Sample records for z2 cn 18-10


    Petesch, B.; Sakout, A.; LAURENT M.; M. Robin


    Le soudage d'un acier Z 2 CN 18 par faisceau laser a été étudié. L'influence principaux paramètres vitesse, puissance, focalisation a été examinée. Les moyens classiques de caractérisation des soudures ont été utilisées : observations métallographiques forme de la zone fondue, quantité de porosités et énergie absorbée. Le maximum de pénétration correspond au maximum d'énergie absorbée.

  2. A phenomenological study of initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks. Application to AISI 304L stainless steel in magnesium chloride; Etude phenomenologique de l`amorcage et de la propagation de fissures de corrosion sous contraintes. Application a l`acier inoxydable Z 2CN 18.10 dans le chlorure de magnesium

    Peyrat, C.; Raquet, O.; Helie, M.; Santarini, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Service de la Corrosion, d`Electrochimie et Chimie des Fluides


    A purely phenomenological study of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) was performed using the couple AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel/boiling magnesium chloride aqueous solution. The exploitation of the morphological information (shape of the cracks and size distribution) available after constant elongation rate tests led to the apparent initiation of the cracks and to their growth rate. A law for the real initiation is proposed too and the elongation rate effect in quantitatively characterized. (authors) 8 refs.

  3. Exceptional (Z/2Z) x (Z/2Z)-symmetric spaces


    The notion of (Z/2Z) x (Z/2Z)-symmetric spaces is a generalization of classical symmetric spaces, where the group Z/2Z is replaced by (Z/2Z) x (Z/2Z). In this article, a classification is given of the (Z/2Z) x (Z/2Z)-symmetric spaces G/K where G is an exceptional compact Lie group or Spin(8), complementing recent results of Bahturin and Goze. Our results are equivalent to a classification of (Z/2Z) x (Z/2Z)-gradings on the exceptional simple Lie algebras e6, e7, e8, f4, g2 and so(8).

  4. Z2+uZ2+u2Z2上的斜循环码%Skew cyclic codes over the ring Z2 +uZ2 +u2Z2

    李锦; 朱士信


    文章研究的是环R=Z2 +uZ2 +u2Z2上一类广义的循环码——斜循环码;首先利用环R构造了一个非交换的多项式环R[x,θ],然后讨论了R上斜循环码与Rn=R[X,θ]/(Xn-1)左理想的关系,给出了斜循环码的生成多项式,以及环R上斜循环码是可逆码的充要条件,并考虑了斜循环码的对偶码.%This paper studies a class of generalized cyclic codes over the ring R=Z2+uZ2+m2Z2, which are called skew cyclic codes. The ring R is used to construct a noncommutative skew polynomial ring R[x,θ]. Then the relation between the skew cyclic codes over the ring R and the left ideal as Rn=R [X,θ]/(Xn - 1) is studied, and the generator polynomial of the skew cyclic codes is given. The necessary and sufficient condition for a skew cyclic code to be a reversible code is introduced,and the dual codes of the skew cyclic codes are discussed.

  5. The Radiative Z2 Breaking Twin Higgs

    Yu, Jiang-Hao


    In twin Higgs model, the Higgs boson mass is protected by a $Z_2$ symmetry. The $Z_2$ symmetry needs to be broken either explicitly or spontaneously to obtain misalignment between electroweak and new physics vacua. We propose a novel $Z_2$ breaking mechanism, in which the $Z_2$ is spontaneously broken by radiative corrections to the Higgs potential. Two twin Higgses with different vacua are needed, and vacuum misalignment is realized by opposite but comparable contributions from gauge and Yukawa interactions to the potential. Due to fully radiative symmetry breaking, the Higgs sector is completely determined by twin Higgs vacuum, Yukawa and gauge couplings. There are eight pseudo-Goldstone bosons: the Higgs boson, inert doublet Higgs, and three twin scalars. We show the 125 GeV Higgs mass and constraints from Higgs coupling measurements could be satisfied.

  6. Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.


    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion the Z-2 will be tested in the 11 foot human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' that the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model.

  7. Minimal extension of tri-bimaximal mixing and generalized Z_2 X Z_2 symmetries

    Gupta, Shivani; Patel, Ketan M


    We discuss consequences of combining the effective $Z_2\\times Z_2$ symmetry of the tri-bimaximal neutrino mass matrix with the CP symmetry. Imposition of such generalized $Z_2\\times Z_2$ symmetries leads to predictive neutrino mass matrices determined in terms of only four parameters and leads to non-zero $\\theta_{13}$ and maximal atmospheric mixing angle and CP violating phase. It is shown that an effective generalized $Z_2\\times Z_2$ symmetry of the mass matrix can arise from the $A_4$ symmetry with specific vacuum alignment. The neutrino mass matrix in the considered model has only three real parameters and leads to determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale as a function of the reactor angle $\\theta_{13}$.




    We analyze bifurcations occurring in the vicinity of a homoclinic twist point for a generic two-parameter family of Z2 equivariant ODEs in four dimensions. The results are compared with numerical results for a system of two coupled Josephson junctions with pure capacitive load.

  9. Scaling theory of {{{Z}}_{2}} topological invariants

    Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Schnyder, Andreas P.


    For inversion-symmetric topological insulators and superconductors characterized by {{{Z}}2} topological invariants, two scaling schemes are proposed to judge topological phase transitions driven by an energy parameter. The scaling schemes renormalize either the phase gradient or the second derivative of the Pfaffian of the time-reversal operator, through which the renormalization group flow of the driving energy parameter can be obtained. The Pfaffian near the time-reversal invariant momentum is revealed to display a universal critical behavior for a great variety of models examined.

  10. 12 CFR 18.10 - Prohibited conduct and penalties.


    ... statement. (b) For purposes of this part, institution-affiliated party means: (1) Any director, officer... FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION BY NATIONAL BANKS § 18.10 Prohibited conduct and penalties. (a) No national... disclosed false or misleading information in the annual disclosure statement, or omit or cause the...

  11. Forming Compact Massive Galaxies at z~2

    van Dokkum, Pieter G; Franx, Marijn; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Skelton, Rosalind E; Whitaker, Katherine E; van der Wel, Arjen; Bezanson, Rachel; Fumagalli, Mattia; Kriek, Mariska; Leja, Joel; Wuyts, Stijn


    In this paper we study a key phase in the formation of massive galaxies: the transition of star forming galaxies into massive (M_stars~10^11 Msun), compact (r_e~1 kpc) quiescent galaxies, which takes place from z~3 to z~1.5. We use HST grism redshifts and extensive photometry in all five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields, more than doubling the area used previously for such studies, and combine these data with Keck MOSFIRE and NIRSPEC spectroscopy. We first confirm that a population of massive, compact, star forming galaxies exists at z~2, using K-band spectroscopy of 25 of these objects at 2.0<z<2.5. They have a median NII/Halpha ratio of 0.6, are highly obscured with SFR(tot)/SFR(Halpha)~10, and have a large range of observed velocity dispersions. We infer from the kinematics and spatial distribution of Halpha that the galaxies have rotating disks of ionized gas that are a factor of ~2 more extended than the stellar distribution. By combining measurements of individual galaxies, we find that the kinematics are co...

  12. Thick brane solitons breaking $Z_2$ symmetry

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Lobo, Francisco S N


    New soliton solutions for thick branes in 4 + 1 dimensions are considered in this article. In particular, brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), $\\varphi^{4}$ and $\\varphi^{6}$ scalar fields are investigated; in some cases $Z_{2}$ symmetry is broken. Besides, these soliton solutions are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. In these models, the origin of the symmetry breaking resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacuua and these non-degenerate vacuua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. At last, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane, the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension are studied.

  13. CN rotational excitation

    Palazzi, E.; Mandolesi, N.; Crane, Philippe


    We report the results of a search for new lines of sight in which to study the CN excitation and a statistical analysis of all the excitation temperatures measured using interstellar CN. This data set strongly confirms that the cosmic background radiation (CBR) is the dominant contributor to the excitation of CN, and demonstrates the homogeneity of the CBR. Thirty-five observations is a sufficiently large sample to look for the presence of systematic effects in the CN excitation. The weighted average of the CN excitation temperatures exceeds the T(CBR) obtained by COBE and the Canadian rocket by 82 +/- 30 mK. With the aim of looking at the origin of this difference, we have considered in detail the known mechanisms that could contribute to exciting the CN molecule. None of the data necessary to quantify these mechanisms are of sufficient quality to provide a clean explanation of the observed difference.

  14. Excitation Potentials and Shell Corrections for the Elements Z2=20 to Z2=30

    Andersen, H.H.; Sørensen, H.; Vadja, P.


    Excitation potentials and shell corrections for the elements Z 2=20 to Z2=30 are evaluated from experimental stopping-power data for 5-12-MeV protons and deuterons. Use is made of Walske's K- and L-shell corrections and shell corrections calculated by Bonderup (1967) on the basis of the Thomas-Fe...... are found by means of Bonderup's shell corrections. Within the Z2 interval treated here, it is found that I/Z2 increases with increasing Z2, contrary to the general trend through the periodic system of elements......Excitation potentials and shell corrections for the elements Z 2=20 to Z2=30 are evaluated from experimental stopping-power data for 5-12-MeV protons and deuterons. Use is made of Walske's K- and L-shell corrections and shell corrections calculated by Bonderup (1967) on the basis of the Thomas...

  15. Left-Right Symmetric Model from Geometrical Formulation of Gauge Theory in $M_{4} \\times Z_{2} \\times Z_{2}$

    Konisi, G; Mäki, Z; Nakahara, M


    The left-right symmetric model (LRSM) with gauge group $SU(2)_{L} \\times SU(2)_{R} \\times U(1)_{B-L}$ is reconstructed from the geometric formulation of gauge theory in $M_4 \\times Z_2 \\times Z_2$ where $M_4$ is the four-dimensional Minkowski space and $Z_2 \\times Z_2$ the discrete space with four points. The geometrical structure of this model becomes clearer compared with other works based on noncommutative geometry. As a result, the Yukawa coupling terms and the Higgs potential are derived in more restricted forms than in the standard LRSM.

  16. T he Diophantine equation p x+ qy= z2%Diophantine方程px+qy=z2

    李玲; 李小雪


    设 p和q是两个奇素数,且 p< q .B .Sroysang证明了如果(p ,q)=(7,19)或(7,31),则方程 px+ qy= z2没有正整数解(x ,y ,z).为了研究这个问题,运用初等方法和指数Diophantine方程的一些性质,证明了一个一般结果,即如果 p+ q≡2(mod4)和(q|p)=-1,则方程有唯一的正整数解(p ,q ,x ,y ,z)=(3,11,5,4,122),其中(q|p)表示Legendre符号.%Let p and q be two odd primes with p< q .Recently ,B .Sroysang proved that if (p ,q)= (7 ,19) or (7 ,31) ,then the equation px+ qy= z2 has no positive integer solutions (x ,y ,z) .In order to study this problem ,by using the elementary number theory methods and the properties of some exponential Diophantine equation ,a general result is proved that if p+ q≡2(mod4) and (q|p)= -1 ,w here (q|p) denotes the Legendre symbol ,then the equation has only the positive integer solution (p ,q ,x ,y ,z)= (3 ,11 ,5 ,4 ,122) .

  17. Codis Z2Z4-additius en Magma

    Gastón Brasó, Bernat


    En aquest projecte es presenta el desenvolupament d'un paquet d'aplicacions en l'entorn de programació matemàtica Magma, per al tractament dels codis anomenats Z2Z4-additius. Els codis Z2Z4-additius permeten representar alguns codis binaris, com a codis lineals en l'espai dels codis Z2Z4-additius. Aquest fet permetrà l'estudi de tota una sèrie de codis binaris no lineals que fins ara eren intractables. En este proyecto se presenta el desarrollo de un paquete de aplicaciones en el entorno d...

  18. $Z_{2}$-Regge versus Standard Regge Calculus in two dimensions

    Bittner, E R; Markum, H; Riedler, J; Holm, C; Janke, W


    We consider two versions of quantum Regge calculus. The Standard Regge Calculus where the quadratic link lengths of the simplicial manifold vary continuously and the Z_2-Regge Model where they are restricted to two possible values. The goal is to determine whether the computationally more easily accessible Z_2 model still retains the universal characteristics of standard Regge theory in two dimensions. In order to compare observables such as average curvature or Liouville field susceptibility, we use in both models the same functional integration measure, which is chosen to render the Z_2-Regge Model particularly simple. Expectation values are computed numerically and agree qualitatively for positive bare couplings. The phase transition within the Z_2-Regge Model is analyzed by mean-field theory.

  19. Deforming D-brane models on $T^6/(\\mathbb{Z}_2 \\times \\mathbb{Z}_{2M})$ orbifolds

    Koltermann, Isabel; Honecker, Gabriele


    We review the stabilisation of complex structure moduli in Type IIA orientifolds, especially on $T^6 / (\\mathbb{Z}_2 \\times \\mathbb{Z}_6^\\prime \\times \\Omega \\mathcal{R})$ with discrete torsion, via deformations of $\\mathbb{Z}_2 \\times \\mathbb{Z}_2$ orbifold singularities. While D6-branes in SO(2N) and USp(2N) models always preserve supersymmetry and thus give rise to flat directions, in an exemplary Pati-Salam model with only U(N) gauge groups ten out of the 15 deformation moduli can be stabilised at the orbifold point.

  20. Solutions for Intersecting Domain Walls with Internal Structure in Six Dimensions from a Z_2 x Z_2-invariant Action

    Callen, Benjamin D


    We present a generic Z_2 x Z_2-invariant scalar field theory with four real scalar fields in six-dimensional Minkowskian spacetime which yields solutions consisting of two intersecting domain-wall kinks which are each paired by fields with lump-like profiles. For a special parameter choice, analytic solutions can be obtained. We show that the Z_2 x Z_2 symmetry can be maintained while coupling fermions by introducing scalar Yukawa couplings to one kink-lump pair and six-dimensional pseudoscalar Yukawa couplings to the other, and we show that there exists a zero mode localized to the domain-wall junction in this case. We also show that scalar fields can be localized.

  1. 36 CFR 18.10 - How long can the term of a lease be?


    ... financial obligations of the lessee and other factors related to determining an appropriate lease term. No... lease be? 18.10 Section 18.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LEASING OF PROPERTIES IN PARK AREAS § 18.10 How long can the term of a lease be?...

  2. The Z_2 -Orbifold of the W_3-Algebra

    Al-Ali, Masoumah; Linshaw, Andrew R.


    The Zamolodchikov W_3-algebra W^c_3 with central charge c has full automorphism group Z_2. It was conjectured in the physics literature over 20 years ago that the orbifold (W^c_3)^{Z_2} is of type W(2,6,8,10,12) for generic values of c. We prove this conjecture for all c ≠ 559 ± 7 √{76657}/95, and we show that for these two values, the orbifold is of type W(2,6,8,10,12,14). This paper is part of a larger program of studying orbifolds and cosets of vertex algebras that depend continuously on a parameter. Minimal strong generating sets for orbifolds and cosets are often easy to find for generic values of the parameter, but determining which values are generic is a difficult problem. In the example of (W^c_3)^{Z_2} , we solve this problem using tools from algebraic geometry.

  3. Topological classification with Z2Pack (Conference Presentation)

    Gresch, Dominik; Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Autés, Gabriel; Yazyev, Oleg; Bernevig, Bogdan A.; Vanderbilt, David H.; Troyer, Matthias


    We present a general technique for capturing various non-trivial topologies in the band structure of materials, which often arise from spin-orbit coupling. The technique is aimed at insulators and semimetals. Of insulators, Chern, Z2, and crystalline topological insulators can be identified. Of semimetals, the technique captures non-trivial topologies associated with the presence of Weyl and Dirac points in the spectrum. A public software package - Z2Pack - based on this technique will be presented. Z2Pack is an easy-to-use, well documented Python package that computes topological invariants and illustrates non-trivial features of Berry curvature. It works as a post-processing tool with all major first-principles codes, as well as with tight-binding models. As such, it can be used to investigate materials with strong spin-orbit coupling.

  4. ${\\mathbb Z}_2\\times {\\mathbb Z}_2$-graded Lie Symmetries of the L\\'evy-Leblond Equations

    Aizawa, N; Tanaka, H; Toppan, F


    The first-order differential L\\'evy-Leblond equations (LLE's) are the non-relativistic analogs of the Dirac equation, being square roots of ($1+d$)-dimensional Schr\\"odinger or heat equations. Just like the Dirac equation, the LLE's possess a natural supersymmetry. In previous works it was shown that non supersymmetric PDE's (notably, the Schr\\"odinger equations for free particles or in the presence of a harmonic potential), admit a natural ${\\mathbb Z}_2$-graded Lie symmetry. In this paper we show that, for a certain class of supersymmetric PDE's, a natural ${\\mathbb Z}_2\\times{\\mathbb Z}_2$-graded Lie symmetry appears. In particular, we exhaustively investigate the symmetries of the $(1+1)$-dimensional L\\'evy-Leblond Equations, both in the free case and for the harmonic potential. In the free case a ${\\mathbb Z}_2\\times{\\mathbb Z}_2$-graded Lie superalgebra, realized by first and second-order differential symmetry operators, is found. In the presence of a non-vanishing quadratic potential, the Schr\\"odinger...

  5. Product Perfect Z2Z4-linear codes in Steganography

    Rifa, J


    Product perfect codes have been proven to enhance the performance of the F5 steganographic method, whereas perfect Z2Z4-linear codes have been recently introduced as an efficient way to embed data, conforming to the +/-1-steganography. In this paper, we present two steganographic methods. On the one hand, a generalization of product perfect codes is made. On the other hand, this generalization is applied to perfect Z2Z4-linear codes. Finally, the performance of the proposed methods is evaluated and compared with those of the aforementioned schemes.

  6. Excitability in optical systems close to Z2-symmetry

    Beri, Stefano; Gelens, Lendert; Van der Sande, Guy; Mezosi, Gabor; Sorel, Marc; Danckaert, Jan; Verschaffelt, Guy; 10.1016/j.physleta.2009.11.070


    We report theoretically and experimentally on excitability in semiconductor ring lasers in order to reveal a mechanism of excitability, general for systems close to Z2-symmetry. The global shapes of the invariant manifolds of a saddle in the vicinity of a homoclinic loop determine the origin of excitability and the fea- tures of the excitable pulses. We show how to experimentally make a semiconductor ring laser excitable by breaking the Z2-symmetry in a controlled way. The experiments confirm the theoretical predictions.

  7. Fermion zero modes in a $Z_2$ vortex background

    Lozano, Gustavo; Schaposnik, Fidel A


    In this paper we study the zero energy solutions of the Dirac equation in the background of a $Z_2$ vortex of a non-Abelian gauge model with three charged scalar fields. We determine the number of the fermionic zero modes giving their explicit form for two specific Ansatze.

  8. Units in Z_2(C_2 × D_infinity

    Kanchan Joshi


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the group algebra R(C_2 ×D_infinity. It is shown that R(C_2 ×D_infinity can be represented by a 4 × 4 block circulant matrix. It is also shown that U(Z_2(C_2 × D_infinity isinfinitely generated

  9. Z-2 Architecture Description and Requirements Verification Results

    Graziosi, Dave; Jones, Bobby; Ferl, Jinny; Scarborough, Steve; Hewes, Linda; Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard


    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z series of spacesuits. The Z-2 is another step in NASA's technology development roadmap leading to human exploration of the Martian surface. The suit was designed for maximum mobility at 8.3 psid, reduced mass, and to have high fidelity life support interfaces. As Z-2 will be man-tested at full vacuum in NASA JSC's Chamber B, it was manufactured as Class II, making it the most flight-like planetary walking suit produced to date. The Z-2 suit architecture is an evolution of previous EVA suits, namely the ISS EMU, Mark III, Rear Entry I-Suit and Z-1 spacesuits. The suit is a hybrid hard and soft multi-bearing, rear entry spacesuit. The hard upper torso (HUT) is an all-composite structure and includes a 2-bearing rolling convolute shoulder with Vernier sizing mechanism, removable suit port interface plate (SIP), elliptical hemispherical helmet and self-don/doff shoulder harness. The hatch is a hybrid aluminum and composite construction with Apollo style gas connectors, custom water pass-thru, removable hatch cage and interfaces to primary and auxiliary life support feed water bags. The suit includes Z-1 style lower arms with cam brackets for Vernier sizing and government furnished equipment (GFE) Phase VI gloves. The lower torso includes a telescopic waist sizing system, waist bearing, rolling convolute waist joint, hard brief, 2 bearing soft hip thigh, Z-1 style legs with ISS EMU style cam brackets for sizing, and conformal walking boots with ankle bearings. The Z-2 Requirements Verification Plan includes the verification of more than 200 individual requirements. The verification methods include test, analysis, inspection, demonstration or a combination of methods. Examples of unmanned requirements include suit leakage, proof pressure testing, operational life, mass, isometric man-loads, sizing adjustment ranges, internal and external interfaces such as in-suit drink bag

  10. 22 CFR 18.10 - Service of complaint and other papers.


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of complaint and other papers. 18.10... CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.10 Service of complaint and other papers.... (b) Service of papers other than complaint. Any paper other than the complaint may be served upon...

  11. On the Erigone family and the $z_2$ secular resonance

    Carruba, Valerio; Winter, Othon C


    The Erigone family is a C-type group in the inner main belt. Its age has been estimated by several researchers to be less then 300 My, so it is a relatively young cluster. Yarko-YORP Monte Carlo methods to study the chronology of the Erigone family confirm results obtained by other groups. The Erigone family, however, is also characterized by its interaction with the $z_2$ secular resonance. While less than 15% of its members are currently in librating states of this resonance, the number of objects, members of the dynamical group, in resonant states is high enough to allow to use the study of dynamics inside the $z_2$ resonance to set constraints on the family age. Like the ${\

  12. Z2 Invariants of Topological Insulators as Geometric Obstructions

    Fiorenza, Domenico; Monaco, Domenico; Panati, Gianluca


    We consider a gapped periodic quantum system with time-reversal symmetry of fermionic (or odd) type, i.e. the time-reversal operator squares to -1. We investigate the existence of periodic and time-reversal invariant Bloch frames in dimensions 2 and 3. In 2 d, the obstruction to the existence of such a frame is shown to be encoded in a Z_2-valued topological invariant, which can be computed by a simple algorithm. We prove that the latter agrees with the Fu-Kane index. In 3 d, instead, four Z_2 invariants emerge from the construction, again related to the Fu-Kane-Mele indices. When no topological obstruction is present, we provide a constructive algorithm yielding explicitly a periodic and time-reversal invariant Bloch frame. The result is formulated in an abstract setting, so that it applies both to discrete models and to continuous ones.

  13. The Diophantine Equation 8x+py=z2

    Lan Qi


    Full Text Available Let p be a fixed odd prime. Using certain results of exponential Diophantine equations, we prove that (i if p≡±3(mod  8, then the equation 8x+py=z2 has no positive integer solutions (x,y,z; (ii if p≡7(mod  8, then the equation has only the solutions (p,x,y,z=(2q-1,(1/3(q+2,2,2q+1, where q is an odd prime with q≡1(mod  3; (iii if p≡1(mod  8 and p≠17, then the equation has at most two positive integer solutions (x,y,z.

  14. Analytic Torsion of Z_2-graded Elliptic Complexes

    Mathai, Varghese


    We define analytic torsion of Z_2-graded elliptic complexes as an element in the graded determinant line of the cohomology of the complex, generalizing most of the variants of Ray-Singer analytic torsion in the literature. It applies to a myriad of new examples, including flat superconnection complexes, twisted analytic and twisted holomorphic torsions, etc. The definition uses pseudo-differential operators and residue traces. We also study properties of analytic torsion for Z_2-graded elliptic complexes, including the behavior under variation of the metric. For compact odd dimensional manifolds, the analytic torsion is independent of the metric, whereas for even dimensional manifolds, a relative version of the analytic torsion is independent of the metric. Finally, the relation to topological field theories is studied.

  15. Stereoselective Synthesis of (Z)-2-Acylamido-4-phenylcrotonates


    Two practical methods for highly stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-2-acylamido-4-phenylcrotonates 2a~ b have been developed. The key step in the first route was how to control the acid-catalyzed isomerization of condensation mixtures of a -keto ester 5 with carbomite. In the second route the key step was reduction of oxime 8, derived from a -keto ester 5, with iron powder in the presence of acetic anhydride.

  16. The Environmental Dependence of Galaxy Properties at z=2

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Venemans, Bram; Kurk, Jaron


    We report on the environmental dependence of galaxy properties at z=2.15. We construct multi-band photometric data sets in the (proto-)cluster PKS1138-26 field and in the GOODS field. We then fit spectral energy distributions of the galaxies with model templates generated with the latest stellar population synthesis code and derive physical properties of galaxies from the fits. To quantify the environmental dependence of galaxy properties, a special care is taken of systematic errors -- we use data sets that have almost the same wavelength samplings, use the same code to fit SEDs with the same set of templates, and compare relative differences between the two samples. We find that the PKS1138 galaxies have similar ages, shorter star formation time scales, lower star formation rates, and weaker dust extinction compared to the GOODS galaxies at z~2. This trend is similar to that observed locally, suggesting that the environmental dependence of galaxy properties is already partly in place as early as z=2.15. We ...

  17. Passive galaxies as tracers of cluster environments at z~2

    Strazzullo, V; Gobat, R; Garilli, B; Mignoli, M; Valentino, F; Onodera, M; Renzini, A; Cimatti, A; Finoguenov, A; Arimoto, N; Cappellari, M; Carollo, C M; Feruglio, C; Floc'h, E Le; Lilly, S J; Maccagni, D; McCracken, H J; Moresco, M; Pozzetti, L; Zamorani, G


    Even 10 billion years ago, the cores of the first galaxy clusters are often found to host a characteristic population of massive galaxies with already suppressed star formation. Here we search for distant cluster candidates at z~2 using massive passive galaxies as tracers. With a sample of ~40 spectroscopically confirmed passive galaxies at 1.3<z<2.1, we tune photometric redshifts of several thousands passive sources in the full 2 sq.deg. COSMOS field. This allows us to map their density in redshift slices, probing the large scale structure in the COSMOS field as traced by passive sources. We report here on the three strongest passive galaxy overdensities that we identify in the redshift range 1.5<z<2.5. While the actual nature of these concentrations is still to be confirmed, we discuss their identification procedure, and the arguments supporting them as candidate galaxy clusters (likely mid-10^13 M_sun range). Although this search approach is likely biased towards more evolved structures, it has...

  18. Z(2) gauge neural network and its phase structure

    Takafuji, Yusuke; Nakano, Yuki; Matsui, Tetsuo


    We study general phase structures of neural-network models that have Z(2) local gauge symmetry. The Z(2) spin variable Si=±1 on the i-th site describes a neuron state as in the Hopfield model, and the Z(2) gauge variable J=±1 describes a state of the synaptic connection between j-th and i-th neurons. The gauge symmetry allows for a self-coupling energy among J’s such as JJJ, which describes reverberation of signals. Explicitly, we consider the three models; (I) an annealed model with full and partial connections of J, (II) a quenched model with full connections where J is treated as a slow quenched variable, and (III) a quenched three-dimensional lattice model with the nearest-neighbor connections. By numerical simulations, we examine their phase structures paying attention to the effect of the reverberation term, and compare them with each other and with the annealed 3D lattice model which has been studied beforehand. By noting the dependence of thermodynamic quantities upon the total number of sites and the connectivity among sites, we obtain a coherent interpretation to understand these results. Among other things, we find that the Higgs phase of the annealed model is separated into two stable spin-glass phases in the quenched models (II) and (III).

  19. Electronic transition CN laser

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Wittig, C.; Laudenslager, J. B.


    A 20 kW electric-discharge pumped CN laser oscillating on the A(2) Pi-X(2) Sigma molecular system is presented. Excitation is by a simple longitudinal discharge struck through HCN vapor. Twenty kW peak power is generated in a 150 nsec full-width half-maximum pulse. Two lasing bands were observed in the A-X system: the (0,1) and (0,2) bands near 1.42 and 2.0 microns respectively. Both P and Q branches are active in the two bands, with Q bands stronger. Peak laser energy is 3 mJ. Products of UV photolysis of HCN, electron impact excitation of HCN, and other possible excitation mechanisms and laser efficiency are discussed.

  20. GMASS Ultradeep Spectroscopy of Galaxies at z~2. III: The emergence of the color bimodality at z~2

    Cassata, P; Kurk, J; Rodighiero, G; Pozzetti, L; Bolzonella, M; Daddi, E; Mignoli, M; Berta, S; Dickinson, M; Franceschini, A; Halliday, C; Renzini, A; Rosati, P; Zamorani, G


    The aim of this work is to study the evolution of the rest frame color distribution of galaxies with the redshift, in particular in the critical interval 1.410.1, and we study their morphological and spectro-photometric properties. We show that the contribution to this sample of early-type galaxies, defined as galaxies with a spheroidal morphology and no star formation, decreases from 60-70% at z2 we still find red galaxies in the mass complete sample, even if the bimodality is not seen any more. About 25% of these red galaxies at z>2 are passively evolving, with the bulk of their stars formed at redshift z>`3.

  1. Exotic Hadrons and Underlying Z_{2,3} Symmetries

    Belhaj, Adil; Sedra, Moulay Brahim


    The recent observation of higher quark combinations, tetraquarks and pentaquarks, is a strong indication of more exotic hadrons. Using Z_{2} and Z_{3} symmetries and standard model data, a general quark combination producing new hadronic states is proposed in terms of polygon geometries according to the Dynkin diagrams of \\widehat{A}_{n} affine Lie algebras. It has been shown that Z_{\\mathbf{2,3}} invariance is crucial in the determination of the mesonic or the baryonic nature of these states. The hexagonal geometry is considered in some details producing both mesonic and baryonic states. A general class of this family is also presented.

  2. Z2 antiferromagnetic topological insulators with broken C4 symmetry

    Bègue, Frédéric; Pujol, Pierre; Ramazashvili, Revaz


    A two-dimensional topological insulator may arise in a centrosymmetric commensurate Néel antiferromagnet (AF), where staggered magnetization breaks both the elementary translation and time reversal, but retains their product as a symmetry. Fang et al. [6] proposed an expression for a Z2 topological invariant to characterize such systems. Here, we show that this expression does not allow to detect all the existing phases if a certain lattice symmetry is lacking. We implement numerical techniques to diagnose topological phases of a toy Hamiltonian, and verify our results by computing the Chern numbers of degenerate bands, and also by explicitly constructing the edge states, thus illustrating the efficiency of the method.

  3. CANDELS: The progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z~2

    Barro, Guillermo; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G; Koo, David C; Williams, Christina C; Kocevski, Dale D; Trump, Jonathan R; Mozena, Mark; McGrath, Elizabeth; van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F; Croton, Darren J; Dekel, Avishai; Ashby, M L N; Ferguson, Henry C; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grogin, Norman A; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P; Hopkins, Philip F; Huang, Kuang-Han; Koekemoer, Anton M; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Newman, Jeffrey A; Porter, Lauren A; Primack, Joel R; Ryan, Russell E; Rosario, David; Somerville, Rachel S


    We combine high-resolution HST/WFC3 images with multi-wavelength photometry to track the evolution of structure and activity of massive (log(M*) > 10) galaxies at redshifts z = 1.4 - 3 in two fields of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). We detect compact, star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) whose number densities, masses, sizes, and star formation rates qualify them as likely progenitors of compact, quiescent, massive galaxies (cQGs) at z = 1.5 - 3. At z > 2 most cSFGs have specific star-formation rates (sSFR = 10^-9 yr^-1) half that of typical, massive SFGs at the same epoch, and host X-ray luminous AGN 30 times (~30%) more frequently. These properties suggest that cSFGs are formed by gas-rich processes (mergers or disk-instabilities) that induce a compact starburst and feed an AGN, which, in turn, quench the star formation on dynamical timescales (few 10^8 yr). The cSFGs are continuously being formed at z = 2 - 3 and fade to cQGs by z = 1.5. After this epoch, cSFGs are r...

  4. Testing different stellar mass estimators at 1<z<2

    Longhetti, Marcella; Mignano, Arturo


    Physical parameters of galaxies (as luminosity, stellar mass, age) are often derived by means of the model templates which best fit their spectro-photometric data. We have performed a quantitative test aimed at exploring the ability of this procedure in recovering the physical parameters of early-type galaxies at 1<z<2. A wide range of simulated SEDs, reproducing those of early-type galaxies at 1<z<2 with assigned age and mass, are used to build mock photometric catalogs with wavelength coverage and photometric uncertainties similar to those of two topical surveys (i.e. VVDS and GOODS). The best fitting analysis of the simulated photometric data allows to study the differences among the recovered parameters and the input ones. Results indicate that the stellar masses measured by means of optical bands are affected by larger uncertainties with respect to those obtained from near-IR bands, and they frequently underestimate the real values. The M/L ratio in the V band results strongly underestimated,...

  5. Large scale structure around a z=2.1 cluster

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Capak, Peter; Cowley, Michael J; Darvish, Behnam; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Kovac, K; Lilly, Simon J; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Spitler, Lee R; Tran, Kim-Vy H; Yuan, Tiantian


    The most prodigious starburst galaxies are absent in massive galaxy clusters today, but their connection with large scale environments is less clear at $z\\gtrsim2$. We present a search of large scale structure around a galaxy cluster core at $z=2.095$ using a set of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies. We find that both color-selected star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) show significant overdensities around the $z=2.095$ cluster. A total of 8 DSFGs (including 3 X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei, AGNs) and 34 SFGs are found within a 10 arcmin radius (corresponds to $\\sim$15 cMpc at $z\\sim2.1$) from the cluster center and within a redshift range of $\\Delta z=0.02$, which leads to galaxy overdensities of $\\delta_{\\rm DSFG}\\sim12.3$ and $\\delta_{\\rm SFG}\\sim2.8$. The cluster core and the extended DSFG- and SFG-rich structure together demonstrate an active cluster formation phase, in which the cluster is accreting a significant amount of material from large scale structure whi...

  6. Towards a Precision Cosmology from Starburst Galaxies at z>2

    Siegel, E R; Gallego, J P; López, M O; Hidalgo, P R; Gallego, Jorge P.


    This work investigates the use of a well-known empirical correlation between the velocity dispersion, metallicity, and luminosity in H beta of nearby HII galaxies to measure the distances to HII-like starburst galaxies at high redshifts. This correlation is applied to a sample of 15 starburst galaxies with redshifts between z=2.17 and z=3.39 to constrain Omega_m, using data available from the literature. A best-fit value of Omega_m = 0.21 +0.30 -0.12 in a Lambda-dominated universe and of Omega_m = 0.11 +0.37 -0.19 in an open universe is obtained. A detailed analysis of systematic errors, their causes, and their effects on the values derived for the distance moduli and Omega_m is carried out. A discussion of how future work will improve constraints on Omega_m by reducing the errors is also presented.

  7. Perfect Z2Z4-linear codes in Steganography

    Rifà, H; Ronquillo, L


    Steganography is an information hiding application which aims to hide secret data imperceptibly into a commonly used media. Unfortunately, the theoretical hiding asymptotical capacity of steganographic systems is not attained by algorithms developed so far. In this paper, we describe a novel coding method based on Z2Z4-linear codes that conforms to +/-1-steganography, that is secret data is embedded into a cover message by distorting each symbol by one unit at most. This method solves some problems encountered by the most efficient methods known today, based on ternary Hamming codes. Finally, the performance of this new technique is compared with that of the mentioned methods and with the well-known theoretical upper bound.

  8. On the marginally relevant operator in z=2 Lifshitz holography

    Holsheimer, Kristian [Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    We study holographic renormalization and RG flow in a strongly-coupled Lifshitz-type theory in 2+1 dimensions with dynamical exponent z=2. The bottom-up gravity dual we use is 3+1 dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to a massive vector field. This model contains a marginally relevant operator around the Lifshitz fixed point. We show how holographic renormalization works in the presence of this marginally relevant operator without the need to introduce explicitly cutoff-dependent counterterms. A simple closed-form expression is found for the renormalized on-shell action. We also discuss how asymptotically Lifshitz geometries flow to AdS in the interior due to the marginally relevant operator. We study the behavior of the renormalized entanglement entropy and confirm that it decreases monotonically along the Lifshitz-to-AdS RG flow.

  9. N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory on Orbifold-$T^4/{\\bf Z}_2$

    Jinzenji, M; Jinzenji, Masao; Sasaki, Toru


    We derive the partition function of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on orbifold-$T^4/{\\bf Z}_2$. In classical geometry, K3 surface is constructed from the orbifold-$T^4/{\\bf Z}_2$. Along the same way as the orbifold construction, we construct the partition function of K3 surface from orbifold-$T^4/{\\bf Z}_2$. The partition function is given by the product of the contribution of the untwisted sector of $T^4/{\\bf Z}_2$, and that of the twisted sector of $T^4/{\\bf Z}_2$ i.e., ${\\cal O}(-2)$ curve blow-up formula.

  10. A physical model for z ~ 2 dust-obscured galaxies

    Narayanan, Desika; Dey, Arjun; Hayward, Christopher C.; Cox, Thomas J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Brodwin, Mark; Jonsson, Patrik; Hopkins, Philip F.; Groves, Brent; Younger, Joshua D.; Hernquist, Lars


    We present a physical model for the origin of z ~ 2 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), a class of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) selected at 24μm which are particularly optically faint (F24μm/FR > 1000). By combining N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of high-redshift galaxy evolution with 3D polychromatic dust radiative transfer models, we find that luminous DOGs (with F24 >~ 0.3mJy at z ~ 2) are well modelled as extreme gas-rich mergers in massive (~5 × 1012-1013Msolar) haloes, with elevated star formation rates (SFR; ~500-1000Msolaryr-1) and/or significant active galactic nuclei (AGN) growth , whereas less luminous DOGs are more diverse in nature. At final coalescence, merger-driven DOGs transition from being starburst dominated to AGN dominated, evolving from a `bump' to a power-law (PL) shaped mid-IR (Infrared Array Camera, IRAC) spectral energy distribution (SED). After the DOG phase, the galaxy settles back to exhibiting a `bump' SED with bluer colours and lower SFRs. While canonically PL galaxies are associated with being AGN dominated, we find that the PL mid-IR SED can owe both to direct AGN contribution and to a heavily dust obscured stellar bump at times that the galaxy is starburst dominated. Thus, PL galaxies can be either starburst or AGN dominated. Less luminous DOGs can be well-represented either by mergers or by massive (Mbaryon ~ 5 × 1011Msolar) secularly evolving gas-rich disc galaxies (with SFR >~ 50Msolaryr-1). By utilizing similar models as those employed in the submillimetre galaxy (SMG) formation study of Narayanan et al., we investigate the connection between DOGs and SMGs. We find that the most heavily star-forming merger-driven DOGs can be selected as submillimetre galaxies, while both merger-driven and secularly evolving DOGs typically satisfy the BzK selection criteria. The model SEDs from the simulated galaxies match observed data reasonably well, though Mrk 231 and Arp 220 templates provide

  11. Syntheses, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure Determination from X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data of Alkaline Earth Dicyanamides M[N(CN)

    Juergens, Barbara; Irran, Elisabeth; Schnick, Wolfgang


    The alkaline earth dicyanamides Mg[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2}, Ca[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2}, Sr[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2}, and Ba[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2} were synthesized by ion exchange using Na[N(CN){sub 2}] and the respective nitrates or bromides as starting materials. The crystal structures were determined from X-ray powder diffractometry: Mg[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2}, Pnnm, Z=2, a=617.14(3), b=716.97(3), and c=740.35(5) pm; Ca[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2} and Sr[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2}, C2/c, Z=4; Ca[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2}, a=1244.55(3), b=607.97(1), and c=789.81(1) pm, {beta}=98.864(2){degree}; Sr[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2}, a=1279.63(2), b=624.756(8), and c=817.56(1) pm, {beta}=99.787(1){degree}; Ba[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2}, Pnma, Z=4, a=1368.68(7), b=429.07(7), and c=1226.26(2) pm. The dicyanamides consist of the respective alkaline earth cations and bent planar [N(CN){sub 2}]{sup -} ions. The structural features were correlated with vibrational spectroscopic data. The thermal behavior was studied by thermoanalytical experiments.

  12. Gemini imaging of QSO host galaxies at z~2

    Croom, S; Boyle, B; Shanks, T; Miller, L; Smith, R; Croom, Scott; Schade, David; Boyle, Brian; Shanks, Tom; Miller, Lance; Smith, Robert


    We present results of a Gemini adaptive optics (AO) imaging program to investigate the host galaxies of typical QSOs at z~2. Our aim is to study the host galaxies of typical, L*_qso QSOs at the epoch of peak QSO and star formation activity. The large database of faint QSOs provided by the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey allows us to select a sample of QSOs at z=1.75-2.5 which have nearby (<12 arcsecond separation) bright stars suitable for use as AO guide stars. We have observed a sample of 9 QSOs. The images of these sources have AO corrected full-width at half-maximum of between 0.11 and 0.25 arcseconds. We use multiple observations of point spread function (PSF) calibration star pairs in order to quantify any uncertainty in the PSF. We then factored these uncertainties into our modelling of the QSO plus host galaxy. In only one case did we convincingly detect a host (2QZ J133311.4+001949, at z=1.93). This host galaxy has K=18.5+-0.2 mag with a half-light radius, r_e=0.55+-0.1'', equivalent to ~3L*_gal assuming ...

  13. Galaxies at Z=2 extensions around radio-quiet QSOs

    Aretxaga, I; Terlevich, R J


    We have been conducting an imaging survey to detect host galaxies of radio-quiet QSOs at high redshift (z = 2), in order to compare them with those of radio-loud objects. Six QSOs were observed in the R passband with the auxiliary port of the 4.2m WHT of the {\\it Observatorio de Roque de los Muchachos} indir August 1994. The objects were selected to be bright (M(B) < -28~mag) and have bright stars in the field, which could enable us to define the point spread function (PSF) accurately. The excellent seeing of La Palma (<0.9 arcsec thoughout the run) allowed us to detect extensions to the nuclear PSFs around three (one radio-loud and two radio-quiet) QSOs, out of 4 suitable targets. The extensions are most likely due to the host galaxies of these QSOs, with luminosities of at least 3-7% of the QSO luminosity. The most likely values for the luminosity of the host galaxies lie in the range 6-18% of the QSO luminosity. Our observations show that, if the extensions we have detected are indeed galaxies, extra...

  14. Galaxy Clustering at z ~ 2 and Halo Radii

    Roukema, B F; Mobasher, B; Bajtlik, S; Roukema, Boudewijn F.; Valls-Gabaud, David; Mobasher, Bahram; Bajtlik, Stanislaw


    The amplitude of the angular two-point galaxy correlation function w(\\theta) for galaxies at z~2 is estimated for galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field by using a U < 27 complete sub-sample. (i) It is confirmed that the amplitude of the correlation can be corrected for the integral constraint without having to make assumptions about the shape of the correlation function and by avoiding the introduction of linear error terms. The estimate using this technique is w(5'') = 0.10 \\pm 0.09. (ii) If the biases introduced in faint galaxy selection due to obscuration by large objects are not corrected for by masking areas around them, then the estimate would be w(5'') =0.16\\pm 0.07. (iii) The effective (3-D) galaxy pair separation at 5'' and this redshift range is ~ 25-250 /h kpc, so the correction to the spatial correlation function considered. For clustering stable in proper units in an Ømega=1,\\lambda=0 universe, our w(5\\arcs) estimate (a) implies a present-day correlation length of r_0 ~ 2.6^{+1.1}_{-1.7}/h Mpc if...




    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management selected Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to perform independent verification (IV) at Zone 2 of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ORAU has concluded IV surveys, per the project-specific plan (PSP) (ORAU 2013a) covering exposure units (EUs) Z2-24, -31, -32, and -36. The objective of this effort was to verify the following. • Target EUs comply with requirements in the Zone 2 Record of Decision (ROD) (DOE 2005), as implemented by using the dynamic verification strategy presented in the dynamic work plan (DWP) (BJC 2007) • Commitments in the DWP were adequately implemented, as verified via IV surveys and soil sampling The Zone 2 ROD establishes maximum remediation level (RLmax) values and average RL (RLavg) values for the primary contaminants of concern (COCs) U-234, U-235, U-238, Cs-137, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-232, arsenic, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Table 1.1 lists Zone 2 COCs with associated RLs. Additional radiological and chemical contaminants were also identified during past characterization and monitoring actions, though the ROD does not present RLs for these potential contaminants. IV activities focused on the identification and quantification of ROD-specific COCs in surface soils, but also generated data for other analytes to support future decisions. ORAU personnel also reviewed EU-specific phased construction completion reports (PCCRs) to focus IV activities and identify potential judgmental sample locations, if any.

  16. Z-2 Suit Support Stand and MKIII Suit Center of Gravity Test

    Nguyen, Tuan Q.


    NASA's next generation spacesuits are the Z-Series suits, made for a range of possible exploration missions in the near future. The prototype Z-1 suit has been developed and assembled to incorporate new technologies that has never been utilized before in the Apollo suits and the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). NASA engineers tested the Z-1 suit extensively in order to developed design requirements for the new Z-2 suit. At the end of 2014, NASA will be receiving the new Z-2 suit to perform more testing and to further develop the new technologies of the suit. In order to do so, a suit support stand will be designed and fabricated to support the Z-2 suit during maintenance, sizing, and structural leakage testing. The Z-2 Suit Support Stand (Z2SSS) will be utilized for these purposes in the early testing stages of the Z-2 suit.

  17. AGN Feedback in Overdense Environments at z=2.23

    Lucy, Adrian B.; Lehmer, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Best, P.; Geach, J.; Harrison, C. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Matsuda, Y.; Mullaney, J.; Smail, I.; Sobral, D.


