WorldWideScience

Sample records for zagros belt arabianeurasian

  1. Crustal scale geometry of the Zagros fold–thrust belt, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    McQuarrie, Nadine

    2004-01-01

    Balanced cross-sections across the Zagros fold–thrust belt in Iran are used to analyze the geometry of deformation within the sedimentary cover rocks, and to test the hypothesis of basement involved thrusting throughout the fold–thrust belt. Although the Zagros deformation front is a relatively rectilinear feature, the sinuous map-view morphology of the mountain front is a result of a 6 km structural step in the regional elevation of the Asmari Limestone that produces a pronounced step in top...

  2. Seismic imaging of the lithospheric structure of the Zagros mountain belt (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Paul , Anne; Hatzfeld , Denis; KAVIANI , Ayoub; Tatar , Mohammad; Péquegnat , Catherine

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We present a synthesis and a comparison of the results of two temporary passive seismic experiments installed for a few months across Central and Northern Zagros. The receiver function analysis of teleseismic earthquake records gives a high-resolution image of the Moho beneath the seismic transects. On both cross-sections, the crust has an average thickness of 43±2 km beneath the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt and the Central domain. The crust is thicker beneath the hangi...

  3. Lithospheric Structure of the Zagros and Alborz Mountain Belts (Iran) from Seismic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.; Hatzfeld, D.; Kaviani, A.; Tatar, M.

    2008-12-01

    We present a synthesis of the results of two dense temporary passive seismic experiments installed for a few months across Central Zagros for the first one, and from North-western Zagros to Alborz for the second one. On both transects, the receiver function analysis shows that the crust has an average thickness of ~ 43 km beneath the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt and the Iranian plateau. The crust is thicker in the back side of the Main Zagros Reverse Fault (MZRF), with a larger maximum Moho depth in Central Zagros (69 ± 2 km) than in North-western Zagros (56 ± 2 km). To reconcile Bouguer anomaly data and Moho depth profile of Central Zagros, we proposed that the thickening is related to overthrusting of the Arabian margin by Central Iran on the MZRF considered as a major thrust fault rooted at Moho depth. The better-quality receiver functions of NW Zagros display clear conversions on a low-velocity channel which cross-cuts the whole crust from the surface trace of the MZRF to the Moho on 250-km length. Waveform modeling shows that the crustal LVZ is ~ 10-km thick with a S-wave velocity 8-30 % smaller than the average crustal velocity. We interpret the low-velocity channel as the trace of the thrust fault and the suture between the Arabian and the Iranian lithospheres. We favour the hypothesis of the LVZ being due to sediments of the Arabian margin dragged to depth during the subduction of the Neotethyan Ocean. At upper mantle depth, we find shield-like shear-wave velocities in the Arabian upper-mantle, and lower velocities in the Iranian shallow mantle (50-150 km) which are likely due to higher temperature. The lack of a high-velocity anomaly in the mantle northeast of the MZRF suture suggests that the Neotethian oceanic lithosphere is now detached from the Arabian margin. The crust of the Alborz mountain range is not thickened in relation with its high elevations, but its upper mantle has low P-wave velocities.

  4. Growth of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt and Foreland Basin, Northern Iraq, Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas; Horton, Brian; Stockli, Daniel; Barber, Douglas; Ghalib, Hafidh; Dara, Rebwar

    2016-04-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt in the Middle Eastern segment of the Alpine-Himalayan system is among the youngest seismically active continental collision zones on Earth. However, due to diachronous and incremental collision, the precise ages and kinematics of shortening and deposition remain poorly understood. The Kurdistan region of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin contains well-preserved Neogene wedge-top and foredeep deposits that include clastic nonmarine fill of the Upper Fars, Lower Bakhtiari, and Upper Bakhtiari Formations. These deposits record significant information about orogenic growth, fold-thrust dynamics, and advance of the deformation front. Thermochronologic and geochronologic data from thrust sheets and stratigraphic archives combined with local earthquake data provide a unique opportunity to address the linkages between surface and subsurface geologic relationships. This research seeks to constrain the timing and geometry of exhumation and deformation by addressing two key questions: (1) Did the northwestern Zagros fold-thrust belt evolve from initial thin-skinned shortening to later thick-skinned deformation or vice-versa? (2) Did the fold-thrust belt advance steadily under critical/supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting or propagate intermittently under subcritical conditions with out-of-sequence deformation? From north to south, apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the Main Zagros Thrust, the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), and additional frontal thrusts suggest rapid exhumation by ~10 Ma, ~5 Ma, and ~8 Ma respectively. Field observations and seismic sections indicate progressive tilting and development of growth strata within the Lower Bakhtiari Formation adjacent to the frontal thrusts and within the Upper Bakhtiari Formation near the MFF. In the Kurdistan region of Iraq, a regional balanced cross section constrained by new thermochronometric results, proprietary seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake hypocenters

  5. The significance of strike-slip faulting in the basement of the Zagros fold and thrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessami, K.; Koyi, H.A.; Talbot, C.J. [Uppsala University (Sweden). Institute of Earth Sciences

    2000-01-01

    Lateral offsets in the pattern of seismicity along the Zagros fold and thrust belt indicate that transverse faults segmenting the Arabian basement are active deep-seated strike-slip faults. The dominant NW-SE trending features of the belt have undergone repeated horizontal displacements along these transverse faults. These reactivated basement faults, which are inherited from the Pan-African construction phase, controlled both deposition of the Phanerozoic cover before Tertiary-Recent deformation of the Zagros and probably the entrapment of hydrocarbons on the NE margin of Arabia and in the Zagros area. We have used observations of faulting recognized on Landsat satellite images, in conjunction with the spatial distribution of earthquakes and their focal mechanism solutions, to infer a tectonic model for the Zagros basement. Deformation in the NW Zagros appears to be concentrated on basement thrusts and a few widely-spaced north-south trending strike-slip faults which separate major structural segments. In the SE Zagros, two main structural domains can be distinguished. A domain of NNW-trending right-lateral faults in the northern part of the SE Zagros implies that fault-bounded blocks are likely to have rotated anticlockwise about vertical axes relative to both Arabia and Central Iran. In contrast, the predominance of NNE-trending left-lateral faults in the southern part of the SE Zagros implies that fault-bounded blocks may have rotated clockwise about vertical axes. We propose a tectonic model in which crustal blocks bounded by strike-slip faults in a zone of simple shear rotate about vertical axes relative to both Arabia and Central Iran. The presence of domains of strike-slip and thrust faulting in the Zagros basement suggest that some of the convergence between Arabia and Central Iran is accommodated by rotation and possible lateral movement of crust along the belt by strike-slip faults, as well as by obvious crustal shortening and thickening along thrust

  6. Non-cylindrical fold growth in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Nikolaus; Bretis, Bernhard; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros mountains extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains started to form as a result of the collision between the Eurasian and Arabian Plates, whose convergence began in the Late Cretaceous as part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Geodetic and seismological data document that both plates are still converging and that the fold and thrust belt of the Zagros is actively growing. Extensive hydrocarbon exploration mainly focuses on the antiforms of this fold and thrust belt and therefore the growth history of the folds is of great importance. This work investigates by means of structural field work and quantitative geomorphological techniques the progressive fold growth of the Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines located in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Northern Iraq. This part of the Zagros fold and thrust belt belongs to the so-called Simply Folded Belt, which is dominated by gentle to open folding. Faults or fault related folds have only minor importance. The mechanical anisotropy of the formations consisting of a succession of relatively competent (massive dolomite and limestone) and incompetent (claystone and siltstone) sediments essentially controls the deformation pattern with open to gentle parallel folding of the competent layers and flexural flow folding of the incompetent layers. The characteristic wavelength of the fold trains is around 10 km. Due to faster erosion of the softer rock layers in the folded sequence, the more competent lithologies form sharp ridges with steeply sloping sides along the eroded flanks of the anticlines. Using an ASTER digital elevation model in combination with geological field data we quantified 250 drainage basins along the different limbs of the subcylindrical Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines. Geomorphological indices of the drainage

  7. Distributed deformation in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt: insights from geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Ahmed; Allen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The Zagros fold-and-thrust belt is part of the active Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, and is an excellent region to study the interactions of tectonics and landscape. In this work we present results of a geomorphic analysis covering the entire range, coupled with more detailed analysis of the Kirkuk Embayment, Iraq. This particular region is a low elevation, low relief region of the Zagros, important for the enormous oil and gas reserves held in late Cenozoic anticlinal traps. Constraints from published earthquake focal mechanisms and hydrocarbon industry sub-surface data are combined with original fieldwork observations in northern Iraq, to produce a new regional cross-section and structural interpretation for the Kirkuk Embayment. We find that overall late Cenozoic shortening across the Embayment is on the order of 5%, representing only a few km. This deformation takes place on a series of anticlines, which are interpreted as overlying steep, planar, basement thrusts. These thrusts are further interpreted as reactivated normal faults, on the basis of (rare) published seismic data. The regional earthquake record confirms the basement involvement, although detachments within the sedimentary succession are also important, especially within the Middle Miocene Fat'ha Formation. Overall, the Zagros is sometimes represented as having a few major thrusts each persistent for 100s of km along the strike of the range. However, these faults are very rarely associated with major structural relief and/or surface fault ruptures during earthquakes. We have analysed the hypsometry of the range and find only gradational changes in the hypsometric integral of drainage basins across strike. This contrasts with regions such as the eastern Tibetan Plateau, where published analysis has revealed abrupt changes, correlating with the surface traces of active thrusts. Our interpretation is that the hypsometry of the Zagros reflects distributed deformation on numerous smaller faults, rather

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations within the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Project. Twenty-three assessment units within seven petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed in this study, which represents a reassessment of this area last published in 2000.

  9. Orogenic plateau growth: Expansion of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau across the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. B.; Saville, C.; Blanc, E. J.-P.; Talebian, M.; Nissen, E.

    2013-03-01

    This paper shows how the Turkish-Iranian Plateau grows laterally by incrementally incorporating adjacent parts of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt. The limit of significant, seismogenic, thrusting in the Zagros (Mw > 5) occurs close to the regional 1250 m elevation contour. The seismicity cutoff is not a significant bedrock geology boundary. Elevations increase northward, toward regional plateau elevations of 2 km, implying that another process produced the extra elevation. Between the seismogenic limit of thrusting and the suture, this process is a plausibly ductile thickening of the basement, suggesting depth-dependent strain during compression. Similar depth-dependant crustal strain may explain why the Tibetan plateau has regional elevations 1500 m greater than the elevation limit of seismogenic thrusting at its margins. We estimate 68 km shortening across the Zagros Simply Folded Belt in the Fars region, and 120 km total shortening of the Arabian plate. The Dezful Embayment is a low strain zone in the western Zagros. Deformation is more intense to its northeast, in the Bakhtyari Culmination. The orogenic taper (across strike topographic gradient) across the Dezful Embayment is 0.0004, and across the Bakhtyari Culmination, 0.022. Lateral plateau growth is more pronounced farther east (Fars), where a more uniform structure has a taper of 0.010 up to elevations of 1750 m. A >100 km wide region of the Zagros further northeast has a taper of 0.002 and is effectively part of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Internal drainage enhances plateau development but is not a pre-requisite. Aspects of the seismicity, structure, and geomorphology of the Zagros do not support critical taper models for fold-and-thrust belts.

  10. Fracture patterns in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Daniel; Decker, Kurt; Grasemann, Bernhard; Peresson, Herwig

    2012-11-01

    Fracture data have been collected in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, which is a poorly accessible and unexplored area of the Zagros. Pre to early folding NE-SW striking extensional fractures and NW-SE striking contractive elements represent the older set affecting the exposed multilayer of the area. These latter structures are early syn-folding and followed by folding-related mesostructural assemblages, which include elements striking parallel to the axial trend of major folds (longitudinal fractures). Bedding perpendicular joints and veins, and extensional faults belonging to this second fracture set are located in the outer arc of exposed anticlines, whilst longitudinal reverse faults locate in the inner arcs. Consistently, these elements are associated with syn-folding tangential longitudinal strain. The younger two sets are related to E-W extension and NNE-SSW to N-S shortening, frequently displaying reactivation of the older sets. The last shortening event, which is described along the entire Zagros Belt, probably relates with the onset of N-S compression induced by the northward movement of the Arabian plate relative to the Eurasian Plate. In comparison between the inferred palaeostrain directions and the kinematics of recent GPS measurements, we conclude that the N-S compression and the partitioning into NW-SE trending folds and NW to N trending strike-slip faults likely remained unchanged throughout the Neogene tectonic history of the investigated area.

  11. Insights on the lithospheric structure of the Zagros mountain belt from seismological data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.; Kaviani, A.; Vergne, J.; Hatzfeld, D.; Mokhtari, M.

    2003-04-01

    As part of a French-Iranian collaboration, we installed a temporary seismological network across the Zagros for 4.5 months in 2000-2001 to investigate the lithospheric structure of the mountain belt. The network included 65 stations located along a 600-km long line (average spacing of ˜10 km) from the coast of the Persian Gulf to the stable block of Central Iran. A migrated depth cross-section computed from radial receiver functions displays clear P-to-S conversions at the Moho beneath most of the profile. The average Moho depth is 45 to 50 km beneath the folded belt. It deepens rather abruptly beneath the suture zone of the MZT (Main Zagros Thrust) and the Sanandaj-Sirjan (SS) metamorphic zone. The maximum crustal thickness of ˜65 km is reached 50 km NE of the surface trace of the MZT. The region of over-thickened crust is shifted to the NE with respect to the areas of highest elevations and the strongest negative Bouguer anomaly. To the NE, the crust of the block of Central Iran is 40-km thick on average. Two patches of Ps converted energy can be seen below the Moho in the northern half of the transect that cannot be attributed to multiple reflections. Teleseismic P residual travel time curves display lateral variations as large as 1.5 s with both long (faster arrivals in the SW than in the NE) and short-scale variations (in the MZT region). They were inverted for variations of P wave velocity with the ACH technique. The crustal layer exhibits rather strong lateral variations of Vp with lower velocities under the MZT and the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage, and faster velocities under the SS zone. In the mantle, a clear difference appears between the faster P wave velocities of the Arabian craton and the relatively lower velocities of the mantle of Central Iran.

  12. Earthquake hazard assessment in the Zagros Orogenic Belt of Iran using a fuzzy rule-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahi Ghasre Aboonasr, Sedigheh; Zamani, Ahmad; Razavipour, Fatemeh; Boostani, Reza

    2017-08-01

    Producing accurate seismic hazard map and predicting hazardous areas is necessary for risk mitigation strategies. In this paper, a fuzzy logic inference system is utilized to estimate the earthquake potential and seismic zoning of Zagros Orogenic Belt. In addition to the interpretability, fuzzy predictors can capture both nonlinearity and chaotic behavior of data, where the number of data is limited. In this paper, earthquake pattern in the Zagros has been assessed for the intervals of 10 and 50 years using fuzzy rule-based model. The Molchan statistical procedure has been used to show that our forecasting model is reliable. The earthquake hazard maps for this area reveal some remarkable features that cannot be observed on the conventional maps. Regarding our achievements, some areas in the southern (Bandar Abbas), southwestern (Bandar Kangan) and western (Kermanshah) parts of Iran display high earthquake severity even though they are geographically far apart.

  13. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  14. Stress states in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt from passive margin to collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navabpour, Payman; Barrier, Eric

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Zagros fold-and-thrust belt of SW-Iran corresponds to the former Arabian passive continental margin of the southern Neo-Tethyan basin since the Permian-Triassic rifting, undergoing later collisional deformation in mid-late Cenozoic times. In this paper an overview of brittle tectonics and palaeostress reconstructions of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt is presented, based on direct stress tensor inversion of fault slip data. The results indicate that, during the Neo-Tethyan oceanic opening, an extensional tectonic regime affectedthe sedimentary cover in Triassic-Jurassic times with an approximately N-S trend of the σ3 axis, oblique to the margin, which was followed by some local changes to a NE-SW trend during Jurassic-Cretaceous times. The stress state significantly changed to thrust setting, with a NE-SW trend of the σ1 axis, and a compressional tectonic regime prevailed during the continental collision and folding of the sedimentary cover in Oligocene-Miocene times. This compression was then followed by a strike-slip stress state with an approximately N-S trend of the σ1 axis, oblique to the belt, during inversion of the inherited extensional basement structures in Pliocene-Recent times. The brittle tectonic reconstructions, therefore, highlighted major changes of the stress state in conjunction with transitions between thin- and thick-skinned structures during different extensional and compressional stages of continental deformation within the oblique divergent and convergent settings, respectively.

  15. Early Jurassic extensional inheritance in the Lurestan region of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Parente, Mariano; Vitale, Stefano; Puzone, Francesco; Erba, Elisabetta; Bottini, Cinzia; Morsalnejad, Davoud; Mazzoli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    It has long been recognized that the tectonic architecture of the Zagros mountain belt was strongly controlled by inherited structures previously formed within the Arabian plate. These preexisting features span in age from the pre-Cambrian to the Mesozoic, showing different trends and deformation styles. Yet, these structures are currently not fully understood. This uncertainty is partly related with the paucity of exposures, which rarely allows a direct observation of these important deformation features. The Lurestan Province of Iran provides a remarkable exception, since it is one of the few places of the Zagros mountain belt where exposures of Triassic and Jurassic rocks are widespread. In this area we carried out structural observations on Mesozoic extensional structures developed at the southern margin of the Neo-Tethyan basin. Syn-sedimentary extensional faults are hosted within the Triassic-Cretaceous succession, being particularly abundant in the Jurassic portion of the stratigraphy. Early to Middle Jurassic syn-sedimentary faults are observed in different paleogeographic domains of the area, and their occurrence is coherent with the subsequent transition from shallow-water to deep-sea basin environments, observed in a wide portion of the area. Most of the thrusts exposed in the area may indeed be interpreted as reactivated Jurassic extensional faults, or as reverse faults whose nucleation was controlled by the location of preexisting normal faults, as a result of positive inversion during crustal shortening and mountain building.

  16. Along-strike structural variation and thermokinematic development of the Cenozoic Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt, Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Douglas E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Koshnaw, Renas I.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Yilmaz, Ismail O.

    2016-04-01

    The Bitlis-Zagros orogen in northern Iraq is a principal element of the Arabia-Eurasia continent collision and is characterized by the lateral intersection of two structural domains: the NW-SE trending Zagros proper system of Iran and the E-W trending Bitlis fold-thrust belt of Turkey and Syria. While these components in northern Iraq share a similar stratigraphic framework, they exhibit along-strike variations in the width and style of tectonic zones, fold morphology and trends, and structural inheritance. However, the distinctions of the Bitlis and Zagros segments remains poorly understood in terms of timing and deformation kinematics as well as first-order controls on fold-thrust development. Structural and stratigraphic study and seismic data combined with low-T thermochronometry provide the basis for reconstructions of the Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt in southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to elucidate the kinematic and temporal relationship of these two systems. Balanced cross-sections were constructed and incrementally restored to quantify the deformational evolution and use as input for thermokinematic models (FETKIN) to generate thermochronometric ages along the topographic surface of each cross-section line. The forward modeled thermochronometric ages from were then compared to new and previously published apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He and fission-track ages from southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to test the validity of the timing, rate, and fault-motion geometry associated with each reconstruction. The results of these balanced theromokinematic restorations integrated with constraints from syn-tectonic sedimentation suggest that the Zagros belt between Erbil and Suleimaniyah was affected by an initial phase of Late Cretaceous exhumation related to the Proto-Zagros collision. During the main Zagros phase, deformation advanced rapidly and in-sequence from the Main Zagros Fault to the thin-skinned frontal thrusts (Kirkuk, Shakal, Qamar) from middle

  17. Quantification of fold growth of frontal antiforms in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretis, Bernhard; Bartl, Nikolaus; Graseman, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros fold and thrust belt is a seismically active orogen, where actual kinematic models based on GPS networks suggest a north-south shortening between Arabian and Eurasian in the order of 1.5-2.5 cm/yr. Most of this deformation is partitioned in south-southwest oriented folding and thrusting with northwest-southeast to north-south trending dextral strike slip faults. The Zagros fold and thrust belt is of great economic interest because it has been estimated that this area contains about 15% of the global recoverable hydrocarbons. Whereas the SE parts of the Zagros have been investigated by detailed geological studies, the NW extent being part of the Republic of Iraq have experienced considerably less attention. In this study we combine field work and remote sensing techniques in order to investigate the interaction of erosion and fold growth in the area NE of Erbil (Kurdistan, Iraq). In particular we focus on the interaction of the transient development of drainage patterns along growing antiforms, which directly reflects the kinematics of progressive fold growth. Detailed geomorphological studies of the Bana Bawi-, Permam- and Safeen fold trains show that these anticlines have not developed from subcylindrical embryonic folds but they have merged from different fold segments that joined laterally during fold amplification. This fold segments with length between 5 and 25 km have been detected by mapping ancient and modern river courses that initially cut the nose of growing folds and eventually got defeated leaving behind a wind gap. Fold segments, propagating in different directions force rivers to join resulting in steep gorges, which dissect the merging fold noses. Along rapidly lateral growing folds (e.g. at the SE end of the Bana Bawi Anticline) we observed "curved wind gaps", a new type of abandoned river course, where form of the wind gap mimics a formed nose of a growing antiform. The inherited curved segments of uplifted curved river courses strongly

  18. An improved evaluation of the seismic/geodetic deformation-rate ratio for the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust collisional belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; Imprescia, Paola; Agnon, Amotz; Gresta, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    We present an improved picture of the ongoing crustal deformation field for the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt continental collision zone by using an extensive combination of both novel and published GPS observations. The main results define the significant amount of oblique Arabia-Eurasia convergence currently being absorbed within the Zagros: right-lateral shear along the NW trending Main Recent fault in NW Zagros and accommodated between fold-and-thrust structures and NS right-lateral strike-slip faults on Southern Zagros. In addition, taking into account the 1909-2016 instrumental seismic catalogue, we provide a statistical evaluation of the seismic/geodetic deformation-rate ratio for the area. On Northern Zagros and on the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, a moderate to large fraction (˜49 and >60 per cent, respectively) of the crustal deformation occurs seismically. On the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, the seismic/geodetic deformation-rate ratio suggests that a small to moderate fraction (<40 per cent) of crustal deformation occurs seismically; locally, the occurrence of large historic earthquakes (M ≥ 6) coupled with the high geodetic deformation, could indicate overdue M ≥ 6 earthquakes. On Southern Zagros, aseismic strain dominates crustal deformation (the ratio ranges in the 15-33 per cent interval). Such aseismic deformation is probably related to the presence of the weak evaporitic Hormuz Formation which allows the occurrence of large aseismic motion on both subhorizontal faults and surfaces of décollement. These results, framed into the seismotectonic framework of the investigated region, confirm that the fold-and-thrust-dominated deformation is driven by buoyancy forces; by contrast, the shear-dominated deformation is primary driven by plate stresses.

  19. Influence of pre-existing basement faults on the structural evolution of the Zagros Simply Folded belt: 3D numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, Jonas B.; Gerya, Taras

    2015-04-01

    The Simply Folded Belt of the Zagros orogen is characterized by elongated fold trains symptomatically defining the geomorphology along this mountain range. The Zagros orogen results from the collision of the Arabian and the Eurasian plates. The Simply Folded Belt is located southwest of the Zagros suture zone. An up to 2 km thick salt horizon below the sedimentary sequence enables mechanical and structural detachment from the underlying Arabian basement. Nevertheless, deformation within the basement influences the structural evolution of the Simply Folded Belt. It has been shown that thrusts in form of reactivated normal faults can trigger out-of-sequence deformation within the sedimentary stratigraphy. Furthermore, deeply rooted strike-slip faults, such as the Kazerun faults between the Fars zone in the southeast and the Dezful embayment and the Izeh zone, are largely dispersing into the overlying stratigraphy, strongly influencing the tectonic evolution and mechanical behaviour. The aim of this study is to reveal the influence of basement thrusts and strike-slip faults on the structural evolution of the Simply Folded Belt depending on the occurrence of intercrustal weak horizons (Hormuz salt) and the rheology and thermal structure of the basement. Therefore, we present high-resolution 3D thermo-mechnical models with pre-existing, inversively reactivated normal faults or strike-slip faults within the basement. Numerical models are based on finite difference, marker-in-cell technique with (power-law) visco-plastic rheology accounting for brittle deformation. Preliminary results show that deep tectonic structures present in the basement may have crucial effects on the morphology and evolution of a fold-and-thrust belt above a major detachment horizon.

  20. Balancing cross-sections combining field work and remote sensing data using LithoTect software in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, N Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros fold-and-thrust belt has formed in detached Phanerozoic sedimentary cover rocks above a shortened crystalline Precambrian basement and evolved through the Late Cretaceous to Miocene collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plate, during which the Neotethys oceanic basin was closed. Deformation is partitioned in SW directed folding and thrusting of the sediments and NW-SE to N-S trending dextral strike slip faults. The sub-cylindrical doubly-plunging fold trains with wavelengths of 5 - 10 km host more than half of the world's hydrocarbon reserves in mostly anticlinal traps. Generally the Zagros is divided into three NW-SE striking tectonic units: the Zagros Imbricate Zone, the Zagros Simply Folded Belt and the Zagros Foredeep. This work presents a balanced cross-section through the Simply Folded Belt, NE of the city of Erbil (Kurdistan, Iraq). The regional stratigraphy comprises mainly Cretaceous to Cenozoic folded sediments consisting of massive, carbonate rocks (limestones, dolomites), reacting as competent layers during folding compared to the incompetent behavior of interlayered siltstones, claystones and marls. Although the overall security situation in Kurdistan is much better than in the rest of Iraq, structural field mapping was restricted to asphalt streets, mainly because of the contamination of the area with landmines and unexploded ordnance. In order to extend the structural measurements statistically over the investigated area, we used a newly developed software tool (www.terramath.com) for interactive structural mapping of spatial orientations (i.e. dip direction and dip angles) of the sedimentary beddings from digital elevation models. Structural field data and computed measurements where integrated and projected in NE-SW striking balanced cross-sections perpendicular to the regional trend of the fold axes. We used the software LithoTect (www.geologicsystems.com) for the restoration of the cross-sections. Depending on the interpretation

  1. Neogene shortening and exhumation of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas I.; Horton, Brian K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Barber, Douglas E.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Kendall, Jerome J.

    2017-01-01

    The Zagros fold-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq encroached southward toward a rapidly subsiding Neogene foreland basin and was later partitioned by out-of-sequence shortening focused along the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), as defined by new low-temperature thermochronologic, stratigraphic, and provenance results. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages document rapid deformation advance from the Main Zagros Fault to southern frontal structures (Kirkuk, Shakal, and Qamar thrusts) at 10-8 Ma, followed by potential basement-involved out-of-sequence development of the MFF (Qaradagh anticline) by 5 Ma. Distinct shifts in detrital zircon U-Pb provenance signatures for Neogene foreland basin fill provide evidence for drainage reorganization during fold-thrust belt advance. U-Pb age spectra and petrologic data from the Injana (Upper Fars) Formation indicate derivation from a variety of Eurasian, Pan-African, ophiolitic and Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic terranes, whereas the Mukdadiya (Lower Bakhtiari) and Bai-Hasan (Upper Bakhtiari) Formations show nearly exclusive derivation from the Paleogene Walash-Naopurdan volcanic complex near the Iraq-Iran border. Such a sharp cutoff in Eurasian, Pan-African, and ophiolitic sources is likely associated with drainage reorganization and tectonic development of the geomorphic barrier formed by the MFF. As a result of Zagros crustal shortening, thickening and loading, the Neogene foreland basin developed and accommodated an abrupt influx of fluvial clastic sediment that contains growth stratal evidence of synkinematic accumulation. The apparent out-of-sequence pattern of upper crustal shortening in the hinterland to foreland zone of Iraqi Kurdistan suggests that structural inheritance and the effects of synorogenic erosion and accumulation are important factors influencing the irregular and episodic nature of orogenic growth in the Zagros.

  2. The occurrence and origin of celestite in the Abolfares region, Iran: Implications for Sr-mineralization in Zagros fold belt (ZFB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkaseb, Houshang; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mahdavi, Reyhaneh; Ghanavati, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    The major celestite deposits in Zagros Fold belt are associated with coastal marine carbonate and evaporate sediments of Oligo-Miocene Asmari and Lower Miocene Ghachsaran Formations. In the Abolfares region, celestite mineralization is extended in the western limb of Bangestan anticline in the carbonates of Early Miocene (middle part of Asmari Formation), underlying by dolomitic carbonates of Burdigalian. From bottom to top three main types of mineralization can be distinguished in the study area: (1) layer texture resulting from replacement of algal limestone by celestite minerals with some parts showing idiomorphic crystals (geodes) along the walls of the cavities, (2) celestite occurrence as irregular massive shape interconnected small crystals and nodules, and (3) celestite mineralization associated with steeply dipping veins and open space fracture fillings, resulting from late-stage epigenetic processes. Highlightly, the ore-hosting carbonate rocks were deposited in an intertidal - supratidal protected setting with hypersaline conditions, in accordance with other celestite deposits of the Zagros Fold belt. The abundance of diagenetic crystallization rhythmites, carbonate and anhydrite inclusions as confirmed by Laser Raman spectroscopy analysis, high Sr/Ba values (average; 8726.1) and strong negative correlations between SO3 vs CaO (R2 = 0.98), SrO vs CaO (R2 = 0.96) with positive correlations between Ba vs SrO (R2 = 0.54) and SO3 vs SrO (R2 = 0.98) highlight the role of high Sr late-diagenetic brines in replacement of carbonates with celestite minerals. It seems that the inception of compressional folding during or soon after the deposition of the Asmari Formation in the carbonate platform at the margin of NW-trending basin in the foreland of the Zagros orogenic belt lead to the upward refluxing of penetrated high-Sr diagenetic brines and celestite mineralization.

  3. Evolution of the stress fields in the Zagros Foreland Folded Belt using focal mechanisms and kinematic analyses: the case of the Fars salient, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Zafarmand, Bahareh; Oveisi, Behnam

    2018-03-01

    The NW-SE trending Zagros orogenic belt was initiated during the convergence of the Afro-Arabian continent and the Iranian microcontinent in the Late Cretaceous. Ongoing convergence is confirmed by intense seismicity related to compressional stresses collision-related in the Zagros orogenic belt by reactivation of an early extensional faulting to latter compressional segmented strike-slip and dip-slip faulting. These activities are strongly related either to the deep-seated basement fault activities (deep-seated earthquakes) underlies the sedimentary cover or gently dipping shallow-seated décollement horizon of the rheological weak rocks of the infra-Cambrian Hormuz salt. The compressional stress regimes in the different units play an important role in controlling the stress conditions between the different units within the sedimentary cover and basement. A significant set of nearly N-S trending right-lateral strike-slip faults exists throughout the study area in the Fars area in the Zagros Foreland Folded Belt. Fault-slip and focal mechanism data were analyzed using the stress inversion method to reconstruct the paleo and recent stress conditions. The results suggest that the current direction of maximum principal stress averages N19°E, with N38°E that for the past from Cretaceous to Tertiary (although a few sites on the Kar-e-Bass fault yield a different direction). The results are consistent with the collision of the Afro-Arabian continent and the Iranian microcontinent. The difference between the current and paleo-stress directions indicates an anticlockwise rotation in the maximum principle stress direction over time. This difference resulted from changes in the continental convergence path, but was also influenced by the local structural evolution, including the lateral propagation of folds and the presence of several local décollement horizons that facilitated decoupling of the deformation between the basement and the sedimentary cover. The obliquity of

  4. Structural, micro-structural and kinematic analyses of channel flow in the Karmostaj salt diapir in the Zagros foreland folded belt, Fars province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Sarshar, Maryam Asadi; Adineh, Sadegh

    2018-02-01

    One of the main characteristic of the Zagros foreland fold-and-thrust belt and the Zagros foreland folded belt are wide distributions of surface extrusion from the Hormuz salt diapirs. This study examines the structure and kinematic of channel flow in the Karmostaj salt diapir in the southwestern part of the Zagros foreland folded belt. This diapir has reached the surface as a result of the channel flow mechanism and has extruded in the southern limb of the Kuh-Gach anticline which is an asymmetric décollement fold with convergence to the south. Structural and microstructural studies and quantitative finite strain (Rs) and kinematic vorticity number (Wk) analyses were carried out within this salt diapir and its namakier. This was in order to investigate the structural evolution in the salt diapiric system, the characteristics and mechanism of the salt flow and the distribution of flow regimes within the salt diapir and interaction of regional tectonics and salt diaprism. The extruded salt has developed a flow foliation sub-parallel to the remnant bedding recorded by different colors, a variety of internal folds including symmetrical and asymmetrical folds and interference fold patterns, shear zones, and boudins. These structures were used to analyze mechanisms and history of diapiric flow and extrusion. The microstructures, reveal various deformation mechanisms in various parts of salt diapir. The measurements of finite strain show that Rs values in the margin of salt diapir are higher than within its namakier which is consistent with the results of structural studies. Mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) measured in steady state deformation of diapir and namakier is Wm = 0.45-0.48 ± 0.13. The estimated mean finite deformation (Wm) values indicate that 67.8% pure shear and 32.2% simple shear deformation were involved; the implications of which are discussed. The vorticity of flow indicates that in the early stage of growth, Poiseuille flow was the dominate

  5. Post-collisional polycyclic plutonism from the Zagros hinterland: the Shaivar Dagh plutonic complex, Alborz belt, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghazadeh, Mehraj; Castro, Antonio; Badrzadeh, Zahra; Vogt, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    The petrological and geochronological study of the Cenozoic Shaivar Dagh composite intrusion in the Alborz Mountain belt (NW Iran) reveals important clues to decipher complex relations between magmatic and tectonic processes in the central sectors of the Tethyan (Alpine–Himalayan) orogenic belt.

  6. Structure and evolution of the northern Oman margin: gravity and seismic constraints over the Zagros-Makran-Oman collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaut, P.; Bayer, R.; Hassani, R.; Rousset, D.; Yahya'ey, A. Al

    1997-09-01

    The obduction process in Oman during Late Cretaceous time, and continental-to-oceanic subduction along the Zagros-Makran region during the Tertiary are consequences of the Arabian-Eurasian collision, resulting in construction of complex structures composed of the Oman ophiolite belt, the Zagros continental mountain belt and the Makran subduction zone with its associated accretionary wedge. In this paper, we jointly interpret Bouguer anomaly and available petroleum seismic profiles in terms of crustal structures. We show that the gravity anomaly in northern Oman is characterized by a high-amplitude negative-positive couple. The negative anomaly is coincident with Late Cretaceous (Fiqa) and Tertiary (Pabdeh) foreland basins and with the Zagros-Oman mountain belts, whereas the positive anomaly is correlated to the ophiolite massifs. The Bouguer anomaly map indicates the presence of a post-Late Cretaceous sedimentary basin, the Sohar basin, centred north of the Batinah plain. We interpret the negative/positive couple in terms of loading of the elastic Arabian lithosphere. We estimate the different Cretaceous-to-Recent loads, including topography, ophiolite nappes, sedimentary fill and the accretionary prism of the Makran trench. A new method, using Mindlin's elastic plate theory, is proposed to model the 2D deflection of the heterogeneous elastic Arabian plate, taking into account boundary conditions at the ends of the subducted plate. We show that remnant ophiolites are isolated from Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in the Gulf of Oman by a continental basement ridge, a NW prolongation of the Saih-Hatat window. Loading the northward-limited ophiolite blocks explains the deflection of the Fiqa foredeep basin. West of the Musandam Peninsula, the Tertiary Pabdeh foredeep is probably related to the emplacement of a 8-km-thick tectonic prism located on the Musandam Peninsula and in the Strait of Hormuz. Final 2D density models along profiles through the Oman mountain belt and

  7. Interaction of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt and the Arabian-type, deep-seated folds in the Abadan Plain and the Dezful Embayment, SW Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fard, Iraj Abdollahie [National Iranian Oil Co., Exploration Directorate, Tehran (Iran); Braathen, Alvar [Bergen Univ., Centre for Integrated Petroleum Research, Bergen (Norway); Mokhtari, Mohamad [International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran (Iran); Alavi, Seyed Ahmad [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Earth Sciences Faculty, Tehran (Iran)

    2006-07-01

    The Dezful Embayment and Abadan Plain (SW Iran) contain major parts of the remaining Iranian oil reserves. These oil provinces are characterized by two types of structural closure: very gentle N-S- to NE-SW-trending basement-cored anticlines (Arabian-type highs) in the SE; and open to tight, NW-SE-trending thrust-related folds in the NE (Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt; ZFTB). Most deep-seated anticlines are upright and symmetrical in Cretaceous and older units. In some cases they reveal steep faults in their core which, in the light of regional observations, suggest that the basement is involved in the faulting. Untested plays around these anticlines include reefal build-ups, debris flows, truncated sedimentary sections and onlapping clastic units. The ZFTB shows a classic structural style, with overall shortening reflected in thrust displacement declining from the Dezful Embayment towards the frontal zone in the Abadan Plain. The Early Cambrian Hormuz Salt represents the fundamental sole for the fold-thrust belt and locates major fault-propagation folds in the southwestern Dezful Embayment. These folds represent the main petroleum target of the area. Another important unit is the Mid-Miocene Gachsaran Formation. This detachment reveals both in-sequence and out-of-sequence thrusting. Interaction of deep-seated anticlines and fold-thrust structures results in thrust imbrications and formation of duplexes within the Gachsaran Formation when thrusts abut deep-seated anticlines. Above the crest of the anticlines, thrusts are forced up-section into syn-tectonic deposits, whereas the forelimb reveals out-of-the-syncline thrusts. Several petroleum plays are identified in such zones of structural interaction, including anticlines above buttress-related duplexes, out-of-sequence imbricate thrust fans with associated folds above major anticlines, truncation of footwall layers below potentially sealing thrusts, and sub-thrust anticlines. (Author)

  8. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toksoz, M. N; Van der Hilst, Robert D; Sun, Youshun; Gulen, Levent; Kalafat, Dogan; Kuleli, Huseyin S; Li, Chang; Zhang, Haijiang

    2008-01-01

    ... and surrounding areas, including Iran, Arabia, Eastern Turkey, and the Caucasus. The Arabian-Eurasian plate boundary is a complex tectonic zone shaped by continent-continent collision processes...

