of-flight method was 2.7x10 4 m/sec, which corresponds to the kinetic energy of 100 eV for aluminum ions. From the measurement of ion current density distribution ion flow is found to be concentrated to the direction where ion acceleration gap is placed. From the experiment the device is found to be acceptable for applying PHIB accelerator. (author)

  6. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L. T.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, X. X.; Wang, H.; Guo, X. H.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed

  7. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed.

  8. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e μA of Xe 37+ , 1 e μA of Xe 43+ , and 0.16 e μA of Ne-like Xe 44+ . To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi 31+ beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e μA of Bi 31+ , 22 e μA of Bi 41+ , and 1.5 e μA of Bi 50+ have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  9. Energization of helium ions by proton-induced hydromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendrin, R.; Roux, A.

    1980-01-01

    We consider the diffusion of He + ions under the influence of ion cyclotron waves generated in a plasma consisting of three different ion populations: a thermal isotropic population containing both H + and He + ions and an energetic H + population, with a positive anisotropy A=T/sub perpendicular//T/sub parallel/-1. We compute, in the velocity space upsilon/sub parallel/, upsilon/sub perpendicular/, the diffusion curves that He + ions will follow in the presence of ion cyclotron waves propagating in such a medium. We show that for small concentrations of the He + ions, of the order of 1 to approx.10%, these ions can be energized by such a process up to and above suprathermal energies (E> or approx. =20 eV). On some occasions the He + ions may even reach energies of the order of the Alfven energy of the cold plasma population: E/sub a/approx. =m/sub p/V/sub a/ 2 approx. =5 keV. Characteristic diffusion times, in pitch angle and energy, for both ion species, are evaluated. They are of the order of 2 to 20 min. These theoretical results are discussed in the frame of recent observations by Geos experimenters showing the close association that exists between the occurrence of ion cyclotron ULF waves and the presence of thermal or supra-thermal He + ions in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere

  10. Investigation of generalized overlap amplitudes via (e,2e) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.R.J.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1976-11-01

    The (e,2e) reaction has previously been shown to be an extremely direct and accurate measure of the overlap of the wave function of a target molecule with that of different resolved electronic states of the positive ion resulting from electron knockout. The present paper discusses the reaction in relation to the direct computation of the structure overlaps for different ion states as the generalized overlap amplitudes appearing in the spectral resolution of the one-particle Green's function. The case of water is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the Green's function technique for calculating (e,2e) cross sections of the principal ion states and the use of the reaction as a very sensitive measure of the long-range charge density. (Author)

  11. Hydrogen ion species analysis and related neutral beam injection power assessment in the Heliotron E neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Obiki, Tokuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiko; Iiyoshi, Atsuo; Uo, Koji

    1982-01-01

    The hydrogen ion species in a Heliotron E neutral beam injection system of maximum electric power 6.3 MW were analyzed in order to assess the neutral beam power injected into the torus. The masimum p roton ratio of the cylindrical bucket type ion source used was observed to be more than 90 percent assuming that the angular divergences for the respective species in the beam are the same. The experimental data are compared with calculations using a particle balance model. The analysis indicates that the net injection power reaches nearly 2.7 MW at the optimal conditions of the system considering the geometrical limitation of the neutral beam path. (author)

  12. Linear and nonlinear ion beam instabilities in a double plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.G.; Diebold, D.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1994-01-01

    Ion beam instabilities in the double plasma device DOLI-1 were found to be quite sensitive to the difference between the source and target chamber plasma potentials when those potentials were within an electron temperature T e /e or so of each other. When the target chamber plasma potential of DOLI-1 was ≤ T e /e more positive than the source chamber plasma potential, a global ion beam-ion beam instability was observed. On the other hand, when the maximum target potential was between approximately 0.5 T e /e and 2.0 T e /e below the source potential, an ion-ion beam instability and a soliton associated with it were observed. This soliton is unique in that it is not launched but rather is self generated by the plasma and beam. When the target potential was less than source potential by more than two or so T e /e, the plasma was quite quiescent, which allowed small amplitude wave packet launched by Langmuir probe to be detected

  13. Composition and energy spectrum variations of auroral ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, J.; Leach, R.; Pulliam, D.; Scherb, F.

    1977-01-01

    We have detected H + ,O + , and He ++ ions with E/q up to 20 keV/charge in a hydrogen aurora over Churchill, Manitoba, during the flight of a Javelin sounding rocket on February 11, 1975, We observed several examples of different types of ion events. One type consisted of bursts of H + and O + ions which arrived simultaneously at all energies within the range of the E/q analyzer. These events were apparently of local origin (distance + ions (O + /H + approximately-greater-than30%). A second type of event consisted of bursts of enhanced H + counting rates but no O + ions. The dispersion in time of the energy spectrum was consistent with an injection and acceleration site located at about 20 R/sub E/ from the earth. An enhancement of the He ++ counting rates was associated with these events, but the He ++ data are of limited statistical significance. A third type of event, consisting of short bursts of H + ions with wide energy spreads, was observed in association with an event in which the energy of the H + ions showed time dispersion. We interpret these short H + bursts as due to ions trapped in traveling waves generated by an explosive injection of plasma in the earth's magnetotail

  14. PIXiE: an algorithm for automated ion mobility arrival time extraction and collision cross section calculation using global data association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jian; Casey, Cameron P.; Zheng, Xueyun; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Wilkins, Christopher S.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Payne, Samuel H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Baker, Erin S.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2017-05-15

    Motivation: Drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (DTIMS) is increasingly implemented in high throughput omics workflows, and new informatics approaches are necessary for processing the associated data. To automatically extract arrival times for molecules measured by DTIMS coupled with mass spectrometry and compute their associated collisional cross sections (CCS) we created the PNNL Ion Mobility Cross Section Extractor (PIXiE). The primary application presented for this algorithm is the extraction of information necessary to create a reference library containing accu-rate masses, DTIMS arrival times and CCSs for use in high throughput omics analyses. Results: We demonstrate the utility of this approach by automatically extracting arrival times and calculating the associated CCSs for a set of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics. The PIXiE-generated CCS values were identical to those calculated by hand and within error of those calcu-lated using commercially available instrument vendor software.

  15. Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-01-01

    Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

  16. Parametric variations of ion transport in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.D.; Ernst, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is divided into three roughly independent sections. The first is a historical review of the twenty year history of experimental ion heat transport measurements from many tokamaks. The second is a study of ion heat transport in Ohmic TFTR plasmas which shows that χi ∼ χe ∼ 15χi neo . Thus, ion heat transport is demonstrated to be strongly anomalous even the absence of auxiliary heating. The third section describes the variation of χi with local ion temperature in TFTR during auxiliary heating, with emphasis on characterizing the differecens between transport in the L-mode and supershot regimes. The results are consistent with the conjecture that improved ion energy confinement in supershot plasmas is caused by a high ratio of T 1 /T e

  17. Effect of monensin withdrawal on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin withdrawal and cattle subspecies on the utilization of bermudagrass hay (14.3% CP, 72.3% NDF, and 36.9% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos Taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatme...

  18. The Generation of Dehydroalanine Residues in Protonated Polypeptides: Ion/Ion Reactions for Introducing Selective Cleavages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhou; Bu, Jiexun; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-09-01

    We examine a gas-phase approach for converting a subset of amino acid residues in polypeptide cations to dehydroalanine (Dha). Subsequent activation of the modified polypeptide ions gives rise to specific cleavage N-terminal to the Dha residue. This process allows for the incorporation of selective cleavages in the structural characterization of polypeptide ions. An ion/ion reaction within the mass spectrometer between a multiply protonated polypeptide and the sulfate radical anion introduces a radical site into the multiply protonated polypeptide reactant. Subsequent collisional activation of the polypeptide radical cation gives rise to radical side chain loss from one of several particular amino acid side chains (e.g., leucine, asparagine, lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid) to yield a Dha residue. The Dha residues facilitate preferential backbone cleavages to produce signature c- and z-ions, demonstrated with cations derived from melittin, mechano growth factor (MGF), and ubiquitin. The efficiencies for radical side chain loss and for subsequent generation of specific c- and z-ions have been examined as functions of precursor ion charge state and activation conditions using cations of ubiquitin as a model for a small protein. It is noted that these efficiencies are not strongly dependent on ion trap collisional activation conditions but are sensitive to precursor ion charge state. Moderate to low charge states show the greatest overall yields for the specific Dha cleavages, whereas small molecule losses (e.g., water/ammonia) dominate at the lowest charge states and proton catalyzed amide bond cleavages that give rise to b- and y-ions tend to dominate at high charge states. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Interaction of He+2 ions with hydrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrosimov, V.V.; Leiko, G.A.; Panov, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    Cross sections for all elementary reactions involving a change in charge state in He +2 -H 2 collisions have been measured for He +2 kinetic energies in the range E=1.2--100 keV. Measurements were carried out by distinguishing an individual collision by a coincidence method and by simultaneously analyzing the charge states of the fast and slow particles. Furthermore, in the same event, the electronic states of the particles after the collision were determined by analyzing the kinetic energies of the resulting ions. The elementary reactions involving the formation of He + ions in the ground and excited states were studied. The reactions involving transitions in the hydrogen molecule to the 1ssigma/sub g/ and 2psigma/sub u/ states of H 2 + ions, and reactions in which wto protons are formed, were also studied. At E>15 keV, the largest cross section is that corresponding to one-electron capture: He +2 +H 2 →He + +H 2 + (this cross section is sigma=8.3 x 10 -16 cm 2 at E=50 keV). In this reaction, 90--98% of the He + ions are formed in excited states with principal quantum number n=2. At E + ion predominates, accompanied by the simultaneous dissociation of the H 2 + ion: He +2 +H 2 →He + (1s)+H + H+H0+e - . The cross section for this exothermic capture with dissociation (the energy released is ΔEapprox. =+36.3--3.8 eV) increases with decreasing energy E. At E>15 keV, an endothermic pathway is predominant: →He + (2s,2p)+H + +H+0+e - (the energy expended, ΔE, is more than 3.2 eV). The existence of two capture reactions with dissociation - exothermic and endothermic - leads to a minimum in the cross section for this reaction, at Eapprox. =15 keV. Ionization reactions and ionization with dissociation have the smallest cross sections

  20. Ion Sources for MedAustron

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Wallner, J; Sargsyan, E; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H31+, C4+ and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility; such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize ECR ions beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating...

  1. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, I.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H − ions from the double-ion plasma in H − negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H − ion density n H − as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,n H − in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H − emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H − transport will be studied in the future

  2. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, I.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate school of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H{sup −} ions from the double-ion plasma in H{sup −} negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H{sup −} ion density n{sub H{sup −}} as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,n{sub H{sup −}} in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H{sup −} emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H{sup −} transport will be studied in the future.

  3. Heavy ion elastic and quasi-elastic scattering above E/A = 30 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.

    1986-05-01

    At high energy, heavy-ion elastic scattering probes the ion-ion potential in a large domain much inside the strong absorption radius. This results in a more precise determination of the real part of the nuclear potential and a consistent picture of its evolution with energy begins to emerge. It is relatively similar to that observed in light ion scattering. Even if the inelastic angular distributions seem to contain less refractive or interior contribution, coupled channel effects from these states are still important at least up to 20 MeV/n. Heavy-ion induced transfer reactions to discrete states have small cross sections but present a very strong selectivity for states with the highest available spin and could thus provide new and interesting spectroscopic information

  4. Influence of nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions on double-layer capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Recently a Poisson-Helmholtz-Boltzmann (PHB) model [Bohinc , Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.031130 85, 031130 (2012)] was developed by accounting for solvent-mediated nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions. Nonelectrostatic interactions are described by a Yukawa-like pair potential. In the present work, we modify the PHB model by adding steric effects (finite ion size) into the free energy to derive governing equations. The modified PHB model is capable of capturing both ion specificity and ion crowding. This modified model is then employed to study the capacitance of the double layer. More specifically, we focus on the influence of nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions on charging a double layer near a flat surface in the presence of steric effects. We numerically compute the differential capacitance as a function of the voltage under various conditions. At small voltages and low salt concentrations (dilute solution), we find out that the predictions from the modified PHB model are the same as those from the classical Poisson-Boltzmann theory, indicating that nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions and steric effects are negligible. At moderate voltages, nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions play an important role in determining the differential capacitance. Generally speaking, nonelectrostatic interactions decrease the capacitance because of additional nonelectrostatic repulsion among excess counterions inside the double layer. However, increasing the voltage gradually favors steric effects, which induce a condensed layer with crowding of counterions near the electrode. Accordingly, the predictions from the modified PHB model collapse onto those computed by the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory considering steric effects alone. Finally, theoretical predictions are compared and favorably agree with experimental data, in particular, in concentrated solutions, leading one to conclude that the modified PHB model adequately predicts the diffuse

  5. [Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5 degree LAB < 55 degree, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report

  6. Detection system with a large angular acceptance and an energy high dynamics, for heavy ion physics at intermediate energies: M.E.ω. detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, F.