    We present results from a ≈100 ks Chandra observation of the 2QZ Cluster 1004+00 galaxy overdensity at z=2.23. This 2QZ Clus structure was first identified as an overdensity of four optically-selected quasars; that sample was subsequently found to overlap with an overdensity of 22 Hα-emitting galaxies (HAEs) identified through narrow and broad band near-infrared imaging by Matsuda et al. (2011). In addition to the preselected quasars in 2QZ Clus, our Chandra observation reveals that a further three HAEs are X-ray sources, all characterized by X-ray luminosities and spectral slopes consistent with unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGN). In total, we find that ≈30% of HAEs in our observed region of 2QZ Clus are AGN. This AGN fraction is high compared to AGN fractions among HAEs in the Chandra-COSMOS field (C-COSMOS), and if this enhancement is purely a result of the quasar selection bias of our sample, we estimate that such activity is rare at this redshift. Hα is a tracer of star formation, so 2QZ Clus is well suited to the investigation of the coeval growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies in the precursors to rich local clusters. Moreover, we have an ideal control sample in C-COSMOS; this survey contains a large sample of HAEs classified identically using infrared imaging, but without any selection of quasars. We calculate AGN fraction as a function of galaxy overdensity in C-COSMOS, and perform stacking analyses of Chandra and 250μ Herschel SPIRE data to obtain mean black hole accretion rates dMBH/dt and star formation rates SFR. Preliminary results indicate that dMBH/dt and its ratio to SFR are significantly elevated in 2QZ Clus compared to similarly overdense regions of C-COSMOS. We discuss these relations in the context of theoretical models describing the emergence of the MBH/Mgal relation of the local Universe.

  18. Pseudogene CYP4Z2P 3′UTR promotes angiogenesis in breast cancer

    Zheng, Lufeng; Li, Xiaoman; Gu, Yi; Ma, Yihua; Xi, Tao, E-mail:


    Highlights: • A new critical role of pseudogene CYP4Z2P 3′UTR in breast cancer is proposed. • We examine the level of pseudogene CYP4Z2P 3′UTR in breast cancer tissues. • The functions of CYP4Z2P 3′UTR and mechanism were studied. • The mechanism provides new insights for the breast cancer progression. - Abstract: Pseudogenes have long been marked as “false” genes, which are similar with real genes but have no apparent function. The 3′UTR is well-known to regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Our recent evidence, however, indicates novel functional roles of pseudogene CYP4Z2P 3′UTR (Z2P-UTR). We found that ectopic expression of Z2P-UTR in breast cancer cells significantly increased the expression of VEGF-A without affecting cell proliferation in vitro. Meanwhile, conditioned medium (CM) from Z2P-UTR overexpression cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVEC, and promoted angiogenesis in ex vivo models. Also, CM increased the expression of VEGFR2 in HUVEC. Our data suggest that Z2P-UTR can promote breast cancer angiogenesis partly via paracrine pathway of VEGF-A/VEGFR2.

  19. Microstructural and electrochemical characterization of laser deposited 18-10 austenitic stainless steel clad layers

    Fouquet, F. (GEMPPM/CALFETMAT, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Sallamand, P. (GEMPPM/CALFETMAT, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Millet, J.P. (GEMPPM/CALFETMAT, 69 Villeurbanne (France) Physicochimie Industrielle, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Frenk, A. (GEMPPM/CALFETMAT, 69 Villeurbanne (France) Centre de Traitement des Materiaux par Laser (CTML), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Wagniere, J.D. (GEMPPM/CALFETMAT, 69 Villeurbanne (France) Centre de Traitement des Materiaux par Laser (CTML), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))


    The present work reports on 18-10 stainless steel coatings produced by laser powder cladding technique on a mild steel. Uniform clad layers - about 600 [mu]m thick - have been produced through partially overlapping single cladding tracks. The clad layers thus obtained show excellent adherence, no cracks, few porosities and good chemical homogeneity. The microstructure is dendritic or cellular. Dentrites or cells have an austenitic structure and a small amount of [delta]-ferrite is detected in the interdendritic areas. The corrosion resistance of the clad layers is tested by electrochemical techniques in various neutral or acidified aqueous saline media, deaerated or naturally aerated. In every case, the coatings show an excellent uniform corrosion resistance. (orig.).

  20. Overexpressing CYP71Z2 enhances resistance to bacterial blight by suppressing auxin biosynthesis in rice.

    Wenqi Li

    Full Text Available The hormone auxin plays an important role not only in the growth and development of rice, but also in its defense responses. We've previously shown that the P450 gene CYP71Z2 enhances disease resistance to pathogens through regulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice, though it remains unclear if auxin is involved in this process or not.The expression of CYP71Z2 was induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo inoculation was analyzed by qRT-PCR, with GUS histochemical staining showing that CYP71Z2 expression was limited to roots, blades and nodes. Overexpression of CYP71Z2 in rice durably and stably increased resistance to Xoo, though no significant difference in disease resistance was detected between CYP71Z2-RNA interference (RNAi rice and wild-type. Moreover, IAA concentration was determined using the HPLC/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry system. The accumulation of IAA was significantly reduced in CYP71Z2-overexpressing rice regardless of whether plants were inoculated or not, whereas it was unaffected in CYP71Z2-RNAi rice. Furthermore, the expression of genes related to IAA, expansin and SA/JA signaling pathways was suppressed in CYP71Z2-overexpressing rice with or without inoculation.These results suggest that CYP71Z2-mediated resistance to Xoo may be via suppression of IAA signaling in rice. Our studies also provide comprehensive insight into molecular mechanism of resistance to Xoo mediated by IAA in rice. Moreover, an available approach for understanding the P450 gene functions in interaction between rice and pathogens has been provided.

  1. The $Z_2$ Index of Disordered Topological Insulators with Time Reversal Symmetry

    Katsura, Hosho


    We study disordered topological insulators with time reversal symmetry. Relying on the noncommutative index theorem which relates the Chern number to the projection onto the Fermi sea and the magnetic flux operator, we give a precise definition of the $Z_2$ index which is a noncommutative analogue of the Atiyah-Singer $Z_2$ index. We prove that the noncommutative $Z_2$ index is robust against any time-reversal symmetric perturbation including disorder potentials as long as the spectral gap at the Fermi level does not close.

  2. Noncommutative physics on Lie algebras, Z_2^n lattices and Clifford algebras

    Majid, S


    We survey noncommutative spacetimes with coordinates being enveloping algebras of Lie algebras. We also explain how to do differential geometry on noncommutative spaces that are obtained from commutative ones via a Moyal-product type cocycle twist, such as the noncommutative torus, $\\theta$-spaces and Clifford algebras. The latter are noncommutative deformations of the finite lattice $(Z_2)^n$ and we compute their noncommutative de Rham cohomology and moduli of solutions of Maxwell's equations. We exactly quantize noncommutative U(1)-Yang-Mills theory on $Z_2\\times Z_2$ in a path integral approach.

  3. Two-dimensional spin liquids with Z2 topological order in an array of quantum wires

    Patel, Aavishkar A.; Chowdhury, Debanjan


    Insulating Z2 spin liquids are a phase of matter with bulk anyonic quasiparticle excitations and ground-state degeneracies on manifolds with nontrivial topology. We construct a time-reversal symmetric Z2 spin liquid in two spatial dimensions using an array of quantum wires. We identify the anyons as kinks in the appropriate Luttinger-liquid description, compute their mutual statistics, and construct local operators that transport these quasiparticles. We also present a construction of a fractionalized Fermi liquid (FL*) by coupling the spin sector of the Z2 spin liquid to a Fermi liquid via a Kondo-like coupling.

  4. Syntheses, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure Determination from X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data of Alkaline Earth Dicyanamides M[N(CN) 2] 2 with M=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba

    Jürgens, Barbara; Irran, Elisabeth; Schnick, Wolfgang


    The alkaline earth dicyanamides Mg[N(CN)2]2, Ca[N(CN)2]2, Sr[N(CN)2]2, and Ba[N(CN)2]2 were synthesized by ion exchange using Na[N(CN)2] and the respective nitrates or bromides as starting materials. The crystal structures were determined from X-ray powder diffractometry: Mg[N(CN)2]2, Pnnm, Z=2, a=617.14(3), b=716.97(3), and c=740.35(5) pm; Ca[N(CN)2]2 and Sr[N(CN)2]2, C2/c, Z=4; Ca[N(CN)2]2, a=1244.55(3), b=607.97(1), and c=789.81(1) pm, β=98.864(2)°; Sr[N(CN)2]2, a=1279.63(2), b=624.756(8), and c=817.56(1) pm, β=99.787(1)°; Ba[N(CN)2]2, Pnma, Z=4, a=1368.68(7), b=429.07(7), and c=1226.26(2) pm. The dicyanamides consist of the respective alkaline earth cations and bent planar [N(CN)2]- ions. The structural features were correlated with vibrational spectroscopic data. The thermal behavior was studied by thermoanalytical experiments.

  5. The {\\mathbb{Z}_2}-Orbifold of the {\\mathcal{W}_3}-Algebra

    Al-Ali, Masoumah; Linshaw, Andrew R.


    The Zamolodchikov {\\mathcal{W}_3}-algebra {\\mathcal{W}^c_3} with central charge c has full automorphism group {\\mathbb{Z}_2}. It was conjectured in the physics literature over 20 years ago that the orbifold {(\\mathcal{W}^c_3)^{\\mathbb{Z}_2}} is of type {\\mathcal{W}(2,6,8,10,12)} for generic values of c. We prove this conjecture for all {c \

  6. {[Gd(DMF)3(DMSO)(H2O)3](μ-CN)[Fe(CN)5]}·2H2O的合成,结构表征和磁性%Synthesis,Structural Characterization and Magnetic Properties of {[Gd(DMF)3(DMSO)(H2O)3](μ-CN)[Fe(CN)5]}·2H2O

    陈文通; 蔡丽珍; 吴阿青; 郭国聪; 黄锦顺; 董振超; Akiyuki Matsushita


    A new cyano-bridged GadoliniumⅢ-IronⅢ complex {[Gd(DMF)3(DMSO)(H2O)3](μ-CN)[Fe(CN)5]}·2H2O (DMF= N,N-dimethylformamide; DMSO=dimethylsulfoxide) was synthesized by the grinding reaction method. It crysta llizes in the triclinic, space group P1 with cell parameters: a=0.903 63(2) nm, b=1.250 78(3) nm, c=1.413 03(1) nm, α=93.174(1)°, β=94.406(1)°, γ=91.817(2)°, and V=1.588 87(5) nm3, Dc=1.582 g·cm-3, Z=2, Mr=756.72, F(000)=760,μ=2.645 mm-1. The slightly distorted square-antiprism eightfold-coordinated Gd(Ⅲ) and the approxi mately oriented octahedrally sixfold-coordinated Fe(Ⅲ) are linked by a cyano-bridge group to construct a dinuclear compound. The {[Gd(DMF)3(DMSO)(H2O)3](μ-CN)[Fe(CN)5]} species are held together via hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional framework. The Gd(Ⅲ)-Fe(Ⅲ) interaction is antiferromagnetic.

  7. Methyl jasmonate elicits the production of methyl (E)-2-hexenoate from (Z)-2-hexenol via (Z)-2-hexenal in Achyranthes bidentata plant.

    Tamogami, Shigeru; Noge, Koji; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Rakwal, Randeep


    The medicinal herbal plant Achyranthes bidentata (A. bidentata) produces the sweet-odor ester - methyl (E)-2-hexenoate (1) as the major volatile in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Here, we investigated the biosynthetic pathway of methyl (E)-2-hexenoate (1). The common plant precursor (Z)-3-hexenal was only slightly metabolized into methyl (E)-2-hexenoate (1), and its application scarcely enhanced the production of this ester. By contrast, a structurally related alcohol, (Z)-2-hexenol, as well as a deuteride derivative thereof could be efficiently metabolized into methyl (E)-2-hexenoate (1). Thus, we hypothesize that A. bidentata possess a specific pathway for the production of methyl (E)-2-hexenoate (1) from (Z)-2-hexenol in response to MeJA. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Galaxy Counterparts of the two high-metallicity DLAs at z=2.412 and z=2.583 towards Q0918+1636

    Fynbo, J P U; Christensen, L; Gallazzi, A; Krogager, J -K; Krühler, T; Ledoux, C; Maund, J; Møller, P; Noterdaeme, P; Rivera-Thorsen, T; Vestergaard, M


    The quasar Q0918+1636 (z=3.07) has two intervening high-metallicity Damped Lyman-alpha Absorbers (DLAs) along the line of sight, at redshifts of z=2.412 and 2.583. The z=2.583 DLA is located at a large impact parameter of 16.2 kpc, and despite this large impact parameter it has a very high metallicity (consistent with solar), a substantial fraction of H_2 molecules, and it is dusty as inferred from the reddened spectrum of the background QSO. The z=2.412 DLA has a metallicity of [M/H]=-0.6 (based on ZnII and SiII). In this paper we present new observations of this interesting sightline. HST/WFC3 imaging was obtained in the F606W, F105W and F160W bands. This is complemented by ground-based imaging in the u-, g-bands as well as K_s observations in the near-infrared (NIR). In addition, we present further spectroscopy with the ESO/VLT X-Shooter spectrograph. Based on these observations we obtain the following results: By fitting stellar population synthesis models to the photometric SED we constrain the physical ...

  9. Z2 gauge theory for valence bond solids on the kagome lattice

    Hwang, Kyusung; Huh, Yejin; Kim, Yong Baek

    We present an effective Z2 gauge theory that captures various competing phases in spin-1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnets: the topological Z2 spin liquid (SL) phase, and the 12-site and 36- site valence bond solid (VBS) phases. Our effective theory is a generalization of the recent Z2 gauge theory proposed for SL phases by Wan and Tchernyshyov. In particular, we investigate possible VBS phases that arise from vison condensations in the SL. In addition to the 12-site and 36-site VBS phases, there exists 6-site VBS that is closely related to the symmetry-breaking valence bond modulation patterns observed in the recent density matrix renormalization group simulations. We find that our results have remarkable consistency with a previous study using a different Z2 gauge theory. Motivated by the lattice geometry in the recently reported vanadium oxyfluoride kagome antiferromagnet, our gauge theory is extended to incorporate lowered symmetry by inequivalent up- and down-triangles. We investigate effects of this anisotropy on the 12-site, 36-site, and 6-site VBS phases. Particularly, interesting dimer melting effects are found in the 36-site VBS. We discuss the implications of our findings and also compare the results with a different type of Z2 gauge theory used in previous studies.

  10. The Fundamental Plane of massive quiescent galaxies out to z~2

    van de Sande, Jesse; Franx, Marijn; Bezanson, Rachel; van Dokkum, Pieter G


    The Fundamental Plane (FP) of early-type galaxies, relating the effective radius, velocity dispersion, and surface brightness, has long been recognized as a unique tool for analyzing galaxy structure and evolution. With the discovery of distant quiescent galaxies and the introduction of high sensitivity near-infrared spectrographs, it is now possible to explore the FP out to z~2. In this Letter we study the evolution of the FP out to z~2 using kinematic measurements of massive quiescent galaxies ($M_{*}>10^{11} M_{\\odot}$). We find preliminary evidence for the existence of an FP out to z~2. The scatter of the FP, however, increases from z~0 to z~2, even when taking into account the larger measurement uncertainties at higher redshifts. We find a strong evolution of the zero point from z~2 to z~0: $\\Delta\\log_{10}M/L_g\\propto(-0.49\\pm0.03)~z$. In order to assess whether our spectroscopic sample is representative of the early-type galaxy population at all redshifts, we compare their rest-frame g-z colors with th...

  11. Interstellar CN and CH+ in Diffuse Molecular Clouds: 12C/13C Ratios and CN Excitation

    Ritchey, A M; Lambert, D L


    We present very high signal-to-noise ratio absorption-line observations of CN and CH+ along 13 lines of sight through diffuse molecular clouds. The data are examined to extract precise isotopologic ratios of 12CN/13CN and 12CH+/13CH+ in order to assess predictions of diffuse cloud chemistry. Our results on 12CH+/13CH+ confirm that this ratio does not deviate from the ambient 12C/13C ratio in local interstellar clouds, as expected if the formation of CH+ involves nonthermal processes. We find that 12CN/13CN, however, can be significantly fractionated away from the ambient value. The dispersion in our sample of 12CN/13CN ratios is similar to that found in recent surveys of 12CO/13CO. For sight lines where both ratios have been determined, the 12CN/13CN ratios are generally fractionated in the opposite sense compared to 12CO/13CO. Chemical fractionation in CO results from competition between selective photodissociation and isotopic charge exchange. An inverse relationship between 12CN/13CN and 12CO/13CO follows ...

  12. Self-Dual Codes over Z_2xZ_4

    Borges, J; Fernandez-Cordoba, C


    Self-dual codes over $\\Z_2\\times\\Z_4$ are subgroups of $\\Z_2^\\alpha \\times\\Z_4^\\beta$ that are equal to their orthogonal under an inner-product that relates to the binary Hamming scheme. Three types of self-dual codes are defined. For each type, the possible values $\\alpha,\\beta$ such that there exist a code $\\C\\subseteq \\Z_2^\\alpha \\times\\Z_4^\\beta$ are established. Moreover, the construction of a $\\add$-linear code for each type and possible pair $(\\alpha,\\beta)$ is given. Finally, the standard techniques of invariant theory are applied to describe the weight enumerators for each type.

  13. Magnetic structures and Z_2 vortices in a non-Abelian gauge model

    Cabra, Daniel; Schaposnik, Fidel A


    The magnetic order of the triangular lattice with antiferromagnetic interactions is described by an SO(3) field and allows for the presence of Z2 magnetic vortices as defects. In this work we show how these Z2 vortices can be fitted into a local SU(2) gauge theory. We propose simple Ansatzes for vortex configurations and calculate their energies using well-known results of the Abelian gauge model. We comment on how Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions could be derived from a non-Abelian gauge theory and speculate on their effect on non trivial configurations.

  14. Evidence for widespread active galactic nucleus activity among massive quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2

    Olsen, K.P.; Rasmussen, J.; Toft, S.;


    We quantify the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in a mass-complete (M > 5 × 10 M ) sample of 123 star-forming and quiescent galaxies at 1.5 = z = 2.5, using X-ray data from the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. 41% ± 7% of the galaxies are detected directly in X-rays, 22% ± ......%-65%). Our discovery of the ubiquity of AGNs in massive, quiescent z ~ 2 galaxies provides observational support for the importance of AGNs in impeding star formation during galaxy evolution. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.....

  15. Reorganization of Damaged Chromatin by the Exchange of Histone Variant H2A.Z-2

    Nishibuchi, Ikuno [Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kinomura, Aiko; Sun, Jiying; Liu, Ning-Ang [Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Horikoshi, Yasunori [Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Research Center for Mathematics of Chromatin Live Dynamics, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Shima, Hiroki [Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Kusakabe, Masayuki; Harata, Masahiko [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Fukagawa, Tatsuo [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mishima (Japan); Ikura, Tsuyoshi [Laboratory of Chromatin Regulatory Network, Department of Mutagenesis, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ishida, Takafumi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Tashiro, Satoshi, E-mail: [Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Research Center for Mathematics of Chromatin Live Dynamics, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    Purpose: The reorganization of damaged chromatin plays an important role in the regulation of the DNA damage response. A recent study revealed the presence of 2 vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2. However, the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms are still unclear. Thus, in this study we examined the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms in chromatin reorganization after the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: To examine the dynamics of H2A.Z isoforms at damaged sites, we constructed GM0637 cells stably expressing each of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled H2A.Z isoforms, and performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis and inverted FRAP analysis in combination with microirradiation. Immunofluorescence staining using an anti-RAD51 antibody was performed to study the kinetics of RAD51 foci formation after 2-Gy irradiation of wild-type (WT), H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells. Colony-forming assays were also performed to compare the survival rates of WT, H2A.Z-1-, and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells with control, and H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells after irradiation. Results: FRAP analysis revealed that H2A.Z-2 was incorporated into damaged chromatin just after the induction of DSBs, whereas H2A.Z-1 remained essentially unchanged. Inverted FRAP analysis showed that H2A.Z-2 was released from damaged chromatin. These findings indicated that H2A.Z-2 was exchanged at DSB sites immediately after the induction of DSBs. RAD51 focus formation after ionizing irradiation was disturbed in H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells but not in H2A.Z-1-deficient cells. The survival rate of H2A.Z-2-deficient cells after irradiation was lower than those of WT and H2A.Z-1- DT40 cells. Similar to DT40 cells, H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells were also radiation-sensitive compared to control and H2A.Z-1-depleted cells. Conclusions: We found that vertebrate H2A.Z-2 is involved in the regulation of the DNA

  16. CM()CN D-computable state

    LIU DongDong; DI YaoMin


    The notions of D-computable state and D-concurrence are generalized to the CM()CN system. A class of D-computable state on CM()CN is given and the calculating method of the lower bound of D-concurrence is provided. The obvious expression of the lower bound of D-concurrence for the state mixed by two D-pure states is derived.

  17. Characterizing Clumpy Structure of z 2 Galaxies in HST Observations from CANDELS and Hydrodynamical Simulations

    Mozena, Mark; Faber, S. M.; Primack, J. R.; Dekel, A.; Ceverino, D.; Koo, D. C.; Fumagalli, M.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D. J.; Lai, K.; Kocevski, D. D.; McGrath, E. J.; Trump, J. R.; CANDELS


    The first data from the HST Multi-Cycle Treasury CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near Infra-red Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey - are producing images of thousands of z 2 galaxies in observed optical (ACS) and NIR (WFC3) bands. We have developed a new visual classification scheme for z 2 galaxies which is motivated by the significant population of galaxies that are dominated by giant clumps in the HST images, and by the theoretical predictions for clumpy galaxies based on analytic studies and zoom-in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This classification method was developed using about a thousand z 2 galaxies in the GOODS-S Early Release Survey (ERS) region imaged with ACS and WFC3. The ERS data have been observed in a way similar to the CANDELS observations. I will also discuss the latest cosmologically motivated ART hydrodynamical simulations by Ceverino, Dekel, and Primack. We render these simulated z 2 galaxies to mimic our HST ACS and WFC3 images and visually classify their stellar structure to compare them with the galaxies observed in ERS. We have compared the effects of dust extinction due to the complex clumpy distribution of gas within these simulations. Comparing the visual classification of the HST observations with the simulations provides new clues to galaxy assembly.

  18. MacWilliams identity and self-dual codes of linear codes over Z2a +uZ2a%Z2a+uZ2a上线性码的MacWilliams恒等式及自对偶码

    宋贤梅; 熊蕾


    考虑环 R =Z2a +uZ2a上的线性码,其中 u2=u。研究了环 R 上线性码的完全 Gray 权估计的 MacWilliams 恒等式。给出了环 R 上的自对偶码的生成矩阵及环 Z23+uZ23上长为偶数 n 的自对偶码的数量公式。讨论了环 R上的挠码,得到挠码的生成矩阵及挠码与剩余码的关系。%The linear codes over R =Z2a +uZ2a with u2 =u are discussed.MacWilliams identity for the complete Gray weight enumerator is investigated firstly.Then,the generator matrices of self-dual codes over R and the number of dis-tinct self-dual codes of even length n over Z23 +uZ23 are given.The torsion codes over R are discussed and the genera-tor matrices of torsion codes and the relationship between the torsion codes and the residue codes are also obtained.

  19. Narrowband Lyman-Continuum Imaging of Galaxies at z ~ 2.85

    Mostardi, Robin E; Nestor, Daniel B; Steidel, Charles C; Reddy, Naveen A


    We present results from a survey for z~2.85 Lyman-Continuum (LyC) emission in the HS1549+1933 field and place constraints on the amount of ionizing radiation escaping from star-forming galaxies. Using a custom narrowband filter (NB3420) tuned to wavelengths just below the Lyman limit at z>=2.82$, we probe the LyC spectral region of 49 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and 70 Lya-emitters (LAEs) spectroscopically confirmed at z>=2.82, as well as 58 z~2.85 LAE photometric candidates. Four LBGs and 19 LAEs are detected in NB3420. Using V-band data probing the rest-frame non-ionizing UV, we observe that many NB3420-detected galaxies exhibit spatial offsets between their LyC and non-ionizing UV emission and are characterized by extremely blue NB3420-V colors, corresponding to low ratios of non-ionizing to ionizing radiation (F_UV/F_LyC) that are in tension with current stellar population synthesis models. We measure average values of (F_UV/F_LyC) for our spectroscopically confirmed LBG and LAE samples, correcting for fo...

  20. Decline of the space density of quasars between z=2 and z=4

    Vigotti, M; Benn, C R; De Zotti, G; Fanti, R; Serrano, J I G; Mack, K H; Holt, J


    We define a new complete sample of 13 optically-luminous radio quasars M_AB(1450 Angstrom) 25.7 with redshift 3.8 < z < 4.5, obtained by cross-correlating the FIRST radio survey and the APM catalogue of POSS-I. We measure the space density to be 1.0 +/- 0.3 /Gpc^3, a factor 1.9 +/- 0.7 smaller than the space density of similar quasars at z=2. Using a new measurement of the radio-loud fraction of quasars we find that at z=4 the total space density of quasars with M_AB(1450 Angstrom) < -26.9 is 7.4 +/- 2.6/Gpc^3. This is a factor 1.8 +/- 0.8 less than the space density at z=2, found by the 2dF quasar survey. This (z=2)/(z=4) ratio, consistent with that of the radio-loud quasars, is significantly different from the ratio of about 10 found for samples including lower-luminosity quasars. This suggests that the decline of the space density beyond z=2 is slower for optically-luminous quasars than for less-luminous ones.

  1. Simulating 3D $Z_2$ Topological Nodes in Nonsymmorphic Photonic Crystals

    Wang, Hai-Xiao; Hang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Huanyang; Kee, Hae-Young; Jiang, Jian-Hua


    We propose an all-dielectric, space-time reversal symmetric photonics-crystal architecture that possess 3D Dirac points and line-nodes with nontrivial $Z_2$ topological charge, which can be realized at infrared and microwave frequencies. The protected degeneracy of bands is achieved via nonsymmorphic symmetries despite the lack of Kramers degeneracy in photonic crystal systems. Two orthogonal screw axes lead to 3D $Z_2$ Dirac points on high symmetry Brillouin zone (BZ) boundary line. On the other hand, twofold $Z_2$ line-nodes appear around the $\\Gamma$-point due to a combination of nonsymmorphic and point-group symmetries. The lowest line-node is deterministic because of degeneracy partner switching between Bloch states with opposite parities. A pair of Fermi arcs associated with $Z_2$ topological charge is emerged below light-line and protected by total internal reflection on certain photonic-crystal-air interfaces. These robust surface states offer an unique opportunity to realize "open cavity" with strong...

  2. Logarithmic two-Point Correlation Functions from a z = 2 Lifshitz Model

    Zingg, T.


    The Einstein-Proca action is known to have asymptotically locally Lifshitz spacetimes as classical solutions. For dynamical exponent z=2, two-point correlation functions for fluctuations around such a geometry are derived analytically. It is found that the retarded correlators are stable in the sens

  3. Quantum computing and polynomial equations over the finite field Z_2

    Dawson, C M; Hines, A P; Mortimer, D; Nielsen, M A; Osborne, T J; Dawson, Christopher M.; Haselgrove, Henry L.; Hines, Andrew P.; Mortimer, Duncan; Nielsen, Michael A.; Osborne, Tobias J.


    What is the computational power of a quantum computer? We show that determining the output of a quantum computation is equivalent to counting the number of solutions to an easily computed set of polynomials defined over the finite field Z_2. This connection allows simple proofs to be given for two known relationships between quantum and classical complexity classes.

  4. VIMOS-VLT and Spitzer observations of a radio galaxy at z=2.5

    Villar-Martin, M; Sanchez, SF; De Breuck, C; Peletier, R; Vernet, J; Rettura, A; Seymour, N; Humphrey, A; Stern, D; Alighieri, SD; Fosbury, R


    We present: (i) a kinematic and morphological study of the giant Ly alpha nebula associated with the radio galaxy MRC 2104-242 (z = 2.49) based on integral field spectroscopic Visible Multiobject Spectrograph (VIMOS) data from the Very Large Telescope (VLT), and (ii) a photometric study of the host

  5. Formation, structure and properties of GeCn± and Ge2Cn± binary clusters

    CAO Yali; LI Guoliang; TANG Zichao


    The binary cluster ions Ge2Cn+/Ge2Cn- and GeCn+ have been produced by laser ablation. The parity effect is present in the negative ions Ge2Cn-, though it is not very prominent. While the experiments tell that the parity effect is totally not shown in the positive ions Ge2Cn+. An extensive theoretical investigation on GeCn/GeCn+/GeCn-(n = 1-10) and Ge2Cn/Ge2Cn+/Ge2Cn-(n = 1-9) has been carried out by density functional theory at B3LPY level. The calculation shows that the low-lying states of GeCn/GeCn+/GeCn-(n = 1-10) and Ge2Cn/Ge2Cn+/Ge2Cn-(n = 1-9) are linear structure with germanium atoms locating at terminals respectively. The electronic distributions, ionization potential (IPad), electron affinity (EA) and increasing bonding energy reveal that the parity effect of neutral species is much stronger than that of ions, which is attributed to the valence π-electrons. It is explained that the differences between experiments and calculations are due to the kinetic factor in the formation of Ge2Cn±.

  6. Non-vanishing $U_{e3}$ and $\\cos{2 \\theta_{23}}$ from a broken $Z_2$ symmetry

    Grimus, Walter; Kaneko, S; Lavoura, L; Sawanaka, H; Tanimoto, M; Grimus, Walter; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Kaneko, Satoru; Lavoura, Lu\\'{i}s; Sawanaka, Hideyuki; Tanimoto, Morimitsu


    It is shown that the neutrino mass matrices in the flavour basis yielding a vanishing $U_{e3}$ are characterized by invariance under a class of effective $Z_2$ symmetries. A specific $Z_2$ in this class also leads to a maximal atmospheric mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. The breaking of that $Z_2$ can be parameterized by two dimensionless quantities, $\\e$ and $\\e'$; the effects of $\\e, \\e' \

  7. Structures of Pd(CN)2 and Pt(CN)2: intrinsically nanocrystalline materials?

    Hibble, Simon J; Chippindale, Ann M; Bilbé, Edward J; Marelli, Elena; Harris, Peter J F; Hannon, Alex C


    Analysis and modeling of X-ray and neutron Bragg and total diffraction data show that the compounds referred to in the literature as "Pd(CN)(2)" and "Pt(CN)(2)" are nanocrystalline materials containing small sheets of vertex-sharing square-planar M(CN)(4) units, layered in a disordered manner with an intersheet separation of ~3.44 Å at 300 K. The small size of the crystallites means that the sheets' edges form a significant fraction of each material. The Pd(CN)(2) nanocrystallites studied using total neutron diffraction are terminated by water and the Pt(CN)(2) nanocrystallites by ammonia, in place of half of the terminal cyanide groups, thus maintaining charge neutrality. The neutron samples contain sheets of approximate dimensions 30 Å × 30 Å. For sheets of the size we describe, our structural models predict compositions of Pd(CN)(2)·xH(2)O and Pt(CN)(2)·yNH(3) (x ≈ y ≈ 0.29). These values are in good agreement with those obtained from total neutron diffraction and thermal analysis, and are also supported by infrared and Raman spectroscopy measurements. It is also possible to prepare related compounds Pd(CN)(2)·pNH(3) and Pt(CN)(2)·qH(2)O, in which the terminating groups are exchanged. Additional samples showing sheet sizes in the range ~10 Å × 10 Å (y ~ 0.67) to ~80 Å × 80 Å (p = q ~ 0.12), as determined by X-ray diffraction, have been prepared. The related mixed-metal phase, Pd(1/2)Pt(1/2)(CN)(2)·qH(2)O (q ~ 0.50), is also nanocrystalline (sheet size ~15 Å × 15 Å). In all cases, the interiors of the sheets are isostructural with those found in Ni(CN)(2). Removal of the final traces of water or ammonia by heating results in decomposition of the compounds to Pd and Pt metal, or in the case of the mixed-metal cyanide, the alloy, Pd(1/2)Pt(1/2), making it impossible to prepare the simple cyanides, Pd(CN)(2), Pt(CN)(2), or Pd(1/2)Pt(1/2)(CN)(2), by this method.

  8. Two viable large scalar multiplet models with an accidental Z2 symmetry

    Earl, Kevin; Logan, Heather E; Pilkington, Terry


    Models in which the Higgs sector is extended by a single scalar electroweak multiplet Z will possess an accidental global Z2 symmetry if Z has isospin T=5/2 (sextet) or 7/2 (octet) and carries the same hypercharge as the Standard Model Higgs doublet. This Z2 symmetry keeps the lightest (neutral) member of Z stable and has interesting implications for phenomenology. We determine the constraints on these models from precision electroweak measurements and Higgs boson decays to two photons. We compute the thermal relic density of the stable member of Z and show that, for masses below 1 TeV, it can make up at most 1% of the dark matter in the universe. We also show that current dark matter direct detection experiments do not constrain the models, but future ton-scale experiments will probe their parameter space.

  9. Some new operations on Zt x Z2,2-cocyclic Hadamard matrices

    Alvarez, Victor; Guemes, Maria Belen


    Following the ideas of [AGG11] about Zt x Z2,2-cocyclic Hadamard matrices, we introduce the notion of diagram, which visually represents any set of coboundaries. Diagrams are a very useful tool for the description and the study of paths and intersections, as described in [AGG11]. Then, we will study four different operations on Zt x Z2,2-cocyclic matrices. These operations will be defined on the set of coboundaries defining the matrix, preserve the Hadamard character of the cocyclic matrices, and allow us to obtain new Hadamard matrices from old ones. We split the set of Hadamard matrices into disjoint orbits, define representatives for them and take advantage of this fact to compute them in an easier way than the usual purely exhaustive way.

  10. Cold-Mode Accretion: Driving the Fundamental Mass-Metallicity Relation at z~2

    Kacprzak, Glenn G; Glazebrook, Karl; Tran, Kim-Vy H; Yuan, Tiantian; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Allen, Rebecca J; Alcorn, Leo; Cowley, Michael; Labbe, Ivo; Spitler, Lee; Straatman, Caroline; Tomczak, Adam


    We investigate the star formation rate (SFR) dependence on the stellar mass and gas-phase metallicity relation at z=2 with MOSFIRE/Keck as part of the ZFIRE survey. We have identified 117 galaxies (1.98 10$~M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$) SFRs. At fixed mass, low star-forming galaxies tend to have higher metallicity than high star-forming galaxies. Using a few basic assumptions, we further show that the gas masses and metallicities required to produce the fundamental mass--metallicity relation, and its intrinsic scatter, are consistent with cold-mode accretion predictions obtained from the OWLS hydrodynamical simulations. Our results from both simulations and observations are suggestive that cold-mode accretion is responsible for the fundamental mass-metallicity relation at $z=2$ and demonstrates the direct relationship between cosmological accretion and the fundamental properties of galaxies.

  11. Chirality and Z2 vortices in a Heisenberg spin model on the kagome lattice

    Domenge, J.-C.; Lhuillier, C.; Messio, L.; Pierre, L.; Viot, P.


    The phase diagram of the classical J1-J2 model on the kagome lattice is investigated by using extensive Monte Carlo simulations. In a realistic range of parameters, this model has a low-temperature chiral-ordered phase without long-range spin order. We show that the critical transition marking the destruction of the chiral order is preempted by the first-order proliferation of Z2 point defects. The core energy of these vortices appears to vanish when approaching the T=0 phase boundary, where both Z2 defects and gapless magnons contribute to disordering the system at very low temperatures. This situation might be typical of a large class of frustrated magnets. Possible relevance for real materials is also discussed.

  12. Quantum spin Hall and Z2 metallic states in an organic material

    Zhao, Bao; Zhang, Jiayong; Feng, Wanxiang; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Zhongqin


    Motivated by recently searching for topological states in organic materials as well as successful experimental synthesis of a graphitelike metal-organic framework Ni3(C18H12N6 )2 [Sheberla et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 8859 (2014), 10.1021/ja502765n], we systematically investigated the electronic and topological properties of the Ni3(C18H12N6 )2 monolayer using an ab initio method combined with a tight-binding model. Our calculations demonstrate that the material can be in a quantum spin Hall or Z2 metallic state in different electron-doped concentrations, which are experimentally accessible with currently electrostatic gating technologies. The tight-binding model also shows that the real next-nearest-neighbor interaction is essential to drive the Z2 metallic phase in Ni3(C18H12N6 )2-type lattices.

  13. Deep Ly alpha imaging of two z=2.04 GRB host galaxy fields

    Fynbo, J.P.U.; Møller, Per; Thomsen, Bente


    We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest-frame equ......We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest...

  14. Deep Ly alpha imaging of two z=2.04 GRB host galaxy fields

    Fynbo, J.P.U.; Møller, Per; Thomsen, Bente


    We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest-frame equ......We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest...

  15. 4D gravity localized in non Z_2-symmetric thick branes

    Barbosa-Cendejas, Nandinini; Barbosa-Cendejas, Nandinii; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo


    We present a comparative analysis of localization of 4D gravity on a non Z_2-symmetric scalar thick brane in both a 5-dimensional Riemannian space time and a pure geometric Weyl integrable manifold. This work was mainly motivated by the hypothesis which claims that Weyl geometries mimic quantum behaviour classically. We start by obtaining a classical 4-dimensional Poincare invariant thick brane solution which does not respect Z_2-symmetry along the (non-)compact extra dimension. The scalar energy density of our field configuration represents several series of thick branes with positive and negative energy densities centered at y_0. The only qualitative difference we have encountered when comparing both frames is that the scalar curvature of the Riemannian manifold turns out to be singular for the found solution, whereas its Weylian counterpart presents a regular behaviour. By studying the transverse traceless modes of the fluctuations of the classical backgrounds, we recast their equations into a Schroedinger...


    李娜; 郝旭东


    The paper is devoted to build a paraconsistent epistemic logic CnEK on the basis of the paraconsistent modal logic CnG'.%本文试图以弗协调模态逻辑CnG'为基础,建立一种弗协调认知逻辑CnEK.

  17. Many-body generalization of the Z2 topological invariant for the quantum spin Hall effect

    Lee, Sung-Sik; Ryu, Shinsei


    We propose a many-body generalization of the Z2 topological invariant for the quantum spin Hall insulator, which does not rely on single-particle band structures. The invariant is derived as a topological obstruction that distinguishes topologically distinct many-body ground states on a torus. It is also expressed as a Wilson-loop of the SU(2) Berry gauge field, which is quantized due to the time-reversal symmetry.

  18. Many-Body Generalization of the Z2 Topological Invariant for the Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    Lee, Sung-Sik; Ryu, Shinsei


    We propose a many-body generalization of the Z2 topological invariant for the quantum spin Hall insulator, which does not rely on single-particle band structures. The invariant is derived as a topological obstruction that distinguishes topologically distinct many-body ground states on a torus. It is also expressed as a Wilson loop of the SU(2) Berry gauge field, which is quantized due to time-reversal symmetry.

  19. Scotogenic $Z_2$ or $U(1)_D$ Model of Neutrino Mass with $\\Delta(27)$ Symmetry

    Ma, Ernest


    The scotogenic model of radiative neutrino mass with $Z_2$ or $U(1)_D$ dark matter is shown to accommodate $\\Delta(27)$ symmetry naturally. The resulting neutrino mass matrix is identical to either of two forms, one proposed in 2006, the other in 2008. These two structures are studied in the context of present neutrino data, with predictions of $CP$ violation and neutrinoless double beta decay.

  20. Digital Quantum Simulation of Z2 Lattice Gauge Theories with Dynamical Fermionic Matter

    Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J. Ignacio


    We propose a scheme for digital quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. Using a layered optical lattice with ancilla atoms that can move and interact with the other atoms (simulating the physical degrees of freedom), we obtain a stroboscopic dynamics which yields the four-body plaquette interactions, arising in models with (2 +1 ) and higher dimensions, without the use of perturbation theory. As an example we show how to simulate a Z2 model in (2 +1 ) dimensions.

  1. Flat Currents and Solutions of Sigma Model on Supercoset Targets with Z2m Grading

    KE san-Min; SHI Kang-Jie; WANG Chun; WU Sheng


    We find one parameter flat currents of the sigma model on supercoset targets with Z2m grading given by Young satisfaction equations of motion and the Virasoro constraint.This meads that one can generate a series of classical solutions from the original one.For these new solutions one can also construct flat currents and conserved charges,which form the same set with the original one.

  2. Regulation of Polycomb group genes Psc and Su(z)2 in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Park, Sung Yeon; Schwartz, Yuri B; Kahn, Tatyana G; Asker, Dalal; Pirrotta, Vincenzo


    Certain Polycomb group (PcG) genes are themselves targets of PcG complexes. Two of these constitute the Drosophila Psc-Su(z)2 locus, a region whose chromatin is enriched for H3K27me3 and contains several putative Polycomb response elements (PREs) that bind PcG proteins. To understand how PcG mechanisms regulate this region, the repressive function of the PcG protein binding sites was analyzed using reporter gene constructs. We find that at least two of these are functional PREs that can silence a reporter gene in a PcG-dependent manner. One of these two can also display anti-silencing activity, dependent on the context. A PcG protein binding site near the Psc promoter behaves not as a silencer but as a down-regulation module that is actually stimulated by the Pc gene product but not by other PcG products. Deletion of one of the PREs increases the expression level of Psc and Su(z)2 by twofold at late embryonic stages. We present evidence suggesting that the Psc-Su(z)2 locus is flanked by insulator elements that may protect neighboring genes from inappropriate silencing. Deletion of one of these regions results in extension of the domain of H3K27me3 into a region containing other genes, whose expression becomes silenced in the early embryo.

  3. The physical properties of z>2 Lyman limit systems: new constraints for feedback and accretion models

    Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J Xavier


    We study the physical properties of a homogeneous sample of 157 optically-thick absorption line systems at redshifts ~1.8-4.4, selected from a high-dispersion spectroscopic survey of Lyman limit systems (LLSs). By means of multiple ionisation models and Bayesian techniques, we derive the posterior probability distribution functions for the density, metallicity, temperature, and dust content of the absorbing gas. We find that z>2 LLSs are highly ionised with ionisation parameters between -32 are characterised by a broad unimodal distribution over >4 orders of magnitude, with a peak at log Z/Zsun~-2. LLSs are metal poor, significantly less enriched than DLAs, with ~70% of the metallicity PDF below log Z/Zsun19 rapidly evolves with redshift, with a ten-fold increase between z~2.1-3.6 (~1.5 Gyr). Based on this sample, we find that LLSs at z=2.5-3.5 account for ~15% of all the metals produced by UV-selected galaxies. The implications for theories of cold gas accretion and metal ejection from galaxies are also disc...

  4. The Assembly of Milky Way-like Galaxies Since z~2.5

    van Dokkum, Pieter G; Nelson, Erica June; Patel, Shannon; Skelton, Rosalind E; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabrial; Whitaker, Katherine E; Lundgren, Britt; Fumagalli, Mattia; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Rix, Hans-Walter; van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn


    Galaxies with the mass of the Milky Way dominate the stellar mass density of the Universe but it is uncertain how and when they were assembled. Here we study progenitors of these galaxies out to z~2.5, using data from the 3D-HST and CANDELS Treasury surveys. We find that galaxies with present-day stellar masses of log(M)~10.7 M_sun built ~90% of their stellar mass since z~2.5, with most of the star formation occurring before z~1. In marked contrast to the assembly history of massive elliptical galaxies, the centers and outer parts of the galaxies built up at roughly the same rate between z~2.5 and z~1. We therefore conclude that a "standard" model for the formation of spiral galaxies, with the bulge assembling first and the disk building around it, is probably not correct. Instead, bulges (and black holes) likely formed in lockstep with disks, through bar instabilities, clump migration or other processes. We find that after z~1 the growth in the central regions gradually stopped and the disk continued to buil...

  5. The Majority of Compact Massive Galaxies at z~2 are Disk Dominated

    van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Koekemoer, Anton M; Bell, Eric F; Holden, Bradford P; Robaina, Aday R; McIntosh, Daniel H


    We investigate the stellar structure of massive, quiescent galaxies at z~2, based on HST/WFC3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample of 14 galaxies has stellar masses of M* > 10^{10.8} Msol and photometric redshifts of 1.5 < z < 2.5. In agreement with previous work, their half-light radii are <2 kpc, much smaller than equally massive galaxies in the present-day universe. A significant subset of the sample appear highly flattened in projection, which implies, considering viewing angle statistics, that a significant fraction of the galaxies in our sample have pronounced disks. This is corroborated by two-dimensional surface brightness profile fits. We estimate that 65% +/- 15% of the population of massive, quiescent z~2 galaxies are disk-dominated. The median disk scale length is 1.5 kpc, substantially smaller than the disks of equally massive galaxies in the present-day universe. Our results provide strong observational evidence that the much-discussed ultra-dense high-redshift gal...

  6. Low Gas Fractions Connect Compact Star-Forming Galaxies to their z ~ 2 Quiescent Descendants

    Spilker, Justin S; Marrone, Daniel P; Weiner, Benjamin J; Whitaker, Katherine E; Williams, Christina C


    Early quiescent galaxies at z~2 are known to be remarkably compact compared to their nearby counterparts. Possible progenitors of these systems include galaxies that are structurally similar, but are still rapidly forming stars. Here, we present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the CO(1-0) line towards three such compact, star-forming galaxies at z~2.3, significantly detecting one. The VLA observations indicate baryonic gas fractions >~5 times lower and gas depletion times >~10 times shorter than normal, extended massive star-forming galaxies at these redshifts. At their current star formation rates, all three objects will deplete their gas reservoirs within 100Myr. These objects are among the most gas-poor objects observed at z>2, and are outliers from standard gas scaling relations, a result which remains true regardless of assumptions about the CO-H2 conversion factor. Our observations are consistent with the idea that compact, star-forming galaxies are in a rapid state of transition t...

  7. Revealing an Energetic Galaxy-Wide Outflow in a z~2 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy

    Alexander, D M; Smail, I; McDermid, R; Nesvadba, N P H


    Leading models of galaxy formation require large-scale energetic outflows to regulate the growth of distant galaxies and their central black holes. However, current observational support for this hypothesis at high redshift is mostly limited to rare z>2 radio galaxies. Here we present Gemini-North NIFS Intregral Field Unit (IFU) observations of the [O III]5007 emission from a z~2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG; L_IR>10^12 L_sol) with an optically identified Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The spatial extent (~4-8 kpc) of the high velocity and broad [O III] emission are consistent with that found in z>2 radio galaxies, indicating the presence of a large-scale energetic outflow in a galaxy population potentially orders of magnitude more common than distant radio galaxies. The low radio luminosity of this system indicates that radio-bright jets are unlikely to be responsible for driving the outflow. However, the estimated energy input required to produce the large-scale outflow signatures (of order ~10^59 e...