  9. Lithospheric Strength Beneath the Zagros Mountains of Southwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Nyblade, A.; Brazier, R.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Zagros Mountain Belt of southwestern Iran is among the most seismically active mountain belts in the world. Early seismic studies of this area found that the lithosphere underlying the Zagros Mountains follows the "jelly sandwich" model, having a strong upper crust and a strong lithospheric mantle, separated by a weak lower crust. More recent studies, which analyzed earthquakes originating within the Zagros Mountains that were recorded at teleseismic distances, however, found that these earthquakes occurred only within the upper crust, thus indicating that the strength of the Zagros Mountains' lithosphere lies only within the upper crust, in accordance with the "creme brulee" lithospheric model. Preliminary analysis of regionally recorded earthquakes that originated within the Zagros Mountains is presented here. Using earthquakes recorded at regional distances will allow the analysis of a larger dataset than has been used in previous studies. Preliminary results show earthquakes occurring throughout the crust and possibly extending into the upper mantle.

  10. Detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double-dating of Upper Cretaceous-Cenozoic Zagros foreland basin strata in the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The NW Zagros orogen is the result of the multistage collisional history associated with Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian continents and final closure of Neotethys. Siliciclastic strata preserved within a ~400 km segment of the NW Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR) provide a widespread record of exhumation and sedimentation. As a means of assessing NW Zagros foreland basin evolution and chronostratigraphy, we present coupled detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb and (U-Th)/He geo-thermochronometric data of Upper Cretaceous to Pliocene siliciclastic strata from the Duhok, Erbil, and Suleimaniyah provinces of IKR. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age analyses reveal that the foreland basin fill in IKR in general was dominantly derived from Pan-African/Arabian-Nubian, Peri-Gondwandan, Eurasian, and Cretaceous volcanic arc terrenes. However, the provenance of these strata varies systematically along strike and through time, with an overall increase in complexity upsection. DZ age distribution of Paleocene-Eocene strata is dominated by a ~95 Ma grain age population, likely sourced from the Late Cretaceous Hassanbag-Bitlis volcanic arc complex along the northern margin of Arabia. In contrast, DZ U-Pb age distributions of Neogene strata show a major contribution derived from various Eurasian (e.g., Iranian, Tauride, Pontide; ~45, 150, 300 Ma) and Pan-African (~550, 950 Ma) sources. The introduction of Eurasian DZ ages at the Paleogene-Neogene transition likely records the onset of Arabian-Eurasian collision. Along strike to the southeast, the DZ U-Pb spectra of Neogene strata show a decreased percentage of Pan-African, Peri-Gondwandan, Tauride, and Ordovician ages, coupled with a dramatic increase in 40-50 Ma DZ ages that correspond to Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic rocks in Iran. Combined with paleocurrent data, this suggests that Neogene sediments were transported longitudinally southeastward through an unbroken foreland basin

  11. Spatial evolution of Zagros collision zone in Kurdistan - NW Iran, constraints for Arabia-Eurasia oblique convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, S.; Yassaghi, A.

    2015-09-01

    Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and crustal scale cross section of the NW Zagros collision zone evolved during convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates were conducted to constrain the spatial evolution of the belt oblique convergence since Late Cretaceous. Zagros orogeny in NW Iran consists of the Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and ophiolite zones as internal, and Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones as external parts. The Main Zagros Thrust is known as major structures of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of deformation are recognized in the external parts of Zagros. In the early stage, presence of dextrally deformed domains beside the reversely deformed domains in the Radiolarite zone as well as dextral-reverse faults in both Bisotoun and Radiolarite zones demonstrates partitioning of the dextral transpression. In the late stage, southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulted in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and pure thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage related to the late Cretaceous oblique obduction, and the second stage is resulted from Cenozoic collision. Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique faulting is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent) but also occurred in the more external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabia-Eurasia plates occurred in Zagros collision zone since the Late Cretaceous.

  12. Potential field signatures along the Zagros collision zone in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Fournier, Dominique; Devriese, Sarah G. R.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    2018-01-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt, known as an active fold-thrust belt, was formed in southwestern Iran due to the convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. In this study, potential field data are inverted in 3D to image the variations of magnetic susceptibility and density contrast along the collision zone, resulting in better tectonic understanding of the studied region. Geophysical data measured by airborne magnetic and ground-based gravity systems are used to construct an integrated model that facilitates the interpretations of various tectonic zones across a 450-km line. This line intersects the main structural units from the SW portion of the Zagros belt. The constructed model reveals a contrast that indicates the transition between the two continental plates coinciding with the western boundaries of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) at the Main Zagros Thrust (MZT) fault. The subduction of the Arabian continental crust below the Iranian one is evident because of its lower susceptibility property and alternating sequence of high and low density regions. Higher susceptibility, magnetic remanence and density are the mainstays of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage (UDMA) zone at the NE of the studied route, whereas lower values of these properties correspond to (1) the thin massive Tertiary-Neogene and Quaternary sediments of the central domain (CD) zone, and (2) the thick sedimentary and salt intrusion cover over the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust belt (ZFTB). Higher density of regions in the Arabian crust below the ZFTB implies that fault activities have caused significant vertical displacement of the basement. Finally, a simplified geological model is presented based upon the inversions of the geophysical data, in which the main geological units are divided along the studied route.

  13. Tertiary block rotations in the Fars Arc (Zagros, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubourg, C.; Smith, B.; Bakhtari, H. R.; Guya, N.; Eshraghi, A.

    2008-05-01

    The Fars arc accommodates the oblique convergence between the Arabic plate and the Iran block. Many geological observations suggest block rotations from regional to local scales. We present palaeomagnetic investigations in the Fars arc and its eastern termination, the Zagros-Makran syntaxis. Sixty-four sites have been sampled covering the Palaeocene Pabdeh Fm. to Mio-Pliocene Agha-Jhari Fm., the latest being the most sampled formation. We document pre-tilting components in all formations. However, coarse fractions of Agha-Jhari clastics formation retain a post-tilting remagnetization. As a whole, block rotations rarely exceed 20°. In the western Fars arc, clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations of small amplitudes are consistent with the torsions observed near the strike slip Kazerun and Mangarak faults. In the Zagros Makran syntaxis, counter-clockwise and clockwise rotations are observed, respectively, in the western and eastern part. This pattern is consistent with an amplification of the shape of the syntaxis. Between Zagros and Makran, palaeomagnetic data support that the present-day arcuate shape of the arc is secondary. We assume that most of the block rotations took place during the Plio-Pleistocene, during a blocking stage of the Zagros-Makran syntaxis. We emphasize the role of Oman Peninsula which plays as an indenter for the propagation of the Fars thrust belt.

  14. The Effect of Mechanical Characteristics of Basal Decollement and Basement Structures on Deformation of the Zagros Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Bahroudi, Abbas

    2003-01-01

    Two fundamental structural elements, basement architecture and basal decollement, play a significant role in the evolution of a tectonically active region. Using different approaches (field data, literature review and analogue models) this thesis demonstrates that these two elements affected the deformation style in the Zagros fold-thrust belt during Mesozoic extensional and Cenozoic contractional episodes. Reassessment of available data suggests a new configuration for the basement to Zagro...

  15. Crustal thickness variations in the Zagros continental collision zone (Iran) from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, M.; Nasrabadi, A.

    2013-10-01

    Variations in crustal thickness in the Zagros determined by joint inversion of P wave receiver functions (RFs) and Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity dispersion. The time domain iterative deconvolution procedure was employed to compute RFs from teleseismic recordings at seven broadband stations of INSN network. Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves were estimated employing two-station method. Fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocities for each station is taken from a regional scale surface wave tomographic imaging. The main variations in crustal thickness that we observe are between stations located in the Zagros fold and thrust belt with those located in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ) and Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (UDMA). Our results indicate that the average crustal thickness beneath the Zagros Mountain Range varies from ˜46 km in Western and Central Zagros beneath SHGR and GHIR up to ˜50 km beneath BNDS located in easternmost of the Zagros. Toward NE, we observe an increase in Moho depth where it reaches ˜58 km beneath SNGE located in the SSZ. Average crustal thickness also varies beneath the UDMA from ˜50 km in western parts below ASAO to ˜58 in central parts below NASN. The observed variation along the SSZ and UDMA may be associated to ongoing slab steepening or break off in the NW Zagros, comparing under thrusting of the Arabian plate beneath Central Zagros. The results show that in Central Iran, the crustal thickness decrease again to ˜47 km below KRBR. There is not a significant crustal thickness difference along the Zagros fold and thrust belt. We found the same crystalline crust of ˜34 km thick beneath the different parts of the Zagros fold and thrust belt. The similarity of crustal structure suggests that the crust of the Zagros fold and thrust belt was uniform before subsidence and deposition of the sediments. Our results confirm that the shortening of the western and eastern parts of the Zagros basement is small and

  16. Earthquake Source Depths in the Zagros Mountains: A "Jelly Sandwich" or "Creme Brulee" Lithosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Nyblade, A.; Brazier, R.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Zagros Mountain Belt of southwestern Iran is one of the most seismically active mountain belts in the world. Previous studies of the depth distribution of earthquakes in this region have shown conflicting results. Early seismic studies of teleseismically recorded events found that earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains nucleated within both the upper crust and upper mantle, indicating that the lithosphere underlying the Zagros Mountains has a strong upper crust and a strong lithospheric mantle, separated by a weak lower crust. Such a model of lithospheric structure is called the "Jelly Sandwich" model. More recent teleseismic studies, however, found that earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains occur only within the upper crust, thus indicating that the strength of the Zagros Mountains' lithosphere is primarily isolated to the upper crust. This model of lithospheric structure is called the "crème brûlée" model. Analysis of regionally recorded earthquakes nucleating within the Zagros Mountains is presented here. Data primarily come from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network, although data sources include many regional open and closed networks. The use of regionally recorded earthquakes facilitates the analysis of a larger dataset than has been used in previous teleseismic studies. Regional waveforms have been inverted for source parameters using a range of potential source depths to determine the best fitting source parameters and depths. Results indicate that earthquakes nucleate in two distinct zones. One seismogenic zone lies at shallow, upper crustal depths. The second seismogenic zone lies near the Moho. Due to uncertainty in the source and Moho depths, further study is needed to determine whether these deeper events are nucleating within the lower crust or the upper mantle.

  17. Linkages between orogenic plateau build-up, fold-thrust shortening, and foreland basin evolution in the Zagros (NW Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. E.; Stockli, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Iranian Plateau (IP) is a thickened, low-relief morphotectonic province of diffuse deformation that formed due to Arabia-Eurasia collision and may serve as a younger analogue for the Tibetan Plateau. Despite detailed geophysical characterization of the IP, its deformation history and relationship to the Zagros fold-thrust belt and its foreland basin evolution remains unresolved. Low-temperature thermochronometry and provenance data from a transect across the internal and external Zagros track growth of the IP and delineate multiphase interaction between upper- and lower-plate processes during closure of the Neotethys and Arabia-Eurasia suturing. Inversion of zircon (U-Th)/He and fission-track data from plutonic and metamorphic basement rocks in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) of the IP reveals an initial stage of low-rate exhumation from 36-25 Ma, simultaneous with the onset of tectonic subsidence and marine incursion in the Zagros foreland basin. Overlapping apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He ages indicate sharp acceleration in SSZ exhumation rates between 20-15 Ma, coincident with rejuvenation of foreland basin subsidence and an influx of Eurasian-derived sediments into the Zagros foreland deposited above an Oligocene unconformity. The mid-Miocene marks a transition in focused exhumation from the SSZ to Arabian lower-plate. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages suggest in-sequence fold-thrust propagation from the High Zagros to simply folded belt from 10 Ma to recent, which is reflected in the foreland by a shift in provenance to dominantly recycled Arabian-derived detritus and clastic facies progradation. Integrated thermochronometric and provenance data document a two-phase outward expansion of the Iranian Plateau and Zagros fold-thrust belt, tightly coupled to distinct phases of basin evolution and provenance shifts in the Zagros foreland. We associate multiple deformation and basin episodes with protracted collisional processes, from subduction of attenuated Arabian

  18. Imaging Subsurface Structure of Central Zagros Zone/Iran Using Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidravesh, Shaghayegh; Pakzad, Mehrdad, ,, Dr.; Hatami, Mohammad Reza, ,, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    The Central Zagros zone, of west Iran & east Iraq, is surrounded by many active faults (including Main Zagros Reversed Fault, Main Recent Fault, High Zagros Fault, Zagros Fold, & Thrust Belt). Recent studies show that cross-correlation of a long-term ambient seismic noise data recorded in station-pair, includes important information regarding empirical Green's functions (EGFs) between stations. Hence, ambient seismic noise carries valuable information of the wave propagation path (which can be extracted). The 2D model of surface waves (Rayleigh & Love) velocities for the studied area is obtained by seismic ambient noise tomography (ANT) method. Throughout this research, we use continuous records of all three vertical, radial, and tangential components (obtained by rotation) recorded by IRSC (Iranian Seismological Center) and IIEES (International Institute of Earthquake Engineering) networks for this area of interest. The IRSC & IIEES networks are equipped by SS-1 kinematics and Guralp CMG-3T sensors respectively. Data of 20 stations were used for 12 months from 2014/Nov. to 2015/Nov. The performed data processing is similar to the one, put into words in detail by Bensen et al. (2007) including the processed daily base data. Mean, trend, and instrument response were removed and the data were decimated to 5 sps (sample per second) to reduce the amount of storage space and computational time required. We then applied merge to handle data gaps. One-bit time-domain normalization was also applied to suppress the influence of instrument irregularities and earthquake signals followed by spectral (frequency-domain) normalization between 0.05-0.2 Hz (period 5-20 sec). After cross-correlation (processing step), we perform rms stacking (new approach of stacking) to stack many cross-correlation functions based on the highest energy in a time interval which we accordingly anticipate to receive Rayleigh & Love waves fundamental modes. To evaluate quality of the stacking process

  19. Mechanical versus kinematical shortening reconstructions of the Zagros High Folded Zone (Kurdistan region of Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehner, Marcel; Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2012-06-01

    This paper compares kinematical and mechanical techniques for the palinspastic reconstruction of folded cross sections in collision orogens. The studied area and the reconstructed NE-SW trending, 55.5 km long cross section is located in the High Folded Zone of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The present-day geometry of the cross section has been constructed from field as well as remote sensing data. In a first step, the structures and the stratigraphy are simplified and summarized in eight units trying to identify the main geometric and mechanical parameters. In a second step, the shortening is kinematically estimated using the dip domain method to 11%-15%. Then the same cross section is used in a numerical finite element model to perform dynamical unfolding simulations taking various rheological parameters into account. The main factor allowing for an efficient dynamic unfolding is the presence of interfacial slip conditions between the mechanically strong units. Other factors, such as Newtonian versus power law viscous rheology or the presence of a basement, affect the numerical simulations much less strongly. If interfacial slip is accounted for, fold amplitudes are reduced efficiently during the dynamical unfolding simulations, while welded layer interfaces lead to unrealistic shortening estimates. It is suggested that interfacial slip and decoupling of the deformation along detachment horizons is an important mechanical parameter that controlled the folding processes in the Zagros High Folded Zone.

  20. Link between Neogene and modern sedimentary environments in the Zagros foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouz, Mortaza; Simpson, Guy; Bahroudi, Abbas

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros mountain belt, with a length of 1800 km, is located in the south of Iran and was produced by collision between the Arabian plate and the Iran micro plate some time in the early Tertiary. After collision, the Zagros carbonate-dominated sedimentary basin has been replaced by a largely clastic system. The Neogene Zagros foreland basin comprises four main depositional environments which reflect the progressive southward migration of the deformation front with time. The oldest unit - the Gachsaran formation - is clastic in the northern part of the basin, but is dominated by evaporates in southern part, being deposited in a supratidal Sabkha-type environment. Overlying the Gachsaran is the Mishan formation, which is characterized by the Guri limestone member at the base, overlain by marine green marls. The thickness of the Guri member increases dramatically towards the southeast. The next youngest unit is the Aghajari Formation which consists of well sorted lenticular sandstone bodies in a red silty-mudstone. This formation is interpreted as representing the floodplain of dominantly meandering rivers. Finally, the Bakhtiari formation consists of mainly coarse-grained gravel sheets which are interpreted to represent braided river deposits. Each of these Neogene depositional environments has a modern day equivalent. For example, the braided rivers presently active in the Zagros mountains are modern analogues of the Bakhtiari. In the downstream direction, these braided rivers become meandering systems, which are equivalents of the Aghajari. Eventually, the meandering rivers meet the Persian gulf which is the site of the ‘modern day' Mishan shallow marine marls. Finally, the modern carbonate system on the southern margin of Persian Gulf represents the Guri member paleo-environment, behind which Sabkha-type deposits similar to the Gachsaran are presently being deposited. One important implication of this link between the Neogene foreland basin deposits and the

  1. Morphotectonic aspects of active folding in Zagros Mountains (Fin, SE of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roustaei, M.; Abbasi, M.

    2008-05-01

    Active deformation in Iran, structural province of Zagros is a result of the convergence between the Arabian & Eurasian plates. The Zagros Mountains in southern Iran are one of the seismically active region & is introduced as fold-thrust belt trending NW-SE within the Arabian plate. Fin lies in Hormozgan province; the south of Iran. The vastness is surrounded by central Iran in the north, High Zagros in the North West and west, Folded Zagros in the east, Makran in the south east and Persian Gulf in the south. The study area is determined by complex structures, alternation of folding, salt diapers and faulting. The surface geology mainly comprises Neogene; Marls, Conglomerate, Sandstones (Mishan, Aghajari, Bakhtiyari formations), old fans and alluvium as syncline that Shur River cuts its north limb and passes from the middle of core .The older formations( Ghachsaran, Rzak and Guri member) folded into prominent anticlines. The fold axes mostly follow the parallel trends .Folds trending are NW-SE (Tashkend anticline), NE-SW (Khur anticline), E-W (Guniz & Handun anticline) and the trend of axes Baz fold in the main part is E-W. Hormoz salt also outcrops in the cores of many whaleback anticlines. Thus, anticlines may be cored with evaporates, even though no salt is currently exposed at the surface. Reason of selecting this area as an example referred to active seismcity. Release of energy is gradually in every events, this seismic character cusses that there was not earthquake with high magnitude in the area but it can not be a role. Answer to the question concerning relationship between folding of the crust layer and faulting at depth is more difficult. There is 2 terms to describe this relationship; "detachment folds" and" forced folds". In this paper, we try to analysis of different satellite imagery; Aster, spot and digital elevation model with high resolution (10 m) in order to detect geomorphic indicators which can help us to find a relationship between faulting

  2. Geochemistry and geodynamics of the Mawat mafic complex in the Zagros Suture zone, northeast Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Hossein; Hadi, Ayten; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Mohammad, Youssef Osman

    2013-12-01

    The Iraqi Zagros Orogenic Belt includes two separate ophiolite belts, which extend along a northwest-southeast trend near the Iranian border. The outer belt shows ophiolite sequences and originated in the oceanic ridge or supra-subduction zone. The inner belt includes the Mawat complex, which is parallel to the outer belt and is separated by the Biston Avoraman block. The Mawat complex with zoning structures includes sedimentary rocks with mafic interbedded lava and tuff, and thick mafic and ultramafic rocks. This complex does not show a typical ophiolite sequences such as those in Penjween and Bulfat. The Mawat complex shows evidence of dynamic deformation during the Late Cretaceous. Geochemical data suggest that basic rocks have high MgO and are significantly depleted in LREE relative to HREE. In addition they show positive ɛ Nd values (+5 to+8) and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The occurrence of some OIB type rocks, high Mg basaltic rocks and some intermediate compositions between these two indicate the evolution of the Mawat complex from primary and depleted source mantle. The absence of a typical ophiolite sequence and the presence of good compatibility of the source magma with magma extracted from the mantle plume suggests that a mantle plume from the D″ layer is more consistent as the source of this complex than the oceanic ridge or supra-subduction zone settings. Based on our proposed model the Mawat basin represents an extensional basin formed during the Late Paleozoic to younger along the Arabian passive margin oriented parallel to the Neo-Tethys oceanic ridge or spreading center. The Mawat extensional basin formed without creation of new oceanic basement. During the extension, huge volumes of mafic lava were intruded into this basin. This basin was squeezed between the Arabian Plate and Biston Avoraman block during the Late Cretaceous.

  3. Subsurface structure of the eastern edge of the Zagros basin as inferred from gravity and satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushara, M.N. [ARCO Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A data set of 10,505 points of land gravity measurements from southeast Iran obtained from the Bureau Gravimetrique International, combined with Landsat imagery, was used to investigate crustal and Cenozoic lithospheric structure. Interpretation of the Bouguer anomalies reveals three primary structural features. The Zagros Mountain belt is characterized by a progressive decrease in gravity values from -70 mGal near the Persian Gulf to -160 mGal over the structure zone between the Arabian margin and central Iran crustal blocks. The second feature is marked by a backward-L-shaped pair of anomalies that extends from the eastern peripheries of the Zagros basin and wraps around southern Iranian shores. These 15- to 20-km-deep source anomalies, with amplitudes of as much as 10 mGal, are interpreted as intrabasement intrusions demarcating an ancient rift axis. The shallow (6-8)km east-west-trending anomalies are perhaps interbasement uplifts bordered by reverse faults. The third structure, observed on both gravity and Landsat displays, a north-striking eastward-facing topographic escarpment, has a gravity gradient of 0.85 mGal/km, and is right laterally offset approximately 100 km, and is right laterally offset approximately 100 km by the Zagros main recent fault. A comparison of gravity features with surface structures on Thematic Mapper and Landsat Multi-spectral Scanner imagery indicates that a northeast-trending fault system is the result of post-Miocene pervasive transpressive stress coupled with clockwise rotation of underlying basement blocks following the collision of Arabia and Iran. Accommodation structures such as forced folds and {open_quotes}rabbit-ear{close_quotes} anticlines may develop over and on the flanks of the basement blocks, providing remigration and trapping mechanisms for new oil and gas plays.

  4. Looking at the roots of the highest mountains: the lithospheric structure of the Himalaya-Tibet and the Zagros orogens. Results from a geophysical-petrological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunini, L.; Jimenez-Munt, I.; Fernandez, M.; Villasenor, A.; Afonso, J. C.; Verges, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Himalaya-Tibet and Zagros orogens are the two most prominent mountain belts built by continental collision. They are part of a huge belt of Cenozoic age which runs from the Pyrenees to Burma. In its central sector, the collision with the southern margin of the Eurasian plate has resulted not only in the building of mountain ranges over the north-eastern edges of the Arabian and Indian plates but also in widespread deformation 1000-3000 km from the suture zones. Zagros and Himalaya-Tibet orogens share many geodynamic processes but at different rates, amount of convergence and stage of development. The study of their present-day structures provides new insights into their quasi coeval collisional event pointing out differences and similarities in the mountain building processes. We present 2D crust and upper mantle cross-sections down to 400 km depth, along four SW-NE trending profiles. Two profiles cross the Zagros Mountains, running from the Mesopotamian Foreland Basin up to the Alborz and Central Iran. Two other profiles run through the Himalaya-Tibetan orogen: the western transect crosses the western Himalaya, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains and Junggar Basin; the eastern transect runs from the Indian shield to the Beishan Basin, crossing the eastern Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, Qaidam Basin and Qilian Mountains. We apply the LitMod-2D code which integrates potential fields (gravity and geoid), isostasy (elevation) and thermal (heat flow and temperature distribution) equations, and mantle petrology. The resulting crust and upper mantle structure is constrained by available data on elevation, Bouguer anomaly, geoid height, surface heat flow and seismic data including P- and S-wave tomography models. Our results show distinct deformation patterns between the crust and the lithospheric mantle beneath the Zagros and Himalaya-Tibetan orogens, indicating a strong strain partitioning in both areas. At crustal level, we found a thickening beneath the Zagros and the

  5. Microfacies, sedimentary environment and diagenesis of the upper part of Dalan and Kangan Formations in the Kuh-e Surmeh area, Folded Zagros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhossein Adabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Dallan and Kangan formations (Permian-Triassic, are located in the Kuh-e Surmeh area in folded Zagros Basin with a thickness of 325 m overlying by Nar evaporite member and underlying by Dashtak Formation. Dominant lithology of these formations are limestone and dolomite. Our purpose in this study is to identify microfacieses, sedimentary environment and diagenetic proceses. To overcome this aim, thin sections petrographic studies, leaded to identify 12 microfacieses related to 4 facieses belt: tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and open marine. The observed microfacies patterns indicate a ramp carbonate platform as depositional environment. Based on petrographic studies, the important diagenetic processes in these formations consist of: micritization, dolomitization, cementation, stilolitization and chemical and physical compactions. Burial diagenesis is dominated diagenetic event. The observed porosities in this section are primary and secondary such as fenestral, vuggy, fracture, moldic, interparticle, intraparticle and channel

  6. Spatial evolution of Zagros collision zone in Kurdistan, NW Iran: constraints on Arabia-Eurasia oblique convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Shahriar; Yassaghi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and a crustal-scale cross section across the NW Zagros collision zone provide constraints on the spatial evolution of oblique convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates since the Late Cretaceous. The Zagros collision zone in NW Iran consists of the internal Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and Ophiolite zones and the external Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones. The Main Zagros Thrust is the major structure of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of oblique deformation are recognized in the external part of the NW Zagros in Iran. In the early stage, coexisting dextral strike-slip and reverse dominated domains in the Radiolarite zone developed in response to deformation partitioning due to oblique convergence. Dextral-reverse faults in the Bisotoun zone are also compatible with oblique convergence. In the late stage, deformation partitioning occurred during southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulting in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage was related to Late Cretaceous oblique obduction, while the second stage resulted from Cenozoic collision. The Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique convergence is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent Fault) but also occurred in the external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabian and Eurasian plates in Zagros collision zone initiated with oblique obduction in the Late Cretaceous followed by oblique collision in the late Tertiary, consistent with global plate reconstructions.

  7. Biostratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation in Zagros Basin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdaction   The Gurpi Formation is developed in the central of the Zagros fold in Khuzestan, Lorestan and Fars provinces of southwestern Iran, defined az theZagros basin ,The Gurpi refers to Gurpi Mountain in the Kuzestan province.type section gurpi,which is N of the Lali oil wells and N-E of Masjed – Soleiman city,comprises 320m argillaceous limestone and gry-to-blueshale marl(James and Wynd,1965Although the boundary the Gurpi Formation and the underlying Ilam Formation is reported to be gradual,the altered facies found at this boundrary could be a sign of a low disconformity or even unconformity.In some place,the Ilam Formation does not exist and tne Gurpi Formation lie abave the Sarvak Formation.The upper boundry of the Gurpi Formation is more noticeable and there are different overlying formations.In Khozstan province,the Gurpi Formation is overlain by purplr shale of pabdeh Formation with signs of unconformity.The Gurpi Formation is not always concurrent. Biostratigraphy and lithological characteries of the Gurpi Formation were studied by James and Wynd (1965, Taheri (1998, KameliAzao (2002, Zarei (2005, Hematinasab (2008, Madavian (2009, Tavalaian (2011. This research study aims at describing the biostratigraphy of Gurpi Formation.In this study five stratigraphic section is investigate for its Planktonc Foraminiforal content.     Method and Matrials   This study involves five stratigraphic sections from the Gurpi Formation that were measured the ticknes and determind of Litostratigrapic limit as well as recognizd of detail litostrstigray the Gurpi Formation.More than 525 thine sections were examined. Some samples from the underlying Pabdeh Formation were also analysed for comparison. then recognizd Genus and species of Planktonic foraminifera and biozones mentioned wells have been introduced. In order to the biozonation of Gurpi Formation, stratigraphic distribution of well- known foraminifora is recognizd and then biozones are

  8. Biostratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation in Zagros Basin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Sadeghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   Introdaction   The Gurpi Formation is developed in the central of the Zagros fold in Khuzestan, Lorestan and Fars provinces of southwestern Iran, defined az theZagros basin ,The Gurpi refers to Gurpi Mountain in the Kuzestan province.type section gurpi,which is N of the Lali oil wells and N-E of Masjed – Soleiman city,comprises 320m argillaceous limestone and gry-to-blueshale marl(James and Wynd,1965Although the boundary the Gurpi Formation and the underlying Ilam Formation is reported to be gradual,the altered facies found at this boundrary could be a sign of a low disconformity or even unconformity.In some place,the Ilam Formation does not exist and tne Gurpi Formation lie abave the Sarvak Formation.The upper boundry of the Gurpi Formation is more noticeable and there are different overlying formations.In Khozstan province,the Gurpi Formation is overlain by purplr shale of pabdeh Formation with signs of unconformity.The Gurpi Formation is not always concurrent. Biostratigraphy and lithological characteries of the Gurpi Formation were studied by James and Wynd (1965, Taheri (1998, KameliAzao (2002, Zarei (2005, Hematinasab (2008, Madavian (2009, Tavalaian (2011. This research study aims at describing the biostratigraphy of Gurpi Formation.In this study five stratigraphic section is investigate for its Planktonc Foraminiforal content.     Method and Matrials   This study involves five stratigraphic sections from the Gurpi Formation that were measured the ticknes and determind of Litostratigrapic limit as well as recognizd of detail litostrstigray the Gurpi Formation.More than 525 thine sections were examined. Some samples from the underlying Pabdeh Formation were also analysed for comparison. then recognizd Genus and species of Planktonic foraminifera and biozones mentioned wells have been introduced. In order to the biozonation of Gurpi Formation, stratigraphic distribution of well- known foraminifora is recognizd and

  9. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  10. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  11. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  12. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  13. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  14. Source Parameters for Moderate Earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains with Implications for the Depth Extent of Seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, A; Brazier, R; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2009-02-23

    Six earthquakes within the Zagros Mountains with magnitudes between 4.9 and 5.7 have been studied to determine their source parameters. These events were selected for study because they were reported in open catalogs to have lower crustal or upper mantle source depths and because they occurred within an area of the Zagros Mountains where crustal velocity structure has been constrained by previous studies. Moment tensor inversion of regional broadband waveforms have been combined with forward modeling of depth phases on short period teleseismic waveforms to constrain source depths and moment tensors. Our results show that all six events nucleated within the upper crust (<11 km depth) and have thrust mechanisms. This finding supports other studies that call into question the existence of lower crustal or mantle events beneath the Zagros Mountains.

  15. Crustal structure and evolution of the NW Zagros Mountains (Iran): Insights from numerical modeling of the interplay between surface and tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Eduard; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Casciello, Emilio; Vergés, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Protracted Arabia-Eurasia convergence resulted in the closure of the >2000 km wide Neo-Tethys Ocean from early Late Cretaceous to Recent. This process was controlled by the structure of the NE margin of the Arabian plate, the NE-dipping oceanic subduction beneath Eurasia, the obduction of oceanic lithosphere and the collision of small continental and volcanic arc domains of the SW margin of Eurasia. The evolution of the Zagros Amiran and Mesopotamian foreland basins is studied in this work along a ~700 km long transect in NW Zagros constrained by field, seismic and published data. We use the well-defined geometries and ages of the Amiran and Mesopotamian foreland basins to estimate the elastic thickness of the lithosphere and model the evolution of the deformation to quantitatively link the topographic, tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the system. Modelling results show two major stages of emplacement. The obduction (pre-collision) stage involves the thin thrust sheets of the Kermanshah complex together with the Bisotun basement. The collision stage corresponds to the emplacement of the basement duplex and associated crustal thickening, coeval to the out of sequence emplacement of Gaveh Rud and Imbricated Zone in the hinterland. The geodynamic model is consistent with the history of the foreland basins, with the regional isostasy model, and with a simple scenario for the surface process efficiency. The emplacement of Bisotun basement during obduction tectonically loaded and flexed the Arabian plate triggering deposition in the Amiran foreland basin. The basement units emplaced during the last 10 My, flexed the Arabian plate below the Mesopotamian basin. During this stage, material eroded from the Simply Folded belt and the Imbricated zone was not enough to fill the Mesopotamian basin, which, according to our numerical model results, required a maximum additional sediment supply of 80 m/Myr. This additional supply had to be provided by an axial drainage system

  16. Paleobasin analysis and tectonic framework development of southern Zagros basin, interpreted from Landsat 4 thematic mapper image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpanah, A.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed lineament maps produced with the digitally enhanced Landsat 4 thematic mapper in conjunction with field data provide new information on structural relations to the southern Zagros basin. Three major parallel lineaments are from north to south, Qatar-Kazern, Razak, and Oman. These lineaments trend approximately N17/sup 0/E and subdivide the Zagros basin into northern, central, and southern segments. The study area is enclosed by the Razak and Oman lineaments. Piercement salt domes (Precambrian salt) are abundant within the southern Zagros basin, absent east of the Oman lineament, and scarce in the area west of the Razak lineament. This salt dome distribution and the N17/sup 0/E trend suggest that these lineaments are surface manifestations of boundaries of basement crustal blocks that have been reactivated periodically since the Precambrian. The northern extension of this Precambrian basin is marked by salt domes (Precambrian salt) along the Oman lineament, located in the Kerman region 400 km north of Minab. Along the eastern boundary, at the juncture of the southern Zagros basin and western Makran Ranges, the trend of fold axes changes from east-west to north-south. The western basin boundary is characterized by a gradual change in the trend of the fold axis from east-west to northwest-southeast. This study provides useful information for subsurface interpretations, which will benefit hydrocarbon exploration. The Razak and Oman lineaments enclose a highly productive area, and separate the southern Zagros basin from less productive areas to the west and from a nonproductive region to the east where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that lineaments may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of the southern Zagros basin.

  17. The Neogene molasse deposits of the Zagros Mountains in central Dezful Embayment: facies, sedimentary environments and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hossein Jalilian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Neogene sequence of the Zagros Mountains consists of a clastic succession which is identified as Aghajari and Bakhtyari formations. The sequence is an excellent example of synorogenic sedimentation or molasse deposited in northern portion of the Zagros foreland basin. Sedimentological analysis of an outcrop section representing Miocene-Pliocene sediments in central Dezful Embayment resulted in recognizing 9 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements. These lithofacies include conglometate (Gt, Gh, Gmm, sandstone (Sp, Sh, Sr, St and mudstone (Fm, Fl that were deposited in meandering stream, braided river and alluvial fan environments. Paleocurrent analysis of cross-beds, channels and asymmetric ripple marks indicate that these Neogene clastics were mainly drived from Cretaceous to Paleogene highlands in the Zagros Mountains on the north. This stratigraphic record is coarsening-upward and formed by a regressive depositional megacycle under arid climate. Facies and depositional history analysis show that sedimentation of the Zagros molasse was primarily controlled by base-level changes rather than catchment lithology or climate. The sedimentary record of this regressive megacycle reveales the base-level was constantly falling down on one hand and the provenance was uplifting on the other hand. Tectonic activities and Zagros Mountains rising in the Late Miocene resulted in deposition of fining-upward point-bar and floodplain sequences of the Aghajari Formation in low-gradient meandering streams. The Lahbari Member of the Aghajari Formation represents deposition in braided rivers that composed predominantly of flood-plain deposits in the Early Pliocene. Finally, the sedimentary cycle of the Zagros molasse deposits terminated with massive conglomerates of the Bakhtyari Formation deposited in large alluvial fans near the source area.

  18. Interwencje redukujące zagrożenia stereotypem w środowisku edukacyjnym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Drążkowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zagrożenie stereotypem wpływa na osiąganie gorszych wyników w nauce przez uczniów należących do grup negatywnie stereotypizowanych. U uczniów z mniejszości etnicznych lub rasowych wpływa ono destrukcyjnie nie tylko na osiągnięcia szkolne, ale także na poziom szczęścia czy stan zdrowia. Istnieje więc uzasadnione zapotrzebowanie na metody walki z tym zjawiskiem, które w ostatnich latach intensywnie starają się zaspokoić badania prowadzone przez psychologów społecznych. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie i systematyzacja wyników badań na temat interwencji redukujących zagrożenie stereotypem w środowisku edukacyjnym. Badania te uporządkowano wokół interwencji ukierunkowanych na społeczeństwo i szkołę, interwencji związanych z zachowaniem nauczycieli i z warunkami przeprowadzania egzaminów testowych oraz skoncentrowanych na uczniu. Wyniki omówionych badań nasuwają efektywne i często łatwe do zastosowania metody zmniejszające zagrożenie stereotypem wśród uczniów. Interwencje oparte na tych metodach mogą wspierać tworzenie wyrównanych warunków nauki dla każdego ucznia.