    1985-01-01

    Built for intermediate energy heavy ions nuclear physics, the M.E.ω. detector uses various and complementary detection methods: ionization chamber, parallel plate avalanche counter, plastic scintillators. With these techniques, velocity, energy, mass and charge of nuclei were measured over wide range. From the detailed theoretical study of each method, limitations and perturbation causes are deduced. The solutions used for optimizing the detector, and the main results are exposed. The internal sectorisation of the detector, which permits a modulation in counting rate and electronical adjustments, has been revealed to be very suitable for heavy ions intermediate energy physics. Results of the first experiment realised with M.E.ω. (Ar + Ag at 35 MeV/u) are commented [fr

  7. Ion acoustic waves in pair-ion plasma: Linear and nonlinear analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, R.; Mushtaq, A.

    2009-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear properties of low frequency ion acoustic wave (IAW) in pair-ion plasma in the presence of electrons are investigated. The dispersion relation and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation for linear/nonlinear IAW are derived from sets of hydrodynamic equations where the ion pairs are inertial while electrons are Boltzmannian. The dispersion curves for various concentrations of electrons are discussed and compared with experimental results. The predicted linear IAW propagates at the same frequencies as those of the experimentally observed IAW if n e0 ∼10 4 cm -3 . It is found that nonlinear profile of the ion acoustic solitary waves is significantly affected by the percentage ratio of electron number density and temperature. It is also determined that rarefactive solitary waves can propagate in this system. It is hoped that the results presented in this study would be helpful in understanding the salient features of the finite amplitude localized ion acoustic solitary pulses in a laboratory fullerene plasma.

  8. Helicity, membrane incorporation, orientation and thermal stability of the large conductance mechanosensitive ion channel from E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, I. T.; Sukharev, S. I.; Blount, P.; Kung, C.; Brunger, A. T.

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we present structural studies on the large conductance mechanosensitive ion channel (MscL) from E. coli in detergent micelles and lipid vesicles. Both transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicate that the protein is highly helical in detergents as well as liposomes. The secondary structure of the proteins was shown to be highly resistant towards denaturation (25-95 degrees C) based on an ellipticity thermal profile. Amide H+/D+ exchange was shown to be extensive (ca. 66%), implying that two thirds of the protein are water accessible. MscL, reconstituted in oriented lipid bilayers, was shown to possess a net bilayer orientation using dichroic ratios measured by attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Here, we present and discuss this initial set of structural data on this new family of ion-channel proteins.

  9. Effect of monensin inclusion on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-t...

  10. Production of alfalfa hay under different drying methods Produção de feno de alfafa sob diferentes métodos de desidratação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Abbado Neres

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed at determining the dehydration curve at nine times (0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 46 hours after cuting of the plants; the leaf/stem ratio and number of leaves per stem in alfalfa submitted to four managements during the drying process. It was also evaluated the bromatologic composition and in vitro digestibility of the dry matter and cell wall of alfalfa hay before storage. The drying methods applied for alfalfa were the following: drying in the field until 50% DM and drying conclusion in an airy shed; drying in the field without turning; drying with only one turning and drying with two turnings. The experimental design was completely randomized with four drying methods and five replications. Leaf dehydration was faster when compared to the stems in all drying methods. Drying in the shed promoted the lesser re-hydration of the plants at night due to dew. It was also verified that alfalfa hays that remained under the sun and were turned showed the worst quality with reduction in crude protein contents and increase in NDF, ADF, NDIN and ADIN. However, in vitro dry matter digestibility and cell wall digestibility did not suffer any alteration because of the different dehydration methods (69.79 and 41.39%, respectively. There is a market fall of leaves and a reduction on the number of leaves per stem with the turnings.Os objetivos do trabalho foram estimar a curva de desidratação em nove tempos (0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 27, 30, 33 e 46 horas após o corte, a relação folha/haste, número de folhas por haste de alfafa submetida a quatro manejos no processo de secagem. Também foram avaliadas a composição bromatológica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e parede celular do feno antes do armazenamento. Os métodos de secagem da alfafa foram: secagem a campo até 50% de MS e término da secagem em galpão arejado, secagem a campo sem nenhuma viragem; secagem com apenas uma viragem; secagem com duas viragens. O delineamento

  11. Hepatitis E virus ORF3 is a functional ion channel required for release of infectious particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qiang; Heller, Brigitte; Capuccino, Juan M V; Song, Bokai; Nimgaonkar, Ila; Hrebikova, Gabriela; Contreras, Jorge E; Ploss, Alexander

    2017-01-31

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of enterically transmitted viral hepatitis globally. Of HEV's three ORFs, the function of ORF3 has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that via homophilic interactions ORF3 forms multimeric complexes associated with intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived membranes. HEV ORF3 shares several structural features with class I viroporins, and the function of HEV ORF3 can be maintained by replacing it with the well-characterized viroporin influenza A virus (IAV) matrix-2 protein. ORF3's ion channel function is further evidenced by its ability to mediate ionic currents when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Furthermore, we identified several positions in ORF3 critical for its formation of multimeric complexes, ion channel activity, and, ultimately, release of infectious particles. Collectively, our data demonstrate a previously undescribed function of HEV ORF3 as a viroporin, which may serve as an attractive target in developing direct-acting antivirals.

  12. Produção, composição do leite e constituintes sangüíneos de cabras alimentadas com diferentes volumosos Production, milk composition and blood parameters in goats fed different forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Ribeiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se nove cabras da raça Saanen, para estudar o efeito de dietas compostas por três diferentes fontes de volumosos, feno de alfafa, silagem de milho e feno de aveia, sobre a ingestão de matéria seca, produção e composição do leite e sobre os constituintes sangüíneos, glicose e uréia plasmáticas, em triplo quadrado latino 3x3. Os consumos de matéria seca e proteína bruta dos animais alimentados com feno de alfafa foram mais altos que os à base de silagem de milho (P0,05 das dietas sobre a produção diária de leite (kg/dia, sobre os teores (% de gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais e sobre a contagem de células somáticas (cels/mlx1000. Os animais que consumiram feno de alfafa produziram maiores quantidades (P0,05. Os resultados indicaram que a fonte de volumoso, em rações isoenergéticas e isoproteicas, afeta o desempenho dos animais pela alteração no consumo de MS e PB e produção dos constituintes do leite (kg/dia.Nine Saanen dairy goats, consuming diets composed of three different sources of roughage (alfalfa hay, corn silage, and oat hay were used to study the effect of those diets on the ingestion of dry matter (DM, on milk production, milk composition, and plasmatic glucose and urea levels. The experimental design was a triple latin square 3x3. The intakes of DM and crude protein by the animals fed on alfalfa hay were higher than those fed ration based on corn silage (P0.05 of the diets on the daily milk production and on the fat, protein, lactose, and total solids contents, and on the somatic cells count (SCC, but those cows that received diets with alfalfa hay produced higher amounts (g/day (P0.05. It can be concluded that the forage sources affect the animal performance from changes in both DM and CP intakes and production of milk components (kg/day.

  13. Ion-assisted deposition of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, S.A.; Choi, C.H.; Kaspi, R.; Millunchick, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work on low-energy ion-assisted deposition of epitaxial films is reviewed. Much of the recent interest in this area has been centered on the use of very low ion energies (∼ 25 eV) and high fluxes (> 1 ion per deposited atom) obtained using novel ion-assisted deposition techniques. These methods have been applied in ultra-high vacuum, allowing the preparation of high-purity device-quality semiconductor materials. The following ion-surface interaction effects during epitaxy are discussed: improvements in crystalline perfection during low temperature epitaxy, ion damage, improved homogeneity and properties in III-V alloys grown within miscibility gaps, and changes in nucleation mechanism during heteroepitaxial growth

  14. Resonant Ion Pair Formation in Electron Collisions with Ground State Molecular Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong, W.; Dunn, G.H.; Djuric, N.; Greene, C.H.; Neau, A.; Zong, W.; Larsson, M.; Al-Khalili, A.; Neau, A.; Derkatch, A.M.; Vikor, L.; Shi, W.; Rosen, S.; Le Padellec, A.; Danared, H.; Ugglas, M. af

    1999-01-01

    Resonant ion pair formation from collisions of electrons with ground state diatomic molecular ions has been observed and absolute cross sections measured. The cross section for HD + is characterized by an abrupt threshold at 1.9thinspthinspeV and 14 resolved peaks in the range of energies 0≤E≤14 eV . The dominant mechanism responsible for the structures appears to be resonant capture and stabilization, modified by two-channel quantum interference. Data on HF + show structure correlated with photoionization of HF and with dissociative recombination of electrons with this ion. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Collisions of low-energy multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.; Crandall, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental measurements of cross sections for collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms at the lowest attainable collision energies are reported. Emphasis is on electron capture from hydrogen atoms by multiply charged ions at energies below 1 keV/amu. The principal effort is the development of a merged-ion-atom-beams apparatus for studies down to 1 eV/amu relative energy

  16. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profiles and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Aryaeian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Naheed Aryaeian1, Farhad Shahram2, Mahmoud Djalali1, Mohammad R Eshragian3, Abolghasem Djazayeri1, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad4, Nasim Naderi2, Maryam Chamari1, Fariha Fatehi1, Mahnaz Zarei11Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 2Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 4Department of Immunology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs, vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for three months: Group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g mixture of cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis12 CLAs in a rate of 50/50; Group E: vitamin E: 400 mg; Group CE: CLAs and vitamin E at above doses: Group P: placebo. After supplementation, SBP levels decreased significantly in the group C in comparison with groups E and P and mean arterial pressure reduced signifi cantly in groups C and CE. There weren’t significant differences in the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL/HDL, cholesterol/HDL, fasting blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP, arylestrase activity, platelet count and body mass index between groups. CRP dropped nonsignificantly in groups P, C, E and CE (19%, 24%, 55%, and 39%, respectively. Erythrocytes

  17. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profiles and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Aryaeian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Naheed Aryaeian1, Farhad Shahram2, Mahmoud Djalali1, Mohammad R Eshragian3, Abolghasem Djazayeri1, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad4, Nasim Naderi2, Maryam Chamari1, Fariha Fatehi1, Mahnaz Zarei11Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 2Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 4Department of Immunology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs, vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for three months: Group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g mixture of cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis12 CLAs in a rate of 50/50; Group E: vitamin E: 400 mg; Group CE: CLAs and vitamin E at above doses: Group P: placebo. After supplementation, SBP levels decreased significantly in the group C in comparison with groups E and P and mean arterial pressure reduced signifi cantly in groups C and CE. There weren’t significant differences in the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL/HDL, cholesterol/HDL, fasting blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP, arylestrase activity, platelet count and body mass index between groups. CRP dropped nonsignificantly in groups P, C, E and CE (19%, 24%, 55%, and 39%, respectively. Erythrocytes

  18. Variation in yield ratios of fragment ions and of ion-pairs from CF2Cl2 following monochromatic soft X-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, I.H.; Saito, N.; Bozek, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fragment ions produced from CF 2 Cl 2 have been measured from 44 to 1200eV using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and monochromatized synchrotron radiation. Positively charged ion pairs from this molecule were observed in the inner-shell excitation regions using a Selected photoion-photoion coincidence technique. Obtained yield ratios of fragment ions indicate that the atomic chlorine ion, Cl + , has the greatest intensity at all photon energies above 60eV and exhibits a steep increase at the Cl L 2,3 -edges. Some fragment ions, in particular CF 2 + , have a clear intensity increase at the transitions of inner-shell electrons to unoccupied molecular orbitals. The ion pair F + - Cl + exhibits the highest yield at most photon energies, and some of the branching ratios for ion-pair production changed significantly near the Cl L 2,3 -edges. (author)

  19. Ion sources for electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.

    1998-01-01

    Maybe the most important part of an electrostatic accelerator system, and also often the most tricky part is the ion source. There has been a rapid growth in activity in ion-source research and development during the last two to three decades. Some of these developments have also been of benefit to electrostatic accelerator users. In this report some of the different types of ion sources used in electrostatic accelerators are described. The list is not complete but more an overview of some of the more commonly used sources. The description is divided into two groups; positive ion sources for single stage electrostatic accelerators and negative ion sources for two stages (i.e. tandem) accelerators

  20. CONSUMO DE NUTRIENTES E BALANÇO HÍDRICO EM EQUINOS RECEBENDO DIETAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE INCLUSÃO DE FENO DE ALFAFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONIR BUENO RIBEIRO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrients intake and water balance of horses in maintenance, fed with conventional hay. Six male horses with an average age of nine years and live weight of 361.16 ± 12 kg were used, in a latin square design (6x6, housed inmetabolism cages. The treatments were FTT: 1 00% Hay of Tifton, FTO: 80% Hay of Tifton + 20% Hay of Alfalfa, FTS: 60% Hay of Tifton + 40% Hay of Alfalfa, FTQ: 40% Hay of Tifton + 60% Hay ofAlfalfa, FTV: 20% Hay of Tifton + 80% Hay of Alfalfa, FAT: 1 00% Hay of Alfalfa. The quantities of food provided were 2.25% of BW in order to obtain surplus. To determine the water intake, drinkers with water supply ad libitum were used. The intakes of DM, CP, EE and MM increased (P ≤ 0.05as alfalfa hay amount was increased in the diets, indicating that these elements are related to the diets chemical composition. Similarly, NDF and ADF intake decreased (P ≤ 0.05 as alfalfa hay was increased in the diets. The values of water intake and excretion wereinfluenced by the chemical composition of the diet, influencing water intake in function of the dry matter (liters/ kg of DM and the water balance. Regarding water intake and excretion, the animals were in positive water balance in all treatments. The FTT treatment had a lower urinary and fecal excretion of water compared to the othertreatments.