  8. HST Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2: The Mystery of Neon

    Zeimann, Gregory; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Trump, Jonathan; Bridge, Joanna; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald


    We use near-IR grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope to examine the strength of [Ne~III] 3869 relative to H-beta, [O~II] 3727 and [O~III] 5007 in 236 low mass (7.5 < log (Mstar/Msolar) < 10.5) star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. By stacking the data by stellar mass, we show that the [Ne~III]/[O~II] ratios of the z ~ 2 universe are marginally higher than those seen in a comparable set of local SDSS galaxies, and that [Ne~III]/[O~III] is enhanced by ~0.2 dex. We consider the possible explanations for this ~4-sigma result, including higher oxygen depletion out of the gas-phase, denser H~II regions, higher production of Ne22 via Wolf-Rayet stars, and the existence of a larger population of X-ray obscured AGN at z ~ 2 compared to z ~ 0. None of these simple scenarios, alone, are favored to explain the observed line ratios. We conclude by suggesting several avenues of future observations to further explore the mystery of enhanced [Ne~III] emission.

  9. The Mass-Metallicity Relation Of A Z~2 Protocluster With MOSFIRE

    Kulas, Kristin R; Shapley, Alice E; Steidel, Charles C; Konidaris, Nicholas P; Matthews, Keith; Mace, Gregory N; Rudie, Gwen C; Trainor, Ryan F; Reddy, Naveen A


    We present Keck/MOSFIRE observations of the role of environment in the formation of galaxies at z~2. Using K-band spectroscopy of H-alpha and [N II] emission lines, we have analyzed the metallicities of galaxies within and around a z=2.3 protocluster discovered in the HS1700+643 field. Our main sample consists of 23 protocluster and 20 field galaxies with estimates of stellar masses and gas-phase metallicities based on the N2 strong-line metallicity indicator. With these data we have examined the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) with respect to environment at z~2. We find that field galaxies follow the well-established trend between stellar mass and metallicity, such that more massive galaxies have larger metallicities. The protocluster galaxies, however, do not exhibit a dependence of metallicity on mass, with the low-mass protocluster galaxies showing an enhancement in metallicity compared to field galaxies spanning the same mass range. A comparison with galaxy formation models suggests that the mass-depende...

  10. Residual $Z_2$ symmetries and leptonic mixing patterns from finite discrete subgroups of $U(3)$

    Joshipura, Anjan S


    We study embedding of non-commuting $Z_2$ and $Z_m$, $m\\geq 3$ symmetries in discrete subgroups (DSG) of $U(3)$ and analytically work out the mixing patterns implied by the assumption that $Z_2$ and $Z_m$ describe the residual symmetries of the neutrino and the charged lepton mass matrices respectively. Both $Z_2$ and $Z_m$ are assumed to be subgroups of a larger discrete symmetry group $G_f$ possessing three dimensional faithful irreducible representation. The residual symmetries predict the magnitude of a column of the leptonic mixing matrix $U_{\\rm PMNS}$ which are studied here assuming $G_f$ as the DSG of $SU(3)$ designated as type C and D and large number of DSG of $U(3)$ which are not in $SU(3)$. These include the known group series $\\Sigma(3n^3)$, $T_n(m)$, $\\Delta(3n^2,m)$, $\\Delta(6n^2,m)$ and $\\Delta'(6n^2,j,k)$. It is shown that the predictions for a column of $|U_{\\rm PMNS}|$ in these group series and the C and D types of groups are all contained in the predictions of the $\\Delta(6N^2)$ groups for...

  11. The Absence of an Environmental Dependence in the Mass-Metallicity Relation at z=2

    Kacprzak, Glenn G; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Tran, Kim-Vy H; Kewley, Lisa J; Glazebrook, Karl; Spitler, Lee; Taylor, Philip; Cowley, Michael; Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline; Tomczak, Adam


    We investigate the environmental dependence of the mass-metallicity relation at z=2 with MOSFIRE/Keck as part of the ZFIRE survey. Here, we present the chemical abundance of a Virgo-like progenitor at z=2.095 that has an established red sequence. We identified 43 cluster ($=2.095\\pm0.004$) and 74 field galaxies ($=2.195\\pm0.083$) for which we can measure metallicities. For the first time, we show that there is no discernible difference between the mass-metallicity relation of field and cluster galaxies to within 0.02dex. Both our field and cluster galaxy mass-metallicity relations are consistent with recent field galaxy studies at z~2. We present hydrodynamical simulations for which we derive mass-metallicity relations for field and cluster galaxies. We find at most a 0.1dex offset towards more metal-rich simulated cluster galaxies. Our results from both simulations and observations are suggestive that environmental effects, if present, are small and are secondary to the ongoing inflow and outflow processes t...

  12. Classification of the chiral Z2XZ2 fermionic models in the heterotic superstring

    Faraggi, A E; Nooij, S E M; Rizos, J


    The first particle physics observable whose origin may be sought in string theory is the triple replication of the matter generations. The class of Z2XZ2 orbifolds of six dimensional compactified tori, that have been most widely studied in the free fermionic formulation, correlate the family triplication with the existence of three twisted sectors in this class. In this work we seek an improved understanding of the geometrical origin of the three generation free fermionic models. Using fermionic and orbifold techniques we classify the Z2XZ2 orbifold with symmetric shifts on six dimensional compactified internal manifolds. We show that perturbative three generation models are not obtained in the case of Z2XZ2 orbifolds with symmetric shifts on complex tori, and that the perturbative three generation models in this class necessarily employ an asymmetric shift. We present a class of three generation models in which the SO(10) gauge symmetry cannot be broken perturbatively, while preserving the Standard Model mat...

  13. Phonon dispersion curves of CsCN

    N K Gaur; Preeti Singh; E G Rini; Jyotsna Galgale; R K Singh


    The motivation for the present work was gained from the recent publication on phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of CsCN from the neutron scattering technique. We have applied the extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) by incorporating the effect of coupling between the translation modes and the orientation of cyanide molecules for the description of phonon dispersion curves of CsCN between the temperatures 195 and 295 K. Our results on PDCs in symmetric direction are in good agreement with the experimental data measured with inelastic neutron scattering technique.

  14. Thermoelectric properties of the ReCN

    Reyes-Serrato, A.; Sofo, Jorge


    We present thermoelectric properties of the new material, ReCN. Combining first principles band structure calculation with semi classical model analysis; we obtained the Seebeck coefficient as well as the electrical conductivity as a function of the relaxation time for the electrons. The results indicate the potential of the ReCN as a good thermoelectric material in the low region of the temperature. A. Reyes-Serrato wishes to acknowledge to Professor Jorge O Sofo and Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, for the support during the sabbatical year.

  15. Association of aldose reductase gene Z+2 polymorphism with reduced susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Caucasian Type 1 diabetic patients

    Lajer, Mathilde; Tarnow, L; Fleckner, Jan


    AIMS: The Z-2 allele of the (AC)n polymorphism in the aldose reductase gene (ALR2) confers increased risk of microvascular diabetic complications, whereas the Z+2 allele has been proposed to be a marker of protection. However data are conflicting. Therefore, we investigated whether this polymorph......AIMS: The Z-2 allele of the (AC)n polymorphism in the aldose reductase gene (ALR2) confers increased risk of microvascular diabetic complications, whereas the Z+2 allele has been proposed to be a marker of protection. However data are conflicting. Therefore, we investigated whether...... normoalbuminuria were genotyped for the case-control study. In addition, 102 case trios and 98 control trios were genotyped for a family-based study. RESULTS: Thirteen different alleles were identified. In the case-control study, the Z+2 allele frequency was significantly higher in the normoalbuminuric diabetic...

  16. Structure and magnetic properties of the two-dimensional ferrimagnet (NEt4)[[Mn(salen)]2Fe(CN)6]: investigation of magnetic anisotropy on a single crystal.

    Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Ieda, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Naohide; Sugiura, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Masahiro


    The title compound, (NEt(4))[[Mn(salen)](2)Fe(CN)(6)] (1), was synthesized via a 1:1 reaction of [Mn(salen)(H(2)O)]ClO(4) with (NEt(4))(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] in a methanol/ethanol medium (NEt(4)(+) = tetraethylammonium cation, salen(2)(-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylidene)iminate). The two-dimensional layered structure of 1 was revealed by X-ray crystallographic analysis: 1 crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with cell dimensions of a = 12.3660(8) A, b = 15.311(1) A, c = 12.918(1) A, beta = 110.971(4) degrees, Z = 2 and is isostructural to the previously synthesized compound, (NEt(4))[[Mn(5-Clsalen)](2)Fe(CN)(6)] (5-Clsalen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(5-chlorosalicylidene)iminate; Miyasaka, H.; Matsumoto, N.; Re, N.; Gallo, E.; Floriani, C. Inorg. Chem. 1997, 36, 670). The Mn ion is surrounded by an equatorial salen quadridentate ligand and two axial nitrogen atoms from the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) unit, the four Fe[bond]CN groups of which coordinate to the Mn ions of [Mn(salen)](+) units, forming a two-dimensional network having [[bond]Mn[bond]NC[bond]Fe[bond]CN[bond

  17. Changes in mechanical properties and structure of electrolytic plasma treated X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti stainless steel

    Kurbanbekov, Sherzod; Baklanov, Viktor; Karakozov, Batyrzhan [Republican State Enterprise National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan). Inst. of Atomic Energy Branch; Skakov, Mazhyn [Republican State Enterprise National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)


    The paper addresses findings regarding the influence of electrolytic plasma treatment on the mechanical properties as well as structural and phase states of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel. Electrolytic plasma treatment is based on carburizing of stainless steel heated in electrolytes. Treatment of steel samples has been performed as follows: the samples were heated up to a temperature between 850 and 950 C and then they were cured for 7 minutes in an electrolyte of an aqueous solution containing 10 % glycerol (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}O{sub 3}) and 15 % sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). It is found that, after plasma electrolytic treatment, the surface of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel had a modified structure and high hardness. Increasing wear resistance of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel has been observed after carburizing and the coefficient of friction has been reduced. X-ray analysis showed that retained austenite γ-Fe is a main phase, and there are some diffraction lines of orthorhombic Fe{sub 3}C phase as well as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cubic phase. It has been determined, that, after plasma electrolytic treatment, a carbide phase in the modified surface layer, irrespective of the location in the steel structure has the chemical composition Fe{sub 3}C. High concentration of carbon atoms in a solid solution based on γ- and α-iron, a large dislocation density, presence of particles of carbide phase and retained austenite layers have been found.

  18. Research of Technological Properties of Steel X6CRNITI18-10 Welded Joints Exploited in Nitric Acid Medium

    Gediminas Mikalauskas


    Full Text Available The repair of chemical industry equipments often requires to replace long time operated pipes or welded inserts with the simi-lar chemical composition. During the study the joints from corro-sion resistant steel X6CrNiTi18-10 were welded by manual metal arc welding with covered electrodes (MMA process 111 and tungsten inert gas welding (TIG process 141 at different welding parameters. The visual, radiographic, penetrant control and ferrite content analysis were carried out. The transverse tensile and bending samples were produced from welded samples; also the macroscopic and microscopic analyse were carried out.

  19. Directly imaging damped Ly-alpha galaxies at z>2. III: The star formation rates of neutral gas reservoirs at z~2.7

    Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J Xavier; Rafelski, Marc; Kanekar, Nissim


    We present results from a survey designed to probe the star formation properties of 32 damped Ly-alpha systems (DLAs) at z~2.7. By using the "double-DLA" technique that eliminates the glare of the bright background quasars, we directly measure the rest-frame FUV flux from DLAs and their neighbouring galaxies. We place stringent constraints on the star formation rates (SFRs) of DLAs to 2-sigma limits of 2 M/yr at impact parameters b < SFR^(0.8)+6 kpc, in contrast with current samples of confirmed DLA galaxies, which appear to be biased. Our observations also disfavor a scenario in which the majority of DLAs arise from bright LBGs at distances 20 < b < 100 kpc. These new findings corroborate a picture in which DLAs do not originate from highly star forming systems that are coincident with the absorbers, and instead suggest that DLAs are associated with faint, possibly isolated, star-forming galaxies. Potential shortcomings of this scenario and future strategies for further investigation are discussed.

  20. Anomalous absorption in H2CN and CH2CN molecules

    S Chandra; S V Shinde


    Structures of H2CN and CH2CN molecules are similar to that of H2CO molecule. The H2CO has shown anomalous absorption for its transition 111 - 110 at 4.8 GHz in a number of cool molecular clouds. Though the molecules H2CN and CH2CN have been identified in TMC-1 and Sgr B2 through some transitions in ortho as well as in para species, here we have investigated the condition under which transitions 111 - 110 and 212 - 211 of these molecules may show anomalous absorption. For the present investigation, we have calculated energy levels and radiative transition probabilities. However, we have used scaled values for collisional rate coefficients. We found that relative values of collisional rate coefficients can produce the required anomalous absorption in 111 - 110 and 212 - 211 transitions in the molecules.

  1. A Multi-Wavelength Census of Dust and Star Formation in Galaxies at z ~ 2

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen; MOSDEF Collaboration


    Redshift of z ~ 2 is an important era in the history of the universe, as it contains the peak of star formation rate density and quasar activity. We study the galaxy properties during this era from two different, yet complementary, aspects: by studying formation of stars and mass assembly, and exploring the properties of galactic dust. We use a wealth of multi-wavelength data, from UV to far-IR, to obtain a complete census of obscured and unobscured star formation in galaxies. Our data consists of rest-frame optical spectra from the MOSDEF survey, rest-frame UV and optical photometric data from the 3D-HST survey, and mid- and far-IR data obtained by the Spitzer and Herschel telescopes. In the MOSDEF survey, we acquired rest-frame optical spectra of ~ 1500 galaxies with the MOSFIRE spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. MOSDEF is currently the largest survey of the rest-frame optical properties of galaxies at 1.37 ≤ z ≤ 3.80. Using the multi-wavelength data sets, we show that Hα SFRs, corrected for dust attenuation using the Hβ line, accurately trace SFRs up to ~ 300 M⊙ yr-1, when compared with panchromatic (UV-to-far-IR) SED models. Using Hα SFRs for a large sample of ~ 200 galaxies at z ~ 2, we explore the SFR-M* relation and show that the slope of this relation is shallower than previously measured. We conclude that the scatter in the SFR-M* relation is dominated by uncertainties in dust correction and cannot be used to measure the star formation stochasticity. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of Spitzer/MIPS 24 micron flux as an SFR indicator and its variation with ISM physical parameters. We find that 24 micron flux, which at z ~ 2 traces the emission from the PAH grains, significantly depends on metallicity, such that there is a PAH deficiency in metal-poor galaxies. We demonstrate that commonly-used conversions of 24 micron flux to IR luminosity underestimate the IR luminosity of low-mass galaxies by more than a factor of 2. Our results


    Guaita, Lucia


    Este proyecto de tesis de doctorado tuvo su inicio en Diciembre de 2007. En esta fecha se tomaron imágenes de la región del cielo llamada Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S) a través del filtro de banda angosta NB3727 y con el instrumento MO-SAIC II del telescopio de 4 metros de Cerro Tololo. El filtro está caracterizado por una longitud de onda central que corresponde a la línea Lγα con un desplazamiento hacia el rojo (redshift). z - 2.1. En este campo hemos descubierto una muestra de...

  3. Digital quantum simulation of $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermionic matter

    Zohar, Erez; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J Ignacio


    We propose a scheme for digital quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. Using a layered optical lattice with ancilla atoms that can move and interact with the other atoms (simulating the physical degrees of freedom), we obtain a stroboscopic dynamics which yields the four-body plaquette interactions, arising in models with $2+1$ and higher dimensions, without the use of perturbation theory. As an example we show how to simulate a $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ model in $2+1$ dimensions.

  4. Lyα Forest Tomography of the z > 2 Cosmic Web

    Lee, Khee-Gan


    The hydrogen Lyα forest is an important probe of the z > 2 Universe that is otherwise challenging to observe with galaxy redshift surveys, but this technique has traditionally been limited to 1D studies in front of bright quasars. However, by pushing to faint magnitudes (g > 23) with 8-10m large telescopes it becomes possible to exploit the high area density of high-redshift star-forming galaxies to create 3D tomographic maps of large-scale structure in the foreground. I describe the first pilot observations using this technique, as well discuss future surveys and the resulting science possibilities for galaxy evolution and cosmology.

  5. The first ultraviolet quasar stacked spectrum at z=2.4 from WFC3

    Lusso, E; Hennawi, J F; Prochaska, J X; Vignali, C; Stern, J; O'Meara, J M


    The ionising continuum from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is fundamental for interpreting their broad emission lines and understanding their impact on the surrounding gas. Furthermore, it provides hints on how matter accretes onto supermassive black holes. Using HST's Wide Field Camera 3 we have constructed the first stacked ultraviolet (rest-frame wavelengths 600-2500\\AA) spectrum of 53 luminous quasars at z=2.4, with a state-of-the-art correction for the intervening Lyman forest and Lyman continuum absorption. The continuum slope ($f_\

  6. The Evolution of M_*/M_BH Between z=2 and z=0

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai


    We propose a novel method to estimate M_*/M_BH, the ratio of stellar mass (M_*) to black hole mass (M_BH), at various redshifts using two recent observational results: the correlation between the bolometric luminosity of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the star formation rate (SFR) in their host galaxies, and the correlation between SFR and M_* in star-forming (SF) galaxies. Our analysis is based on M_BH and L_bol measurements in two large samples of type-I AGN at z~1 and z~2, and the measur...

  7. Motion of particles on a $z=2$ Lifshitz black hole in 3+1 dimensions

    Olivares, Marco; Villanueva, J R; Moncada, Felipe


    We study the geodesic structure of a $z=2$ Lifshitz black hole in 3+1 spacetime dimensions that is an exact solution to the Einstein-scalar-Maxwell theory. We investigate the motion of massless and massive particles in this background using the standard Lagrangian procedure. Analytical expressions are obtained for radial and angular motions of the test particles, where the polar trajectories are given in terms of the $\\wp$ - Weierstrass elliptic function. It is shown that confined orbits are not allowed on this spacetime, this result agrees with the obtained recently in the literature for other Lifshitz black holes.

  8. On the Cn/Zm fractional branes

    Karp, Robert L.


    We construct several geometric representatives for the Cn/Zm fractional branes on either a partially or the completely resolved orbifold. In the process we use large radius and conifold-type monodromies and provide a strong consistency check. In particular, for C3/Z5 we give three different sets of geometric representatives. We also find the explicit Seiberg duality which connects our fractional branes to the ones given by the McKay correspondence.

  9. ZFIRE: A KECK/MOSFIRE Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxies in Rich Environments at z~2

    Nanayakkara, Themiya; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Yuan, Tiantian; Tran, Kim-Vy; Spitler, Lee; Straatman, Lisa Kewley Caroline; Cowley, Michael; Fisher, David; Labbe, Ivo; Tomczak, Adam; Allen, Rebecca; Alcorn, Leo


    We present an overview and the first data release of ZFIRE, a spectroscopic redshift survey of star-forming galaxies that utilizes the MOSFIRE instrument on Keck-I to study galaxy properties in rich environments at $1.5<z<2.5$. ZFIRE measures accurate spectroscopic redshifts and basic galaxy properties derived from multiple emission lines. The galaxies are selected from a stellar mass limited sample based on deep near infra-red imaging ($\\mathrm{K_{AB}<25}$) and precise photometric redshifts from the ZFOURGE and UKIDSS surveys as well as grism redshifts from 3DHST. Between 2013--2015 ZFIRE has observed the COSMOS and UDS legacy fields over 13 nights and has obtained 211 galaxy redshifts over $1.57<z<2.66$ from a combination of nebular emission lines (such as \\Halpha, \\NII, \\Hbeta, \\OII, \\OIII, \\SII) observed at 1--2\\micron. Based on our medium-band NIR photometry, we are able to spectrophotometrically flux calibrate our spectra to \\around10\\% accuracy. ZFIRE reaches $5\\sigma$ emission line flux...

  10. The nature of z ~ 2.3 Lyman-alpha emitters

    Nilsson, Kim K; Møller, Palle; Möller-Nilsson, Ole; Tapken, Christian; Freudling, Wolfram; Fynbo, Johan P U


    We study the multi-wavelength properties of a set of 171 Ly-alpha emitting candidates at redshift z = 2.25 found in the COSMOS field. The candidates are shown to have different properties from those of Ly-alpha emitters found at higher redshift, by fitting the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using a Monte-Carlo Markov-Chain technique and including nebular emission in the spectra. The dust contents and stellar masses are both higher, with A_V = 0.0 - 2.0 mag and stellar masses in the range log M_* = 9.0 - 11.0 M_sun. Young population ages are well constrained, but older population ages are typically unconstrained. In 40 % of the galaxies only a single, young population of stars is observed. We show that the ages and Ly-alpha fluxes of the best fit galaxies are correlated with their dust properties, with higher dust extinction in younger galaxies. We conclude that the stellar properties of Ly-alpha emitters at z = 2.25 are different from those at higher redshift and that they are very diverse. Ly-alpha sel...

  11. Evolution in the properties of Lyman-alpha emitters from redshifts z ~ 3 to z ~ 2

    Nilsson, Kim K; Moeller, Palle; Freudling, Wolfram; Fynbo, Johan P U; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Laursen, Peter; Oestlin, Goeran


    Context: Narrow-band surveys for Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs) is a powerful tool in detecting high, and very high, redshift galaxies. Even though samples are growing at redshifts z = 3 - 6, the nature of these galaxies is still poorly known. Aims: To study the properties of z = 2.25 LAEs and compare those with the properties of z > 3 LAEs. Methods: We present narrow-band imaging made with the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope with the WFI detector. We have made a selection for emission-line objects and find 170 candidate typical LAEs and 17 candidates which we regard as high UV-transmission LAEs. We have derived the magnitudes of these objects in 8 bands from u* to Ks, and studied if they have X-ray and/or radio counterparts. Results: We show that there has been significant evolution in the properties of LAEs between redshift z ~ 3 and z = 2.25. The spread in spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at the lower redshift is larger and we detect a significant AGN contribution in the sample. The distribution of the equivalent wid...

  12. Submillimeter observations of the J2142-4423 Lya protocluster at z = 2.38

    Beelen, A; Kovács, A; Lagache, G; De Breuck, C; Weiss, A; Menten, K M; Colbert, J W; Dole, H; Siringo, G; Kreysa, E


    We present observations aimed at exploring both the nature of Lya emitting nebulae (Lya blobs) at z=2.38 and the way they trace large scale structure (LSS), by exploring their proximity to maximum starbursts through submillimeter emission. Our most important objectives are to make a census of associated submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), check their properties, and look for a possible overdensity in the protocluster J2142-4426 at z=2.38. We used the newly commissioned Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABoCa) on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope, in its Science Verification phase, to carry out a deep 10'x10' map at 870 micron, and we performed multiple checks of the quality of data processing and source extraction. Our map, the first published deep image, confirms the capabilities of APEX/LABoCa as the most efficient current equipment for wide and deep submm mapping. Twenty-two sources were securely extracted with 870 micron flux densities in the range 3-21 mJy, rms noise 0.8-2.4 mJy, and far-IR lumin...

  13. Bulge-forming galaxies with an extended rotating disk at z~2

    Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Wuyts, Stijn; Wisnioski, Emily; Schreiber, Natascha M Förster; Burkert, Andreas; Lang, Philipp; Tacconi, Linda J; Lutz, Dieter; Belli, Sirio; Davies, Richard I; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hayashi, Masao; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Ikarashi, Soh; Inoue, Shigeki; Kohno, Kotaro; Koyama, Yusei; Mendel, J Trevor; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Suzuki, Tomoko L; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanaka, Ichi; Übler, Hannah; Wilman, Dave J


    We present 0".2-resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations at 870 um for 25 Halpha-seleced star-forming galaxies (SFGs) around the main-sequence at z=2.2-2.5. We detect significant 870 um continuum emission in 16 (64%) of these SFGs. The high-resolution maps reveal that the dust emission is mostly radiated from a single region close to the galaxy center. Exploiting the visibility data taken over a wide $uv$ distance range, we measure the half-light radii of the rest-frame far-infrared emission for the best sample of 12 SFGs. We find nine galaxies to be associated with extremely compact dust emission with R_{1/2,870um}1e10 Msol/kpc^2 in several hundred Myr, i.e. by z~2. Moreover, ionized gas kinematics reveal that they are rotation-supported with an angular momentum as large as that of typical SFGs at z=1-3. Our results suggest bulges are commonly formed in extended rotating disks by internal processes, not involving major mergers.

  14. Galactic Outflows in Absorption and Emission: Near-UV Spectroscopy of Galaxies at 1<z<2

    Erb, Dawn K; Henry, Alaina L; Martin, Crystal L


    We study large-scale outflows in a sample of 96 star-forming galaxies at 1<z<2, using near-UV spectroscopy of FeII and MgII absorption and emission. The average blueshift of the FeII interstellar absorption lines with respect to the systemic velocity is -85+/-10 km/s at z~1.5, with standard deviation 87 km/s; this is a decrease of a factor of two from the average blueshift measured for far-UV interstellar absorption lines in similarly selected galaxies at z~2. The profiles of the MgII 2796, 2803 lines show much more variety than the FeII profiles, which are always seen in absorption; MgII ranges from strong emission to pure absorption, with emission more common in galaxies with blue UV slopes and at lower stellar masses. Outflow velocities, as traced by the centroids and maximum extent of the absorption lines, increase with increasing stellar mass with 2-3sigma significance, in agreement with previous results. We study fine structure emission from FeII*, finding several lines of evidence in support of t...

  15. The Curious Case of Lyman Alpha Emitters: Growing Younger from z ~ 3 to z ~ 2?

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia


    Lyman Alpha Emitting (LAE) galaxies are thought to be progenitors of present-day L* galaxies. Clustering analyses have suggested that LAEs at z ~ 3 might evolve into LAEs at z ~ 2, but it is unclear whether the physical nature of these galaxies is compatible with this hypothesis. Several groups have investigated the properties of LAEs using spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, but direct comparison of their results is complicated by inconsistencies in the treatment of the data and in the assumptions made in modeling the stellar populations, which are degenerate with the effects of galaxy evolution. By using the same data analysis pipeline and SED fitting software on two stacked samples of LAEs at z = 3.1 and z = 2.1, and by eliminating several systematic uncertainties that might cause a discrepancy, we determine that the physical properties of these two samples of galaxies are dramatically different. LAEs at z = 3.1 are found to be old (age ~ 1 Gyr) and metal-poor (Z Z_Sun). The difference in the obse...

  16. The declining importance of major mergers for galaxy assembly at 1<z<2

    Williams, Rik J; Franx, Marijn


    Using mass-selected galaxy samples from deep multiwavelength data we investigate the incidence of close galaxy pairs between z=0.4-2. Many such close pairs will eventually merge, and the pair fraction is therefore connected to the merger rate. In this analysis we distinguish between likely progenitors of "dry mergers" (two quiescent red galaxies) and those that include star-forming constituents. Over this redshift range 4-7% of log M/Msun>10.5 quiescent galaxies have a similar-mass quiescent galaxy within 30h^-1 kpc; when minor companions (1:10 mass ratio or greater) are included, the "dry" pair fraction increases to 5-15%. The mean total pair fraction, including both star-forming and quiescent companions to massive "dead" galaxies, is essentially constant (within ~10%) to z=2 for both major and minor merger candidates. If the constant pair fraction to z=2 implies a roughly constant merger rate per unit time, then most mergers in fact occur at z<1. Thus, even though other studies find major mergers to be r...

  17. The Properties of H{\\alpha} Emission-Line Galaxies at $z$ = 2.24

    An, F X; Wang, W -H; Huang, J -S; Kong, X; Wang, J -X; Fang, G W; Zhu, F; Gu, Q -S; Wu, H; Hao, L; Xia, X -Y


    Using deep narrow-band $H_2S1$ and $K_{s}$-band imaging data obtained with CFHT/WIRCam, we identify a sample of 56 H$\\alpha$ emission-line galaxies (ELGs) at $z=2.24$ with the 5$\\sigma$ depths of $H_2S1=22.8$ and $K_{s}=24.8$ (AB) over 383 arcmin$^{2}$ area in the ECDFS. A detailed analysis is carried out with existing multi-wavelength data in this field. Three of the 56 H$\\alpha$ ELGs are detected in Chandra 4 Ms X-ray observation and two of them are classified as AGNs. The rest-frame UV and optical morphologies revealed by HST/ACS and WFC3 deep images show that nearly half of the H$\\alpha$ ELGs are either merging systems or with a close companion, indicating that the merging/interacting processes play a key role in regulating star formation at cosmic epoch z=2-3; About 14% are too faint to be resolved in the rest-frame UV morphology due to high dust extinction. We estimate dust extinction form SEDs. We find that dust extinction is generally correlated with H$\\alpha$ luminosity and stellar mass (SM). Our res...

  18. Identification of z~>2 Herschel 500 micron sources using color-deconfusion

    Shu, X W; Bourne, N; Schreiber, C; Wang, T; Dunlop, J S; Fontana, A; Leiton, R; Pannella, M; Okumura, K; Michalowski, M J; Santini, P; Merlin, E; Buitrago, F; Bruce, V A; Amorin, R; Castellano, M; Derriere, S; Comastri, A; Cappelluti, N; Wang, J X; Ferguson, H C


    We present a new method to search for candidate z~>2 Herschel 500{\\mu}m sources in the GOODS-North field, using a S500{\\mu}m/S24{\\mu}m "color deconfusion" technique. Potential high-z sources are selected against low-redshift ones from their large 500{\\mu}m to 24{\\mu}m flux density ratios. By effectively reducing the contribution from low-redshift populations to the observed 500{\\mu}m emission, we are able to identify counterparts to high-z 500{\\mu}m sources whose 24{\\mu}m fluxes are relatively faint. The recovery of known z~4 starbursts confirms the efficiency of this approach in selecting high-z Herschel sources. The resulting sample consists of 34 dusty star-forming galaxies at z~>2. The inferred infrared luminosities are in the range 1.5x10^12-1.8x10^13 Lsun, corresponding to dust-obscured star formation rates (SFRs) of ~260-3100 Msun/yr for a Salpeter IMF. Comparison with previous SCUBA 850{\\mu}m-selected galaxy samples shows that our method is more efficient at selecting high-z dusty galaxies with a medi...

  19. Quasars Probing Quasars VI. Excess HI Absorption Within One Proper Mpc of z~2 Quasars

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Lee, Khee-Gan; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Bovy, Jo; Djorgovski, S G; Ellison, Sara L; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Martin, Crystal L; Myers, Adam; Rubin, Kate H R; Simcoe, Robert A


    With close pairs of quasars at different redshifts, a background quasar sightline can be used to study a foreground quasar's environment in absorption. We use a sample of 650 projected quasar pairs to study the HI Lya absorption transverse to luminous, z~2 quasars at proper separations of 30kpc 17.3) at separations R<200kpc, which decreases to ~20% at R~1Mpc, but still represents a significant excess over the cosmic average. This excess of optically thick absorption can be described by a quasar-absorber cross-correlation function xi_QA(r) = (r/r_0)^gamma with a large correlation length r_0 = 12.5+2.7-1.4 Mpc/h (comoving) and gamma = 1.68+0.14-0.30. The HI absorption measured around quasars exceeds that of any previously studied population, consistent with quasars being hosted by massive dark matter halos Mhalo~10^12.5 Msun at z~2.5. The environments of these massive halos are highly biased towards producing optically thick gas, and may even dominate the cosmic abundance of Lyman limit systems and hence th...

  20. CANDELS: Constraining the AGN-Merger Connection with Host Morphologies at z~2

    Kocevski, Dale D; Mozena, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M; Nandra, Kirpal; Rangel, Cyprian; Laird, Elise S; Brusa, Marcella; Wuyts, Stijn; Trump, Jonathan R; Koo, David C; Somerville, Rachel S; Bell, Eric F; Lotz, Jennifer M; Alexander, David M; Bournaud, Frederic; Conselice, Christopher J; Dahlen, Tomas; Dekel, Avashi; Donley, Jennifer L; Dunlop, James S; Finoguenov, Alexis; Georgakakis, Antonis; Giavalisco, Mauro; Guo, Yicheng; Grogin, Norman A; Hathi, Nimish P; Juneau, Stephanie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Lucas, Ray A; McGrath, Elizabeth J; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mobasher, Bahram; Robaina, Aday R; Rosario, David; Straughn, Amber N; van der Wel, Arjen; Villforth, Carolin


    Using HST/WFC3 imaging taken as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), we examine the role that major galaxy mergers play in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity at z~2. Our sample consists of 72 moderate-luminosity (Lx ~ 1E42-1E44 erg/s) AGN at 1.5<z<2.5 that are selected using the 4 Msec Chandra observations in the Chandra Deep Field South, the deepest X-ray observations to date. Employing visual classifications, we have analyzed the rest-frame optical morphologies of the AGN host galaxies and compared them to a mass-matched control sample of 216 non-active galaxies at the same redshift. We find that most of the AGN reside in disk galaxies (51.4%), while a smaller percentage are found in spheroids (27.8%). Roughly 16.7% of the AGN hosts have highly disturbed morphologies and appear to be involved in a major merger or interaction, while most of the hosts (55.6%) appear relatively relaxed and undisturbed. These fractions are statistically consis...

  1. The interstellar medium and feedback in the progenitors of the compact passive galaxies at z~2

    Williams, Christina C; Lee, Bomee; Tundo, Elena; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C; Koekemoer, Anton; Trump, Jonathan R; Cassata, Paolo; Dekel, Avishai; Guo, Yicheng; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Pentericci, Laura; Bell, Eric F; Castellano, Marco; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Grogin, Norman; Kocevski, Dale; Koo, David C; Lucas, Ray A; Ravindranath, Swara; Santini, Paola; Vanzella, Eros; Weiner, Benjamin J


    The first quenched galaxies (z>2) are both the most massive, and most compact, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z~3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z~2, compared to other LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster outflow velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyman-alpha and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyman-alpha emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral HI fraction is patchy, such that Lyman-alpha photons can escape. We detect stronger CIV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and HeII emission in candidates, indicative of larger ...

  2. Kinematic signatures of AGN feedback in moderately powerful radio galaxies at z~2 observed with SINFONI

    Collet, C; De Breuck, C; Lehnert, M D; Best, P; Bryant, J J; Hunstead, R; Dicken, D; Johnston, H


    Most successful galaxy formation scenarios now postulate that the intense star formation in massive, high-redshift galaxies during their major growth period was truncated when powerful AGNs launched galaxy-wide outflows of gas that removed large parts of the interstellar medium. The most powerful radio galaxies at z~2 show clear signatures of such winds, but are too rare to be good representatives of a generic phase in the evolution of all massive galaxies at high redshift. Here we present SINFONI imaging spectroscopy of 12 radio galaxies at z~2 that are intermediate between the most powerful radio and vigorous starburst galaxies in radio power, and common enough to represent a generic phase in the early evolution of massive galaxies. The kinematic properties are diverse, with regular velocity gradients with amplitudes of Delta v=200-400 km s^-1 as in rotating disks as well as irregular kinematics with multiple velocity jumps of a few 100 km s^-1. Line widths are generally high, typically around FWHM=800 km s...

  3. The chemical enrichment of long gamma-ray bursts nurseries up to z = 2

    Vergani, S. D.; Palmerio, J.; Salvaterra, R.; Japelj, J.; Mannucci, F.; Perley, D. A.; D'Avanzo, P.; Krühler, T.; Puech, M.; Boissier, S.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Hunt, L. K.; Petitjean, P.; Tagliaferri, G.


    Aims: We investigate the existence of a metallicity threshold for the production of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs). Methods: We used the host galaxies of the Swift/BAT6 sample of LGRBs. We considered the stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and metallicity determined from the host galaxy photometry and spectroscopy up to z = 2 and used them to compare the distribution of host galaxies to that of field galaxies in the mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relation plane. Results: We find that although LGRBs also form in galaxies with relatively large stellar masses, the large majority of host galaxies have metallicities below log (O/H) 8.6. The extension to z = 2 results in a good sampling of stellar masses also above Log(M∗/M⊙) 9.5 and provides evidence that LGRB host galaxies do not follow the fundamental metallicity relation. As shown by the comparison with dedicated numerical simulations of LGRB host galaxy population, these results are naturally explained by the existence of a mild ( 0.7 Z⊙) threshold for the LGRB formation. The present statistics does not allow us to discriminate between different shapes of the metallicity cutoff, but the relatively high metallicity threshold found in this work is somewhat in disagreement to most of the standard single-star models for LGRB progenitors.

  4. From z>6 to z~2: Unearthing Galaxies at the Edge of the Dark Ages

    Illingworth, G D; Illingworth, Garth D.; Bouwens, Rychard J.


    Galaxies undergoing formation and evolution can now be observed over a time baseline of some 12 Gyr. An inherent difficulty with high-redshift observations is that the objects are very faint and the best resolution (HST) is only ~0.5 kpc. Such studies thereby combine in a highly synergistic way with the great detail that can be obtained for nearby galaxies. 3 new developments are highlighted. First is the derivation of stellar masses for galaxies from SEDs using HST and now Spitzer data, and dynamical masses from both sub-mm observations of CO lines and near-IR observations of optical lines like Halpha. A major step has been taken with evidence that points to the z~2-3 LBGs having masses that are a few x 10^10 Msolar. Second is the discovery of a population of evolved red galaxies at z~2-3 which appear to be the progenitors of the more massive early-type galaxies of today, with dynamical masses around a few x 10^11 Msolar. Third are the remarkable advances that have occurred in characterizing dropout galaxies...

  5. Evaluation of $\\alpha(M_{Z}^{2})$ and $(g-2)_{\\mu}$

    Davier, M


    This talk summarizes the recent developments in the evaluation of the leading order hadronic contributions to the running of the QED f\\/ine structure constant \\aqed, at $s=M_{\\rm Z}^2$, and to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon $(g-2)_\\mu$. The accuracy of the theoretical prediction of these observables is limited by the uncertainties on the hadronic contributions. Signif\\/icant improvement has been achieved in a series of new analyses which is presented historically in three steps: (I), use of $\\tau$ spectral functions in addition to \\eee\\ cross sections, (II), extended use of perturbative QCD and (III), application of QCD sum rule techniques. The most precise values obtained are: \\daqedhZ\\,$=(276.3\\pm1.6)\\times10^{-4}$, yielding $\\alpha^{-1}(M_{\\rm Z}^2)=128.933\\pm0.021$, and $a_\\mu^{\\rm had}=(692.4\\pm6.2)\\times 10^{-10}$ with which one f\\/inds for the complete Standard Model prediction $a_\\mu^{\\rm SM}=(11\\,659\\,159.6\\pm6.7)\\times10^{-10}$. For the electron $(g-2)_e$, the hadronic contribution is $a_...

  6. Z2Pack: Numerical implementation of hybrid Wannier centers for identifying topological materials

    Gresch, Dominik; Autès, Gabriel; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Troyer, Matthias; Vanderbilt, David; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Soluyanov, Alexey A.


    The intense theoretical and experimental interest in topological insulators and semimetals has established band structure topology as a fundamental material property. Consequently, identifying band topologies has become an important, but often challenging, problem, with no exhaustive solution at the present time. In this work we compile a series of techniques, some previously known, that allow for a solution to this problem for a large set of the possible band topologies. The method is based on tracking hybrid Wannier charge centers computed for relevant Bloch states, and it works at all levels of materials modeling: continuous k .p models, tight-binding models, and ab initio calculations. We apply the method to compute and identify Chern, Z2, and crystalline topological insulators, as well as topological semimetal phases, using real material examples. Moreover, we provide a numerical implementation of this technique (the Z2Pack software package) that is ideally suited for high-throughput screening of materials databases for compounds with nontrivial topologies. We expect that our work will allow researchers to (a) identify topological materials optimal for experimental probes, (b) classify existing compounds, and (c) reveal materials that host novel, not yet described, topological states.

  7. GMASS Ultradeep Spectroscopy of Galaxies at redshift z~2. I. The stellar metallicity

    Halliday, C; Cimatti, A; Kurk, J; Renzini, A; Mignoli, M; Bolzonella, M; Pozzetti, L; Dickinson, M; Zamorani, G; Berta, S; Franceschini, A; Cassata, P; Rodighiero, G; Rosati, P


    Context: Galaxy metallicities have been measured to redshift z~2 by gas-phase oxygen abundances of the interstellar medium using the R23 and N2 methods. Galaxy stellar metallicities provide crucial data for chemical evolution models but have not been assessed reliably much outside the local Universe. Aims: We determine the iron-abundance, stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift z~2, observed as part of the Galaxy Mass Assembly ultra-deep Spectroscopic Survey (GMASS). Methods: We compute the equivalent width of a rest-frame mid-ultraviolet, photospheric absorption-line index, the 1978 index found to vary monotonically with stellar metallicity by Rix and collaborators. We normalise and combine 75 SFG spectra from the GMASS survey to produce a spectrum corresponding to a total integration time 1652.5 hours (and a signal-to-noise ratio ~100 for our 1.5 angstrom binning) of FORS2 spectroscopic observations at the Very Large Telescope. Results: We measure an iron-abundance, stellar metallici...

  8. Gas reservoir of a hyper-luminous QSO at z=2.6

    Feruglio, C; Fiore, F; Krips, M; Brusa, M; Daddi, E; Gavignaud, I; Maiolino, R; Piconcelli, E; Sargent, M; Vignali, C; Zappacosta, L


    Understanding the relationship between the formation and evolution of galaxies and their central super massive black holes (SMBH) is one of the main topics in extragalactic astrophysics. Links and feedback may reciprocally affect both black hole and galaxy growth. Observations of the CO line at redshifts of 2-4 are crucial to investigate the gas mass, star formation activity and accretion onto SMBHs, as well as the effect of AGN feedback. Potential correlations between AGN and host galaxy properties can be highlighted by observing extreme objects. Despite their luminosity, hyper-luminous QSOs at z=2-4 are still little studied at mm wavelengths. We targeted CO(3-2) in ULAS J1539+0557, an hyper-luminos QSO (Lbol> 10^48 erg/s) at z=2.658, selected through its unusual red colors in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (ULAS). We find a molecular gas mass of 4.1+-0.8 10^10 Msun, and a gas fraction of 0.4-0.1, depending mostly on the assumed source inclination. We also find a robust lower limit to the star-formation rate (...

  9. The HDUV Survey: Six Lyman Continuum Emitter Candidates at z~2 Revealed by HST UV Imaging

    Naidu, R P; Reddy, N; Holden, B; Steidel, C C; Montes, M; Atek, H; Bouwens, R J; Carollo, C M; Cibinel, A; Illingworth, G D; Labbe, I; Magee, D; Morselli, L; Nelson, E J; van Dokkum, P G; Wilkins, S


    We present six galaxies at z~2 that show evidence of Lyman continuum (LyC) emission based on the newly acquired UV imaging of the Hubble Deep UV legacy survey (HDUV) conducted with the WFC3/UVIS camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). At the redshift of these sources, the HDUV F275W images partially probe the ionizing continuum. By exploiting the HST multi-wavelength data available in the HDUV/GOODS fields, models of the UV spectral energy distributions, and detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the intergalactic medium absorption, we estimate the absolute ionizing photon escape fractions of these galaxies to be very high -- typically >60% (>13% for all sources at 90% likelihood). Our findings are in broad agreement with previous studies that found only a small fraction of galaxies to show high escape fraction. These six galaxies comprise the largest sample yet of LyC leaking candidates at z~2 whose inferred LyC flux has been cleanly observed at HST resolution. While three of our six candidates show evidenc...

  10. Limits on Lyman Continuum escape from z=2.2 H-alpha emitting galaxies

    Sandberg, A; Melinder, J; Bik, A; Guaita, L


    The leakage of Lyman continuum photons from star forming galaxies is an elusive parameter. When observed, it provides a wealth of information on star formation in galaxies and the geometry of the interstellar medium, and puts constraints on the role of star forming galaxies in the reionization of the universe. H-alpha-selected galaxies at z~2 trace the highest star formation population at the peak of cosmic star formation history, providing a base for directly measuring Lyman continuum escape. Here we present this method, and highlight its benefits as well as caveats. We also use the method on 10 H-alpha emitters in the Chandra Deep Field South at z=2.2, also imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope in the ultraviolet. We find no individual Lyman continuum detections, and our stack puts a 5 sigma upper limit on the average absolute escape fraction of <24%, consistent with similar studies. With future planned observations, the sample sizes would rapidly increase and the method presented here would provide ver...

  11. H12CN and H13CN excitation analysis in the circumstellar outflow of R Sculptoris

    Saberi, M.; Maercker, M.; De Beck, E.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Olofsson, H.; Danilovich, T.


    Context. The 12CO/13CO isotopologue ratio in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars has been extensively used as the tracer of the photospheric 12C/13C ratio. However, spatially-resolved ALMA observations of R Scl, a carbon rich AGB star, have shown that the 12CO/13CO ratio is not consistent over the entire CSE. Hence, it can not necessarily be used as a tracer of the 12C/13C ratio. The most likely hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy between the 12CO/13CO and 12C/13C ratios is CO isotopologue selective photodissociation by UV radiation. Unlike the CO isotopologue ratio, the HCN isotopologue ratio is not affected by UV radiation. Therefore, HCN isotopologue ratios can be used as the tracer of the atomic C ratio in UV irradiated regions. Aims: We aim to present ALMA observations of H13CN(4-3) and APEX observations of H12CN(2-1), H13CN(2-1, 3-2) towards R Scl. These new data, combined with previously published observations, are used to determine abundances, ratio, and the sizes of line-emitting regions of the aforementioned HCN isotopologues. Methods: We have performed a detailed non-LTE excitation analysis of circumstellar H12CN(J = 1-0, 2-1, 3-2, 4-3) and H13CN(J = 2-1, 3-2, 4-3) line emission around R Scl using a radiative transfer code based on the accelerated lambda iteration (ALI) method. The spatial extent of the molecular distribution for both isotopologues is constrained based on the spatially resolved H13CN(4-3) ALMA observations. Results: We find fractional abundances of H12CN/H2 = (5.0 ± 2.0) × 10-5 and H13CN/H2 = (1.9 ± 0.4) × 10-6 in the inner wind (r ≤ (2.0 ± 0.25) ×1015 cm) of R Scl. The derived circumstellar isotopologue ratio of H12CN/H13CN = 26.3 ± 11.9 is consistent with the photospheric ratio of 12C/13C 19 ± 6. Conclusions: We show that the circumstellar H12CN/H13CN ratio traces the photospheric 12C/13C ratio. Hence, contrary to the 12CO/13CO ratio, the H12CN/H13CN ratio is not affected by UV

  12. Cloning and functional analysis of chloroplast division gene NtFtsZ2-1 in Nicotiana tabacum


    FtsZ protein plays an important role in the division of chloroplasts. With the finding and functional analysis of higher plant FtsZ proteins, people have deepened the understanding in the molecular mechanism of chloroplast division. Multiple ftsZ genes are diversified into two families in higher plants, ftsZ1 and ftsZ2. On the basis of the research on ftsZ1 family, we analyzed the function of NtFtsZ2-1 gene in Nicotiana tabacum. Microscopic analysis of the sense and antisense NtFtsZ2-1 transgenic tobacco plants revealed that the chloroplasts were abnormal in size and also in number when compared with wild-type tobacco chloroplasts. Our investigations confirmed that the NtFtsZ2-1 gene is involved in plant chloroplast division.