  19. Geotechnical Risk Classification for Underground Mines / Klasyfikacja Poziomu Zagrożenia Geotechnicznego W Kopalniach Podziemnych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Rinne, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Underground mining activities are prone to major hazards largely owing to geotechnical reasons. Mining combined with the confined working space and uncertain geotechnical data leads to hazards having the potential of catastrophic consequences. These incidents have the potential of causing multiple fatalities and large financial damages. Use of formal risk assessment in the past has demonstrated an important role in the prediction and prevention of accidents in risk prone industries such as petroleum, nuclear and aviation. This paper proposes a classification system for underground mining operations based on their geotechnical risk levels. The classification is done based on the type of mining method employed and the rock mass in which it is carried out. Mining methods have been classified in groups which offer similar geotechnical risk. The rock mass classification has been proposed based on bulk rock mass properties which are collected as part of the routine mine planning. This classification has been subdivided for various stages of mine planning to suit the extent of available data. Alpha-numeric coding has been proposed to identify a mining operation based on the competency of rock and risk of geotechnical failures. This alpha numeric coding has been further extended to identify mining activity under `Geotechnical Hazard Potential (GHP)'. GHP has been proposed to be used as a preliminary tool of risk assessment and risk ranking for a mining activity. The aim of such classification is to be used as a guideline for the justification of a formal geotechnical risk assessment. Górnictwo podziemne pociąga za sobą różnorakie zagrożenia spowodowane przez uwarunkowania geotechniczne. Urabianie złoża w połączeniu z pracą w zamkniętej przestrzeni oraz z niepewnymi danymi geotechnicznymi powodować może zagrożenia, które w konsekwencji prowadzić mogą do wypadków, a te potencjalnie powodować mogą skutki śmiertelne dla osób oraz poważne straty

  20. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  1. The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego-Llorente, M.

    2016-08-09

    The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding, ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting those of the Central Zagros were somewhat isolated from other populations of the Fertile Crescent. Runs of homozygosity are of a similar length to those from Neolithic farmers, and shorter than those of Caucasus and Western Hunter-Gatherers, suggesting that the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh did not undergo the large population bottleneck suffered by their northern neighbours. While some degree of cultural diffusion between Anatolia, Western Iran and other neighbouring regions is possible, the genetic dissimilarity between early Anatolian farmers and the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh supports a model in which Neolithic societies in these areas were distinct.

  2. Canopy Density Mapping on Ultracam-D Aerial Imagery in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Khodaee, Z.

    2013-09-01

    Canopy density maps express different characteristics of forest stands, especially in woodlands. Obtaining such maps by field measurements is so expensive and time-consuming. It seems necessary to find suitable techniques to produce these maps to be used in sustainable management of woodland ecosystems. In this research, a robust procedure was suggested to obtain these maps by very high spatial resolution aerial imagery. It was aimed to produce canopy density maps by UltraCam-D aerial imagery, newly taken in Zagros woodlands by Iran National Geographic Organization (NGO), in this study. A 30 ha plot of Persian oak (Quercus persica) coppice trees was selected in Zagros woodlands, Iran. The very high spatial resolution aerial imagery of the plot purchased from NGO, was classified by kNN technique and the tree crowns were extracted precisely. The canopy density was determined in each cell of different meshes with different sizes overlaid on the study area map. The accuracy of the final maps was investigated by the ground truth obtained by complete field measurements. The results showed that the proposed method of obtaining canopy density maps was efficient enough in the study area. The final canopy density map obtained by a mesh with 30 Ar (3000 m2) cell size had 80% overall accuracy and 0.61 KHAT coefficient of agreement which shows a great agreement with the observed samples. This method can also be tested in other case studies to reveal its capability in canopy density map production in woodlands.

  3. The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego-Llorente, M.; Connell, S.; Jones, E. R.; Merrett, D. C.; Jeon, Y.; Eriksson, Anders; Siska, V.; Gamba, C.; Meiklejohn, C.; Beyer, R.; Jeon, S.; Cho, Y. S.; Hofreiter, M.; Bhak, J.; Manica, A.; Pinhasi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding, ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting those of the Central Zagros were somewhat isolated from other populations of the Fertile Crescent. Runs of homozygosity are of a similar length to those from Neolithic farmers, and shorter than those of Caucasus and Western Hunter-Gatherers, suggesting that the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh did not undergo the large population bottleneck suffered by their northern neighbours. While some degree of cultural diffusion between Anatolia, Western Iran and other neighbouring regions is possible, the genetic dissimilarity between early Anatolian farmers and the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh supports a model in which Neolithic societies in these areas were distinct.

  4. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A

    1998-04-01

    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  5. First-order control of syntectonic sedimentation on crustal-scale structure of mountain belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdős, Zoltán.; Huismans, Ritske S.; van der Beek, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The first-order characteristics of collisional mountain belts and the potential feedback with surface processes are predicted by critical taper theory. While the feedback between erosion and mountain belt structure has been fairly extensively studied, less attention has been given to the potential role of synorogenic deposition. For thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts, recent studies indicate a strong control of syntectonic deposition on structure, as sedimentation tends to stabilize the thin-skinned wedge. However, the factors controlling basement deformation below fold-and-thrust belts, as evident, for example, in the Zagros Mountains or in the Swiss Alps, remain largely unknown. Previous work has suggested that such variations in orogenic structure may be explained by the thermotectonic "age" of the deforming lithosphere and hence its rheology. Here we demonstrate that sediment loading of the foreland basin area provides an additional control and may explain the variable basement involvement in orogenic belts. When examining the role of sedimentation, we identify two end-members: (1) sediment-starved orogenic systems with thick-skinned basement deformation in an axial orogenic core and thin-skinned deformation in the bordering forelands and (2) sediment-loaded orogens with thick packages of synorogenic deposits, derived from the axial basement zone, deposited on the surrounding foreland fold-and-thrust belts, and characterized by basement deformation below the foreland. Using high-resolution thermomechanical models, we demonstrate a strong feedback between deposition and crustal-scale thick-skinned deformation. Our results show that the loading effects of syntectonic sediments lead to long crustal-scale thrust sheets beneath the orogenic foreland and explain the contrasting characteristics of sediment-starved and sediment-loaded orogens, showing for the first time how both thin- and thick-skinned crustal deformations are linked to sediment deposition in these

  6. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  7. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  8. Analiza pracy wybranych stopni wodnych na odcinku Noteci Bystrej w warunkach zagrożenia powodziowego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Płaczek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Celem przestawionej publikacji jest analiza warunków przepływu oraz pracy budowli wodnych usytuowanych na odcinku Noteci Bystrej od stopnia Romanowo do jazu w Rosku. Obiekt badawczy zostały wybrany z dwóch powodów: (1 dla tego odcinka rzeki Noteć zostały opracowane mapy zagrożenia powodziowego jako wdrożenie Dyrektywy Powodziowej UE w ramach prac nad projektem ISOK, (2 na wymienionym odcinku znajduje się szereg budowli piętrzących posiadających zdolność retencjonowania wody i oddziaływania na falę wezbraniową. W ramach badań wykorzystano szeroko narzędzia GIS oraz modelowania matematycznego.

  9. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  10. Deep structure across the Zagros Mountains and the Iranian Plateau. An integrated geophysical and petrological approach; Estructura profunda del Zagros y de la meseta de Iran: modelo geofisico y petrologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunini, L.; Jimenez-Munt, I.; Fernandez, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Zagros, mountains which cross Iran from NW to SE, were formed by the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates during the Cenozoic. A low seismic velocities anomaly (Maggi and Priestley, 2005; Alinaghi et al., 2007) and the integrated fitting of elevation, potential fields and thermal data (Molinaro et al., 2005), suggest a thinning in the upper mantle below the orogen. Using a method (Afonso et al., 2008) which combines elevation, geoid, gravity, superficial heat flow, seismic and petrological data, we investigate the mantle structure down to 400 km depth of a profile which crosses the westernmost part of the Zagros Mountains, passes the Alborz and reaches the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. The result shows a significant deficit of mass in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Zagros and we solve that with thickness variation of the lithospheric mantle. The lithosphere-astenosphere boundary (LAB), which is almost 230 km deep below the Foreland Basin, goes up to 120 km depth below the Sinandaj Sirjan Zone. A mantle thinning affects the whole area below the Zagros and the Alborz Mountains and is characterized by a negative density anomaly and a higher temperature. It was necessary to use three different mantle compositions to reach the best fit of the data: a Proton-6 (Griffin et al., 2008) for the mantle below the Mesopotamian foreland; a Tecton Tc-2 (Griffin et al., 2008) for the mantle below the orogen, and a different composition derived from Sahneh ophiolite composition for the mantle below the Eurasian plate. Keywords: lithospheric mantle, mantle composition, LAB. (Author) 30 refs.

  11. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)

    1991-03-01

    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effects of dust on forest tree health in Zagros oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, A; Taheri Abkenar, K; Afshar Mohammadian, M; Shabanian, N

    2017-10-10

    Dust is one of the most devastating factors for the environment threatening all animal and plant species. In many regions, the ecological and economic impact of microdust on scarce species is critical. In the western region of Iran, the Zagros forests have been exposed to dust storms for many years. In this study, the effect of dust on oak trees, the most important trees of Zagros forests, is investigated. For this purpose, 3-year-old seedlings of three species of oak trees under natural conditions were exposed to dust during spring and summer months. Seedlings were divided into two groups; one group was assigned as dust treatment and the other as control that the control group washed regularly to remove dust. Anatomical characteristics of leaves and dust deposits on leaves during the study period were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The rate of photosynthesis and gas exchange in control and treated plants was examined by IRGA, LCI. SEM images showed that stomata structure, trichome density, and epicuticular waxes of leaves are different in all three species. This difference in micromorphology of species influences the effects of dust deposited on the leaves. A comparison of leaf species images in control and dust treatment showed that in dust treatment the percentage of stomata blocked by dust in three species (per unit area) of Quercus infectoria, Q. libni, and Q. brantii were 61/6, 48/4, and 38/1%, respectively. The results of leaf gas exchange investigation indicated that stomatal occlusion by dust had a negative impact on the examined parameters of three oak species (P ≤ 0.01). Thus, gas exchange and photosynthetic rates of the treated species were significantly reduced. The results of both parts of the study showed the vulnerability of the three species to dust as Q. infectoria > Q. libni > Q. brantii. Therefore, based on these findings, dust can disrupt the physiological activities of the studied species and the continuation of the

  13. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  14. Use of Remote Sensing Data and GIS Tools for Seismic Hazard Assessment for Shallow Oilfields and its Impact on the Settlements at Masjed-i-Soleiman Area, Zagros Mountains, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Ollah Safari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Masjed-i-Soleiman (MIS is situated in the northern part of the Dezful embayment, which is in the Zagros fold–thrust belt with high seismic activities. MIS faces a shallow buried anticline, formed by the shallowest oilfield with a thick gas cap. The cap rocks of this oilfield are highly fractured, which has resulted in leakages from the gas cap. In this paper, we have used remote sensing techniques and image interpretation for the identification of the Niayesh, Lahbari, Andika and MIS fault zones in the studied area. Further, the study exploited seismic potential mapping using the remote sensing techniques. The relationships between the structural controls and localized gas leakage are assessed within the GIS environment. Additionally, field observation data corroborated that the leakages (and seepages are smashed within the intersection of Niayesh and MIS fault zone, which belongs to the high fractured hinge zone of the MIS anticline. As a result, the reactivation of these active faults may cause large earthquakes with a maximum magnitude of between 6.23 < Ms < 7.05 (Richter scale and maximum horizontal acceleration 0.26 < a < 0.55 g. Finally, the authors concluded that this anticipated earthquake may cause large scale fracturing of cap rocks, releasing a large volume of H2S gas from the uppermost layer of the reservoir.

  15. The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego Llorente, Marcos; Connell, Sarah; Jones, Eppie R; Merrett, Deborah; Jeon, Jeonsu; Eriksson, Anders; Siska, Veronika; Gamba, Cristina; Meiklejohn, Chris; Beyer, Robert; Jeon, Sungwon; Cho, Yung Sung; Hofreiter, Michael; Bhak, Jong; Manica, Andrea; Pinhasi, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding,ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting they were somewhat isolated from other populations in the region. Runs of homozygosity are of a similar length to those from Neolithic Anatolians, and shorter than those of Caucasus and Western Hunter-Gatherers, suggesting that the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh did not undergo the large population bottleneck suffered by their northern neighbours. While some degree of cultural diffusion between Anatolia, Western Iran and other neighbouring regions is possible, the genetic dissimilarity of early Anatolian farmers and the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh supports a model in which Neolithic societies in these areas were distinct.

  16. The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego Llorente, Marcos

    2016-06-18

    The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding,ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting they were somewhat isolated from other populations in the region. Runs of homozygosity are of a similar length to those from Neolithic Anatolians, and shorter than those of Caucasus and Western Hunter-Gatherers, suggesting that the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh did not undergo the large population bottleneck suffered by their northern neighbours. While some degree of cultural diffusion between Anatolia, Western Iran and other neighbouring regions is possible, the genetic dissimilarity of early Anatolian farmers and the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh supports a model in which Neolithic societies in these areas were distinct.

  17. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  18. Forest mapping and change analysis, using satellite imagery in Zagros mountain Iran, Islamic Republic o

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torahi, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    A methodology to map and monitor land cover change using multi temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and ASTER data in Zagros mountains of Iran for 1990, 1998, and 2006 was developed. Land- use/cover mapping is achieved through interpretation of Landsat TM satellite images of 1990, 1998 and TERRA-ASTER image of 2006 using ENVI 4.3. Basedon the Anderson land-use/cover classification system, land-use and land-covers are classified as forest land, range land, water bodies, agricultural land and residential land.The unsupervised image classification method was carried out prior to field visit, in order to determine strata for ground truth. Fieldwork was carried out to collect data for training and validating land use/cover interpretation from satellite image of 2006, and for qualitative description of the characteristics of each land use/cover class. The land - use/cover maps of 1990,1998 and 2006 were produced by using supervised image classification technique based on the Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and 132 training samples. Error matrices as cross-tabulations of the mapped class vs. the reference class were used to assess classification accuracy. Overall accuracy, users and produce accuracies, and the Kappa statistic were then derived from the error matrices. A multi-date post-classification comparison change detection algorithm was used to determine changes in land cover in three intervals, 1990,1998, 1998, 2006 and 1990, 2006.To evaluate the maps change for the 1990 to 2006 interval, areas classified as change and no-change were randomly sampled and checked whether they were correctly classified. The maps showed that between 1990 and 2006 the amount of forest land decreased from 67% to 38.5% of the total area, while rangelands, agriculture, settlement and surface water increased from 30.8% to 45%, 1.2% to.0%, 0.3% to 7.5% and 0.6% to 1.8%, respectively.In 1990,1998 and 2006, the area was dominated by dense forest (35.9%, 28.9%, 29.3%), open forest and

  19. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  20. EFFECTS OF HETEROGENIETY ON SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF WILD PISTACHIO TREES IN ZAGROS WOODLANDS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0–50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150–200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  1. Effects of Heterogeniety on Spatial Pattern Analysis of Wild Pistachio Trees in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Rezayan, F.

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g) is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions) were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0-50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150-200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  2. SPATIAL DEFORESTATION MODELILNG USING CELLULAR AUTOMATA (CASE STUDY: CENTRAL ZAGROS FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naghdizadegan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Forests have been highly exploited in recent decades in Iran and deforestation is going to be the major environmental concern due to its role in destruction of natural ecosystem and soil cover. Therefore, finding the effective parameters in deforestation and simulation of this process can help the management and preservation of forests. It helps predicting areas of deforestation in near future which is a useful tool for making socioeconomic disciplines in order to prevent deforestation in the area. Recently, GIS technologies are widely employed to support public policies in order to preserve ecosystems from undesirable human activities. The aim of this study is modelling the distribution of forest destruction in part of Central Zagros Mountains and predicting its process in future. In this paper we developed a Cellular Automata (CA model for deforestation process due to its high performance in spatial modelling, land cover change prediction and its compatibility with GIS. This model is going to determine areas with deforestation risk in the future. Land cover maps were explored using high spatial resolution satellite imageries and the forest land cover was extracted. In order to investigate the deforestation modelling, major elements of forest destruction relating to human activity and also physiographic parameters was explored and the suitability map was produced. Then the suitability map in combination with neighbourhood parameter was used to develop the CA model. Moreover, neighbourhood, suitability and stochastic disturbance term were calibrated in order to improve the simulation results. Regarding this, several neighbourhood configurations and different temporal intervals were tested. The accuracy of model was evaluated using satellite image. The results showed that the developed CA model in this research has proper performance in simulation of deforestation process. This model also predicted the areas with high potential for future

  3. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P

    1973-05-18

    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  4. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  5. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  6. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Permian-Triassic extension event in the Zagros basin (Iran): results from analogue modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani-kivi, M.; Zulauf, G.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the largest oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in the Permian-Early Triassic formationsin Saudi Arabia. Thus, this time period is important for the discovery of new oil reserves in Iran. The Arabian passivecontinental margin has undergone lithospheric extension during the Permian-Triassic, which led to the formation of theNeo-Tethys. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the continental rift basin in the Zagros region basedon the tectono-sedimentological evolution. We have studied well-log data to specify the distribution of synrift depositsin the Zagros and have related this information to the modelling. Environmental changes indicated by various sedimentarysequences, from a siliciclastic basin to a carbonate platform setting, are described. The Cambrian Hormuz salt, whichoverlies the metamorphosed Precambrian basement, becomes effective as a basal detachment layer influencing the styleof overburden deformation during the Permian-Triassic extension event. We have investigated the formation of variousstructures linked to the presence or absence of the Hormuz layer by analogue modelling and relating these structures to theLate Palaeozoic sedimentation. Based on results of the analogue modelling, we argue that the basal detachment layer (Hormuzseries) has contributed to the various structural styles of the extensional basin development in the Fars domain and theLorestan domain.

  7. The Oligocene carbonate platform of the Zagros Basin, SW Iran: An assessment of highly-complex geological heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Tahereh; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2017-05-01

    North Africa and the Middle East possess rich geological heritage, but the latter is yet to be fully identified and described. The Oligocene carbonate platform of the Zagros Basin in southwest Iran, which corresponds to the lower part of the Asmari Formation, has significant potential for geoconservation and geotourism. The types of the geological heritage, their value, and the possible geosites have been assessed. The studied deposits are interesting because of lithology (carbonate rocks), fossils (larger foraminifera, other microfossils, diverse marine invertebrates, fish microremains, and trace fossils), biostratigraphical developments, facies (homoclinal carbonate ramp) and signature of global events (glacioeustatic fluctuations), and outstanding hydrocarbon resources. The five main geological heritage types are sedimentary, palaeontological, stratigraphical, palaeogeographical, and economical, from which the palaeontological, palaeogeographical, and economical types are of global rank. The Khollar and Kavar sections in the Fars Province of Iran are recommended as geosites suitable for research, education, and tourism. The high complexity of the geological heritage linked to the Oligocene carbonate platform of the Zagros Basin implies the phenomenon of geodiversity should be understood with regard to the relationships between types and their values.

  8. Radiation Belt Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.

    2000-10-01

    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  9. Chronometric investigations of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in the Zagros Mountains using AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian age modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Valdivia, Lorena; Douka, Katerina; Comeskey, Daniel; Bazgir, Behrouz; Conard, Nicholas J; Marean, Curtis W; Ollé, Andreu; Otte, Marcel; Tumung, Laxmi; Zeidi, Mohsen; Higham, Thomas F G

    2017-08-01

    The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is often linked with a bio-cultural shift involving the dispersal of modern humans outside of Africa, the concomitant replacement of Neanderthals across Eurasia, and the emergence of new technological traditions. The Zagros Mountains region assumes importance in discussions concerning this period as its geographic location is central to all pertinent hominin migration areas, pointing to both east and west. As such, establishing a reliable chronology in the Zagros Mountains is crucial to our understanding of these biological and cultural developments. Political circumstance, coupled with the poor preservation of organic material, has meant that a clear chronological definition of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition for the Zagros Mountains region has not yet been achieved. To improve this situation, we have obtained new archaeological samples for AMS radiocarbon dating from three sites: Kobeh Cave, Kaldar Cave, and Ghār-e Boof (Iran). In addition, we have statistically modelled previously published radiocarbon determinations for Yafteh Cave (Iran) and Shanidar Cave (Iraqi Kurdistan), to improve their chronological resolution and enable us to compare the results with the new dataset. Bayesian modelling results suggest that the onset of the Upper Paleolithic in the Zagros Mountains dates to 45,000-40,250 cal BP (68.2% probability). Further chronometric data are required to improve the precision of this age range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  11. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  13. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  14. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  15. Alergia – wzrastające zagrożenie XXI wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej M. Fal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available W ciągu ostatnich kilkudziesięciu lat obserwuje się stały wzrost częstości występowania chorób alergicznych. Schorzenia te stanowią obecnie istotny czynnik ekonomiczny w opiece zdrowotnej krajów rozwiniętych, zarówno w kontekście kosztów leczenia, jak i kosztów społecznych związanych z absencją chorobową i świadczeniami rentalnymi. Badania naukowe wskazują na efekt związany z szkodliwym wpływem środowiska oraz na efekt błędnych zachowań związanych ze zmianą stylu życia, w konsekwencji których dochodzi do rozwoju alergii. W artykule przedstawiono zagrożenia, jakie niosą ze sobą te choroby, w kontekście zdrowia społeczeństwa oraz najczęściej wymieniane przyczyny coraz częstszej zapadalności na choroby atopowe. Autorzy przedstawiają krótką analizę najważniejszych badań epidemiologicznych ostatnich dekad. Analizowane jest narastanie częstości występowania astmy, alergicznego nieżytu nosa, a także anafilaksji ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem reakcji na leki. Dane pochodzą z badań przeprowadzonych w wielu krajach, na różnych kontynentach i dotyczą zarówno osób dorosłych, jak i dzieci. W Midspan family study – badaniu przeprowadzonym w Szkocji, stwierdzono trzykrotny wzrost występowania astmy oraz pyłkowicy w ciągu dwudziestoletniego okresu obserwacji. Podobne wyniki uzyskano wśród młodzieży szkolnej w Sydney, gdzie miał miejsce czterokrotny wzrost zachorowań na astmę i pyłkowicę. W latach dziewięćdziesiątych dwukrotny wzrost występowania tych chorób zanotowano również u dzieci w Izraelu. Podobna tendencja dała się zauważyć w Chinach. Dodatkowo stwierdzono tu, że częstość występowania astmy jest większa na obszarach silnie zurbanizowanych. Ze zwiększonym ryzykiem występowania astmy związane było między innymi: gotowanie potraw przy użyciu gazu, duża wilgotność w pomieszczeniach mieszkalnych oraz używanie poduszek z tworzyw sztucznych. Czynnikiem

  16. Mobile belt conveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Tenora, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh pásového dopravníku pro přepravu drobného kameniva, zeminy a drobné stavební sutě s dopravním výkonem 60 t/h, výškovým rozdílem 3,5 m a vzdáleností mezi osami bubnů 8 m. Tato práce obsahuje také popis základních částí pásového dopravníku, funkční výpočty podle normy ČSN ISO 5048, návrh hlavních rozměrů dopravníku a pohonu. Celá práce se skládá z technické zprávy a výkresové dokumentace. The aim of this word is to design belt conveyor to transport tiny aggreg...

  17. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  18. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  19. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  20. Elemental geochemistry and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Cenomanian to Santonian neritic carbonates in the Zagros Basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidtalab, Amin; Rahimpour-Bonab, Hossain; Huck, Stefan; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    A Neo-Tethyan upper Cenomanian-Santonian neritic carbonate ramp succession (Sarvak and Ilam formations), drilled in the Zagros Basin in southwest Iran, was investigated via detailed sedimentology, microfacies analysis, elemental geochemistry and Sr-isotope stratigraphy (SIS). The succession contains two exposure surfaces, which are known as the CT-ES and mT-ES (Cenomanian-Turonian and middle Turonian, respectively), and associated prominent negative carbon-isotope excursions that represent important regional stratigraphic marker horizons. Precise knowledge about the onset of platform exposure and the duration of the exposure-related hiatus, however, is currently lacking due to a rather low-resolved shallow-water biostratigraphic framework and a bulk carbonate carbon-isotope pattern that clearly differs from global Late Cretaceous reference curves. Therefore, the existing bio-chemostratigraphic framework was complemented by bulk carbonate strontium-isotope stratigraphy (SIS). As bulk carbonate material is in particular prone to diagenetic alteration, a careful selection of least altered samples has been carried out by means of elemental geochemistry and petrography. In contrast to what could be expected, the meteoric alteration of limestones beneath both exposure surfaces is not clearly expressed by increasing iron and manganese and coeval decreasing strontium contents. On the contrary, the impact of meteoric diagenesis is well illustrated via pronounced increases in Rb concentrations and concomitant prominent positive shifts to radiogenic strontium-isotope values, an observation that clearly reflects the decay of continentally derived 87Rb into 87Sr. Rubidium corrected strontium-isotope values place the CT-ES around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary and point to an exposure duration of less than 0.4 Myr. This rather short-term CT-ES related hiatus is supported by petrographic evidence, which indicates a youth karstification stage of strata beneath the CT

  1. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  2. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  3. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  4. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  6. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  7. Suitable Methods in Spatial Pattern Analysis of Heterogeneous Wild Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. Woodlands in Zagros, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial pattern of trees in forests reveals how trees interact with each other and their environment. Spatial structure of trees in forest ecosystems is affected by environmental heterogeneity that leads to their heterogeneous distribution. This study was aimed to investigate the appropriate methods to analyze spatial pattern of heterogeneous wild pistachio woodlands in Zagros, Iran. A 40-ha pure stand of wild pistachio trees (Pistacia atlantica Desf. was selected in Wild Pistachio Research Forest in Fars Province for this purpose. The Kolmogrov-Smirnov test of goodness-of-fit of inhomogeneous Poisson point process showed that the distribution of wild pistachio trees was significantly heterogeneous (α=0.05. Inhomogeneous Ripley's K-, L-, and G-functions were applied beside their homogeneous forms. Inhomogeneous Ripley's K- and L-functions showed that wild pistachio trees were primarily clumped and dispersedly distributed thereafter, while g(r not only showed these results but also well expressed the detailed changes in spatial scale. The results of inappropriate homogeneous functions in the study area showed that all three functions expressed the primary clumping of the trees more than it was and their dispersed pattern as clumped. In general, it was concluded that inhomogeneous functions should be applied to analyze the spatial pattern of heterogeneous wild pistachio trees in the study area and it is recommended to develop g(r applications due to its more detailed information

  8. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  9. Hydrothermal dolomitization of the Bekhme formation (Upper Cretaceous), Zagros Basin, Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Record of oil migration and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurbeg, Howri; Morad, Daniel; Othman, Rushdy; Morad, Sadoon; Ceriani, Andrea; Al-Aasm, Ihsan; Kolo, Kamal; Spirov, Pavel; Proust, Jean Noel; Preat, Alain; Koyi, Hemin

    2016-07-01

    The common presence of oil seepages in dolostones is widespread in Cretaceous carbonate successions of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This integrated field, petrographic, chemical, stable C, O and Sr isotopes, and fluid inclusion study aims to link dolomitization to the origin and geochemical evolution of fluids and oil migration in the Upper Cretaceous Bekhme carbonates. Flux of hot basinal (hydrothermal) brines, which is suggested to have occurred during the Zagros Orogeny, resulted in dolomitization and cementation of vugs and fractures by coarse-crystalline saddle dolomite, equant calcite and anhydrite. The saddle dolomite and host dolostones have similar stable isotopic composition and formed prior to oil migration from hot (81-115 °C) basinal NaCl-MgCl2-H2O brines with salinities of 18-22 wt.% NaCl eq. The equant calcite cement, which surrounds and hence postdates saddle dolomite, has precipitated during oil migration from cooler (60-110 °C) NaCl-CaCl2-H2O brines (14-18 wt.% NaCl eq). The yellowish fluorescence color of oil inclusions in the equant calcite indicates that the oil had API gravity of 15-25° composition, which is lighter than present-day oil in the reservoirs (API of 10-17°). This difference in oil composition is attributed to oil degradation by the flux of meteoric water, which is evidenced by the low δ13C values (- 8.5‰ to - 3.9‰ VPDB) as well as by nil salinity and low temperature in fluid inclusions of late columnar calcite cement. This study demonstrates that linking fluid flux history and related diagenesis to the tectonic evolution of the basin provides important clues to the timing of oil migration, degradation and reservoir evolution.

  10. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  11. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  12. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  13. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  14. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  15. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  16. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  17. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  18. Effects of Spatial Distribution of Trees on Density Estimation by Nearest Individual Sampling Method: Case Studies in Zagros Wild Pistachio Woodlands and Simulated Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Distance methods and their estimators of density may have biased measurements unless the studied stand of trees has a random spatial pattern. This study aimed at assessing the effect of spatial arrangement of wild pistachio trees on the results of density estimation by using the nearest individual sampling method in Zagros woodlands, Iran, and applying a correction factor based on the spatial pattern of trees. A 45 ha clumped stand of wild pistachio trees was selected in Zagros woodlands and two random and dispersed stands with similar density and area were simulated. Distances from the nearest individual and neighbour at 40 sample points in a 100 × 100 m grid were measured in the three stands. The results showed that the nearest individual method with Batcheler estimator could not calculate density correctly in all stands. However, applying the correction factor based on the spatial pattern of the trees, density was measured with no significant difference in terms of the real density of the stands. This study showed that considering the spatial arrangement of trees can improve the results of the nearest individual method with Batcheler estimator in density measurement.

  19. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  20. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  1. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  2. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D

    1997-01-01

    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  3. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  4. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  5. Lapse time and frequency-dependent attenuation of coda waves in the Zagros continental collision zone in Southwestern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, H; Hamzehloo, H

    2008-01-01

    The coda Q, Q c , were estimated for the Zagros continental collision zone in southwestern Iran by analyzing the coda waves of 51 local earthquakes recorded on the three stations of the Iranian National Seismic Network (INSN) with magnitudes of between 3.1 and 4.9 recorded in the region during March and April 2006. Most of the analyzed events are foreshocks and aftershocks of the Darb-e-Astane earthquake which occurred on 31 March 2006 with a magnitude of 6.1 (IIEES). The earthquakes had an epicentral distance of between 120 and 200 km and a focal depth of about 18 km. The Q c values were computed at nine central frequencies of 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 and 20.0 Hz through eight lapse time windows from 25 to 60 s starting at double the time of the primary S-wave from the origin time using the time-domain coda-decay method of a single backscattering model. In this study the collected data were compared between the events that occurred before and after the main event (foreshocks and aftershocks). The analysis showed a significant variation in the value of coda, Q, for the study region in different lapse times and frequencies. The variation of the quality factor, Q c , before and after the main event was estimated at different lapse time windows to observe its effect with depth. The estimated average frequency-dependent relation of Q c for foreshocks varies from Q c = (144 ± 24)f (0.42±0.23) at 25 s to Q c = (85 ± 10)f (0.92±0.11) at 60 s lapse window time length, respectively. For aftershocks, it varies from Q c = (121 ± 55)f (0.97±0.26) at 25 s to Q c = (212 ± 59)f (0.82±0.15) at 60 s. The averages of Q c in all stations and lapse times window are obtained as Q c = 99f 0.84 and Q c = 178f 0.86 for foreshocks and aftershocks, respectively. The Q frequency relationship for foreshocks is similar to that for the South Carolina, Koyna, western Anatolia and Aleutian earthquakes, whereas for aftershocks it is similar to the Kumaun, NW Himalaya and

  6. Perwityna, „krystaliczna metamfetamina” – nowe zagrożenie na polskiej scenie narkotykowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Terminem perwityna określa się w Europie Środkowej metamfetaminę wyprodukowaną nielegalnie z efedryny lub pseudoefedryny, jako prekursora. Od kilkunastu lat notuje się w niektórych krajach europejskich zwiększone zainteresowanie używaniem tej substancji psychoaktywnej. Dane Europejskiego Centrum Monitorowania Narkotyków i Narkomanii wskazują, że liczba osób uzależnionych od perwityny w Europie zwiększa się w tempie kilku procent rocznie. Perwityna jest produkowana i sprzedawana nielegalnie zwłaszcza na terenie Czech i Słowacji oraz w Niemczech i w krajach skandynawskich, gdzie jej przyjmowanie stanowi znaczny problem społeczny i medyczny. W Polsce stosowanie perwityny w celu odurzenia zaobserwowano głównie w województwach południowych i południowo-zachodnich, do których substancja ta jest sprowadzana najczęściej z Czech i Słowacji. Używanie perwityny prowadzi do uzależnienia i wielu negatywnych następstw zdrowotnych związanych z jej działaniem na ośrodkowy i obwodowy układ nerwowy, układ krążenia i układ oddechowy. W przebiegu stosowania perwityny mogą występować psychozy intoksykacyjne, zaburzenia depresyjne i deficyty neuropsychologiczne oraz uszkodzenia różnych narządów wewnętrznych. Ostre zatrucie perwityną może prowadzić do zgonu z powodu zaburzeń układu krążenia lub hipertermii, a jej dożylne przyjmowanie sprzyja rozprzestrzenianiu się chorób przenoszonych drogą krwi. Opisywane są też takie negatywne efekty jej stosowania, jak ryzykowne zachowania seksualne i przestępstwa. Celem tego artykułu jest zwrócenie uwagi na stosunkowo nowy w Polsce problem używania perwityny (tzw. czeskiej, krystalicznej metamfetaminy w celu odurzenia oraz opisanie działania tej substancji i zagrożeń wynikających z jej stosowania.

  7. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies

    1998-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  9. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  10. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  11. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  12. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  14. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  15. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  16. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  17. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  18. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  19. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...

  20. Seat-belt message and the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  1. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  2. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  3. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y; Tomono, K; Takahashi, H; Uchida, T [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  5. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  6. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  7. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman

    2017-09-19

    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  8. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  9. Petrography, geochemistry, and U-Pb geochronology of pegmatites and aplites associated with the Alvand intrusive complex in the Hamedan region, Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, Zagros orogen (Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahi, Ali Asghar; Salami, Sedigheh; Lentz, David; McFarlane, Christopher; Maanijou, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    The Alvand intrusive complex in the Hamedan area in Iran is in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone of the Zagros orogen. It consists of a wide range of plutonic rocks, mainly gabbro, diorite, granodiorite, granite, and leucogranites that were intruded by aplitic and pegmatitic dykes. At least three successive magmatic episodes generated an older gabbro-diorite-tonalite assemblage, followed by a voluminous granodiorite-granite association, which was then followed by minor leucocratic granitoids. Aplitic and pegmatitic dykes and bodies have truncated both plutonic rocks of the Alvand intrusive complex and its metamorphic aureole. Chemically they belong to peraluminous LCT (Li-, Cs-, and Ta-bearing) family of pegmatites. Mineralogically, they resemble Muscovite (MS) and Muscovite Rare Element (MSREL) classes of pegmatites. High amounts of some elements, such as Sn (up to 10,000 ppm), Rb (up to 936 ppm), Ba (up to 706 ppm), and LREE (up to 404 ppm) indicate the highly fractionated nature of some of these aplites and pegmatites. U-Pb dating of monazite, zircon, and allanite by LA-ICPMS indicate the following ages: monazite-bearing aplites of Heydareh-e-Poshteshahr and Barfejin areas, southwest of Hamedan, give an age range of 162-172 Ma; zircon in Heydareh-e-Poshteshar gives an average age of 165 Ma and for allanite-bearing pegmatites of Artiman area, north of Tuyserkan, an age of 154.1 ± 3.7 Ma was determined. These overlap with previously reported ages (ca. 167-153 Ma) for the plutonic rocks of the Alvand complex. Therefore, these data reveal that the Jurassic was a period of magmatism in the Hamedan region and adjacent areas in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, which was situated at the southern edge of the central Iranian micro-plate (southern Eurasian plate) at this time. Our results also suggest that advective heating in a continental arc setting has caused melting of fertile supracrustal lithologies, such as meta-pelites. These partial melts were then emplaced at much higher

  10. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  11. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  12. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are ... major types of schist belts are identified in the ... Dharwar craton; Gadag schist belt; gravity method; inversion. ..... the Research Associateship of Dr D Himabindu.

  13. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  14. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  15. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  16. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  17. Klippen Belt, Flysch Belt and Inner Western Carpathian Paleogene Basin Relations in the Northern Slovakia by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majcin, D.; Bezák, V.; Klanica, Radek; Vozár, J.; Pek, Josef; Bilčík, D.; Telecký, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * Western Carpathians * Klippen Belt * Flysch Belt * Inner Carpathian Paleogene Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  18. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  19. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    , the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  20. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passenger has not been shown to affect the safety of an unborn baby in a crash. Injuries from car crashes tend to be less serious in people who are sitting in the back seat. If you are not driving, you may want to sit in the back seat. It is still important to wear a seat belt, no matter where ...