  1. IONS FROM AQUEOUS PHASE BY WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Most often there is incomplete metal ion removal, high reagent and ... environmentally friendly water filters for heavy metal ions removal in aqueous systems. Currently E. crassipes is ..... From the results, the singly charged ions have very little ...

  2. Ion-beam and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevro, Mirza; Carter, George

    1995-02-01

    Ion-beam sputter deposition (IBS) and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition (DIBS) of tantalum oxide films was investigated at room temperature and compared with similar films prepared by e-gun deposition. The optical properties, i.e., refractive index and extinction coefficient, of IBS films were determined in the 250- to 1100-nm range by transmission spectrophotometry and at (lambda) equals 632.8 nm by ellipsometry. They were found to be mainly sensitive to the partial pressure of oxygen used as a reactive gas in the deposition process. The maximum value of the refractive index of IBS deposited tantalum oxide films was n equals 2.15 at (lambda) equals 550 nm and the extinction coefficient of order k equals 2 X 10-4. Films deposited by e-gun deposition had refractive index n 2.06 at (lambda) equals 550 nm. Films deposited using DIBS, i.e., deposition assisted by low energy Ar and O2 ions (Ea equals 0 to 300 eV) and low current density (Ji equals 0 to 40 (mu) A/cm2), showed no improvement in the optical properties of the films. Preferential sputtering occurred at Ea(Ar) equals 300 eV and Ji equals 20 (mu) A/cm2 and slightly oxygen deficient films were formed. Different bonding states in the tantalum-oxide films were determined by x-ray spectroscopy, whereas composition of the film and contaminants were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Tantalum oxide films formed by IBS contained relatively high Ar content (approximately equals 2.5%) originating from the reflected argon neutrals from the sputtering target whereas assisted deposition slightly increased the Ar content. Stress in the IBS-deposited films was measured by the bending technique. IBS-deposited films showed compressive stress with a typical value of s equals 3.2 X 109 dyn/cm2. Films deposited by concurrent ion bombardment showed an increase in the stress as a function of applied current density. The maximum was s approximately equals 5.6 X 109 dyn/cm2 for Ea equals 300 eV and Ji equals

  3. Anemia y deficiencia de hierro en mujeres en edad reproductiva usuarias del Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Riveros; Gloria Echagüe; Santiago Evers; Laura Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    La anemia es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En Paraguay, existen datos limitados sobre la frecuencia de anemia en mujeres en edad reproductiva no gestantes. Este estudio piloto descriptivo de corte transverso tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, el estado nutricional, hábitos alimentarios y tóxicos en 99 mujeres no gestantes en edad reproductiva de 18 a 48 años que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes en Octubre del 2.014. La a...

  4. Ion extraction in the cyclotron geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The detailed physics of ion beam extraction from a plasma column by intense sinusoidal radio frequency (rf) electric fields at the ion cyclotron frequency omega/sub ci/ and its harmonics is experimentally studied. Results describe the instantaneous relationship - within one rf period of approx. = 3009 nsec - between applied rf, the plasma response and the ions expelled by rf and plasma fields. Reflex discharges in H 2 , D 2 , and He with ion and electron densities greater than or equal to10 11 cm -3 are subjected to 0-5 kV zero-to-peak rf electric fields E vector and 0.65-9.00 kG background magnetic fields B 0 vector with E vector perpendicular to B 0 vector. Ion currents up to 200 μA are extracted. Nonperturbing optical diagnostics measure the relative amplitude and phase of instantaneous ion and electron density fluctuations induced by the rf during each rf cycle and the time variation of extracted ion bursts, the latter made possible by the use of a phosphor beam-stop. Detailed dependences on external electric and magnetic fields are reported. The plasma density fluctuations are in good agreement with the dispersion relation for electrostatic ion cyclotron waves (EICW), and the beam data show current enhancement at the second harmonic over that at the fundamental and evidence for a radically different mechanism for the rf-driven ion extraction process than conventional wisdom assumes. This work represents the first detailed, systematic study of the ac ion extraction process

  5. A Statistical Study of Eiscat Electron and Ion Temperature Measurements In The E-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, G.; Haldoupis, C.; Schlegel, K.; Bösinger, T.

    Motivated by the large EISCAT data base, which covers over 15 years of common programme operation, and previous statistical work with EISCAT data (e.g., C. Hal- doupis, K. Schlegel, and G. Hussey, Auroral E-region electron density gradients mea- sured with EISCAT, Ann. Geopshysicae, 18, 1172-1181, 2000), a detailed statistical analysis of electron and ion EISCAT temperature measurements has been undertaken. This study was specifically concerned with the statistical dependence of heating events with other ambient parameters such as the electric field and electron density. The re- sults showed previously reported dependences such as the electron temperature being directly correlated with the ambient electric field and inversely related to the electron density. However, these correlations were found to be also dependent upon altitude. There was also evidence of the so called "Schlegel effect" (K. Schlegel, Reduced effective recombination coefficient in the disturbed polar E-region, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 44, 183-185, 1982); that is, the heated electron gas leads to increases in elec- tron density through a reduction in the recombination rate. This paper will present the statistical heating results and attempt to offer physical explanations and interpretations of the findings.

  6. Ion beam enhancement in magnetically insulated ion diodes for high-intensity pulsed ion beam generation in non-relativistic mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Z. C.; Lei, M. K., E-mail: surfeng@dlut.edu.cn [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Pushkarev, A. I. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Beam and Plasma Technology, High Technologies Physics Institute, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) with ion current density above Child-Langmuir limit is achieved by extracting ion beam from anode plasma of ion diodes with suppressing electron flow under magnetic field insulation. It was theoretically estimated that with increasing the magnetic field, a maximal value of ion current density may reach nearly 3 times that of Child-Langmuir limit in a non-relativistic mode and close to 6 times in a highly relativistic mode. In this study, the behavior of ion beam enhancement by magnetic insulation is systematically investigated in three types of magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with passive anode, taking into account the anode plasma generation process on the anode surface. A maximal enhancement factor higher than 6 over the Child-Langmuir limit can be obtained in the non-relativistic mode with accelerating voltage of 200–300 kV. The MIDs differ in two anode plasma formation mechanisms, i.e., surface flashover of a dielectric coating on the anode and explosive emission of electrons from the anode, as well as in two insulation modes of external-magnetic field and self-magnetic field with either non-closed or closed drift of electrons in the anode-cathode (A-K) gap, respectively. Combined with ion current density measurement, energy density characterization is employed to resolve the spatial distribution of energy density before focusing for exploring the ion beam generation process. Consistent results are obtained on three types of MIDs concerning control of neutralizing electron flows for the space charge of ions where the high ion beam enhancement is determined by effective electron neutralization in the A-K gap, while the HIPIB composition of different ion species downstream from the diode may be considerably affected by the ion beam neutralization during propagation.

  7. Ion thermal conductivity and convective energy transport in JET hot-ion regimes and H-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibone, F.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Local transport in a recent series of JET experiments has been studied using interpretive codes. Auxiliary heating, mainly via neutral beam injection, was applied on low-density target plasmas confined in the double-null X-point configuration. This has produced two-component plasmas with high ion temperature and neutron yield and, above a threshold density, H-modes characterised by peak density and power deposition profiles. H-mode confinement was also obtained for the first time with 25 MW auxiliary power, of which 10 MW was from ion cyclotron resonance heating. We have used profile measurements of electron temperature T e from electron cyclotron emission and LIDAR Thomson scattering, ion temperature T i from charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (during NBI), electron density n e from LIDAR and Abel-inverted interferometer measurements. Only sparse information is, however, available to date concerning radial profiles of effective ionic charge and radiation losses. Deuterium depletion due to high impurity levels is an important effect in these discharges, and our interpretation of thermal ion energy content, neutron yield and ion particle fluxes needs to be confirmed using measured Z eff -profiles. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  8. Ion source with plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, E.

    1987-01-01

    A long lifetime ion source with plasma cathode has been developed for use in ion implantation. In this ion source, a plasma of a nonreactive working gas serves as a cathode in place of a thermionic tungsten filament used in the Freeman ion source. In an applied magnetic field, the plasma is convergent, i.e., filamentlike; in zero magnetic field, it turns divergent and spraylike. In the latter case, the plasma exhibits a remarkable ability when the working gas has an ionization potential larger than the feed gas. By any combination of a working gas of either argon or neon and a feed gas of AsF 5 or PF 5 , the lifetime of this ion source was found to be more than 90 h with an extraction voltage of 40 kV and the corresponding ion current density 20 mA/cm 2 . Mass spectrometry results show that this ion source has an ability of generating a considerable amount of As + and P + ions from AsF 5 and PF 5 , and hence will be useful for realizing a fully cryopumped ion implanter system. This ion source is also eminently suitable for use in oxygen ion production

  9. IBiSA_Tools: A Computational Toolkit for Ion-Binding State Analysis in Molecular Dynamics Trajectories of Ion Channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Kasahara

    Full Text Available Ion conduction mechanisms of ion channels are a long-standing conundrum. Although the molecular dynamics (MD method has been extensively used to simulate ion conduction dynamics at the atomic level, analysis and interpretation of MD results are not straightforward due to complexity of the dynamics. In our previous reports, we proposed an analytical method called ion-binding state analysis to scrutinize and summarize ion conduction mechanisms by taking advantage of a variety of analytical protocols, e.g., the complex network analysis, sequence alignment, and hierarchical clustering. This approach effectively revealed the ion conduction mechanisms and their dependence on the conditions, i.e., ion concentration and membrane voltage. Here, we present an easy-to-use computational toolkit for ion-binding state analysis, called IBiSA_tools. This toolkit consists of a C++ program and a series of Python and R scripts. From the trajectory file of MD simulations and a structure file, users can generate several images and statistics of ion conduction processes. A complex network named ion-binding state graph is generated in a standard graph format (graph modeling language; GML, which can be visualized by standard network analyzers such as Cytoscape. As a tutorial, a trajectory of a 50 ns MD simulation of the Kv1.2 channel is also distributed with the toolkit. Users can trace the entire process of ion-binding state analysis step by step. The novel method for analysis of ion conduction mechanisms of ion channels can be easily used by means of IBiSA_tools. This software is distributed under an open source license at the following URL: http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/~ktkshr/ibisa_tools/.

  10. Direct formation of thin films and epitaxial overlayers at low temperatures using a low-energy (10-500 eV) ion beam deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhr, R.A.; Alton, G.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Herbots, N.; Noggle, T.S.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    A low-energy ion beam deposition system has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and has been applied successfully to the growth of epitaxial films at low temperatures for a number of different elements. The deposition system utilizes the ion source and optics of a commercial ion implantation accelerator. The 35 keV mass- and energy-analyzed ion beam from the accelerator is decelerated in a four-element electrostatic lens assembly to energies between 10 and 500 eV for direct deposition onto a target under UHV conditions. Current densities on the order of 10 μA/cm 2 are achieved with good uniformity over a 1.4 cm diameter spot. The completed films are characterized by Rutherford backscattering, ion channeling, cross-section transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The effects of substrate temperature, ion energy, and substrate cleaning have been studied. Epitaxial overlayers which show good minimum yields by ion channeling (3 to 4%) have been produced at temperatures as low as 375 0 C for Si on Si(100) and 250 0 C for Ge on Ge(100) at growth rates that exceed the solid-phase epitaxy rates at these temperatures by more than an order of magnitude

  11. CALCIUM SOURCE EFFECT ON APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF GRASS HAY Brachiaria decumbens Staph cv. Basiliski EFEITO DA FONTE DE CÁLCIO (calcário vs Lithothamnium calcareum) NA DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE DE CAPIM Brachiaria decumbens Staph cv. Basiliski

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Gonçalves Rodrigues; Clizeide R. Oliveira; Benir de Oliveira; Celso de Paula Costa; Geisa Fleury Orsine

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was developed to determine the effect of addition of the marine alga Lithothamnium calcareum in the apparent digestibility of a low quality forage. Twelve adult lambs were kept in metabolical individual cages using a randomly design with three replications and four treatments as follows: I - Brachiaria decumbens grass hay, processed after the seed harvest; II - Hay plus 1000 ppm of calcium from CaCO3 ...