  13. ${\\cal N}=4$ Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory on Orbifold-$T^4\\/{\\bf Z}_$2 Higher Rank Case

    Jinzenji, M; Jinzenji, Masao; Sasaki, Toru


    We derive the partition function of ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on orbifold-$T^4/{\\bf Z}_2$ for SU(N). We generalize our previous work for SU(2) to the SU(N) case. These partition functions can be factorized into product of bulk contribution of quotient space $T^4/{\\bf Z}_2$ and of blow-up formula including $A_{N-1}$ theta functions with level N.

  14. Numerical Prediction Of Deformations In Laser Welded Sheets Made Of X5CrNi18-10 Steel

    Piekarska W.


    Full Text Available The work concerns the numerical modelling of coupled thermal and mechanical phenomena occurring in the laser beam welding process. Commercial Abaqus FEA engineering software is adopted to numerical computations in order to perform a comprehensive analysis of thermo-mechanical phenomena. Created in Fortran programming language additional numerical subroutines are implemented into Abaqus solver, used to describe the power intensity distribution of the movable laser beam heat source. Temperature dependent thermomechanical properties of X5CrNi18-10 steel are adopted in the numerical analysis of stress and strain states. Mathematical and numerical models are verified on the basis of a comparison between selected results of computer simulations and experimental studies on butt-welded joints.

  15. 0,1 distribution in the highest level sequences of primitive sequences over Z2e

    FAN; Shuqin(


    [1]Ward, M., The arithmetical theory of linear recurring sequences, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc, 1933, 35(6):600-628.[2]Dai Zongduo, Binary sequences derived from ML-sequences over rings I: Periods and minimal polynomials,Journal of Cryptology, 1992, 5: 193-207.[3]Dai, Z. D., Beth, T., Gollman, D., Lower bounds for the linear complexity of sequences over residue rings, Advances in Cryptology-Eurocrypt's 90, Spring-Verlag LNCS 19991, 473: 189-195.[4]Zeng Kencheng, Dai Zongduo, Huang Minqiang, Injectiveness of mappings from ring sequences to their sequences of the significant bits, Symposium on Theoretical Problems of Cryptology, State Key Laboratory of Information Security, Beijing, China, June 1995, 132-141.[5]Boztas, S., Hammons, A. R., Kumar, P. V., 4-phase sequences with near-optimum correlation properties, IEEE. Trans. Inform. Theory, 1992, 38: 1101-1113.[6]Kuzmin, A. S., Nechaev, A. A., A construction of noise stable codes using linear recurrents over Galois rings,Russian Math. Surveys, 1992, 47: 189-190.[7]Qi Wenfeng, Zhou Jinjun, Distribution of 0 and 1 in highest level of primitive sequences over Z2e, Science in China, Ser. A, 1997, 40(6): 606-611.[8]Qi Wenfeng, Zhou Jinjun, Distribution of 0 and 1 in highest level of primitive sequences over Z2e (Ц),Chinese Science Bulletin, 1998, 43(8): 633-635.[9]Zhu Fengxiang, Qi Wenfeng, Distribution of 0 and 1 in the highest level of primitive sequences over Z2e,Advances in Cryptology-CHINACRYPT' 2000, Beijing: Science Press, 2000, 1-5.[10]Kamlovski, O. V., Kuzmin, A. S., Distribution of elements on cycles of linear recurrents sequences over Galois rings, Russian Math. Surveys, 1998, 53(2): 392-393.[11]Kumar, P. V., Helleseth, T., Calderbank, A. R., An upper bound for Weil exponential sums over Galois rings and applications, IEEE. Trans. Infor. Theory, 1995, 41:456-468.

  16. The circumstellar shell of the post-AGB star HD 56126 the $^{12}CN\\/^{13}CN$ isotope ratio and fractionation

    Bakker, E J; Bakker, Eric J.; Lambert, David L.


    We have detected circumstellar absorption lines of the $^{12}$CN and $^{13}$CN Violet and Red System in the spectrum of the post-AGB star HD~56126. From a synthetic spectrum analysis, we derive a Doppler broadening parameter of $b=0.51\\pm0.04$ km~s$^{-1}$, $^{12}$CN/$^{13}$CN$=38\\pm2$, and a lower limit of $2000$ on $^{12}$CN/$^{14}$CN and $^{12}$C$^{14}$N/$^{12}$C$^{15}$N. A simple chemical model has been computed of the circumstellar shell surrounding HD~56126 that takes into account the gas-phase ion-molecule reaction between CN and C$^{+}$. From this we infer that this reaction leads to isotopic fractionation of CN. Taking into account the isotopic exchange reaction and the observed $^{12}$CN/$^{13}$CN we find $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C$\\sim 67$ (for $T_{\\rm kin}=25$ K). Our analysis suggests that $^{12}$CN has a somewhat higher rotational temperature than $^{13}$CN: $T_{\\rm rot}=11.5\\pm0.6$ and $8.0\\pm0.6$ K respectively. We identify possible causes for this difference in excitation temperature, among which the $...

  17. Logarithmic two-point correlation functions from a z=2 Lifshitz model

    Zingg, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Universiteit Utrecht,Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)


    The Einstein-Proca action is known to have asymptotically locally Lifshitz spacetimes as classical solutions. For dynamical exponent z=2, two-point correlation functions for fluctuations around such a geometry are derived analytically. It is found that the retarded correlators are stable in the sense that all quasinormal modes are situated in the lower half-plane of complex frequencies. Correlators in the longitudinal channel exhibit features that are reminiscent of a structure usually obtained in field theories that are logarithmic, i.e. contain an indecomposable but non-diagonalizable highest weight representation. This provides further evidence for conjecturing the model at hand as a candidate for a gravity dual of a logarithmic field theory with anisotropic scaling symmetry.

  18. Top-quark loop corrections in Z+jet and Z + 2 jet production

    Campbell, John M.; Keith Ellis, R.


    The sophistication of current predictions for $Z+$jet production at hadron colliders necessitates a re-evaluation of any approximations inherent in the theoretical calculations. In this paper we address one such issue, the inclusion of mass effects in top-quark loops. We ameliorate an existing calculation of $Z+1$~jet and $Z+2$~jet production by presenting exact analytic formulae for amplitudes containing top-quark loops that enter at next-to-leading order in QCD. Although approximations based on an expansion in powers of $1/m_t^2$ can lead to poor high-energy behavior, an exact treatment of top-quark loops demonstrates that their effect is small and has limited phenomenological interest.

  19. Path-integral Monte Carlo method for the local Z2 Berry phase.

    Motoyama, Yuichi; Todo, Synge


    We present a loop cluster algorithm Monte Carlo method for calculating the local Z(2) Berry phase of the quantum spin models. The Berry connection, which is given as the inner product of two ground states with different local twist angles, is expressed as a Monte Carlo average on the worldlines with fixed spin configurations at the imaginary-time boundaries. The "complex weight problem" caused by the local twist is solved by adopting the meron cluster algorithm. We present the results of simulation on the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on an out-of-phase bond-alternating ladder to demonstrate that our method successfully detects the change in the valence bond pattern at the quantum phase transition point. We also propose that the gauge-fixed local Berry connection can be an effective tool to estimate precisely the quantum critical point.

  20. Herschel reveals a molecular outflow in a z = 2.3 ULIRG

    George, Richard; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Hopwood, Rosalind; Stanley, Fiona; Swinyard, Bruce; Valtchanov, Ivan; van der Werf, Paul


    We report the results from a 19-hr integration with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer aboard the Herschel Space Observatory which has revealed the presence of a molecular outflow from the Cosmic Eyelash (SMM J2135-0102, hereafter SMMJ2135) via the detection of blueshifted OH absorption. Detections of several fine-structure emission lines indicate low-excitation HII regions contribute strongly to the [CII] luminosity in this z = 2.3 ULIRG. The OH feature suggests a maximum wind velocity of 700 km/s and outflow rate of ~60 Msun/yr. This is lower than the expected escape velocity of the host dark matter halo, ~1000 km/s. A large fraction of the available molecular gas could thus be converted into stars via a burst protracted by the resulting gas fountain, until an AGN-driven outflow can eject the remaining gas.

  1. Unification of bosonic and fermionic Z2 spin liquids on a rectangular lattice

    Chatterjee, Shubhayu; Steinberg, Julia; Sachdev, Subir

    Recent theories have postulated the presence of a fractionalized Fermi liquid (FL*) in the pseudogap metal phase of cuprates. The FL* phase can be described as a spin liquid co-existing with fermionic charge carrying quasiparticles. Underdoped cuprates also show a variety of competing orders, including nematic order which reduce the C4 symmetry of the square lattice to C2. Motivated by this, we classify mean-field bosonic spin liquids on a rectangular lattice using projective symmetry groups (PSG), and find equivalent descriptions in terms of fermionic partons. In particular, we find a fermionic spin liquid ansatz corresponding to a bosonic Z2 spin liquid with favorable mean field energy. The fermionic ansatz might be useful to investigate the transition from a FL* to a fermi liquid.

  2. Top-quark loop corrections in Z+jet and Z+2 jet production

    Campbell, John M


    The sophistication of current predictions for $Z+$jet production at hadron colliders necessitates a re-evaluation of any approximations inherent in the theoretical calculations. In this paper we address one such issue, the inclusion of mass effects in top-quark loops. We ameliorate an existing calculation of $Z+1$~jet and $Z+2$~jet production by presenting exact analytic formulae for amplitudes containing top-quark loops that enter at next-to-leading order in QCD. Although approximations based on an expansion in powers of $1/m_t^2$ can lead to poor high-energy behavior, an exact treatment of top-quark loops demonstrates that their effect is small and has limited phenomenological interest.

  3. Clustering of galaxies near damped Lyman-alpha systems with (z) = 2.6

    Wolfe, A. M


    The galaxy two-point correlation function, xi, at (z) = 2.6 is determined by comparing the number of Ly-alpha-emitting galaxies in narrowband CCD fields selected for the presence of damped L-alpha absorption to their number in randomly selected control fields. Comparisons between the presented determination of (xi), a density-weighted volume average of xi, and model predictions for (xi) at large redshifts show that models in which the clustering pattern is fixed in proper coordinates are highly unlikely, while better agreement is obtained if the clustering pattern is fixed in comoving coordinates. Therefore, clustering of Ly-alpha-emitting galaxies around damped Ly-alpha systems at large redshifts is strong. It is concluded that the faint blue galaxies are drawn from a parent population different from normal galaxies, the presumed offspring of damped Ly-alpha systems.

  4. An Asymptotic Faber-Krahn Inequality for the Combinatorial Laplacian on Z^2

    Shlapentokh-Rothman, Yakov


    The Faber-Krahn inequality states that among all open domains with a fixed volume in R^n, the ball minimizes the first Dirichlet eigenvalue of the Laplacian. We study an asymptotic discrete analogue of this for the combinatorial Dirichlet Laplacian acting on induced subgraphs of Z^2. Namely, an induced subgraph G with n vertices is called a minimizing subgraph if it minimizes the first eigenvalue of the combinatorial Dirichlet Laplacian among all induced subgraphs with n vertices. Consider an induced subgraph G and take the interior of the union of closed squares of area 1 about each point of G. Let G* denote this domain scaled down to have area 1. Our main theorem states that if {G_n} is a sequence of minimizing subgraphs where each G_n has n vertices, then after translation the measure of the symmetric difference of G_n* and the unit disk converges to 0.

  5. Star-formation in active galaxies to z~2: a perspective from Herschel studies

    Rosario, D J


    In the era of deep, large-area far-infrared (FIR) surveys from the Herschel Space Telescope, the bulk of the star-formation in distant galaxies, once hidden by dust, is now being revealed. The FIR provides probably the cleanest view of SF in the host galaxies of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) over cosmic time. We report results from studies of the relationships between SF, AGN activity and AGN obscuration out to z=2.5, which employ some of the deepest Herschel and X-ray datasets currently available, while spanning orders of magnitude in the dynamic range of AGN properties. We highlight the role of gaseous supply in modulating both SF and AGN activity without necessarily implying a direct causal connection between these phenomenon. The role of starburst- or major merger-fueled AGN activity at low and high redshifts is discussed in the context of our results.

  6. Two Component Dark Matters in S_4 x Z_2 Flavor Symmetric Extra U(1) Model

    Daikoku, Yasuhiro; Toma, Takashi


    We study cosmic-ray anomaly observed by PAMELA based on E_6 inspired extra U(1) model with S_4 x Z_2 flavor symmetry. In our model, the lightest flavon has very long lifetime of O(10^{18)) second which is longer than the age of the universe, but not long enough to explain the PAMELA result ~ O(10^{26}) sec. Such a situation could be avoidable by considering that the flavon is not the dominant component of dark matters and the dominant one is the lightest neutralino. With appropriate parameter set, density parameter of dark matter and over-abundance of positron flux in cosmic-ray are realized at the same time. There is interesting correlation between spectrum of positron flux and V_{MNS}. No excess of anti-proton in cosmic-ray suggests that sfermions are heavier than 4 TeV and the masses of the light Higgs bosons are degenerated.

  7. The evolution of post-starburst galaxies from z=2 to z= 0.5

    Wild, Vivienne; Dunlop, Jim; Simpson, Chris; Rowlands, Kate; Bowler, Rebecca; Maltby, David; McLure, Ross


    We present the evolution in the number density and stellar mass functions of photometrically selected post-starburst galaxies in the UKIDSS Deep Survey (UDS), with redshifts of 0.510. We find that this transitionary species of galaxy is rare at all redshifts, contributing ~5% of the total population at z~2, to 2 they are exclusively massive galaxies that have formed the bulk of their stars during a rapid assembly period, followed by complete quenching of further star formation, (2) at z<1 they are caused by the rapid quenching of gas-rich star-forming galaxies, independent of stellar mass, possibly due to environment and/or gas-rich major mergers.

  8. Interferometric measurement method for Z2 invariants of time-reversal invariant topological insulators

    Grusdt, Fabian; Abanin, Dmitry; Demler, Eugene


    Recently experiments with ultracold atoms started to explore topological phases in 1D optical lattices. While transport measurements are challenging in these systems, ways to directly measure topological quantum numbers using a combination of Bloch oscillations and Ramsey interferometry have been explored (Atala et al., arXiv:1212.0572). In this talk I will present ways to measure the Z2 topological quantum numbers of two and three dimensional time-reversal invariant (TR) topological insulators. In this case non-Abelian Bloch oscillations can be combined with Ramsey interferometry to map out the topological properties of a given band-structure. Our method is very general and works even in the presence of accidental degeneracies. The applicability of the scheme is discussed for different theoretically proposed implementations of TR topological insulators using ultracold atoms. F. G. is grateful to Harvard University for hospitality and acknowledges financial support from Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz (MAINZ).

  9. Compact z = 2 electrodynamics in 2 + 1 dimensions: confinement with gapless modes.

    Das, Sumit R; Murthy, Ganpathy


    We consider 2+1-dimensional compact U(1) gauge theory at the Lifshitz point with a dynamical critical exponent z=2. As in the usual z=1 theory, monopoles proliferate the vacuum for any value of the coupling, generating a mass scale. The theory of the dilute monopole gas is written in terms of a nonrelativistic sine-Gordon model with two real fields. While monopoles remove some of the massless poles of the perturbative field strength propagator, a gapless mode representing the incomplete screening of monopoles remains, and is protected by a shift invariance of the original theory. Timelike Wilson loops still obey area laws, implying that minimal charges are confined, but the action of spacelike Wilson loops of linear size L goes instead as L(3).

  10. Measures of Galaxy Environment - III. Difficulties in identifying proto-clusters at z ~ 2

    Shattow, Genevieve M; Skibba, Ramin A; Muldrew, Stuart I; Pearce, Frazer R; Abbas, Ummi


    Galaxy environment is frequently discussed, but inconsistently defined. It is especially difficult to measure at high redshift where only photometric redshifts are available. With a focus on early forming proto-clusters, we use a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation to show how the environment measurement around high redshift galaxies is sensitive to both scale and metric, as well as to cluster viewing angle, evolutionary state, and the availability of either spectroscopic or photometric data. We use two types of environment metrics (nearest neighbour and fixed aperture) at a range of scales on simulated high-z clusters to see how "observed" overdensities compare to "real" overdensities. We also "observationally" identify z = 2 proto-cluster candidates in our model and track the growth histories of their parent halos through time, considering in particular their final state at z = 0. Although the measured environment of early forming clusters is critically dependent on all of the above effects (and in pa...

  11. Exploring Low Luminosity Quasar Diversity at z ~ 2.5 with the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    Sulentic, J W; Marziani, P


    We present preliminary results from a pencil-beam spectroscopic survey of low-luminosity quasars at z ~ 2.2-2.5. Our goal is to compare these sources with low redshift analogues of similar luminosity. High s/n and moderate resolution spectra were obtained for 15 sources using the faint object spectrograph Osiris on the 10m Gran Telescopio Canarias. The new data make possible an almost unprecedented comparison between sources with the same (moderate) luminosity at widely different cosmic epochs. Preliminary analysis of our spectra confirms the presence of a relatively evolved population of quasars radiating at modest Eddington ratios. A notable difference between the low and high z quasars may involve the presence of lower metallicity quasars at high redshift.

  12. Flat edge modes of graphene and of Z 2 topological insulator

    Mao Shijun


    Full Text Available Abstract A graphene nano-ribbon in the zigzag edge geometry exhibits a specific type of gapless edge modes with a partly flat band dispersion. We argue that the appearance of such edge modes are naturally understood by regarding graphene as the gapless limit of a Z 2 topological insulator. To illustrate this idea, we consider both Kane-Mele (graphene-based and Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang models: the latter is proposed for HgTe/CdTe 2D quantum well. Much focus is on the role of valley degrees of freedom, especially, on how they are projected onto and determine the 1D edge spectrum in different edge geometries.


    Valentino, F.; Daddi, E.; Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Bournaud, F.; Juneau, S.; Zanella, A. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Onodera, M.; Carollo, M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Arimoto, N., E-mail: [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)


    We investigate the environmental effect on the metal enrichment of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the farthest spectroscopically confirmed and X-ray-detected cluster, CL J1449+0856 at z = 1.99. We combined Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 G141 slitless spectroscopic data, our thirteen-band photometry, and a recent Subaru/Multi-object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up to constrain the physical properties of SFGs in CL J1449+0856 and in a mass-matched field sample. After a conservative removal of active galactic nuclei, stacking individual MOIRCS spectra of 6 (31) sources in the cluster (field) in the mass range 10 ≤ log(M/M{sub ⊙}) ≤ 11, we find a ∼4σ lower [N ii]/Hα ratio in the cluster than in the field. Stacking a subsample of 16 field galaxies with Hβ and [O iii] in the observed range, we measure an [O iii]/Hβ ratio fully compatible with the cluster value. Converting these ratios into metallicities, we find that the cluster SFGs are up to 0.25 dex poorer in metals than their field counterparts, depending on the adopted calibration. The low metallicity in cluster sources is confirmed using alternative indicators. Furthermore, we observe a significantly higher Hα luminosity and equivalent width in the average cluster spectrum than in the field. This is likely due to the enhanced specific star formation rate; even if lower dust reddening and/or an uncertain environmental dependence on the continuum-to-nebular emission differential reddening may play a role. Our findings might be explained by the accretion of pristine gas around galaxies at z = 2 and from cluster-scale reservoirs, possibly connected with a phase of rapid halo mass assembly at z > 2 and of a high galaxy merging rate.

  14. Evaluating and improving the redshifts of z > 2.2 quasars

    Mason, Michelle; Brotherton, Michael S.; Myers, Adam


    Quasar redshifts require the best possible precision and accuracy for a number of applications, such as setting the velocity scale for outflows as well as measuring small-scale quasar-quasar clustering. The most reliable redshift standard in luminous quasars is arguably the narrow [O iii] λλ4959, 5007 emission line doublet in the rest-frame optical. We use previously published [O iii] redshifts obtained using near-infrared spectra in a sample of 45 high-redshift (z > 2.2) quasars to evaluate redshift measurement techniques based on rest-frame ultraviolet spectra. At redshifts above z = 2.2, the Mg ii λ2798 emission line is not available in observed-frame optical spectra and the most prominent unblended and unabsorbed spectral feature available is usually C iv λ1549. Peak and centroid measurements of the C iv profile are often blueshifted relative to the rest-frame of the quasar, which can significantly bias redshift determinations. We show that redshift determinations for these high-redshift quasars are significantly correlated with the emission-line properties of C iv (i.e. the equivalent width, or EW, and the full width at half-maximum, or FWHM) as well as the luminosity, which we take from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We demonstrate that empirical corrections based on multiple regression analyses yield significant improvements in both the precision and accuracy of the redshifts of the most distant quasars and are required to establish consistency with redshifts determined in more local quasars.

  15. SCS-CN parameter determination using rainfall-runoff data in heterogeneous watersheds – the two-CN system approach

    J. D. Valiantzas


    Full Text Available The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN approach is widely used as a simple method for predicting direct runoff volume for a given rainfall event. The CN parameter values corresponding to various soil, land cover, and land management conditions can be selected from tables, but it is preferable to estimate the CN value from measured rainfall-runoff data if available. However, previous researchers indicated that the CN values calculated from measured rainfall-runoff data vary systematically with the rainfall depth. Hence, they suggested the determination of a single asymptotic CN value observed for very high rainfall depths to characterize the watersheds' runoff response. In this paper, the hypothesis that the observed correlation between the calculated CN value and the rainfall depth in a watershed reflects the effect of soils and land cover spatial variability on its hydrologic response is being tested. Based on this hypothesis, the simplified concept of a two-CN heterogeneous system is introduced to model the observed CN-rainfall variation by reducing the CN spatial variability into two classes. The behaviour of the CN-rainfall function produced by the simplified two-CN system is approached theoretically, it is analysed systematically, and it is found to be similar to the variation observed in natural watersheds. Synthetic data tests, natural watersheds examples, and detailed study of two natural experimental watersheds with known spatial heterogeneity characteristics were used to evaluate the method. The results indicate that the determination of CN values from rainfall runoff data using the proposed two-CN system approach provides reasonable accuracy and it over performs the previous methods based on the determination of a single asymptotic CN value. Although the suggested method increases the number of unknown parameters to three (instead of one, a clear physical reasoning for them is presented.

  16. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Polymeric Complex [WS4Cu4(Py)4(μ-CN)2]∞

    焦昌梅; 乔善宝; 徐庆峰; 郎建平


    The reaction of [Et4N]2WS4 with 4 equiv of CuCN in pyridine produced a new polymeric complex [WS4Cu4(Py)4(μ-CN)2]∞ 1, whose crystal structure has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. 1 (C22H2oCu4N6S4W, Mr=934.71) crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/n with a ='8.994(2), b=16.038(3), c=12.026(3) A, β= 90.85(1)°, V= 1734.6(6) A3, Z=2, Dc=1.789 g/cm3, F(000)=896,t(MoKa)=59.8 cm-1 and T=193 K. The structure was refined to R=0.064 and Rw=0.080 for 2209 observed reflections (I > 3.0σ(I)). The X-ray analysis shows that the tetrahedral WS4 core is coordinated by four Cu atoms, forming a saddle-like WS4Cu4 unit. These repeating units are further interconnected by four Cu-μ-CN-Cu 2.726(2) and 2.723(2) A, respectively.

  17. Singularity-conquering ZG controllers of z2g1 type for tracking control of the IPC system

    Zhang, Yunong; Yu, Xiaotian; Yin, Yonghua; Peng, Chen; Fan, Zhengping


    With wider investigations and applications of autonomous robotics and intelligent vehicles, the inverted pendulum on a cart (IPC) system has become more attractive for numerous researchers due to its concise and representative structure. In this article, the tracking-control problem of the IPC system is considered and investigated. Based on Zhang dynamics (ZD) and gradient dynamics (GD), a novel kind of ZG controllers are developed and investigated for achieving the tracking-control purpose, which contains controllers of z2g0 and z2g1 types according to the number of times of using the ZD and GD methods. Besides, theoretical analyses are presented to guarantee the global and exponential convergence performance of both z2g0 and z2g1 controllers. Computer simulations are further performed to substantiate the feasibility and effectiveness of ZG controllers. More importantly, comparative simulation results demonstrate that controllers of z2g1 type can conquer the singularity problem (i.e. the division-by-zero problem).

  18. Submm-bright QSOs at z~2: signposts of co-evolution at high z

    Carrera, F J; Page, M J; Symeonidis, M; Stevens, J A; Orjales, J M Cao


    We have assembled a sample of 5 X-ray and submm-luminous z~2 QSOs which are therefore both growing their central black holes through accretion and forming stars copiously at a critical epoch. Hence, they are good laboratories to investigate the co-evolution of star formation and AGN. We have performed a preliminary analysis of the AGN and SF contributions to their UV-to-FIR SEDs, fitting them with simple direct (disk), reprocessed (torus) and star formation components. All three are required by the data and hence we confirm that these objects are undergoing strong star formation in their host galaxies at rates 500-2000 Msun/y. Estimates of their covering factors are between about 30 and 90%. In the future, we will assess the dependence of these results on the particular models used for the components and relate their observed properties to the intrinsice of the central engine and the SF material, as well as their relevance for AGN-galaxy coevolution.

  19. An X-shooter composite of bright 1 < z < 2 quasars from UV to infrared

    Selsing, Jonatan; Christensen, Lise; Krogager, Jens-Kristian


    Quasi-stellar object (QSO) spectral templates are important both to QSO physics and for investigations that use QSOs as probes of intervening gas and dust. However, combinations of various QSO samples obtained at different times and with different instruments so as to expand a composite and to cover a wider rest frame wavelength region may create systematic effects, and the contribution from QSO hosts may contaminate the composite. We have constructed a composite spectrum from luminous blue QSOs at 1 < z < 2.1 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The observations with X-shooter simultaneously cover ultraviolet (UV) to near- infrared (NIR) light, which ensures that the composite spectrum covers the full rest-frame range from Ly$\\beta$ to 11350 $\\AA$ without any significant host contamination. Assuming a power-law continuum for the composite we find a spectral slope of $\\alpha_\\lambda$ = 1.70+/-0.01, which is steeper than previously found in the literature. We attribute the differences to ou...

  20. LHC constraints on large scalar multiplet models with a $Z_2$ symmetry

    Logan, Heather E; Pilkington, Terry


    We study the LHC search constraints on models that extend the Standard Model (SM) with an inert, complex scalar electroweak multiplet, $\\Sigma$, with isospin T=5/2 (sextet) or T=7/2 (octet) and identical hypercharge to the SM Higgs doublet. Imposing a global $Z_2$ symmetry under which $\\Sigma \\to -\\Sigma$, the lightest member of $\\Sigma$ is stable and we require that it be neutral ($\\zeta^{0,r}$) to avoid cosmological constraints from charged relics. Pair production of scalars by electroweak interactions followed by cascade decays to $\\zeta^{0,r}$ through W and Z emission produces signatures similar to those of supersymmetric electroweak gauginos, and we constrain the models by recasting a collection of such searches made with data from the 8 TeV run of the LHC. We find that there is no sensitivity from these searches to the compressed spectrum regime, in which the mass splittings between the lightest and heaviest states in $\\Sigma$ are less than about 20 GeV. In the remaining parameter space, we find signifi...

  1. Star formation and dust obscuration at z~2: galaxies at the dawn of downsizing

    Pannella, M; Daddi, E; Cracken, H J Mc; Owen, F N; Renzini, A; Strazzullo, V; Civano, F; Koekemoer, A M; Schinnerer, E; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Taniguchi, Y; Aussel, H; Kneib, J P; Ilbert, O; Mellier, Y; Salvato, M; Thompson, D; Willott, C J


    We present first results of a study aimed to constrain the star formation rate and dust content of galaxies at z~2. We use a sample of BzK-selected star-forming galaxies, drawn from the COSMOS survey, to perform a stacking analysis of their 1.4 GHz radio continuum as a function of different stellar population properties, after removing AGN contaminants from the sample. Dust unbiased star formation rates are derived from radio fluxes assuming the local radio-IR correlation. The main results of this work are: i) specific star formation rates are constant over about 1 dex in stellar mass and up to the highest stellar mass probed; ii) the dust attenuation is a strong function of galaxy stellar mass with more massive galaxies being more obscured than lower mass objects; iii) a single value of the UV extinction applied to all galaxies would lead to grossly underestimate the SFR in massive galaxies; iv) correcting the observed UV luminosities for dust attenuation based on the Calzetti recipe provide results in very ...

  2. An ultra-dense fast outflow in a quasar at z=2.4

    Williams, R J; Krongold, Y; Carniani, S; Cresci, G; Mannucci, F; Marconi, A


    We present Adaptive Optics assisted near-IR integral field spectroscopic observations of a luminous quasar at $z = 2.4$, previously observed as the first known example at high redshift of large scale quasar-driven outflow quenching star formation in its host galaxy. The nuclear spectrum shows broad and blueshifted H$\\beta$ in absorption, which is tracing outflowing gas with high densities ($>10^8$ - $10^9$ cm$^{-3}$) and velocities in excess of 10,000 km s$^{-1}$. The properties of the outflowing clouds (covering factor, density, column density and inferred location) indicate that they likely originate from the Broad Line Region. The energetics of such nuclear regions are consistent with that observed in the large scale outflow, supporting models in which quasar driven outflows originate from the nuclear region and are energy conserving. We note that the asymmetric profile of both the H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ emission lines is likely due to absorption by the dense outflowing gas along the line of sight. This ou...

  3. The insignificance of major mergers in driving star formation at z~2

    Kaviraj, S; Windhorst, R A; Silk, J; O'Connell, R W; Dopita, M A; Dekel, A; Hathi, N P; Straughn, A; Rutkowski, M


    We study the significance of major-merger-driven star formation in the early Universe, by quantifying the contribution of this process to the total star formation budget in 80 massive (M* > 10^10 MSun) galaxies at z~2. Employing visually-classified morphologies from rest-frame V-band HST imaging, we find that 55+/-14% of the star formation budget is hosted by non-interacting late-types, with 27+/-8% in major mergers and 18+/-6% in spheroids. Given that a system undergoing a major merger continues to experience star formation driven by other processes at this epoch (e.g. cold accretion, minor mergers), ~27% is an upper limit to the major-merger contribution to star formation activity at this epoch. The ratio of the average specific star formation rate in major mergers to that in the non-interacting late-types is ~2.2:1, suggesting that the enhancement of star formation due to major merging is typically modest, and that just under half the star formation in systems experiencing major mergers is unrelated to the...

  4. Discovery of Hydrogen Fluoride in the Cloverleaf Quasar at z = 2.56

    Monje, R R; Peng, R; Lis, D C; Neufeld, D A; Emprechtinger, M; 10.1088/2041-8205/742/2/L21


    We report the first detection of hydrogen fluoride (HF) toward a high redshift quasar. Using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) we detect the HF J = 1 - 0 transition in absorption toward the Cloverleaf, a broad absorption line (BAL) quasi-stellar object (QSO) at z=2.56. The detection is statistically significant at the ~ 6 sigma level. We estimate a lower limit of 4 \\times 1014 cm-2 for the HF column density and using a previous estimate of the hydrogen column density, we obtain a lower limit of 1.7 \\times 10-9 for the HF abundance. This value suggests that, assuming a Galactic N(HF)/NH ratio, HF accounts for at least ~10% of the fluorine in the gas phase along the line of sight to the Cloverleaf quasar. This observation corroborates the prediction that HF should be a good probe of the molecular gas at high redshift. Measurements of the HF abundance as a function of redshift are urgently needed to better constrain the fluorine nucleosynthesis mechanism(s).


    Monje, R. R.; Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C.; Emprechtinger, M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125-4700 (United States); Peng, R. [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Neufeld, D. A., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We report the first detection of hydrogen fluoride (HF) toward a high-redshift quasar. Using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, we detect the HF J = 1-0 transition in absorption toward the Cloverleaf, a broad absorption line quasi-stellar object at z = 2.56. The detection is statistically significant at the {approx}6{sigma} level. We estimate a lower limit of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} for the HF column density and using a previous estimate of the hydrogen column density, we obtain a lower limit of 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} for the HF abundance. This value suggests that, assuming a Galactic N(HF)/N{sub H} ratio, HF accounts for at least {approx}10% of the fluorine in the gas phase along the line of sight to the Cloverleaf quasar. This observation corroborates the prediction that HF should be a good probe of the molecular gas at high redshift. Measurements of the HF abundance as a function of redshift are urgently needed to better constrain the fluorine nucleosynthesis mechanism(s).

  6. HST NICMOS imaging of z~2, 24 micron selected Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    Dasyra, Kalliopi M; Helou, George; Surace, Jason; Sajina, Anna; Colbert, James


    We present Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS H-band imaging of 33 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) at z~2 that were selected from the 24 micron catalog of the Spitzer Extragalactic First Look Survey. The images reveal that at least 17 of the 33 objects are associated with interactions. Up to one fifth of the sources in our sample could be minor mergers whereas only 2 systems are merging binaries with luminosity ratio <=3:1, which is characteristic of local ULIRGs. The rest-frame optical luminosities of the sources are of the order 10^10-10^11 L_sun and their effective radii range from 1.4 to 4.9 kpc. The most compact sources are either those with a strong active nucleus or those with a heavy obscuration in the mid-infrared regime, as determined from Spitzer Infra-Red Spectrograph data. The luminosity of the 7.7 micron feature produced by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules varies significantly amongst compact systems whereas it is typically large for extended systems. A bulge-to-disk decompositio...

  7. Galaxy Stellar Mass Assembly between 0.2<z<2 from the S-COSMOS survey

    Ilbert, O; Le Floc'h, E; Aussel, H; Capak, P; McCracken, H J; Mobasher, B; Kartaltepe, J; Scoville, N; Sanders, D B; Arnouts, S; Bundy, K; Cassata, P; Kneib, J -P; Koekemoer, A; Le Fèvre, O; Lilly, S; Surace, J; Taniguchi, Y; Tasca, L; Thompson, D; Tresse, L; Zamojski, M; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E


    We follow the galaxy stellar mass assembly by morphological and spectral type in the COSMOS 2-deg^2 field. We derive the stellar mass functions and stellar mass densities from z=2 to z=0.2 using 192,000 galaxies selected at F(3.6 micron) > 1 microJy with accurate photometric redshifts (sigma_dz/(1+z)~0.12). Using a spectral classification, we find that z~1 is an epoch of transition in the stellar mass assembly of quiescent galaxies. Their stellar mass density increases by 1.3 dex between z=1.5-2 and z=0.8-1 (dt~2.5Gyr), but only by 0.25 dex between z=0.8-1 and z~0.1 (dt~6Gyr). Then, we add the morphological information and find that 75-85% of the massive quiescent galaxies (log(M)~11) have an elliptical morphology at z<0.8. We also estimate that less than 20% of the morphologically selected massive elliptical galaxies exhibit ongoing star-formation. Therefore, a dominant mechanism links the shutdown of star formation and the acquisition of an elliptical morphology in massive galaxies. Still, a significant ...

  8. Spectroscopic Redshifts to z > 2 for Optically Obscured Sources Discovered with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Houck, J R; Weedman, D; Higdon, S J U; Higdon, J L; Herter, T; Brown, M J I; Dey, A; Jannuzi, B T; Le Floc'h, E; Rieke, M; Armus, L; Charmandaris, V; Brandl, B R; Tepliitz, H I


    We have surveyed a field covering 9.0 degrees^2 within the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey region in Bootes with the Multiband Imaging Photometer on the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) to a limiting 24 um flux density of 0.3 mJy. Thirty one sources from this survey with F(24um) > 0.75 mJy which are optically very faint (R > 24.5 mag) have been observed with the low-resolution modules of the Infrared Spectrograph on SST. Redshifts derived primarily from strong silicate absorption features are reported here for 17 of these sources; 10 of these are optically invisible (R > 26 mag), with no counterpart in B_W, R, or I. The observed redshifts for 16 sources are 1.7 < z < 2.8. These represent a newly discovered population of highly obscured sources at high redshift with extreme infrared to optical ratios. Using IRS spectra of local galaxies as templates, we find that a majority of the sources have mid-infrared spectral shapes most similar to ultraluminous infrared galaxies powered primarily by AGN. Assuming the sam...

  9. Statistical Properties of Diffuse Lyman-alpha Halos around Star-forming Galaxies at z~2

    Momose, Rieko; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yuma, Suraphong; Mori, Masao; Umemura, Masayuki


    We present statistical properties of diffuse Lyman-alpha halos (LAHs) around high-$z$ star-forming galaxies with large Subaru samples of Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at $z=2.2$. We make subsamples defined by the physical quantities of LAEs' central Lyman-alpha luminosities, UV magnitudes, Lyman-alpha equivalent widths, and UV slopes, and investigate LAHs' radial surface brightness (SB) profiles and scale lengths $r_n$ as a function of these physical quantities. We find that there exist prominent LAHs around LAEs with faint Lyman-alpha luminosities, bright UV luminosities, and small Lyman-alpha equivalent widths in cumulative radial Lyman-alpha SB profiles. We confirm this trend with the anti-correlation between $r_n$ and Lyman-alpha luminosities (equivalent widths) based on the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient that is $\\rho=-0.9$ ($-0.7$) corresponding to the $96\\%$ ($93\\%$) confidence level, although the correlation between $r_n$ and UV magnitudes is not clearly found in the rank correlation coefficien...

  10. Strong Field-to-Field Variation of Lyman alpha Nebulae Populations at z~2.3

    Yang, Yujin; Eisenstein, Daniel; Davé, Romeel


    Understanding the nature of distant Ly-alpha nebulae ("blobs") and connecting them to their present-day descendants requires constraining their number density, clustering, and large-scale environment. To measure these basic quantities, we conduct a deep narrowband imaging survey in four different fields, Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS), Chandra Deep Field North, and two COSMOS subfields, for a total survey area of 1.2deg^2. We discover 25 blobs at z=2.3 with Ly-alpha luminosities of 0.7-8x10^43 erg/s and isophotal areas of Aiso = 10-60 arcsec^2. The transition from compact Ly-alpha emitters (Aiso ~ a few arcsec^2) to extended blobs (Aiso > 10 arcsec^2) is continuous, suggesting a single family perhaps governed by similar emission mechanisms. Surprisingly, most blobs (16/25) are in one survey field, the CDFS. The six brightest, largest blobs with L > 1.5x10^43 erg/s and Aiso > 16 arcsec^2 lie only in the CDFS. These large, bright blobs have a field-to-field variance of sigma_v >~ 1.5 (150%) about their number ...

  11. The induced nontrivial Z 2 topological phase in graphene sandwiched by pnictogen bilayers.

    Shu, Cheng; Qu, Jinfeng; Peng, Xiangyang; Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenliang; Wei, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kaiwang; Zhong, Jianxin


    By performing first-principles calculations, we find that graphene with nearly zero spin orbit coupling can be turned into a topological insulator after being sandwiched between pnictogen bilayers. It is found that a dipole field is induced between graphene and pnictogen bilayers, which will significantly pull down the Dirac point of graphene. Depending on the initial position of the Dirac point of graphene with respect to the energy gap of the pnictogen bilayers, Bi/graphene/Bi is found to be a metallic system while Sb/graphene/Sb a topological insulator. In Sb/graphene/Sb, a sizable gap is opened at the Dirac point of graphene. The strong spin-orbit coupling in Sb bilayers leads to a band inversion in the gapped Dirac cones of graphene via the proximity effect and the calculated Z 2 topological index further confirms that a nontrivial topological phase is induced in graphene. By applying longitudinal or lateral strains to Sb/graphene/Sb, topological phase transition occurs based on the change of the thickness of the Sb bilayer instead of the change of the separation between graphene and Sb bilayers.

  12. Feedback and the Structure of Simulated Galaxies at redshift z=2

    Sales, Laura V; Schaye, Joop; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Springel, Volker; Booth, C M


    We study the properties of simulated high-redshift galaxies using cosmological N-body/gasdynamical runs from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project. The runs contrast several feedback implementations of varying effectiveness: from no-feedback, to supernova-driven winds to powerful AGN-driven outflows. These different feedback models result in large variations in the abundance and structural properties of bright galaxies at z=2. We find that feedback affects the baryonic mass of a galaxy much more severely than its spin, which is on average roughly half that of its surrounding dark matter halo in our runs. Feedback induces strong correlations between angular momentum content and galaxy mass that leave their imprint on galaxy scaling relations and morphologies. Encouragingly, we find that galaxy disks are common in moderate-feedback runs, making up typically ~50% of all galaxies at the centers of haloes with virial mass exceeding 1e11 M_sun. The size, stellar masses, and circular speeds of simulate...

  13. Flavor constraints on the Two Higgs Doublet Models of $Z_2$ symmetric and aligned types

    Enomoto, Tetsuya


    We give a comprehensive study from flavor observables of pion, kaon, D_(s), and B_(s) mesons for limiting the Two Higgs Doublet Models (2HDMs) with natural flavor conservation, namely, Z_2 symmetric and aligned type of models. With use of the updated studies and analyses of B -> tau nu, D -> mu nu, D_s -> tau nu, D_s -> mu nu, K -> mu nu, Pi -> mu nu, B^0_s -> mu^+ mu^-, B^0_d -> mu^+ mu^-, tau -> K nu, tau -> Pi nu, B -> X_s gamma, K-K bar mixing, B^0_d-B^0_d bar mixing, and B^0_s-B^0_s bar mixing, we obtain constraints on the parameters in the 2HDMs. To calculate the constraints, we pay attention to a determination of CKM matrix elements and re-fit them to experimental data so that new contributions from additional Higgs bosons do not affect the determination. In addition, we discuss excesses of observables in the muon anomalous magnetic moment and the semi-tauonic B meson decays in the context of the 2HDM.

  14. SINFONI Integral Field Spectroscopy of z~2 UV-selected Galaxies: Rotation Curves and Dynamical Evolution

    Förster-Schreiber, N M; Bouche, N; Davies, R; Eisenhauer, F; Erb, D K; Genzel, R; Gilbert, A; Gillessen, S; Lehnert, M D; Lutz, D; Nesvadba, N; Shapley, A E; Steidel, C C; Sternberg, A; Tacconi, L J; Verma, A


    We present 0.5" resolution near-IR integral field spectroscopy of the Ha line emission of 14 z~2 UV-selected BM/BX galaxies obtained with SINFONI at ESO/VLT. The mean Ha half-light radius r_1/2 is about 4kpc and line emission is detected over > ~20kpc in several sources. In 9 sources, we detect spatially-resolved velocity gradients, from 40 to 410 km/s over ~10kpc. The observed kinematics of the larger systems are consistent with orbital motions. Four galaxies are well described by rotating disks with clumpy morphologies and we extract rotation curves out to radii > ~10kpc. One or two galaxies exhibit signatures more consistent with mergers. Analyzing all 14 galaxies in the framework of rotating disks, we infer mean inclination- and beam-corrected maximum circular velocities v_c of 180+-90 km/s and dynamical masses of (0.5-25)x10^10 Msun within r_1/2. On average, the dynamical masses are consistent with photometric stellar masses assuming a Chabrier/Kroupa IMF but too small for a 0.1-100 Msun Salpeter IMF. Th...

  15. MAMBO 1.2mm observations of luminous starbursts at z~2 in the SWIRE fields

    Lonsdale, C J; Omont, A; Shupe, D; Berta, S; Zylka, R; Siana, B; Lutz, D; Farrah, D; Smith, H E; Lagache, G; De Breuck, C; Owen, F; Beelen, A; Weedman, D; Franceschini, A; Clements, D; Tacconi, L; Afonso-Luis, A; Pérez-Fournon, I; Cox, P; Bertoldi, F


    We report on--off pointed MAMBO observations at 1.2 mm of 61 Spitzer-selected star-forming galaxies from the SWIRE survey. The sources are selected on the basis of bright 24um fluxes (f_24um>0.4mJy) and of stellar dominated near-infrared spectral energy distributions in order to favor z~2 starburst galaxies. The average 1.2mm flux for the whole sample is 1.5+/-0.2 mJy. Our analysis focuses on 29 sources in the Lockman Hole field where the average 1.2mm flux (1.9+/-0.3 mJy) is higher than in other fields (1.1+/-0.2 mJy). The analysis of the sources multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions indicates that they are starburst galaxies with far-infrared luminosities ~10^12-10^13.3 Lsun, and stellar masses of ~0.2-6 x10^11 M_sun. Compared to sub-millimeter selected galaxies (SMGs), the SWIRE-MAMBO sources are among those with the largest 24um/millimeter flux ratios. The origin of such large ratios is investigated by comparing the average mid-infrared spectra and the stacked far-infrared spectral energy distrib...

  16. Bulge Growth and Quenching since z = 2.5 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    Lang, Philipp; Somerville, Rachel; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Genzel, Reinhard; Bell, Eric F; Brammer, Gabe; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Kocevski, Dale D; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lutz, Dieter; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J; Primack, Joel R; Rosario, David J; Skelton, Rosalind E; Tacconi, Linda J; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Whitaker, Katherine E


    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all 5 CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 10^10 Msun, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit 2-dimensional models comprising a single Sersic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sersic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 10^11 Msun. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our fin...

  17. Z-2 Space Suit: A Case Study in Human Spaceflight Public Outreach

    McFarland, Shane M.


    NASA Johnson Space Center's Z-series of planetary space suit prototypes is an iterative development platform with a Mars-forward design philosophy, targeting a Mars surface mission in the mid-2030s. The first space suit assembly, called the Z-1, was delivered in 2012. While meeting the project's stated requirements and objectives, the general public's reception primarily focused on the color scheme, which vaguely invoked similarity to a certain animated cartoon character. The public at large has and continues to be exposed to varying space suit design aesthetics from popular culture and low TRL technology maturation efforts such as mechanical counterpressure. The lesson learned was that while the design aesthetic is not important from an engineering perspective, the perception of the public is important for NASA and human spaceflight in general. For the Z-2 space suit, an integrated public outreach strategy was employed to engage, excite and educate the public on the current technology of space suits and NASA's plans moving forward. The keystone of this strategy was a public vote on three different suit cover layer aesthetics, the winner of which would be used as inspiration in fabrication. Other components included social media, university collaboration, and select media appearances, the cumulative result of which, while intangible in its benefit, was ultimately a positive effect in terms of the image of NASA as well as the dissemination of information vital to dispelling public misconceptions.