  1. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  2. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  3. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  4. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  5. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  6. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  7. Mafic magmatism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; de Roever, E.W.F.; Thijssen, A.C.D.; Bleeker, W.; Söderlund, U.; Chamberlain, K.; Ernst, R.; Berndt, J.; Zeh, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt (BGB) is a metamorphic terrain within the Guiana Shield that experienced ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism at 2.07–2.05Ga. In the southwest of the BGB, the Kabalebo charnockites were emplaced at ca. 1.99Ga and thus postdate UHT metamorphism by at least 60Myr. Two

  8. Benthic foraminifera as biostratigraphical and paleoecological indicators: An example from Oligo-Miocene deposits in the SW of Zagros basin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Roozpeykar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asmari Formation is a predominantly carbonate lithostratigraphic unit that outcrops in the Zagros Basin. Micropaleontological studies of the Asmari Formation in the Dehdasht area led to the identification of 51 species of foraminifera taxa. Among the foraminifera, Nummulites cf. vascus, Operculin sp., Operculina complanata, Eulepidina dilatata, Eulepidina elephantine, Ditrupa sp., Miogypsina sp., Elphidium sp. 14, and Borelis melo curdica are the most important. The Lepidocyclina-Operculina-Ditrupa assemblage zone represents the Rupelian–Chattian age. The Aquitanian age is also defined by co-occurrence of Miogypsina sp. and Elphidium sp. 14, and finally, the first occurrence of Borelis melo curdica represents the Burdigalian. Based on faunal assemblages, the following paleoenvironmental settings are determined for the deposition of the study section: (1 the deep, offshore settings in the aphotic zone dominated by pelagic and small benthic foraminifera; (2 the low energy, turbid and low light parts of the oligophotic zone characterized by large and flat lepidocyclinids (Eulepidina and Nummulitidae; (3 the low turbidity, deeper part of the inner ramp dominated by Miogypsinoides, Neorotalia, Lepidocyclina, Operculina and Archias; (4 the shallow, marginal marine environment exposed to salinity fluctuations (short-term salinity fluctuations or fully marine conditions dominated by small benthic Foraminifera (Ammonia and Elphidium; (5 highly translucent, shallowest part of the inner ramp dominated by representatives of Borelis, Meandropsina and Peneroplis. The biotic assemblages represent warm tropical waters with oligotrophic to slightly mesotrophic conditions.

  9. The Short Term Effects of Fire Severity on Composition and Diversity of Soil Seed Bank in Zagros Forest Ecosystem, Servan County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heydari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most ecosystems, disturbance is an important agent of variation in community structure and composition. Determining the diversity and composition of soil seed bank is essential for designing conservation and restoration programs because it can markedly contribute to future plant communities. Despite the important role of soil seed banks in the composition of different plant communities, and thus in their conservation, the floristic studies in Zagros forests have only focused on aboveground vegetation. In this study, the characteristics of soil seed banks were examined in three conditions after one year of fire high severity burned, low severity burned and control (not burned in Shirvanchardavol city in northeast of Ilam Province. The result of DCA showed that different fire severities and their effects on site conditions have been reflected clearly in the composition of the soil seed bank. The results also indicated that soil seed bank composition between control and high severity burned spots was specifically different. The shanon diversity, Margalef richness and evenness indices differed significantly between three treatments and the highest diversity was observed at low severity. In this regard the proportion of annual forbs tended to decrease with increasing severity of fire. In soil seed bank, Therophytes were the dominant life form of low severity burned and control spots and Hemichryptophytes were dominant in high severity burned spots.

  10. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  11. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  12. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  13. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  14. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  15. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  16. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  17. What can blueschists tell about the Deep? High Pressure in the Anatolide - Taurid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhaensli, R.

    2011-12-01

    High-pressure metamorphic terranes in the Anatolide - Taurid belt document the complex distribution of paleo-sutures in the Tethyan realm. Field based petrologic studies of metapelites in the Anatolide-Taurid realm allow to trace HP-LT metamorphism not only in the well known ophiolitic Tavsanli Zone (2.4 GPa/500 °C) but also in the Afyon Zone (0.9 GPa/350 °C), the Menderes Massif (1.2 Gpa/500 °C;) and in the Lycian Nappes (1.0 Gpa/400 °C) - all situated north of the so called Taurid Platform. While the HP metamorphism is dated to 90-80 Ma (Rb/Sr; Ar/Ar) in the Tavsanli Zone, it ranges from 60-70 Ma (Ar/Ar) in the Afyon Zone and its tectonic equivalent, the Lycian Nappes. The Afyon Zone s.l. is closely related to the glaucophane- lawsonite-bearing rocks of the Tavsanli Zone and its eastward extension. Blueschist-facies metamorphism is documented by Fe,Mg-carpholite in regionally distributed metapelites and glaucophane in sparse mafic rocks (Afyon, Menderes, Lycia). Since observations of HP are based on Fe,Mg-carpholite bearing metasediments and not on mafic blueschists new thermodynamic data and petrologic modelling was elaborated to match P-T data and field-based observations. Moreover, newly formed phengitic mica allows precise dating. Both, Tavsanli and Afyon Zones can be followed along strike over more than 600 km and around the southern edge of the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex. The two zones are situated north of the Taurid Platform and correlate with the Amasia Zone in Armenia. To the extreme East the Bitlis Complex underwent a LT - HP metamorphic blueschist evolution (1,1 GPa/ 350 °C; glaucophane, Fe,Mg-carpholite) in its sedimentary cover while the basement is eclogitic. Depending on the structural position and mineral association of phengitic mica metamorphic ages of the Bitlis blueschists scatter around 70-80 Ma. Eclogites from the basement are slightly older. These LT-HP units cannot be correlated with the Tavsanli - Afyon blueschist belts

  18. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  19. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  20. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  1. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  2. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  3. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  4. The intra-oceanic Cretaceous (~ 108 Ma) Kata-Rash arc fragment in the Kurdistan segment of Iraqi Zagros suture zone: Implications for Neotethys evolution and closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sarmad A.; Ismail, Sabah A.; Nutman, Allen P.; Bennett, Vickie C.; Jones, Brian G.; Buckman, Solomon

    2016-09-01

    The Kata-Rash arc fragment is an allochthonous thrust-bound body situated near Penjween, 100 km northeast of Sulymannia city, Kurdistan Region, within the Iraqi portion of the Zagros suture zone. It forms part of the suprasubduction zone 'Upper Allochthon' terranes (designated as the Gimo-Qandil Group), which is dominated by calc-alkaline andesite and basaltic-andesite, rhyodacite to rhyolite, crosscut by granitic, granodioritic, and dioritic dykes. Previously, rocks of the Kata-Rash arc fragment were interpreted as a part of the Eocene Walash volcanic group. However, SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dates on them of 108.1 ± 2.9 Ma (Harbar volcanic rocks) and 107.7 ± 1.9 Ma (Aulan intrusion) indicate an Albian-Cenomanian age, which is interpreted as the time of igneous crystallisation. The Aulan intrusion zircons have initial εHf values of + 8.6 ± 0.2. On a Nb/Yb-Th/Yb diagram, all Kata-Rash samples fall within the compositional field of arc-related rocks, i.e. above the mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB)-ocean island basalt (OIB) mantle array. Primitive-mantle-normalised trace-element patterns for the Kata-Rash samples show enrichment in the large ion lithophile elements and depletion in the high-field-strength elements supporting their subduction-related character. Low Ba/La coupled with low La/Yb and Hf/Hf* 3000 km continuity of Cretaceous arc activity (Oman to Cyprus), that consumed Neotethyian oceanic crust between Eurasia and the Gondwanan fragment Arabia.

  5. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  6. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  7. Granulite belts of Central India with special reference to the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt: Significance in crustal evolution and implications for Columbia supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansutre, Sandeep; Hari, K. R.

    2010-11-01

    The Central Indian collage incorporates the following major granulite belts: (1) the Balaghat-Bhandara Granulite Belt (BBG), (2) the Ramakona-Katangi Granulite Belt (RKG), (3) the Chhatuabhavna Granulite (CBG) of Bilaspur-Raigarh Belt, (4) the Makrohar Granulite Belt (MGB) of Mahakoshal supracrustals, (5) the Kondagaon Granulite Belt (KGGB), (6) the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt (BGB), (7) the Konta Granulite Belt (KTGB) and (8) the Karimnagar Granulite Belt (KNGB) of the East Dharwar Craton (EDC). We briefly synthesize the general geologic, petrologic and geochronologic features of these belts and explain the Precambrian crustal evolution in Central India. On the basis of the available data, a collisional relationship between Bastar craton and the EDC during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic is reiterated as proposed by the earlier workers. The tectonic evolution of only few of the orogenic belts (BGB in particular) of Central India is related to Columbia.

  8. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    OpenAIRE

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are signifi...

  9. Seat Belt Use Intention among Brazilian Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    TORQUATO, RENATA; FRANCO, CLÁUDIO M. A; BIANCHI, ALESSANDRA

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore self-reported seat belt use and group differences in different scenarios in a Brazilian sample and research the variables related to it. 120 college students answered a questionnaire with variables from the theory of planned behavior in order to evaluate the intention of seat belt use among car occupants. Results indicated that attitude and intention were the variables that most contributed to explaining seat belt use. Intention was highly correlat...

  10. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  11. Colors of Inner Disk Classical Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  12. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  13. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1986-04-01

    The main design parameters used for belt conveyors in harbour applications are discussed. Conveyor belting including the carcass, belt cover, belt tension and speed, and safety factors, idlers, conveyor pulleys, motors, fluid couplings and drive arrangements are considered. Technical factors are briefly outlined for the designer to consider to achieve minimum acceptable component service life. A method is discussed to reduce coal degradation investigated using a test chute designed for the purpose of minimizing sized coal degradation at transfer points in the refurbishing of the Durban Coal Terminal. 24 references.

  14. COLORS OF INNER DISK CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  15. The Tintina Gold Belt - A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Miller, Marti L.; Miller, Lance D.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Tucker, Terry L.; Smith, Moira T.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called Tintina Gold Belt extends for more than 1000 km along the length of the northern North American Cordillera. Middle to Late Cretaceous Au deposits within the belt have various similar characteristics, among which are a spatial and temporal association with magmatism; Bi-W-Te signatures in deposits hosted by granitod stocks and As-Sb signatures where hosted by sedimentary rocks and dyke systems; and δ180 values consistently > 12 per mil for Au-bearing quartz. Nevertheless significant differences in structural styles, levels of deposit emplacement, ore-fluid chemistry, and Au grades suggest that the characteristics represent a broad range of deposit types. Many of these are best classified as orogenic Au deposits in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, as epithermal and porphyry-style Au deposits in the Kuskokwim region, and as Au-bearing, granite-related veins and stockworks, replacements, and skarns, as well as associated polymetallic lodes, in central Yukon. The diverse types of Au deposits and associated plutons of the Tintina Gold Belt collectively define a 45-m.y.-long period of arc magmatism that migrated northwesterly, for about 1000 km, across the active collisional margin of Cretaceous northwestern North America. The initiation of fluid flow and plutonism in Albian time seems to correlate with the onset of oblique subduction and dextral strike-slip on the Denali-Farewell, Tintina-Kaltag, and related fault systems. Initial Au-vein formation and subduction-related magmatism at about 115-110 Ma (e.g., including the Goodpaster and Fortymile districts), within the seaward side of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, correlate with the arrival of the Wrangellia superterrane off the continental margin. Dextral translation of the allochthonous Wrangellia block was associated with the migration of the thermal pulse to the northwest at about 95-90 Ma. Orogenic (or so­ called mesotherrnal) and granitoid-related Au deposits formed across the width of the Yukon

  16. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  17. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.V.; Greenberg, R.; Dermott, S.F.; Nicholson, P.D.; Burns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations. 32 refs

  18. On a new component of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV

  19. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  20. The Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Fort Smith Belt is an elongate zone, about 200 km x 50 km, extending from the East Arm of Great Slave Lake southerly into northeastern Alberta. The major feature of the belt is that it is one of the most radioactive regions so far recognized in the Canadian Shield. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are all enriched but the greatest increase is in thorium. The dominant rock type underlying the area is a foliated porphyritic granite. This rock contains an average of about 80 ppm thorium (with areas of tens of square kilometres containing up to 200 ppm) and approximately 11 ppm uranium. In places, dark elongate zones rich in biotite, apatite, and opaque minerals within the porphyritic granite may contain an order of magnitude more uranium and thorium than the porphyry. Radioactive minerals within both the porphyry and the dark zones are principally monazite (containing up to 16% ThO 2 ) and isolated grains of uraninite. This foliated porphyritic granite is interpreted as being pre- or syntectonic with respect to the Hudsonian event because its foliation parallels that of the surrounding rocks. There has been subsequent deformation. The second characteristic feature of the Fort Smith Belt is the development of a peripheral zone where eU is enriched relative to eTh correlating mainly with granitoid rocks which surround the thorium-rich area and wherein ratios of eU/eTh exceed 1:2 (compared to the crustal average of 1:4). Uranium may have moved laterally into this marginal area from the thorium-rich porphyry, possibly in a vapour phase. There is a possibility that concentrations of uranium as well as other metals such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn, and W could exist in the porphyry and its margin in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The radioactive granite rocks of the Fort Smith Belt are adjacent to uranium-thorium occurrences in the nearby Proterozoic Nonacho sediments but whether or not a genetic relationship exists between the two situations is uncertain. (auth)

  1. Belt, Road, and Circle: The Arctic and Northern Europe in China's Belt and Road Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørup Sørensen, Camilla Tenna

    2018-01-01

    Sørensen offers a much-needed analysis of the how the development of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) links to China’s growing interests and ambitions in the Arctic showing how China is using the BRI to further intensify and strengthen relations with the Nordic countries in the Arctic. Conducting...

  2. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  3. HERSCHEL -RESOLVED OUTER BELTS OF TWO-BELT DEBRIS DISKS—EVIDENCE OF ICY GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: Farisa@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  4. Mesin Pemindah Bahan : Studi Prestasi Belt Conveyor Hubungannya Dengan Ukuran Butiran Dan Tingkat Kelembaban Bahan Curah ( Batubara ), Panjang Belt 7,6 Meter ; Lebar 32 Centimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Rio

    2011-01-01

    Banyak industri yang menggunakan belt conveyor sebagai alat transportasi material, sebab punya banyak keuntungan. Sehingga, untuk meningkatkan performansi belt conveyor tersebut perlu dilakukan pengidentifikasian prestasi belt conveyor. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan material transfer batubara. Yang akan diamati adalah pengaruh ukuran butiran material dan tingkat kelembaban terhadap kapasitas transfer belt conveyor. Dari pengujian didapatkan kapasitas transfer terbesar adalah material batubar...

  5. Problems with models of the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.J.; Lemaire, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Rodgers, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented

  6. Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Lejosne, Solène

    2018-02-01

    Fifty years have passed since the parameter "L-star" was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like "distance to the equatorial point of a field line," McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some "recipes" on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.

  7. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  8. Investigation on the upper Paleozoic Strata in Tang-e-Zakeen, and introducing Zakeen formation, Kuh-e Faraghan Zagros Basin, South Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavidel-Syooki, M.

    1998-01-01

    A thick clastic sequence is well-developed in Tang-e-Zakeen, Kuh-e-Faraghan, being situated approximately 80 Km north of Bandar Abbas. The sequence is 340 m. thick and mainly consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale and subordinate dolomitic beds. So far, this clastic sequence has been called Faraghan Formation. This rock unit lacks marine fauna and based on stratigraphic position, it was assigned to the Early Permian (Szabo and Kheradpir, 1978). Since then, a detailed palynological study has been carried out on the Faraghan Formation by the author. These studies resulted identification of numerous palynomorph taxa, including miospore and acritarch species. The known palynomorph taxa indicated that, a major part of Faraghan Formation belongs to the Devonian Period, while the rest is Early Permian. As a result, the National Iranian Stratigraphic Committee decided and agreed upon to divide the Faraghan Formation into two rock units, namely, the Zakeen Formation, embracing the Devonian strata, and Faraghan Formation for the Early Permian sequence in the Zagros Basin respectively. The Zakeen Formation derives from the Zakeen Village which is located in the southern flank of Kuh-e-Faraghan, about 80 km north of Bandar Abbas. The type section of Zakeen Formation attains a thickness of 285m. in Tang-e-Zakeen, Kuh-e-Faraghan, approximately 23 Km from the Zakeen village. It disconformably rests on the Sarchahan Formation, while it too, disconformably overlain by the Faraghan Formation. A total of 100 samples from the Zakeen Formation were selected and treated in the palynological laboratory of the Exploration Division of National Iranian Oil Company. 63 palynomorph taxa were encountered from the Zakeen Formation. The known species were arranged in five local stratigraphic assemblage zones. Zones I and II occur in a thickness of 96 m. of the Zakeen Formation, in ascending order, suggesting the Early Devonian whereas Zones III and IV occur Within 156 m. interval of the Zakeen

  9. Energy saving for belt conveyors by speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  10. The physical imitation experiments of nuclear belt weight scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qicun; Wang Mingqian; Sun Jinhua; Li Zhonghao

    1993-01-01

    The physical imitation experiments of the nuclear belt weight scaler (NBWS) were performed with a coal-loaded belt. The linearity, repetition and long-time stability; of the NBWS were measured. And the influence of pile shape, load bias and the composition of coal on weight calculation were studied

  11. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  12. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  13. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Gaudiot, G.

    1990-10-01

    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  14. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  15. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, Jeanette B.; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  16. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  17. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

  18. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study.

  19. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shirong [Department of Automation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xia, Xiaohua [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2010-06-15

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study. (author)

  20. Energetic electrons in the inner belt in 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Jr, H I; Buck, R M [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1976-07-01

    Pitch-angle data were obtained by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's scanning, magnetic electron spectrometer on OGO 5 during its traversals of the inner belt in 1968. Data from the five lowest-energy channels 79 to 822 keV, were analyzed. The inner-belt electron injection following two storm periods was observed; the first was the mild storm of 11 June and the second the more intense storms of 31 October and 1 November. Comparisons with other data indicate that only a small Starfish residual (at > 1 MeV) still remained in the heart of the inner belt; hence, the results are indicative of the normal inner belt. The data are discussed in terms of current ideas regarding the source and loss of particles in the inner belt.

  1. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  2. Transfer points of belt conveyors operating with unfavorable bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H [Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-06-01

    Describes design of belt conveyor chutes that transfer bulk of surface mines from one conveyor to another. Conveyor belt velocity is a significant parameter. Unfavorable chute design may lead to bulk flow congestion, bulk velocity losses etc. The bulk flow process is analyzed, bulk flow velocities, belt inclinations and bulk feeding from 2 conveyors into one chute are taken into account. Conventional chutes have parabolic belt impact walls. An improved version with divided impact walls is proposed that maintains a relatively high bulk velocity, reduces friction at chute walls and decreases wear and dirt build-up. Design of the improved chute is explained. It is built to adapt to existing structures without major modifications. The angle between 2 belt conveyors can be up to 90 degrees, the best bulk transfer is noted at conveyor angles below 60 degrees. Various graphs and schemes are provided. 6 refs.

  3. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  4. Non-linear belt transient analysis. A hybrid model for numerical belt conveyor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A. [Scientific Solutions, Inc., Aurora, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Frictional and rolling losses along a running conveyor are discussed due to their important influence on wave propagation during starting and stopping. Hybrid friction models allow belt rubber losses and material flexing to be included in the initial tension calculations prior to any dynamic analysis. Once running tensions are defined, a numerical integration method using non-linear stiffness gradients is used to generate transient forces during starting and stopping. A modified Euler integration technique is used to simulate the entire starting and stopping cycle in less than 0.1 seconds. The procedure enables a faster scrutiny of unforeseen conveyor design issues such as low belt tension zones and high forces at drives. (orig.)

  5. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  6. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  7. Torque-transmitting mechanism of a metal CVT belt; Kinzoku CVT belt no torque dentatsu mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, D; Mabuchi, Y; Kato, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The slip mechanism of a metal CVT belt which consisted of several hundred V-shaped elements and two sets of laminated metal rings was analyzed by focusing on the distribution of the gaps occurring between the elements, and a simulation which could predict the slip-limit torque at which the slip ratio increases sharply was developed. In this paper, the outline of the simulation is shown with some comparison between the calculated results and the experimental data. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Inclination Mixing in the Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  9. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  10. Modeling of Jupiter's electron an ion radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Angelica

    2004-01-01

    In the Fifties, James Van Allen showed the existence of regions of the terrestrial magnetosphere consisted of energetic particles, trapped by the magnetic field: the radiation belts. The radiation belts of the Earth were the subject of many modeling works and are studied since several years at the Departement Environnement Spatial (DESP) of ONERA. In 1998, the DESP decided to adapt the radiation belts model of the Earth, Salammbo, to radiation environment of Jupiter. A first thesis was thus carried out on the subject and a first radiation belts model of electrons of Jupiter was developed [Santos-Costa, 2001]. The aim of this second thesis is to develop a radiation belts model for protons and heavy ions. In order to validate the developed model, the comparisons between Salammbo results and observations are essential. However, the validation is difficult in the case of protons and heavy ions because in-situ measurements of the probes are very few and most of the time contaminated by very energetic electrons. To solve this problem, a very good model of electrons radiation belts is essential to confirm or cancel the contamination of protons and heavy ions measurements. Thus, in parallel to the development of the protons and heavy ions radiation belts model, the electrons models, already existing, has been improved. Then Salammbo results have been compared to the different observations available (in-situ measurements, radio-astronomical observations). The different comparisons show a very good agreement between Salammbo results and observations. (author) [fr

  11. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  12. Timing belt in power transmission and conveying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domek Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of phenomena occurring at the contact of a timing belt and a pulley. Depending on a belt size range these phenomena differ significantly. There is no indication as to what solutions are optimal for drive belts. The analysis of the coupling process and performance tests have shown that the drive belt should have a cord of very good mechanical properties and its raceway side should be made from the material of a low friction coefficient against the pulley material. A flat belt in power transmission and conveying systems cooperates with several elements consisting of timing pulleys, tensioners or guiding rails. In gear with timing belts they depend strongly on characteristics of the process as well as the type of friction. In recent constructions, producers of timing belts are very much concerned about achieving as much slippery surface as possible. The work describes the problem of friction on different surfaces as well as its influence on gear lifetime. Research results confirm that on many surfaces bigger coefficient of friction is expected.

  13. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  14. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  15. Continuing scearch for a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    The EN Tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates to support a varied program of atomic physics research. As such, the demands on the accelerator often require a range of operation from ∼0.38 to 7.0 MV on the terminal, with low ripple and long term steady state operation. The standard charging belts obtained from the manufacture have generally given acceptable performance, but it is reasonable that modem manufacturing techniques and materials could increase belt lifetimes and improve accelerator performance, particularly voltage ripple. A new belt of significantly different construction from that of the conventional belts was specified, purchased, and installed in 1993. After 2800 hours of use at voltages from 0.38 to 5.8 MV, it was removed from the accelerator in early August 1995

  16. A comparative policy analysis of seat belt laws : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    This analysis examined data from a variety of sources to estimate the benefit of enhancing Iowas current law to require all : passengers to use seat belts. In addition to assessing Iowans opinions about changing the law, a literature review, a ...

  17. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  18. Channel belt architecture formed by a meandering river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Dijk, W.M. van; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Stratification in channel belts is the key to reconstructing formative channel dimensions and palaeoflow conditions; this requires an understanding of the relation between river morphodynamics and set thickness. So far, theories for reconstruction of the original morphology from preserved

  19. Gan-Hang tectonic belt and its geologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jiarui; Zhang Zhiping.

    1989-01-01

    Gan-Hang tectonic belt is predominantly controlled by Gan-Hang fracture zone. It is mainly composed of Yongfeng-Zhuji downwarping zone, Gan-Hang volcanic activity structural belt and Gan-Hang red basin downfaulted zone. Gan-Hang fracture zone is derived from evolution and development of Shaoxing-Jiangshan deep fracture. It is mainly composed of three deep and large fracture and Fuzhou-Yongfeng large fracture. The fracture zone is a long active belt, but in each active period the geologic structural patterns intensity, depth and forming time were not same. Gan-Hang tectonic belt possesses obvious inheritance. It has always maintained the character of the relative depression or low land since the Caledonian movement. This specific structural environment is favourable for uranium mineralization. At any rate, the formation of this uranium minerogenetic zone has been experiencing a long and complicated processes which were closely associated with long activity of Gan-Hang fracture zone

  20. REDDY MAIN BELT ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  1. Magmatic formations in the Okhotsk--Chukotka volcanogenic belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, A.P.

    1976-05-01

    The relationship between the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt of Northeast USSR and the stage of evolution of magnetism and tectonic development of the region are examined. Recognizing the associations of effusive and intrusive rocks that are typical of the southern part of the volcanogenic belt and that are joined together by some characteristic features, a basic plan is presented for examination of the problem of magnetic formations. On the basis of the distinctive characteristics of epigeosynclinal tectonic development of the territory and the sequence of formation of the magmatic rocks within it, three main groups: volcanic, coleanoplutonic, and plutonic, can be distinguished; and a general scheme of development of these types in space and time within the volcanogenic belt can be developed. According to this scheme, four main stages can be recognized in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatic evolution of the Okhotsk-Chukotka belt. This scheme of classification takes into consideration the factor of the structural development of this tectonomagmatic element.

  2. Age revision of the Neotethyan arc migration into the southeast Urumieh-Dokhtar belt of Iran: Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Reza; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Alirezaei, Saeed; Sun, Weidong; Li, Cong-Ying

    2017-07-01

    The Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt of Central Iran runs parallel to the Zagros orogenic belt and has been resulted from Neotethys ocean subduction underneath Eurasia. The Bahr Aseman volcanic-plutonic complex (BAC), covering an area 2000 km2 in the Kerman magmatic belt (KMB) in the southern section of the Urumieh-Dokhtar belt, has long been considered as the earliest manifestation of extensive Cenozoic arc magmatism in KMB. The nature and timing of the magmatism, however, is poorly constrained. An area 1000 km2, in BAC and adjacent Razak volcaniclastic complex and Jebal Barez-type granitoids, was mapped and sampled for geochemistry and geochronology. Andesite and basaltic andesite are the main volcanic components in the study area; plutonic bodies vary from tonalite to quartz diorite, granodiorite and biotite-granite. The rocks in BAC display dominantly normal calc-alkaline character. On spider diagrams, the rocks are characterized by enrichments in LILE relative to HFSE and enrichments in LREE relative to HREE. These features suggest a subduction related setting for the BAC. LaN/YbN ratios for the intrusive and volcanic rocks range from 1.41 to 5.16 and 1.01 to 6.42, respectively. These values are lower than those for other known granitoids in KMB, namely the abyssal, dominantly Oligocene Jebal Barez-type (LaN/YbN = 1.66-9.98), and the shallow, dominantly late Miocene Kuh Panj-type (LaN/YbN = 12.97-36.04) granitoids. This suggests a less evolved magma source for the BAC igneous rocks. In Y vs. Nb and Th/Yb vs. La/Yb discrimination diagrams, an island-arc setting is defined for the BAC rocks. The rocks further plot in primitive island-arc domain in Nb vs. Rb/Zr and Y/Nb vs. TiO2 diagrams. The BAC volcanic and plutonic rocks yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 78.1 to 82.7 Ma and 77.5 to 80.8 Ma, respectively. Zircon U-Pb dating of volcanic rocks and granitoids from the adjacent Razak complex and the Jebal Barez-type granitoids indicated 48.2 Ma and 26.1 Ma ages

  3. Second longest conveyor belt in UK installed and fully operational

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    A conveyor belt (which after the completion of the Selby complex will be the second longest conveyor belt in the UK) has been installed at the Prince Charles Drift Mine, Prince of Wales Colliery, United Kingdom. The 1706 m conveyor is the sole underground-to-surface conveyor at the Drift Mine, and is powered by a single 2240 kW, 3000 hp drive unit.

  4. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-07-01

    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V-type objects in the outer main belt, to argue that the primordial main belt at best only 3--4 its current mass at its start. In our talk, we will review what is known, what has been predicted, and some intriguing directions for the future.

  5. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  6. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 09-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE...radiation belt: CRAND and trapped solar protons......17 APPENDIX C - Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons...transfer orbit that can be damaged by the intense charged -particle environment. Protons are the prominent hazard, often causing single event upsets in

  7. An Empirical Planetesimal Belt Radius–Stellar Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrà, L.; Marino, S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Öberg, K. I.; Wilner, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Resolved observations of millimeter-sized dust, tracing larger planetesimals, have pinpointed the location of 26 Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt analogs. We report that a belt’s distance R to its host star correlates with the star’s luminosity L ⋆, following R\\propto {L}\\star 0.19 with a low intrinsic scatter of ∼17%. Remarkably, our Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt in the solar system and the two CO snow lines imaged in protoplanetary disks lie close to this R–L ⋆ relation, suggestive of an intrinsic relationship between protoplanetary disk structures and belt locations. To test the effect of bias on the relation, we use a Monte Carlo approach and simulate uncorrelated model populations of belts. We find that observational bias could produce the slope and intercept of the R–L ⋆ relation but is unable to reproduce its low scatter. We then repeat the simulation taking into account the collisional evolution of belts, following the steady-state model that fits the belt population as observed through infrared excesses. This significantly improves the fit by lowering the scatter of the simulated R–L ⋆ relation; however, this scatter remains only marginally consistent with the one observed. The inability of observational bias and collisional evolution alone to reproduce the tight relationship between belt radius and stellar luminosity could indicate that planetesimal belts form at preferential locations within protoplanetary disks. The similar trend for CO snow line locations would then indicate that the formation of planetesimals or planets in the outer regions of planetary systems is linked to the volatility of their building blocks, as postulated by planet formation models.

  8. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper discusses belt conveyors and their development in bulk terminal applications in South Africa. Single- and multi-product terminal philosophy is discussed, including methods of handling different products over the same system and limiting the effects of degradation at transfer points. In Part II, some aspects of belt conveyor design, as well as the results of tests on a chute designed to handle a range of products, will be covered. 23 references.

  9. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  10. Dynamical Classifications of the Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Steven; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) contains a plethora of observational data on thousands of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Understanding their orbital properties refines our understanding of the formation of the solar system. My analysis pipeline, BUNSHIN, uses Bayesian methods to take the MPC observations and generate 30 statistically weighted orbital clones for each KBO that are propagated backwards along their orbits until the beginning of the solar system. These orbital integrations are saved as REBOUND SimulationArchive files (Rein & Tamayo 2017) which we will make publicly available, allowing many others to perform statistically-robust dynamical classification or complex dynamical investigations of outer solar system small bodies.This database has been used to expand the known collisional family members of the dwarf planet Haumea. Detailed orbital integrations are required to determine the dynamical distances between family members, in the form of "Delta v" as measured from conserved proper orbital elements (Ragozzine & Brown 2007). Our preliminary results have already ~tripled the number of known Haumea family members, allowing us to show that the Haumea family can be identified purely through dynamical clustering.We will discuss the methods associated with BUNSHIN and the database it generates, the refinement of the updated Haumea family, a brief search for other possible clusterings in the outer solar system, and the potential of our research to aid other dynamicists.

  11. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Two Belts, One Road? - The role of Africa in Chinas's Belt & Road initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In the light of the EU-Africa Summit 2017 and of the G20 Summit 2017 with Africa being one of the focus areas, China’s engagement in Africa seems more relevant than ever. China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative (OBOR) or silk road initiative is often referred to as a Eurasian infrastructure network initiative, but it is in fact much more than that. The maritime silk road is supposed to go past the coast of East Africa, where several ports are being built and will be built. Furthermore, ports ...

  13. Scheelite distribution a long of amphibolitic belt from greenstone belt Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.M.; Alexandre, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the middle southern portion of the Minas Gerais state a 60 Km long and 12 Km wide tungsten belt was discovered, and related to the amphibolitic rocks of the Barbacena Greenstone. Tungsten, present as scheelite, is associated with amphibolites, amphibole schists and amphibole gneisses, with chemical characteristics indicating an igneous origin. Chemical analyses on pan concentrates by I.C.P. showed high values on lead, tin, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium and zirconium, and average values for zinc and copper. The scheelite mineralization is probably strata bound and has a possible submarine exhalative origin. (author)

  14. Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical –Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Adjiski, Vancho; Panov, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented a methodology for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical - economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor, Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor system.

  15. Modeling and energy efficiency optimization of belt conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We take optimization approach to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. → An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is proposed. → Then an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are investigated. → In a case study, six optimization problems are formulated with solutions in simulation. - Abstract: The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment and operation levels. Specifically, variable speed control, an equipment level intervention, is recommended to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. However, the current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops without operational considerations at the system level. This paper intends to take a model based optimization approach to improve the efficiency of belt conveyors at the operational level. An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is firstly proposed, which lumps all the parameters into four coefficients. Subsequently, both an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are applied to identify the new energy model, respectively. Simulation results are presented for the estimates of the four coefficients. Finally, optimization is done to achieve the best operation efficiency of belt conveyors under various constraints. Six optimization problems of a typical belt conveyor system are formulated, respectively, with solutions in simulation for a case study.

  16. On-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.; Lim, C.S.; Abernethy, D.A.; Liu, Y.; Maguire, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma-ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal without the need for sample by-lines. Such an analysis system could deliver the combined advantages of a direct on-conveyor configuration with new and accurate analysis techniques. An industry survey of 18 coal companies carried out in early 1996 indicated that accurate on-belt ash analysis is of the highest priority. Subsequent laboratory work has focussed on the investigation of methods with the potential for improving the accuracy of ash content measurement relative to existing on-belt ash analysers, the most widely-used of which are based on dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET), which is sensitive to variations in ash composition. The current work indicates that on-belt neutron/gamma-ray techniques combined with advanced spectral analysis techniques show promise for development into an on-belt ash analysis system which is significantly less sensitive to composition changes than DUET and which analyses a much larger proportion of coal on the belt, thus eliminating some key sources of analysis error

  17. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.

    2017-04-01

    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  18. On-conveyor belt analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Lim; David Abernethy; S. Rainey; L.K. Noack [CSIRO Minerals (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    The report describes the design and plant-testing of a prototype commercial on-belt ash analyser at the Bengalla CHPP (Muswellbrook, NSW). This analyser uses the Neutron Inelastic Scatter (NIS) and Thermal Neutron Capture (TNC) Analysis (NITA) technique, which has been investigated extensively in earlier ACARP projects C5051 (laboratory feasibility study) and the previous stage of C9042 (development and lab testing of a field prototype and evaluate the suitability of the technique for specific energy and sulphur measurement). The NITA analyser has been demonstrated to be capable of achieving an accuracy of 0.46 %ash. Specifically, a measured value for total r.m.s. error of 0.77 %ash, measured r.m.s error includes various uncertainties (estimated to be 0.61 %ash) associated with the chemical analysis and sample collection procedures used to generate the chemical laboratory data provided for calibration. In earlier laboratory work it was demonstrated that a measured r.m.s error of 0.75 %ash corresponded to an actual accuracy of 0.53 %ash after much smaller laboratory sampling errors had been excluded. Accurate measurement of ash value can be achieved in material which is expected to have significant variability in mineralogy, and in the past has not been amenable to analysis using the DUET technique. Accurate measurement of ash value is possible in the presence of significant levels of segregation and changes in mineral matter composition. CSIRO is collaborating with a commercial partner to demonstrate and complete the implementation of the NITA technology in industry. A commercial prototype analyser (NITA II) is under development and a plant installation is expected to occur in mid 2008.

  19. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  20. Geological characteristics of dike-structural belt in Taoshan orefield and its relationship to uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang; Zou Maoqing; Shao Fei; Nie Bin

    2009-01-01

    Taoshan uranium field is occurred in the Taoshan composite batholith in the central Jiangxi Province. The main body of the batholith was formed in Triassic-Early Cretaceous. In Late Cretaceous-Eogene, NE strike fault structure and dike belt were developed in the batholith. From the north to the south, there are successive Xiaobu-Matian dike-structural belt, Wangnitian dike- structural belt, Huangtan-Yueyuan dike-structural belt, Xibei-Shangluo dike-structural belt, Jipoling dike-structural belt, Wangce dike-structural belt and Shiyuanling dike-structural belt. These belts are controlled by the main fault, share the same space and similar time with the uranium mineralization, which is one of the important factors in positioning the uranium ore as well as the prospecting direction of exploration. (authors)

  1. PRESENTDAY STRESS STATE OF THE SHANXI TECTONIC BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaiying

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Shanxi tectonic belt is a historically earthquakeabundant area. For the majority of strong earthquakes in this area, the distribution of earthquake foci was controlled by the N–S oriented local structures on the tectonic belt. Studies of the present stress state of the Shanxi tectonic belt can contribute to the understanding of the relationship between strong earthquakes’ occurrence and their structural distribution and also facilitate assessments of regional seismic danger and determination of the regions wherein strong earthquakes may occur in future. Using the Cataclastic Analysis Method (CAM, we performed stress inversion based on the focal mechanism data of earthquakes which took place in the Shanxi tectonic belt from 1967 to 2010. Our results show that orientations of the maximum principal compressive stress axis of the Shanxi tectonic belt might have been variable before and after the 2001 Kunlun MS=8.1 strong earthquake, with two different superior trends of the NW–SE and NE–SW orientation in different periods. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is oriented in the NE–SW direction, the pattern of the space distribution of the seismic events in the Shanxi tectonic belt shows a trend of their concentration in the N–S oriented tectonic segments. At the same time, the stress state is registered as horizontal shearing and horizontal extension in the N–S and NE–SW oriented local segments in turn. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is NW–SE oriented, the stress state of the N–S and NE–SW oriented tectonic segments is primarily registered as horizontal shearing. Estimations of plunges of stress axes show that seismicity in the Shanxi belt  corresponds primarily to the activity of lowangle faults, and highangle stress sites are located in the NE–SW oriented extensional tectonic segments of the Shanxi belt. This indicates that the stress change of the Shanxi belt is

  2. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Alan

    1987-04-07

    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through 90.degree. during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  4. Energy-saving belt conveyors installed in Polish collieries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy ANTONIAK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of reducing energy consumption and dioxide emissions in the stage of construction and operation of mine belt conveyors is connected with their broad use in the industry. However, this notion is related to a reduction of electric energy consumption for conveyor drive and for production of conveyor components and assemblies (belts, rollers, load-bearing structure etc.. An essential role is played by an increased life of belt conveyors assemblies and components, principally belts. A reduced electric energy consumption results in a decreased CO2 emissions, e.g. hard coal – fired power station issues 0.28 kg CO2 per production of 1 kWh, in to answer production of 1 t steel accounts for 3.2 t CO2 emissions. The subject-matter presented in the paper concerning energy-saving in the horizontally and inclined mine belt conveyors installed in a Polish colliery – Anna, Jankowice and Marcel, has a big economic significance and it is important from the point of view of environmental protection.