  12. Análise translinguística - acento e redução vocálica: o caso do Western Cheremis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães, José Sueli de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar translinguisticamente a redução vocálica e o acento, trazendo como foco a língua Western Cheremis (Itkonen, 1955, apud Hayes, 1995. Para tanto, recorremos ao Plano Multidimensional do Acento (Magalhães, 2004, 2008, modelo fundamentado em dados do Português Brasileiro e orientado por princípios da Fonologia Métrica (Liberman e Prince, 1977; Halle e Vergnaud, 1987; Hayes, 1995 e da Teoria da Otimidade (McCarthy e Prince, 1993. Procuraremos demonstrar como a proposta, inicialmente testada para representar o acento e a redução vocálica do Português Brasileiro, pode ser aplicada translinguisticamente. Neste trabalho, destacaremos uma língua que reduz todas as vogais denominadas não-plenas – Western Cheremis – atestando que, entre possíveis configurações, a representação ótima será aquela que traduz o processo de redução vocálica, mesmo que foneticamente tais representações não se distingam. Mais do que isso, demonstraremos que nenhuma alusão à extrametricidade (ou NonFinality necessita ser feita para que o Plano Métrico capte efeitos do acento e da redução vocálica nesta língua

  13. Abuse of Power, Gender Violence and the Tragic Convention: the Dénouement of «No hay cosa como callar» by Calderón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Arellano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available his article analyzes the dénouement of Calderon’s No hay cosa como callar, with the aim of showing the tragic quality of the work, which destroys the possibility of the central character being happy, as she has been raped by a cynical and abusive gentleman.

  14. Ion sources for MedAustron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettry, J.; Penescu, L.; Wallner, J.; Sargsyan, E.

    2010-01-01

    The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron, and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H 3 1+ , C 4+ , and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility, such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control, and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution, and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating, plasma simulation, beam formation, and transport.

  15. Ion mass dependence for low energy channeling in single-wall nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping; Zhu Zhiyuan; Li Yong; Zhu Dezhang; Xia Huihao

    2008-01-01

    An Monte Carlo (MC) simulation program has been used to study ion mass dependence for the low energy channeling of natural- and pseudo-Ar ions in single-wall nanotubes. The MC simulations show that the channeling critical angle Ψ C obeys the (E) -1/2 and the (M 1 ) -1/2 rules, where E is the incident energy and M 1 is the ion mass. The reason for this may be that the motion of the channeled (or de-channeled) ions should be correlated with both the incident energy E and the incident momentum (2M 1 E) 1/2 , in order to obey the conservation of energy and momentum

  16. Hydrogen ion-driven permeation in carbonaceous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into the permeation properties of amorphous carbonaceous, a-C:H, films produced by plasmachemical deposition techniques. Carbonaceous films on iron substrates with thickness ranging from 60 nm to 110 nm were subjected to high fluence implantations with mass analyzed D 3 + ions with energies ranging from 600 eV to 3000 eV and fluxes ranging from 5x10 14 D/cm 2 s to 5x10 15 D/cm 2 s, respectively. Deuterium re-emission upstream, deuterium permeation downstream and secondary ions sputtered from the implantation surface were measured as a function of implantation fluence for specimens at 420 K. The present studies indicate that the a-C:H film permeability is directly related to the time, hence the fluence, required to achieve isotopic replacement and saturation of the deuterium ion beam atoms stopped in the implant region. Once the deuterium saturation level is achieved in the layer, a significant fraction of the implanting ions can result in permeation. For the present experiment, this permeation factor was much higher than that for uncoated iron specimens subjected to similar beam conditions. Carbon sputter yields of 0.008-0.01 C/D were determined in this work for 1000-eV to 400-eV deuterium ions incident on a-C:H films. (orig.)

  17. Hydrogen ion-driven permeation in carbonaceous films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into the permeation properties of amorphous carbonaceous, a-C:H, films produced by plasmachemical deposition techniques. Carbonaceous films on iron substrates with thickness ranging from 60 nm to 110 nm were subjected to high fluence implantations with mass analyzed D/sub 3//sup +/ ions with energies ranging from 600 eV to 3000 eV and fluxes ranging from 5x10/sup 14/ D/cm/sup 2/ s to 5x10/sup 15/ D/cm/sup 2/ s, respectively. Deuterium re-emission upstream, deuterium permeation downstream and secondary ions sputtered from the implantation surface were measured as a function of implantation fluence for specimens at 420 K. The present studies indicate that the a-C:H film permeability is directly related to the time, hence the fluence, required to achieve isotopic replacement and saturation of the deuterium ion beam atoms stopped in the implant region. Once the deuterium saturation level is achieved in the layer, a significant fraction of the implanting ions can result in permeation. For the present experiment, this permeation factor was much higher than that for uncoated iron specimens subjected to similar beam conditions. Carbon sputter yields of 0.008-0.01 C/D were determined in this work for 1000-eV to 400-eV deuterium ions incident on a-C:H films. (orig.).

  18. Hydrogen ion-driven permeation in carbonaceous films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Holland, D. F.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into the permeation properties of amorphous carbonaceous, a-C: H, films produced by plasmachemical deposition techniques. Carbonaceous films on iron substrates with thickness ranging from 60 nm to 110 nm were subjected to high fluence implantations with mass analyzed D +3 ions with energies ranging from 600 eV to 3000 eV and fluxes ranging from 5 × 10 14D/ cm2 s to 5 × 10 15D/ cm2 s, respectively. Deuterium re-emission upstream, deuterium permeation downstream and secondary ions sputtered from the implantation surface were measured as a function of implantation fluence for specimens at 420 K. The present studies indicate that the a-C : H film permeability is directly related to the time, hence the fluence, required to achieve isotopic replacement and saturation of the deuterium ion beam atoms stopped in the implant region. Once the deuterium saturation level is achieved in the layer, a significant fraction of the implanting ions can result in permeation. For the present experiment, this permeation factor was much higher than that for uncoated iron specimens subjected to similar beam conditions. Carbon sputter yields of 0.008-0.01 C/D were determined in this work for 1000-eV to 400-eV deuterium ions incident on a-C : H films.

  19. Metal ion coordination in the E. coli Nudix hydrolase dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase: New clues into catalytic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Shannon E.; Nguyen, Elaine; Ukachukwu, Chiamaka U.; Freeman, Dana M.; Quirk, Stephen; Lieberman, Raquel L.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2017-07-25

    Dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase (DHNTPase), a member of the Mg2+ dependent Nudix hydrolase superfamily, is the recently-discovered enzyme that functions in the second step of the pterin branch of the folate biosynthetic pathway in E. coli. DHNTPase is of interest because inhibition of enzymes in bacterial folate biosynthetic pathways is a strategy for antibiotic development. We determined crystal structures of DHNTPase with and without activating, Mg2+-mimicking metals Co2+ and Ni2+. Four metal ions, identified by anomalous scattering, and stoichiometrically confirmed in solution by isothermal titration calorimetry, are held in place by Glu56 and Glu60 within the Nudix sequence motif, Glu117, waters, and a sulfate ion, of which the latter is further stabilized by a salt bridge with Lys7. In silico docking of the DHNTP substrate reveals a binding mode in which the pterin ring moiety is nestled in a largely hydrophobic pocket, the β-phosphate activated for nucleophilic attack overlays with the crystallographic sulfate and is in line with an activated water molecule, and remaining phosphate groups are stabilized by all four identified metal ions. The structures and binding data provide new details regarding DHNTPase metal requirements, mechanism, and suggest a strategy for efficient inhibition.

  20. Metal ion coordination in the E. coli Nudix hydrolase dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase: New clues into catalytic mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E Hill

    Full Text Available Dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase (DHNTPase, a member of the Mg2+ dependent Nudix hydrolase superfamily, is the recently-discovered enzyme that functions in the second step of the pterin branch of the folate biosynthetic pathway in E. coli. DHNTPase is of interest because inhibition of enzymes in bacterial folate biosynthetic pathways is a strategy for antibiotic development. We determined crystal structures of DHNTPase with and without activating, Mg2+-mimicking metals Co2+ and Ni2+. Four metal ions, identified by anomalous scattering, and stoichiometrically confirmed in solution by isothermal titration calorimetry, are held in place by Glu56 and Glu60 within the Nudix sequence motif, Glu117, waters, and a sulfate ion, of which the latter is further stabilized by a salt bridge with Lys7. In silico docking of the DHNTP substrate reveals a binding mode in which the pterin ring moiety is nestled in a largely hydrophobic pocket, the β-phosphate activated for nucleophilic attack overlays with the crystallographic sulfate and is in line with an activated water molecule, and remaining phosphate groups are stabilized by all four identified metal ions. The structures and binding data provide new details regarding DHNTPase metal requirements, mechanism, and suggest a strategy for efficient inhibition.

  1. Storage characteristics, nutritive value, energy content, and in-vivo digestibility of moist large-rectangular bales of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay treated with a propionic-acid-based preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unstable weather, poor drying conditions, and unpredictable rainfall events often place valuable hay crops at risk. Recent research with large-round bales comprised of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) has shown that these large-bale packages are particularly sens...

  2. Low-temperature technique of thin silicon ion implanted epitaxial detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordyasz, A.J.; Bednarek, A. [Warsaw University, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Le Neindre, N.; Bougault, R.; Lopez, O.; Merrer, Y.; Vient, E. [Universite de Caen, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN, Caen-Cedex (France); Parlog, M. [Universite de Caen, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN, Caen-Cedex (France); ' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Casini, G.; Poggi, G.; Bini, M.; Valdre, S.; Scarlini, E.; Pasquali, G.; Pastore, G.; Piantelli, S.; Stefanini, A.; Olmi, A.; Barlini, S. [INFN Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Kowalczyk, M. [Warsaw University, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Frankland, J.D.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Gruyer, D. [CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, GANIL, Caen-Cedex 05 (France); Borderie, B.; Ademard, G.; Edelbruck, P.; Rivet, M.F.; Salomon, F. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay-Cedex (France); Boiano, A.; Rosato, E.; Meoli, A.; Ordine, A.; Spadaccini, G.; Tortone, G.; Vigilante, M.; Vanzanella, E. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Bruno, M.; Serra, S.; Morelli, L.; Guerzoni, M. [INFN, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alba, R.; Santonocito, D.; Maiolino, C. [INFN, Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, LNS, Catania (Italy); Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T. [INFN LNL Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Kozik, T.; Kulig, P.; Twarog, T.; Sosin, Z. [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Gasior, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Silesian University, Katowice (Poland); Sarnecki, J.; Lipinski, D.; Wodzinska, H.; Brzozowski, A.; Teodorczyk, M.; Gajewski, M.; Zagojski, A.; Krzyzak, K. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Tarasiuk, K.J. [University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Khabanowa, Z. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kordyasz, L. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechatronics, Institute of Mikromechanics and Photonics, Department of Design of Precision Devices, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    A new technique of large-area thin ion implanted silicon detectors has been developed within the R and D performed by the FAZIA Collaboration. The essence of the technique is the application of a low-temperature baking process instead of high-temperature annealing. This thermal treatment is performed after B{sup +} ion implantation and Al evaporation of detector contacts, made by using a single adjusted Al mask. Extremely thin silicon pads can be therefore obtained. The thickness distribution along the X and Y directions was measured for a prototype chip by the energy loss of α-particles from {sup 241}Am (left angle E{sub α} right angle = 5.5 MeV). Preliminary tests on the first thin detector (area ∼ 20 x 20 mm{sup 2}) were performed at the INFN-LNS cyclotron in Catania (Italy) using products emitted in the heavy-ion reaction {sup 84}Kr (E = 35 A MeV) + {sup 112}Sn. The ΔE - E ion identification plot was obtained using a telescope consisting of our thin ΔE detector (21 μm thick) followed by a typical FAZIA 510 μm E detector of the same active area. The charge distribution of measured ions is presented together with a quantitative evaluation of the quality of the Z resolution. The threshold is lower than 2 A MeV depending on the ion charge. (orig.)

  3. ¿Hay una teoría normativa de la justicia en Marx?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Curcó Cobos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Marx ha suscitado una  añeja polémica entre sus estudiosos. Algunos han mantenido que el lenguaje desarrollado en ella es estrictamente explicativo. Dicho lenguaje expresaría ante todo un saber científico expurgado de todo contenido moral (sobre la estructura del capital, las fuerzas que causan la dinámica social y las leyes que la rigen. En el otro extremo, en cambio, otros han argüido que en Marx hallamos más bien un lenguaje ético orientado a denunciar los crímenes y miserias de una determinada formación social con el fin de oponerle otra. En este artículo defiendo la idea de que en la obra de Marx hay elementos tanto para afirmar una cosa como la otra. Sin embargo, argumento que la actualidad del pensamiento marxista  reside esencialmente en los elementos éticos y normativos que configuran la dimensión moral de su planteamiento.