  18. Bipartite charge fluctuations in one-dimensional Z2 superconductors and insulators

    Herviou, Loïc; Mora, Christophe; Le Hur, Karyn


    Bipartite charge fluctuations (BCFs) have been introduced to provide an experimental indication of many-body entanglement. They have proved themselves to be a very efficient and useful tool to characterize quantum phase transitions in a variety of quantum models conserving the total number of particles (or magnetization for spin systems) and can be measured experimentally. We study the BCFs in generic one-dimensional Z2 (topological) models including the Kitaev superconducting wire model, the Ising chain, or various topological insulators such as the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. The considered charge (either the fermionic number or the relative density) is no longer conserved, leading to macroscopic fluctuations of the number of particles. We demonstrate that at phase transitions characterized by a linear dispersion, the BCFs probe the change in a winding number that allows one to pinpoint the transition and corresponds to the topological invariant for standard models. Additionally, we prove that a subdominant logarithmic contribution is still present at the exact critical point. Its quantized coefficient is universal and characterizes the critical model. Results are extended to the Rashba topological nanowires and to the X Y Z model.

  19. Dissecting the Gaseous Halos of z~2 Damped Ly$\\alpha$ Systems with Close Quasar Pairs

    Rubin, Kate H R; Prochaska, J Xavier; Simcoe, Robert A; Myers, Adam; Lau, Marie Wingyee


    We use spectroscopy of close pairs of quasars to study diffuse gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding a sample of 40 Damped Lya systems (DLAs). The primary sightline in each quasar pair probes an intervening DLA in the redshift range 1.6 10^17.2 cm^-2) to be greater than ~30% within $R_{\\perp} 0.2 Ang occurs with an incidence f_C (W_1526 > 0.2 Ang) = 20(+12/-8)% within $R_{\\perp} 0.2 Ang) = 57(+12/-13)% within $R_{\\perp} 98% confidence, suggesting that DLAs arise close to the centers of their host halos rather than on their outskirts. Finally, the average Lya, CII and CIV equivalent widths are consistent with those measured around z~2 Lyman Break Galaxies. Assuming that DLAs trace a galaxy population with lower masses and luminosities, this finding implies that the absorption strength of cool circumgalactic material has a weak dependence on dark matter halo mass for M_h < 10^12 M_sun.

  20. Towards a Unified Description of the Intergalactic Medium at Redshift z~2.5

    Prochaska, J Xavier; O'Meara, John M; Fumagalli, Michele


    We examine recent measurements of the z~2.5 intergalactic medium (IGM) which constrain the HI frequency distribution f(N) and the mean free path MFP to ionizing radiation. We argue that line-blending and the clustering of strong absorption-line systems have led previous authors to systematically overestimate the effective Lyman limit opacity, yielding too small of a MFP for the IGM. We further show that recently published measurements of f(N) at log NHI ~ 16 lie in strong disagreement, implying underestimated uncertainty from sample variance and/or systematics like line-saturation. Allowing for a larger uncertainty in the f(N) measurements, we provide a new f(N) model which reasonably satisfies all of the observational constraints under the assumption of randomly distributed absorption systems. We caution, however, that this formalism is invalid in light of absorber clustering and use a toy model to estimate the effects. Future work must properly account for the non-Poissonian nature of the IGM.

  1. Quasars Probing Quasars VII. The Pinnacle of the Cool Circumgalactic Medium Surrounds Massive z~2 Galaxies

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F


    We survey the incidence and absorption strength of the metal-line transitions CII 1334 and CIV from the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding z~2 quasars, which act as signposts for massive dark matter halos M_halo~10^12.5 Msun. On scales of the virial radius (Mvir~160kpc), we measure a high covering fraction fC=0.73+/-0.10 to strong CII absorption (rest equivalent width W1334>0.2A), implying a massive reservoir of cool (T~10^4K) metal enriched gas. We conservatively estimate a metal mass exceeding 10^8 Msun. We propose these metals trace enrichment of the incipient intragroup/intracluster medium that these halos eventually inhabit. This cool CGM around quasars is the pinnacle amongst galaxies observed at all epochs, as regards covering fraction and average equivalent width of HI Lya and low-ion metal absorption. We argue that the properties of this cool CGM primarily reflect the halo mass, and that other factors such as feedback, star-formation rate, and accretion from the intergalactic medium are secondar...

  2. The Star Formation History of Redshift z~2 Galaxies: The Role of The Infrared Prior

    Fan, Lulu; Bressan, Alessandro; Nonino, Mario; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Danese, Luigi


    We build a sample of 298 spectroscopically-confirmed galaxies at redshift z~2, selected in the z-band from the GOODS-MUSIC catalog. By exploiting the rest frame 8 um luminosity as a proxy of the star formation rate (SFR) we check the accuracy of the standard SED-fitting technique, finding it is not accurate enough to provide reliable estimates of the galaxy physical parameters. We then develop a new SED-fitting method that includes the IR luminosity as a prior and a generalized Calzetti law with a variable RV . Then we exploit such a new method to re-analyze our galaxy sample, and to robustly determine SFRs, stellar masses and ages. We find that there is a general trend of increasing attenuation with the SFR. Moreover, we find that the SFRs range between a few to 1000 solar mass per year, the masses from one billion to 400 billion solar masses, while the ages from a few tens of Myr to more than 1 Gyr. We discuss how individual age easurements of highly attenuated objects indicate that dust must form within a ...

  3. Confronting Simulations of Optically Thick Gas in Massive Halos with Observations at z=2-3

    Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J Xavier; Kasen, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel


    We use high resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study the predicted distribution of neutral hydrogen around 21 galaxies in the halo mass range M_vir~3x10^11-4x10^12 M_sun at z~2. The covering fraction of optically-thick gas interior to the virial radius varies between f_c~0.05-0.2, with significant scatter among halos. Contrary to recent claims, both the mass fraction of cold (T= 10^12M_sun underpredict the covering fraction of optically-thick gas observed in the environs of quasar host galaxies by a large factor. The reasons for this discrepancy, possibly related to the treatment of feedback and hydrodynamic instability in simulations or to the fact that quasars may represent a special phase in the life of a galaxy, remain unclear. Conversely, we do not find statistically significant difference between the predicted covering fraction and observations in the lower mass halos M_vir>=5x10^11 M_sun hosting Lyman break galaxies. However, current samples of quasar-galaxy pairs are too small for conclusive compa...

  4. The Spiderweb galaxy: a forming massive cluster galaxy at z~2

    Miley, G K; Zirm, A W; Ford, H C; Kurk, J D; Pentericci, L; Blakeslee, J P; Franx, M; Illingworth, G D; Postman, M; Rosati, P; Röttgering, H J A; Venemans, B P; Helder, E


    We present a deep image of the radio galaxy MRC 1138-262 taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at a redshift of z = 2.2. The galaxy is known to have properties of a cD galaxy progenitor and be surrounded by a 3 Mpc-sized structure, identified with a protocluster. The morphology shown on the new deep HST/ACS image is reminiscent of a spider's web. More than 10 individual clumpy features are observed, apparently star-forming satellite galaxies in the process of merging with the progenitor of a dominant cluster galaxy 11 Gyr ago. There is an extended emission component, implying that star formation was occurring over a 50 times 40 kpc region at a rate of more than 100 M_sun/yr. A striking feature of the newly named ``Spiderweb galaxy'' is the presence of several faint linear galaxies within the merging structure. The dense environments and fast galaxy motions at the centres of protoclusters may stimulate the formation of these structures, which dominate the faint resolved galaxy populations in the Hubble U...

  5. Morphologies of Galaxies in and around a Protocluster at z=2.300

    Peter, Annika H G; Law, David R; Steidel, Charles C; Erb, Dawn K; Reddy, Naveen A; Pettini, Max


    We present results from the first robust investigation of galaxy morphology as a function of environment at z>1.5. Our study is motivated by the fact that star-forming galaxies contained within a protocluster at z=2.3 in the HS1700+64 field have significantly older ages and larger stellar masses on average than those at similar redshifts but more typical environmental densities. In the analysis of HST/ACS images, we apply non-parametric statistics to characterize the rest-frame UV morphologies of a sample of 85 UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z=1.7-2.9, 22 of which are contained in the protocluster. The remaining 63 control-sample galaxies are not in the protocluster but have a similar mean redshift of ~2.3. We find no environmental dependence for the distributions of morphological properties. Combining the measured morphologies with the results of population synthesis modeling, we find only weak correlations, if any, between morphological and stellar population properties such as stellar mass, age, exti...

  6. Satellite Quenching and Galactic Conformity at 0.3 < z < 2.5

    Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Papovich, Casey; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Labbé, Ivo; Spitler, Lee R; Straatman, Caroline; Tran, Kim-Vy; Allen, Rebecca; Behroozi, Peter S; Cowley, Michael; Dekel, Avishai; Glazebrook, Karl; Hartley, William G; Kelson, Daniel D; Koo, David C; Lee, Seong-Kook; Lu, Yu; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Persson, Eric; Primack, Joel R; Tilvi, Vithal; Tomczak, Adam R; van Dokkum, Pieter


    We measure the evolution of the quiescent fraction and quenching efficiency of satellites around star-forming and quiescent central galaxies with stellar mass $\\log(M_{\\mathrm{cen}}/M_{\\odot})>10.5$ at $0.39.3$. Satellites for both star-forming and quiescent central galaxies have higher quiescent fractions compared to field galaxies matched in stellar mass at all redshifts. We also observe "galactic conformity": satellites around quiescent centrals are more likely to be quenched compared to the satellites around star-forming centrals. In our sample, this conformity signal is significant at $\\gtrsim3\\sigma$ for $0.6z<2.5$. Therefore, conformity (and therefore satellite quenching) has been present for a significant fraction of the age of the universe. The satellite quenching efficiency increases with increasing stellar mass of the central, but does not appear to depend on the stellar mass of the satellite to the mass limit ...

  7. The Dust Attenuation Curve versus Stellar Mass for Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2

    Zeimann, Gregory R; Gronwall, Caryl; Bridge, Joanna; Brooks, Hunter; Fox, Derek; Gawiser, Eric; Gebhardt, Henry; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P; Trump, Jonathan R


    We derive the mean wavelength dependence of stellar attenuation in a sample of 239 high redshift (1.90 < z < 2.35) galaxies selected via Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 IR grism observations of their rest-frame optical emission lines. Our analysis indicates that the average reddening law follows a form similar to that derived by Calzetti et al. for local starburst galaxies. However, over the mass range 7.2 < log M/Msolar < 10.2, the slope of the attenuation law in the UV is shallower than that seen locally, and the UV slope steepens as the mass increases. These trends are in qualitative agreement with Kriek & Conroy, who found that the wavelength dependence of attenuation varies with galaxy spectral type. However, we find no evidence of an extinction "bump" at 2175 A in any of the three stellar mass bins, or in the sample as a whole. We quantify the relation between the attenuation curve and stellar mass and discuss its implications.

  8. Discovery of A Very Bright, Strongly-Lensed z=2 Galaxy in the SDSS DR5

    Lin, Huan; Allam, Sahar S; Tucker, Douglas L; Diehl, H Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Kubo, Jeffrey M; Annis, James; Frieman, Joshua A; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa


    We report on the discovery of a very bright z = 2.00 star-forming galaxy that is strongly lensed by a foreground z=0.422 luminous red galaxy (LRG). This system was found in a systematic search for bright arcs lensed by LRGs and brightest cluster galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 sample. Follow-up observations on the Subaru 8.2m telescope on Mauna Kea and the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system. A simple lens model for the system, assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass distribution, yields an Einstein radius of 3.82 +/- 0.03 arcsec or 14.8 +/- 0.1 kpc/h at the lens redshift. The total projected mass enclosed within the Einstein radius is 2.10 +/- 0.03 x 10^12 M_sun/h, and the magnification factor for the source galaxy is 27 +/- 1. Combining the lens model with our gVriz photometry, we find an (unlensed) star formation rate for the source galaxy of 32 M_sun/h / yr, adopting a fiducial constant star ...

  9. Do the Most Massive Black Holes at $z=2$ Grow via Major Mergers?

    Mechtley, M; Windhorst, R A; Andrae, R; Cisternas, M; Cohen, S H; Hewlett, T; Koekemoer, A M; Schramm, M; Schulze, A; Silverman, J D; Villforth, C; van der Wel, A; Wisotzki, L


    The most frequently proposed model for the origin of quasars holds that the high accretion rates seen in luminous active galactic nuclei are primarily triggered during major mergers between gas-rich galaxies. While plausible for decades, this model has only begun to be tested with statistical rigor in the past few years. Here we report on a Hubble Space Telescope study to test the merger-triggering hypothesis for $z=2$ quasars with high super-massive black hole masses ($M_\\mathrm{BH}=10^9-10^{10}~M_\\odot{}$), which dominate cosmic black hole growth at this redshift. We compare Wide Field Camera 3 $F160W$ (rest-frame $V$-band) imaging of 19 point source-subtracted quasar hosts to a matched sample of 84 inactive galaxies, testing whether the quasar hosts have a statistically higher fraction of strong gravitational interaction signatures. We recover strong distortion fractions of $f_\\mathrm{m,qso}=0.39\\pm{}0.11$ for the quasar hosts and $f_\\mathrm{m,gal}=0.30\\pm{}0.05$ for the inactive galaxies (distribution mod...


    Wuyts, Eva; Kurk, Jaron; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Wisnioski, Emily; Bandara, Kaushala; Wuyts, Stijn; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Ralf; Buschkamp, Peter; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fossati, Matteo; Kulkarni, Sandesh K.; Lang, Philipp [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Brammer, Gabriel B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Burkert, Andreas [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Carollo, C. Marcella; Lilly, Simon J., E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgensösische Technische Hochschule, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); and others


    We present the correlations between stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and the [N II]/Hα flux ratio as an indicator of gas-phase metallicity for a sample of 222 galaxies at 0.8 < z < 2.6 and log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) = 9.0-11.5 from the LUCI, SINS/zC-SINF, and KMOS{sup 3D} surveys. This sample provides a unique analysis of the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) over an extended redshift range using consistent data analysis techniques and a uniform strong-line metallicity indicator. We find a constant slope at the low-mass end of the relation and can fully describe its redshift evolution through the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass where the relation begins to flatten at the asymptotic metallicity. At a fixed mass and redshift, our data do not show a correlation between the [N II]/Hα ratio and SFR, which disagrees with the 0.2-0.3 dex offset in [N II]/Hα predicted by the ''fundamental relation'' between stellar mass, SFR, and metallicity discussed in recent literature. However, the overall evolution toward lower [N II]/Hα at earlier times does broadly agree with these predictions.

  11. A Multiwavelength Consensus on the Main Sequence of Star-Forming Galaxies at z~2

    Rodighiero, G; Daddi, E; Baronchelli, I; Berta, S; Cresci, G; Franceschini, A; Gruppioni, C; Lutz, D; Mancini, C; Santini, P; Zamorani, G; Silverman, J; Kashino, D; Andreani, P; Cimatti, A; Sanchez, H Dominguez; Floch, E Le; Magnelli, B; Popesso, P; Pozzi, F


    We compare various star formation rate (SFR) indicators for star-forming galaxies at $1.4<z<2.5$ in the COSMOS field. The main focus is on the SFRs from the far-IR (PACS-Herschel data) with those from the ultraviolet, for galaxies selected according to the BzK criterion. FIR-selected samples lead to a vastly different slope of the SFR-stellar mass ($M_*$) relation, compared to that of the dominant main sequence population as measured from the UV, since the FIR selection picks predominantly only a minority of outliers. However, there is overall agreement between the main sequences derived with the two SFR indicators, when stacking on the PACS maps the BzK-selected galaxies. The resulting logarithmic slope of the SFR-{$M_*$} relation is $\\sim0.8-0.9$, in agreement with that derived from the dust-corrected UV-luminosity. Exploiting deeper 24$\\mu$m-Spitzer data we have characterized a sub-sample of galaxies with reddening and SFRs poorly constrained, as they are very faint in the $B$ band. The combination o...

  12. ZFIRE: The Kinematics of Star-Forming Galaxies as a Function of Environment at z~2

    Alcorn, Leo Y; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Straatman, Caroline; Yuan, Tiantian; Allen, Rebecca J; Cowley, Michael; Davé, Romeel; Glazebrook, Karl; Kewley, Lisa J; Labbé, Ivo; Quadri, Ryan; Spitler, Lee R; Tomczak, Adam


    We perform a kinematic analysis of galaxies at $z\\sim2$ in the COSMOS legacy field using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy from Keck/MOSFIRE as part of the ZFIRE survey. Our sample consists of 75 Ks-band selected star-forming galaxies from the ZFOURGE survey with stellar masses ranging from log(M$_{\\star}$/M$_{\\odot}$)$=9.0-11.0$, 28 of which are members of a known overdensity at $z=2.095$. We measure H$\\alpha$ emission-line integrated velocity dispersions ($\\sigma_{\\rm int}$) from 50$-$230 km s$^{-1}$, consistent with other emission-line studies of $z\\sim2$ field galaxies. From these data we estimate virial, stellar, and gas masses and derive correlations between these properties for cluster and field galaxies at $z\\sim2$. We find evidence that baryons dominate within the central effective radius. However, we find no statistically significant differences between the cluster and the field, and conclude that the kinematics of star-forming galaxies at $z\\sim2$ are not significantly different between the cluster ...

  13. GTC Spectra of z ~ 2.3 Quasars: Comparison with Local Luminosity Analogues

    Sulentic, Jack W; del Olmo, Ascensión; Dultzin, Deborah; Perea, Jaime; Negrete, C Alenka


    [Abridged] Context: The advent of 8-10m class telescopes makes possible for the first time detailed comparison of quasars with similar luminosity and very different redshifts. Aims: A search for z-dependent gradients in line emission diagnostics and derived physical properties by comparing, in a narrow bolometric luminosity range (log L ~ 46.1 +/- 0.4 [\\ergss]), some of the most luminous local (z < 0.6) quasars with some of the lowest luminosity sources yet found at redshift z = 2.1 ~ 2.5. Method: Spectra for 22 high z sources were obtained with the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) while the HST (largely FOS) archive provides a low redshift control sample. Comparison is made in the context of the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism meaning that we divide both source samples into high accreting Population A and low accreting Population B sources. Results: CIV 1549 shows very similar properties at both redshifts confirming at high redshift the CIV profile differences between Pop. A and B that are well established...

  14. The star formation history of redshift z ~ 2 galaxies: the role of the infrared prior

    Fan, Lu-Lu; Lapi, Andrea; Bressan, Alessandro; Nonino, Mario; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Danese, Luigi


    We build a sample of 298 spectroscopically-confirmed galaxies at redshift z ~ 2, selected in the z850-band from the GOODS-MUSIC catalog. By utilizing the rest frame 8 μm luminosity as a proxy of the star formation rate (SFR), we check the accuracy of the standard SED-fitting technique, finding it is not accurate enough to provide reliable estimates of the physical parameters of galaxies. We then develop a new SED-fitting method that includes the IR luminosity as a prior and a generalized Calzetti law with a variable RV. Then we exploit the new method to re-analyze our galaxy sample, and to robustly determine SFRs, stellar masses and ages. We find that there is a general trend of increasing attenuation with the SFR. Moreover, we find that the SFRs range between a few to 103 Msolar yr-1, the masses from 109 to 4 × 1011 Msolar, and the ages from a few tens of Myr to more than 1 Gyr. We discuss how individual age measurements of highly attenuated objects indicate that dust must have formed within a few tens of Myr and already been copious at affects the interpretation of the observed M*/L ratios.

  15. AGN feedback at z~2 and the mutual evolution of active and inactive galaxies

    Cimatti, A; Talia, M; Mignoli, M; Rodighiero, G; Kurk, J; Cassata, P; Halliday, C; Renzini, A; Daddi, E


    The relationships between galaxies of intermediate stellar mass and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 110^42.3 erg s^-1 disappear from the blue cloud/green valley where they were hosted predominantly by star-forming systems with disk and irregular morphologies. These results are even clearer when the rest-frame colors are corrected for dust reddening. At z~2.2, the ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies (including two Type 1 AGNs) show possible gas outflows with velocities up to about -500 km s^-1 that are not observed neither in inactive systems at the same redshift, nor at lower redshifts. Such outflows indicate the presence of gas that can move faster than the escape velocities of active galaxies. These results suggest that feedback from moderately luminous AGNs (logL_X~2 by contributing to outflows capable of ejecting part of the interstellar medium and leading to a rapid decrease in the star formation in host galaxies with stellar masses 10

  16. GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z ~ 2. IV. The variety of dust populations

    Noll, S; Cimatti, A; Daddi, E; Kurk, J D; Bolzonella, M; Cassata, P; Halliday, C; Mignoli, M; Pozzetti, L; Renzini, A; Berta, S; Dickinson, M; Franceschini, A; Rodighiero, G; Rosati, P; Zamorani, G


    The properties of dust attenuation at rest-frame UV wavelengths are inferred from very high-quality FORS2 spectra of 78 galaxies from the GMASS survey at 1<z<2.5. These objects complement a previously investigated sample of 108 UV-luminous galaxies at similar redshifts, selected from the FDF spectroscopic survey, the K20 survey, and the GDDS. The shape of the UV extinction curve is constrained by a parametric description of the rest-frame UV continuum. The UV bump is further characterised by fitting Lorentzian-like profiles. Spectra exhibit a significant 2175A feature in at least 30% of the cases. If attenuation is dominated by dust ejected from the galaxy main body via superwinds, UV extinction curves in-between those of the SMC and LMC characterise the sample galaxies. The fraction of galaxies with extinction curves differing from the SMC one increases, if more dust resides in the galactic plane or dust attenuation depends on stellar age. On average, the width of the manifested UV bumps is about 60% o...

  17. HST Morphologies of z ~ 2 Dust-Obscured Galaxies II: Bump Sources

    Bussmann, R S; Lotz, J; Armus, L; Brown, M J I; Desai, V; Eisenhardt, P; Higdon, J; Higdon, S; Jannuzi, B T; Floc'h, E Le; Melbourne, J; Soifer, B T; Weedman, D


    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of 22 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z~2 with extremely red R-[24] colors (called dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) which have a local maximum in their spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6um associated with stellar emission. These sources, which we call "bump DOGs", have star-formation rates of 400-4000 Msun/yr and have redshifts derived from mid-IR spectra which show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission --- a sign of vigorous on-going star-formation. Using a uniform morphological analysis, we look for quantifiable differences between bump DOGs, power-law DOGs (Spitzer-selected ULIRGs with mid-IR SEDs dominated by a power-law and spectral features that are more typical of obscured active galactic nuclei than starbursts), sub-millimeter selected galaxies (SMGs), and other less-reddened ULIRGs from the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey (XFLS). Bump DOGs are larger than power-law DOGs (median Petrosian radius of 8.4 +/-...

  18. The Star-Formation Histories of z~2 DOGs and SMGs

    Bussmann, R S; Armus, L; Brown, M J I; Desai, V; Gonzalez, A H; Jannuzi, B T; Melbourne, J; Soifer, B T


    The Spitzer Space Telescope has identified a population of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ~ 2 that may play an important role in the evolution of massive galaxies. We measure the stellar masses of two populations of Spitzer-selected ULIRGs, both of which have extremely red R-[24] colors (dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) and compare our results with sub-millimeter selected galaxies (SMGs). One set of 39 DOGs has a local maximum in their mid-IR spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6um associated with stellar emission ("bump DOGs"), while the other set of 51 DOGs has a power-law dominated mid-IR SED with spectral features typical of obscured AGN ("power-law DOGs"). We use stellar population synthesis models applied self-consistently to broad-band photometry in the rest-frame ultra-violet, optical, and near-infrared of each of these populations and test a variety of stellar population synthesis codes, star-formation histories (SFHs), and initial mass functions (IMFs). Assuming a simp...

  19. Intense star formation within resolved compact regions in a galaxy at z = 2.3.

    Swinbank, A M; Smail, I; Longmore, S; Harris, A I; Baker, A J; De Breuck, C; Richard, J; Edge, A C; Ivison, R J; Blundell, R; Coppin, K E K; Cox, P; Gurwell, M; Hainline, L J; Krips, M; Lundgren, A; Neri, R; Siana, B; Siringo, G; Stark, D P; Wilner, D; Younger, J D


    Massive galaxies in the early Universe have been shown to be forming stars at surprisingly high rates. Prominent examples are dust-obscured galaxies which are luminous when observed at sub-millimetre wavelengths and which may be forming stars at a rate of 1,000 solar masses (M(middle dot in circle)) per year. These intense bursts of star formation are believed to be driven by mergers between gas-rich galaxies. Probing the properties of individual star-forming regions within these galaxies, however, is beyond the spatial resolution and sensitivity of even the largest telescopes at present. Here we report observations of the sub-millimetre galaxy SMMJ2135-0102 at redshift z = 2.3259, which has been gravitationally magnified by a factor of 32 by a massive foreground galaxy cluster lens. This magnification, when combined with high-resolution sub-millimetre imaging, resolves the star-forming regions at a linear scale of only 100 parsecs. We find that the luminosity densities of these star-forming regions are comparable to the dense cores of giant molecular clouds in the local Universe, but they are about a hundred times larger and 10(7) times more luminous. Although vigorously star-forming, the underlying physics of the star-formation processes at z approximately 2 appears to be similar to that seen in local galaxies, although the energetics are unlike anything found in the present-day Universe.

  20. A high stellar velocity dispersion for a compact massive galaxy at redshift z = 2.186.

    van Dokkum, Pieter G; Kriek, Mariska; Franx, Marijn


    Recent studies have found that the oldest and most luminous galaxies in the early Universe are surprisingly compact, having stellar masses similar to present-day elliptical galaxies but much smaller sizes. This finding has attracted considerable attention, as it suggests that massive galaxies have grown in size by a factor of about five over the past ten billion years (10 Gyr). A key test of these results is a determination of the stellar kinematics of one of the compact galaxies: if the sizes of these objects are as extreme as has been claimed, their stars are expected to have much higher velocities than those in present-day galaxies of the same mass. Here we report a measurement of the stellar velocity dispersion of a massive compact galaxy at redshift z = 2.186, corresponding to a look-back time of 10.7 Gyr. The velocity dispersion is very high at km s(-1), consistent with the mass and compactness of the galaxy inferred from photometric data. This would indicate significant recent structural and dynamical evolution of massive galaxies over the past 10 Gyr. The uncertainty in the dispersion was determined from simulations that include the effects of noise and template mismatch. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that some subtle systematic effect may have influenced the analysis, given the low signal-to-noise ratio of our spectrum.

  1. Bifurcations of Limit Circles and Center Conditions for a Class of Non-analytic Cubic Z2 Polynomial Differential Systems

    Feng LI; Yi Rong LIU; Yin Lai JIN


    In this paper,bifurcations of limit cycles at three fine focuses for a class of Z2-equivariant non-analytic cubic planar differential systems are studied.By a transformation,we first transform nonanalytic systems into analytic systems.Then sufficient and necessary conditions for critical points of the systems being centers are obtained.The fact that there exist 12 small amplitude limit cycles created from the critical points is also proved.Henceforth we give a lower bound of cyclicity of Z2-equivariant non-analytic cubic differential systems.

  2. Identification of a potential superhard compound ReCN

    Fan, Xiaofeng, E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of MOE, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, M.M. [College of Materials Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of MOE, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Singh, David J. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6056 (United States); Jiang, Qing [College of Materials Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of MOE, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zheng, W.T., E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of MOE, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)


    Highlights: • We identify a new ternary compound ReCN with theoretical calculation. • The ternary compound ReCN is with two stable structures with P63mc and P3m1. • ReCN is a semiconductor from the calculation of electronic structures. • ReCN is found to possess the outstanding mechanical properties. • ReCN may be synthesized relatively easily. - Abstract: We identify a new ternary compound, ReCN and characterize its properties including structural stability and indicators of hardness using first principles calculations. We find that there are two stable structures with space groups P63mc (HI) and P3m1 (HII), in which there are no C–C and N–N bonds. Both structures, H1 and III are elastically and dynamically stable. The electronic structures show that ReCN is a semiconductor, although the parent compounds, ReC{sub 2} and ReN{sub 2} are both metallic. ReCN is found to possess the outstanding mechanical properties with the large bulk modulus, shear modulus and excellent ideal strengths. In addition, ReCN may perhaps be synthesized relatively easily because it becomes thermodynamic stable with respect to decomposition at very low pressures.

  3. (Sr6N[CoN2][CN2]2: The first low-valency nitridometalate carbodiimide

    Joanna Katarzyna Bendyna, Peter Höhn, Walter Schnelle and Rüdiger Kniep


    Full Text Available The first nitridocobaltate carbodiimide (Sr6N[CoN2][CN2]2 has been synthesized from the elements Sr, Co, and graphite powder and NaN3 (as a nitrogen source. The crystal structure was determined from X-ray single-crystal diffraction data as orthorhombic (space group P21212, No. 18, a=9.8807(6 Å, b=14.6474(9 Å, c=3.8569(3 Å, V=558.2 Å3, Z=2, R1=0.0265, wR2=0.0383. (Sr6N[CoN2][CN2]2 is the first low-valency 3d-transition nitridometalate containing additional [CN2]2− groups. The crystal structure can be described as an array of rocksalt-like columns of Sr and N linked via common corners and connected by [N=C=N]2− and [CoIN2]5− units located within structural channels running along [0 0 1]. The magnetic susceptibility follows the Curie–Weiss law with an effective moment of 3.26 μB consistent with two unpaired spins (d8, CoI. The compound is a bad metallic conductor with a resistivity of order 1 mΩ cm at 300 K. Vibrational spectroscopic data support the existence of carbodiimide [N=C=N]2− species. The Co K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS of Ca5[CoN2]2 and (Sr6N[CoN2][CN2]2 confirm the presence of CoI within the complex anions.

  4. B4CN3 and B3CN4 monolayers as the promising candidates for metal-free spintronic materials

    Pan, Hongzhe; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Yongping; Tang, Nujiang; Du, Youwei


    The search for candidates of spintronic materials, especially among the two-dimensional (2D) materials, has attracted tremendous attentions over the past decades. By using a particle swarm optimization structure searching method combined with density functional calculations, two kinds of boron carbonitride monolayer structures (B4CN3 and B3CN4) are proposed and confirmed to be dynamically and kinetically stable. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that the magnetic ground states of the two B x C y N z systems are ferromagnetic ordering with a high Curie temperature of respectively 337 K for B4CN3 and 309 K for B3CN4. Furthermore, based on their respective band structures, the B4CN3 is found to be a bipolar magnetic semiconductor (BMS), while the B3CN4 is identified to be a type of spin gapless semiconductor (SGS), both of which are potential spintronic materials. In particular, carrier doping in the B4CN3 can induce a transition from BMS to half-metal, and its spin polarization direction is switchable depending on the doped carrier type. The BMS property of B4CN3 is very robust under an external strain or even a strong electric field. By contrast, as a SGS, the electronic structure of B3CN4 is relatively sensitive to external influences. Our findings successfully disclose two promising materials toward 2D metal-free spintronic applications.

  5. A comprehensive model on field-effect pnpn devices (Z2-FET)

    Taur, Yuan; Lacord, Joris; Parihar, Mukta Singh; Wan, Jing; Martinie, Sebastien; Lee, Kyunghwa; Bawedin, Maryline; Barbe, Jean-Charles; Cristoloveanu, Sorin


    A comprehensive model for field-effect pnpn devices (Z2-FET) is presented. It is based on three current continuity equations coupled to two MOS equations. The model reproduces the characteristic S-shaped I-V curve when the device is driven by a current source. The negative resistance region at intermediate currents occurs as the center junction undergoes a steep transition from reverse to forward bias. Also playing a vital role are the mix and match of the minority carrier diffusion current and the generation recombination current. Physical insights to the key mechanisms at work are gained by regional approximations of the model, from which analytical expressions for the maximum and minimum voltages at the switching points are derived. From 1981 to 2001, he was with the Silicon Technology Department of IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York, where he was Manager of Exploratory Devices and Processes. Areas in which he has worked and published include latchup-free 1-um CMOS, self-aligned TiSi2, 0.5-um CMOS and BiCMOS, shallow trench isolation, 0.25-um CMOS with n+/p + poly gates, SOI, low-temperature CMOS, and 0.1-um CMOS. Since October 2001, he has been a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego. Dr. Yuan Taur was elected a Fellow of the IEEE in 1998. He has served as Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Electron Device Letters from 1999 to 2011. He authored or co-authored over 200 technical papers and holds 14 U.S. patents. He co-authored a book, ;Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices,; published by Cambridge University Press in 1998. The 2nd edition was published in 2009. Dr. Yuan Taur received IEEE Electron Devices Society's J. J. Ebers Award in 2012 ;for contributions to the advancement of several generations of CMOS process technologies.;

  6. Enriched haloes at redshift z = 2 with no star formation: implications for accretion and wind scenarios

    Bouché, N.; Murphy, M. T.; Péroux, C.; Contini, T.; Martin, C. L.; Forster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Lutz, D.; Gillessen, S.; Tacconi, L.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.


    In order to understand which process (e.g. galactic winds, cold accretion) is responsible for the cool (T ˜ 104 K) halo gas around galaxies, we embarked on a programme to study the star formation properties of galaxies selected by their Mg II absorption signature in quasar spectra. Specifically, we searched for the Hα line emission from galaxies near very strong z ≃ 2 Mg II absorbers (with rest-frame equivalent width ? Å) because these could be the signposts of outflows or inflows. Surprisingly, we detect Hα from only four hosts out of 20 sightlines (and two out of the 19 H I-selected sightlines), despite reaching a star formation rate (SFR) sensitivity limit of 2.9 M⊙ yr-1 (5σ) for a Chabrier initial mass function. This low success rate (4/20) is in contrast with our z ≃ 1 survey where we detected 66 per cent (14/21) of the Mg II hosts (down to 0.6 M⊙ yr-1; 5σ). Taking into account the difference in sensitivity between the two surveys, we should have been able to detect ≥11.4 (≥7.6) of the 20 z ≃ 2 hosts - assuming that SFR evolves as ∝(1 + z)γ with γ= 2.5 (or γ= 0) respectively - whereas we found only four galaxies. Interestingly, all the z = 2 detected hosts have observed SFRs ≳ 9 M⊙ yr-1, well above our sensitivity limit, while at z = 1 they all have SFR Prochaska et al. (2005); (4) from Ledoux et al. (2006) (5) from Ryabinkov, Kaminker & Varshalovich (2003); (6) from Srianand et al. (2008)]; (6) FWHM of the seeing PSF; (7) exposure time; (8) observing run ID; (9) dates of observations. 1Source common to both samples.

  7. Discovery of A Very Bright, Strongly-Lensed z=2 Galaxy in the SDSS DR5

    Lin, Huan; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; /Fermilab; Allam, Sahar S.; /Fermilab /Wyoming U.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Diehl, H.Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago; Oguri, Masamune; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Inada, Naohisa; /Wako, RIKEN


    We report on the discovery of a very bright z = 2.00 star-forming galaxy that is strongly lensed by a foreground z = 0.422 luminous red galaxy (LRG). This system was found in a systematic search for bright arcs lensed by LRGs and brightest cluster galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 sample. Follow-up observations on the Subaru 8.2m telescope on Mauna Kea and the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system. A simple lens model for the system, assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass distribution, yields an Einstein radius of {theta}{sub Ein} = 3.82 {+-} 0.03{double_prime} or 14.8 {+-} 0.1h{sup -1} kpc at the lens redshift. The total projected mass enclosed within the Einstein radius is 2.10 {+-} 0.03 x 10{sup 12}h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}, and the magnification factor for the source galaxy is 27 {+-} 1. Combining the lens model with our gVriz photometry, we find an (unlensed) star formation rate for the source galaxy of 32 h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} hr{sup -1}, adopting a fiducial constant star formation rate model with an age of 100 Myr and E(B-V) = 0.25. With an apparent magnitude of r = 19.9, this system is among the very brightest lensed z {ge} 2 galaxies, and provides an excellent opportunity to pursue detailed studies of the physical properties of an individual high-redshift star-forming galaxy.

  8. Do the Most Massive Black Holes at z = 2 Grow via Major Mergers?

    Mechtley, M.; Jahnke, K.; Windhorst, R. A.; Andrae, R.; Cisternas, M.; Cohen, S. H.; Hewlett, T.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schramm, M.; Schulze, A.; Silverman, J. D.; Villforth, C.; van der Wel, A.; Wisotzki, L.


    The most frequently proposed model for the origin of quasars holds that the high accretion rates seen in luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) are primarily triggered during major mergers between gas-rich galaxies. While plausible for decades, this model has only begun to be tested with statistical rigor in the past few years. Here, we report on a Hubble Space Telescope study to test this hypothesis for z = 2 quasars with high supermassive black hole masses ({M}{BH}={10}9{--}{10}10 {M}⊙ ), which dominate cosmic black hole growth at this redshift. We compare Wide Field Camera 3 F160W (rest-frame V-band) imaging of 19 point source-subtracted quasar hosts to a matched sample of 84 inactive galaxies, testing whether the quasar hosts have greater evidence for strong gravitational interactions. Using an expert ranking procedure, we find that the quasar hosts are uniformly distributed within the merger sequence of inactive galaxies, with no preference for quasars in high-distortion hosts. Using a merger/non-merger cutoff approach, we recover distortion fractions of {f}{{m},{qso}}=0.39+/- 0.11 for quasar hosts and {f}{{m},{gal}}=0.30+/- 0.05 for inactive galaxies (distribution modes, 68% confidence intervals), with both measurements subjected to the same observational conditions and limitations. The slight enhancement in distorted fraction for quasar hosts over inactive galaxies is not significant, with a probability that the quasar fraction is higher P({f}{{m},{qso}}\\gt {f}{{m},{gal}})=0.78 (0.78σ ), in line with results for lower mass and lower z AGN. We find no evidence that major mergers are the primary triggering mechanism for the massive quasars that dominate accretion at the peak of cosmic quasar activity.

  9. Bulge growth and quenching since z = 2.5 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    Lang, Philipp; Wuyts, Stijn; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Rosario, David J. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Somerville, Rachel S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brammer, Gabe [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Faber, Sandra M.; Momcheva, Ivelina [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); McGrath, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, ME 0490 (United States); Nelson, Erica J. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Primack, Joel R. [Department of Physics, University of California at SantaCruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); and others


    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all five CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit two-dimensional models comprising a single Sérsic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sérsic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40%-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the star-forming main sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge and total mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy than the total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art, semi-analytic model by Somerville et al. In this model, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging and/or disk instabilities, and feedback from active galactic nuclei shuts off star formation. Further observations will be required to pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply that they must be internal to the galaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.

  10. CO(1-0) in z>2 Quasar Host Galaxies: No Evidence for Extended Molecular Gas Reservoirs

    Riechers, Dominik A; Maddalena, Ronald J; Hodge, Jacqueline; Harris, Andrew I; Baker, Andrew J; Walter, Fabian; Wagg, Jeff; Bout, Paul A Vanden; Weiss, Axel; Sharon, Chelsea E


    We report the detection of CO(1-0) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars IRAS F10214+4724 (z=2.286), the Cloverleaf (z=2.558), RX J0911+0551 (z=2.796), SMM J04135+10277 (z=2.846), and MG 0751+2716 (z=3.200), using the Expanded Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope. We report lensing-corrected CO(1-0) line luminosities of L'(CO) = 0.34-18.4 x 10^10 K km/s pc^2 and total molecular gas masses of M(H2) = 0.27-14.7 x 10^10 Msun for the sources in our sample. Based on CO line ratios relative to previously reported observations in J>=3 rotational transitions and line excitation modeling, we find that the CO(1-0) line strengths in our targets are consistent with single, highly-excited gas components with constant brightness temperature up to mid-J levels. We thus do not find any evidence for luminous extended, low excitation, low surface brightness molecular gas components. These properties are comparable to those found in z>4 quasars with existing CO(1-0) observations. These findings stand in...

  11. Herschel protocluster survey: A search for dusty star-forming galaxies in protoclusters at z=2-3

    Kato, Y; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A M; Hatsukade, B; Umehata, H; Tanaka, I; Saito, T; Iono, D; Tamura, Y; Kohno, K; Erb, D K; Lehmer, B D; Geach, J E; Steidel, C C; Alexander, D M; Yamada, T; Hayashino, T


    We present a Herschel/SPIRE survey of three protoclusters at z=2-3 (2QZCluster, HS1700, SSA22). Based on the SPIRE colours (S350/S250 and S500/S350) of 250 $\\mu$m sources, we selected high redshift dusty star-forming galaxies potentially associated with the protoclusters. In the 2QZCluster field, we found a 4-sigma overdensity of six SPIRE sources around 4.5' (~2.2 Mpc) from a density peak of H$\\alpha$ emitters at z=2.2. In the HS1700 field, we found a 5-sigma overdensity of eight SPIRE sources around 2.1' (~1.0 Mpc) from a density peak of LBGs at z=2.3. We did not find any significant overdensities in SSA22 field, but we found three 500 $\\mu$m sources are concentrated 3' (~1.4 Mpc) east to the LAEs overdensity. If all the SPIRE sources in these three overdensities are associated with protoclusters, the inferred star-formation rate densities are 10$^3$-10$^4$ times higher than the average value at the same redshifts. This suggests that dusty star-formation activity could be very strongly enhanced in z~2-3 pro...

  12. Quasars Probing Quasars VIII. The Physical Properties of the Cool Circumgalactic medium Surrounding z ~ 2-3 Massive Galaxies

    Lau, Marie Wingyee; Hennawi, Joseph F


    We characterize the physical properties of the cool T ~ 10^4 K circumgalactic medium surrounding z ~ 2-3 quasar host galaxies, which are predicted to evolve into present day massive ellipticals. Using a statistical sample of 14 quasar pairs with projected separation 100 cm^-3 and subparsec scale gas clumps.

  13. Liquid-Phase Synthesis of Methyl (2Z)-2-Arylsulfonylmethyl-2-alkenoates from PEG-Supported α-Phenylselenopropionate

    WANG, Qiong; SHENG,Shou-Ri; LIN, Shu-Ying; GUO, Lei; WEI, Mei-Hong; HUANG, Xian


    Treatment of lithio derivative of novel PEG-supported α-phenylselenopropionate with aldehydes, followed by oxidation-elimination with 30% hydrogen peroxide, formed Baylis-Hillman products, which were then reacted with sodium arylsulfinate. The resulting sulfonylated products were cleaved from the PEG efficiently affording methyl (2Z)-2-arylsulfonylmethyl-2-alkenoates in good yields and high purities.

  14. CANDELS+3D-HST: Compact SFGs at z ~ 2-3, the Progenitors of the First Quiescent Galaxies

    Barro, G.; Faber, S. M.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Pacifici, C.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D. C.; Wuyts, S.; Guo, Y.; Bell, E.; Dekel, A.; Porter, L.; Primack, J.; Ferguson, H.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Caputi, K.; Ceverino, D.; Croton, D.; Fazio, G. G.; Giavalisco, M.; Hsu, L.; Kocevski, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Kurczynski, P.; Kollipara, P.; Lee, J.; McIntosh, D. H.; McGrath, E.; Moody, C.; Somerville, R.; Papovich, C.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Tal, T.; van der Wel, A.; Williams, C. C.; Willner, S. P.; Zolotov, A.


    We analyze the star-forming and structural properties of 45 massive (log(M/M ⊙) >10) compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 2 z ~ 2. The optical/NIR and far-IR Spitzer/Herschel colors indicate that most compact SFGs are

  15. Molecular hydrogen in the damped Lyman α system towards GRB 120815A at z = 2.36

    Krühler, T.; Ledoux, C.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Schmidl, S.; Malesani, D.; Christensen, L.; De Cia, A.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kann, D.A.; Kaper, L.; Vergani, S.D.; Afonso, P.M.J.; Covino, S.; de Ugarta Postigo, A.; D'Elia, V.; Filgas, R.; Goldoni, P.; Greiner, J.; Hartoog, O.E.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Nardini, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Rossi, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Schady, P.; Schulze, S.; Sudilovsky, V.; Tanvir, N.R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Watson, D.J.; Wiersema, K.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Xu, D.


    We present the discovery of molecular hydrogen (H2), including the presence of vibrationally-excited H2* in the optical spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 120815A at z = 2.36 obtained with X-shooter at the VLT. Simultaneous photometric broad-band data from GROND and X-ray observations by Swift/XRT pla

  16. 7-Methoxy-1-{[(Z-2-nitrophenylimino](phenylmethyl}-2-naphthol chloroform monosolvate

    Noriyuki Yonezawa


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H18N2O4·CHCl3, the phenyl and benzene rings make a dihedral angle of 38.60 (9° and connect in an orientation almost perpendicular to the naphthalene ring system at dihedral angles of 78.73 (8 and 81.20 (7°. The molecule has a Z configuration about the C=N bond. In the crystal, molecules are linked by intermolecular O—H...N=C hydrogen bonds between the imino moiety and hydroxy groups. Intermolecular C—Cl...C interactions between Cl atoms of the CHCl3 molecule and C atoms of the naphthalene rings are also present [Cl...C = 3.353 (2 and 3.326 (19 Å]. The nitro group and the chloroform solvent molecule are disordered over two positions with site occupancies of 0.884 (4 and 0.116 (4.


    Yu Jiarong


    Some previous results on convergence of Taylor series in Cn [3] are improved by indicating outside the domain of convergence the points where the series diverges and simplifying some proofs. These results contain the Cauchy-Hadamard theorem in C. Some Cauchy integral formulas of a holomorphic function on a closed ball in Cn are constructed and the Taylor series expansion is deduced.

  18. EST Table: CN212020 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN212020 rzhswab0_002434 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 low homology 10/09/01 low homology 1...0/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 low homology CN212020 L12 ...

  19. EST Table: CN211821 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN211821 rzhswab0_006514 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 62 %/161 aa ref|XP_969343.1| PREDICT...|Amel|GB11559-PA 10/09/10 62 %/161 aa gi|91086147|ref|XP_969343.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG1972 CG1972-PA [Tribolium castaneum] CN211821 L12 ...

  20. [Anaerobic reduction of humus/Fe (III) and electron transport mechanism of Fontibacter sp. SgZ-2].