  5. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-08-23

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt 1) , which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness 2, 3) , which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference 4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model 10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  6. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  7. On the existence of a comet belt beyond Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of a comet belt in connection with the origin of the short-period comets is analysed. It is noted that the current theory - that these comets originate as near-parabolic comets captured by Jupiter and the other giant planets - implies an excessive wastage of comets lost in hyperbolic orbits, which is avoided in the present model. The following picture is predicted. Solid conglomerates up to approximately 10 18 g were formed by gravitational instabilities in the belt region (about 35 to 50 AU). A further fragmentation-accretion process led to a power-law mass distribution similar to that observed in the asteroids. Since then, close encounters between members of the belt have provoked the diffusion of some of them with the effect that they have become subject to the strong perturbations of Neptune. Of these a small number pass from one planet to the next inside and end as short-period comets. By means of a Monte Carlo method, the influence of close encounters between belt comets is then studied in relation to the diffusion of their orbits. It is concluded that if such a belt contains members with masses equal to or greater than that of Ceres, the orbital diffusion could proceed fast enough to maintain the number of observed short-period comets in a steady state. (author)

  8. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  9. RATIONALE FOR CENTERING CAPACITY OF REDISIGNED BELT CONVEYOR DRUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  10. Design of a nucleonic conveyor belt weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.; Sunder Singh, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A brief literature survey of the existing conventional units and the nucleonic belt weigher is made. The design of a 250 ton per hour coal weighing unit working in conjunction with a 24 inch wide belt, running at 350 feet per minute has been attempted and a unit has been built to the above specifications. Caseium-137 line source has been used as an isotope and a 10 litre volume argon filled ionisation chamber has been used as a detector. A line source has been preferred to a point source. The unit is under trial and the accuracy of the same is being evaluated by changing the variables like particle size profile of the material deposited on the belt and sudden changes in loading. Initial trials indicate that an accuracy of +- 1 p.c. can be achieved. (auth.)

  11. A minimalistic and optimized conveyor belt for neutral atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C; Prakash, Vindhiya; Sahagun, Daniel; Hessmo, Björn

    2017-10-20

    Here we report of a design and the performance of an optimized micro-fabricated conveyor belt for precise and adiabatic transportation of cold atoms. A theoretical model is presented to determine optimal currents in conductors used for the transportation. We experimentally demonstrate a fast adiabatic transportation of Rubidium ( 87 Rb) cold atoms with minimal loss and heating with as few as three conveyor belt conductors. This novel design of a multilayered conveyor belt structure is fabricated in aluminium nitride (AlN) because of its outstanding thermal and electrical properties. This demonstration would pave a way for a compact and portable quantum device required for quantum information processing and sensors, where precise positioning of cold atoms is desirable.

  12. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J

    1977-04-01

    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  13. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study: Radiation Belt Seed Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes data, we study the radiation belt seed population and it associated with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storm events. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “non-preconditioned” and “preconditioned”. The statistical study shows that the storm intensity is of significant importance for the distribution of the seed population (336 keV electrons) in the outer radiation belt. However, substorm intensity can also be important to the evolution of the seed population for some geomagnetic storm events. For non-preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the peak fluxes and their L-shell locations of the seed population and relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1.0 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) is consistent with the energy-dependent dynamic processes in the outer radiation belt. For preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the features of the seed population and relativistic electrons is not fully consistent with the energy-dependent processes. It is suggested that the good correlation between the radiation belt seed population and ≤1.0 MeV electrons contributes to the prediction of the evolution of ≤1.0 MeV electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt during periods of geomagnetic storms.

  14. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  15. An Experimental Concept for Probing Nonlinear Physics in Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Ganguli, G.; Tejero, E. M.; Amatucci, B.; Siefring, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    A sounding rocket experiment, Space Measurement of Rocket-Released Turbulence (SMART), can be used to probe the nonlinear response to a known stimulus injected into the radiation belt. Release of high-speed neutral barium atoms (8- 10 km/s) generated by a shaped charge explosion in the ionosphere can be used as the source of free energy to seed weak turbulence in the ionosphere. The Ba atoms are photo-ionized forming a ring velocity distribution of heavy Ba+ that is known to generate lower hybrid waves. Induced nonlinear scattering will convert the lower hybrid waves into EM whistler/magnetosonic waves. The escape of the whistlers from the ionospheric region into the radiation belts has been studied and their observable signatures quantified. The novelty of the SMART experiment is to make coordinated measurement of the cause and effect of the turbulence in space plasmas and from that to deduce the role of nonlinear scattering in the radiation belts. Sounding rocket will carry a Ba release module and an instrumented daughter section that includes vector wave magnetic and electric field sensors, Langmuir probes and energetic particle detectors. The goal of these measurements is to determine the whistler and lower hybrid wave amplitudes and spectrum in the ionospheric source region and look for precipitated particles. The Ba release may occur at 600-700 km near apogee. Ground based cameras and radio diagnostics can be used to characterize the Ba and Ba+ release. The Van Allen Probes can be used to detect the propagation of the scattering-generated whistler waves and their effects in the radiation belts. By detecting whistlers and measuring their energy density in the radiation belts the SMART mission will confirm the nonlinear generation of whistlers through scattering of lower hybrid along with other nonlinear responses of the radiation belts and their connection to weak turbulence.

  16. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  17. COMPREHENSIVE CHECK MEASUREMENT OF KEY PARAMETERS ON MODEL BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex measurements of characteristic parameters realised on a long distance model belt conveyor are described. The main objective was to complete and combine the regular measurements of electric power on drives of belt conveyors operated in Czech opencast mines with measurements of other physical quantities and to gain by this way an image of their mutual relations and relations of quantities derived from them. The paper includes a short description and results of the measurements on an experimental model conveyor with a closed material transport way.

  18. ALT-II toroidal belt limiter biasing experiments on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.; Boedo, J.A.; Gray, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Edge electric fields have been related to H-mode-like behaviour. The experiments reported here are an attempt to control the SOL profiles by electrostatic biasing of the full toroidal-belt limiter ALT-II. The specific goals are: influencing the edge particle flows, particle removal, power deposition and the global confinement. The ALT-II pump limiter is a full toroidal belt located at 45 o below the outer midplane and consisting of eight graphite covered blades which can be independently biased. Particle scoops located behind the limiter neutralize and direct the incoming plasma into the pumping ducts. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Type QH-200 conveyor-belt nuclear scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuming; Dong Shiyuan; Li Furong; Wan Zemin

    1991-01-01

    Type QH-200 conveyor-belt nuclear scale is a reliable and on-line device that weighs solids mass flow continuously by γ-ray absorption and scattering. The operation principle and measuring method are described. And some factors influencing the accuracy are discussed. The full scale total weight of type QH-200 nuclear scale is 10 6 t. The result of calibration in the industrial field shows that the accuracy of QH-200 is better than ±1.0% for typical belt loading

  20. Realization methodology for optimal design of steel structures conveyors with hanging belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boslovyak P.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of optimum design of metal structures of the fixed conveyor with hanging belt. The analysis results optimum design of steel structures of stationary conveyor with hanging belt.

  1. The development of an electronic system to continually monitor, indicate and control, 'belt slippage' in industrial friction 'V' belt drive transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R E

    2012-01-01

    Belts have been used for centuries as a mechanism to transfer power from some form of drive system to a variety of load systems. Within industry today, many designs of belts but particularly friction, trapezoidal shaped 'V' belts are used and generally transfer power generated by electrical motors to numerous forms of driven load systems. It is suggested that belt systems, through their simplicity are sadly neglected by maintenance functions and generally are left unattended until high degrees of 'belt slippage' through loss of friction or 'belt breakage' provokes maintenance attention. These circumstances are most often identified through the reduced or loss of manufacturing production or the occurrence of catastrophic circumstances such as fire caused through excessive friction/ high belt slippage conditions. Obviously, these situations incur financial losses to companies and in some cases the near loss of the company's main manufacturing plant. Consequently, a satisfactory, viable solution is currently sought by industry to improve on current labour intensive maintenance practices. This paper will present an account of the development of an industrially robust, accurate and repeatable electronic system which continually monitors and indicates the degree of 'slippage' in a 'V' belt drive transmission system and in the circumstance of belt breakage or high belt slippage will enable and control the switching off the drive motor.

  2. Effectiveness of media and enforcement campaigns in increasing seat belt usage rates in a state with a secondary seat belt law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vinod; Nambisan, Shashi S; Singh, Ashok K; Pearl, Traci

    2009-08-01

    In 2005, in terms of seat belt usage rates, Nevada ranked third nationally and first among states with secondary seat belt use enforcement laws in the United States. An effective combination of a media-based education and enforcement campaign helped in this regard. The objective of this article is to document the effectiveness of enforcement and media-based education and outreach campaigns on the seat belt usage rates in Nevada, a state with a secondary seat belt usage law. Observational data on seat belt usage and passenger fatality data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of enforcement campaigns and media-based education and outreach campaigns. Data based on observations of about 40,000 vehicles in each of the years 2003 to 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analyses show that a significant increase in seat belt usage rates among both drivers and passengers for both genders resulted from the accompanying the media and enforcement campaigns. The results from this study indicate that effective and well-planned media/enforcement campaigns can have a significant impact on seat belt usage rates even in a state where the enforcement of seat belt laws can only be as a secondary violation. They validate and expand on findings from other efforts documented in the literature. These results demonstrate that, if coordinated properly, media and enforcement campaigns work very effectively in increasing seat belt usage rates even in states with secondary seat belt laws.

  3. 30 CFR 14.22 - Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. 14..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS Technical Requirements § 14.22 Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (a) Test procedures. The test...

  4. PROPOSALS ON IMPROVING THE EXCAVATION, TRANSPORT AND COAL DEPOSIT, USING THE RUBBER CONVEYOR BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we make a study of the improvement methods of quantity of material transported by conveyor belt. Determination of discharge of solids entail establish of the parameters of the conveyor belt. As a result, we determine the belt speed who provide maximum discharge of solids materials.

  5. Overland conveyors. Cable or trough belt for 100 km transport haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maton, A.E. [Maton Engineering Pty. Ltd., Orange Grove, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    With the advances in belt conveyor technology today systems of 100 kilometres length are increasingly being considered. This article provides a comparison of two concepts for a 100 kilometre system of five 20 kilometre flights based on trough belt and cable belt technology. (orig.)

  6. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  7. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers in Sokoto Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Abiola

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified high level of knowledge, positive attitude and reported use of seat belt. It is recommended that public awareness of the safety benefits of seat belts and strong enforcement are necessary to achieve optimal use of seat belt.

  8. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The status of isotopic investigations of the Limpopo mobile belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Limpopo Belt is a zone of multiple deformed metamorphic rocks situated between the Rhodesian and Kaapvaal Cratons of Southern Africa. During the duration of the International Geodynamics Project, geochronologic and isotopic investigations were undertaken in the nothern Transvaal of rocks of the Central Zone, Southern Marginal Zone and Soutpansberg Supergroup. Strontium 86, strontium 87 and lead isotopes were used in the isotopic investigations

  10. Patchy charnockites from Jenapore, Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ∗Present address: Department of Geology, J. K. College, Purulia 723 101, West Bengal, India. The charnockite ... tor of the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, are disposed in a linear fashion and generally have sharp ... Subse- quently, many workers suggested that the 'patchy ..... bly represent two different frozen-in conditions, as.

  11. Determination of Flutter Derivatives for the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Damsgaard, Aage; Reinhold, Thim A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method which combines control theory and system identification techniques has been used to extract flutter derivatives from section model tests for the Great Belt East Bridge. Tests were conducted by exciting the section model simultaneously in vertical and torsional modes of vibration. Tests...

  12. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which...

  13. Elastic deformation behaviour of Palaeogene clay from Fehmarn Belt area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Palaeogene clay samples were obtained by high quality boring and sampling techniques (Geobore S-system), during the extensive site investigations for building a bridge in the Fehmarn Belt area to link between Rødbyhavn in Denmark and Puttgarden in Germany. The Palaeogene clay is rich in smectite...

  14. Medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Hesse, J. (Jenny)

    2014-01-01

    The medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anorthopedic device, which has two main functions. The first function is to stimulate the backmuscles by using a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device that releases regular,electrical impulses. The second function of

  15. Investigation of the preionization in the high voltage belt pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protz, R.

    1975-07-01

    The production of plasmas is investigated which are necessary for shock wave experiments. By optimization of a two-stage pre-ionization, an ignition can be initiated down to 0.5 m of Hg deuterium. The plasma is diagnosed with a 90 0 multichannel laser light scattering in the belt-pinch. (GG/LH) [de

  16. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; Dijk, W.M. van; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to

  17. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of seat belt usage in reducing the severity of the sequelae of road traffic accidents is widely known. ... Each correct response to the knowledge questions was scored one mark and wrong response or non-response was ...

  18. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utilizing multiple data sources from the year 1997–2007, this study identifies radiation belt electron dropouts which are ultimately triggered when solar wind stream interfaces (SI) arrived at ... Center for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North–West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.

  19. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4263 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be...

  20. Design study of flat belt CVT for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumm, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommended and its components were selected and sized, based on the design requirements of a 1700 KG vehicle. A design layout was prepared and engineering calculations made of component efficiencies and operating life. The transmission efficiency was calculated to be significantly over 90% with the expected vehicle operation. A design consistent with automotive practice for low future production costs was considered, together with maintainability. The technology advancements required to develop the flat belt CVT were identified and an estimate was made of how the size of the flat belt CVT scales to larger and smaller design output torques. The suitability of the flat belt CVT for alternate application to an electric vehicle powered by an electric motor without flywheel and to a hybrid electric vehicle powered by an electric motor with an internal combustion engine was studied.

  1. Mafic dykes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ghats belt: Evidence of rifting and collision. S Bhattacharya. 1,∗ ... 1.3 Ga, which may have been initiated by intra-plate volcanism. 1. Introduction ... tively, is described as a compressional orogen. Keywords. ... charnockite gneiss, around Naraseraopet, AP (b) Thin mafic ... Sometimes orthopyroxene also occurs at margin of.

  2. The charge transport in an electrostatic belt generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Strasters, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    The fluctuations in the charge transport system of an EN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator have been investigated by means of a frequency spectrum analyser. Frequency spectra of the terminal ripple, the short-circuit current and the voltage at the belt charge screen have been measured. Also the

  3. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    : the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep ...

  4. 1991 National campaign to increase safety belt usage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA

    1992-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is the national campaign of the USA to be conducted in 1991 and 1992, in order to reach the goal of 70 percent safety belt usage by 1992. Among other things, it is shown that visible enforcement of existing laws offers the greatest potential for achieving this goal.

  5. Asteroid Family Associations of Main-Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Novakovic, Bojan; Kim, Yoonyoung; Brasser, Ramon

    2016-10-01

    We present a population-level analysis of the asteroid family associations of known main-belt comets or main-belt comet candidates (which, to date, have largely just been analyzed on individual bases as they have been discovered). In addition to family associations that have already been reported in the literature, we have identified dynamical relationships between 324P/La Sagra and the Alauda family, P/2015 X6 (PANSTARRS) and the Aeolia family, and P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) and the Adeona family. We will discuss the overall implications of these family associations, particularly as they pertain to the hypothesis that members of primitive asteroid family members may be more susceptible to producing observable sublimation-driven dust emission activity, and thus becoming main-belt comets. We will also discuss the significance of other dynamical and physical properties of a family or sub-family as they relate to the likelihood of that family containing one or more currently active main-belt comets.

  6. Linking main-belt comets to asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, B.; Hsieh, H. H.; Cellino, A.

    2012-09-01

    Here we present our results obtained by applying different methods in order to establish a firm link between the main-belt comets (MBCs) and colisionally-formed asteroid families (AFs), i.e, to possibly find additional line of evidence supporting the hypothesis that MBCs may be preferentially found among the members of young AFs.

  7. Resolving the planetesimal belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Mark; Jordán, Andrés; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S.; Dent, William R. F.; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fitted by a broad ring between 145^{+12}_{-12} au and 429^{+37}_{-32} au at an inclination of 40^{+5}_{-6}° and a position angle of 51^{+8}_{-8}°. A disc edge at ˜145 au is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

  8. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. 2Beijing Research .... terrane, which is separated from the central Asian orogenic belt .... Stage I formed the main body of quartz veins ...... size (20–25 μm) fluid inclusions can be observed, although most ..... Canada and Western Australia (Goldfarb et al. 2001 ...

  9. Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Anka Schist Belt, Northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gold quartz veins have been identified associated with the rock formations of the Anka Schist Belt forming eight gold deposits that include Kuba I, Kuba II, Doka, Dumi I, Dumi II, Zurzurfa I, Zurzurfa II, Jameson and Kwali. The present study involves the use of major and trace elements to characterize some of the features that ...

  10. Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Anka Schist Belt, Northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    ABSTRACT. Gold quartz veins have been identified associated with the rock formations of the Anka Schist Belt forming eight gold deposits that include Kuba I, Kuba II, Doka, Dumi I, Dumi II, Zurzurfa I, Zurzurfa II, Jameson and Kwali. The present study involves the use of major and trace elements to characterize some of the.

  11. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The Bhandara-Balaghat granulite (BBG) belt occurs as a 190km long, detached narrow, ... have undergone an earlier high-grade granulite metamorphism at 2672±54 Ma (Sm-Nd age) and a .... ∼10.5kb pressure and 775◦ C temperature. They.

  12. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results ... Geological and geophysical layout map of the Gadwal schist belt area, Andhra Pradesh (after Ananda Murty and ... Observed gravity (Bouguer) values, regional, residual and inferred gravity models along traverse I of the Gadwal schist.

  13. Does unbelted safety requirement affect protection for belted occupants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Narayanaswamy, Prabha; Reed, Matthew P; Andreen, Margaret; Neal, Mark; Lin, Chin-Hsu

    2017-05-29

    Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seat belt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted-only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses. In this study, 2 validated finite element (FE) vehicle/occupant models (a midsize sedan and a midsize SUV) were selected. Restraint design optimizations under standardized crash conditions (U.S.-NCAP and FMVSS 208) with and without unbelted requirements were conducted using Hybrid III (HIII) small female and midsize male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in both vehicles on both driver and right front passenger positions. A total of 10 to 12 design parameters were varied in each optimization using a combination of response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm. To evaluate the field performance of restraints optimized with and without unbelted requirements, 55 frontal crash conditions covering a greater variety of crash types than those in the standardized crashes were selected. A total of 1,760 FE simulations were conducted for the field performance evaluation. Frontal crashes in the NASS-CDS database from 2002 to 2012 were used to develop injury risk curves and to provide the baseline performance of current restraint system and estimate the injury risk change by removing the unbelted requirement. Unbelted requirements do not affect the optimal seat belt and airbag design parameters in 3 out of 4 vehicle/occupant position conditions, except for the SUV passenger side. Overall, compared to the optimal designs with unbelted requirements, optimal designs without unbelted requirements generated the same or lower total injury risks for

  14. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  15. Quantitative Simulation of QARBM Challenge Events During Radiation Belt Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Chu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Various physical processes are known to affect energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative effects at different times and locations in space need further investigation. This presentation focuses on discussing the quantitative roles of various physical processes that affect Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics during radiation belt enhancement challenge events (storm-time vs. non-storm-time) selected by the GEM Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling (QARBM) focus group. We construct realistic global distributions of whistler-mode chorus waves, adopt various versions of radial diffusion models (statistical and event-specific), and use the global evolution of other potentially important plasma waves including plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves from all available multi-satellite measurements. These state-of-the-art wave properties and distributions on a global scale are used to calculate diffusion coefficients, that are then adopted as inputs to simulate the dynamical electron evolution using a 3D diffusion simulation during the storm-time and the non-storm-time acceleration events respectively. We explore the similarities and differences in the dominant physical processes that cause radiation belt electron dynamics during the storm-time and non-storm-time acceleration events. The quantitative role of each physical process is determined by comparing against the Van Allen Probes electron observations at different energies, pitch angles, and L-MLT regions. This quantitative comparison further indicates instances when quasilinear theory is sufficient to explain the observed electron dynamics or when nonlinear interaction is required to reproduce the energetic electron evolution observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  16. Radiation Belt Transport Driven by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mueller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The creation of the Earth's outer zone radiation belts is attributed to earthward transport and adiabatic acceleration of electrons by drift-resonant interactions with electromagnetic fluctuations in the magnetosphere. Three types of radial transport driven by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations that have been identified are: (1) radial diffusion [Falthammer, 1965], (2) significant changes in the phase space density radial profile due to a single or few ULF drift-resonant interactions [Ukhorskiy et al., 2006; Degeling et al., 2008], and (3) shock associated injections of radiation belt electrons occurring in less than a drift period [Li et al., 1993]. A progress report will be given on work to fully characterize different forms of radial transport and their effect on the Earth's radiation belts. The work is being carried out by computing test-particle trajectories in electric and magnetic fields from a simple analytic ULF field model and from global MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. Degeling, A. W., L. G. Ozeke, R. Rankin, I. R. Mann, and K. Kabin (2008), Drift resonant generation of peaked relativistic electron distributions by Pc 5 ULF waves, textit{J. Geophys. Res., 113}, A02208, doi:10.1029/2007JA012411. Fälthammar, C.-G. (1965), Effects of Time-Dependent Electric Fields on Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 70(11), 2503-2516, doi:10.1029/JZ070i011p02503. Li, X., I. Roth, M. Temerin, J. R. Wygant, M. K. Hudson, and J. B. Blake (1993), Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 20}(22), 2423-2426, doi:10.1029/93GL02701. Ukhorskiy, A. Y., B. J. Anderson, K. Takahashi, and N. A. Tsyganenko (2006), Impact of ULF oscillations in solar wind dynamic pressure on the outer radiation belt electrons, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 33}(6), L06111, doi:10.1029/2005GL024380.

  17. Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Tae Eui; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin; Woo, Eung Je; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2012-10-01

    Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human-electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes.

  18. Large enhancement of highly energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt and its transport into the inner radiation belt inferred from MDS-1 satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, T.; Matsumoto, H.

    2016-03-01

    We have examined a large increase of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt and its penetration into the inner radiation belt over slot region using the MDS-1 satellite observations. Result of analyses demonstrates that a large increase took place in the spring and autumn seasons, and we have newly confirmed that the penetration of outer belt electrons to the inner radiation zone took place during the big magnetic storms by examining a pitch angle distribution of the penetrating electrons.

  19. Plant trial of an under-belt capacitance and gamma-ray backscatter gauge for on-belt determination of moisture in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Rafter, P.T.; Abernethy, D.A.; Millen, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    A non-contacting under-belt capacitance and gamma-ray backscatter technique has been developed for the on-line measurement of moisture in coal. In this technique, moisture was correlated with radio frequency susceptance and conductance, determined using an under-belt capacitance sensor in which a fringing electric field interrogates a layer of coal on the conveyor belt directly about the sensor. To compensate for variations in the density and thickness of the coal layer, an under-belt gamma-ray backscatter gauge was used to measure an equivalent volume of coal. A plant trial of the technique was conducted at Stockton Borehole Colliery, NSW Australia, where the gauges were installed on the coking coal product conveyor. Product moistures, in the range 7-14%, were determined with r.m.s errors of 0.50 and 0.25 wt% using on-belt and static off-belt gauges, respectively. The difference in the on-belt and off-belt gauge measurement accuracy was attributed to sampling errors in the calibration of the on-belt gauge. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2015-05-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEST METHODS OF THE CONVEYOR BELTS USED IN ENVIRONMENTS ENDANGERED BY EXPLOSION HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Adrian PĂUN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conveyor belts are used for a long period of time in the industry branches where potentially explosive atmospheres could occur. Dangerous phenomena which can be in direct connection with the use of conveyor belts are the ones regarding: - sparks influence over the coating layer and/or resistance internal structure of the stopped conveyor belt; - propagation of a flame along the length of a conveyor belt that was exposed to a energy source relative high like a fire or due to blockage of a conveyor belt as a result of the driving mechanism still operating, that generate a local heating of the conveyor belt in contact with the driving drum, rollers or any other heating source generated by friction. Determining the safety parameters characteristic of the conveyor belts by employing test methods allows assessment of the safety level as well as certification of their explosion protection quality when used in environments with explosion danger.

  2. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  3. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect. PMID:26190905

  4. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  5. Critical phenomenon of granular flow on a conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Song, Bao; Xun-Sheng, Zhang; Guang-Lei, Xu; Zheng-Quan, Pan; Xiao-Wei, Tang; Kun-Quan, Lu

    2003-06-01

    The relationship between the granular wafer movement on a two-dimensional conveyor belt and the size of the exit together with the velocity of the conveyor belt has been studied in the experiment. The result shows that there is a critical speed v(c) for the granular flow when the exit width d is fixed (where d=R/D, D being the diameter of a granular wafers). When vv(c), the flow rate Q is described as Q=Crho(v)(beta)(d-k)(3/2). These are the effects of the interaction among the granular wafers and the change of the states of the granular flow due to the changing of the speed or the exit width d.

  6. Design of temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; He, Rongjun

    2018-03-01

    For difficult wiring and big measuring error existed in the traditional temperature detection method for drum of belt conveyor, a temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor based on Radio Frequency(RF) communication is designed. In the device, detection terminal can collect temperature data through tire pressure sensor chip SP370 which integrates temperature detection and RF emission. The receiving terminal which is composed of RF receiver chip and microcontroller receives the temperature data and sends it to Controller Area Network(CAN) bus. The test results show that the device meets requirements of field application with measuring error ±3.73 ° and single button battery can provide continuous current for the detection terminal over 1.5 years.

  7. Health impact assessment of the Atlanta BeltLine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine L; Leone de Nie, Karen; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Beck, Laurie F; Marcus, Michelle J; Barringer, Jason

    2012-03-01

    Although a health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool that can provide decision makers with recommendations to promote positive health impacts and mitigate adverse health impacts of proposed projects and policies, it is not routinely conducted on most major projects or policies. To make health a decision criterion for the Atlanta BeltLine, a multibillion-dollar transit, trails, parks, and redevelopment project. An HIA was conducted in 2005-2007 to anticipate and influence the BeltLine's effect on health determinants. Changes in access and equity, environmental quality, safety, social capital, and physical activity were forecast, and steps to maximize health benefits and reduce negative effects were recommended. Key recommendations included giving priority to the construction of trails and greenspace rather than residential and retail construction, making health an explicit goal in project priority setting, adding a public health professional to decision-making boards, increasing the connectivity between the BeltLine and civic spaces, and ensuring that affordable housing is built. BeltLine project decision makers have incorporated most of the HIA recommendations into the planning process. The HIA was cited in the awarding of additional funds of $7,000,000 for brownfield clean-up and greenspace development. The project is expected to promote the health of local residents more than in the absence of the HIA. This report is one of the first HIAs to tie specific assessment findings to specific recommendations and to identifiable impacts from those recommendations. The lessons learned from this project may help others engaged in similar efforts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Nonlinear Whistler Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Wave particle interactions between electrons and whistler waves are a dominant mechanism for controlling the dynamics of energetic electrons in the radiation belts. They are responsible for loss, via pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the loss cone, and energization to millions of electron volts. It has previously been theorized that large amplitude waves on the whistler branch may scatter their wave-vector nonlinearly via nonlinear Landau damping leading to important consequences for the global distribution of whistler wave energy density and hence the energetic electrons. It can dramatically reduce the lifetime of energetic electrons in the radiation belts by increasing the pitch angle scattering rate. The fundamental building block of this theory has now been confirmed through laboratory experiments. Here we report on in situ observations of wave electro-magnetic fields from the EMFISIS instrument on board NASA's Van Allen Probes that show the signatures of nonlinear scattering of whistler waves in the inner radiation belts. In the outer radiation belts, whistler mode chorus is believed to be responsible for the energization of electrons from 10s of Kev to MeV energies. Chorus is characterized by bursty large amplitude whistler mode waves with frequencies that change as a function of time on timescales corresponding to their growth. Theories explaining the chirping have been developed for decades based on electron trapping dynamics in a coherent wave. New high time resolution wave data from the Van Allen probes and advanced spectral techniques are revealing that the wave dynamics is highly structured, with sub-elements consisting of multiple chirping waves with discrete frequency hops between sub-elements. Laboratory experiments with energetic electron beams are currently reproducing the complex frequency vs time dynamics of whistler waves and in addition revealing signatures of wave-wave and beat-wave nonlinear wave-particle interactions. These new data

  9. Migmatitic rocks southwest of the Barberton greenstone belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.; Anhaeusser, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic survey was done on the migmatitic rocks southwest of the Barberton greenstone belt. A table is given on the chemical analyses of components from migmatic outcrops in this area, as well as on the chemical analyses of some selected rock types found in greenstone xenoliths, together with leuco-biotite tomalite/tronomjemite gneisses in the area surrounding the Boesmanskop syenite pluton. Isotope dating was also used in the survey

  10. Anomalous heat flow belt along the continental margin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Vieira, Fabio P.; Silva, Raquel T. A.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of thermal gradient and heat flow data was carried out for sedimentary basins situated in the continental margin of Brazil (CMB). The results point to the existence of a narrow belt within CMB, where temperature gradients are higher than 30 °C/km and the heat flow is in excess of 70 mW/m2. This anomalous geothermal belt is confined between zones of relatively low to normal heat flow in the adjacent continental and oceanic regions. The width of the belt is somewhat variable, but most of it falls within the range of 100-300 km. The spatial extent is relatively large in the southern (in the basins of Pelotas, Santos and Campos) and northern (in the basins of Potiguar and Ceará) parts, when compared with those in the central parts (in the basins of South Bahia, Sergipe and Alagoas). The characteristics of heat flow anomalies appear to be compatible with those produced by thermal sources at depths in the lower crust. Hence, magma emplacement at the transition zone between lower crust and upper mantle is considered the likely mechanism producing such anomalies. Seismicity within the belt is relatively weak, with focal depths less than 10 km for most of the events. Such observations imply that "tectonic bonding" between continental and oceanic segments, at the transition zone of CMB, is relatively weak. Hence, it is proposed that passive margins like CMB be considered as constituting a type of plate boundary that is aseismic at sub-crustal levels, but allows for escape of significant amounts of earth's internal heat at shallow depths.

  11. Accelerated Comparative Fatigue Strength Testing of Belt Adhesive Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajda, Miroslaw; Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    Belt joints are the weakest link in the serial structure that creates an endless loop of spliced belt segments. This affects not only the lower strength of adhesive joints of textile belts in comparison to vulcanized splices, but also the replacement of traditional glues to more ecological but with other strength parameters. This is reflected in the lowered durability of adhesive joints, which in underground coal mines is nearly twice shorter than the operating time of belts. Vulcanized splices require high precision in performance, they need long time to achieve cross-linking of the friction mixture and, above all, they require specialized equipment (vulcanization press) which is not readily available and often takes much time to be delivered down, which means reduced mining output or even downtime. All this reduces the reliability and durability of adhesive joints. In addition, due to the consolidation on the Polish coal market, mines are joined into large economic units serviced by a smaller number of processing plants. The consequence is to extend the transport routes downstream and increase reliability requirements. The greater number of conveyors in the chain reduces reliability of supply and increases production losses. With high fixed costs of underground mines, the reduction in mining output is reflected in the increase in unit costs, and this at low coal prices on the market can mean substantial losses for mines. The paper describes the comparative study of fatigue strength of shortened samples of adhesive joints conducted to compare many different variants of joints (various adhesives and materials). Shortened samples were exposed to accelerated fatigue in the usually long-lasting dynamic studies, allowing more variants to be tested at the same time. High correlation between the results obtained for shortened (100 mm) and traditional full-length (3×250 mm) samples renders accelerated tests possible.

  12. A social media program to increase adolescent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stacy A; Zhang, Ni; Applewhite, Courtney; Fowler, Katherine; Holcomb, John B

    2017-09-01

    In response to motor vehicle crashes remaining the leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States, a nursing clinical group (n = 10) in conjunction with a local hospital injury prevention program created an educational campaign to bolster seat belt use. The nursing students created an Instagram account to serve as an educational tool to promote seat belt use among teenagers aged 14-19, and the program was presented at three high school health fairs. In all, 135 postings were made to the account over a 3-month period. The number of likes posted by high school students was the unit of analysis. The most significant result (p = .01) was the difference between postings most liked (celebrities wearing seat belts) and least liked (postings made at the high school health fair), otherwise, differences among postings liked (humor postings, response requests, pictures of celebrities, factual data) were not significant. Instagram user engagement, measured in number of likes, is indicative that social media provides platforms to promote injury prevention efforts. Further research is needed to identify measurable elements of social media and to follow-up on behavioral changes following participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The size of the auroral belt during magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yokoyama

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the auroral boundary index derived from DMSP electron precipitation data and the Dst index, changes in the size of the auroral belt during magnetic storms are studied. It is found that the equatorward boundary of the belt at midnight expands equatorward, reaching its lowest latitude about one hour before Dst peaks. This time lag depends very little on storm intensity. It is also shown that during magnetic storms, the energy of the ring current quantified with Dst increases in proportion to Le–3, where Le is the L-value corresponding to the equatorward boundary of the auroral belt designated by the auroral boundary index. This means that the ring current energy is proportional to the ion energy obtained from the earthward shift of the plasma sheet under the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. The ring current energy is also proportional to Emag, the total magnetic field energy contained in the spherical shell bounded by Le and Leq, where Leq corresponds to the quiet-time location of the auroral precipitation boundary. The ratio of the ring current energy ER to the dipole energy Emag is typically 10%. The ring current leads to magnetosphere inflation as a result of an increase in the equivalent dipole moment.Key words. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena; storms and substorms

  14. Nonlinear Scattering of VLF Waves in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris; Rudakov, Leonid; Ganguli, Guru; Mithaiwala, Manish

    2014-10-01

    Electromagnetic VLF waves, such as whistler mode waves, control the lifetime of trapped electrons in the radiation belts by pitch-angle scattering. Since the pitch-angle scattering rate is a strong function of the wave properties, a solid understanding of VLF wave sources and propagation in the magnetosphere is critical to accurately calculate electron lifetimes. Nonlinear scattering (Nonlinear Landau Damping) is a mechanism that can strongly alter VLF wave propagation [Ganguli et al. 2010], primarily by altering the direction of propagation, and has not been accounted for in previous models of radiation belt dynamics. Laboratory results have confirmed the dramatic change in propagation direction when the pump wave has sufficient amplitude to exceed the nonlinear threshold [Tejero et al. 2014]. Recent results show that the threshold for nonlinear scattering can often be met by naturally occurring VLF waves in the magnetosphere, with wave magnetic fields of the order of 50-100 pT inside the plasmapause. Nonlinear scattering can then dramatically alter the macroscopic dynamics of waves in the radiation belts leading to the formation of a long-lasting wave-cavity [Crabtree et al. 2012] and, when amplification is present, a multi-pass amplifier [Ganguli et al. 2012]. By considering these effects, the lifetimes of electrons can be dramatically reduced. This work is supported by the Naval Research Laboratory base program.

  15. Modeling of the outer electron belt during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desorgher, L.; Buehler, P.; Zehnder, A.; Daly, E.; Adams, L.

    1999-01-01

    The flux dropout of relativistic electrons in the earth's outer radiation belt, during the main phase of the 26 March 1995 magnetic storm is examined. Outer belt measurements by the Radiation Environment Monitor, REM aboard the STRV-1b satellite are presented to characterize this dropout. In order to simulate the dynamics of the electron belt during the storm main phase a particle tracing code was developed which allows to trace the trajectories of equatorially mirroring electrons in a dynamic magnetospheric electromagnetic field. Two simulations were performed in a non-stationary magnetic field, one taking only the induced electric field into account (fully adiabatic motion), and one with an additional non-stationary convection electric field. The simulations show, that adiabatic deceleration can produce the observed count rate decrease and also the observed inward motion of the count rate peak. The convection electric field causes diffusion, which can take particles from low L values out to the magnetopause and contribute to an additional loss of particles, which is suggested by the observations

  16. Statistical studies of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, A.D.; Rodgers, D.J.; Jones, G.H. E-mail: g.h.jones@ic.ac.uk

    1999-10-01

    The medium electron A (MEA) instrument aboard the CRRES spacecraft provided data on terrestrial radiation belt electrons in the energy range from 153 to 1582 keV, during 1990-91. These data have previously been used to produce an empirical model of the radiation belts from L=1.1 to 8.9, ordered according to 17 energy bands, 18 pitch angle bins, and 5 Kp ranges. Empirical models such as this are very valuable, but are prone to statistical fluctuations and gaps in coverage. In this study, in order to smooth the data and make it more easy to interpolate within data gaps, the pitch angle distribution at each energy in the model was fitted with a Bessel function. This provided a way to characterize the pitch angle in terms of only two parameters for each energy. It was not possible to model fluxes reliably within the loss cone because of poor statistics. The fitted distributions give an indication of the way in which pitch angle diffusion varies in the outer radiation belts. The two parameters of the Bessel function were found to vary systematically with L value, energy and Kp. Through the fitting of a simple function to these systematic variations, the number of parameters required to describe the model could be reduced drastically.