  4. Cluster Ions and Atmospheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, R.; Turco, R. P.

    We investigate the properties and possible roles of naturally occurring ions under at- mospheric conditions. Among other things, the formation of stable charged molecular clusters represents the initial stages of aerosol nucleation [e.g., Keesee and Castle- man, 1982], while the conversion of vapor to aggregates is the first step in certain atmospheric phase transitions [e.g. Hamill and Turco, 2000]. We analyze the stability and size distributions of common ionic clusters by solving the differential equations describing their growth and loss. The necessary reaction rate coefficients are deter- mined using kinetic and thermodynamic data. The latter are derived from direct labo- ratory measurements of equilibrium constants, from the classical charged liquid drop model applied to large aggregates (i.e., the Thomson model [Thomson, 1906]), and from quantum mechanical calculations of the thermodynamic potentials associated with the cluster structures. This approach allows us to characterize molecular clusters across the entire size range from true molecular species to larger aggregates exhibiting macroscopic behavior [D'Auria, 2001]. Cluster systems discussed in this talk include the proton hydrates (PHs) and nitrate-water and nitrate-nitric acid series [D'Auria and Turco, 2001]. These ions have frequently been detected in the stratosphere and tropo- sphere [e.g., Arnold et al., 1977; Viggiano and Arnold, 1981]. We show how the pro- posed hybrid cluster model can be extended to a wide range of ion systems, including non-proton hydrates (NPHs), mixed-ligand clusters such as nitrate-water-nitric acid and sulfate-sulfuric acid-water, as well as more exotic species containing ammonia, pyridine and other organic compounds found on ions [e.g., Eisele, 1988; Tanner and Eisele, 1991]. References: Arnold, F., D. Krankowsky and K. H. Marien, First mass spectrometric measurements of posi- tive ions in the stratosphere, Nature, 267, 30-32, 1977. D'Auria, R., A study of ionic

  5. Positive and negative ion mode comparison for the determination of DNA/peptide noncovalent binding sites through the formation of "three-body" noncovalent fragment ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Bessem; Tabet, Jean-Claude; Alves, Sandra

    2018-02-01

    Gas-phase fragmentation of single strand DNA-peptide noncovalent complexes is investigated in positive and negative electrospray ionization modes.Collision-induced dissociation experiments, performed on the positively charged noncovalent complex precursor ions, have confirmed the trend previously observed in negative ion mode, i.e. a high stability of noncovalent complexes containing very basic peptidic residues (i.e. R > K) and acidic nucleotide units (i.e. Thy units), certainly incoming from the existence of salt bridge interactions. Independent of the ion polarity, stable noncovalent complex precursor ions were found to dissociate preferentially through covalent bond cleavages of the partners without disrupting noncovalent interactions. The resulting DNA fragment ions were found to be still noncovalently linked to the peptides. Additionally, the losses of an internal nucleic fragment producing "three-body" noncovalent fragment ions were also observed in both ion polarities, demonstrating the spectacular salt bridge interaction stability. The identical fragmentation patterns (regardless of the relative fragment ion abundances) observed in both polarities have shown a common location of salt bridge interaction certainly preserved from solution. Nonetheless, most abundant noncovalent fragment ions (and particularly three-body ones) are observed from positively charged noncovalent complexes. Therefore, we assume that, independent of the preexisting salt bridge interaction and zwitterion structures, multiple covalent bond cleavages from single-stranded DNA/peptide complexes rely on an excess of positive charges in both electrospray ionization ion polarities.

  6. Metallic ions in the upper atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 20 years considerable progress has been made in establishing the presence of metallic ions in the sporadic E layers at mid latitudes and as discrete patches at high altitudes in the equatorial ionosphere. The E-region observations have been based on rocket flights, which represent local conditions faithfully. But the global distribution of metallic ions and variations relating to changes in season, local time, magnetic activity, etc., which require satellite data, have been largely unexamined. This work presents a few aspects of this missing global distribution over an altitude range of 100 to 1000 km, using the data from AE-C, AE-D, and OGO-6 satellites and the rocket flights 18.117 and 18.118 from Wallops Island on July 12 and 13, 1971. The rocket data provide a day-night pair of vertical profiles that include altitudes not covered by the satellites. Results are presented for Mg + , Al + , Si + and Fe + ions in terms of their detection probabilities, median concentrations and relative abundances with respect to Mg + ions as a function of significant geophysical parameters. Na + and K + ions have been excluded from this study because alkali metal ions driven off the spacecraft hamper the measurement of ambient Na + and K + ions. This study has indicated that in general different metallic ions appear together in comparable concentrations except for Al + , which is an order of magnitude smaller than the others

  7. Effect of feeding long or short wheat hay v. wheat silage in the ration of lactating cows on intake, milk production and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaani, Y; Nikbachat, M; Yosef, E; Ben-Meir, Y; Mizrahi, I; Miron, J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in lactating cows the effect of either chopping or ensiling of wheat roughage on: intake, digestibility, lactation performance and animal behavior. Three groups of 14 lactating cows each, were fed total mixed rations (TMRs) based on either long wheat hay (HL), short wheat hay (HS) or wheat silage (SI), as the sole roughage source (30% of TMR dry matter (DM)). Parameters examined: sorting behavior, DM intake, milk yield and composition, rumination, recumbence, average daily rumen pH, digesta passage rate, and in-vivo digestibility. Performance data was summarized by day and analyzed using a proc-mixed model. The content of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was similar in the HL and SI and lower in the HS, resulting in similar differences among the three corresponding TMRs. In vitro DM digestibility of wheat silage was higher than that of the two hays (65.6% v. 62.8%) resulting in higher in vitro DM digestibility of the SI-TMR compared with the hay-based TMRs (79.3 v. 77.0%). HS-TMR was better than HL- or SI-TMRs at preventing feed sorting by cows after 12 or 24 h eating of the diets. Cows fed HS-TMR consumed more DM and NDF but less peNDF than the other two groups. Average daily rumen pH was similar in the three groups, but daily rumination time was highest in the cows fed HS-TMR. Rumen retention time was longest in cows fed HL-TMR. DM digestibility in cows fed SI-TMR was higher than that of HS and HL groups (65.2%, 61.8% and 62.4%, respectively), but NDF digestibility was similar in the three treatments. The highest intake of digestible DM was observed in cows fed SI-TMR, HS cows were intermediate and HL cows were the lowest. Consequently, cows fed SI-TMR had higher yields of milk, 4% fat corrected milk and energy-corrected milk (47.1, 42.9 and 43.2 kg/day, respectively) than cows fed HS-TMR (45.7, 41.0 and 41.0 kg/day, respectively) or HL-TMR (44.1, 40.3 and 40.3 kg/day, respectively). Net energy

  8. Time resolved energy spectrum of the axial ion beam generated in plasma focus discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.H.; Kilic, H.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the deuteron beam along the electrode axis (0 (degree) ) in a plasma focus discharge has been determined with a time of flight (TOF) method and with a differential filter method in the ion energy interval E = 0.3-9 MeV. The ion TOF method is applied to single-ion pulse events with an ion emission time t(E) that is only weakly dependent on the ion energy E for E > 0.3 MeV. The correlation of the ion beam intensity with the filling pressure, the neutron yield and the hard X-ray intensity is also reported. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs

  9. Nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio, JS; Vieu, C; Schuck, C; Collatz, R; Meunier, R; Ledu, D; Folger, H; Lafoux, A; Lagrange, JM; Pautrat, M; Waast, B; Phillips, WR; Blunt, D; Durell, JL; Varley, BJ; Dagnall, PG; Dorning, SJ; JONES, MA; Smith, AG; Bacelar, JCS; Rzaca-Urban, T; Amzal, N; Meliani, Z; Vanhorenbeeck, J; Passoja, A; Urban, W

    1998-01-01

    The main features of nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers used in nuclear spectroscopic investigations involving in-beam multi-e-gamma spectrometers are discussed. The relative importance of the F-ray background due to the accelerated ion-target and the recoil-ion-target

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes quadrangle, Alaska, are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and Laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report

  11. Temperature-dependent ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.; Alexander, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Recent work on enhanced interdiffusion rates during ion-beam mixing at elevated temperatures is reviewed. As discussed previously, expected increase in ion-beam mixing rates due to 'radiation-enhanced diffusion' (RED), i.e. the free migration of isolated vacancy and interstitial defects, is well documented in single-crystal specimens in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 of absolute melting temperature. In contrast, the increase often observed at somewhat lower temperatures during ion-beam mixing of polycrystalline specimens is not well understood. However, sufficient evidence is available to show that this increase reflects intracascade enhancement of a thermally-activated process that also occurs without irradiation. Recent evidence is presented which suggests that this process is Diffusion-induced Grain-Boundary Migration (DIGM). An important complementary conclusion is that because ion-beam mixing in single-crystal specimens exhibits no significant temperature dependence below that of RED, models that invoke only irradiation-specific phenomena, e.g., cascade-overlap, thermal-spikes, or liquid-diffusion, and hence which predict no difference in mixing behavior between single- or poly-crystalline specimens, cannot account for the existing results

  12. Radiative rates for E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions in the Br-like ions Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII, and Mo VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.; Keenan, Francis P.

    2015-01-01

    Energies and lifetimes are reported for the lowest 375 levels of five Br-like ions, namely Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII, and Mo VIII, mostly belonging to the 4s 2 4p 5 , 4s 2 4p 4 4ℓ, 4s4p 6 , 4s 2 4p 4 5ℓ, 4s 2 4p 3 4d 2 , 4s4p 5 4ℓ, and 4s4p 5 5ℓ configurations. Extensive configuration interaction has been included and the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP) has been adopted for the calculations. Additionally, radiative rates are listed among these levels for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions. From a comparison with the measurements, the majority of our energy levels are assessed to be accurate to better than 2%, although discrepancies between theory and experiment for a few are up to 6%. An accuracy assessment of the calculated radiative rates (and lifetimes) is more difficult, because no prior results exist for these ions

  13. Ab initio theory of the electronic structure of nf-ions in solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagin, N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In the books and papers we developed the self-consistent field theory of nl- ions in Me+n:[L]k- clusters, where k is number of ligands - L, by ion-ligands distance - R. The results which were obtained for all RE and AC ions for Me+n:[L]k, where L - F - , O -2 and so on ligands, are closely corresponded to experimental data. The expression for energy of the cluster may be write as: E = E 0 + kE 1 + k'(E z + E c + E e + E ex ), (Eq.1), where E 0 and E 1 are the energies of the free nl-ion and surrounding one; E z , E c and E e are the energy of electrons interaction with 'strange' nucleus, Coulomb electron-electron interaction and exchange one. E ex is the energy of the interaction of electrons and nucleus with external field. The equations for the radial one-electron wave functions of the ions in the cluster were obtained by minimizing the Eq. 1 for the radial orbitals of the central ion and ligand one. We have received the general system of equations of the self-consistent field for cluster in liquids and solid states. The results of calculations of the energy structure of clusters and values of the standard radial integrals (spectroscopy parameters) for Ac-ions in 1-2-3 superconductors and RE-ions in garnet crystals by different values of R are qualitatively and quantitatively correct. We've got the best results for pressure dependence of Nd ions spectra, change of optical and X-Ray spectra after irradiation of garnets. We explained the nature of anomalous in SrTiO 3 and separate lasers crystals by used of results of the calculations. In the framework of our approach we obtained the best accuracy for the energy of X- Ray lines for all nf- ions in solids and liquids

  14. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno do capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação. Produção, composição do leite e custos com alimentação Effects of replacing corn and Tifton hay with forage cactus on milk production and composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de dietas com teores crescentes de palma forrageira sobre a produção, a composição do leite e o perfil dos ácidos graxos do leite de vacas holandesas em lactação. Os animais (583 ± 7,07 kg foram alimentados com dietas formuladas com diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia fícus indica Mill em substituição total ao milho (Zea mays L. e em substituição parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias, dez para adaptação dos animais à dieta e sete para coleta de dados. A produção de leite, total (kg/dia e corrigida para 3,5% de gordura (kg/dia, o teor de gordura (% e a produção de gordura (kg/dia do leite (20,65; 19,76; 3,73 e 0,745, respectivamente não foram influenciados pela introdução de palma nas dietas. O perfil de ácidos graxos da gordura do leite não foi influenciado (quanto aos ácidos cáprico, láurico, mirístico, linoléico, linolênico e araquídico pelos níveis de palma na dieta, entretanto, houve aumento linear dos ácidos de cadeia intermediária (palmítico e palmitoléico e tendência inversa para os ácidos esteárico e oléico. A inclusão de palma forrageira em substituição ao milho e parte do feno de capim-tifton para vacas holandesas em lactação não influenciou a produção e a composição do leite, exceto a concentração dos ácidos graxos de cadeia longa, que apresentou comportamento linear decrescente.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of replacing Tifton hay and corn with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill on milk production and composition and milk fatty acid profile in lactating Holstein cows. Animals averaged 583 ± 7.07 kg of body weight in the beginning of the trial and were fed diets containing (% of DM: 0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0 or 51

  15. Simulation and dosimetric analysis of protons, {sup 4}He ions and {sup 12}C ions beams for brain neoplasm therapy; Simulacao e analise dosimetrica de feixes de protons e ions de {sup 4}He e {sup 12}C em tratamento de tumor cerebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme M.; Mello, Victor Barreto Braga [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mello Neto, Joao R.T. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to simulate protons, {sup 4}He ions and {sup 12}C ions beams, radiating the head of an average-sized man with the purpose of treating a hypothalamic tumor. GEANT4 was used to simulate the head (skin, skull and brain), and the beam, giving their characteristics and also the physical processes involved. The results sought herein are graphs of depth for relative dose for each of the three particles incident on the settings mentioned above. (author)

  16. Techniques for enhancing the performance of high charge state ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS), which produces singly to highly charged ions, is widely used in heavy ion accelerators and is finding applications in industry. It has progressed significantly in recent years thanks to a few techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and a better cold electron donor. These techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions. More than 1 emA of He 2+ and O 6+ , hundreds of eμA of O 7+ , Ne 8+ , Ar 12+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions with charge states up to Ne 9+ , Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states up to Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ were produced at cw mode operation. At an intensity of about 1 eμA, the charge states for the heavy ions increased up to Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . More than an order of magnitude enhancement of fully stripped argon ions was achieved (I≥0.1 and h;eμA). Higher charge state ions up to Kr 35+ , Xe 46+ and U 64+ at low intensities were produced for the first time from an ECRIS. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  17. A new technique for the study of charge transfer in multiply charged ion-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinpaugh, J.L.; Meyer, F.W.; Datz, S.