    Ma, Chen; Yang, Gui-qin; Lu, Qin; Zhou, Shun-gui


    Humus and Fe(III) respiration are important extracellular respiration metabolism. Electron transport pathway is the key issue of extracellular respiration. To understand the electron transport properties and the environmental behavior of a novel Fe(III)- reducing bacterium, Fontibacter sp. SgZ-2, capacities of anaerobic humus/Fe(III) reduction and electron transport mechanisms with four electron acceptors were investigated in this study. The results of anaerobic batch experiments indicated that strain SgZ-2 had the ability to reduce humus analog [ 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS)], humic acids (HA), soluble Fe(III) (Fe-EDTA and Fe-citrate) and Fe(III) oxides [hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)]. Fermentative sugars (glucose and sucrose) were the most effective electron donors in the humus/Fe(III) reduction by strain SgZ-2. Additionally, differences of electron carrier participating in the process of electron transport with different electron acceptors (i. e. , oxygen, AQS, Fe-EDTA and HFO) were investigated using respiratory inhibitors. The results suggested that similar respiratory chain components were involved in the reducing process of oxygen and Fe-EDTA, including dehydrogenase, quinones and cytochromes b-c. In comparison, only dehydrogenase was found to participate in the reduction of AQS and HFO. In conclusion, different electron transport pathways may be employed by strain SgZ-2 between insoluble and soluble electron acceptors or among soluble electron acceptors. Preliminary models of electron transport pathway with four electron acceptors were proposed for strain SgZ-2, and the study of electron transport mechanism was explored to the genus Fontibacter. All the results from this study are expected to help understand the electron transport properties and the environmental behavior of the genus Fontibacter.

  1. Syntheses and Crystal Structures of Two Cyano-bridged Bimetallic Complexes [Ln(DMSO)2(H2O)(μ-CN)4Fe(CN)2](Ln= Ce and Eu, DMSO= Dimethylsulfoxide) with Layered Structure

    ZHAO Zhen-Qian; CAI Li-Zhen; CHEN Wen-Tong; GUO Guo-Cong; HUANG Jin-Shun


    Two new bimetallic cyano-bridged complexes [Ln(DMSO)2(H2O)(μ-CN)4Fe(CN)2] (Ln = Ce 1, Eu 2) have been prepared by the grinding reaction method and structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis. Crystallographic data for 1: C10H14CeFeN6O3S2, Mr = 526.36, monoclinic, P2/n, a = 7.852(4), b = 10.729(5), c = 11.181(5) (A), β = 96.992(8)°, V = 935.0(7) A3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.870 g/cm3, μ = 3.421 mm-1, F(000) = 512, R = 0.0363 and wR = 0.0971; and those for 2: C10H14EuFeN6O3S2, Mr = 538.20, monoclinic, P2/n, a = 7.739(5), b = 10.668(7), c = 11.008(7) A, β = 96.943(3)°, V = 902.1(11) A3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.981 g/cm3, μ= 4.499 mm-1, F(000) = 522, R = 0.0345 and wR = 0.0855. In each complex the lanthanide ion is seven-coordinated in a pentagonal bipyramidal arrangement, and the Fe(Ⅲ) ion is in a nearly regular octahedral environment. The title complexes can be described as two-dimensional (2-D) stair-like structures, which are further connected by hydrogen bonds to form three-dimensional (3-D) frameworks.

  2. A Compact Group of Galaxies at z = 2.48 Hosting an AGN-driven Outflow

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan


    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 1011M⊙ and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass-metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The work is also based, in part, on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  3. Search for W~1Z~2 Production via Trilepton Final States in pp¯ Collisions at s = 1.8 TeV

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Álvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; de, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S. R.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Gu, W. X.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hatcher, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tao; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnstad, H.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kernan, A.; Kerth, L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B. I.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, Y. K.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Margulies, S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Marx, M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; de Mello Neto, J. R.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mohammadi-Baarmand, M.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Mudan, M.; Murphy, C.; Murphy, C. T.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neis, E.; Nemethy, P.; NešiĆ, D.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pušeljić, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rao, M. V.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rusin, S.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shao, Y. Y.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Taketani, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Virador, P. R.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; Wen, F.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Wilcox, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zylberstejn, A.


    We have searched for associated production of the lightest chargino W~1 and next-to-lightest neutralino Z~2 of the minimal supersymmetric standard model in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 12.5+/-0.7 pb-1 were examined for events containing three isolated leptons. No evidence for W~1Z~2 pair production was found. Limits on σ\\(W~1Z~2\\)B\\(W~1-->lνZ~1\\)B\\(Z~2-->ll¯Z~1\\) are presented.

  4. Nonadiabatic photofragmentation dynamics of BrCN{sup −}

    Opoku-Agyeman, Bernice; McCoy, Anne B., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Case, Amanda S.; Lehman, Julia H.; Lineberger, W. Carl, E-mail: [JILA and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)


    The photofragmentation dynamics of BrCN{sup −} in the 270–355 nm and the 430–600 nm wavelength regions is explored both experimentally and theoretically. In the case of excitation between 430 nm and 600 nm, it is found that the molecular ion accesses two dissociation channels with a measured 60:40 branching ratio that is nearly constant over this range of photon energies. The dominant product channel corresponds to Br{sup −} + CN, while the second channel correlates to spin-orbit excited Br{sup *} with CN{sup −}. A larger wavelength dependence of the branching ratio is observed at shorter wavelengths, where the fraction of Br{sup −} based products ranges from 80% to 95% at 355 nm and 270 nm, respectively. These branching ratios are reproduced and the mechanisms are explored by quantum dynamics calculations based on ground and excited state potential energy surfaces for BrCN{sup −}, evaluated at the SO-MRCISD level of theory. It is found that the electronic states that correlate to the two observed product channels are coupled through the spin-orbit terms in the electronic Hamiltonian. The strength of this coupling displays a strong dependence on the Br-CN angle. Specifically, after promotion to the excited state that is energetically accessible with 430–600 nm photons, it is found that when the wave packet accesses Br-CN separations of between 4 Å and 6 Å, predominantly the Br{sup −} + CN products are formed when the Br-CN angle is smaller than 120°. For larger values of the Br-CN angle, the Br{sup *} + CN{sup −} channel dominates. At the shorter wavelength excitation, the dynamics is complicated by a pair of states that correlate to electronically excited CN{sup *} + Br{sup −} products that borrow oscillator strength from the bright state, leading to an increase in the amount of Br{sup −} relative to CN{sup −}. The implications of these findings are discussed and compared to the experimentally measured product branching ratios for the

  5. Z2 Orbifold-Prime Model of N=2 Superconformal Theories with c=3%c=3, N=2 超共形场论的Z2 Orbifold-Prime模型



    讨论了二维环面上中心荷c=3, N=2 的超共形场论. 特别给出该理论的配分函数. 进一步,为了产生新的模型,回顾了一般的orbifold方法. 然后构造了模不变的Z2 Orbifold-Prime模型.%We consider N=2 superconformal field theories on a two dimensional torus with central charge c=3. In particular, we present the partition function for this theory. Furthermore, to generate new theories, we recall general orbifold prescription. At last, we construct the modular invariant Z2 orbifold-prime model.

  6. A new technique of integral representations in Cn


    A new technique of integral representations in Cn, which is different from the well-known Henkin technique, is given. By means of this new technique, a new integral formula for smooth functions and a new integral representation of solutions of the -equations on strictly pseudoconvex domains in Cn are obtained. These new formulas are simpler than the classical ones, especially the solutions of the -equations admit simple uniform estimates. Moreover, this new technique can be further applied to arbitrary bounded domains in Cn so that all corresponding formulas are simplified.

  7. Gauge-Higgs Unification Models in Six Dimensions with S2/Z2 Extra Space and GUT Gauge Symmetry

    Cheng-Wei Chiang


    Full Text Available We review gauge-Higgs unification models based on gauge theories defined on six-dimensional spacetime with S2/Z2 topology in the extra spatial dimensions. Nontrivial boundary conditions are imposed on the extra S2/Z2 space. This review considers two scenarios for constructing a four-dimensional theory from the six-dimensional model. One scheme utilizes the SO(12 gauge symmetry with a special symmetry condition imposed on the gauge field, whereas the other employs the E6 gauge symmetry without requiring the additional symmetry condition. Both models lead to a standard model-like gauge theory with the SU(3×SU(2L×U(1Y(×U(12 symmetry and SM fermions in four dimensions. The Higgs sector of the model is also analyzed. The electroweak symmetry breaking can be realized, and the weak gauge boson and Higgs boson masses are obtained.

  8. Fatigue behaviors of Z2CND18.12N stainless steel under thermal-mechanical cycling

    Liubing WANG; Dunji YU; Fei XUE; Weiwei YU; Jian CHEN; Xu CHEN


    Tests under mechanical strain control were performed to investigate the TMF behavior of Z2CND18.12N within the temperature range between 150-550 ℃. Differentstrain amplitudes and phase-angles were applied. Total strain controlled low cycle fatigue test was also performed at the peak temperature of TMF cycling. The results show that the cyclic stress response of the material displayed an initial hardening regime followed by a saturation period and then cyclic softening till failure. The TMF cycling leads to the development of significant amounts of mean stress. Some life prediction models were employed to predict the TMF life of Z2CND18.12N, and the results indicate that the energy-based models provide good prediction on the thermal-mechanical fatigue behaviors of this material. An optical microscopic observation shows that the surface crack initiations and crack propagations are typicallytransgranular mode.

  9. Next-to-leading order unitarity fits in Two-Higgs-Doublet models with soft $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ breaking

    Cacchio, Vincenzo; Eberhardt, Otto; Murphy, Christopher W


    We fit the next-to-leading order unitarity conditions to the Two-Higgs-Doublet model with a softly broken $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry. In doing so, we alleviate the existing uncertainty on how to treat higher order corrections to quartic couplings of its Higgs potential. A simplified approach to implementing the next-to-leading order unitarity conditions is presented. These new bounds are then combined with all other relevant constraints, including the complete set of LHC Run I data. The upper $95\\%$ bounds we find are $4.2$ on the absolute values of the quartic couplings, and $235$ GeV ($100$ GeV) for the mass degeneracies between the heavy Higgs particles in the type I (type II) scenario. In type II, we exclude an unbroken $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry with a probability of $95\\%$. All fits are performed using the open-source code HEPfit.

  10. 3D-HST Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2: Discrepancies in the Optical/UV Star Formation Rates

    Zeimann, Gregory R; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P; Hagen, Alex; Bridge, Joanna S; Feldmeier, John; Trump, Jonathan R


    We use Hubble Space Telescope near-IR grism spectroscopy to examine the H-beta line strengths of 260 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. We show that at these epochs, the H-beta star formation rate (SFR) is a factor of ~1.8 higher than what would be expected from the systems' rest-frame UV flux density, suggesting a shift in the standard conversion between these quantities and star formation rate. We demonstrate that at least part of this shift can be attributed to metallicity, as H-beta is more greatly enhanced in systems with lower oxygen abundance. This offset must be considered when measuring the star formation rate history of the universe. We also show that the relation between stellar and nebular extinction in our z ~ 2 sample is consistent with that observed in the local universe.

  11. Mineralogical and microstructural investigations of fractures in Permian z2 potash seam and surrounding salt rocks

    Mertineit, Michael; Grewe, Wiebke; Schramm, Michael; Hammer, Jörg; Blanke, Hartmut; Patzschke, Mario


    Fractures occur locally in the z2 potash seam (Kaliflöz Staßfurt). Most of them extend several centimeter to meter into the surrounding salt rocks. The fractures are distributed on all levels in an extremely deformed area of the Morsleben salt mine, Northern Germany. The sampling site is located within a NW-SE trending synclinal structure, which was reverse folded (Behlau & Mingerzahn 2001). The samples were taken between the -195 m and - 305 m level at the field of Marie shaft. In this area, more than 200 healed fractures were mapped. Most of them show opening widths of only a few millimeters to rarely 10 cm. The fractures in rock salt are filled with basically polyhalite, halite and carnallite. In the potash seam, the fractures are filled with kainite, halite and minor amounts of carnallite and polyhalite. In some cases the fracture infill changes depending on the type of surrounding rocks. There are two dominant orientations of the fractures, which can be interpreted as a conjugated system. The main orientation is NE-SW trending, the dip angles are steep (ca. 70°, dip direction NW and SE, respectively). Subsequent deformation of the filled fractures is documented by a strong grain shape fabric of kainite, undulatory extinction and subgrain formation in kainite, and several mineral transformations. Subgrain formation in halite occurred in both, the fracture infill and the surrounding salt rocks. The results correlate in parts with investigations which were carried out at the close-by rock salt mine Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Horn et al. 2016). The development of the fractures occurred during compression of clayey salt rocks. However, the results are only partly comparable due to different properties (composition, impurities) of the investigated stratigraphic units. Further investigations will focus on detailed microstructural and geochemical analyses of the fracture infill and surrounding salt rocks. Age dating of suitable minerals, e.g. polyhalite (Leitner et al

  12. A many-body generalization of the Z2 topological invariant for the quantum spin Hall effect

    Lee, Sung-Sik; Ryu, Shinsei


    We propose a many-body generalization of the Z2 topological invariant for the quantum spin Hall insulator, which does not rely on single-particle band structures. The invariant is derived as a topological obstruction that distinguishes topologically distinct many-body ground states on a torus. It is also expressed as a Wilson-loop of the SU(2) Berry gauge field, which is quantized due to the time-reversal symmetry.

  13. The effect of Ti(CN/TiNb(CN coating on erosion–corrosion resistance

    William Aperador Chaparro


    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study electrochemical behaviour in corrosion-erosion conditions for Ti(CN/TiNb(CN multilayer coatings having 1, 50, 100, 150 and 200 bilayer periods on AISI 4140 steel substrates by using a multi-target magnetron reactive sputtering device, with an r.f. source (13.56 MHz, two cylindrical magnetron cathodes and two stoichiometric TiC and Nb targets. The multi-layers were evaluated by comparing them to corrosion, erosion and erosion corrosion for a 30º impact angle in a solution of 0.5 M NaCl and silica, analysing the effect of impact angle and the number of bilayers on these coatings’ corrosion resistance. The electrochemical characterisation was performed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for analysing corrosion surface; surface morphology was characterised by using a high-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed a de-creased corrosion rate for multilayer systems tested at 30°.

  14. Polycomb group genes Psc and Su(z)2 maintain somatic stem cell identity and activity in Drosophila.

    Morillo Prado, Jose Rafael; Chen, Xin; Fuller, Margaret T


    Adult stem cells are essential for the proper function of many tissues, yet the mechanisms that maintain the proper identity and regulate proliferative capacity in stem cell lineages are not well understood. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that have recently emerged as important regulators of stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Here we describe the role of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) genes Posterior sex combs (Psc) and Suppressor of zeste two (Su(z)2) in restricting the proliferation and maintaining the identity of the Cyst Stem Cell (CySC) lineage in the Drosophila testis. In contrast, Psc and Su(z)2 seem to be dispensable for both germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance and germ cell development. We show that loss of Psc and Su(z)2 function in the CySC lineage results in the formation of aggregates of mutant cells that proliferate abnormally, and display abnormal somatic identity correlated with derepression of the Hox gene Abdominal-B. Furthermore, we show that tumorigenesis in the CySC lineage interferes non-cell autonomously with maintenance of GSCs most likely by displacing them from their niche.

  15. The K20 survey. VI. The Distribution of the Stellar Masses in Galaxies up to z~2

    Fontana, A; Donnarumma, I; Renzini, A; Cimatti, A; Zamorani, G; Menci, N; Daddi, E; Giallongo, E; Mignoli, M; Perna, C; Salimbeni, S; Saracco, P; Broadhurst, T J; Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, S; Gilmozzi, R


    We present a detailed analysis of the stellar mass content of galaxies up to z=2.5 in the K20 galaxy sample, that has a 92% spectroscopic completeness and a complete $UBVRIzJK_s$ multicolor coverage. We find that the M/L ratio decreases with redshift: in particular, the average M/L ratio of early type galaxies decreases with $z$, with a scatter that is indicative of a range of star--formation time-scales and redshift of formation. More important, the typical M/L of massive early type galaxies is larger than that of less massive ones, suggesting that their stellar population formed at higher z. The final K20 galaxy sample spans a range of stellar masses from M*=10^9Msun to M*=10^12Msun, with massive galaxies ($M*>10^11Msun) detected up to z~2. We compute the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function at various z, of which we observe only a mild evolution (i.e. by 20-30%) up to z~1. At z>1, the evolution of the GSMF appears to be much faster: at z~2, about 35% of the present day stellar mass in objects with M*~10^11Msun app...

  16. Searching for Evidence of Energetic Feedback in Distant Galaxies: A Galaxy Wide Outflow in a z~2 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy

    Alexander, D M; Smail, I; McDermid, R; Nesvadba, N


    Leading models of galaxy formation require large-scale energetic outflows to regulate the growth of distant galaxies and their central black holes. However, current observational support for this hypothesis at high redshift is mostly limited to rare z>2 radio galaxies. Here we present Gemini-North NIFS Intregral Field Unit (IFU) observations of the [OIII] emission from a z~2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy (L_IR>10^12 solar luminosities) with an optically identified Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The spatial extent (~4-8 kpc) of the high velocity and broad [OIII] emission are consistent with that found in z>2 radio galaxies, indicating the presence of a large-scale energetic outflow in a galaxy population potentially orders of magnitude more common than distant radio galaxies. The low radio luminosity of this system indicates that radio-bright jets are unlikely to be responsible for driving the outflow. However, the estimated energy input required to produce the large-scale outflow signatures (of order ~10^59 e...

  17. Mergers and Mass Accretion Rates in Galaxy Assembly: The Millennium Simulation Compared to Observations of z~2 Galaxies

    Genel, S; Bouché, N; Sternberg, A; Naab, T; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Shapiro, K L; Tacconi, L J; Lutz, D; Cresci, G; Buschkamp, P; Davies, R I; Hicks, E K S


    Recent observations of UV-/optically selected, massive star forming galaxies at z~2 indicate that the baryonic mass assembly and star formation history is dominated by continuous rapid accretion of gas and internal secular evolution, rather than by major mergers. We use the Millennium Simulation to build new halo merger trees, and extract halo merger fractions and mass accretion rates. We find that even for halos not undergoing major mergers the mass accretion rates are plausibly sufficient to account for the high star formation rates observed in z~2 disks. On the other hand, the fraction of major mergers in the Millennium Simulation is sufficient to account for the number counts of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), in support of observational evidence that these are major mergers. When following the fate of these two populations in the Millennium Simulation to z=0, we find that subsequent mergers are not frequent enough to convert all z~2 turbulent disks into elliptical galaxies at z=0. Similarly, mergers canno...

  18. Classification and properties of symmetry-enriched topological phases: Chern-Simons approach with applications to Z2 spin liquids

    Lu, Yuan-Ming; Vishwanath, Ashvin


    We study (2+1)-dimensional phases with topological order, such as fractional quantum Hall states and gapped spin liquids, in the presence of global symmetries. Phases that share the same topological order can then differ depending on the action of symmetry, leading to symmetry-enriched topological (SET) phases. Here, we present a K -matrix Chern-Simons approach to identify distinct phases with Abelian topological order, in the presence of unitary or antiunitary global symmetries. A key step is the identification of a smooth edge sewing condition that is used to check if two putative phases are indeed distinct. We illustrate this method by classifying Z2 topological order (Z2 spin liquids) in the presence of an internal Z2 global symmetry for which we find six distinct phases. These include two phases with an unconventional action of symmetry that permutes anyons leading to symmetry-protected Majorana edge modes. Other routes to realizing protected edge states in SET phases are identified. Symmetry-enriched Laughlin states and double-semion theories are also discussed. Somewhat surprisingly, we observe that (i) gauging the global symmetry of distinct SET phases leads to topological orders with the same total quantum dimension, and (ii) a pair of distinct SET phases can yield the same topological order on gauging the symmetry.

  19. The CALYMHA survey: Lya luminosity function and global escape fraction of Lya photons at z=2.23

    Sobral, David; Best, Philip; Stroe, Andra; Röttgering, Huub; Oteo, Iván; Smail, Ian; Morabito, Leah; Paulino-Afonso, Ana


    We present the CAlibrating LYMan-$\\alpha$ with H$\\alpha$ (CALYMHA) pilot survey and new results on Lyman-$\\alpha$ (Lya) selected galaxies at z~2. We use a custom-built Lya narrow-band filter at the Isaac Newton Telescope, designed to provide a matched volume coverage to the z=2.23 Ha HiZELS survey. Here we present the first results for the COSMOS and UDS fields. Our survey currently reaches a 3$\\sigma$ line flux limit of ~4x10$^{-17}$ erg/s/cm$^{2}$, and a Lya luminosity limit of ~10$^{42.3}$ erg/s. We find 188 Lya emitters over 7.3x10$^5$ Mpc$^{3}$, but also find significant numbers of other line emitting sources corresponding to HeII, CIII] and CIV emission lines. These sources are important contaminants, and we carefully remove them, unlike most previous studies. We find that the Lya luminosity function at z=2.23 is very well described by a Schechter function up to L~10$^{43}$ erg/s with L$^*=10^{42.59+-0.05}$ erg/s, $\\phi^*=10^{-3.09+-0.08}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ and $\\alpha$=-1.75+-0.15. Above L~10$^{43}$ erg/s the...

  20. HST Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2: Comparing Physical Properties of Lyman Alpha and Optical Emission Line Selected Galaxies

    Hagen, Alex; Behrens, Christoph; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry S Grasshorn; Gronwall, Caryl; Bridge, Joanna S; Fox, Derek B; Schneider, Donald P; Trump, Jonathan R; Blanc, Guillermo A; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Chonis, Taylor S; Finkelstein, Steven L; Hill, Gary J; Jogee, Shardha; Gawiser, Eric


    We compare the physical and morphological properties of z ~ 2 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) identified in the HETDEX Pilot Survey and narrow band studies with those of z ~ 2 optical emission line galaxies (oELGs) identified via HST WFC3 infrared grism spectroscopy. Both sets of galaxies extend over the same range in stellar mass (7.5 < logM < 10.5), size (0.5 < R < 3.0 kpc), and star-formation rate (~1 < SFR < 100). Remarkably, a comparison of the most commonly used physical and morphological parameters -- stellar mass, half-light radius, UV slope, star formation rate, ellipticity, nearest neighbor distance, star formation surface density, specific star formation rate, [O III] luminosity, and [O III] equivalent width -- reveals no statistically significant differences between the populations. This suggests that the processes and conditions which regulate the escape of Ly-alpha from a z ~ 2 star-forming galaxy do not depend on these quantities. In particular, the lack of dependence on ...

  1. Polymorphic phases of sp3-hybridized superhard CN

    Wang, Xiaoli


    It is well established that carbon nitride (CN) is a potential superhard material as its bond in network structures is slightly shorter than the C-C bond in diamond. However, the structure of superhard CN materials is yet to be determined experimentally. We have performed an extensive structural search for the high pressure crystalline phases of CN using the particle swarm optimization technique; seven low-energy polymorphic structures of sp3-hybridized CN have been found in an unbiased search. Density-functional theory calculations indicate that, among the seven low-energy crystalline structures, Pnnm structure (8 atoms/cell) is energetically more favorable than the previously reported most stable crystalline structure with 1:1 stoichiometry. Furthermore, Pnnm possesses the highest hardness (62.3 GPa). Formation enthalpies demonstrate that this material can be synthesized at pressure 10.9 GPa, lower than needed by β-C3N4 (14.1 GPa).

  2. Physiological function of combustion gas and especially that of CN

    Nishimaru, Y.; Tsuda, Y.


    When cyanide is absorbed and enters the blood stream, functions of the oxiginate ferment are suppressed in internal organs and tissues cells. The oxygen in blood is prevented from being consumed. The CN immediately unites with ferments such as cytochrome and interferes with their functions. In examples of death due to cyanide poisoning, cyanide hemoglobin is sometimes detected but it is now thought the CNHb probably does not function as a blood poison. A minute quantity of CN causes stimulation of the central nervous sytem but paralysis occurs immediately after. The respiratory functions are most easily affected, then the vasomotor and convulsion centers. There is evidence that CN also causes myocardial infarction. Research is neaded to determine how much of the damages done by CN, which is more poisonous than CO, is reversible.

  3. Tenser Product of Representation for the Group Cn

    Suha Talib Abdul Rahman,


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to compute the tenser product of representation for the group Cn. Also algorithms designed and implemented in the construction of the main program designated for the determination of the tenser product of representation for the group Cn including a flow-diagram of the main program. Some algorithms are followed by simple examples for illustration.

  4. Astronomical identification of CN-, the smallest observed molecular anion

    Agundez, M; Guelin, M; Kahane, C; Roueff, E; Klos, J; Aoiz, F J; Lique, F; Marcelino, N; Goicoechea, J R; Garcia, M Gonzalez; Gottlieb, C A; McCarthy, M C; Thaddeus, P


    We present the first astronomical detection of a diatomic negative ion, the cyanide anion CN-, as well as quantum mechanical calculations of the excitation of this anion through collisions with para-H2. CN- is identified through the observation of the J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 rotational transitions in the C-star envelope IRC +10216 with the IRAM 30-m telescope. The U-shaped line profiles indicate that CN-, like the large anion C6H-, is formed in the outer regions of the envelope. Chemical and excitation model calculations suggest that this species forms from the reaction of large carbon anions with N atoms, rather than from the radiative attachment of an electron to CN, as is the case for large molecular anions. The unexpectedly large abundance derived for CN-, 0.25 % relative to CN, makes likely its detection in other astronomical sources. A parallel search for the small anion C2H- remains so far unconclusive, despite the previous tentative identification of the J = 1-0 rotational transition. The abundance of C2H...


    Yuan, Tiantian; Kewley, Lisa J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Nanayakkara, Themiya; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Glazebrook, Karl [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Tomczak, Adam R. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Poole, Gregory B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parksville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline M. S. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)


    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a galaxy cluster at z = 2.095 in the COSMOS field. This galaxy cluster was first reported in the ZFOURGE survey as harboring evolved massive galaxies using photometric redshifts derived with deep near-infrared (NIR) medium-band filters. We obtain medium-resolution (R ∼ 3600) NIR spectroscopy with MOSFIRE on the Keck 1 telescope and secure 180 redshifts in a 12' × 12' region. We find a prominent spike of 57 galaxies at z = 2.095 corresponding to the galaxy cluster. The cluster velocity dispersion is measured to be σ{sub v1D}  =  552 ± 52 km s{sup –1}. This is the first study of a galaxy cluster in this redshift range (z ≳ 2.0) with the combination of spectral resolution (∼26 km s{sup –1}) and the number of confirmed members (>50) needed to impose a meaningful constraint on the cluster velocity dispersion and map its members over a large field of view. Our ΛCDM cosmological simulation suggests that this cluster will most likely evolve into a Virgo-like cluster with M {sub vir} = 10{sup 14.4} {sup ±} {sup 0.3} M {sub ☉} (68% confidence) at z ∼ 0. The theoretical probability of finding such a cluster is ∼4%. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of studying galaxy clusters at z > 2 in the same detailed manner using multi-object NIR spectrographs as has been done in the optical in lower-redshift clusters.

  6. Searching for AGN Signatures in HST WFC3/IR Grism Spectra of Clumpy Galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2

    Han, Anna; Schawinski, K.; Simmons, B. D.; Urry, C. M.; Glikman, E.; Bamford, S.; Lintott, C.


    The recent discovery of a "clumpy” galaxy with three actively growing black holes in separate clumps at z = 1.35 raises the possibility of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) forming in situ within gas clouds at later epochs than previously expected. We carry out a systematic search for 0.5 science project. We then analyze the grism data of individual clumps within each galaxy to characterize the probability of SMBHs forming and growing in the clumps of forming disk galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.

  7. Resolving the optical emission lines of Lya blob 'B1' at z=2.38: another hidden quasar

    Overzier, R. A.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Dijkstra, M.; Hatch, N. A.; Lehnert, M.D.; Villar-Martín, M.; Wilman, R. J.; Zirm, A. W.


    We have used the SINFONI near-infrared integral field unit on the VLT to resolve the optical emission line structure of one of the brightest (L~1e44 erg/s) and nearest (z=2.38) of all Lya blobs (LABs). The target, known in the literature as object 'B1' (Francis et al. 1996), lies at a redshift where the main optical emission lines are accessible in the observed near-infrared. We detect luminous [OIII]4959,5007A and Ha emission with a spatial extent of at least 32x40 kpc (4"x5"). The dominant ...

  8. LOFAR VLBI Studies at 55 MHz of 4C 43.15, a z=2.4 Radio Galaxy

    Morabito, Leah K; Röttgering, Huub; Miley, George; Varenius, Eskil; Shimwell, Timothy W; Moldón, Javier; Jackson, Neal; Morganti, Raffaella; van Weeren, Reinout J; Oonk, J B R


    The correlation between radio spectral index and redshift has been exploited to discover high redshift radio galaxies, but its underlying cause is unclear. It is crucial to characterise the particle acceleration and loss mechanisms in high redshift radio galaxies to understand why their radio spectral indices are steeper than their local counterparts. Low frequency information on scales of $\\sim$1 arcsec are necessary to determine the internal spectral index variation. In this paper we present the first spatially resolved studies at frequencies below 100 MHz of the $z = 2.4$ radio galaxy 4C 43.15 which was selected based on its ultra-steep spectral index ($\\alpha < -1$; $S_{\

  9. Large gas reservoirs and free-free emission in two lensed star-forming galaxies at z=2.7

    Aravena, M; Aguirre, J E; Ashby, M L N; Benson, B A; Bothwell, M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; de Breuck, C; Fassnacht, C D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Gullberg, B; Hezaveh, Y; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Keisler, R; Malkan, M; Marrone, D P; McIntyre, V; Reichardt, C L; Sharon, K; Spilker, J S; Stalder, B; Stark, A A; Vieira, J D; Weiss, A


    We report the detection of CO(1-0) line emission in the bright, lensed star-forming galaxies SPT-S 233227-5358.5 (z=2.73) and SPT-S 053816-5030.8 (z=2.78), using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Both galaxies were discovered in a large-area millimeter survey with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and found to be gravitationally lensed by intervening structures. The measured CO intensities imply galaxies with molecular gas masses of (3.2 \\pm 0.5)x10^10 (mu/15)^{-1}(X_CO/0.8) M_sun and (1.7 \\pm 0.3)x10^10 (mu/20)^{-1}(X_CO/0.8) M_sun, and gas depletion timescales of 4.9x10^7 (X_CO/0.8) yr and 2.6x10^7 (X_CO/0.8) yr, respectively, where mu corresponds to the lens magnification and X_CO is the CO luminosity to gas mass conversion factor. In the case of SPT-S 053816-5030.8, we also obtained significant detections of the rest-frame 115.7 and 132.4 GHz radio continuum. Based on the radio to infrared spectral energy distribution and an assumed synchrotron spectral index, we find that 42 \\pm 10 % and 55 \\pm ...

  10. To Stack or Not to Stack: Spectral Energy Distribution Properties of Lya-Emitting Galaxies at z=2.1

    Vargas, Carlos J; Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Finkelstein, Steven L; Ciardullo, Robin; Ashby, Matthew L N; Feldmeier, John; Ferguson, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Guaita, Lucia; Hagen, Alex; Koekemoer, Anton; Kurczynski, Peter; Newman, Jeffrey A; Padilla, Nelson


    We use the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) GOODS-S multi-wavelength catalog to identify counterparts for 20 Lya Emitting (LAE) galaxies at z=2.1. We build several types of stacked Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of these objects. We combine photometry to form average and median flux-stacked SEDs, and postage stamp images to form average and median image-stacked SEDs. We also introduce scaled flux stacks that eliminate the influence of variation in overall brightness. We use the SED fitting code SpeedyMC to constrain the physical properties of individual objects and stacks. Our LAEs at z = 2.1 have stellar masses ranging from 2x10^7 Sollar Masses - 8x10^9 Solar Masses (median = 3x10^8 Solar Masses), ages ranging from 4 Myr to 500 Myr (median =100 Myr), and E(B-V) between 0.02 and 0.24 (median = 0.12). We do not observe strong correlations between Lya equivalent width (EW) and stellar mass, age, or E(B-V). The Lya radiative transfer (q) factors of our sample are pre...

  11. Discovery of strong Iron K{\\alpha} emitting Compton thick quasars at z=2.5 and 2.9

    Feruglio, C; Fiore, F; Alexander, D M; Piconcelli, E; Malacaria, C


    We report the detection of the 6.4 keV Iron K{\\alpha} emission line in two infrared-luminous, massive, star-forming BzK galaxies at z = 2.578 and z = 2.90 in the CDF-S. The Chandra 4 Ms spectra of BzK4892 and BzK8608 show a reflection dominated continuum with strong Iron lines, with rest-frame equivalent widths EW-2.3 keV and 1.2 keV, respectively, demonstrating Compton thick obscuration of the central AGN. For BzK8608 the line identification closely matches the existing photometric redshift derived from the stellar emission. We use the observed luminosities of the Iron K{\\alpha} line, of the rest-frame mid-IR continuum and of the UV rest-frame narrow emission lines to infer intrinsic L(2-10 keV)>1e44 erg/s, about 1.0-2.5 dex larger than the observed ones, hence confirming the presence of an absorber with N(H) > 1e24 cm-2. The two BzK galaxies have stellar masses of 5e10 M\\odot and, based on VLA 1.4 GHz and submm 870{\\mu}m observations, they appear to host vigorous starburst activity with SFR - 300-700 M\\odot...

  12. Enriched halos at redshift $z=2$ with no star-formation: Implications for accretion and wind scenarios

    Bouche, N; Peroux, C; Contini, T; Martin, C L; Schreiber, N M Forster; Genzel, R; Lutz, D; Gillessen, S; Tacconi, L; Davies, R; Eisenhauer, F


    [Abridged] In order to understand which process (e.g. galactic winds, cold accretion) is responsible for the cool (T~10^4 K) halo gas around galaxies, we embarked on a program to study the star-formation properties of galaxies selected by their MgII absorption signature in quasar spectra. Specifically, we searched for the H-alpha line emission from galaxies near very strong z=2 MgII absorbers (with rest-frame equivalent width EW>2 \\AA) because these could be the sign-posts of outflows or inflows. Surprisingly, we detect H-alpha from only 4 hosts out of 20 sight-lines (and 2 out of the 19 HI-selected sight-lines), despite reaching a star-formation rate (SFR) sensitivity limit of 2.9 M/yr (5-sigma) for a Chabrier initial mass function. This low success rate is in contrast with our z=1 survey where we detected 66%\\ (14/21) of the MgII hosts. Taking into account the difference in sensitivity between the two surveys, we should have been able to detect >11.4 of the 20 z=2 hosts whereas we found only 4 galaxies. Int...

  13. Stars, Dust, and the Growth of UV-Selected Sub-L* Galaxies at Redshift z~2

    Sawicki, Marcin


    [Abridged] This work concerns very faint (R_lim=28 AB mag; M_(stars, lim) ~ 10^8 Msun), UV-selected sub-L* BX galaxies at z~2.3. Stellar masses, dust content, and dust-corrected SFRs are constrained using broadband SED fitting, giving insights into the nature of these low-mass systems. First, a correlation found between rest-frame UV luminosity and galaxy stellar mass suggests that many sub-L* galaxies at z~2.3 may have approximately constant star formation histories. A nearly-linear relation between stellar mass and star formation rate is also found, hinting that the rate at which a sub-L* BX galaxy forms its stars is directly related to the mass of stars that it has already formed. A possible explanation is that new gas that falls onto the galaxy's host halo along with accreting dark matter is the source of fuel for ongoing star formation. The instantaneous efficiency of star formation is low in this scenario, of order 1%. The low-mass end of the stellar mass function is steeper than expected from extrapola...

  14. Eddington ratio Distribution of X-ray selected broad-line AGNs at 1.0<z<2.2

    Suh, Hyewon; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D; Schramm, Malte


    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the redshift range 1.0<z<2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/FMOS near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find that a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z~2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the "AGN cosmic downsizing" phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the co-moving number density at the b...

  15. The Evolution of the Optical and Near-Infrared Galaxy Luminosity Functions and Luminosity Densities to z~2

    Dahlen, T; Somerville, R S; Moustakas, L A; Dickinson, M; Ferguson, H C; Giavalisco, M; Dahlen, Tomas; Mobasher, Bahram; Somerville, Rachel S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C.; Giavalisco, Mauro


    Using Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based U through K- band photometry from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), we measure the evolution of the luminosity function and luminosity density in the rest-frame optical (UBR) to z ~ 2, bridging the poorly explored ``redshift desert'' between z~1 and z~2. We also use deep near-infrared observations to measure the evolution in the rest-frame J-band to z~1. Compared to local measurements from the SDSS, we find a brightening of the characteristic magnitude, (M*), by ~2.1, \\~0.8 and ~0.7 mag between z=0.1 and z=1.9, in U, B, and R bands, respectively. The evolution of M* in the J-band is in the opposite sense, showing a dimming between redshifts z=0.4 and z=0.9. This is consistent with a scenario in which the mean star formation rate in galaxies was higher in the past, while the mean stellar mass was lower, in qualitative agreement with hierarchical galaxy formation models. We find that the shape of the luminosity function is strongly dependent on sp...

  16. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of Luminous, Heavily Obscured, WISE-Selected Quasars at z ~ 2

    Stern, D; Assef, R J; Brandt, W N; Alexander, D M; Ballantyne, D R; Balokovic, M; Benford, D; Blain, A; Boggs, S E; Bridge, C; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Del Moro, A; Eisenhardt, P R M; Gandhi, P; Griffith, R; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Hickox, R C; Jarrett, T H; Koss, M; Lake, S; LaMassa, S M; Luo, B; Tsai, C -W; Walton, D J; Wright, E L; Wu, J; Yan, L; Zhang, W W


    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected AGN at z~2 in a broad X-ray band (0.1 - 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4um (W1) and 4.6um (W2) bands but bright at 12um (W3) and 22um (W4), are extremely rare, with only ~1000 so-called W1W2-dropouts across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z~2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of L(6um)~6e46 erg/s and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L(bol)~1e14 L(sun). The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10)~4e45 erg/s for typical quasar templates. These are amongst the most luminous AGN known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5um. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N(H)1e24 /cm2, i...

  17. Physical Properties of Emission-Line Galaxies at z ~ 2 from Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Magellan FIRE

    Masters, Daniel; Siana, Brian; Malkan, Matthew; Mobasher, Bahram; Atek, Hakim; Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L; Rafelski, Marc; Hathi, Nimish P; Scarlata, Claudia; Ross, Nathaniel R; Bunker, Andrew J; Blanc, Guillermo A; Bedregal, Alejandro G; Dominguez, Alberto; Colbert, James; Teplitz, Harry; Dressler, Alan


    We present results from near-infrared spectroscopy of 26 emission-line galaxies at z ~ 2 obtained with the FIRE spectrometer on the Magellan Baade telescope. The sample was selected from the WISP survey, which uses the near-infrared grism of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to detect emission-line galaxies over 0.3 1 star-forming galaxies, but composite spectra derived from the sample do not show an appreciable offset from the local star-forming sequence on the [O III]/H-beta versus [S II]/H-alpha diagram. We infer a high nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio from the composite spectrum, which may contribute to the offset of the high-redshift galaxies from the local star-forming sequence in the [O III]/H-beta versus [N II]/H-alpha diagram. We speculate that the elevated nitrogen abundance could result from substantial numbers of Wolf-Rayet stars in starbursting galaxies at z~2. (Abridged)

  18. The hidden quasar nucleus of a WISE-selected, hyperluminous, dust-obscured galaxy at z ~ 2.3

    Piconcelli, E; Bianchi, S; Zappacosta, L; Fritz, J; Lanzuisi, G; Miniutti, G; Bongiorno, A; Feruglio, C; Fiore, F; Maiolino, R


    We present the first X-ray spectrum of a Hot dust-obscured galaxy (DOG), namely W1835+4355 at z ~ 2.3. Hot DOGs represent a very rare population of hyperluminous (>= 10^47 erg/s), dust-enshrouded objects at z > 2 recently discovered in the WISE All Sky Survey. The 40 ks XMM-Newton spectrum reveals a continuum as flat (Gamma ~ 0.8) as typically seen in heavily obscured AGN. This, along with the presence of strong Fe Kalpha emission, clearly suggests a reflection-dominated spectrum due to Compton-thick absorption. In this scenario, the observed luminosity of L(2-10 keV) ~ 2 x 10^44 erg/s is a fraction (~ 5 x 10^45 erg/s by using several proxies. The Herschel data allow us to constrain the SED up to the sub-mm band, providing a reliable estimate of the quasar contribution (~ 75%) to the IR luminosity as well as the amount of star formation (~ 2100 Msun/yr). Our results thus provide additional pieces of evidence that associate Hot DOGs with an exceptionally dusty phase during which luminous quasars and massive ga...

  19. A High Fraction of Ly-alpha-Emitters Among Galaxies with Extreme Emission Line Ratios at z ~ 2

    Erb, Dawn K; Steidel, Charles C; Strom, Allison L; Rudie, Gwen C; Trainor, Ryan F; Shapley, Alice E; Reddy, Naveen A


    Star-forming galaxies form a sequence in the [OIII]/H-beta vs. [NII]/H-alpha diagnostic diagram, with low metallicity, highly ionized galaxies falling in the upper left corner. Drawing from a large sample of UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z~2 with rest-frame optical nebular emission line measurements from Keck-MOSFIRE, we select the extreme ~5% of the galaxies lying in this upper left corner, requiring log([NII]/H-alpha) = 0.75. These cuts identify galaxies with 12 + log(O/H) 20 A. We compare the equivalent width distribution of a sample of 522 UV-selected galaxies at 2.0<z<2.6 identified without regard to their optical line ratios; this sample has mean (median) Ly-alpha equivalent width -1 (-4) A, and only 9% of these galaxies qualify as LAEs. The extreme galaxies typically have lower attenuation at Ly-alpha than those in the comparison sample, and have ~50% lower median oxygen abundances. Both factors are likely to facilitate the escape of Ly-alpha: in less dusty galaxies Ly-alpha photons are l...

  20. The growth of typical star-forming galaxies and their super massive black holes across cosmic time since z~2

    Calhau, João; Stroe, Andra; Best, Philip; Smail, Ian; Lehmer, Bret; Harrison, Chris; Thomson, Alasdair


    Understanding galaxy formation and evolution requires studying the interplay between the growth of galaxies and the growth of their black holes across cosmic time. Here we explore a sample of Ha-selected star-forming galaxies from the HiZELS survey and use the wealth of multi-wavelength data in the COSMOS field (X-rays, far-infrared and radio) to study the relative growth rates between typical galaxies and their central supermassive black holes, from z=2.23 to z=0. Typical star-forming galaxies at z~1-2 have black hole accretion rates (BHARs) of 0.001-0.01 Msun/yr and star formation rates (SFRs) of ~10-40 Msun/yr, and thus grow their stellar mass much quicker than their black hole mass (~3.3 orders of magnitude faster). However, ~3% of the sample (the sources detected directly in the X-rays) show a significantly quicker growth of the black hole mass (up to 1.5 orders of magnitude quicker growth than the typical sources). BHARs fall from z=2.23 to z=0, with the decline resembling that of star formation rate de...

  1. Exploring X-ray and radio emission of type 1 AGN up to z ~ 2.3

    Ballo, L; Barcons, X; Carrera, F J


    X-ray emission from AGN is dominated by the accretion disk around a SMBH. The radio luminosity, however, has not such a clear origin except in the most powerful sources where jets are evident. The origin (and even the very existence) of the local bi-modal distribution in radioloudness is also a debated issue. By analysing X-ray, optical and radio properties of a large sample of type 1 AGN up to z>2, where the bulk of this population resides, we aim to explore the interplay between radio and X-ray emission in AGN, in order to further our knowledge on the origin of radio emission, and its relation to accretion. We analyse a large (~800 sources) sample of type 1 AGN and QSOs selected from the 2XMMi X-ray source catalogue, cross-correlated with the SDSS DR7 spectroscopic catalogue, covering a redshift range from z~0.3 to z~2.3. SMBH masses are estimated from the Mg II emission line, bolometric luminosities from the X-ray data, and radio emission or upper limits from the FIRST catalogue. Most of the sources accret...

  2. MOSFIRE Spectroscopy of Quiescent Galaxies at 1.5 < z < 2.5. I - Evolution of Structural and Dynamical Properties

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S


    We present deep near-infrared spectra for a sample of 24 quiescent galaxies in the redshift range 1.5 < z < 2.5 obtained with the MOSFIRE spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. In conjunction with a similar dataset we obtained in the range 1 < z < 1.5 with the LRIS spectrograph, we analyze the kinematic and structural properties for 80 quiescent galaxies, the largest homogeneously-selected sample to date spanning 3 Gyr of early cosmic history. Analysis of our Keck spectra together with measurements derived from associated HST images reveals increasingly larger stellar velocity dispersions and smaller sizes to redshifts beyond z~2. By classifying our sample according to Sersic indices, we find that among disk-like systems the flatter ones show a higher dynamical to stellar mass ratio compared to their rounder counterparts which we interpret as evidence for a significant contribution of rotational motion. For this subset of disk-like systems, we estimate that V/sigma, the ratio of the circular ...

  3. Low temperature synthesis of SiCN nanostructures


    Silicon carbon nitride (SiCN) nanowires, nanorods and nanotubes have gained much attention due to their excellent field emission and photoluminescence properties. These nanostructures were usually grown using catalysts at high temperature (800―1000℃). In this paper, synthesis of SiCN nanostruc-tures at a temperature less than 500℃ is reported. Various kinds of SiCN nanostructures were synthe-sized using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method. Gas mixtures of CH4, H2 and N2 were used as precursors and Si chips were inserted in the sample holder at symmetrical positions around the specimen as additional Si sources. Metallic gallium was used as the liquid medium in a mechanism similar to vapor-liquid-solid. Morphologies of the resultant were characterized by field emission scan-ning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize their compositions and bonding states.

  4. Low temperature synthesis of SiCN nanostructures

    CHENG Wen Juan; MA XueMing


    Silicon carbon nitride (SiCN) nanowires, nanorods and nanotubes have gained much attention due to their excellent field emission and photoluminescence properties. These nanostructures were usually grown using catalysts at high temperature (800-1000℃). In this paper, synthesis of SiCN nanostruc-tures at a temperature less than 500℃ is reported. Various kinds of SiCN nanostructures were synthe-sized using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method. Gas mixtures of CH4, H2 and N2 were used as precursors and Si chips were inserted in the sample holder at symmetrical positions around the specimen as additional Si sources. Metallic gallium was used as the liquid medium in a mechanism similar to vapor-liquid-solid. Morphologies of the resultant were characterized by field emission scan-ning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize their compositions and bonding states.