  17. Reconstructing the size distribution of the primordial Main Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirvoulis, G.; Morbidelli, A.; Delbo, M.; Tsiganis, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we aim to constrain the slope of the size distribution of main-belt asteroids, at their primordial state. To do so we turn out attention to the part of the main asteroid belt between 2.82 and 2.96 AU, the so-called "pristine zone", which has a low number density of asteroids and few, well separated asteroid families. Exploiting these unique characteristics, and using a modified version of the hierarchical clustering method we are able to remove the majority of asteroid family members from the region. The remaining, background asteroids should be of primordial origin, as the strong 5/2 and 7/3 mean-motion resonances with Jupiter inhibit transfer of asteroids to and from the neighboring regions. The size-frequency distribution of asteroids in the size range 17 size distribution slope q = - 1.43 . In addition, applying the same 'family extraction' method to the neighboring regions, i.e. the middle and outer belts, and comparing the size distributions of the respective background populations, we find statistical evidence that no large asteroid families of primordial origin had formed in the middle or pristine zones.

  18. A Computerized Tomography Study of Vocal Tract Setting in Hyperfunctional Dysphonia and in Belting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldias, Marcelo; Guzman, Marco; Miranda, Gonzalo; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2018-04-03

    Vocal tract setting in hyperfunctional patients is characterized by a high larynx and narrowing of the epilaryngeal and pharyngeal region. Similar observations have been made for various singing styles, eg, belting. The voice quality in belting has been described to be loud, speech like, and high pitched. It is also often described as sounding "pressed" or "tense". The above mentioned has led to the hypothesis that belting may be strenuous to the vocal folds. However, singers and teachers of belting do not regard belting as particularly strenuous. This study investigates possible similarities and differences between hyperfunctional voice production and belting. This study concerns vocal tract setting. Four male patients with hyperfunctional dysphonia and one male contemporary commercial music singer were registered with computerized tomography while phonating on [a:] in their habitual speaking pitch. Additionally, the singer used the pitch G4 in belting. The scannings were studied in sagittal and transversal dimensions by measuring lengths, widths, and areas. Various similarities were found between belting and hyperfunction: high vertical larynx position, small hypopharyngeal width, and epilaryngeal outlet. On the other hand, belting differed from dysphonia (in addition to higher pitch) by a wider lip and jaw opening, and larger volumes of the oral cavity. Belting takes advantage of "megaphone shape" of the vocal tract. Future studies should focus on modeling and simulation to address sound energy transfer. Also, they should consider aerodynamic variables and vocal fold vibration to evaluate the "price of decibels" in these phonation types. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Creating and destroying mountain belts in a sandbox (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M.

    2009-12-01

    M. Hernandez-1, L. Cruz-1, G. Hilley-1, J. Malinski-1, W.A. Take-2 1-Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 2-Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada This study uses a new experimental approach to model the kinematic response of the Aconcagua fold-and-thrust belt to erosion using a deforming sand wedge that is eroded according to a fluvial bedrock incision rule. Our objective is to thoroughly examine the impact that erosion may have had on the kinematics of this fold-and-thrust belt and test the applicability of our approach. Our experimental apparatus allows for a variety of boundary conditions to be applied to the wedge, including constant displacement rate, time-varying displacement rate, constant loading, and time-varying loading. This setting also includes three digital cameras that are connected to the apparatus to monitor the top and one side of the experimental sandbox. In this new experimental approach, as we deform the sand wedge, or mountain belt, we select specific time intervals to calculate, using a Matlab code, the topographic slope derived from our erosion rule. We then use a linear laser to project the calculated topographic slope into the sand wedge and remove any excess of sand with a vacuum cleaner. We then let the wedge continue to deform and repeat the above process. After the end of each experiment, we use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques to analyze the movement of the sand particles throughout the experiment. The use of PIV requires the images from all three cameras to be corrected due to lens distortion. We use available software, such as Photoshop, to correct and crop the images. The results of our constant-displacement rate experiments indicate, based on geometric comparisons against natural topographic measurements, that our erosional rule could be satisfactorily applied to sandbox simulations. Each of the main deformational stages identified in the

  20. Development of high torque belt CVT with torque converter; Torque converter tsuki daiyoryogata belt CVT no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, M; Fujikawa, T; Yoshida, K; Kobayahi, M [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nissan has successfully developed a new belt CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) with torque converter and has installed it 2L-class vehicle for the first time in the world. This paper describes about the technology of high torque transmission, the need of torque converter, the importance of electronic control and the introduce of driving mode. As the result the CVT has improved driving performance and fuel economy for current CVT and 4 speed automatic transmission. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. An evaluation of a weightlifting belt and back injury prevention training class for airline baggage handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, C R; Congleton, J J; Dale Huchingson, R; Montgomery, J F

    1992-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a commercially available weightlifting belt in relation to reduction of lumbar injury incident rate and severity of injuries over an 8-month period. The study used 642 baggage handlers working for a major airline company as participants. Four treatment groups were randomly selected: a group receiving the belt only, a group receiving a 1 h training class only, a group receiving both a belt and a 1 h training class, and a control group receiving nothing. Two treatment groups were added which contained participants who discontinued use of the belt prior to the end of an 8-month study period. Results indicated that there were no significant differences for total lumbar injury incident rate, restricted workday case injury incident rate, lost workdays and restricted workdays rate, and worker's compensation rates. There was, however, a marginal significant difference for lost workday case injury incident rate. Groups with participants who wore the belt for a while then discontinued its use had a higher lost day case injury incident rate than did either the group receiving training only or the control group. Compliance was an overriding factor as the belt questionnaire response indicated that 58% of participants in the belt groups discontinued use of the belt before the end of 8 months. Comments made on the survey forms indicated that the belt was too hot. Similarly, comments suggested that the belt rubbed, pinched, and bruised ribs. Based on these results, the weightlifting belt used for this study cannot be recommended for use in aid of lifting during daily work activities of baggage handlers. Results indicate that use of the belts may, in fact, increase the risk of injury when not wearing a belt following a period of wearing a belt. As industries are experimenting with the use of belts, it is recommended that great care be taken in any further evaluation and close attention directed towards injuries which occur when not wearing the

  2. Study on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for the Safety of Mine Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the situation of the frequent failures of mine belt conveyor during operation, a model was used to evaluate the safety of mine belt conveyor. Based on the foundation of collecting and analyzing a large quantity of fault information of belt conveyor in the nationwide coal mine, the fault tree model of belt conveyor has been built, then the safety evaluation index system was established by analyzing and removing some secondary indicators. Furthermore, the weighted value of safety evaluation indexs was determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP, and the single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix was constructed by experts grading method. Additionally, the model was applied in evaluating the security of belt conveyor in Nanliang coal mine. The results shows the security level is recognized to the “general”, which means that this model can be adopted widely in evaluating the safety of mine belt conveyor.

  3. Number of conveyor belts optimization regarding to its type and logistical parameters in mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Malindžák

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Material transportation by belt conveyers is widely used in many industrial branches including mining plants. Belt conveyingdevelopment during the last year was oriented mainly on construction of belts. The consequence of this is the improvement of itsmanufacture qualities bringing down the costs for their exchange and maintenance.Despite the fact that there are some theoreticalcalculations based on a standards it is common in the industry that the belt is not properly selected or it is overdesigned or number of itstypes is too large what can lead to increased costs for its storage. The paper describes the optimization of number of belt types in miningcompany SIDERIT, s. r. o. Nižná Slaná by the method of modernization and unification of belts under practical skills and projectingbased on theoretical calculations.

  4. Start-up of belt conveyors used for haulage of large lumps under difficult climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobny, J

    1979-01-01

    Investigations are discussed carried out by the Research and Development Center for Brown Coal in Most, Czechoslovakia into effects of climate, weather and mass of coal lumps on reliability of belt conveyors in surface mines. Dirt buildup on the driving drums reduces friction and increases belt sliding hazards. Belt wear increases. Driving drum diameter, increased by the buildup, negatively influences load distribution among the electric motors of the drive system. In extreme cases belt wear and irregular load distribution cause belt failures. Methods for buildup removal used in Czechoslovakia and methods for protection of the return side of a conveyor are described. Effects of large mass of coal lumps and ice buildup on large lumps on the risk of belt damage (cuts, punctures etc,) are discussed. Recommendations for design of coal transfer points are made. 2 refs.

  5. [Use of seat belts and mobile phone while driving in Florence: trend from 2005 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elettra; Mannocci, Federico; Allodi, Guendalina; Indiani, Laura; Mersi, Anna; Petrioli, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Grazia; Garofalo, Giorgio; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the trend over time of the use of seat belts by drivers and passengers of cars and vans and the use of hand held mobile phone while driving in Florence from 2005 to 2009. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: direct observations (58,773 vehicles) have been conducted to detect the use of seat belts by occupants of cars and vans, and the use of mobile phone while driving. It has been carried out correlation analysis between the use of the seat belt by occupants of vehicles and between the simultaneous use of this device and mobile phone while driving.Moreover, it has been carried out time series analysis (ARIMA Box Jenkins) of in the prevalence of the use of seat belts by occupants of vehicles observed, of mobile phone by drivers and the trend of the risk to drive using the mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to drive using the mobile phone with fastened seat belt. seat belts were used on average by 75.7% of drivers, 75.5% of front passengers and 25.1% of rear passengers. The average mobile phone use while driving was 4.5%. Drivers most frequently fasten seat belt if front passengers use it and while they do not use mobile phone. The use of seat belts by drivers and front passengers has not changed over time, whereas the use of mobile phone while driving has significantly increased. The prevalence of using mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to use it with fastened seat belt while driving has significantly decreased over the years, indicating an increase in the use of mobile phone, especially among those who fasten the seat belt. it is necessary to plan and realize stronger interventions in the whole area.

  6. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

    OpenAIRE

    Hegyi Thomas; Hiatt Mark; Ciaccio Edward J; Drzewiecki Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to op...

  7. Effects of a Belt on Intra-Abdominal Pressure during Weight Lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    potentially injurious b compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on lAP and lifting mechanics... injurious compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on IAP and lifting ! mechanics... weightlifting (7,9). Both olympic and power lifters have used lifting belts for many years, yet virtually no research has been reported which examines

  8. Race, belief in destiny, and seat belt usage: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, I

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 1063 individuals found that when belief in destiny was statistically controlled, differences in seat belt use by race disappeared. Thus, racial differences in seat belt use are statistically accounted for and might be explained by belief in destiny. Efforts to increase seat belt use should target minority groups rather than include them in broadbrush programs. Further, these efforts should take into account this important difference in motivation. PMID:1585969

  9. A multi points ultrasonic detection method for material flow of belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; He, Rongjun

    2018-03-01

    For big detection error of single point ultrasonic ranging technology used in material flow detection of belt conveyor when coal distributes unevenly or is large, a material flow detection method of belt conveyor is designed based on multi points ultrasonic counter ranging technology. The method can calculate approximate sectional area of material by locating multi points on surfaces of material and belt, in order to get material flow according to running speed of belt conveyor. The test results show that the method has smaller detection error than single point ultrasonic ranging technology under the condition of big coal with uneven distribution.

  10. Study on the application of permanent magnet synchronous motors in underground belt conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper analyzes and compares the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of drive devices of belt conveyors from the angle of energy saving, and summarizes the application advantages and using problems of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system in belt conveyors. An example is given to demonstrate the energy saving effect of this system compared with other driving methods. This paper points out the application prospect of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system on belt conveyors and other large mining machines in coal mine. This paper is aimed to provide the design direction for the designer and the choice basis for the user on belt conveyor.

  11. The Sino-American belt study: nickel and cobalt exposure, epidemiology, and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten; Li, Lin-Feng; Xiang, Hailian; Hamann, Kylin; Maibach, Howard; Taylor, James S; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt are common causes of metal allergy. The objective of this study was to investigate nickel and cobalt exposure in belt buckles by testing 701 belts purchased in China and the United States and to consider the prevalence of nickel allergy and its relevance among Chinese patients. Seven hundred one belt buckles purchased in China and the United States were tested for nickel and cobalt release. Six hundred thirty-one Chinese patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested and interviewed to determine clinical relevance of results. The Chinese and American literature was reviewed to investigate trends in nickel prevalence over the past decades. Sixty percent (n = 219) of belts purchased in China (n = 365) released nickel, and 0.5% (n = 2) released cobalt; 55.7% (n = 187) in the United States (n = 336) released nickel, and 0.9% (n = 3) released cobalt. Belt dermatitis was a significant clinical finding in 34.8% of Chinese nickel-allergic patients. Literature review suggests increasing nickel allergy prevalence in the United States and China. Metallic belt buckles are an important source of nickel exposure to consumers. Belts from lowest socioeconomic vendors were more likely to release nickel. Belts with silver color and dark metallic color were more likely to release nickel and cobalt, respectively. Clinical findings show belt dermatitis in China to be a problem.

  12. The behavioral impact of an advertising campaign to promote safety belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, J G; Moy, S S; Grossnickle, W F

    1988-01-01

    Safety belt use was observed at one restaurant during McDonald's "Make It Click" promotional campaign. Following baseline, the program was monitored without intervention. During the final 2 weeks of the campaign an incentive strategy was added providing a large soft drink contingent on safety belt use. Safety belt use did not change from baseline levels before the incentive phase. The rate of belt use increased under contingent reward and declined during follow-up. The effects of a verbal prompt could not be assessed because of the almost nonexistent use of the "Make It Click" stickers throughout the study.

  13. The evolution of Saturn's radiation belts modulated by changes in radial diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.

    2017-12-01

    Globally magnetized planets, such as the Earth1 and Saturn2, are surrounded by radiation belts of protons and electrons with kinetic energies well into the million electronvolt range. The Earth's proton belt is supplied locally from galactic cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere3, as well as from slow inward radial transport4. Its intensity shows a relationship with the solar cycle4,5 and abrupt dropouts due to geomagnetic storms6,7. Saturn's proton belts are simpler than the Earth's because cosmic rays are the principal source of energetic protons8 with virtually no contribution from inward transport, and these belts can therefore act as a prototype to understand more complex radiation belts. However, the time dependence of Saturn's proton belts had not been observed over sufficiently long timescales to test the driving mechanisms unambiguously. Here we analyse the evolution of Saturn's proton belts over a solar cycle using in-situ measurements from the Cassini Saturn orbiter and a numerical model. We find that the intensity in Saturn's proton radiation belts usually rises over time, interrupted by periods that last over a year for which the intensity is gradually dropping. These observations are inconsistent with predictions based on a modulation in the cosmic-ray source, as could be expected4,9 based on the evolution of the Earth's proton belts. We demonstrate that Saturn's intensity dropouts result instead from losses due to abrupt changes in magnetospheric radial diffusion.

  14. TRIGGERING SUBLIMATION-DRIVEN ACTIVITY OF MAIN BELT COMETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96825 (United States); Maindl, T. I.; Dvorak, R. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Schäfer, C. [Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Speith, R., E-mail: nader@ifa.hawaii.edu [Physikalisches Institut, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2016-10-10

    It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of main belt comets (MBCs) is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by meter-sized bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between meter-sized and kilometer-sized objects using a smooth particle hydrodynamics approach. Simulations have been carried out for different values of the impact velocity and impact angle, as well as different target material and water-mass fractions. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m, suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Results also show that ice exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters, as well as on the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions are re-accreted. While our results demonstrate that the impact scenario is indeed a viable mechanism to expose ice and trigger the activity of MBCs, they also indicate that the activity of the current MBCs is likely due to ice sublimation from multiple impact sites and/or the water contents of these objects (and other asteroids in the outer asteroid belt) is larger than the 5% that is traditionally considered in models of terrestrial planet formation, providing more ice for sublimation. We present the details of our simulations and discuss their results and implications.

  15. Fabrication and Operation of a Nano-Optical Conveyor Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jason; Zheng, Yuxin; Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2015-08-26

    The technique of using focused laser beams to trap and exert forces on small particles has enabled many pivotal discoveries in the nanoscale biological and physical sciences over the past few decades. The progress made in this field invites further study of even smaller systems and at a larger scale, with tools that could be distributed more easily and made more widely available. Unfortunately, the fundamental laws of diffraction limit the minimum size of the focal spot of a laser beam, which makes particles smaller than a half-wavelength in diameter hard to trap and generally prevents an operator from discriminating between particles which are closer together than one half-wavelength. This precludes the optical manipulation of many closely-spaced nanoparticles and limits the resolution of optical-mechanical systems. Furthermore, manipulation using focused beams requires beam-forming or steering optics, which can be very bulky and expensive. To address these limitations in the system scalability of conventional optical trapping our lab has devised an alternative technique which utilizes near-field optics to move particles across a chip. Instead of focusing laser beams in the far-field, the optical near field of plasmonic resonators produces the necessary local optical intensity enhancement to overcome the restrictions of diffraction and manipulate particles at higher resolution. Closely-spaced resonators produce strong optical traps which can be addressed to mediate the hand-off of particles from one to the next in a conveyor-belt-like fashion. Here, we describe how to design and produce a conveyor belt using a gold surface patterned with plasmonic C-shaped resonators and how to operate it with polarized laser light to achieve super-resolution nanoparticle manipulation and transport. The nano-optical conveyor belt chip can be produced using lithography techniques and easily packaged and distributed.

  16. UNBIASED INCLINATION DISTRIBUTIONS FOR OBJECTS IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES), we investigate the inclination distributions of objects in the Kuiper Belt. We present a derivation for observational bias removal and use this procedure to generate unbiased inclination distributions for Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) of different DES dynamical classes, with respect to the Kuiper Belt plane. Consistent with previous results, we find that the inclination distribution for all DES KBOs is well fit by the sum of two Gaussians, or a Gaussian plus a generalized Lorentzian, multiplied by sin i. Approximately 80% of KBOs are in the high-inclination grouping. We find that Classical object inclinations are well fit by sin i multiplied by the sum of two Gaussians, with roughly even distribution between Gaussians of widths 2.0 +0.6 -0.5 0 and 8.1 +2.6 -2.1 0 . Objects in different resonances exhibit different inclination distributions. The inclinations of Scattered objects are best matched by sin i multiplied by a single Gaussian that is centered at 19.1 +3.9 -3.6 0 with a width of 6.9 +4.1 -2.7 0 . Centaur inclinations peak just below 20 0 , with one exceptionally high-inclination object near 80 0 . The currently observed inclination distribution of the Centaurs is not dissimilar to that of the Scattered Extended KBOs and Jupiter-family comets, but is significantly different from the Classical and Resonant KBOs. While the sample sizes of some dynamical classes are still small, these results should begin to serve as a critical diagnostic for models of solar system evolution.

  17. BAOBAB (Big And Outrageously Bold Asteroid Belt) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Thomas, C. A; Englander, J. A.; Ruesch, O.; Hosseini, S.; Goossens, S. J.; Mazarico, E. M.; Schmerr, N.

    2017-01-01

    One of the intriguing results of NASA's Dawn mission is the composition and structure of the Main Asteroid Belt's only known dwarf planet, Ceres [1]. It has a top layer of dehydrated clays and salts [2] and an icy-rocky mantle [3,4]. It is widely known that the asteroid belt failed to accrete as a planet by resonances between the Sun and Jupiter. About 20-30 asteroids >100 km diameter are probably differentiated protoplanets [5]. 1) how many more and which ones are fragments of protoplanets? 2) How many and which ones are primordial rubble piles left over from condensation of the solar nebula? 3) How would we go about gaining better and more complete characterization of the mass, interior structure and composition of the Main Belt asteroid population? 4) What is the relationship between asteroids and ocean worlds? Bulk parameters such as the mass, density, and porosity, are important to characterize the structure of any celestial body, and for asteroids in particular, they can shed light on the conditions in the early solar system. Asteroid density estimates exist but currently they are often based on assumed properties of taxonomic classes, or through astronomical survey data where interactions with asteroids are weak at best resulting in large measurement uncertainty. We only have direct density estimates from spacecraft encounters for a few asteroids at this time. Knowledge of the asteroids is significant not only to understand their role in solar system workings, but also to assess their potential as space resources, as impact hazards on Earth, or even as harboring life forms. And for the distant future, we want to know if the idea put forth in a contest sponsored by Physics Today, to surface the asteroids into highly reflecting, polished surfaces and use them as a massively segmented mirror for astrophysical exploration [6], is feasible.

  18. The size of the auroral belt during magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Using the auroral boundary index derived from DMSP electron precipitation data and the Dst index, changes in the size of the auroral belt during magnetic storms are studied. It is found that the equatorward boundary of the belt at midnight expands equatorward, reaching its lowest latitude about one hour before Dst peaks. This time lag depends very little on storm intensity. It is also shown that during magnetic storms, the energy of the ring current quantified with Dst increases in proportion to Le–3, where Le is the L-value corresponding to the equatorward boundary of the auroral belt designated by the auroral boundary index. This means that the ring current energy is proportional to the ion energy obtained from the earthward shift of the plasma sheet under the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. The ring current energy is also proportional to Emag, the total magnetic field energy contained in the spherical shell bounded by Le and Leq, where Leq corresponds to the quiet-time location of the auroral precipitation boundary. The ratio of the ring current energy ER to the dipole energy Emag is typically 10%. The ring current leads to magnetosphere inflation as a result of an increase in the equivalent dipole moment.

    Key words. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena; storms and substorms

  19. Colloidal Microworms Propelling via a Cooperative Hydrodynamic Conveyor Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Tierno, Pietro

    2015-09-25

    We study propulsion arising from microscopic colloidal rotors dynamically assembled and driven in a viscous fluid upon application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field. Close to a confining plate, the motion of this self-assembled microscopic worm results from the cooperative flow generated by the spinning particles which act as a hydrodynamic "conveyor belt." Chains of rotors propel faster than individual ones, until reaching a saturation speed at distances where induced-flow additivity vanishes. By combining experiments and theoretical arguments, we elucidate the mechanism of motion and fully characterize the propulsion speed in terms of the field parameters.

  20. Nano-optical conveyor belt, part I: Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Paul; Zheng, Yuxin; Ryan, Jason; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2014-06-11

    We propose a method for peristaltic transport of nanoparticles using the optical force field over a nanostructured surface. Nanostructures may be designed to produce strong near-field hot spots when illuminated. The hot spots function as optical traps, separately addressable by their resonant wavelengths and polarizations. By activating closely packed traps sequentially, nanoparticles may be handed off between adjacent traps in a peristaltic fashion. A linear repeating structure of three separately addressable traps forms a "nano-optical conveyor belt"; a unit cell with four separately addressable traps permits controlled peristaltic transport in the plane. Using specifically designed activation sequences allows particle sorting.

  1. Paleomagnetic analysis of curved thrust belts reproduced by physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elisabetta; Speranza, Fabio

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying the evolution of curved mountain belts by means of paleomagnetic analyses performed on analogue models. Eleven models were designed aimed at reproducing various tectonic settings in thin-skinned tectonics. Our models analyze in particular those features reported in the literature as possible causes for peculiar rotational patterns in the outermost as well as in the more internal fronts. In all the models the sedimentary cover was reproduced by frictional low-cohesion materials (sand and glass micro-beads), which detached either on frictional or on viscous layers. These latter were reproduced in the models by silicone. The sand forming the models has been previously mixed with magnetite-dominated powder. Before deformation, the models were magnetized by means of two permanent magnets generating within each model a quasi-linear magnetic field of intensity variable between 20 and 100 mT. After deformation, the models were cut into closely spaced vertical sections and sampled by means of 1×1-cm Plexiglas cylinders at several locations along curved fronts. Care was taken to collect paleomagnetic samples only within virtually undeformed thrust sheets, avoiding zones affected by pervasive shear. Afterwards, the natural remanent magnetization of these samples was measured, and alternating field demagnetization was used to isolate the principal components. The characteristic components of magnetization isolated were used to estimate the vertical-axis rotations occurring during model deformation. We find that indenters pushing into deforming belts from behind form non-rotational curved outer fronts. The more internal fronts show oroclinal-type rotations of a smaller magnitude than that expected for a perfect orocline. Lateral symmetrical obstacles in the foreland colliding with forward propagating belts produce non-rotational outer curved fronts as well, whereas in between and inside the obstacles a perfect orocline forms

  2. Distribution of erosion and deposition on the JET belt limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, G.M.; Goodall, D.H.J.; Behrisch, R.; Roth, J.; Coad, J.P.; Harbour, P.; Kock, L. de; Pick, M.A.; Stangeby, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of erosion and deposition of limiter material is of importance both for extrapolating to the next generation of fusion machines and for understanding impurity transport in the boundary layers of present day tokamaks. Erosion patterns have previously been reported for the JET discrete graphite limiters used up to 1986. We have now made measurements on the belt limiters used in 1987-88. These measurements show that although the pattern of net erosion is qualitatively similar to the earlier results the new maximum erosion (∼40μm) is reduced by about a factor 5, consistent with the larger limiter surface area. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs

  3. Spectroscopical studies of impurities in the belt pinch HECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singethan, J.

    1981-04-01

    In this paper UV-line-intensity measurements of impurities are presented, which have been performed in the belt-pinch HECTOR. From the line-intensities impurity concentrations and information on the radiation losses is be obtained. At temperatures below 100 eV, the energy loss due to line emission of oxygen and carbon impurities is one of the most important electron energy loss mechanisms. Thus the measurement and calculation of the radiation losses is of particular relevance. Furthermore the electron temperature time dependence can be obtained by comparing the line intensity time dependence with the solution of the respective rate equations. (orig./HT) [de

  4. Roll seat belt induced injury of the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, D; Hedelin, H

    1976-05-01

    A case of duodenal rupture with a roll three-point seatbelt is described. It is apparently the seventh reported case of duodenal rupture in safety belt users. A female driver fell asleep, and her car went off the road, rolling forward in a ditch, slowing slightly, and then came to a sudden stop. The rupture was unusual: on the first part of duodenum, intraperitoneal, and longitudinal. The rupture mechanism is discussed, and the deficiencies of the roll seatbelt pointed out in accidents like the one described.

  5. Reactor advantages of the belt pinch and liquid metal walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J.; Rappaport, H.; Zheng Linjin; Dorland, B.; Miller, R.; Turnbull, A.

    2001-01-01

    MHD stability of highly elongated tokamaks (termed a belt pinch) are considered for high bootstrap fraction cases. By employing high triangularity or indentation, and invoking wall stabilization, and β can be increased by a factor of roughly 3 by increasing κ from 2 to 4. Axisymmetric stability up to κ=4 tolerable by employing a shell which conforms more closely to the boundary than in present experiments. Engineering difficulties with a close fitting shell in a reactor environment may be overcome by employing a liquid lithium alloy shell. Rapid metal flows can lead to potentially deleterious plasma shifts and damping of the flow. (author)

  6. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2009-01-01

    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  7. Examining Relativistic Electron Loss in the Outer Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. C.; Onsager, T. G.; O'Brien, P.

    2003-12-01

    Since the discovery of earth's radiation belts researchers have sought to identify the mechanisms that dictate the seemingly erratic relativistic electron flux levels in the outer belt. Contrary to intuition, relativistic electron flux levels do not always increase during geomagnetic storms even though these storms signify enhanced energy input from the solar wind to the magnetosphere [Reeves et al., 2003; O'Brien et al., 2001]. The fickle response of the radiation belt electrons to geomagnetic activity suggests that flux levels are determined by the outcome of a continuous competition between acceleration and loss. Some progress has been made developing and testing acceleration mechanisms but little is known about how relativistic electrons are lost. We examine relativistic electron losses in the outer belt focusing our attention on flux decrease events of the type first described by Onsager et al. [2002]. The study showed a sudden decrease of geosynchronous >2MeV electron flux occurring simultaneously with local stretching of the magnetic field. The decrease was first observed near 15:00 MLT and progressed to all local times after a period of ˜10 hours. Expanding on the work of Onsager et al. [2002], we have identified ˜ 51 such flux decrease events in the GOES and LANL data and present the results of a superposed epoch analysis of solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indicators, and locally measured magnetic field and plasma data. The analysis shows that flux decreases occur after 1-2 days of quiet condition. They begin when either the solar wind dynamic pressure increases or Bz turns southward pushing hot dense plasma earthward to form a partial ring current and stretched magnetic field at dusk. Adiabatic electron motion in response to the stretched magnetic field may explain the initial flux reduction; however, often the flux does not recover with the magnetic field recovery, indicating that true loss from the magnetosphere is occurring. Using Polar and

  8. Bio-assessment of water pollution in coal belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Water pollution in coal belt has attracted attention of scientists as well as general people. Implication of water pollution on bio-system is still a more important issue and a lot of information has been accumulated. Apart from conventional methods of pollution monitoring, bio-monitoring is comparatively a new approach and a proper methodology is still in pipeline. The present study reviews various methods of bio-monitoring and compare various methodologies suggested at population level with conventional methods. The results indicated that the bio-assessment methodology can be a tool and hence be developed. (author)

  9. Horizontal-belt filtration at Randfontein Estates Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blendulf, K.A.G.; Everett, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes tests on horizontal-belt filters for the filtration of gold and uranium. The promising results led to the installation of 17 such filters (ten of them 120 m 2 in size) in the mine's metallurgical plants, and their operation is discussed. Although several problems were encountered both in operation and maintenance, it is concluded that, with correct operation and suitable filter cloths, exceptionally good metallurgical recoveries can be achieved at filtration rates twice to three times higher than those on rotary filters [af

  10. Canadian radiation belt science in the ILWS era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I. R.

    The Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration, and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) is a Canadian Space Agency small satellite mission proposed as a Canadian contribution to the satellite infrastructure for the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. Planned to operate contemporaneously with the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), the ORBITALS will monitor the energetic electron and ion populations in the inner magnetosphere across a wide range of energies (keV to tens of MeV) as well as the dynamic electric and magnetic fields, waves, and cold plasma environment which govern the injection, transport, acceleration and loss of these energetic and space weather critical particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. Currently in Phase A Design Study, the ORBITALS will be launched into a low-inclination GTO-like orbit which every second orbit maximizes the long lasting apogee-pass conjunctions with both the ground-based instruments of the Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) array as well as with the GOES East and West and geosynchronous communications satellites in the North American sector. In a twelve-hour orbit, every second apogee will conjunct with instrumentation 180 degree in longitude away in the Asian sector. Specifically, the ORBITALS will make the measurements necessary to reach reveal fundamental new understanding of the relative importance of different physical processes (for example VLF verses ULF waves) which shape the energetic particle populations in the inner magnetosphere, as well as providing the raw radiation measurements at MEO altitudes necessary for the development of the next-generation of radiation belt specification models. On-board experiments will also monitor the dose, single event upset, and deep-dielectric charging responses of electronic components on-orbit. Supporting ground-based measurements of ULF and higher frequency wave fields from the Canadian CARISMA (www.carisma.ca) magnetometer array, as well as from

  11. A comparison of muscle activation between back squats and belt squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas W; McLester, Cherilyn N; Howard, Jonathan H; McLester, John R; Calloway, Jimmy P

    2017-06-08

    A machine belt squat is a piece of equipment designed to allow the performance of squats while loading weight on the lifter's hips using a belt. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if belt squats differ from back squats in activation of the primary movers, and to determine the predictive capabilities of back squat load, training status, and anthropometric data on belt squat load. Thirty-one participants (16 males and 15 females) completed anthropometric measurements, a demographic questionnaire, a familiarization visit, and two testing visits, completing a 5 repetition maximum test for back squat and belt squat. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation for the left and right vastus medialis (VMO), vastus lateralis (VLO), rectus femoris (RF), and gluteus maximus (GM). Comparison of muscle activation between the two exercises showed significant differences in the left GM (back squat: 0.84 ± 0.45, belt squat: 0.69 ± 0.22, p=0.015) and right GM (back squat: 0.86 ± 0.45, belt squat: 0.71 ± 0.29, p=0.004). Regression analysis computed significant prediction equations for belt squat load for general population, males, females, and advanced lifters. Overall, results indicate that belt squats may significantly differ in GM activation from back squats. Back squat load, as well as other variables, may be effective in accurately estimating appropriate belt squat load. These findings may help to more appropriately program for training with machine belt squats as a back squat alternative.

  12. Geochronology of the Jequie-Itabuna granulitic belt and of the Contendas-Mirante volcano-sedimentary belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, Moacyr M.; Barbosa, Johildo S.F.; Sabate, Pierre

    1995-01-01

    The Jequie-Itabuna Granulitic Belt is divided here into the Jequie-Mutuipe-Maracas Domain and the Atlantic Coast Domain. The paper analyzes the geochronological data from the Jequie-Mutuipe-Maracas Domain in two parts: plutonic rocks equilibrated in granulite facies, including the charno-enderbitic rocks from the Laje-Mutuipe region and the charnockitic rocks from the Maracas region; and ortho- and paraderived rocks metamorphosed in granulite facies, with the data obtained from rocks collected at the Jequie quarry and from homogeneous rocks collected at the western outskirts of the Jequirica town. The available geochronological data for the Atlantic Coast Domain is discussed, and due to the lack of petrologic control of the analyzed rocks, the geological significance of the ages between 2.0 and 2.3 is obtained in several line regressions. The paper identifies the following domains within the Contendas-Mirante volcano-sedimentary belt: the the basement dones, the volcano-sedimentary sequence and the intrusive rocks. The basement domes is the domain of the ancient gray gneisses (ca 3.4 Ga), to TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) terrains and among the different massifs that crop out in the SE sector of the volcano-sedimentary belt, those of Sete Voltas and Boa Vista/Mata Verde have geochronological data available. The volcano-sedimentary sequence is divided into a lower, a middle and an upper unit and its available isotopic data are analyzed. The item referent to the intrusive rocks deals with the following plutons: The Lagoa Morro da Velha granitoid, the Pe da Serra granite, the Rio Jacare sill and the Transamazonian granites. 31 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Geochemical evidence for Paleozoic crustal growth and tectonic conversion in the Northern Beishan Orogenic Belt, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Zong, Keqing; He, Zhenyu; Klemd, Reiner; Jiang, Hongying; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yongsheng; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Zeming

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan Orogenic Belt is located in the central southernmost part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of the CAOB. Granitoids are the documents of crustal and tectonic evolution in orogenic belts. However, little is known regarding the petrogenesis and geodynamic setting of the widely distributed Paleozoic granitoids in the Northern Beishan Orogenic Belt (NBOB). The present study reveals significant differences concerning the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of early and late Paleozoic granitoids from the NBOB. The early Paleozoic granitoids from the 446-430 Ma Hongliuxia granite complex of the Mazongshan unit and the 466-428 Ma Shibanjing complex of the Hanshan unit show classic I-type granite affinities as revealed by the relative enrichment of LILEs and LREEs, pronounced depletions of Nb, Ta and Ti and the abundant presence of hornblende. Furthermore, they are characterized by strongly variable zircon εHf(t) values between - 16.7 and + 12.8 and evolved plagioclase Sr isotopic compositions of 0.7145-0.7253, indicating the involvement of both juvenile and ancient continental crust in the magma source. Thus, we propose that the early Paleozoic granitoids in the NBOB were generated in a subduction-related continental arc setting. In contrast, the late Paleozoic 330-281 Ma granitoids from the Shuangjingzi complex of the Hanshan unit exhibit positive zircon εHf(t) values between + 5.8 and + 13.2 and relatively depleted plagioclase Sr isotopic compositions of 0.7037-0.7072, indicating that they were mainly formed by remelting of juvenile crust. Thus, an intra-plate extensional setting is proposed to have occurred during formation of the late Paleozoic granitoids. Therefore, between the early and late Paleozoic, the magma sources of the NBOB granitoids converted from the reworking of both juvenile and ancient crusts during a subduction-induced compressional setting to the remelting of

  14. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  15. A reactor study on a belt-shaped screw pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustraan, M.; Franken, W.M.P.; Klippel, H.Th.; Veringa, H.J.; Verschuur, K.A.

    1979-10-01

    A previous study on a screw-pinch reactor with circular cross section (ECN-16 (1977) or Rijnhuizen report 77-101) has been extended to a belt configuration which allows to raise β to 0.5. The present study starts from the main assumptions and principal constraints of the previous work, but some technical aspects are treated more realistically. More attention has been paid to the modular construction, the non-uniform distribution of the wall loading, the thermo-hydraulics, the design of and the losses in the coil systems, and the energy storage and electric transmission systems. A potential use of the first wall of the blanket as part of the implosion coil system is suggested. Finally, a conceptual design of a reactor, with a cost estimate is given. Numerical results are given of parameter variations around the values for the reference reactor. The belt screw-pinch reactor with resistive coils turns out to be uneconomical because of its low net efficiency and its high capital costs. The application of superconducting coils to reduce the ohmic losses turns out to be a non-viable alternative. A more promising way to improve the energy balance seems to be the alternative scheme of fuel injection during the burn

  16. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  17. Automation of belts; Automatizacion de Cintas de Interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document presents the most important aspects, and the results of the project DEVELOPMENT AND COMMISSIONING OF AN INTEGRATED HAULAGE AND VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEM IN A MINE USING VERY LONG SUBLEVEL-CAVING WINNING METHOD. Project's targets were to develop, implement and commission a distributed control system for underground mining, which should allow the control and optimisation of the whole (continuous) haulage network. It should also integrate statutory safety features required for both winning and haulage. The system is capable of controlling the most common devices used in underground coal mining transport networks, like conveyor belts, armored conveyors, regulation silos, etc. from the winning faces to the surface, and also the interlocks between them. Moreover, the system implements statutory safety functions for conveyor belt operation, and for mining activities carried out in culls de sac. Specifically, for its relationship with the transport system, it should monitor secondary ventilation, fire damp and toxic gases concentration, and mains power presence in the culls de sac, which have already reached a length of 2000 m. The prototype was installed in the mine that Carbones de Pedraforca owns in Saldes, Barcelona. (Author)

  18. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  19. LOS INTERESES DE CHINA EN ASIA CENTRAL, BELT AND ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alonso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available China´s interests in Central Asia were propelled, with the launching of the initiative “One Belt, One Road”, renamed as “The Belt and Road Initiative”, better known as the New Silk Road. Thanks to the infrastructure investment China will become interconnected with other regions of the world, breaking up its secular isolation and will send its products to the global market more easily by land and sea. One principal question in this revolutionary change has to do with China´s hypothetical second intentions of geopolitical influence on the countries affected by the new routes (countries of transit or final destination. The article tries to answer the following questions: Does the People's Republic of China aim only to revive its internal labour market, reduce its industrial overcapacity and boost its exports? Is globalization coming to an end or is it entering a new phase of interconnectivity? How does this affect the relations between Russia and China in the Asian region?