    1994-01-01

    While large cross sections (>10 -16 cm 2 ) have been predicted for resonant charge transfer in ion-ion collisions, no experimental data exist for multiply charged systems. A novel technique is being developed at the ORNL ECR facility to allow study of symmetric charge exchange in multiply charged ion-ion collisions using a single ion source. Specific intra-beam charge transfer collisions occurring in a well-defined interaction region labeled by negative high voltage are identified and analyzed by electrostatic analysis in combination with ion time-of-flight coincidence detection of the collision products. Center-of-mass collision energies from 400 to 1000 eV are obtained by varying source and labeling-cell voltages. In addition, by the introduction of a target gas into the high-voltage cell, this labeling-voltage method allows measurement of electron-capture and -loss cross sections for ion-atom collisions. Consequently, higher collision energies can be investigated without the requirement of placing the ECR source on a high-voltage platform

  18. Meal pattern analysis for effects of compound feed formulation in mid to late lactating dairy cows fed hay and compound feed both ad libitum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, F.; Navarro-Villa, A.; Fowers, R.; Martin-Tereso, J.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Kempen System is a dairy feeding system allowing ad libitum access to pelleted compound feed (CF) and hay. This system allows high DM intake (DMI) up to 30 kg DM (80% CF), but small and frequent CF meals are essential to reduce negative ruminal pH fluctuations. Little is known about feed intake

  19. P.I.A.F.E project: long distance transport of low energy exotic ions; Projet P.I.A.F.E: transport d`ions exotiques de basse energie sur longue distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nibart, V.

    1996-01-17

    The aim of the PIAFE project is the long distance (400 m) transport of a low energy radioactive ion beam from the ILL (Institut Laue Langevin) to the ISN (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires) of Grenoble (France). The production, extraction, ionization and mass separation of ions is performed by the ILL, while the transformation of ions into multicharged ions, their stripping and acceleration is carried out at the ISN. Theoretical and experimental studies for a simple an original guidance solution have shown that such a long transport, even delicate, should not encounter any major difficulty. The main objectives of this thesis is the technical realization of a 18 m section of this transport line. The problem of supports and focalizing elements alignment has been solved together with the other problems such as: the central trajectory deviation due to alignment defects and to the Earth`s magnetic field; the particle losses due to charge exchange with the residual gas and the emittance increase by Coulomb scattering. It has been demonstrated that a 90% transmission can be obtained using a 25 keV energy and a 10{sup -7} mbar vacuum. Experimental measurements using a rubidium ion source have allowed to validate a theoretical model of emittance increase due to the residual gas-ions interactions. The increase of emittance with respect to the pressure has been measured using four residual gases of different mass. (J.S.). 29 refs., 61 figs., 19 tabs., 8 photos., 4 appends.

  20. Thermal ions dilution and ITG suppression in ASDEX Upgrade ion ITBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardini, G.; Hobirk, J.; Igochine, V.G.; Maggi, C.F.; Martin, P.; McCune, D.; Peeters, A.G.; Sips, A.C.C.; Staebler, A.; Stober, J.

    2007-01-01

    Internal transport barriers (ITBs) in the ion channel in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade allow for high energy confinement but collapse after only several energy confinement times. In this paper we show that in most cases the ITB phase is terminated clearly before the first ELM burst, thereby ruling out the ELMs as the main trigger of the ITB collapse. For the first time, the ITB formation and sustainment are found to be associated with a mechanism of transport suppression based on thermal ions dilution by the injected fast ions. Interestingly, such ITBs do not require reversed magnetic shear. The linear growth rate of the ion temperature gradient driven mode is computed as a function of the fast ion fraction with gyrokinetic stability analysis. Monte Carlo simulations predict the fast ion population to be above the gyrokinetic critical fraction in a region consistent with the experimental ITB width. The density threshold documented for the onset of ASDEX Upgrade ion ITBs is explained. The role of T i /T e and of the plasma sheared rotation for ITB sustainment are analysed. The stabilization mechanism presented here is consistent with the observed ITB lifetime of the order of the beam slowing down time. A possible runaway mechanism leading to ITB collapse is described. Finally, the relevance of this particular ITB scheme for ITER is discussed

  1. Origin of energetic ions in the polar cusp inferred from ion composition measurements by the Viking satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    Full Text Available The magnetospheric ion composition spectrometer MICS on the Swedish Viking satellite provided measurements of the ion composition in the energy range 10.1 keV/eleqE/Qleq326.0 keV/e. Data obtained during orbit 842 were used to investigate the ion distribution in the northern polar cusp and its vicinity. The satellite traversed the outer ring current, boundary region, cusp proper and plasma mantle during its poleward movement. H+ and He++ ions were encountered in all of these regions. He+ ions were present only in the ring current. The number of O+ and O++ ions was very small. Heavy high-charge state ions typical for the solar wind were observed for the first time, most of them in the poleward part of the boundary region and in the cusp proper. The H+ ions exhibited two periods with high intensities. One of them, called the BR/CP event, appeared at energies up to 50 keV. It started at the equatorward limit of the boundary region and continued into the cusp proper. Energy spectra indicate a ring current origin for the BR/CP event. Pitch angle distributions show downward streaming of H+ ions at its equatorward limit and upward streaming on the poleward side. This event is interpreted as the result of pitch angle scattering of ring current ions by fluctuations in the magnetopause current layer in combination with poleward convection. The other of the two periods with high H+ ion intensities, called the accelerated ion event, was superimposed on the BR/CP event. It was restricted to energies leq15 keV and occurred in the poleward part of the boundary region. This event is regarded as the high-energy tail of magnetosheath ions that were accelerated while penetrating into the magnetosphere. The cusp region thus contains ions of magnetospheric as well as of magnetosheath origin. The appearance of the ions depends, in addition to the ion source, on the

  2. Electrostatic solitons in unmagnetized hot electron-positron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Ur-Rehman, H.

    2009-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasmas are studied. The electrons and positrons are assumed to be isothermal and dynamic while ions are considered to be stationary to neutralize the plasma background only. It is found that both upper (fast) and lower (slow) Langmuir waves can propagates in such a type of pair (e-p) plasma in the presence of ions. The small amplitude electrostatic Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons are also obtained using reductive perturbation method. The electrostatic potential hump structures are found to exist when the temperature of the electrons is larger than the positrons, while the electrostatic potential dips are obtained in the reverse temperature conditions for electrons and positrons in e-p-i plasmas. The numerical results are also shown for illustration. The effects of different ion concentration and temperature ratios of electrons and positrons, on the formation of nonlinear electrostatic potential structures in e-p-i plasmas are also discussed.

  3. Ion-ion collisions and ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowat, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Improved understanding of fundamental ion-ion interactions is expected to emerge from research carried out with ion storage rings. In this short survey the significant advantages and unique features that make stored ions useful targets for collision experiments are reviewed and discussed. It is pointed out that improvements to existing ion-ion experiments, as well as qualitatively new experiments, should occur over the next few years as ion storage rings become available for atomic physics. Some new experiments are suggested which are difficult if not impossible with present-day technology, but which seem feasible at storage rings facilities. (orig.)

  4. Preequilibrium light particle emission in heavy ion collisions for E/A between 10 and 20 MeV/A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kailas, S.

    1989-01-01

    It is known that when two heavy ions collide, while the interaction process is dominated by nucleus-nucleus mean field effects at lower energies (E/A < 10Me V), the nucleon-nucleon collision aspects dominate at higher energies (E/A <100 MeV) . In the intermediate E/A region, both the above mentioned effects are important t o varying degrees. Many experiments have shown that when the incident energy excee ds 10 MeV/A, the complete fusion (CF) of target and projectile gives way to an inco mplete fusion (ICF) mechanism associated with preequilibrium light particle (PELP) emmi sion. This phenomenon becomes increasingly important as E increases and at E/A < 20 Me V, the cross section for PELP emission becomes comparable to the reaction cross section . Considerable progress has been made in the last decade towards understanding of ICF and PELP. In the present work, the review of this field is mainly restricted to E/A values lying between 10 and 20 MeV/A. (author). 27 refs., 5 figs

  5. Kinetics of ion/molecule reactions in Xe++acteone system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, P.S.; Misharin, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    A reaction of Xe+ ion with acetone and subsequent transformations of the product ions at a buffer gas pressure (He) of 1.1 Torr were studied by the flow reactor technique mass spectrometry. A kinetic scheme describing the evolution of the ionic composition has been determined. The rate constants of the key reactions involved in the scheme have been evaluated. A channel of the production of acetone cation in A state in a charge transfer reaction was observed. A production of slowly reacting isomer of the acetone cation in secondary reactions was detected. Its product in the reaction with acetone is the 'nonprotonated dimer'. The kinetics of the production of ternary ions - ( CH 3 CO + CH 3 COCH 3 )(m/e=101), CH 3 COCH 3 H + (m/e=59) as well as the production of ions of the fourth generation ( CH 3 CO + (CH 3 COCH 3 ) 2 ) (m/e=159) and (CH 3 COCH 3 ) 2 H + was observed. CH 3 CO + ion (m/e=43) was found as the main reaction product. The main pathways scheme of ionic transformations is shown. (nevyjel)

  6. Surface modification and metallization of polycarbonate using low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheem, A.M. Abdel; Maksoud, M.I.A. Abdel; Ashour, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The low energy argon ion is used for irradiation polycarbonate samples using cold cathode ion source. The surface of the PC substrates is examined using SEM, UV-spectroscopy and FTIR. It was found that the energy band gap decrease by increase argon ion fluence. Copper films are deposited onto polycarbonate (PC) substrates after irradiation by argon ion beam. The structure, surface morphology and the optical band gap are investigated using XRD, SEM and UV spectroscopy. It can be seen that the intensity increases with deposition time and band gap decreases from 3.45 eV for the pristine PC to ∼1.7 eV for copper thin film. - Highlights: • The low energy argon ion is used for irradiation polycarbonate samples. • The surface roughness increase from 9 µm to 23.5 µm after argon ion irradiated. • Copper films are deposited onto polycarbonate (PC) substrates. • Energy band gap decreases from 3.45 eV for pristine to 1.7 eV for copper thin film.

  7. Anomalous electron heating and energy balance in an ion beam generated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guethlein, G.

    1987-04-01

    The plasma described in this report is generated by a 15 to 34 kV ion beam, consisting primarily of protons, passing through an H/sub 2/ gas cell neutralizer. Plasma ions (or ion-electron pairs) are produced by electron capture from (or ionization of) gas molecules by beam ions and atoms. An explanation is provided for the observed anomalous behavior of the electron temperature (T/sub e/): a step-lite, nearly two-fold jump in T/sub e/ as the beam current approaches that which minimizes beam angular divergence; insensitivity of T/sub e/ to gas pressure; and the linear relation of T/sub e/ to beam energy.

  8. Reseña del libro: No hay dos iguales. Individualidad humana y naturaleza humana || Review of the book: No two alike. Human Nature and Human Individuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia López-Larrosa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de: Harris. J.R. (2015. No hay dos iguales. Individualidad humana y naturaleza humana. Madrid: Funambulista. 482 pp. ISBN: 978-84-943026-6-4. Depósito legal: M -36933-2041. [Original: No Two Alike. Human Nature and Human Individuality (2006.] El libro “No hay dos iguales” de Judith Rich Harris trata de responder a una pregunta difícil: por qué somos como somos, por qué incluso los hermanos, habiendo recibido una educación similar y compartiendo una dotación genética similar, son diferentes entre sí. Si alguien se había hecho antes esta pregunta, la autora, tras un recorrido casi detectivesco, le dará algunas respuestas basadas en nuestras dotaciones genéticas, en nuestras únicas interacciones con los demás y en la elaboración que como humanos hacemos de la información que nos proporcionan los que nos rodean.