  5. On Levi-flat hypersurfaces with given boundary in Cn

    Pierre DOLBEAULT


    Let S Cn be a compact connected 2-codimensional submanifold.If n ≥ 3,essentially local conditions and the assumption: every complex point of S is elliptic imply the existence of a projection in Cn of a Levi-flat (2n - 1)-subvariety whose boundary is S (Dolbeault,Tomassini,Zaitsev,2005).We extend the result when S is homeomorphic to a sphere and has one hyperbolic point.For n = 2 many results are known since the 1980's and a new result with a very technical hypothesis is announced.

  6. Hamiltonian truncation study of the ϕ4 theory in two dimensions. II. The Z2 -broken phase and the Chang duality

    Rychkov, Slava; Vitale, Lorenzo G.


    The Fock-space Hamiltonian truncation method is developed further, paying particular attention to the treatment of the scalar field zero mode. This is applied to the two-dimensional ϕ4 theory in the phase where the Z2 -symmetry is spontaneously broken, complementing our earlier study of the Z2 -invariant phase and of the critical point. We also check numerically the weak/strong duality of this theory discussed long ago by Chang.

  7. Hubble/COS Observations of the Quasar HE 2347-4342: Probing the Epoch of He II Patchy Reionization at Redshifts z = 2.4-2.9

    Shull, Michael; Danforth, Charles; Smith, Britton; Tumlinson, Jason


    We report ultraviolet spectra of the high-redshift (z_em = 2.9) quasar, HE 2347-4342, taken by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Spectra in the G130M (medium-resolution, 1135-1440 A) and G140L (low-resolution, 1030-2000 A) gratings exhibit patchy Gunn-Peterson absorption in the 303.78 A (Ly-alpha) line of He II between z = 2.39-2.87 (G140L) and z = 2.74-2.90 (G130M). With COS, we obtain better spectral resolution, higher-S/N, and better determined backgrounds than previous studies, with sensitivity to abundance fractions x_HeII = 0.01 in filaments of the cosmic web. The He II optical depths from COS are higher than those with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and range from tau_HeII 5, with a slow recovery in mean optical depth, tau < 2 at z < 2.7. The He II/H I optical-depth ratio varies (eta = 10-100 for 2.4 < z < 2.73 and eta = 5-500 for 2.75 < z < 2.89) on scales Delta z < 0.01 (10.8 Mpc in comoving radial distance at z = 2.8),...

  8. Structural characterisation of [Pt(NH 3) 4] 2[W(CN) 8][NO 3]·2H 2O donor-acceptor complex

    Sieklucka, B.; Łasocha, W.; Proniewicz, L. M.; Podgajny, R.; Schenk, H.


    The bimetallic [Pt(NH 3) 4] 2[W(CN) 8][NO 3]·2H 2O is characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction [S.G. P2 1/ m(11), a=8.0418(7), b=19.122(2), c=9.0812(6) Å, Z=2]. All platinum centres have the square-plane D4h geometry with average dimensions Pt(1)-N 2.042(2) and Pt(2)-N 2.037(10) Å. The octacyanotungstate anion has the square-antiprismatic D4d configuration with average dimensions W(1)-C 2.164(13), C-N 1.140(12), W(1)-N 3.303(5) Å. The structure exhibits two different mutual orientations of Pt versus W units resulting in Pt(2)-W(1), W(1) ∗ separations of 4.77(2), 4.55(2) ∗ and Pt(1)-W(1) of 6.331(8) Å. A centrosymmetric structure reveals groups of two distinct columns: the first is formed by intercalated NO 3- between parallel [Pt(1)(NH 3) 4] 2+ planes and the second consists of [W(CN) 8] 3- interlayered by, parallel to square faces of W-antiprisms, [Pt(2)(NH 3) 4] 2+. The structure is stabilised through a three-dimensional hydrogen bond network via nitrogen atoms of cyanide ligands, hydrogen atoms of NH 3 ligands, water molecules and oxygen atoms of NO 3- counteranions. The vibrational pattern and the range of ν(CN) frequencies attributable to the electronic environment of W(V) and W(IV) are consistent with the ground state Pt(II)↔W(V) charge transfer.

  9. Anion-π recognition between [M(CN)6](3-) complexes and HAT(CN)6: structural matching and electronic charge density modification.

    Kobylarczyk, Jedrzej; Pinkowicz, Dawid; Srebro-Hooper, Monika; Hooper, James; Podgajny, Robert


    Hexacyanidometalates (M = Fe(III), Co(III)) and multisite anion receptor HAT(CN)6 (1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile) recognize each other in acetonitrile solution and self-assemble into the novel molecular networks (PPh4)3[M(CN)6][HAT(CN)6] (M = Fe, 1; Co, 2) and (AsPh4)3[M(CN)6][HAT(CN)6]·2MeCN·H2O (M = Fe, 3; Co, 4). 1-4 contain the stacked columns {[M(CN)6](3-);[HAT(CN)6]}∞ separated by the organic cations. All of the M-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]N vectors point collectively towards the centroids of pyrazine rings on neighboring HAT(CN)6 molecules, with Ncyanidecentroidpyrazine distances that are under 3 Å. The directional character and structural parameters of the new supramolecular synthons correspond to collective triple anion-π interactions between the CN(-) ligands of the metal complexes and the π-deficient areas of HAT(CN)6. Physicochemical characterisation (IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry) and dispersion-corrected DFT studies reveal the dominating charge-transfer (CT) and polarisation characters of the interactions. The electronic density flow occurs from the CN(-) ligands of [M(CN)6](3-) to the HAT(CN)6 orbital systems and further, toward the peripheral -CN groups of HAT(CN)6. Solid-state DFT calculations determined the total interaction energy of HAT(CN)6 to be ca. -125 kcal mol(-1), which gives ca. -15 kcal mol(-1) per one CN(-)HAT(CN)6 contact after subtraction of the interaction with organic cations. The UV-Vis electronic absorption measurements prove that the intermolecular interactions persist in solution and suggest a 1 : 1 composition of the anion-π {[M(CN)6](3-);[HAT(CN)6]} chromophore, with the formation constant Kadd = (5.8 ± 6) × 10(2) dm(3) mol(-1) and the molar absorption coefficient εadd = 180 ± 9 cm(-1) dm(3) mol(-1) at 600 nm, as estimated from concentration-dependent studies.

  10. CN and HCN in the infrared spectrum of IRC + 10216

    Wiedemann, G. R.; Deming, D.; Jennings, D. E.; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Keady, John J.


    The abundance of HCN in the inner circumstellar shell of IRC + 10216 has been remeasured using the 12-micron nu2 band. The 12-micron lines are less saturated than HCN 3-micron lines previously detected in the spectrum of IRC + 10216. The observed 12-micron HCN line is formed in the circumstellar shell from about 4 to 12 R sub * in accord with a photospheric origin for HCN. The derived HCN abundance in the 4 to 12 R sub* region is 4 x 10 exp-5 and the column density is 7 x 10 exp 18/sq cm. The 5-micron CN vibration-rotation fundamental band was detected for the first time in an astronomical source. Using four CN lines, the CN column density was determined to be 2.6 x 10 exp 15/sq cm and the rotational temperature to be 8 +/-2 K. The peal radial abundance is 1 x 10 exp -5. The values for the temperature and abundance are in good agreement with microwave results and with the formation of CN from the photolysis of HCN.

  11. EST Table: CN378859 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available unit 1 [Semaeopus sp. illimitataDHJ02] 10/09/01 57 %/198 aa FBpp0100176|mt:CoI-PA 10/08/28 44 %/198 aa MTCE....CN378859 rzhswbb0_005540 10/09/28 63 %/198 aa gb|ADE49659.1| cytochrome oxidase sub

  12. Tribochemical effects on CN{sub x} films

    Sanchez-Lopez, J.C.; Donnet, C.; Belin, M.; Le Mogne, T. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully (France). Lab. de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systemes; Fernandez-Ramos, C.; Sayagues, M.J.; Fernandez, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla and Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas ' Isla de la Cartuja' , Avda. Americo Vespucio s/n, 41092, Seville (Spain)


    CN{sub x} thin coatings have been deposited by dc magnetron sputtering using a graphite target in nitrogen atmosphere under different experimental conditions. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron-energy loss spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the structural chemistry of each film. The tribological behavior has been investigated using a reciprocating pin-on-flat tribometer in a wide range of environmental conditions: ambient air, dry air and nitrogen. Tribochemical effects in relation to the nature of the surrounding atmosphere during friction tests are presented. Strong relationships between the N/C ratio, the nature of C-N bonds and the friction behavior are highlighted and discussed. An optimum in the friction and wear properties was found for a maximum in the C=N/C=C ratio for the studied set of CN{sub x} samples. The XPS/AES analysis of the sliding counterfaces support a destabilization of the CN{sub x} network under friction and build-up of a carbon rich tribolayer under steady-state. (orig.)

  13. EST Table: CN211792 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN211792 rzhswab0_001730 10/09/28 98 %/163 aa ref|NP_001037358.2| time interval measuring... enzyme-esterase A4 [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAF34334.1| time interval measuring enzyme TIME [Bombyx mori] 10

  14. EST Table: CN212111 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN212111 rzhswab0_002624 10/09/28 60 %/172 aa ref|NP_001119705.1| transformer 2 iso...form A [Bombyx mori] gb|AAT42220.2| transformer-2 protein A [Bombyx mori] 10/09/01 low homology 10/08/28 low

  15. Multiplier theorems for special Hermite expansions on Cn


    The weak type (1,1) estimate for special Hermite expansions on Cn is proved by using the Calderón-Zygmund decomposition. Then the multiplier theorem in Lp(1

  16. EST Table: CN211786 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN211786 rzhswab0_006460 10/09/28 46 %/130 aa ref|XP_002430772.1| tyrosine-protein phosphatase corkscrew..., putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB18034.1| tyrosine-protein phosphatase corkscrew

  17. EST Table: CN211900 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN211900 rzhswab0_002080 10/09/28 88 %/197 aa ref|NP_001093316.1| adiponectin recep...tor [Bombyx mori] gb|ABK57116.2| adiponectin receptor [Bombyx mori] 10/09/01 73 %/197 aa FBpp0151302|DgriGH1

  18. EST Table: CN377181 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN377181 rzhswab0_002909 10/09/28 68 %/161 aa ref|XP_002405324.1| cargo transport p...rotein EMP24, putative [Ixodes scapularis] gb|EEC01376.1| cargo transport protein EMP24, putative [Ixodes sc

  19. EST Table: CN212051 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN212051 rzhswab0_006854 10/09/28 38 %/155 aa ref|XP_975114.2| PREDICTED: similar to almond...l|GB17827-PA 10/09/10 38 %/155 aa gi|189239453|ref|XP_975114.2| PREDICTED: similar to almondex CG12127-PA [Tribolium castaneum] FS916326 L12 ...

  20. EST Table: CN379387 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN379387 rzhswbb0_004120 10/09/28 99 %/113 aa gb|ADB13006.1| elongation factor-1 alpha [Colias pelidne skinn...eri] 10/09/01 95 %/113 aa FBpp0257399|DyakGE12389-PA 10/08/28 77 %/113 aa R03G5.1d#

  1. Multidegrees of tame automorphisms of C^n

    Karaś, Marek


    Let F=(F_1,...,F_n):C^n --> C^n be a polynomial mapping. By the multidegree of the mapping F we mean mdeg F=(deg F_1,...,deg F_n), an element of N^n. The aim of this paper is to study the following problem (especially for n=3): for which sequence (d_1,...,d_n) in N^n there is a tame automorphism F of C^n such that mdeg F=(d_1,...,d_n). In other words we investigate the set mdeg(Tame(C^n)), where Tame(C^n) denotes the group of tame automorphisms of C^n and mdeg denotes the mapping from the set of polynomial endomorphisms of C^n into the set N^n. Since for all permutation s of {1,...,n} we have (d_1,...,d_n) is in mdeg(Tame(C^n)) if and only if (d_s(1),...,d_s(n)) is in mdeg(Tame(C^n)) we may focus on the set mdeg(Tame(C^n)) intersected with {(d_1,...,d_n) : d_1<=...<=d_n}. In the paper, among other things, we give complete description of the sets: mdeg(Tame(C^n)) intersected with {(3,d_2,d_3):3<=d_2<=d_3}}, mdeg(Tame(C^n)) intersected with {(5,d_2,d_3):5<=d_2<=d_3}}, In the examination of the...

  2. EST Table: CN211963 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN211963 rzhswbb0_006380 10/09/28 100 %/136 aa ref|NP_001040402.1| preimplantation ...protein [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51322.1| preimplantation protein [Bombyx mori] 10/09/01 87 %/137 aa FBpp0116991|

  3. EST Table: CN376089 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN376089 rzhswbb0_006450 10/09/28 71 %/211 aa ref|NP_001040121.1| endothelial-monocyte... activating polypeptide II [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36113.1| endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II [B

  4. EST Table: CN376087 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN376087 rzhswab0_001294 10/09/28 68 %/207 aa ref|NP_001040121.1| endothelial-monocyte... activating polypeptide II [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36113.1| endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II [B

  5. EST Table: CN374995 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN374995 rzhswab0_002423 10/09/28 71 %/171 aa ref|XP_970542.1| PREDICTED: similar to brix...26-PA 10/09/10 71 %/171 aa gi|91090402|ref|XP_970542.1| PREDICTED: similar to brix domain-containing protein 2 [Tribolium castaneum] FS911686 L12 ...

  6. EST Table: CN374994 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN374994 rzhswab0_003238 10/09/28 72 %/191 aa ref|XP_970542.1| PREDICTED: similar to brix...26-PA 10/09/10 72 %/191 aa gi|91090402|ref|XP_970542.1| PREDICTED: similar to brix domain-containing protein 2 [Tribolium castaneum] FS911686 L12 ...

  7. SPIFFI observations of the starburst SMMJ14011+0252: Already old, fat, and rich by z = 2.565

    Tecza, M; Davies, R I; Genzel, R; Lehnert, M D; Eisenhauer, F; Lutz, D; Nesvadba, N; Seitz, S; Tacconi, L J; Thatte, N A; Abuter, R; Bender, R


    Using the SPectrometer for Infrared Faint Field Imaging (SPIFFI) on the ESO VLT, we have obtained J, H, and K band integral field spectroscopy of the z = 2.565 luminous submillimeter galaxy SMMJ14011+0252. A global spectrum reveals the brighter of this spatially resolved system's two components as an intense starburst that is remarkably old, massive, and metal-rich for the early epoch at which it is observed. We see a strong Balmer break implying a > 100 Myr timescale for continuous star formation, as well as nebular emission line ratios implying a supersolar oxygen abundance on large spatial scales. Overall, the system is rapidly converting a large baryonic mass into stars over the course of only a few hundred Myr. Our study thus adds new arguments to the growing evidence that submillimeter galaxies are more massive than Lyman break galaxies, and more numerous at high redshift than predicted by current semi-analytic models of galaxy evolution.

  8. No Evolution in the IR-Radio Relation for IR-Luminous Galaxies at z<2 in the COSMOS Field

    Sargent, Mark T; Murphy, E; Carilli, C L; Helou, G; Aussel, H; Le Floc'h, E; Frayer, D T; Ilbert, O; Oesch, P; Salvato, M; Smolcic, V; Kartaltepe, J; Sanders, D B


    Previous observational studies of the infrared (IR)-radio relation out to high redshift employed any detectable star forming systems at a given redshift within the restricted area of cosmological survey fields. Consequently, the evolution inferred relies on a comparison between the average IR/radio properties of (i) very IR-luminous high-z sources and (ii) more heterogeneous low(er)-z samples that often lack the strongest IR emitters. In this report we consider populations of objects with comparable luminosities over the last 10 Gyr by taking advantage of deep IR (esp. Spitzer 24 micron) and VLA 1.4 GHz observations of the COSMOS field. Consistent with recent model predictions, both Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) and galaxies on the bright end of the evolving IR luminosity function do not display any change in their average IR/radio ratios out to z~2 when corrected for bias. Uncorrected data suggested ~0.3 dex of positive evolution.

  9. Physical properties of simulated galaxy populations at z=2 -- II. Effects of physics ingredients other than cooling and outflows

    Haas, Marcel R; Booth, C M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Springel, Volker; Theuns, Tom; Wiersma, Robert P C


    We use hydrodynamical simulations from the OWLS project to investigate the dependence of the physical properties of galaxy populations at redshift 2 on the assumed star formation law, the equation of state imposed on the unresolved interstellar medium, the stellar initial mass function, the reionization history, and the assumed cosmology. This work complements that of Paper I, where we studied the effects of varying models for galactic winds driven by star formation and AGN. The normalisation of the matter power spectrum strongly affects the galaxy mass function, but has a relatively small effect on the physical properties of galaxies residing in haloes of a fixed mass. Reionization suppresses the stellar masses and gas fractions of low-mass galaxies, but by z = 2 the results are insensitive to the timing of reionization. The stellar initial mass function mainly determines the physical properties of galaxies through its effect on the efficiency of the feedback, while changes in the recycled mass and metal fra...

  10. Errata: A Wide-Field Multicolor Survey for High-Redshift Quasars, Z >= 2.2. III. The Luminosity Function

    Warren, Stephen J.; Hewett, Paul C.; Osmer, Patrick S.


    In the paper "A Wide-Field Multicolor Survey for High-Redshift Quasars, z >= 2.2. III. The Luminosity Function" by Stephen. Warren, Paul C. Hewett and Patrick S. Osmer (ApJ, 421,412 [1994]), two equations should be corrected: On page 419, column one, line 11, the expression following the words "the error,, should have an opening parenthesis just before the integral sign, to read: [{SIGMA} 1/({integral} ρ(z)dV_a_)^2^]^1/2^. On page 421, equation (15) is missing the asterisk (*) in the M_c_^*^ term just prior to (β + 1); that is, the exponent in the second term the denominator should read: 0.4(M_c_ - M_c_^*^)(β + 1). The authors wish to draw these errors to the attention of any readers who will be using the expression and equation.

  11. Directly imaging damped Ly-alpha galaxies at z>2. II: Imaging and spectroscopic observations of 32 quasar fields

    Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J Xavier; Kanekar, Nissim; Wolfe, Arthur M


    Damped Ly-alpha absorbers (DLAs) are a well-studied class of absorption line systems, and yet the properties of their host galaxies remain largely unknown. To investigate the origin of these systems, we have conducted an imaging survey of 32 quasar fields with intervening DLAs between z~1.9-3.8, leveraging a technique that allows us to image galaxies at any small angular separation from the background quasars. In this paper, we present the properties of the targeted DLA sample, new imaging observations of the quasar fields, and the analysis of new and archival spectra of the background quasars. In a companion paper we use these data to obtain an unbiased census of the DLA host galaxy population(s) and to directly measure the in-situ star formation rates of gas-rich galaxies at z>2.

  12. Z2 topological liquid of hard-core bosons on a kagome lattice at 1 /3 filling

    Roychowdhury, Krishanu; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank


    We consider hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice in the presence of short-range repulsive interactions and focus particularly on the filling factor 1 /3 . In the strongly interacting limit, the low-energy excitations can be described by the quantum fully packed loop coverings on the triangular lattice. Using a combination of tensor product state based methods and exact diagonalization techniques, we show that the system has an extended Z2 topological liquid phase as well as a latti ce nematic phase. The latter breaks lattice rotational symmetry. By tuning appropriate parameters in the model, we study the quantum phase transition between the topological and the symmetry broken phases. We construct the critical theory for this transition using a mapping to an Ising gauge theory that predicts the transition to belong to the O (3 ) universality class.

  13. Clusters of Galaxies at 1 < z < 2 The Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey

    Wilson, G; Lacy, M; Yee, H; Surace, J; Lonsdale, C; Hoekstra, H; Majumdar, S; Gilbank, D; Gladders, M; Wilson, Gillian; Muzzin, Adam; Lacy, Mark; Yee, Howard; Surace, Jason; Lonsdale, Carol; Hoekstra, Henk; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Gilbank, David


    As the densest galaxy environments in the universe, clusters are vital to our understanding of the role that environment plays in galaxy formation and evolution. Unfortunately, the evolution of high-redshift cluster galaxies is poorly understood because of the ``cluster desert'' that exists at 1 2 to the quiescent population at z < 1. The existing seven-passband Spitzer data (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, 160 micron) will allow us to make the first measurements of the evolution of the cluster red-sequence, IR luminosity function, and the mid-IR dust-obscured star-formation rate for 1 < z < 2 clusters.

  14. Star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2: a major science case for the EMIR/GOYA survey on GTC

    Contini, T; Pellò, R; Le Borgne, J F; Kneib, J P


    We present the first results of a project aiming to derive the physical properties of high-redshift lensed galaxies, intrinsically fainter than the Lyman break galaxies currently observed in the field. From FORS and ISAAC spectroscopy on the VLT, we use the full rest-frame UV-to-optical range to derive the physical properties (SFR, extinction, chemical abundances, dynamics, mass, etc) of low-luminosity z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies. Although the sample is still too small for statistical studies, these results give an insight into the nature and evolutionary status of distant star-forming objects and their link with present-day galaxies. Such a project will serve as a basis for the scientific analysis of the EMIR/GOYA survey on the GTC.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10004 - 2-Butenoic acid, 4,4′-[(dibutylstannylene)bis(oxy)]bis[4-oxo-, (2Z,2′Z)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl...


    ...-, (2Z,2′Z)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl esters, C9-rich. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-butenoic acid, 4,4′- bis[4-oxo-, (2Z,2Z...-, (2Z,2â²Z)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl esters, C9-rich. 721.10004 Section 721.10004 Protection of Environment...


    Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hayashi, Masao; Koyama, Yusei; Hatsukade, Bunyo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Suzuki, Kenta [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Shimakawa, Rhythm [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Ichi, E-mail: [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)


    Gas-rich major mergers in high-redshift proto-clusters are important events, perhaps leading to the creation of the slowly rotating remnants seen in the cores of clusters in the present day. Here, we present a deep Jansky Very Large Array observation of CO J = 1-0 emission line in a proto-cluster at z = 2.5, USS1558-003. The target field is an extremely dense region, where 20 Hα emitters (HAEs) are clustering. We have successfully detected the CO emission line from three HAEs and discovered a close pair of red and blue CO-emitting HAEs. Given their close proximity (∼30 kpc), small velocity offset (∼300 km s{sup –1}), and similar stellar masses, they could be in the early phase of a gas-rich major merger. For the red HAE, we derive a total infrared luminosity of L {sub IR} = 5.1 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} using MIPS 24 μm and radio continuum images. The L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} ratio is significantly enhanced compared to local spirals and high-redshift disks with a similar CO luminosity, which is indicative of a starburst mode. We find the gas depletion timescale is shorter than that of normal star-forming galaxies regardless of adopted CO-H{sub 2} conversion factors. The identification of such a rare event suggests that gas-rich major mergers frequently take place in proto-clusters at z > 2 and may involve the formation processes of slow rotators seen in local massive clusters.

  17. Classical Exchange Algebra of the Nonlinear Sigma Model on a Supercoset Target with Z2n Grading

    KE San-Min; LI Xin-Ying; WANG Chun; YUE Rui-Hong


    The classical exchange algebra satisfied by the monodromy matrix of the nonlinear sigma model on a supercoset target with Z2n grading is derived using a first-order Hamiltonian formulation and by adding to the Lax connection terms proportional to constraints. This enables us to show that the conserved charges of the theory are in involution. When n = 2, our results coincide with the results given by Magro for the pure spinor description of AdS5 × S5 string theory (when the ghost terms are omitted).%The classical exchange algebra satisfied by the monodromy matrix of the nonlinear sigma model on a supercoset target with Z2n grading is derived using a first-order Hamiltonian formulation and by adding to the Lax connection terms proportional to constraints.This enables us to show that the conserved charges of the theory are in involution.When n =2,our results coincide with the results given by Magro for the pure spinor description of AdS5 × S5 string theory (when the ghost terms are omitted).Bena,Polchinski and Roiban[1] found an infinite number of non-local classically conserved charges for the Grecn-Schwarz superstring in AdS5 × S5 background.[2] Similar results were obtained for some other strings[3-9] that propagate in AdS space-time,as discussed in Refs.[7 9].Vallilo[10] showed that such charges also exist in the pure-spinor formalism of the superstring in AdS5 × S5.Bianchi and Klǔson[11] gave the current algebra of the pure-spinor superstring.Berkovits[12] proved that the nonlocal charges in the string theory are BRST-invariant and physical.

  18. Structural transition induced by charge-transfer in RbMn[Fe(CN) sub 6]. Investigation by synchrotron-radiation X-ray powder analysis

    Moritomo, Y; Sakata, M; Kato, K; Kuriki, A; Tokoro, H; Ohkoshi, S I; Hashimoto, K


    Temperature dependence of atomic coordinates is determined for RbMn[Fe(CN) sub 6] by means of synchrotron-radiation (SR) X-ray powder structural analysis. We observed a structural transition from the cubic (F4-bar3m; Z=4) to the tetragonal (I4-barm2; Z=2) phase at approx. =210K in the cooling run and at approx. =300K in the warming run. In the low-temperature tetragonal phase, we found Jahn-Tellar type distortion of the MnN sub 6 octahedra and compression of the averaged Fe-C bond distance. These structural data suggest that the structural transition is triggered by the inter-metallic charge-transfer from the Mn(II) site to the Fe(III) site.


    Liu Xiaosong; Liu Taishun


    In this article,first,a sufficient condition for a starlike mapping of order α f(x) defined on the unit ball in a complex Banach space is given. Second,the sharp estimate of the third homogeneous expansion for f is established as well,where f(z) =(f1(z),f2(z),…,fn(z))' is a starlike mapping of order α or a normalized biholomorphic starlike mapping defined on the unit polydisk in Cn,and D2fk(0)(z2)/2 =zk(nΣl=1 aklzl),k =1,2,…,n,here,akl =1/2!(6)2fk(0)/(6)zk(6)zl,k,l==1,2,…,n.Our result states that the Bieberbach conjecture in several complex variables (the case of the third homogeneous expansion for starlike mappings of order α and biholomorphic starlike mappings) is partly proved.

  20. The Pattern of CN, O, and Na Inhomogeneities on the Red Giant Branch of Messier 5

    Smith, Graeme H; Hamren, Katherine M


    Data from the literature are used to explore the relation between $\\lambda$3883 CN band strength and the sodium and oxygen abundances of red giants in the globular cluster Messier 5. Although there is a broad tendency for CN-strong giants in this cluster to have higher sodium abundances and lower oxygen abundances than CN-weak giants of comparable absolute magnitude there are some secondary features in these relations. The oxygen abundance [O/Fe] shows a greater range (0.6-0.7 dex) among the CN-strong giants than the CN-weak giants (approximately 0.3 dex). By contrast [Na/Fe] shows a 0.6-0.7 dex range among the CN-weak giants, but a more limited range of 0.3-0.4 dex among the CN-strong giants. The $\\lambda$3883 CN band anticorrelates in strength with [O/Fe] among the CN-strong giants, but there is little, if any, such trend among the CN-weak giants. In contrast, the CN band strength may show a modest correlation with [Na/Fe] among the CN-weak giants, but there is little evidence for such among the CN-strong g...

  1. The galaxy UV luminosity function at z ~ 2 - 4; new results on faint-end slope and the evolution of luminosity density

    Parsa, Shaghayegh; McLure, Ross J; Mortlock, Alice


    We present a new, robust measurement of the evolving rest-frame UV galaxy luminosity function (LF) over the key redshift range z = 2 - 4. Our results are based on the high dynamic range provided by combining the HUDF, CANDELS/GOODS-South, and UltraVISTA/COSMOS surveys. We utilise the unparalleled multi-frequency photometry available in this survey `wedding cake' to compile complete galaxy samples at z ~ 2,3,4 via photometric redshifts (calibrated against the latest spectroscopy) rather than colour-colour selection, and to determine accurate rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes from SED fitting. Our new determinations of the UV LF extend from M_{1500} ~ -22 down to M_{1500} = -14.5, -15.5 and -16 at z ~ 2, 3 and 4 respectively (thus reaching ~ 3 - 4 magnitudes fainter than previous blank-field studies at z ~ 2 - 3). At z ~ 2 - 3 we find a much shallower faint-end slope (alpha = -1.32 +- 0.03) than the steeper values (alpha ~ -1.7) reported by Reddy & Steidel (2009) or by Alavi et al. (2014), and show that thi...

  2. Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64-体系阳极过程的电化学Peltier热%Electrochemical Peltier heats of anodic process for Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- system

    杨中发; 方正; 王少芬; 张正华


    The thermo-electrochemical technique was applied to study the electrochemical Peltier heat of electrode reaction. In this experiment, a precision system for thermo-electrochemical measurements with controlled temperature of ±0.001 K was set up, which consists of SRC-100 solution isoperibol calorimeter and an electrochemical workstation. A thermo-sensitive resistor was directly attached to the surface of working electrode to measure the change in potential signal due to temperature change of electrode. The curves of the electrode potential and temperature change against time for equal molar ratio of Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- couple with 5 sets of different concentrations were obtained under the condition of various constant-current polarizations. Using the thermo-electrochemical method for data-processing, the electrochemical Peltier heat of anodic process of Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- couple under various concentrations at 298.15 K are determined as 41.51 kJ/mol (0.075 mol/L), 43.48 kJ/mol (0. 10 mol/L), 46.95 kJ/mol(0.15 mol/L), 50.77 kJ/mol(0.20 mol/L)and 54.81 kJ/mol(0.25 mol/L), respectively. The entropy change derived from these Peltier heat for the standard hydrogen electrode on absolute scale at this temperature is also given.%采用热电化学方法测定电极反应电化学Peltier热.实验中将高灵敏度热敏电阻紧贴于工作电极表面,结合SRC-100溶解-反应量热仪与电化学工作站组装成高精度热电化学测试系统,其控温精度达±0.001K.运用该测试系统分别对5个不同浓度等物质的量比的Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64-体系阳极过程进行恒电流极化,得到该电极反应电极电势和温度变化与时间的关系曲线,运用热电化学方程,得到298.15K时Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64-体系阳极过程电化学Peltier热,分别为41.51 kJ/mol(0.075 mol/L),43.48 kJ/mol(0.10 mol/L),46.95 kJ/mol(0.15 mol/L),50.77kJ/mol(0.20 mol/L)和54.81 kJ/mol(0.25 mol/L),由此获得该温度下的标准氢电极反应在绝对标度下的熵变.

  3. Role of calcineurin (CN) in kidney glomerular podocyte: CN inhibitor ameliorated proteinuria by inhibiting the redistribution of CN at the slit diaphragm.

    Wakamatsu, Ayako; Fukusumi, Yoshiyasu; Hasegawa, Eriko; Tomita, Masayuki; Watanabe, Toru; Narita, Ichiei; Kawachi, Hiroshi


    Although calcineurin (CN) is distributed in many cell types and functions in regulating cell functions, the precise roles ofCNremained in each type of the cells are not well understood yet. ACNinhibitor (CNI) has been used for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. ACNIis assumed to ameliorate proteinuria by preventing the overproduction of T-cell cytokines. However, recent reports suggest thatCNIhas a direct effect on podocyte. It is accepted that a slit diaphragm (SD), a unique cell-cell junction of podocytes, is a critical barrier preventing a leak of plasma protein into urine. Therefore, we hypothesized thatCNIhas an effect on theSD In this study, we analyzed the expression ofCNin physiological and in the nephrotic model caused by the antibody against nephrin, a critical component of theSD We observed thatCNis expressed at theSDin normal rat and human kidney sections and has an interaction with nephrin. The staining ofCNat theSDwas reduced in the nephrotic model, whileCNactivity in glomeruli was increased. We also observed that the treatment with tacrolimus, aCNI, in this nephrotic model suppressed the redistribution ofCN, nephrin, and otherSDcomponents and ameliorated proteinuria. These observations suggested that the redistribution and the activation ofCNmay participate in the development of theSDinjury. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  4. EST Table: CN375272 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN375272 rzhswab0_005622 10/09/28 83 %/190 aa ref|XP_001651215.1| vitellogenin, put...ative [Aedes aegypti] gb|EAT42854.1| vitellogenin, putative [Aedes aegypti] 10/09/01 71 %/214 aa FBpp0279094...1086835|ref|XP_974078.1| PREDICTED: similar to vitellogenin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS729194 L12 ...

  5. EST Table: CN375273 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN375273 rzhswab0_003293 10/09/28 83 %/167 aa ref|XP_001847442.1| vitellogenin [Cul...ex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS26195.1| vitellogenin [Culex quinquefasciatus] 10/09/01 70 %/167 aa FBpp0173616|D...aa gi|91086835|ref|XP_974078.1| PREDICTED: similar to vitellogenin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS729194 L12 ...

  6. EST Table: CN376079 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN376079 rzhswab0_004172 10/09/28 68 %/171 aa ref|XP_001648944.1| dendritic cell M; Short=eIF3m gb|EAT44291.1| dendritic cell protein [Aedes aegypti] 10/09/01 64 %/168 aa FBpp0276999|Dps...968265.1| PREDICTED: similar to dendritic cell protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS916297 L12 ...

  7. EST Table: CN376274 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN376274 rzhswab0_006395 10/09/28 44 %/199 aa ref|YP_015696.1| polyprotein [Kakugo ...virus] dbj|BAD06930.1| polyprotein [Kakugo virus] 10/09/01 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h CK528690 L12 ...

  8. EST Table: CN376272 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN376272 rzhswba0_003793 10/09/28 45 %/209 aa ref|YP_015696.1| polyprotein [Kakugo ...virus] dbj|BAD06930.1| polyprotein [Kakugo virus] 10/09/01 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h CK528690 L12 ...

  9. EST Table: CN376273 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN376273 rzhswab0_002215 10/09/28 42 %/131 aa ref|YP_145791.1| polyprotein [Varroa ...destructor virus 1] gb|AAP51418.2| polyprotein [Varroa destructor virus 1] 10/09/01 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h CK528690 L12 ...

  10. EST Table: CN374273 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN374273 rzhswab0_004727 10/09/28 98 %/147 aa ref|NP_001040124.1| exuperantia [Bomb...yx mori] gb|ABD36117.1| exuperantia [Bombyx mori] 10/09/01 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 30 %/126 aa AGAP007365-... aa gi|91085815|ref|XP_974770.1| PREDICTED: similar to exuperantia [Tribolium castaneum] FS919769 L12 ...

  11. EST Table: CN212151 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN212151 rzhswab0_002748 10/09/28 low homology 10/09/01 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 3...2 %/125 aa AGAP011319-PA Protein|3L:20963155:20963774:1|gene:AGAP011319 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 31 %/122 aa gi|270008873|gb|EFA05321

  12. EST Table: CN212147 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN212147 rzhswab0_002740 10/09/28 70 %/129 aa ref|XP_002407962.1| methyl-CpG bindin...g transcription regulator, putative [Ixodes scapularis] gb|EEC12376.1| methyl-CpG binding transcription regu...1-PA 10/09/10 48 %/136 aa gi|91079510|ref|XP_969537.1| PREDICTED: similar to methyl-cpg binding protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS904290 L12 ...

  13. Regiospecific C-N photocyclization of 2-styrylquinolines.

    Gulakova, Elena N; Berdnikova, Daria V; Aliyeu, Tseimur M; Fedorov, Yuri V; Godovikov, Ivan A; Fedorova, Olga A


    Regiospecific C-N photocyclization of 2-styrylquinolines resulting in formation of potentially biologically active quino[1,2-a]quinolizinium derivatives was investigated. The presence of strong electron-donating groups in the phenyl ring reveals to be a crucial factor managing photocyclization effectiveness. Introduction of a crown ether moiety allows changing the photoreaction parameters by means of complexation with Mg(ClO4)2.

  14. The hyperspaces Cn(X for finite ray-graphs

    Norah Esty


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the hyperspace Cn(X of non-empty and closed subsets of a base space X with up to n connected components. The class of base spaces we consider we call finite ray-graphs, and are a noncompact variation on finite graphs. We prove two results about the structure of these hyperspaces under different topologies (Hausdorff metric topology and Vietoris topology.

  15. Assembly of a New Cyano-bridged 4f-3d Dimer Sm(DMSO)4-(H2O)3Cr(CN)6 and Crystal Structure of [K3(18-crown-6)3-(H2O)4] Cr(CN)6 ·3H2O

    周北川; 王宏根; 等


    A new syano-bridged binuclear 4f-3d complex Sm(DMSO)4-(H2O)3Cr(CN)6 was synthesized and characterized by single crystal structure analysis.It crystallizes in monoclinic,space group P21 with a=0.9367(3)°and Z=2,In this binuclear complex,Sm atom is eight coordinated and linked to the Cr atom by a cyano bridge,The molecules packs to form 3D structure due to the hydrogen bonds among them. [K3(18-crown-6)3-(H2O)4] Cr(CN)6 ·3H2O(18-C-6 represents 18-crown-6-ether)that was synthesized as a byproduct in the preparation of a Gd-Cr complex is also structurally characterized.Crystal data:triclinic,space group p-1 with a=1.0496(7)nm,b=1.1567(14)nm,c=1.3530(13)nm,α=94.15(9)°,β=96.04(8)°,γ=95.25(9)° and Z=1, [K3(18-crown-6)3-(H2O)4] Cr(CN)6 ·3H2O consists of ionic [K3(18-crown-6)3-(H2O)4]3+ and [Cr(CN)6]3- pairs,of which the [K3(18-C-6)3(H2O)4]3+ ion is a trinuclear cluster connected by water,and K atome are eight coordinated by eight oxygen atoms of one 18-C-6 and two water molecules.

  16. Pressure-induced polymerization of P(CN)3

    Gou, Huiyang; Yonke, Brendan L.; Epshteyn, Albert; Kim, Duck Young; Smith, Jesse S.; Strobel, Timothy A.


    Motivated to explore the formation of novel extended carbon-nitrogen solids via well-defined molecular precursor pathways, we studied the chemical reactivity of highly pure phosphorous tricyanide, P(CN)3, under conditions of high pressure at room temperature. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements reveal a series of phase transformations below 10 GPa, and several low-frequency vibrational modes are reported for the first time. Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction measurements taken during compression show that molecular P(CN)3 is highly compressible, with a bulk modulus of 10.0 ± 0.3 GPa, and polymerizes into an amorphous solid above ˜10.0 GPa. Raman and IR spectra, together with first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations, show that the amorphization transition is associated with polymerization of the cyanide groups into CN bonds with predominantly sp2 character, similar to known carbon nitrides, resulting in a novel phosphorous carbon nitride (PCN) polymeric phase, which is recoverable to ambient pressure.

  17. Pressure-induced polymerization of P(CN){sub 3}

    Gou, Huiyang, E-mail:, E-mail:; Kim, Duck Young; Strobel, Timothy A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Yonke, Brendan L. [NRC Postdoctoral Associate, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Epshteyn, Albert [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Smith, Jesse S. [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)


    Motivated to explore the formation of novel extended carbon-nitrogen solids via well-defined molecular precursor pathways, we studied the chemical reactivity of highly pure phosphorous tricyanide, P(CN){sub 3}, under conditions of high pressure at room temperature. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements reveal a series of phase transformations below 10 GPa, and several low-frequency vibrational modes are reported for the first time. Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction measurements taken during compression show that molecular P(CN){sub 3} is highly compressible, with a bulk modulus of 10.0 ± 0.3 GPa, and polymerizes into an amorphous solid above ∼10.0 GPa. Raman and IR spectra, together with first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations, show that the amorphization transition is associated with polymerization of the cyanide groups into CN bonds with predominantly sp{sup 2} character, similar to known carbon nitrides, resulting in a novel phosphorous carbon nitride (PCN) polymeric phase, which is recoverable to ambient pressure.

  18. Slow Evolution of the Specific Star Formation Rate at z > 2: The Impact of Dust, Emission Lines, and a Rising Star Formation History

    González, Valentino; Bouwens, Rychard; Illingworth, Garth; Labbé, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal; Franx, Marijn; Magee, Dan


    We measure the evolution of the specific star formation rate (sSFR = SFR/M stellar) between redshift 4 and 6 to assess the reported "constant" sSFR at z > 2. We derive stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for a large sample of 750 z ~ 4-6 galaxies in the GOODS-S field by fitting stellar population models to their spectral energy distributions. Dust extinction is derived from the observed UV colors. We evaluate different star formation histories (SFHs, constant and rising with time) and the impact of optical emission lines. The SFR and M stellar values are insensitive to whether the SFH is constant or rising. The derived sSFR is very similar (within 0.1 dex) in two M stellar bins centered at 1 and 5 × 109 M ⊙. The effect of emission lines was, however, quite pronounced. Assuming no contribution from emission lines, the sSFR for galaxies at 5 × 109 M ⊙ evolves weakly at z > 2 (sSFR(z)vprop(1 + z)0.6 ± 0.1), consistent with previous results. When emission lines are included in the rest-frame optical bands, consistent with the observed Infrared Array Camera [3.6] and [4.5] fluxes, the sSFR shows higher values at high redshift following sSFR(z)vprop(1 + z)1.0 ± 0.1, i.e., the best-fit evolution shows a sSFR ~2.3 × higher at z ~ 6 than at z ~ 2. This is, however, a substantially weaker trend than that found at z 2 (sSFR(z)vprop(1 + z)2.5). Even accounting for emission lines, the observed sSFR(z) trends at z > 2 are still in tension with theoretical expectations.

  19. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 226 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226, App. C Appendix C to Part 226—Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program 1. The Child Nutrition (CN)...

  20. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App. C Appendix C to Part 225—Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program 1. The Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling...

  1. N=4 Supergravity Lagrangian for Type IIB on $T^{6/Z_{2}$ in Presence of Fluxes and D3-Branes

    D'Auria, R; Gargiulo, F; Trigiante, M; Vaulà, Silvia; Auria, Riccardo D'; Ferrara, Sergio; Gargiulo, Floriana; Trigiante, Mario


    We derive the Lagrangian and the transformation laws of N=4 gauged supergravity coupled to matter multiplets whose sigma-model of the scalars is SU(1,1)/U(1)x SO(6,6+n)/SO(6)xSO(6+n) and which corresponds to the effective Lagrangian of the Type IIB string compactified on the T^6/Z_2 with fluxes turned on and in presence of n D3-branes. The gauge group is T^12x G where G is the gauge group on the brane and T^12 is the gauge group on the bulk corresponding to the gauged translations of the R-R scalars coming from the R-R four--form. The N=4 bulk sector of this theory can be obtained as a truncation of the Scherk-Schwarz spontaneously broken N=8 supergravity. Consequently the full bulk spectrum satisfies quadratic and quartic mass sum rules, identical to those encountered in Scherk-Schwarz reduction gauging a flat group. This theory gives rise to a no scale supergravity extended with partial super-Higgs mechanism.

  2. The Red Radio Ring: a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared radio galaxy at z=2.553 discovered through citizen science

    Geach, J E; Verma, A; Marshall, P J; Jackson, N; Belles, P -E; Beswick, R; Baeten, E; Chavez, M; Cornen, C; Cox, B E; Erben, T; Erickson, N J; Garrington, S; Harrison, P A; Harrington, K; Hughes, D H; Ivison, R J; Jordan, C; Lin, Y -T; Leauthaud, A; Lintott, C; Lynn, S; Kapadia, A; Kneib, J -P; Macmillan, C; Makler, M; Miller, G; Montana, A; Mujica, R; Muxlow, T; Narayanan, G; Briain, D O; O'Brien, T; Oguri, M; Paget, E; Parrish, M; Ross, N P; Rozo, E; Rusu, E; Rykoff, E S; Sanchez-Arguelles, D; Simpson, R; Snyder, C; Schloerb, F P; Tecza, M; Van Waerbeke, L; Wilcox, J; Viero, M; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S; Zeballos, M


    We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared galaxy (L_IR~10^13 L_sun) with strong radio emission (L_1.4GHz~10^25 W/Hz) at z=2.553. The source was identified in the citizen science project SpaceWarps through the visual inspection of tens of thousands of iJKs colour composite images of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs), groups and clusters of galaxies and quasars. Appearing as a partial Einstein ring (r_e~3") around an LRG at z=0.2, the galaxy is extremely bright in the sub-millimetre for a cosmological source, with the thermal dust emission approaching 1 Jy at peak. The redshift of the lensed galaxy is determined through the detection of the CO(3-2) molecular emission line with the Large Millimetre Telescope's Redshift Search Receiver and through [OIII] and H-alpha line detections in the near-infrared from Subaru/IRCS. We have resolved the radio emission with high resolution (300-400 mas) eMERLIN L-band and JVLA C-band imaging. These observations are used in combination with the near-...

  3. Investigating the nature of the z~2.8 submillimeter selected galaxy SMM J02399-0136 with VLT spectropolarimetry

    Vernet, J; Vernet, Joel; Cimatti, Andrea


    We present deep optical spectropolarimety of SMM J02399-0136 (z=2.8) done with the VLT Antu 8.2 m telescope equipped with FORS1. Moderate continuum and emission line polarization are measured (P~5%). We do not detect broad lines in scattered flux as would be expected for a type-2 object but rather a polarization behaviour similar to BAL quasars. This classification is confirmed by the detection of both high and low ionization broad absorption troughs and a very red continuum. We argue that this object shares several properties with local ULIGs such as Mrk 231 and other ultraluminous infrared Lo-BAL quasars. However, the fact that the ultraviolet spectrum is dominated by non-stellar radiation does not prove that the dust that is thermally radiating in the far infrared is predominantly heated by the AGN. Since the energy that we get in the far-infrared is precisely that which is removed from the ultraviolet spectrum, this could mean that the starburst is more dust-enshrouded than the AGN due to a peculiar dust ...

  4. The transverse proximity effect in the z ~ 2 Lyman-alpha forest suggests QSO episodic lifetimes of ~1 Myr

    Kirkman, David


    We look for signs of the H~I transverse proximity effect in the spectra of 130 QSO pairs, most with transverse separations in the plane of the sky of 0.1 -- 3 Mpc at z ~ 2.2. We expected to see a decrease in Lyman-alpha forest HI absorption in the spectrum of background QSOs near the position of foreground QSOs. Instead we see no change in the absorption in front of the foreground QSOs, and we see evidence for a 50% increase in the absorption out to 6 Mpc behind the foreground QSOs. Further, we see no change in the H I absorption along the line-of-sight to the foreground QSOs, the normal line-of-sight proximity effect. We may account for the lack of change in the H I absorption if the effect of extra UV photons is canceled by higher gas density around QSOs. If so, the increase in absorption behind the QSOs then suggests that the higher gas density there is not canceled by the UV radiation from the QSOs. We can explain our observations if QSOs have had their current UV luminosities for less than approximately ...