  20. Geochemistry of the Bossoroca greenstone belt, Southernmost Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppe, J.C.; Hartmann, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Bossoroca greenstone belt is situated in the center of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and has a north-south extension of 18 Km and an east-west of 12 Km. It comprises two sequences. The lower Arroio Lajeadinho Sequence is made up of ultramafic schists and serpentinites, besides amphibolite, meta basalts and mafic meta-volcanoclastic rocks and banded iron-formation; some chert and graphitic rocks also occur. The upper Campestre Sequence is made up of meta volcanoclastic rocks of basaltic to rhyolitic composition with predominance of andesite. They are N A 2 O-rich (5.0 wt%), K 2 O-poor (0.8 wt%), with high Na/K ratios. The REE patterns are rather flat, with small negative Eu anomaly, similar to andesite from Archean or younger greenstone belts. The major and trace elements in samples from the Campestre Sequence were determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis and the rare earth elements by induced coupled plasma. (author)

  1. Heat flow and heat generation in greenstone belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Heat flow has been measured in Precambrian shields in both greenstone belts and crystalline terrains. Values are generally low, reflecting the great age and tectonic stability of the shields; they range typically between 30 and 50 mW/sq m, although extreme values of 18 and 79 mW/sq m have been reported. For large areas of the Earth's surface that are assumed to have been subjected to a common thermotectonic event, plots of heat flow against heat generation appear to be linear, although there may be considerable scatter in the data. The relationship is expressed as: Q = Q sub o + D A sub o in which Q is the observed heat flow, A sub o is the measured heat generation at the surface, Q sub o is the reduced heat flow from the lower crust and mantle, and D, which has the dimension of length, represents a scale depth for the distribution of radiogenic elements. Most authors have not used data from greenstone belts in attempting to define the relationship within shields, considering them unrepresentative and preferring to use data from relatively homogeneous crystalline rocks. A discussion follows.

  2. Algoma-type Neoproterozoic BIFs and related marbles in the Seridó Belt (NE Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, Alcides N.; Campos, Marcel S.; Gaucher, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The Jucurutu Formation in the Seridó Belt, northeastern Brazil, encompasses fine-to coarse-grained amphibolite-facies marbles, locally with cross-bedding and stromatolites. Banded iron formations (BIF) at three localities in this belt comprise itabirites (actinolite- or cummingtonite-itabirite an...

  3. Research on conditional characteristics vision real-time detection system for conveyor belt longitudinal tear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, Tiezhu; Li, Xinyu; Pang, Y.; Lü, Yuxiang; Wang, Feng; Jin, Baoquan

    2017-01-01

    Conveyor belt longitudinal tear is one of the most serious problems in coal mining. Existing systems cannot realise lossless and real-time detection for longitudinal tear of conveyor belt. Currently, visual detecting systems are proposed by many researchers and are becoming the future trend. A

  4. A Parametric Energy Model for Energy Management of Long Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello Mathaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As electricity prices continue to rise, the increasing need for energy management requires better understanding of models for energy-consuming applications, such as conveyor belts. Conveyor belts are used in a wide range of industries, including power generation, mining and mineral processing. Conveyor technological advances are leading to increasingly long conveyor belts being commissioned. Thus, the energy consumption of each individual belt conveyor unit is becoming increasingly significant. This paper proposes a generic energy model for belt conveyors with long troughed belts. The model has a two-parameter power equation, and it uses a partial differential equation to capture the variable amount of material mass per unit length throughout the belt length. Verification results show that the power consumption calculations of the newly proposed simpler model are consistent with those of a known non-linear model with an error of less than 4%. The online parameter identification set-up of the model is proposed. Simulations indicate that the parameters can be identified successfully from data with up to 15% measurement noise. Results show that the proposed model gives better predictions of the power consumed and material delivered by a long conveyor belt than the steady-state models in the current literature.

  5. 3D Dewetting for Crystal Patterning: Toward Regular Single-Crystalline Belt Arrays and Their Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchen; Feng, Jiangang; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei

    2016-03-16

    Arrays of unidirectional dewetting behaviors can be generated by using 3D-wettability-difference micropillars, yielding highly ordered organic single-crystalline belt arrays. These patterned organic belts show an improved mobility record and can be used as flexible pressure sensors with high sensitivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Optimal regenerative braking with a push-belt CVT: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the approach and the results of efficiency experiments on a push-belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) in a new hybrid drive train. The hybrid drive train uses the push-belt CVT to charge a flywheel, with the kinetic energy of the vehicle during regenerative braking and

  7. Optimal regenerative braking with a push-belt CVT : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, K.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the approach and the results of efficiency experiments on a push-belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) in a new hybrid drive train. The hybrid drive train uses the push-belt CVT to “charge” a flywheel, with the kinetic energy of the vehicle during regenerative braking

  8. Impact of Implementing a Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Law in Florida : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    On June 30, 2009, Florida implemented a primary seat belt law. The State was already engaged in a Rural : Demonstration Program (RDP) to increase belt usage in rural areas in the northern part of the State and participated : regularly in annual Click...

  9. The sedimentary dynamics in natural and human-influenced delta channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobo, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the increased anthropogenic influence on the within-channel belt sedimentary dynamics in the Rhine delta. To make this investigation, the sedimentary dynamics within the life-cycle of a single channel belt were reconstructed for three key periods of increasing human impact,

  10. Feasibility of electro-osmotic belt filter dewatering technology at pilot scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, HG

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available -air. The technology was found as sensitive to polyelectrolyte dosages as belt presses. The performance of the electro-osmotic belt filter was sensitive to feed rate, but performed well with non-thickened waste activated sludge (0.61% solids), resulting in cake solids...

  11. Planck intermediate results. XII: Diffuse Galactic components in the Gould Belt System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the diffuse low-frequency Galactic components in the Southern part of the Gould Belt system (130^\\circ\\leq l\\leq 230^\\circ and -50^\\circ\\leq b\\leq -10^\\circ). Strong ultra-violet (UV) flux coming from the Gould Belt super-association is responsible for bright diffuse...

  12. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alkaline magmatism; Eastern Ghats belt; pull-apart structure; plume tectonics. ... is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt, but this one is an ... Geological Studies Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata 700 ...

  13. Determining the Relationship of Primary Seat Belt Laws to Minority Ticketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Racial profiling is often raised as an issue when States change their seat belt law from secondary enforcement (i.e., stop only for some other violation) to primary enforcement (i.e., stop for an observed belt law violation alone). Thirteen States ma...

  14. Illicit Drug Use and the Social Context of HIV/AIDS in Alabama's Black Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen

    2007-01-01

    Context: The rural Black Belt of Alabama is among the poorest areas of the nation. Poverty, lack of health infrastructure, and health disparities involving HIV/AIDS and other diseases reflect the lower life expectancy of people in the region. The Black Belt region has the highest HIV rates in rural America. Purpose: Using Alabama as a case…

  15. Drivers' opinions of enforcement and incentive strategies to promote safety belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    During a nationwide campaign to promote safety belt use among military personnel, a field study was conducted at 12 different military bases in the Netherlands. Amount of enforcement, type of publicity, and incentive strategies were varied among military bases. Observations of safety belt use among

  16. Enforcement or incentives ? : promoting safety belt use among military personnel in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    During a nationwide campaign to promote safety belt use among military personnel, a field study was conducted at 12 different military bases in the netherlands. Amount of enforcement, type of publicity, and incentive strategies were varied among military bases. Observations of safety belt use among

  17. Pattern of seat belt use and its associated factors among taxi drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Road traffic injuries constitute a major public health concern that demands effective interventions. Use of car seat belts is recommended as an effective intervention to reduce serious and fatal road traffic injuries. The study intended to investigate the pattern of seat belt use and its correlates among taxi drivers in ...

  18. Demonstration of the Trauma Nurses Talk Tough seat belt diversion program in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Trauma Nurses Talk Tough is a seat belt diversion program originally developed at the Legacy Emanuel Hospital in Portland, Oregon, in 1988. Attendance at the course is a condition for a one-time dismissal of a seat belt citation without fine or court...

  19. The geology of the gold deposits of Prestea gold belt of Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the geology of the gold deposits along the Prestea gold belt of Ghana to assist exploration work for new orebodies along the belt. Prestea district is the third largest gold producer in West Africa after Obuasi and Tarkwa districts (over 250 metric tonnes Au during the last century). The gold deposits are ...

  20. The Behavioral Impact of an Advertising Campaign to Promote Safety Belt Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, John G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Safety belt use with and without addition of an incentive strategy was observed among 8,635 drivers at a drive-through restaurant. During the promotional campaign, average rate of belt use tripled compared to baseline following the introduction of a contingent reward (a large soft drink), and declined during followup. (JW)

  1. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... seat belt assembly to fit the user, including such hardware that may be integral with a buckle... the proper use of the assembly, stressing particularly the importance of wearing the assembly snugly... of Standard No. 208. (a)(1) A manual seat belt assembly, which is subject to the requirements of S5.1...

  2. Determination of acceleration for belt conveyor speed control in transient operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Speed control has been found a feasible mean to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. However, the current research has not taken the determination of the acceleration in transient operation into account sufficiently. With respect to the belt tension rating, demanded safety factor and the

  3. Pilot-scale continuous ultrasonic cleaning equipment reduces Listeria monocytogenes levels on conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Riina; Lundén, Janne; Hörman, Ari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt was studied by building a pilot-scale conveyor with an ultrasonic cleaning bath. A piece of the stainless steel conveyor belt was contaminated with meat-based soil and Listeria monocytogenes strains (V1, V3, and B9) and incubated for 72 h to allow bacteria to attach to the conveyor belt surfaces. The effect of ultrasound with a potassium hydroxide-based cleaning detergent was determined by using the cleaning bath at 45 and 50 degrees C for 30 s with and without ultrasound. The detachment of L. monocytogenes from the conveyor belt caused by the ultrasonic treatment was significantly greater at 45 degrees C (independent samples t test, P conveyor belt is effective even with short treatment times.

  4. Assessing child belt fit, volume II : effect of restraint configuration, booster seat designs, seating procedure, and belt fit on the dynamic response of the hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    A total of 49 dynamic sled tests were performed with the Hybrid III 10YO to examine issues relating to child belt fit. The goals of these tests were to evaluate ATD response to realistic belt geometries and belt fit, develop methods for accurate, rep...

  5. Studi Pengaruh Ukuran Butir Dan Tingkat Kelembaban Pasir Terhadap Performansi Belt Conveyor Pada Pabrik Pembuatan Tiang Beton

    OpenAIRE

    Depari, Prianto

    2010-01-01

    Pabrik pembuatan tiang beton yang menggunakan belt conveyor sebagai alat transportasi material yang berbentuk bulk. Material pasir adalah salah satu contoh material bulk, yang diangkut dengan belt conveyor untuk proses mix bahan baku dari beton seperti kerikil, semen, agregat dan lain-lain. Penggunaan belt conveyor ini akan meningkatkan efisiensi kerja dari pabrik pembuatan beton. Performansi belt conveyor tersebut perlu diidentifikasian secara baik dan benar. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan be...

  6. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R

    2010-08-15

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 degrees C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 degrees C, and better at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6h at 10 degrees C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (Padditives. Reductions were significantly less (Pfood residue. At 37 degrees C and 20% relative humidity, large decreases in the numbers of the pathogen on both conveyor belt materials during the first 6h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 degrees C and 10 degrees C and high humidity (60-75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly dried. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Castalia: A European Mission to a Main Belt Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Colin; Castalia mission science Team

    2013-10-01

    Main Belt Comets (MBCs) are a newly identified population, with stable asteroid-like orbits in the outer main belt and a comet-like appearance. It is believed that they survived the age of the solar system in a dormant state and that their activity occurred only recently. Water ice is the only volatile expected to survive, and only when buried under an insulating surface. Excavation by impact could bring the water ice (closer) to the surface and trigger the start of MBC activity. The specific science goals of the Castalia mission are: 1. Characterize a new Solar System family, the MBCs, by in-situ investigation 2. Understand the physics of activity on MBCs 3. Directly detect water in the asteroid belt 4. Test if MBCs are a viable source for Earth’s water 5. Use MBCs as tracers of planetary system formation and evolution These goals can be achieved by a spacecraft designed to rendezvous with and orbit an MBC for some months, arriving before the active period begins for mapping before directly sampling the gas and dust released during the active phase. Given the low level of activity of MBCs, and the expectation that their activity comes from only a localized patch on the surface, the orbiting spacecraft will have to be able to maintain a very close orbit over extended periods - the Castalia plan envisages an orbiter capable of ‘hovering’ autonomously at distances of only a few km from the surface of the MBC. The straw-man instrument payload is made up of: - Visible and near-infrared spectral imager - Thermal infrared imager - Radio science - Dust impact detector - Dust composition analyzer - Neutral/ion mass spectrometer - Magnetometer - Plasma package In addition to this, the option of a surface science package is being considered. At the moment MBC 133P/Elst-Pizarro is the best-known target for such a mission. A design study for the Castalia mission has been carried out in partnership between the science team, DLR and OHB Systems. This study looked at

  8. Asteroid family dynamics in the inner main belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhuis, Melissa Joy

    The inner main asteroid belt is an important source of near-Earth objects and terrestrial planet impactors; however, the dynamics and history of this region are challenging to understand, due to its high population density and the presence of multiple orbital resonances. This dissertation explores the properties of two of the most populous inner main belt family groups --- the Flora family and the Nysa-Polana complex --- investigating their memberships, ages, spin properties, collision dynamics, and range in orbital and reflectance parameters. Though diffuse, the family associated with asteroid (8) Flora dominates the inner main belt in terms of the extent of its members in orbital parameter space, resulting in its significant overlap with multiple neighboring families. This dissertation introduces a new method for membership determination (the core sample method) which enables the distinction of the Flora family from the background, permitting its further analysis. The Flora family is shown to have a signature in plots of semimajor axis vs. size consistent with that expected for a collisional family dispersed as a result of the Yarkovsky radiation effect. The family's age is determined from the Yarkovsky dispersion to be 950 My. Furthermore, a survey of the spin sense of 21 Flora-region asteroids, accomplished via a time-efficient modification of the epoch method for spin sense determination, confirms the single-collision Yarkovsky-dispersed model for the family's origin. The neighboring Nysa-Polana complex is the likely source region for many of the carbonaceous near-Earth asteroids, several of which are important targets for spacecraft reconnaissance and sample return missions. Family identification in the Nysa-Polana complex via the core sample method reveals two families associated with asteroid (135) Hertha, both with distinct age and reflectance properties. The larger of these two families demonstrates a correlation in semimajor axis and eccentricity

  9. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and secondary belt-conveyor drives. 75.1101 Section 75.1101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor... be installed at main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. ...

  10. Influence of some design and operating parameters of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive on the technical specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Tolkachev E.N.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of several design and operating parameters of conveyor on the individual components of the stretching tension in the belt of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive was analyzed. The analysis of influence a number design and operating parameters on the technical specifications of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive was done. Recommendations on the choice of rational parameters were formulated.

  11. Beating the Odds. An Educational Program Relating Safety Belt Use to Health Lifestyles for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    This program module is designed to encourage the use of safety measures in driving, emphasizing the use of seat belts. The learning activities focus upon: (1) the importance of the use of safety belts as the most effective preventive measure in a safe and healthy lifestyle; (2) the reasons people cite for not wearing safety belts and the accuracy…

  12. The chloroplast thylakoid membrane system is a molecular conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, C

    1988-10-01

    Light drives photosynthesis, but paradoxically light is also the most variable environmental factor influencing photosynthesis both qualitatively and quantitatively. The photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants is adaptable in the extreme, as exemplified by its capacity for acclimation to very bright sunny or deeply shaded conditions. It can also respond to rapid changes in light such as sunflecks. In this paper I offer a model that i) explains the thylakoid membrane organisation into grana stacks and stroma lamellae, ii) proposes a role for rapid D1 protein turnover and LHCII phosphorylation, and iii) suggests a mechanism for photoinhibition. I argue that the photosynthetic membrane system is dynamic in three dimensions, so much so that, in the light, it is in constant motion and operates in a manner somewhat analogous to a conveyor belt. D1 protein degradation is proposed to be the motor that drives this system. Photoinhibition is suggested to be due to the arrest of D1 protein turnover.

  13. Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.R.; Pospahala, R.S.

    1970-01-01

    Unless a correction is made, population estimates derived from a sample of belt transects will be biased if a fraction of, the individuals on the sample transects are not counted. An approach, useful for correcting this bias when sampling immotile populations using transects of a fixed width, is presented. The method assumes that a searcher's ability to find objects near the center of the transect is nearly perfect. The method utilizes a mathematical equation, estimated from the data, to represent the searcher's inability to find all objects at increasing distances from the center of the transect. An example of the analysis of data, formation of the equation, and application is presented using waterfowl nesting data collected in Colorado.

  14. Radon daughter control in the Uravan Mineral Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindle, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The control of radon daughter products in mines of the Uravan Mineral Belt is strongly affected by the erratic nature of the ore deposits. Another problem is the frequent necessity of reactivating mine workings that have been inactive for many years. Ventilation holes and other airways are usually too small to provide adequate ventilation to satisfy current requirements, and they are often caved. The greatest change in ventilation systems in recent years has been the trend toward larger-diameter, drilled ventilation raises that provide more ventilation at considerably lower cost. The increase in raise size has aggrevated ground-support and ice-formation, difficulties, but these problems are being solved by lining the raises with shotcrete and grouting the water bearing horizons. Electronic air cleaners have been effectively used to remove radon daughter products from mine air for several years but their utility is limited by the rate of regrowth of the radon daughters after the air is cleaned. 5 figures

  15. A Possible Massive Asteroid Belt Around $\\zeta$ Lep

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Chuan Hung

    2001-01-01

    We have used the Keck I telescope to image at 11.7 microns and 17.9 microns the dust emission around zeta Lep, a main sequence A-type star at 21.5 pc from the Sun with an infrared excess. The excess is at most marginally resolved at 17.9 microns. The dust distance from the star is probably less than or equal to 6 AU, although some dust may extend to 9 AU. The mass of observed dust is \\~10^22 g. Since the lifetime of dust particles is about 10,000 years because of the Poytning-Robertson effect, we robustly estimate at least 4 10^26 g must reside in parent bodies which may be asteroids if the system is in a steady state and has an age of ~300 Myr. This mass is approximately 200 times that contained within the main asteroid belt in our solar system.

  16. The belt-shaped screw-pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustraan, M.; Klippel, H.Th.; Veringa, H.J.; Verschuur, K.A.; Lievense, K.

    1981-12-01

    The belt-shaped screw pinch is a pulsed toroidal plasma with an elongated cross-section. Force-free currents in an outer plasma envelope of low density allow beta to rise to high values in the order of 50%. This is a potential possibility to develop an economically attractive reactor. The physical requirements of its realization are described: formation, heating and ignition of a very small amount of the fuel to be burnt in one pulse by the fields generated by normal or superconducting coils. Then follows injection of the greater part of the fuel by D-T pellets and consequent plasma heating and expansion by nuclear reactions without undue disturbing of the plasma current configuration. Technical requirements include an insulating first wall and fast rising magnetic fields produced by superconducting coils. This reactor system is compared with the tokamak and the reversed-field pinch system

  17. Economic Effects of Precipitation Enhancement in the Corn Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapcia, Philip; Changnon, Stanley; Pinar, Musa

    1990-01-01

    Policy formulation in weather modification requires an understanding of the economic effects from altered weather. The focus of this study is to provide insight into the beneficiaries of a functioning weather modification technology when applied at various spatial and temporal levels. An econometric model which links the corn/scybean production to U.S. cattle, hog and poultry sectors is used to determine the effects of precipitation enhancement in the U.S. Corn Belt, a humid climatic region. A regional supply formulation permits assessment of weather modification on production, prices, revenues to producers, and savings in consumers expenditures on meat. The results provide insight into the distribution of economic effects, emphasize the importance of careful planning in the use of weather modification technology, and provide useful information on the roles of local, state, and federal governments in the support of weather modification.

  18. Why style matters - uncertainty and structural interpretation in thrust belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rob; Bond, Clare; Watkins, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Structural complexity together with challenging seismic imaging make for significant uncertainty in developing geometric interpretations of fold and thrust belts. Here we examine these issues and develop more realistic approaches to building interpretations. At all scales, the best tests of the internal consistency of individual interpretations come from structural restoration (section balancing), provided allowance is made for heterogeneity in stratigraphy and strain. However, many existing balancing approaches give misleading perceptions of interpretational risk - both on the scale of individual fold-thrust (trap) structures and in regional cross-sections. At the trap-scale, idealised models are widely cited - fault-bend-fold, fault-propagation folding and trishear. These make entirely arbitrary choices for fault localisation and layer-by-layer deformation: precise relationships between faults and fold geometry are generally invalidated by real-world conditions of stratigraphic variation and distributed strain. Furthermore, subsurface predictions made using these idealisations for hydrocarbon exploration commonly fail the test of drilling. Rarely acknowledged, the geometric reliability of seismic images depends on the assigned seismic velocity model, which in turn relies on geological interpretation. Thus iterative approaches are required between geology and geophysics. The portfolio of commonly cited outcrop analogues is strongly biased to examples that simply conform to idealised models - apparently abnormal structures are rarely described - or even photographed! Insight can come from gravity-driven deep-water fold-belts where part of the spectrum of fold-thrust complexity is resolved through seismic imaging. This imagery shows deformation complexity in fold forelimbs and backlimbs. However, the applicability of these, weakly lithified systems to well-lithified successions (e.g. carbonates) of many foreland thrust belts remains conjectural. Examples of

  19. The CASLEO Polarimetric Survey of Main Belt Asteroids: Updated results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cellino, A.; Cañada-Assandri, M.

    2011-10-01

    We present updated results of the polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina, using the 2.15 m telescope and the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters. The goals of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids belonging to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. The survey began in 2003, and data for a sample of more than 170 asteroids have been obtained, most of them having been polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we find phase-polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for several taxonomic classes.

  20. The Analysis of Insects Population on Fields in Forest Belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribust Irina Romuvaldovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The introduction into the agricultural and ecological system of multifunctional forest belts contributes to the formation of a qualitatively new environment, and, as a consequence, to the transformation of insects populations. Change of the faunal diversity in transformed agro-ecosystems and identification of entomofauna characteristics by a number of biotic indices, which undergo cumulative impact of organized farm ecosystem components, have not been sufficiently studied. This question is the basis for development of measures aimed at the restoration, maintenance of biodiversity and the activation of regulatory mechanisms of agricultural ecosystems. The article describes the ecological peculiarities and characteristics of insects population in the protected farm ecosystems in the Volgograd region. The article presents data on the change in abundance of the main trophic groups of fauna (entomophages and phytophages on crops in open steppe and forest-protected fields. The author analyzes the biotopic location of pests and entomophages across the width of the fields protected by forest plantations.

  1. The Holocene Great Belt connection to the southern Kattegat, Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    Late- and postglacial geological evolution of the southern Kattegat connection to the Great Belt was investigated from high-resolution seismic data and radiocarbon-dated sediment cores in order to elucidate the Ancylus Lake drainage/Littorina Sea transgression. It was found that glacial deposits...... form the acoustic basement and are covered by Lateglacial (LG) marine sediments and postglacial (PG; Holocene) material. The LG deposits form a highstand systems tract, whereas the PG deposits cover a full depositional sequence, consisting of a lowstand systems tract (PG I), transgressive systems tract...... (PG II; subdivided into three parasequences) and finally a highstand systems tract (PG III). PG I sand deposits (11.7–10.8 cal. ka BP) are found in a major western channel and in a secondary eastern channel. PG II (10.8–9.8 cal. ka BP) consists of estuarine and coastal deposits linked to an estuary...

  2. The auriferous placer at Mount Robert, Pietersburg Greenstone belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saager, R.; Muff, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Mount Robert gold placer near Potgietersrus occurs in coarse, matrix-supported conglomerates of the Uitkyk Formation within the Pietersburg greenstone belt. Sedimentological and mineralogical investigations indicate that the conglomerates and the ore minerals were derived from a greenstone provenance, and that they were deposited in a braided river environment within a rapidly subsiding trough. Lack of sedimentological concentration of the heavy minerals is considered to be the main reason for the low and erratic gold grades encountered (usually below 1 g/t) and, thus, the failure of all past mining ventures. The mineralogical composition of the Mount Robert ore closely resembles that of the Witwatersrand deposits. However, uraninite is absent, probably as a result of its complete removal by weathering processes. Remaining small uranium concentrations can still be detected within the conglomerates where they occur associated with grains of carbonaceous matter, leucoxene aggregates, and secondary iron-hydroxides. U3O8 values found in the conglomerates are given

  3. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey of the Gould Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Rachel; Pineda, Jaime; GAS Team

    2018-01-01

    The past several years have seen a tremendous advancement in our ability to characterize the structure of nearby molecular clouds traced by large-scale continuum surveys. Critical, comparable data on the dense gas kinematics and temperatures are needed to understand the history and future fate of star-forming material. Filling this gap is the Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS), an ambitious legacy survey for the Green Bank Telescope to observe key molecular tracers of dense gas within all Gould Belt clouds visible from the northern hemisphere. I will present the latest science from GAS, whose goals are to 1) evaluate the stability of dense gas structures as a function of scale, 2) track the dissipation of turbulence and evolution of angular momentum in filaments and cores, and 3) quantitatively test predictions of models of core and filament formation via mass flows and accretion.

  4. Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y.-Q.

    2017-09-01

    Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt Yu-Qing Lou* Physics Department, Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua-National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) joint Research Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China We describe the basic phenommenology of quasi-periodic 40 minute (QP-40) polar burst activities of Jupiter and their close correlation with the solar wind speed variations at the Jovian magnetosphere. Physically, relativistic electrons of QP-40 bursts most likely come from the circumpolar regions of the inner radiation belt (IRB) which gives off intense synchroton radio emissions in a wide wavelength range. Such relativistic electron bursts also give rise to beamed low-frequency radio bursts along polar magnetic field lines with distinct polarizations from Jupiter's two polar regions. Jovian aurora activities are expected to be also affected by such QP-40 burst activities. We present evidence of short-term (typical timescales shorter than an hour) variabilities of the IRB at 6cm wavelength and describe recent joint radio telescope observation campaign to monitor Jupiter in coordination with JUNO spacecraft. Except for low-frequency polarization features, we anticipate JUNO to detect QP-40 activities from both polar regions during the arrival of high-speed solar wind with intermittency. References 1. Y.-Q. Lou, The Astrophysical Journal, 548, 460 (2001). 2. Y.-Q. Lou, and C. Zheng, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 344, L1 (2003). 3. Y.-Q. Lou, H. G. Song, Y.Y. Liu, and M. Yang, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 421, L62 (2012). 4. Y.-Q. Lou, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 609 (1996). 5. Y.-Q. Lou, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 14747 (1994). 6. G. R. Gladstone, et al., Nature, 415, 1000 (2002).

  5. HIGH ECLIPTIC LATITUDE SURVEY FOR SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Jun; Itoh, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Main-belt asteroids have been continuously colliding with one another since they were formed. Their size distribution is primarily determined by the size dependence of asteroid strength against catastrophic impacts. The strength scaling law as a function of body size could depend on collision velocity, but the relationship remains unknown, especially under hypervelocity collisions comparable to 10 km s –1 . We present a wide-field imaging survey at an ecliptic latitude of about 25° for investigating the size distribution of small main-belt asteroids that have highly inclined orbits. The analysis technique allowing for efficient asteroid detections and high-accuracy photometric measurements provides sufficient sample data to estimate the size distribution of sub-kilometer asteroids with inclinations larger than 14°. The best-fit power-law slopes of the cumulative size distribution are 1.25 ± 0.03 in the diameter range of 0.6-1.0 km and 1.84 ± 0.27 in 1.0-3.0 km. We provide a simple size distribution model that takes into consideration the oscillations of the power-law slope due to the transition from the gravity-scaled regime to the strength-scaled regime. We find that the high-inclination population has a shallow slope of the primary components of the size distribution compared to the low-inclination populations. The asteroid population exposed to hypervelocity impacts undergoes collisional processes where large bodies have a higher disruptive strength and longer lifespan relative to tiny bodies than the ecliptic asteroids

  6. Adaptive control of dynamic balance in human gait on a split-belt treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurke, Tom J W; Lamoth, Claudine J C; Vervoort, Danique; van der Woude, Lucas H V; den Otter, Rob

    2018-05-17

    Human bipedal gait is inherently unstable and staying upright requires adaptive control of dynamic balance. Little is known about adaptive control of dynamic balance in reaction to long-term, continuous perturbations. We examined how dynamic balance control adapts to a continuous perturbation in gait, by letting people walk faster with one leg than the other on a treadmill with two belts (i.e. split-belt walking). In addition, we assessed whether changes in mediolateral dynamic balance control coincide with changes in energy use during split-belt adaptation. In nine minutes of split-belt gait, mediolateral margins of stability and mediolateral foot roll-off changed during adaptation to the imposed gait asymmetry, especially on the fast side, and returned to baseline during washout. Interestingly, no changes in mediolateral foot placement (i.e. step width) were found during split-belt adaptation. Furthermore, the initial margin of stability and subsequent mediolateral foot roll-off were strongly coupled to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance throughout the gait cycle. Consistent with previous results net metabolic power was reduced during split-belt adaptation, but changes in mediolateral dynamic balance control were not correlated with the reduction of net metabolic power during split-belt adaptation. Overall, this study has shown that a complementary mechanism of relative foot positioning and mediolateral foot roll-off adapts to continuously imposed gait asymmetry to maintain dynamic balance in human bipedal gait. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Dynamical evolution of V-type photometric candidates in the central and outer main belt asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Huaman, M.

    2014-07-01

    V-type asteroids are associated with basaltic composition, and are supposed to be fragments of crust of differentiated objects. Most V-type asteroids in the main belt are found in the inner main belt, and are either current members of the Vesta dynamical family (Vestoids), or past members that drifted away. However, several V-type photometric candidates have been recently identified in the central and outer main belt. The origin of this large population of V-type objects is not well understood, since it seems unlikely that Vestoids crossing the 3:1 and 5:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter could account for the whole observed population. In this work, we investigated a possible origin of the bodies from local sources, such as the parent bodies of the Eunomia, Merxia, and Agnia asteroid families in the central main belt, and Dembowska, Eos and Magnya asteroid families in the outer main belt. Our results show that dynamical evolution from the parent bodies of the Eunomia and Merxia/Agnia families on timescales of 2 Gyr or more could be responsible for the current orbital location of most of the V-type photometric candidates in the central main belt. Studies for the outer main belt are currently in progress. by the FAPESP (grant 2011/19863-3) and CAPES (grant 15029-12-3) funding agencies.

  8. Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

    2009-07-01

    A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

  9. Tertiary evolution of the Shimanto belt (Japan): A large-scale collision in Early Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Famin, Vincent; Palazzin, Giulia; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Augier, Romain

    2017-07-01

    To decipher the Miocene evolution of the Shimanto belt of southwestern Japan, structural and paleothermal studies were carried out in the western area of Shikoku Island. All units constituting the belt, both in its Cretaceous and Tertiary domains, are in average strongly dipping to the NW or SE, while shortening directions deduced from fault kinematics are consistently orientated NNW-SSE. Peak paleotemperatures estimated with Raman spectra of organic matter increase strongly across the southern, Tertiary portion of the belt, in tandem with the development of a steeply dipping metamorphic cleavage. Near the southern tip of Ashizuri Peninsula, the unconformity between accreted strata and fore-arc basin, present along the whole belt, corresponds to a large paleotemperature gap, supporting the occurrence of a major collision in Early Miocene. This tectonic event occurred before the magmatic event that affected the whole belt at 15 Ma. The associated shortening was accommodated in two opposite modes, either localized on regional-scale faults such as the Nobeoka Tectonic Line in Kyushu or distributed through the whole belt as in Shikoku. The reappraisal of this collision leads to reinterpret large-scale seismic refraction profiles of the margins, where the unit underlying the modern accretionary prism is now attributed to an older package of deformed and accreted sedimentary units belonging to the Shimanto belt. When integrated into reconstructions of Philippine Sea Plate motion, the collision corresponds to the oblique collision of a paleo Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc with Japan in Early Miocene.

  10. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal

    2014-01-01

    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait.

  11. Pelvic Belt Effects on Health Outcomes and Functional Parameters of Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Möbius, Robert; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Hammer, Karl-Heinz; Klima, Stefan; Lange, Justin S.; Soisson, Odette; Winkler, Dirk; Milani, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a common source of low back pain. However, clinical and functional signs and symptoms correlating with SIJ pain are widely unknown. Pelvic belts are routinely applied to treat SIJ pain but without sound evidence of their pain-relieving effects. This case-control study compares clinical and functional data of SIJ patients and healthy control subjects and evaluates belt effects on SIJ pain. Methods 17 SIJ patients and 17 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. The short-form 36 survey and the numerical rating scale were used to characterize health-related quality of life in patients in a six-week follow-up and the pain-reducing effects of pelvic belts. Electromyography data were obtained from the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris and medial vastus. Alterations of muscle activity, variability and gait patterns were compared in patients and controls along with the belts’ effects in a dynamic setting when walking. Results Significant improvements were observed in the short-form 36 survey of the SIJ patients, especially in the physical health subscores. Minor declines were also observed in the numerical rating scale on pain. Belt-related changes of muscle activity and variability were similar in patients and controls with one exception: the rectus femoris activity decreased significantly in patients with belt application when walking. Further belt effects include improved cadence and gait velocity in patients and controls. Conclusions Pelvic belts improve health-related quality of life and are potentially attributed to decreased SIJ-related pain. Belt effects include decreased rectus femoris activity in patients and improved postural steadiness during locomotion. Pelvic belts may therefore be considered as a cost-effective and low-risk treatment of SIJ pain. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02027038 PMID:26305790

  12. First Results of Modeling Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics with the SAMI3 Plasmasphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, C. M.; Glocer, A.; Huba, J.; Fok, M. C. H.; Kang, S. B.; Buzulukova, N.

    2017-12-01

    The radiation belts were one of the first discoveries of the Space Age some sixty years ago and radiation belt models have been improving since the discovery of the radiation belts. The plasmasphere is one region that has been critically important to determining the dynamics of radiation belt populations. This region of space plays a critical role in describing the distribution of chorus and magnetospheric hiss waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. Both of these waves have been shown to interact with energetic electrons in the radiation belts and can result in the energization or loss of radiation belt electrons. However, radiation belt models have been historically limited in describing the distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma and have relied on empirically determined plasmasphere models. Some plasmasphere models use an azimuthally symmetric distribution of the plasmasphere which can fail to capture important plasmaspheric dynamics such as the development of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Previous work have coupled the kinetic bounce-averaged Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model used to model ring current and radiation belt populations with the Block-adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATSRUS) global magnetohydrodynamic model to self-consistently obtain the magnetospheric magnetic field and ionospheric potential. The present work will utilize this previous coupling and will additionally couple the SAMI3 plasmasphere model to better represent the dynamics on the plasmasphere and its role in determining the distribution of waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. First results on the relevance of chorus, hiss, and ultralow frequency waves on radiation belt electron dynamics will be discussed in context of the June 1st, 2013 storm-time dropout event.

  13. New Quality Standards of Testing Idlers for Highly Effective Belt Conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Robert; Gladysiewicz, Lech; Kaszuba, Damian; Kisielewski, Waldemar

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents result of research and analyses carried out into the belt conveyors idlers’ rotational resistance which is one of the key factor indicating the quality of idlers. Moreover, idlers’ rotational resistance is important factor in total resistance to motion of belt conveyor. The evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers is carried out in accordance with actual national and international standards which determine the methodology of measurements and acceptable values of measured idlers’ parameters. Requirements defined by the standards, which determine the suitability of idlers to a specific application, despite the development of knowledge on idlers and quality of presently manufactured idlers maintain the same level of parameters values over long periods of time. Nowadays the need to implement new, efficient and economically justified solution for belt conveyor transportation systems characterized by long routes and energy-efficiency is often discussed as one of goals in belt conveyors’ future. One of the basic conditions for achieving this goal is to use only carefully selected idlers with low rotational resistance under the full range of operational loads and high durability. Due to this it is necessary to develop new guidelines for evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers in accordance with actual standards and perfecting of existing and development of new methods of idlers testing. The changes in particular should concern updating of values of parameters used for evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers in relation to belt conveyors’ operational challenges and growing demands in terms of belt conveyors’ energy efficiency.

  14. THE HARMONIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR A BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František HELEBRANT

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The final aim of the project MPO FR‐T11/537 called “The Complex Diagnostic System for the Belt Transport” is a single part custom manufacturing and sale of complex diagnostic system for belt transportation and related services. The output of the project is a prototype of a diagnostic system on a model belt conveyor with prepared and certified diagnostic services and methods including their measurements and other supportive tools. The article will introduce the present state of the solution for the given grant project, especially in the field of suggested work on the diagnostic and supportive methods and other measurements.