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source for high currents of mono- and multicharged ion and general purpose unlimited lifetime application on implantation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieth, C.; Bouly, J. L.; Curdy, J. C.; Kantas, S.; Sortais, P.; Sole, P.; Vieux-Rochaz, J. L.

    2000-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources were originally developed for high energy physic applications. They are used as injectors on linear accelerators and cyclotrons to further increase the particle energy via high charge state ions. This ECR technology is well suited for sources placed on a high voltage platform where ac power available is limited by insulated transformers. The PANTECHNIK family of ion source with its wide range of ion beam (various charge states with various beam currents) offers new possibilities and perspectives in the field of ion implantation. In addition to all these possibilities, the PANTECHNIK ion sources have many other advantages like: a very long lifetime without maintenance expense, good stability, efficiency of ionization close to 100% (this improves the lifetime of the pumping system and other equipment), the possibility of producing ion beams with different energies, and a very good reproducibility. The main characteristics of sources like Nanogan or SuperNanogan will be recalled. We will especially present the results obtained with the new Microgan 10 GHz source that can be optimized for the production of high currents of monocharged ion, including reactive gas like BF3 (2 mA e of B+) or medium currents of low charge state like 0.5 mA e of Ar4+. The latest results obtained with Microgan 10 GHz show that it is possible to drive the source up to 30 mA e of total current, with an emittance of 150 π mm mrad at 40 kV and also to maintain the production of multicharged ions like Ar8+.

  10. Modulational instability of the obliquely modulated ion acoustic waves in a warm ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, M.K.; Arora, A.K.; Sharma, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    Using KBM. perturbation technique, it is shown that the modulationally unstable domain in the (kappa - phi) plane for the obliquely modulated ion acoustic waves is appreciably modified due to the finite ion temperature. It is also shown that in a collisionless plasma having small TAUsub(i)/TAUsub(e) ( 0 approximately 0.1) may exceed the Landau damping rate provided the modulation is sufficiently oblique. (author)

  11. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  12. Pulsed power ion accelerators for inertially confined fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Current research is described on pulsed power ion accelerators for inertial fusion, i.e., ion diodes and collective accelerators. Particle beam energy and power requirements for fusion, and basic deposition characteristics of charged particle beams are discussed. Ion diodes and collective accelerators for fusion are compared with existing conventional accelerators

  13. Thirty-centimeter-diameter ion milling source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    A 30 cm beam diameter ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. An argon ion current density of 1 mA/cm 2 at 500 eV ion energy was selected as a design operating condition. The completed ion source met the design criteria at this operating condition with a uniform and well-collimated beam having an average variation in current density of +- 5% over the center of 20 cm of the beam. This ion source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. Langmuir probe surveys of the source plasma support the design concepts of a multipole field and a circumferential cathode to enhance plasma uniformity

  14. Rapid kinetics of iron responsive element (IRE) RNA/iron regulatory protein 1 and IRE-RNA/eIF4F complexes respond differently to metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mateen A; Ma, Jia; Walden, William E; Merrick, William C; Theil, Elizabeth C; Goss, Dixie J

    2014-06-01

    Metal ion binding was previously shown to destabilize IRE-RNA/IRP1 equilibria and enhanced IRE-RNA/eIF4F equilibria. In order to understand the relative importance of kinetics and stability, we now report rapid rates of protein/RNA complex assembly and dissociation for two IRE-RNAs with IRP1, and quantitatively different metal ion response kinetics that coincide with the different iron responses in vivo. kon, for FRT IRE-RNA binding to IRP1 was eight times faster than ACO2 IRE-RNA. Mn(2+) decreased kon and increased koff for IRP1 binding to both FRT and ACO2 IRE-RNA, with a larger effect for FRT IRE-RNA. In order to further understand IRE-mRNA regulation in terms of kinetics and stability, eIF4F kinetics with FRT IRE-RNA were determined. kon for eIF4F binding to FRT IRE-RNA in the absence of metal ions was 5-times slower than the IRP1 binding to FRT IRE-RNA. Mn(2+) increased the association rate for eIF4F binding to FRT IRE-RNA, so that at 50 µM Mn(2+) eIF4F bound more than 3-times faster than IRP1. IRP1/IRE-RNA complex has a much shorter life-time than the eIF4F/IRE-RNA complex, which suggests that both rate of assembly and stability of the complexes are important, and that allows this regulatory system to respond rapidly to change in cellular iron. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Composição química e contribuição nutritiva de cecotrofos de diferentes dietas Chemical composition and nutritive contribution of cecothrophes from different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Vidal da Costa Gomes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de cinco fontes de fibra sobre a produção, composição química e a contribuição nutritiva dos cecotrofos em termos de matéria seca e proteína bruta foram estudados. Quarenta coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia branco foram alojadas em gaiolas metabólicas, por 12 dias, para adaptação às dietas. No 13º dia, para evitar a coprofagia, os animais receberam um colar de madeira por um período de 24 horas, procedendo-se à coleta dos cecotrofos de duas em duas horas. A dieta padrão tinha como principal fonte de fibra o feno de alfafa. As outras dietas foram caracterizadas pela substituição isométrica do feno de alfafa por feno de guandu (Cajanus cajan, palha de feijão, palha e sabugo de milho branco e o feno coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon. Foi observado efeito do tipo de dieta sobre a composição química dos cecotrofos e o teor de PB ingerida por cecotrofia, porém a produção de cecotrofos não diferiu entre dietas.The effects of five fiber sources on the production, chemical composition and cecotrophes nutritive contribution on dry matter and crude protein base were studied. Forty White New Zealand female rabbits were housed in metabolic cage for 12 days to adaptation to the diets. In the 13th day, to prevent coprophagy, the animals received a necklace of wood for a period of 24 hours, and the cecotrophes were collected every two hours. The standard diet had the alfalfa hay as a mainly fiber source. The other diets were characterized by isometric replacement of alfalfa hay by pigeon pea hay (Cajanus cajan, bean straw, white corn with cob and husks and coast-cross hay (Cynodon dactylon. Effect of diet type on cecotrophes chemical composition and crude protein content ingested by cecotrophy was observed, however the cecotrophes production was not different among diets.

  16. Radiative recombination of highly charged ions: Enhanced rates at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.; Mueller, A.; Haselbauer, J.; Schennach, S.; Spies, W.; Uwira, O.; Wagner, M.

    1992-01-01

    In a single-pass merged-beams experiment employing a dense cold electron target recombination of highly charged ions is studied. Unexpected high recombination rates are observed at low energies E cm in the electron-ion center-of-mass frame. In particular, theoretical estimates for radiative recombination are dramatically exceeded by the experimental recombination rates at E cm =0 eV for U 28+ and for Au 25+ ions. Considerable rate enhancement is also observed for Ar 15+ . This points to a general phenomenon which has to be interpreted as a consequence of high electron densities, low electron beam temperatures, high ion charge states and presence of strong magnetic fields. (orig.)

  17. Extracellular and circulating redox- and metalloregulated eRNA and eRNP: copper ion-structured RNA cytokines (angiotropin ribokines) and bioaptamer targets imparting RNA chaperone and novel biofunctions to S100-EF-hand and disease-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissler, Josef H

    2004-06-01

    Bioassays for cellular differentiation and tissue morphogenesis were used to design methods for isolation of bioactive redox- and metalloregulated nucleic acids and copper ion complexes with proteins from extracellular, circulating, wound, and supernatant fluids of cultured cells. In extracellular biospheres, diversities of nucleic acids were found to be secreted by cells upon activation. They may reflect nucleic acid biolibraries with molecular imprints of cellular history. After removal of protein components, eRNA prototypes exuded by activated cells were sequenced. They are small, endogenous, highly modified and edited, redox- and metalloregulated 5'-end phosphorylated extracellular eRNA (approximately 2-200 bases) with cellular, enzymic, and bioaptamer functions. Fenton-type OH* radical redox reactions may form modified nucleotides in RNA as wobbles eRNA per se, or as copper ion-complex with protein (e.g., S100A12-EF-hand protein, angiotropin-related protein, calgranulin-C, hippocampal neurite differentiation factor) are shown to be bioactive in vivo and in vitro as cytokines (ribokines) and as nonmitogenic angiomorphogens for endothelial cell differentiation in the formation of organoid supracellular capillary structures. As bioaptamers, copper ion-structured eRNA imparts novel biofunctions to proteins that they do not have on their own. The origin of extracellular RNA and intermediate precursors (up to 500 bases) was traced to intracellular parent nucleic acids. Intermediate precursors with and without partial homology were found. This suggests that bioaptamers are not directly retranslatable gene products. Metalloregulated eRNA bioaptamer function was investigated by domains (e.g. 5'...CUG...3' hairpin loop) for folding, bioactivity, and binding of protein with copper, calcium, and alkali metal ion affinity. Vice versa, metalloregulated nucleic acid-binding domains (K3H, R3H) in proteins were identified. Interaction of protein and eRNA docking potentials

  18. MAVEN SupraThermal and Thermal Ion Compostion (STATIC) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, J. P.; Kortmann, O.; Curtis, D.; Dalton, G.; Johnson, G.; Abiad, R.; Sterling, R.; Hatch, K.; Berg, P.; Tiu, C.; Gordon, D.; Heavner, S.; Robinson, M.; Marckwordt, M.; Lin, R.; Jakosky, B.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN SupraThermal And Thermal Ion Compostion (STATIC) instrument is designed to measure the ion composition and distribution function of the cold Martian ionosphere, the heated suprathermal tail of this plasma in the upper ionosphere, and the pickup ions accelerated by solar wind electric fields. STATIC operates over an energy range of 0.1 eV up to 30 keV, with a base time resolution of 4 seconds. The instrument consists of a toroidal "top hat" electrostatic analyzer with a 360° × 90° field-of-view, combined with a time-of-flight (TOF) velocity analyzer with 22.5° resolution in the detection plane. The TOF combines a -15 kV acceleration voltage with ultra-thin carbon foils to resolve H+, He^{++}, He+, O+, O2+, and CO2+ ions. Secondary electrons from carbon foils are detected by microchannel plate detectors and binned into a variety of data products with varying energy, mass, angle, and time resolution. To prevent detector saturation when measuring cold ram ions at periapsis (˜10^{1 1} eV/cm2 s sr eV), while maintaining adequate sensitivity to resolve tenuous pickup ions at apoapsis (˜103 eV/cm2 s sr eV), the sensor includes both mechanical and electrostatic attenuators that increase the dynamic range by a factor of 103. This paper describes the instrument hardware, including several innovative improvements over previous TOF sensors, the ground calibrations of the sensor, the data products generated by the experiment, and some early measurements during cruise phase to Mars.

  19. Application of heavy-ion microbeam system at Kyoto University: Energy response for imaging plate by single ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Hirose, M.; Matsumoto, H.

    2011-01-01

    A heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation has been developed using an accelerator at Kyoto University. We have successfully developed proton-, carbon-, fluorine- and silicon-beams in order to irradiate a micro-meter sized area with ion counting, especially single ion irradiation. In the heavy-ion microbeam system, an imaging plate (IP) was utilized for beam diagnostics on the irradiation. The IP is widely used for radiography studies in biology. However, there are a few studies on the low linear energy transfer (LET) by single ions, i.e., low-intensity exposure. Thus we have investigated the energy response for the IP, which can be utilized for microbeam diagnostics.

  20. Two Contemporary Problems in Magnetized Plasmas: the ion-ion hybrid resonator and MHD stability in a snowflake divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, William Anthony [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The rst part of the dissertation investigates the e ects of multiple-ions on the propagation of shear Alfv en waves. It is shown that the presence of a second ion-species allows for the formation of an ion-ion hybrid resonator in the presence of a magnetic well. A fullwave description is shown to explain the measured eigenfrequencies and spatial form of the resonator modes identi ed in experiments in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. However, it is determined that neither electron collisions or radial convection of the mode due to coupling to either the compressional or ion-Bernstein wave can explain the observed dissipation.

  1. Investigation of a large volume negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteille, C.; Bruneteau, A.M.; Bacal, M.

    1995-01-01

    The electron and negative ion densities and temperatures are reported for a large volume hybrid multicusp negative ion source. Based on the scaling laws an analysis is made of the plasma formation and loss processes. It is shown that the positive ions are predominantly lost to the walls, although the observed scaling law is n + ∝I 0.57 d . However, the total plasma loss scales linearly with the discharge current, in agreement with the theoretical model. The negative ion formation and loss is also discussed. It is shown that at low pressure (1 mTorr) the negative ion wall loss becomes a significant part of the total loss. The dependence of n - /n e versus the electron temperature is reported. When the negative ion wall loss is negligible, all the data on n - /n e versus the electron temperatures fit a single curve. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Fast ion loss diagnostic plans for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, D. S.; Bell, R.; Johnson, R.; Kugel, H.; Wilson, J. R.; Cecil, F. E.; Maingi, R.; Krasilnikov, A.; Alekseyev, A.