  15. RESEARCH ON THE HOMOGENEITY OF TEMPERATURES IN JOINT'S AREA BY VULCANIZING THE CONVEYOR BELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DOBROTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The researches presented in this paper have followed the analysis of the heat transfer mode during joining through vulcanization of the conveyor belts and also the homogeneity of the temperatures in the joint area. The researches were made under laboratory conditions taking into account the process of joining of two conveyor belts of the type ST 2000 with an installation of the type DSLQ. Temperature measurement was conducted using an EX42570 pyrometer in four distinct points corresponding to each end of the two conveyor belts on the both sides of the band, namely the active and inactive side.

  16. The belt pinch - a high-β tokamak with non-circular cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, O.; Peiry, J.M.; Wilhelm, R.

    1975-10-01

    The stability behaviour of non-circular plasma cross-sections is discussed on the basis of present known theory. Then the technical arrangement and the preionization of the Belt Pinch is described. The following section deals with the establishment of the non-circular equilibrium and summarizes the essential plasma paramters and the used diagnostic methods. The stability properties of the Belt Pinch, lead to a critical q-value. Finnaly, supporting experiments for the future Belt Pinch programm are presented. (orig./GG) [de

  17. A three-dimensional phase space dynamical model of the Earth's radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscher, D. M.; Beutier, T.; Bourdarie, S.

    1996-01-01

    A three dimensional phase space model of the Earth's radiation belt is presented. We have taken into account the magnetic and electric radial diffusions, the pitch angle diffusions due to Coulomb interactions and interactions with the plasmaspheric hiss, and the Coulomb drag. First, a steady state of the belt is presented. Two main maxima are obtained, corresponding to the inner and outer parts of the belt. Then, we have modelled a simple injection at the external boundary. The particle transport seems like what was measured aboard satellites. A high energy particle loss is found, by comparing the model results and the measurements. It remains to be explained

  18. A new press line concept for conveyor belts; Neues Pressenkonzept fuer Foerdergurte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumueller, Steffen [Siempelkamp Maschinen- und Anlagenbau GmbH und Co. KG, Krefeld (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Pressure and temperature are the relevant process parameters for the vulcanisation of rubber products. Particularly, the vulcanisation of large-surface rubber products such as belt conveyors sets large requirements on the mechanical characteristics of the press lines. Siempelkamp Maschinen- und Anlagenbau GmbH and Co. KG (Krefeld, Federal Republic of Germany) is specialized on these requirements. For over 100 years, this company constructs vulcanisation presses for the belt conveyor industry. In the first ten decades, the layout of the press lines according to stiffness and transmission of large forces were in the focus. Till to the late 1980ies, these press lines represented the standard of the belt conveyor industry.

  19. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 °C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 °C, and better at 25 °C than at 37 °C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6 h at 10 °C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly...

  20. Study on a metal pushing V-belt type CVT. Numerical analysis for belt tension distribution in brands of a ring at steady state; Kinzoku V belt wo mochiita CVT ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekiso belt (steel ring) no dendo kiko kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T; Kuwabara, S [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Kanehara, S [Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The power transmitting mechanisms for laminated belts were studied to analyze belt tension in each band of the ring of metal V-belts. A numerical model consisting of linear springs and frictional elements was proposed. The present model was experimentally proved. It is revealed based on the numerical results that each band shares the ring tension equally when the coefficients of friction for bands and a pulley are the same while the first band must support more when the coefficients of friction between two bands are lower than that between a saddle surface of the block and the inner band. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Role of mantle dynamics in rebuilding the Tianshan Orogenic Belt in NW China: A seismic tomographic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuansong; Santosh, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Tianshan orogenic belt, Junggar terrane and Altai terrane are located at the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Here, we investigate the velocity structure beneath the Xinjiang region in NW China, which includes the Tarim terrane, Tianshan orogenic belt, Junggar terrane and Altai terrane with a view to evaluate the mantle dynamics based on teleseismic data recorded by 103 seismic stations. Our tomographic results show both high and low velocity perturbations beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt. We suggest that the high velocity perturbations beneath this orogenic belt might represent the northward subducted lithosphere of the Tarim Basin and the southward subducted lithosphere of the Junggar Basin. The low velocity structure beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt might represent asthenosphere upwelling that triggered the extensive magmatism which contributed to rebuilding of the Tianshan orogenic belt.

  2. Energy optimization of conveyor belts at RWE Power AG; Energetische Optimierung von Foerdergurten bei der RWE Power AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Manfred [RWE Power International RE GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Gewinnungs- und Foerdertechnik

    2009-11-15

    Influencing horizontal resistance to motion has the greatest leverage effect in terms of reducing the power requirements of belt conveyors. The selection of a suitable conveyor belt with optimized running resistance enables substantial cost savings, both with regard to current energy consumption and with regard to the drive power to be installed. Measurements carried out on standard conveyor belts used by RWE Power show differences of up to 30 % in the principal resistance. A method to reliably predict the energy properties of a conveyor belt by means of small specimens was developed. In addition, the requirements to be met in terms of mechanical endurance of a belt depending on conveyor configuration, which set limits to the development of energy-saving belts suitable for operation, will be outlined. To resolve this conflict of aims, conveyor engineers are given concrete tips on the design of belt conveyor systems. (orig.)

  3. Structure and Evolution of Kuiper Belt Objects and Dwarf Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, W. B.; Prialnik, D.; Stern, S. A.; Coradini, A.

    Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) accreted from a mélange of volatile ices, carbonaceous matter, and rock of mixed interstellar and solar nebular provenance. The transneptunian region, where this accretion took place, was likely more radially compact than today. This and the influence of gas drag during the solar nebula epoch argue for more rapid KBO accretion than usually considered. Early evolution of KBOs was largely the result of heating due to radioactive decay, the most important potential source being 26Al, whereas long-term evolution of large bodies is controlled by the decay of U, Th, and 40K. Several studies are reviewed dealing with the evolution of KBO models, calculated by means of one-dimensional numerical codes that solve the heat and mass balance equations. It is shown that, depending on parameters (principally rock content and porous conductivity), KBO interiors may have reached relatively high temperatures. The models suggest that KBOs likely lost ices of very volatile species during early evolution, whereas ices of less-volatile species should be retained in cold, less-altered subsurface layers. Initially amorphous ice may have crystallized in KBO interiors, releasing volatiles trapped in the amorphous ice, and some objects may have lost part of these volatiles as well. Generally, the outer layers are far less affected by internal evolution than the inner part, which in the absence of other effects (such as collisions) predicts a stratified composition and altered porosity distribution. Kuiper belt objects are thus unlikely to be "the most pristine objects in the solar system," but they do contain key information as to how the early solar system accreted and dynamically evolved. For large (dwarf planet) KBOs, long-term radiogenic heating alone may lead to differentiated structures -- rock cores, ice mantles, volatile-ice-rich "crusts," and even oceans. Persistence of oceans and (potential) volcanism to the present day depends strongly on body size and

  4. TERRAIN TECTONICS OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN FOLDED BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The terrain analysis concept envisages primarily a possibility of approximation of fragments / terrains of various geodynamic settings which belong to different plates. The terrain analysis can supplement the theory of plate tectonics in solving problems of geodynamics and tectonics of regions of the crust with complex structures. The Central Asian belt is among such complicated regions. Terrain structures occurred as a result of combined movements in the system of 'frontal' and/or oblique subduction – collision. In studies of geological objects, it is required first of all to prove their (vertical and horizontal autochthony in relations to each other and then proceed to paleogeodynamic, paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. Obviously, such a complex approach needs data to be obtained by a variety of research methods, including those applied to study geologic structures, stratigraphy, paleontology, paleogeography, lithothlogy, geochemistry, geochronology, paleomagnetism etc. Only by correlating such data collected from inter-disciplinary studies of the regions, it is possible to establish reliable characteristics of the geological settings and avoid mistakes and misinterpretations that may be associated with the 'stratigraphic' approach to solutions of both regional and global problems of geodynamics and tectonics of folded areas. The terrain analysis of the Central Asian folded belt suggests that its tectonic structure combines marginal continental rock complexes that were formed by the evolution of two major oceanic plates. One of them is the plate of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. As the analogue of the current Indo-Atlantic segment of Earth, it is characterised by the presence of continental blocks in the composition of the oceanic crust and the formation of oceanic basins resulting from the breakup of Rodinia and Gondvana. In the course of its evolution, super-continents disintegrated, and the blocks were reunited into the Kazakhstan

  5. Castalia - European Mission to a Main Belt Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchenbach, M.

    2013-12-01

    Main Belt Comets (MBCs) are a recently identified new solar system population with stable asteroid-like orbits and a comet-like appearance. It is believed that they survived the age of the solar system in a dormant state and that their activity occurred only recently. Buried water ice is the only volatile expected to survive under an insulating surface. Excavation by an impact might expose the ice and trigger the start of MBC activity. The specific science goals of the Castalia mission are: 1. Characterize a new Solar System family, the MBCs, by in-situ investigation 2. Understand the physics of activity on MBCs 3. Directly detect water in the asteroid belt 4. Test if MBCs are a viable source for Earth's water 5. Use MBCs as tracers of planetary system formation and evolution These goals can be achieved by a spacecraft designed to rendezvous with and orbit an MBC for a time interval of some months, arriving before the active period for mapping and then directly sampling the gas and dust released during the active phase. Given the low level of activity of MBCs, and the expectation that their activity comes from only a localized patch on the surface, the orbiting spacecraft will have to be able to maintain a very close orbit over extended periods - the Castalia plan envisages an orbiter capable of ';hovering' autonomously at distances of only a few km from the surface of the MBC. The straw-man instrument payload is made up of: - Visible and near-infrared spectral imager - Thermal infrared imager - Radio science - Dust impact detector - Dust composition analyzer - Neutral/ion mass spectrometer - Magnetometer - Plasma package In addition to this, the option of a surface science package is being considered. At the moment MBC 133P/Elst-Pizarro is the best-known target for such a mission. A design study for the Castalia mission has been carried out in partnership between the science team, DLR and OHB Systems. This study looked at possible missions to 133P with launch

  6. Alabama Black Belt eye care--optometry giving back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanspree, Mary Jean; Allison, Carol; Goldblatt, Stephanie Hardwick; Pevsner, Diane

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the process used to meet the vision needs, as well as other health problems related to eye disease, of individuals in the rural Black Belt region of Alabama. This model includes a multidisciplinary collaborative effort that has developed into a replicable vision care delivery system. This study was a descriptive research study. Vision and health evaluations were made available to residents of rural counties with a specific focus on an area in Alabama known as the "Black Belt." The model for the project was designed with input from the collaborative partners who were responsible for each health and vision station. Participants in the Rural Alabama Diabetes and Glaucoma Initiative (RADGI) study involved 1,765 black women, 619 black men, and 315 others. The study included 2,699 participants in 7 counties. The reported ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 97 years, with a mean age of 44. Of the 2,699 patients, 39% (1,053) were found to have a visual acuity of < or =20/40. Spectacles were prescribed for 56% of the patients who required correction other than reading glasses. There was a 19% (513) referral rate for glaucoma. There was a 2.7% (73) referral rate for diabetic retinopathy. Two hundred sixteen patients presented with cataracts (8%) and were referred to eye care providers for follow-up evaluations. The 9.9% of patients who were known diabetics (267) were referred to either a general physician familiar with the patient history or, if no general physician was reported by the patient, another local physician for evaluation. Because there were no subspecialists in these local communities, the 10% of the patients (270) who were undiagnosed diabetics but showed the risk factor of a hemoglobin A1c greater than 7% were referred to a general physician or local emergency room for follow-up care. One thousand fifty-five patients (35.9%) with a blood pressure of greater than 140/90 mmHg were referred to a physician or to the emergency

  7. Nonlinear VLF Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Mithaiwala, M.; Rudakov, L.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic VLF waves, such as whistler mode waves, both control the lifetime of trapped electrons in the radiation belts by pitch-angle scattering and are responsible for the energization of electrons during storms. Traditional approaches to understanding the influence of waves on trapped electrons have assumed that the wave characteristics (frequency spectrum, wave-normal angle distribution, etc.) were both stationary in time and amplitude independent from event to event. In situ data from modern satellite missions, such as the Van Allen probes, are showing that this assumption may not be justified. In addition, recent theoretical results [Crabtree et al. 2012] show that the threshold for nonlinear wave scattering can often be met by naturally occurring VLF waves in the magnetosphere, with wave magnetic fields of the order of 50-100 pT inside the plasmapause. Nonlinear wave scattering (Nonlinear Landau Damping) is an amplitude dependent mechanism that can strongly alter VLF wave propagation [Ganguli et al. 2010], primarily by altering the direction of propagation. Laboratory results have confirmed the dramatic change in propagation direction when the pump wave has sufficient amplitude to exceed the nonlinear threshold [Tejero et al. 2014]. Nonlinear scattering can alter the macroscopic dynamics of waves in the radiation belts leading to the formation of a long-lasting wave-cavity [Crabtree et al. 2012] and, when amplification is present, a multi-pass amplifier [Ganguli et al., 2012]. Such nonlinear wave effects can dramatically reduce electron lifetimes. Nonlinear wave dynamics such as these occur when there are more than one wave present, such a condition necessarily violates the assumption of traditional wave-normal analysis [Santolik et al., 2003] which rely on the plane wave assumption. To investigate nonlinear wave dynamics using modern in situ data we apply the maximum entropy method [Skilling and Bryan, 1984] to solve for the wave distribution function

  8. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Brown, Michael E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France); Parker, Alex [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: wesley.fraser@nrc.ca [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α{sub 1}=1.5{sub −0.2}{sup +0.4}, and break magnitude, H{sub B}=6.9{sub −0.2}{sup +0.1} (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α{sub 1}=0.87{sub −0.2}{sup +0.07}, and break magnitude H{sub B}=7.7{sub −0.5}{sup +1.0}. Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α{sub 2} ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ⊕}. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α{sub 1} = 1.0 ± 0.2, α{sub 2} = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H {sub B} = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H{sub r{sup ′}}≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  9. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Parker, Alex; Batygin, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α 1 =1.5 −0.2 +0.4 , and break magnitude, H B =6.9 −0.2 +0.1 (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α 1 =0.87 −0.2 +0.07 , and break magnitude H B =7.7 −0.5 +1.0 . Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α 2 ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10 –4 M ⊕ . The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α 1 = 1.0 ± 0.2, α 2 = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H B = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H r ′ ≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  10. The Main Asteroid Belt: The Crossroads of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter, main belt asteroids are leftover planetary building blocks that never accreted enough material to become planets. They are therefore keys to understanding how the Solar System formed and evolved. They may also provide clues to the origin of life, as similar bodies may have delivered organics and water to the early Earth.Strong associations between asteroids and meteorites emerged thanks to multi-technique observations, modeling, in situ and sample return analyses. Spacecraft images revolutionized our knowledge of these small worlds. Asteroids are stunning in their diversity in terms of physical properties. Their gravity varies by more orders of magnitude than its variation among the terrestrial planets, including the Moon. Each rendezvous with an asteroid thus turned our geological understanding on its head as each asteroid is affected in different ways by a variety of processes such as landslides, faulting, and impact cratering. Composition also varies, from ice-rich to lunar-like to chondritic.Nearly every asteroid we see today, whether of primitive or evolved compositions, is the product of a complex history involving accretion and one or more episodes of catastrophic disruption that sometimes resulted in families of smaller asteroids that have distinct and indicative petrogenic relationships. These families provide the best data to study the impact disruption process at scales far larger than those accessible in laboratory. Tens, perhaps hundreds, of early asteroids grew large enough to thermally differentiate. Their traces are scattered pieces of their metal-rich cores and, more rarely, their mantles and crusts.Asteroids represent stages on the rocky road to planet formation. They have great stories to tell about the formation and evolution of our Solar System as well as other planetary systems: asteroid belts seem common around Sun-like stars. We will review our current knowledge on their properties, their link to

  11. Origins of The Paleolandslide of Tarapaca (north Chile, Andean Belt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrozes, J.; Pinto, L.; Ingles, J.; Soula, J.-C.; Maire, E.; Courjault-Radé, P.; Hérail, G.

    Landslides are an important and potentially rate-limiting process in the topographic evolution of active orogens like the Andean Belt. Various processes are responsi- ble for triggering landslides, including hillslope baselevel lowering, seismic events (Keefer, 1999); climate changes (Coriminas and Moya, 1999), anthropic effects (Sah and Mazari, 1998) and each of these triggers may be spatially heterogeneous in strength and effectiveness. Present work seeks to identify and constrain the domi- nant mechanism of a Tarapaca PaleoLandslide in order to determine the influence of the overall tectonic uplift of the Andean belt, and the seismicity of the area. The zone of interest is located near Iquique, along the Atacama Desert in the Tarapaca (N. Chile) domain (1955S, 6935W). The climate of the region became dry at 15 Ma (Gregory-Wodzicki, 2000) and remain today one of driest in the world. One of the most significant characteristic of the Atacama Desert landslides is to be located on the western limb of N-S trending flexures. At Tarapaca, the studied landslide is located on the front limb of a fault propagation anticline, the Moquella flexure, of Cenozoic age. The slope in this part increases weakly to reach a value close to 10 degrees. The main scarp of Tarapaca landslide has a length of ≈ 7 km and an elevation close to 200 m. This corresponds to the thickness of an ignimbritic formation which constitutes the load of the landslide. As in most of the Atacama desert, the lateral boundaries of the landslide are two antecedent paleorivers (Suca &Lataguella) which created free edges to the landslide and thus greatly facilitating landsliding. A smaller secondary landslide formed in the foot zone because of the local increase in the slope, which was responsible for the instability of the overlapping mass. The analysis of the safety factor and morphologic features shows that weathering, uplift, water pressure and load are not enough important for creating the slide. It is

  12. Analysis of tensile strain enhancement in Ge nano-belts on an insulator surrounded by dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wei-Fang; Li Cheng; Huang Shi-Hao; Lin Guang-Yang; Wang Chen; Yan Guang-Ming; Huang Wei; Lai Hong-Kai; Chen Song-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Ge nano-belts with large tensile strain are considered as one of the promising materials for high carrier mobility metal—oxide—semiconductor transistors and efficient photonic devices. In this paper, we design the Ge nano-belts on an insulator surrounded by Si 3 N 4 or SiO 2 for improving their tensile strain and simulate the strain profiles by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The width and thickness parameters of Ge nano-belts on an insulator, which have great effects on the strain profile, are optimized. A large uniaxial tensile strain of 1.16% in 50-nm width and 12-nm thickness Ge nano-belts with the sidewalls protected by Si 3 N 4 is achieved after thermal treatments, which would significantly tailor the band gap structures of Ge-nanobelts to realize the high performance devices. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Niihau, Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Niihau in the Main...

  14. Idealized debris flow in flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Chen, Cheng-lung

    1989-01-01

    The generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model is used to derive the theoretical expressions of two-dimensional velocities and surface profile for debris flow established in a flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt. The rheological parameters of the GVF model are evaluated through the comparison of theoretical results with measured data. A slip velocity of the established (steady) nonuniform flow on the moving bed (i.e., the conveyor belt) is observed, and a relation between the slip velocity and the velocity gradient at the bed is derived. Two belts, one rough and the other smooth, were tested. The flow profile in the flume is found to be linear and dependent on the roughness of the belt, but not much on its speed.

  15. Motivating signage prompts safety belt use among drivers exiting senior communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B S; Cox, A B; Cox, D J

    2000-01-01

    Senior drivers are vulnerable to automobile crashes and subsequent injury and death. Safety belts reduce health risks associated with auto crashes. Therefore, it is important to encourage senior drivers to wear safety belts while driving. Using an AB design, replicated five times, we evaluated the short- and long-term effects of a sign with the message "BUCKLE UP, STAY SAFE" attached to a stop sign at the exits of five different senior communities. Safety belt use was stable during two pretreatment assessments averaged across the five sites and 250 drivers (72% and 68% usage), but significantly increased following installation of these signs (94% usage). Six months after installation of the signs, the effect persisted (88% usage). Use of such signs may be a cost-effective way of promoting safety belt use.

  16. Detailed Characteristics of Radiation Belt Electrons Revealed by CSSWE/REPTile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Gerhardt, D. T.; Millan, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The outer radiation belt electrons are highly dynamic. We study the detailed characteristics of the relativistic electrons in the outer belt using measurements from the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) mission, a low Earth orbit Cubesat, which transverses the radiation belt four times in one orbit ( 1.5 hr) and has the advantage of measuring the dynamic activities of the electrons including their rapid precipitations. Among the features of the relativistic electrons, we show the measured electron distribution as a function of geomagnetic activities and local magnetic field strength. Moreover, a specific precipitation band, which happened on 19 Jan 2013, is investigated based on the conjunctive measurement of CSSWE and the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL). In this precipitation band event, the net loss of the 0.58 1.63 MeV electrons (L=3.5 6) is estimated to account for 6.84% of the total electron content.

  17. Increasing seat belt use through state-level demonstration projects : a compendium of initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts and results from four of six State-level demonstration projects supported with cooperative agreements from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The projects were intended to increase seat belt use sta...

  18. Expanding the seat belt program strategies toolbox: a starter kit for trying new program ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore alternative strategies for increasing seat belt use. Researchers examined behavior : change strategies proven effective in education, healthcare, advertising, and marketing, and they considered how these : ...

  19. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Kure Atoll 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in October,...

  20. The effectiveness of automatic belts in reducing fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C E

    1989-12-01

    Toyota Cressidas have had motor driven automatic belts since 1981. Their observed use rates have been consistently close to 100%. This paper compares fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas with those in the similar Nissan Maximas (which are equipped with three-point manual belts) using the latest data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System. After making adjustments for differences in the average ages of front seat occupants of the two fleets, the Toyotas have a fatality rate that is about three-quarters that of the Nissans. From this, the fatality-reducing effectiveness for the Toyota automatic belts is estimated to be 40% with an uncertainty of +/- 8%. This effectiveness estimate is consistent with earlier estimates of automatic belt effectiveness.

  1. Safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Martínez-Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows noticeably high prevalence of people not wearing safety belt in the rear seats. Moreover, four out of one hundred drivers still use the mobile phone while driving during a moment of the trip.

  2. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Johnston Island, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Johnston Island in...

  3. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Guam, Marianas Archipelago, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at Guam in the Marianas...

  4. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  5. A reappraisal of polymetamorphism in the Eastern Ghats belt – A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. ∗e-mail address: ...... tributed to the improvement of the manuscript. .... logical evolution of the Proterozoic Eastern Ghats Mobile. Belt; Geol.

  6. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Alamagan, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Alamagan in the...

  7. Watershed regressions for pesticides (WARP) for predicting atrazine concentration in Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, can be improved for application to the U.S. Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include important watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for predicting annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. All streams used in development of WARP-CB models drain watersheds with atrazine use intensity greater than 17 kilograms per square kilometer (kg/km2). The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62 percent of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites.

  8. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-08-01

    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. Here we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. These results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  9. Synthetic approaches to aromatic belts: building up strain in macrocyclic polyarenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David; Shenhar, Roy; Rabinovitz, Mordecai

    2010-08-01

    This tutorial review discusses synthetic strategies towards aromatic belts, defined here as double-stranded conjugated macrocycles, such as [n]cyclacenes, [n]cyclophenacenes, Schlüter belt, and Vögtle belt. Their appeal stems, firstly, from the unique nature of their conjugation, having p orbitals oriented radially rather than perpendicular to the plane of the macrocycle. Secondly, as aromatic belts are model compounds of carbon nanotubes of different chiralities, a synthetic strategy towards the buildup of structural strain in these compounds could finally open a route towards rational chemical synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The elusiveness of these compounds has stimulated fascinating and ingenious synthetic strategies over the last decades. The various strategies are classified here by their approach to the buildup of structural strain, which is the main obstacle in the preparation of these curved polyarenes.

  10. Model predictive control based on reduced order models applied to belt conveyor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xin

    2016-11-01

    In the paper, a model predictive controller based on reduced order model is proposed to control belt conveyor system, which is an electro-mechanics complex system with long visco-elastic body. Firstly, in order to design low-degree controller, the balanced truncation method is used for belt conveyor model reduction. Secondly, MPC algorithm based on reduced order model for belt conveyor system is presented. Because of the error bound between the full-order model and reduced order model, two Kalman state estimators are applied in the control scheme to achieve better system performance. Finally, the simulation experiments are shown that balanced truncation method can significantly reduce the model order with high-accuracy and model predictive control based on reduced-model performs well in controlling the belt conveyor system. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFICIENCY INCREASING OF BELT CONVEYOR’S DRIVE BY CERAMIC LAGGING OF DRIVING PULLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef JURMAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In any point of the belt contact with the drum a relative speed compensation takes place that is carried out by a slippage even when the relevant contact spots are fairly clean and dry. This leads to heat generation that is being absorbed by both materials involved – by the belt as well as by the drum. Unlike the belt, the drum lagging would increase its temperature up to a certain limit that depends on number of factors. When the lagging surface temperature is reaching appx. 60°C some structural changes in the lagging material take place and further rise of temperature can create a risk of belt inflammation and destruction of the driving unit. This can be avoided by lagging the drum with new materials that eliminate any friction on the contact surfaces and that are heat resistant.

  12. Investigation into the effect of common factors on rolling resistance of belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since indentation rolling resistance accounts for the major part of total resistance of belt conveyor, it is important to compute it using a proper method during the design and application study of the belt conveyor. First, an approximate formula for computing the indentation rolling resistance is offered. In this formula, a one-dimensional Winkler foundation and a three-parameter viscoelastic Maxwell solid model of the belt backing material are used to determine the resistance to motion of a conveyor belt over idlers. With the help of this formula, the authors analyze the effect of common factors on the rolling resistance. Finally, experiments are carried out under certain condition compared with theoretical analysis. A reasonable correlation exists between the experimental results and the theoretical formulae.

  13. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2012 state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012....

  14. [Strategy programming for acupuncture development along One-Belt-One-Road countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyang; Shen, Zhixiang; Wu, Zhongchao; Luo, Lu; Liu, Jingyuan; Liu, Baoyan

    2017-04-12

    Acupuncture has been applied in 183 countries and regions and gradually become a name card as TCM spreads across the world. The international influence of which plays a significant role in enhancing TCM development. The laws and regulations of TCM acupuncture along One-Belt-One-Road countries were compared and analyzed in this article. With comprehensive research and analysis, the international development strategy of acupuncture was rationally proposed. Combined with the historical background of China's national initiative One-Belt-One-Road, the acupuncture was taken as a breakthrough to lead the global spreading of TCM culture and Chinese herbs, so as to enhance China's soft strength, which could further create a fine cultural environment for the economic prosperity of One-Belt-One-Road countries. In addition, the strategy selection for China regarding TCM acupuncture development along One-Belt-One-Road countries was proposed, and the suggestive solution and implementation strategy for the essential missions and significant issues were provided.

  15. Linking the collisional history of the main asteroid belt to its dynamical excitation and depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William F.; Durda, Daniel D.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Levison, Harold F.

    2005-12-01

    The main belt is believed to have originally contained an Earth mass or more of material, enough to allow the asteroids to accrete on relatively short timescales. The present-day main belt, however, only contains ˜5×10 Earth masses. Numerical simulations suggest that this mass loss can be explained by the dynamical depletion of main belt material via gravitational perturbations from planetary embryos and a newly-formed Jupiter. To explore this scenario, we combined dynamical results from Petit et al. [Petit, J. Morbidelli, A., Chambers, J., 2001. The primordial excitation and clearing of the asteroid belt. Icarus 153, 338-347] with a collisional evolution code capable of tracking how the main belt undergoes comminution and dynamical depletion over 4.6 Gyr [Bottke, W.F., Durda, D., Nesvorny, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H., 2005. The fossilized size distribution of the main asteroid belt. Icarus 175, 111-140]. Our results were constrained by the main belt's size-frequency distribution, the number of asteroid families produced by disruption events from diameter D>100 km parent bodies over the last 3-4 Gyr, the presence of a single large impact crater on Vesta's intact basaltic crust, and the relatively constant lunar and terrestrial impactor flux over the last 3 Gyr. We used our model to set limits on the initial size of the main belt as well as Jupiter's formation time. We find the most likely formation time for Jupiter was 3.3±2.6 Myr after the onset of fragmentation in the main belt. These results are consistent with the estimated mean disk lifetime of 3 Myr predicted by Haisch et al. [Haisch, K.E., Lada, E.A., Lada, C.J., 2001. Disk frequencies and lifetimes in young clusters. Astrophys. J. 553, L153-L156]. The post-accretion main belt population, in the form of diameter D≲1000 km planetesimals, was likely to have been 160±40 times the current main belt's mass. This corresponds to 0.06-0.1 Earth masses, only a small fraction

  16. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Phase I of this project identified two States, Florida and Tennessee, that maintain information on drivers traffic violations and residency status. : Phase II analyzed State databases to examine seat belt nonuse, DWI, and other traffic safety viol...

  17. The 2007 click it or ticket high-visibility seat belt mobilization : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    In May 2007 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : sponsored the fifth national Click It or Ticket (CIOT) : high-visibility seat belt enforcement mobilization, which followed : the CIOT program model of earned and paid media : publicizi...

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Sarigan Island, CNMI, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Sarigan in the...

  19. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Tatsumi Reef, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Tatsumi Reef in the...

  20. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Swains Atoll, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Swains Atoll in...

  1. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Saipan Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites at Saipan in the...

  2. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  3. Evaluation of the May 2005 Click It or Ticket mobilization to increase seat belt use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) is an intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement program. The CIOT May 2005 Mobilization involved approximately $33 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the Nation reported issuing mo...

  4. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chang; Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. In this paper, we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. Finally, these results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  5. Changes in Shotokan karate black-belt Heian kata performance times: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, C; Lawrence, J M; Moran, P

    1999-12-01

    10 experienced black-belt subjects were individually timed on each of the five Heian kata and then timed again four years later. Performance time increased significantly in four of the kata, and this was interpreted as a positive progression.

  6. Isotopic evidence for two neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic events in the Brazilia belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Piuzanna, Danielle; Moraes, Renato de; Gioia, Simone Maria C.L

    2001-01-01

    The Brasilia Belt is part of a Brasiliano/Pan African orogen developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons. The stabilization of the belt occurred after the last metamorphic event at ca. 620 Ma. There has been increasing geochronological evidence, however, for an older Neoproterozoic metamorphic event at ca. 780 Ma, observed mainly in high grade rocks of three large mafic-ultramafic complexes in the northern part of the belt. In this study we present: (i) new U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronological data, (ii) a review of the existing metamorphic ages in the Brasilia Belt, and (iii) a discussion on the tectonic model to explain the two Neoproterozoic metamorphic ages (au)

  7. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rota, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the Marianas...

  8. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rota Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the...

  9. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Saipan, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Saipan in the Marianas...

  10. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAS), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Howland in the Pacific...

  11. Belt deviation and its solution of belt weighing feeder machine%皮带称重绐料机皮带跑偏问题殁对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣轩

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the reasons of common belt deviation problems during the using of belt weighing feeder machine, and combining practical work experience, proposed its solutions.%本文就皮带称重给料机在使用过程中常见的皮带跑偏问题进行了原因分析,并结合本人多年的工作实践经验,提出其相应的解决办法。

  12. Application of the method finite elements by numerical modeling stress-strain state in conveyor belts

    OpenAIRE

    Maras Michal; Hatala Jozef; Marasová Daniela

    1997-01-01

    Solving problems connected with damaging a conveyor belt at the transfer points is conditioned by knowing laws of this phenomenon. Acquiring the knowledge on this phenomen is possible to be gained either by experimental research or by the numerical model GEM 22, which enables to determine the distribution of stresses and strains in a suitably selected cross-section of a conveyor belt. The paper begins by defining the problem, determining the boundary model conditions and continues by modellin...

  13. Device for determining the content of bulk materials on conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, D.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of the forward scattering of photon radiation the invention is aimed at determining the content of bulk material, in particular the ash content of lignite, independently of the height of the material conveyed by belts. This could be achieved by making the radiation source support movable, so that the distance between source and conveyor belt is variable and adaptable to the mean height of the bulk material

  14. Efficacy of ultraviolet light exposure against survival of Listeria monocytogenes on conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Amit; McKee, Shelly R; Dickson, James S; Singh, Manpreet

    2010-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been repeatedly isolated from foods and food-processing facilities including food contact surfaces such as conveyor belts (CB). CBs are often difficult to clean and require rigorous sanitation programs for decontamination. Ultraviolet (UV) light has exhibited microbicidal properties on food contact surfaces and this study was conducted to determine the efficacy of UV against L. monocytogenes on CB made of different materials. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 3A, 4A, 4B, and 4C) was made to give a suspension of approximately 10(7) CFU/mL. CBs made from four different types of materials, (1) Ropanyl DM 8/2 A2 + 04 (belt 1), (2) Volta FRMW-3.0 (belt 2), (3) Volta FRMB-3.0 (belt 3), and (4) Ropanyl DM (belt 4), were inoculated with 1 mL of the four-strain cocktail (approximately 10(7) CFU/mL) of the bacterial suspension. CBs were treated with UV light (254 nm) for 1 and 3 sec at 5.53 and 5.95 mW/cm(2). Three replications of the experiments were conducted. Two-way analysis of variance of survival populations of L. monocytogenes showed that bacterial counts were significantly reduced (p belt types irrespective of UV light intensities and times of exposure. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced (p belts 1, 2, and 3 after exposure to 5.95 mW/cm(2) UV light intensity for 3 sec. L. monocytogenes-inoculated CBs that were exposed to 5.53 mW/cm(2) showed higher (p Belt 4 showed survival populations of L. monocytogenes ranging from 1.42 to 1.73 log(10) CFU/cm(2) after UV light treatment for 1 and 3 sec. UV light can be effectively used to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination on CBs.

  15. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL NUMBER AND LOCATION FOR STEEL OUTRIGGER-BELT TRUSS SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDI BABAEI

    2017-01-01

    During the past two decades, outrigger-belt truss system has been investigated and used in design of tall buildings. Most of the studies focused on the optimization of the system for minimum displacement and some of them proposed the best locations. In this study, however, multi-objective optimization of tall steel frames with belt trusses is investigated to minimize displacement and weight of the structure. For this purpose, structures with 20, 30, 40, and 50 stories are considered as ...

  16. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegyi Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to opposite tabs located at the electrode belt ends. The slide was connected to a leaf spring, to which were bonded two piezoresistive transducers in a half-bridge circuit configuration. The device was tested for linearity and calibrated. The effect on infant respiratory function of constant belt tension in the normal range (30 g–90 g was determined. Results The mechanical response to a step input was second order (fn = 401 Hz, ζ = 0.08. The relationship between applied tension and output voltage was linear in the range 25–225 gm of applied tension (r2 = 0.99. Measured device sensitivity was 2.18 mV/gm tension using a 5 V bridge excitation voltage. When belt tension was increased in the normal range from 30 gm to 90 gm, there was no significant change in heart rate and most respiratory functions during monitoring. At an intermediate level of tension of 50 gm, pulmonary resistance and work of breathing significantly decreased. Conclusion The mechanical and electrical design of a device for monitoring electrocardiogram electrode belt tension is described. Within the typical range of application tension, cardiovascular and respiratory function are not substantially negatively affected by electrode belt force.

  17. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Hiatt, Mark; Hegyi, Thomas; Drzewiecki, Gary M

    2007-04-19

    Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to opposite tabs located at the electrode belt ends. The slide was connected to a leaf spring, to which were bonded two piezoresistive transducers in a half-bridge circuit configuration. The device was tested for linearity and calibrated. The effect on infant respiratory function of constant belt tension in the normal range (30 g-90 g) was determined. The mechanical response to a step input was second order (fn = 401 Hz, zeta = 0.08). The relationship between applied tension and output voltage was linear in the range 25-225 gm of applied tension (r2 = 0.99). Measured device sensitivity was 2.18 mV/gm tension using a 5 V bridge excitation voltage. When belt tension was increased in the normal range from 30 gm to 90 gm, there was no significant change in heart rate and most respiratory functions during monitoring. At an intermediate level of tension of 50 gm, pulmonary resistance and work of breathing significantly decreased. The mechanical and electrical design of a device for monitoring electrocardiogram electrode belt tension is described. Within the typical range of application tension, cardiovascular and respiratory function are not substantially negatively affected by electrode belt force.

  18. Fracture behavior of rubber powder modified rubber blends applied for conveying belt top covers

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Stocek, Radek; Gehde, Michael; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang; Kipscholl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is concentrated on the experimental investigation of wear resistance of rubber powder modified rubber blends. Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) blends applied for conveying belt top covers have been modified by ground rubber (rubber powder) based on SBR. We theoretically described the rubber wear mechanism due to loading conditions occurring at conveyor belts in the field, to simulate wear behavior of top cover rubber materials. An own developed testing equipment based on g...

  19. MEASURING RESULTS NUMERAL TREATMENT OF IMPULSIVE CURRENTS BY MEANS OF ROGOVSKY BELT APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Batygin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of numerical processing of measurement results of pulse currents by means of Rogovsky belt application is offered in the given work. It is shown that at measurement of signals by digital oscillographs and further numerical transformation of target signals, the possibilities of Rogovsky belt without the application of additional devices that in turn allows to define parameters of pulse currents with any peak-time characteristics essentially expand.

  20. Belt Buckles-Increasing Awareness of Nickel Exposure in Children: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Alina; Admani, Shehla; Pelletier, Janice L; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-09-01

    Children, especially those with atopic dermatitis, are at risk for nickel sensitization and subsequent dermatitis from metal-containing objects, namely belt buckles. We describe allergic contact dermatitis in 12 children with peri-umbilical nickel dermatitis (with and without generalized involvement) caused by dimethylglyoxime-positive belt buckles. The patients' symptoms resolved with avoidance of the nickel-containing products. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.