    2000-01-01

    The prompt loss of neutral beam ions from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is expected to be between 12% and 42% of the total 5 MW of beam power. There may, in addition, be losses of fast ions arising from high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating. Most of the lost ions will strike the HHFW antenna or the neutral beam dump. To measure these losses in the 2000 experimental campaign, thermocouples in the antenna, several infrared camera views, and a Faraday cup lost ion probe will be employed. The probe will measure loss of fast ions with E > 1 keV at three radial locations, giving the scrape-off length of the fast ions

  3. Effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the structural and optical properties of indium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Riti; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M., E-mail: amsiddiqui@jmi.ac.in [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India); Kumar, Pravin [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India); Khan, Sameen Ahmed [Department of Mathematics and Sciences, College of Arts and Applied Sciences (CAAS) Dhofar University, Salalah, Sultanate of Oman (Oman)

    2016-06-10

    : We report here synthesis and subsequent nitrogen ion implantation of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films. The films were implanted with 25 keV N{sup +} beam for different ion doses between 3E15 to 1E16 ions/cm{sup 2}. The resulting changes in structural and optical properties were investigated using XRD, SEM-EDAX and UV-Vis Spectrometry. XRD studies reveal decrease in crystallite size from 20.06 to 12.42 nm with increase in ion dose. SEM micrographs show an increase in the grain size from 0.8 to 1.35 µm with increase in ion dose because of the agglomeration of the grains. Also, from EDAX data on pristine and N-implanted thin films the presence of indium and oxygen without any traces of impurity elements could be seen. However, at lower ion doses such as 3E15 and 5E15 ions/cm{sup 2}, no evidence of the presence of nitrogen ion was seen. However, for the ion dose of 1E16 ions/cm{sup 2}, evidence of presence of nitrogen can be seen in the EDAX data. Band gap calculations reveal a decrease in band gap from 3.54 to 3.38 eV with increasing ion dose. However, the band gap was found to again show an increase to 3.58 eV at the highest ion dose owing to quantum confinement effect.

  4. Investigation of the lithium ion mobility in cyclic model compounds and their ion conduction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielen, Joerg

    2011-07-27

    combination to changes in glass transition temperatures. Though the glass transition temperatures of the blends are low, their conductivities are only in the range of typical polymer electrolytes. The highest {sigma}{sub dc} obtained at ambient temperatures was 6.0 x 10{sup -6} S.cm{sup -1}, strongly suggesting a rather tight coordination of the lithium ions to the solvating 2-oxo-1,3-dioxolane moieties, supported by the increased {sigma}{sub dc} values for the oligo(ethylene oxide) based analogues. Further insights into the mechanism of lithium ion dynamics were derived from {sup 7}Li and {sup 13}C Solid-State NMR investigations. While localized ion motion was probed by i.e. {sup 7}Li spinlattice relaxation measurements with apparent activation energies E{sub a} of 20 to 40 kJ/mol, long-range macroscopic transport was monitored by Pulsed-Field Gradient (PFG) NMR, providing an E{sub a} of 61 kJ/mol. The latter is in good agreement with the values determined from bulk conductivity data, indicating the major contribution of ion transport was only detected by PFG NMR. However, the {mu}m-diffusion is rather slow, emphasizing the strong lithium coordination to the carbonyl oxygens, which hampers sufficient ion conductivities and suggests exploring 'softer' solvating moieties in future electrolytes.

  5. Ion beam and dual ion beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevro, Mirza; Carter, George

    1994-11-01

    Ion beam sputter deposition (IBS) and dual ion beam sputter deposition (DIBS) of tantalum oxide films was investigated at room temperature and compared with similar films prepared by e-gun deposition. Optical properties ie refractive index and extinction coefficient of IBS films were determined in the 250 - 1100 nm range by transmission spectrophotometry and at (lambda) equals 632.8 nm by ellipsometry. They were found to be mainly sensitive to the partial pressure of oxygen used as a reactive gas in the deposition process. The maximum value of the refractive index of IBS deposited tantalum oxide films was n equals 2.15 at (lambda) equals 550 nm and the extinction coefficient of order k equals 2 X 10-4. Films deposited by e-gun deposition had refractive index n equals 2.06 at (lambda) equals 550 nm. Films deposited using DIBS ie deposition assisted by low energy Ar and O2 ions (Ea equals 0 - 300 eV) and low current density (Ji equals 0 - 40 (mu) A/cm2) showed no improvement in the optical properties of the films. Preferential sputtering occurred at Ea(Ar) equals 300 eV and Ji equals 20 (mu) A/cm2 and slightly oxygen deficient films were formed. Different bonding states in the tantalum-oxide films were determined by x-ray spectroscopy while composition of the film and contaminants were determined by Rutherford scattering spectroscopy. Tantalum oxide films formed by IBS contained relatively high Ar content (approximately equals 2.5%) originating from the reflected argon neutrals from the sputtering target while assisted deposition slightly increased the Ar content. Stress in the IBS deposited films was measured by the bending technique. IBS deposited films showed compressive stress with a typical value of s equals 3.2 X 109 dyn/cm2. Films deposited by concurrent ion bombardment showed an increase in the stress as a function of applied current density. The maximum was s approximately equals 5.6 X 109 dyn/cm2 for Ea equals 300 eV and Ji equals 35 (mu) A/cm2. All

  6. Ion energy and angular distributions in inductively coupled Argon RF discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodworth, J.R.; Riley, M.E.; Meister, D.C.

    1996-03-01

    We report measurements of the energies and angular distributions of positive ions in an inductively coupled argon plasma in a GEC reference cell. Use of two separate ion detectors allowed measurement of ion energies and fluxes as a function of position as well as ion angular distributions on the discharge centerline. The inductive drive on our system produced high plasma densities (up to 10 12 /cm 3 electron densities) and relatively stable plasma potentials. As a result, ion energy distributions typically consisted of a single feature well separated from zero energy. Mean ion energy was independent of rf power and varied inversely with pressure, decreasing from 29 eV to 12 eV as pressure increased form 2.4 m Torr to 50 mTorr. Half-widths of the ion angular distributions in these experiments varied from 5 degrees to 12.5 degrees, or equivalently, transverse temperatures varied form 0.2 to 0.5 eV with the distributions broadening as either pressure or RF power were increased

  7. Consumo, digestibilidade e produção microbiana em novilhos alimentados com diferentes volumosos, com e sem suplementação Intake, digestibility and microbial production in steers fed with different forages, supplemented or not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades aparentes totais da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF, o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, e estimou-se a produção microbiana (PMic de dietas para novilhos. Avaliou-se, também, a degradabilidade in situ dos alimentos. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos, fistulados no rúmen, com peso vivo (PV médio de 185,4kg, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, alimentados com: 1- capim-elefante picado (CE; 2- pré-secado de capim-tifton 85 (PS; 3- feno de capim-braquiária (FB; 4- feno de capim-braquiária e concentrado a 0,5% PV (FB:C1; e 5- feno de capim-braquiária e concentrado a 1% PV (FB:C2. O PS proporcionou maior ingestão de MS (6kg/novilho/dia e de NDT (4,2kg/novilho/dia em relação aos demais volumosos utilizados, mostrando ser boa alternativa na nutrição de bovinos. A adição de concentrado ao feno de capim-braquiária aumentou o consumo de MS do volumoso, que passou de 2,7kg/novilho/dia para 3,9kg/novilho/dia, constituindo estratégia para a utilização de volumosos de baixa qualidade. O maior consumo do concentrado C2 (1%PV resultou em aumento no consumo de MS (0,9kg/novilho/dia e de NDT (1kg/novilho/dia na dieta FB:C2, em relação à dieta FB:C1.The intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (CHO, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC; the total digestible nutrients (TDN intake and the microbial protein production (MicP in diets of steers were determined. The in situ degradability of feeds was also evaluated. Five steers averaging 185.4kg live weight (LW and fistulated in the rumen and esophagus were randomly, assigned in a completely randomized experimental design. They were fed on: 1- chopped elephantgrass (CE; 2

  8. Scaling laws for simple heavy ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gula, W.P.; Magelssen, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    We have examined the behavior of single shell DT gas filled spherical targets irradiated by a constant power heavy ion beam pulse. For targets in which the ion range is less than the shell thickness, our computational results suggest that the target can be divided into three regions: (1) the absorber (100 to 400 eV for the energies we have considered), (2) the cold pusher (a few eV), and (3) the DT gas fuel. We have examined the pusher collapse time, velocity, and maximum kinetic energy variations as functions of the various target parameters and ion beam energy. The results are expressed in analytic terms and verified by computer simulation

  9. Planar and nonplanar ion acoustic shock waves in relativistic degenerate astrophysical electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ata-ur-Rahman,; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2013-04-15

    We have studied the propagation of ion acoustic shock waves involving planar and non-planar geometries in an unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are non-degenerate ultra-cold ions, relativistically degenerate electrons, and positrons. By using the reductive perturbation technique, Korteweg-deVries Burger and modified Korteweg-deVries Burger equations are derived. It is shown that only compressive shock waves can propagate in such a plasma system. The effects of geometry, the ion kinematic viscosity, and the positron concentration are examined on the ion acoustic shock potential and electric field profiles. It is found that the properties of ion acoustic shock waves in a non-planar geometry significantly differ from those in planar geometry. The present study has relevance to the dense plasmas, produced in laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter experiments) and in dense astrophysical objects.

  10. Electron impact study of molecular ions of some benzyl derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, E.T.; Rabia, M.A.; Fahmy, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The ionization energies at threshold and values of higher energy levels for the molecular ions of benzyl alcohol, benzyl amine and benzyl cyanide are reported using electron impact technique. The first ionization energy values are found to be 8.26 eV (benzyl alcohol), 8.49 eV(benzyl amine)and 9.32 eV (benzyl cyanide). Some of the reported higher energy levels for the molecular ions are tentatively explained. The differences in the relative abundances for the main fragment ions are discussed and attributed to the effect of the different substituents - OH, -NH2 and -CN groups

  11. Experimental investigation of the formation of negative hydrogen ions in collisions between positive ions and atomic or molecular targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattouf, Elie

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the negative hydrogen ion (H - ) in collisions between a positive ion and a neutral atomic or molecular target is studied experimentally at impact energies of a few keV. The doubly-differential cross sections for H - formation are measured as a function of the kinetic energy and emission angle for the collision systems OH + + Ar and O + + H 2 O at 412 eV/a.m.u. These H - ions can be emitted at high energies (keV) in hard quasi-elastic two-body collisions involving a large momentum transfer to the H center. However, H - anions are preferentially emitted at low energy (eV) due to soft many-body (≥ 2) collisions resulting in a low momentum transfer. The formation of H - ions by electron capture follows excitation or ionization of the molecule. The molecular fragmentation dynamics is modeled to simulate the emission of H - ions. The overall good agreement between the simulation and the experiment leads to the understanding of most of the experimental observations. (author) [fr

  12. Protein and energy supplementation on the voluntary intake and ruminal parameters in steers Suplementação proteico-energética sobre o consumo voluntário e parâmetros ruminais em novilhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Cândia D’Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of protein and supplementation in ruminal parameters behaviour (pH and NH3-N, voluntary feed intake of hay, dry mater (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF degradability of hay. There were used five crossbred steers with mean live weight of 290kg. It were fed with Coast-cross (Cynodon dactilon ad libitum hay and submitted to five different treatments, a control group received mineral mixture and hay ad libitum and four groups with various levels of protein and energy supplementation (0.25; 0.50; 1.00 and 1.50kg DM/100kg of live weight (LW/day. The ruminal pH varied from 6.62 to 6.33. Ruminal pH decreased with the increasing level of supplementation, but the only difference occurence between the control group and concentrate group 1.5kg DM/100kg LW/day. Ruminal NH3-N varied from 4.42mg to 75.11mg in the ruminal fluid. There were differences between supplementation levels, time of ruminal fluid collected and the relation between both aspects. Also 1.50% of LW showed the highest NH3-N concentration. No influence of protein and energy supplementation levels was observed for dry mater intake, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber intakes of hay. The DM and NDF potencial (maximum degration (57.49% and 49.44% respectively was achieved after 96 hours incubation. The supplementation had no influence on DM and NDF hay degradation, except in the 1.5kg DM/100kg LW/day.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação proteico-energética sobre o comportamento dos parâmetros ruminais (pH e N-NH3, consumo voluntário de volumoso e a degradabilidade da matéria seca (MS e da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do volumoso. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços com peso vivo médio inicial de 290kg, alimentados ad libitum com feno de Coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon e submetidos a cinco tratamentos, constituídos de quatro níveis de suplementação proteico-energética (0,25; 0,50, 1,00 e 1,50kg MS/100kg do

  13. Gas and metal ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oaks, E.; Yushkov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The positive ion sources are now of interest owing to both their conventional use, e.g., as injectors in charged-particle accelerators and the promising capabilities of intense ion beams in the processes related to the action of ions on various solid surfaces. For industrial use, the sources of intense