  5. Large-Scale Star Formation-Driven Outflows at 1<z<2 in the 3D-HST Survey

    Lundgren, Britt F; van Dokkum, Pieter; Bezanson, Rachel; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine; da Cunha, Elizabete; Erb, Dawn K; Fan, Xiaohui; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans Walter; Schmidt, Kasper; van der Wel, Arjen


    We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass (log(M/M_sun)~9.75) star-forming (SFR >4 M_sun/yr) galaxies observed at z=1.24, z=1.35 and z=1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W_r>0.8A) Mg II absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the H-alpha emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well-exceeds 0.1 M_sun/yr/kpc^2, the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local Universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.650.8A Mg II covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 10.4A Mg II absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from z~2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star fo...

  6. Constraining the Low-Mass Slope of the Star Formation Sequence at 0.5<z<2.5

    Whitaker, Katherine E; Leja, Joel; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Henry, Alaina; Skelton, Rosalind E; Fumagalli, Mattia; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Brammer, Gabriel B; Labbe, Ivo; Nelson, Erica J; Rigby, Jane R


    We constrain the slope of the star formation rate ($\\log\\Psi$) to stellar mass ($\\log\\mathrm{M_{\\star}}$) relation down to $\\log(\\mathrm{M_{\\star}/M_{\\odot}})=8.4$ ($\\log(\\mathrm{M_{\\star}/M_{\\odot}})=9.2$) at $z=0.5$ ($z=2.5$) with a mass-complete sample of 39,106 star-forming galaxies selected from the 3D-HST photometric catalogs, using deep photometry in the CANDELS fields. For the first time, we find that the slope is dependent on stellar mass, such that it is steeper at low masses ($\\log\\mathrm{\\Psi}\\propto\\log\\mathrm{M_{\\star}}$) than at high masses ($\\log\\mathrm{\\Psi}\\propto(0.3-0.6)\\log\\mathrm{M_{\\star}}$). These steeper low mass slopes are found for three different star formation indicators: the combination of the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR), calibrated from a stacking analysis of Spitzer/MIPS 24$\\mu$m imaging; $\\beta$-corrected UV SFRs; and H$\\alpha$ SFRs. The normalization of the sequence evolves differently in distinct mass regimes as well: for galaxies less massive than $\\log(\\mathrm{M_{\\s...

  7. Revealing the z~2.5 Cosmic Web With 3D Lyman-Alpha Forest Tomography: A Deformation Tensor Approach

    Lee, Khee-Gan


    Studies of cosmological objects should take into account their positions within the cosmic web of large-scale structure. Unfortunately, the cosmic web has only been extensively mapped at low-redshifts ($z1$, the required galaxy densities are inaccessible for the foreseeable future, but 3D reconstructions of Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest absorption in closely-separated background QSOs and star-forming galaxies already offer a detailed window into $z\\sim2-3$ large-scale structure. We quantify the utility of such maps for studying the cosmic web by using realistic $z=2.5$ Ly$\\alpha$ forest simulations matched to observational properties of upcoming surveys. A deformation tensor-based analysis is used to classify voids, sheets, filaments and nodes in the flux, which is compared to those determined from the underlying dark matter field. We find an extremely good correspondence, with $70\\%$ of the volume in the flux maps correctly classified relative to the dark matter web, and $99\\%$ classified to within 1 eigenvalue. Thi...

  8. A Search for Molecular Gas toward a BzK-selected Star-forming Galaxy at z = 2.044

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Hayashi, Masao; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Tohru; Tamura, Yoichi; Malkan, Matthew A; Ly, Chun; Kohno, Kotaro


    We present a search for CO(3-2) emission in SDF-26821, a BzK-selected star-forming galaxy (sBzK) at z = 2.044, using the 45-m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory and the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. We do not detect significant emission and derive 2 \\sigma limits: the CO luminosity of L'CO 57 Lsun (K km s^{-1} pc^{-2})^{-1}, and the molecular gas mass of M_H2 < 2.5 x 10^10 Msun, assuming a velocity width of 200 km s^{-1} and a CO-to-H2 conversion factor of alpha_CO=0.8 Msun (K km s^{-1} pc^{-2})^{-1}. The ratio of L_FIR/L'CO, a measure of star formation efficiency (SFE), is comparable to or higher than the two z ~ 1.5 sBzKs detected in CO(2-1) previously, suggesting that sBzKs can have a wide range of SFEs. Comparisons of far-infrared luminosity, gas mass, and stellar mass among the sBzKs suggest that SDF-26821 is at an earlier stage of forming stars with a similar SFE and/or more efficiently forming stars than the two z ~ 1.5 sBzKs. The higher SFEs and specific star formation rates of the sBzKs com...

  9. Resolving the optical emission lines of Lya blob 'B1' at z=2.38: another hidden quasar

    Overzier, R A; Dijkstra, M; Hatch, N A; Lehnert, M D; Villar-Martín, M; Wilman, R J; Zirm, A W


    We have used the SINFONI near-infrared integral field unit on the VLT to resolve the optical emission line structure of one of the brightest (L~1e44 erg/s) and nearest (z=2.38) of all Lya blobs (LABs). The target, known in the literature as object 'B1' (Francis et al. 1996), lies at a redshift where the main optical emission lines are accessible in the observed near-infrared. We detect luminous [OIII]4959,5007A and Ha emission with a spatial extent of at least 32x40 kpc (4"x5"). The dominant optical emission line component shows relatively broad lines (600-800 km/s, FWHM) and line ratios consistent with AGN-photoionization. The new evidence for AGN photoionization, combined with previously detected CIV and luminous, warm infrared emission, suggest that B1 is the site of a hidden quasar. This is confirmed by the fact that [OII] is relatively weak compared to [OIII] (extinction-corrected [OIII]/[OII] of about 3.8), which is indicative of a high, Seyfert-like ionization parameter. From the [OIII] luminosity we i...

  10. Spitzer Observations of the z=2.73 Lensed Lyman Break Galaxy, MS1512-cB58

    Siana, Brian; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Colbert, James W; Frayer, David T


    We present Spitzer infrared (IR) photometry and spectroscopy of the lensed Lyman break galaxy (LBG), MS1512-cB58 at z=2.73. The large (factor ~30) magnification allows for the most detailed infrared study of an L*_UV(z=3) LBG to date. Broadband photometry with IRAC (3-10 micron), IRS (16 micron), and MIPS (24, 70 & 160 micron) was obtained as well as IRS spectroscopy spanning 5.5-35 microns. A fit of stellar population models to the optical/near-IR/IRAC photometry gives a young age (~9 Myr), forming stars at ~98 M_sun/yr, with a total stellar mass of ~10^9 M_sun formed thus far. The existence of an old stellar population with twice the stellar mass can not be ruled out. IR spectral energy distribution fits to the 24 and 70 micron photometry, as well as previously obtained submm/mm, data give an intrinsic IR luminosity L_IR = 1-2 x10^11 L_sun and a star formation rate, SFR ~20-40 M_sun/yr. The UV derived star formation rate (SFR) is ~3-5 times higher than the SFR determined using L_IR or L_Halpha because t...

  11. Integral Field Spectroscopy of 2.0<z<2.7 Sub-mm Galaxies; gas morphologies and kinematics

    Alaghband-Zadeh, S; Swinbank, A M; Smail, Ian; Harrison, C M; Alexander, D M; Casey, C M; Dave, R; Narayanan, D; Tamura, Y; Umehata, J


    We present two-dimensional, integral field spectroscopy covering the rest-frame wavelengths of strong optical emission lines in nine sub-mm-luminous galaxies (SMGs) at 2.0<z<2.7. The GEMINI-NIFS and VLT-SINFONI imaging spectroscopy allows the mapping of the gas morphologies and dynamics within the sources, and we measure an average Halpha velocity dispersion of sigma=220+-80km/s and an average half light radius of r=3.7+-0.8kpc. The average dynamical measure, V_obs/2sigma=0.9+-0.1 for the SMGs, is higher than in more quiescent star-forming galaxies at the same redshift, highlighting a difference in the dynamics of the two populations. The SMGs' far-infrared SFRs, measured using Herschel-SPIRE far-infrared photometry, are on average 370+-90Mo/yr which is ~2 times higher than the extinction corrected SFRs of the more quiescent star-forming galaxies. Six of the SMGs in our sample show strong evidence for kinematically distinct multiple components with average velocity offsets of 200+-100km/s and average pr...

  12. Herschel and SCUBA-2 imaging and spectroscopy of a bright, lensed submillimetre galaxy at z = 2.3

    Ivison, R J; Swinyard, B; Smail, Ian; Pearson, C P; Rigopoulou, D; Polehampton, E; Baluteau, J -P; Barlow, M J; Blain, A W; Bock, J; Clements, D L; Coppin, K; Cooray, A; Danielson, A; Dwek, E; Edge, A C; Franceschini, A; Fulton, T; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Isaak, K; Leeks, S; Lim, T; Naylor, D; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rowan-Robinson, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L; Valtchanov, I; Vigroux, L; Wright, G S


    We present a detailed analysis of the far-IR properties of the bright, lensed, z = 2.3, SMG, SMM J2135-0102, using new observations with Herschel, SCUBA-2 and the VLA. These data allow us to constrain the galaxy's SED and show that it has an intrinsic rest-frame 8-1000um luminosity, L(bol), of (2.3 +/- 0.2) x 10^12 L(sun) and a likely SFR of ~400 M(sun)/yr. The galaxy sits on the far-IR/radio correlation for far-IR-selected galaxies. At ~>70um, the SED can be described adequately by dust components with T(d) ~ 30 and 60K. Using SPIRE's Fourier Transform Spectrometer we report a detection of the [CII] 158um cooling line. If the [CII], CO and far-IR continuum arise in photo-dissociation regions, we derive a characteristic gas density, n ~ 10^3 cm^-3, and a far-UV radiation field, G_0, 10^3x stronger than the Milky Way. L([CII])/L(bol) is significantly higher than in local ULIRGs but similar to the values found in local star-forming galaxies and starburst nuclei. This is consistent with SMM J2135-0102 being powe...

  13. Constraints on the presence of water megamaser emission in z~2.5 ultraluminous infrared starburst galaxies

    Wagg, Jeff


    We present Expanded Very Large Array and Arecibo observations of two lensed submm galaxies at z~2.5, in order to search for redshifted 22.235 GHz water megamaser emission. Both SMM J14011+0252 and SMM J16359+6612 have multi-wavelength characteristics consistent with ongoing starburst activity, as well as CO line emission indicating the presence of warm molecular gas. Our observations do not reveal any evidence for H2O megamaser emission in either target, while the lensing allows us to obtain deep limits to the H_2O line luminosities, L(H2O) < 7470 Lsun (3-sigma) in the case of SMM J14011+0252, and L(H2O) < 1893 Lsun for SMM J16359+6612, assuming linewidths of 80 km/s. Our search for, and subsequent non-detection of H2O megamaser emission in two strongly lensed starburst galaxies, rich in gas and dust, suggests that such megamaser emission is not likely to be common within the unlensed population of high-redshift starburst galaxies. We use the recent detection of strong H2O megamaser emission in the lens...

  14. The Properties of the Interstellar Medium within a Star-Forming Galaxy at z=2.3

    Danielson, A L R; Smail, Ian; Cox, P; Edge, A C; Weiss, A; Harris, A I; Baker, A J; De Breuck, C; Geach, J E; Ivison, R J; Krips, M; Lungdren, A; Longmore, S; Neri, R; Flacquer, B Ocana


    We present an analysis of the molecular and atomic gas emission in the rest-frame far-infrared and sub-millimetre, from the lensed z=2.3 sub-millimetre galaxy SMM J2135-0102. We obtain very high signal-to-noise detections of 11 transitions from 3 species and limits on a further 20 transitions from 9 species. We use the 12CO, [CI] and HCN line strengths to investigate the gas mass, kinematic structure and interstellar medium (ISM) chemistry, and find strong evidence for a two-phase medium comprising a hot, dense, luminous component and an underlying extended cool, low-excitation massive component. Employing photo-dissociation region models we show that on average the molecular gas is exposed to a UV radiation field that is ~1000 x more intense than the Milky Way, with star-forming regions having a characteristic density of n~10^4 /cm^3. These conditions are similar to those found in local ULIRGs and in the central regions of typical starburst galaxies, even though the star formation rate is far higher in this ...

  15. Tracing cool molecular gas and star formation on $\\sim 100$pc scales within a $z=2.3$ galaxy

    Thomson, A P; Owen, Frazer N; Danielson, A L R; Swinbank, A M; Smail, Ian


    We present new, high-angular resolution interferometric observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of $^{12}$CO $J=1-0$ line emission and 4-8 GHz continuum emission in the strongly lensed, $z=2.3$ submillimetre galaxy, SMM J21352-0102. Using these data, we identify and probe the conditions in $\\sim 100$pc clumps within this galaxy, which we consider to be potential giant molecular cloud complexes, containing up to half of the total molecular gas in this system. In combination with far-infrared and submillimetre data, we investigate the far-infrared/radio correlation, measuring $q_{IR} = 2.39 \\pm 0.17$ across SMM J21352. We search for variations in the properties of the interstellar medium throughout the galaxy by measuring the spatially-resolved $q_{IR}$ and radio spectral index, ${\\alpha}_{\\rm radio}$, finding ranges $q_{IR} = [2.1, 2.6]$ and ${\\alpha}_{\\rm radio} = [-1.5, -0.7]$. We argue that these ranges in ${\\alpha}_{\\rm radio}$ and $q_{IR}$ may reflect variations in the age of the ISM materia...

  16. Similarities and uniqueness of Ly$\\alpha$ emitters among star-forming galaxies at z=2.5

    Shimakawa, Rhythm; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Tanaka, Ichi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Koyama, Yusei; Hayashi, Masao; Suzuki, Tomoko L; Yamamoto, Moegi


    We conducted a deep narrow-band imaging survey with the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the Subaru Telescope and constructed a sample of Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) at z=2.53 in the UDS-CANDELS field where a sample of H$\\alpha$ emitters (HAEs) at the same redshift is already obtained from our previous narrow-band observation at NIR. The deep narrow-band and multi broadband data allow us to find LAEs of stellar masses and star-formation rates (SFRs) down to $\\gtrsim$$10^8$ M$_\\odot$ and $\\gtrsim$0.2 M$_\\odot$/yr, respectively. We show that the LAEs are located along the same mass-SFR sequence traced by normal star-forming galaxies such as HAEs, but towards a significantly lower mass regime. Likewise, LAEs seem to share the same mass--size relation with typical star-forming galaxies, except for the massive LAEs, which tend to show significantly compact sizes. We identify a vigorous mass growth in the central part of LAEs: the stellar mass density in the central region of LAEs increases as their total galaxy mass gr...

  17. Molecular Hydrogen in the Damped Lyman-alpha System towards GRB 120815A at z=2.36

    Krühler, T; Fynbo, J P U; Vreeswijk, P M; Schmidl, S; Malesani, D; Christensen, L; De Cia, A; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Kann, D A; Kaper, L; Vergani, S D; Afonso, P M J; Covino, S; Postigo, A de Ugarte; D'Elia, V; Filgas, R; Goldoni, P; Greiner, J; Hartoog, O E; Milvang-Jensen, B; Nardini, M; Piranomonte, S; Rossi, A; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Schady, P; Schulze, S; Sudilovsky, V; Tanvir, N R; Tagliaferri, G; Watson, D J; Wiersema, K; Wijers, R A M J; Xu, D


    [Abridged] Molecular hydrogen H_2 is a key requirement for star-formation, frequently observed along sightlines in the Galaxy and to the Magellanic Clouds, but notoriously hard to detect directly beyond z ~ 0. In the DLAs associated with long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are tightly linked to vigorous star-formation, H_2 has remained largely elusive, and has been unequivocally detected only towards GRB 080607 and possibly towards GRB 060206. Here, we present the discovery of H_2-rich gas, including the presence of vibrationally-excited H_2^* in the optical spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 120815A at z=2.36 obtained with X-shooter at the VLT. The galactic environment of GRB 120815A is characterized by a strong DLA with log(N(H)/cm^-2) = 21.95 +/- 0.10, prominent H_2 absorption in the Lyman-Werner bands (log(N(H_2)/cm^-2) = 20.53 +/- 0.04) and thus a molecular gas fraction log f(H_2)=-1.14 +/- 0.10. The distance d between the absorbing neutral gas and GRB 120815A is constrained via photo-excitation modeling o...

  18. The Red Sequence at Birth in the Galaxy Cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2

    Strazzullo, V.; Daddi, E.; Gobat, R.; Valentino, F.; Pannella, M.; Dickinson, M.; Renzini, A.; Brammer, G.; Onodera, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Cimatti, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Arimoto, N.


    We use Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging to study the red population in the IR-selected, X-ray detected, low-mass cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2, one of the few bona fide established clusters discovered at this redshift, and likely a typical progenitor of an average massive cluster today. This study explores the presence and significance of an early red sequence in the core of this structure, investigating the nature of red-sequence galaxies, highlighting environmental effects on cluster galaxy populations at high redshift, and at the same time underlining similarities and differences with other distant dense environments. Our results suggest that the red population in the core of Cl J1449+0856 is made of a mixture of quiescent and dusty star-forming galaxies, with a seedling of the future red sequence already growing in the very central cluster region, and already characterizing the inner cluster core with respect to lower-density environments. On the other hand, the color-magnitude diagram of this cluster is definitely different from that of lower-redshift z ≲ 1 clusters, as well as of some rare particularly evolved massive clusters at similar redshift, and it is suggestive of a transition phase between active star formation and passive evolution occurring in the protocluster and established lower-redshift cluster regimes.

  19. The red sequence at birth in the galaxy cluster ClJ1449+0856 at z=2

    Strazzullo, V; Gobat, R; Valentino, F; Pannella, M; Dickinson, M; Renzini, A; Brammer, G; Onodera, M; Finoguenov, A; Cimatti, A; Carollo, C M; Arimoto, N


    We use HST/WFC3 imaging to study the red population in the IR-selected, X-ray detected, low-mass cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z=2, one of the few bona-fide established clusters discovered at this redshift, and likely a typical progenitor of an average massive cluster today. This study explores the presence and significance of an early red sequence in the core of this structure, investigating the nature of red sequence galaxies, highlighting environmental effects on cluster galaxy populations at high redshift, and at the same time underlining similarities and differences with other distant dense environments. Our results suggest that the red population in the core of Cl J1449+0856 is made of a mixture of quiescent and dusty star-forming galaxies, with a seedling of the future red sequence already growing in the very central cluster region, and already characterising the inner cluster core with respect to lower density environments. On the other hand, the color-magnitude diagram of this cluster is definitely differ...

  20. Constraining the Warm Dark Matter Particle Mass through Ultra-Deep UV Luminosity Functions at z=2

    Menci, N; Castellano, M; Grazian, A


    We compute the mass function of galactic dark matter halos for different values of the Warm Dark Matter (WDM) particle mass m_X and compare it with the abundance of ultra-faint galaxies derived from the deepest UV luminosity function available so far at redshift z~2. The magnitude limit M_UV=-13 reached by such observations allows us to probe the WDM mass functions down to scales close to or smaller than the half-mass mode mass scale ~10^9 M_sun. This allowed for an efficient discrimination among predictions for different m_X which turn out to be independent of the star formation efficiency adopted to associate the observed UV luminosities of galaxies to the corresponding dark matter masses. Adopting a conservative approach to take into account the existing theoretical uncertainties in the galaxy halo mass function, we derive a robust limit m_X>1.8 keV for the mass of thermal relic WDM particles when comparing with the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies, while m_X>1.5 keV is obtained when we compare ...

  1. A massive, distant proto-cluster at z=2.47 caught in a phase of rapid formation?

    Casey, C M; Capak, P; Fu, H; Kovac, K; Lilly, S; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N Z; Treister, E


    Numerical simulations of cosmological structure formation show that the Universe's most massive clusters, and the galaxies living in those clusters, assemble rapidly at early times (2.5 2 based on associations of 5-40 galaxies around rare sources, the observational evidence for rapid cluster formation is weak. Here we report observations of an asymmetric, filamentary structure at z = 2.47 containing seven starbursting, submillimeter-luminous galaxies and five additional AGN within a volume of 4000 Mpc$^{3}$. As the expected lifetime of both the luminous AGN and starburst phase of a galaxy is ~100 Myr, we conclude that these sources were likely triggered in rapid succession by environmental factors, or, alternatively, the duration of these cosmologically rare phenomena is much longer than prior direct measurements suggest. The stellar mass already built up in the structure is $\\sim10^{12}M_{\\odot}$ and we estimate that the cluster mass will exceed that of the Coma supercluster at $z \\sim 0$. The filamentary s...

  2. Resolution and Kinematics of Molecular Gas Surrounding the Cloverleaf Quasar at z=2.6 Using the Gravitational Lens

    Yun, M S; Carrasco, J J; Blandford, R D


    Gravitational lenses have long been advertised as primitive telescopes, capable of magnifying cosmologically distant sources (Zwicky 1937). In this Letter, we present new 0''.9 resolution CO (7-6) observations of the z=2.56 Cloverleaf quasar (H 1413+117) and spatially resolved images. By modeling the gravitational lens, we infer a size scale of 0''.3 (~1 kpc) for the molecular gas structure surrounding the quasar, and the gas has a kinematic structure roughly consistent with a rotating disk. The observed properties of the CO emitting gas are similar to the nuclear starburst complexes found in the infrared luminous galaxies in the local universe, and metal enrichment by vigorous star formation within this massive nuclear gas complex can explain the abundance of carbon and oxygen in the interstellar medium of this system observed when the universe was only a few billion years old. Obtaining corresponding details in an unlensed object at similar distances would be well beyond the reach of current instruments, an...

  3. SImulator of GAlaxy Millimeter/submillimeter Emission (SIGAME): CO emission from massive z=2 main sequence galaxies

    Olsen, Karen P; Brinch, Christian; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jesper; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew


    We present SIGAME (SImulator of GAlaxy Molecular Emission), a new numerical code designed to simulate the 12CO rotational line emission spectrum of galaxies. Using sub-grid physics recipes to post-process the outputs of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, a molecular gas phase is condensed out of the initial hot and partly ionised SPH gas and distributed in Giant Molecular Cloud (GMCs). The GMCs are subjected to far-UV radiation fields and cosmic ray ionisation rates which scale with the local star formation rate volume density, thereby ensuring that the thermal state of the gas is directly coupled to the in situ star formation conditions. Level populations as well as line radiative transport of the CO rotational lines are solved for with the 3-D radiative transfer code LIME. We have applied SIGAME to cosmological SPH simulations of three disk galaxies at z=2 with stellar masses in the range ~(0.5-2)x10^11 Msun and star formation rates ~40-140 Msun/yr, for which we predict a low-excitation gas ...

  4. The cosmic growth of the active black hole population at 1<z<2 in zCOSMOS, VVDS and SDSS

    Schulze, A; Gavignaud, I; Schramm, M; Silverman, J; Merloni, A; Zamorani, G; Hirschmann, M; Mainieri, V; Wisotzki, L; Shankar, F; Fiore, F; Koekemoer, A M; Temporin, G


    We present a census of the active black hole population at 1<z<2, by constructing the bivariate distribution function of black hole mass and Eddington ratio, employing a maximum likelihood fitting technique. The study of the active black hole mass function (BHMF) and the Eddington ratio distribution function (ERDF) allows to clearly disentangle the AGN downsizing phenomenon, present in the AGN luminosity function (AGN LF), into its physical processes of black hole mass downsizing and accretion rate evolution. We are utilizing type 1 AGN samples from 3 optical surveys (VVDS, zCOSMOS and SDSS), that cover a wide range of 3 dex in luminosity over our redshift interval of interest. We investigate the cosmic evolution of the AGN population as a function of AGN luminosity, black hole mass and accretion rate. Compared to z = 0 we find a distinct change in the shape of the BHMF and the ERDF, consistent with downsizing in black hole mass. The active fraction or duty cycle of type 1 AGN at z~1.5 is almost flat as...

  5. MApping the Most Massive Overdensities (MAMMOTH) II -- Discovery of an Extremely Massive Overdensity BOSS1441 at $z=2.32$

    Cai, Zheng; Bian, Fuyan; Zabludoff, Ann; Yang, Yujin; Prochaska, J Xavier; McGreer, Ian; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Wang, Ran; Frye, Brenda; Green, Richard; Jiang, Linhua


    Cosmological simulations suggest a strong correlation between high optical-depth Ly$\\alpha$ absorbers, which arise from the intergalactic medium (IGM), and 3-D mass overdensities on scales of $10-30$ $h^{-1}$ comoving Mpc. By examining the absorption spectra of $\\sim$ 80,000 QSO sight-lines over a volume of 0.1 Gpc$^3$ in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), we have identified an extreme overdensity, BOSS1441, which contains a rare group of strong Ly$\\alpha$ absorbers at $z=2.32\\pm 0.02$. This absorber group is associated with six QSOs at the same redshift on a 30 comoving Mpc scale. Using Mayall/MOSAIC narrowband and broadband imaging, we detect Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) down to $0.7\\times L_{\\rm{Ly\\alpha}}^*$, and reveal a large-scale structure of Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) in this field. Our follow-up Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) observations have spectroscopically confirmed 19 galaxies in the density peak. We show that BOSS1441 has an LAE overdensity of $10.8\\pm 2.6$ on a 15 comoving Mpc scale...

  6. Discovery of an Enormous Ly$\\alpha$ nebula in a massive galaxy overdensity at $z=2.3$

    Cai, Zheng; Yang, Yujin; Bian, Fuyan; Prochaska, J Xavier; Zabludoff, Ann; McGreer, Ian; Zheng, Zhenya; Green, Richard; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Frye, Brenda; Hamden, Erika; Jiang, Linhua; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Wang, Ran


    Enormous Ly$\\alpha$ Nebulae (ELANe), unique tracers of galaxy density peaks, are predicted to lie at the nodes and intersections of cosmic filamentary structures. Previous successful searches for ELANe have focused on wide-field narrowband surveys, or have targeted known sources such as ultraluminous quasi-stellar-objects (QSOs) or radio galaxies. Utilizing groups of coherently strong Ly$\\alpha$ absorptions (CoSLAs), we have developed a new method to identify high-redshift galaxy overdensities and have identified an extremely massive overdensity, BOSS1441, at $z=2-3$ (Cai et al. 2016a). In its density peak, we discover an ELAN that is associated with a relatively faint continuum. To date, this object has the highest diffuse Ly$\\alpha$ nebular luminosity of $L_{\\rm{nebula}}=5.1\\pm0.1\\times10^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Above the 2$\\sigma$ surface brightness limit of SB$_{\\rm{Ly\\alpha}}= 4.8\\times10^{-18}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ arcsec$^{-2}$, this nebula has an end-to-end spatial extent of 442 kpc. This radio-quiet so...

  7. The CALYMHA survey: Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction and its dependence on galaxy properties at $z=2.23$

    Matthee, Jorryt; Oteo, Ivàn; Best, Philip; Smail, Ian; Röttgering, Huub; Paulino-Afonso, Ana


    We present the first results from our CAlibrating LYMan-$\\alpha$ with H$\\alpha$ (CALYMHA) pilot survey at the Isaac Newton Telescope. We measure Ly$\\alpha$ emission for 488 H$\\alpha$ selected galaxies at $z=2.23$ from HiZELS in the COSMOS and UDS fields with a specially designed narrow-band filter ($\\lambda_c$ = 3918 {\\AA}, $\\Delta\\lambda$= 52 {\\AA}). We find 17 dual H$\\alpha$-Ly$\\alpha$ emitters ($f_{\\rm Ly\\alpha} >5\\times10^{-17}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$, of which 5 are X-ray AGN). For star-forming galaxies, we find a range of Ly$\\alpha$ escape fractions (f$_{\\rm esc}$, measured with 3$"$ apertures) from $2$\\%$-30$\\%. These galaxies have masses from $3\\times10^8$ M$_{\\odot}$ to 10$^{11}$ M$_{\\odot}$ and dust attenuations E$(B-V)=0-0.5$. Using stacking, we measure a median escape fraction of $1.6\\pm0.5$\\% ($4.0\\pm1.0$\\% without correcting H$\\alpha$ for dust), but show that this depends on galaxy properties. The stacked f$_{\\rm esc}$ tends to decrease with increasing SFR and dust attenuation. However, at the h...

  8. Phase Structure of the Random-Plaquette Z_2 Gauge Model: Accuracy Threshold for a Toric Quantum Memory

    Ohno, T; Ichinose, I; Matsui, T; Ohno, Takuya; Arakawa, Gaku; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo


    We study the phase structure of the random-plaquette Z_2 lattice gauge model in three dimensions. In this model, the "gauge coupling" for each plaquette is a quenched random variable that takes the value \\beta with the probability 1-p and -\\beta with the probability p. This model is relevant for the recently proposed quantum memory of toric code. The parameter p is the concentration of the plaquettes with "wrong-sign" couplings -\\beta, and interpreted as the error probability per qubit in quantum code. In the gauge system with p=0, i.e., with the uniform gauge couplings \\beta, it is known that there exists a second-order phase transition at a certain critical "temperature", T(\\equiv \\beta^{-1}) = T_c =1.31, which separates an ordered(Higgs) phase at TT_c. As p increases, the critical temperature T_c(p) decreases. In the p-T plane, the curve T_c(p) intersects with the Nishimori line T_{N}(p) at the certain point (p_c, T_{N}(p_c)). The value p_c is just the accuracy threshold for a fault-tolerant quantum memory...

  9. Trident: A three-pronged galaxy survey. I. Lyman alpha emitting galaxies at z~2 in GOODS North

    Sandberg, A; Östlin, G; Hayes, M; Kiaeerad, F


    Context. Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) are used to probe the distant universe and are therefore important for galaxy evolution studies and for providing clues to the nature of the epoch of reionization, but the exact circumstances under which Lyman alpha escapes a galaxy are still not fully understood. Aims. The Trident project is designed to simultaneously examine Lyman alpha, H-alpha and Lyman Continuum emission from galaxies at redshift z~2, thus linking together these three aspects of ionising radiation in galaxies. In this paper, we outline the strategy of this project and examine the properties of LAEs in the GOODS North field. Methods. We performed a narrowband LAE survey in GOODS North using existing and two custom made filters at the Nordic Optical Telescope with MOSCA. We use complementary broad band archival data in the field to make a careful candidate selection and perform optical to near-IR SED fitting. We also estimate far-infrared luminosities by matching our candidates to detections in...

  10. Stellar Velocity Dispersion for a Strongly-Lensed, Intermediate-Mass Quiescent Galaxy at z=2.8

    Hill, Allison R; Franx, Marijn; van de Sande, Jesse


    Measuring stellar velocity dispersions of quiescent galaxies beyond $z\\sim2$ is observationally challenging. Such measurements require near-infrared spectra with a continuum detection of at least moderate signal-to-noise, often necessitating long integrations. In this paper, we present deep X-Shooter spectroscopy of one of only two known gravitationally-lensed massive quiescent galaxies at $z>2$. This galaxy is quadruply imaged, with the brightest images magnified by a factor of $\\sim5$. The total exposure time of our data is 9.8 hours on-source; however the magnification, and the slit placement encompassing 2 images, provides a total equivalent exposure time of 215 hours. From this deep spectrum we measure a redshift ($z_{\\mathrm{spec}}=2.756\\pm0.001$), making this one of the highest redshift quiescent galaxies that is spectroscopically confirmed. We simultaneously fit both the spectroscopic and photometric data to determine stellar population parameters and conclude this galaxy is relatively young, intermed...

  11. The (Z_2)^3 symmetry of the non-tri-bimaximal pattern for the neutrino mass matrix

    Lashin, E I; Chamoun, N; Nasri, S


    In view of the recent neutrino oscillation data pointing to a non-vanishing value for the smallest mixing angle ($\\theta_z$), we derive and find explicit realizations of the $(Z_2)^3$ flavor symmetry which characterizes, for the neutrino mass matrix, uniquely a variant of the tripartite form, originally conceived to lead to the tri-bimaximal mixing with $\\theta_z=0$, so that to allow now for a non-tri-bimaximal pattern with non-zero $\\theta_z$. We impose this flavor symmetry in a setting including the charged leptons and we see that it can make room, through higher order terms involving new SM-singlet scalars, for the mass hierarchy of charged leptons. Moreover, within type-I seesaw mechanism augmented with the flavor symmetry, certain patterns occurring in both the Dirac and the Majorana neutrino mass matrices can accommodate all types of mass hierarchies in the effective neutrino mass matrix, but no lepton/baryon asymmetry can be generated. Finally, we discuss how type-II seesaw mechanism, when supplemented...

  12. Gas kinematics in powerful radio galaxies at z~2: Energy supply from star formation, AGN, and radio jet

    Nesvadba, N; De Breuck, C; Best, P; Seymour, N; Vernet, J


    We compare the kinetic energy and momentum injection rates from intense star formation, bolometric AGN radiation, and radio jets with the kinetic energy and momentum observed in the warm ionized gas in 24 powerful radio galaxies at z~2. These galaxies are amongst our best candidates for being massive galaxies near the end of their active formation period, when intense star formation, quasar activity, and powerful radio jets all co-exist. All galaxies have VLT/SINFONI imaging spectroscopy of the rest-frame optical line emission, showing emission-line regions with large velocity offsets (up to 1500 km/s) and line widths (typically 800-1000 km/s) consistent with very turbulent, often outflowing gas. As part of the HeRGE sample, they also have FIR estimates of the star formation and quasar activity obtained with Herschel/PACS and SPIRE, which enables us to measure the relative energy and momentum release from each of the three main sources of feedback in massive, star-forming AGN host galaxies during their most r...

  13. AGN-Host Galaxy Connection: Morphology and Colours of X-ray Selected AGN at z < 2

    Pović, M; García, A M Pérez; Bongiovanni, A; Cepa, J; Huertas-Company, M; Lara-López, M A; Lorenzo, M Fernández; Ederoclite, A; Alfaro, E; Castañeda, H; Gallego, J; González-Serrano, J I; González, J J


    The connection between AGN and their host galaxies has been widely studied over recent years, showing it to be of great importance for providing answers to some fundamental questions related with AGN fueling mechanisms, their formation and evolution. Using X-ray and one of the deepest broad-band optical data sets, we studied morphology and colours in relationship with X-ray properties for sources at redshifts z < 2.0, using a sample of 262 AGN in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). Morphological classification was obtained using the galSVM code, one of the new methods useful especially when dealing with high-redshift sources and low-resolution data. Colour-magnitude diagrams were studied in relationship with redshift, morphology, X-ray obscuration, and X-ray-to-optical flux ratio. Finally, the significance of different regions was analysed on colour-magnitude diagrams, relating the observed properties of AGN populations with some models of their formation and evolution.

  14. CANDELS+3D-HST: compact SFGs at z~2-3, the progenitors of the first quiescent galaxies

    Barro, G; Perez-Gonzalez, P G; Pacifici, C; Trump, J R; Koo, D C; Wuyts, S; Guo, Y; Bell, E; Dekel, A; Porter, L; Primack, J; Ferguson, H; Ashby, M; Caputi, K; Ceverino, D; Croton, D; Fazio, G; Giavalisco, M; Hsu, L; Kocevski, D; Koekemoer, A; Kurczynski, P; Kollipara, P; Lee, J; McIntosh, D; McGrath, E; Moody, C; Somerville, R; Papovich, C; Salvato, M; Santini, P; Williams, C C; Willner, S; Zolotov, A


    We analyze the star-forming and structural properties of 45 massive (log(M/Msun)>10) compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 2z~2. The optical/NIR and far-IR Spitzer/Herschel colors indicate that most compact SFGs are heavily obscured. Nearly half (47%) host an X-ray bright AGN. In contrast, only about 10% of other massive galaxies at that time host AGNs. Compact SFGs have centrally-concentrated light profiles and spheroidal morphologies similar to quiescent galaxies, and are thus strikingly different from other SFGs. Most compact SFGs lie either within the SFR-M main sequence (65%) or below (30%), on the expected evolutionary path towards quiescent galaxies. These results show conclusively that galaxies become more compact before they lose their gas and dust, quenching star formation. Using extensive HST photometry from CANDELS and grism spectroscopy from the 3D-HST survey, we model their stellar populations with either expon...

  15. Herschel Extreme Lensing Line Observations: Dynamics of two strongly lensed star forming galaxies near redshift z = 2

    Rhoads, James E; Allam, Sahar; Carilli, Chris; Combes, Francoise; Finkelstein, Keely; Finkelstein, Steven; Frye, Brenda; Gerin, Maryvonne; Guillard, Pierre; Nesvadba, Nicole; Rigby, Jane; Spaans, Marco; Strauss, Michael A


    We report on two regularly rotating galaxies at redshift z=2, using high resolution spectra of the bright [CII] 158 micron emission line from the HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. Both SDSS090122.37+181432.3 ("S0901") and SDSS J120602.09+514229.5 ("the Clone") are strongly lensed and show the double-horned line profile that is typical of rotating gas disks. Using a parametric disk model to fit the emission line profiles, we find that S0901 has a rotation speed v sin(i) = 120 +/- 7 km/s and gas velocity dispersion sigma < 23 km/s. The best fitting model for the Clone is a rotationally supported disk having v sin(i) = 79 +/- 11 km/s and sigma < 4km/s. However the Clone is also consistent with a family of dispersion-dominated models having sigma = 92 +/- 20 km/s. Our results showcase the potential of the [CII] line as a kinematic probe of high redshift galaxy dynamics: [CII] is bright; accessible to heterodyne receivers with exquisite velocity resolution; and traces dense star-forming inte...

  16. Measurement of a Metallicity Gradient in a z=2 Galaxy: Implications for Inside-Out Assembly Histories

    Jones, Tucker; Jullo, Eric; Richard, Johan


    We present near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of the strongly-lensed z=2.00 galaxy SDSS J120601.69+514227.8 (`the Clone arc'). Using OSIRIS on the Keck 2 telescope with laser guide star adaptive optics, we achieve resolved spectroscopy with 0.20 arcsecond FWHM resolution in the diagnostic emission lines [O III], Halpha, and [N II]. The lensing magnification allows us to map the velocity and star formation from Halpha emission at a physical resolution of ~300 pc in the galaxy source plane. With an integrated star formation rate of ~50 Msun/yr, the galaxy is typical of sources similarly studied at this epoch. It is dispersion-dominated with a velocity gradient of +/- 80 km/s and average dispersion sigma = 85 km/s; the dynamical mass is 2.4 \\times 10^{10} Msun within a half-light radius of 2.9 kpc. Robust detection of [N II] emission across the entire OSIRIS field of view enables us to trace the gas-phase metallicity distribution with 500 pc resolution. We find a strong radial gradient in both the [N II]/Halpha ...

  17. The SINS/zC-SINF Survey of z~2 Galaxy Kinematics: The Nature of Dispersion Dominated Galaxies

    Newman, Sarah F; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Griffin, Kristen Shapiro; Mancini, Chiara; Lilly, Simon J; Renzini, Alvio; Bouche, Nicolas; Burkert, Andreas; Buschkamp, Peter; Carollo, C Marcella; Cresci, Giovanni; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Genel, Shy; Hicks, Erin K S; Kurk, Jaron; Lutz, Dieter; Naab, Thorsten; Peng, Yingjie; Sternberg, Amiel; Tacconi, Linda J; Wuyts, Stijn; Zamorani, Gianni


    We analyze the spectra, spatial distributions and kinematics of Ha, [NII] and [SII] emission in a sample of 42, z~2.2 UV/optically selected star forming galaxies (SFGs) from the SINS & zC-SINF surveys, 35 of which were observed in the adaptive optics mode of SINFONI. This is supplemented by kinematic data from 48 z~1-2.5 galaxies from the literature. We find that the kinematic classification of the high-z SFGs as `dispersion dominated' or `rotation dominated' correlates most strongly with their intrinsic sizes. Smaller galaxies are more likely `dispersion-dominated' for two main reasons: 1) The rotation velocity scales linearly with galaxy size but intrinsic velocity dispersion does not depend on size, and as such, their ratio is systematically lower for smaller galaxies, and 2) Beam smearing strongly decreases large-scale velocity gradients and increases observed dispersion much more for galaxies with sizes at or below the resolution. Dispersion dominated SFGs may thus have intrinsic properties similar t...

  18. Star formation black hole growth and dusty tori in the most luminous AGNs at z=2-3.5

    Netzer, Hagai; Nordon, Raanan; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lira, Paulina; Shemmer, Ohad


    We report herschel observations of 100 very luminous, optically selected AGNs at z=2-3.5 with log(LUV)(erg/sec)> 46.5, where LUV=L1350A. The distribution in LUV is similar to the general distribution of SDSS AGNs in this redshift and luminosity interval. We measured SF luminosity, LSF, and SFR in 34 detected sources by fitting combined SF and WISE-based torus templates. We also obtained statistically significant stacks for the undetected sources in two luminosity groups. The sample properties are compared with those of very luminous AGNs at z>4.5. The main findings are: 1) The mean and the median SFRs of the detected sources are 1176 and 1010 Msun/yr, respectively. The mean SFR of the undetected sources is 148 Msun/yr. The ratio of SFR to BH accretion rate is approximately 80 for the detected sources and less than 10 for the undetected sources. There is no difference in LAGN and only a very small difference in L(torus) between detected and undetected sources. 2) The redshift distribution of LSF and LAGN for t...

  19. Molecular Gas Content of an Extremely Star-forming Herschel Observed Lensed Dusty Galaxy at z=2.685

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha R.; H-ATLAS


    We present the results of combined deep near-infrared, far infrared and millimeter observations of an extremely star forming lensed dusty star-forming galaxy (DSFG) identified from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). The high redshift DSFG is gravitationally lensed by a massive WISE identified cluster at z~1 (spectroscopically confirmed with Keck/DEIMOS and Gemini/GMOS) producing multiply lensed images and arcs observed in the optical. The DSFG is spectroscopically confirmed at z=2.685 from CO(1-0) observations by GBT and separately from CO(3-2) observations by CARMA. We use the combined spectroscopic and imaging observations to construct a detailed lens model of the background DSFG which allowed us to study the sources plane properties of the target. Multi-band data from Keck/NIRC2, HST/WFC3 and Herschel yields star formation rate and stellar mass well above the main sequence. Observations of the dust continuum by the Sub-millimeter Array yields an observed total ISM mass of 6.5E+11 M* which is responsible for the intense observed star formation rates. Comparing the measured SFR with molecular gas measurements from CO(1-0) observations reveals that this system has relatively short gas depletion time scale which is consistent with the starburst phase observed in high redshift sub-millimeter galaxies.

  20. Beta decay of the exotic $T_z$ = -2 nuclei $^{48}$Fe, $^{52}$Ni and $^{56}$Zn

    Orrigo, S E A; Fujita, Y; Gelletly, W; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ascher, P; Bilgier, B; Blank, B; Cáceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Ganioğlu, E; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grévy, S; Kamalou, O; Kozer, H C; Kucuk, L; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Molina, F; Popescu, L; Rogers, A M; Susoy, G; Stodel, C; Suzuki, T; Tamii, A; Thomas, J C


    The results of a study of the beta decays of three proton-rich nuclei having $T_z$ = -2, namely $^{48}$Fe, $^{52}$Ni and $^{56}$Zn, produced in an experiment carried out at GANIL, are reported. In all the cases we have extracted the half-lives and the total $\\beta$-delayed proton emission branching ratios. We have measured the individual $\\beta$-delayed protons and $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ rays with their branching ratios. Decay schemes have been determined for the three nuclei, and new energy levels are identified in the corresponding daughter nuclei. Competition between $\\beta$-delayed protons and gammas is observed in the de-excitation of the $T$ = 2 Isobaric Analogue States in all three cases. Absolute Fermi and Gamow-Teller transition strengths have been determined. The mass excesses of the nuclei under study have been deduced. In addition, we discuss in detail the data analysis taking as a test case $^{56}$Zn, where the exotic $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay has been observed.

  1. The inner structure of very massive elliptical galaxies: implications for the inside-out formation mechanism of z~2 galaxies

    Tiret, O; Bernardi, M; Maraston, C; Pforr, J


    We analyze a sample of 23 supermassive elliptical galaxies (central velocity dispersion larger than 330 km s-1), drawn from the SDSS. For each object, we estimate the dynamical mass from the light profile and central velocity dispersion, and compare it with the stellar mass derived from stellar population models. We show that these galaxies are dominated by luminous matter within the radius for which the velocity dispersion is measured. We find that the sizes and stellar masses are tightly correlated, with Re ~ M*^{1.1}$, making the mean density within the de Vaucouleurs radius a steeply declining function of M*: rho_e ~ M*^{-2.2}. These scalings are easily derived from the virial theorem if one recalls that this sample has essentially fixed (but large) sigma_0. In contrast, the mean density within 1 kpc is almost independent of M*, at a value that is in good agreement with recent studies of z ~ 2 galaxies. The fact that the mass within 1 kpc has remained approximately unchanged suggests assembly histories th...

  2. The SINFONI survey of powerful radio galaxies at z~2: Jet-driven AGN feedback during the Quasar Era

    Nesvadba, N; Lehnert, M D; Best, P N; Collet, C


    We present VLT/SINFONI imaging spectroscopy of the warm ionized gas in 33 powerful radio galaxies at redshifts z>~2, which are excellent sites to study the interplay of rapidly accreting active galactic nuclei and the interstellar medium of the host galaxy in the very late formation stages of massive galaxies. Our targets span two orders of magnitude in radio size (2-400 kpc) and kinetic jet energy (a few 10^46 to almost 10^48 erg s^-1). All sources have complex gas kinematics with broad line widths up to ~1300 km s^-1. About half have bipolar velocity fields with offsets up to 1500 km s^-1 and are consistent with global back-to-back outflows. The others have complex velocity distributions, often with multiple abrupt velocity jumps far from the nucleus of the galaxy, and are not associated with a major merger in any obvious way. We present several empirical constraints that show why gas kinematics and radio jets seem to be physically related. The gas kinetic energy from large scale bulk and local outflow or t...

  3. GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z ~ 2 - VII. Star formation, extinction, and gas outflows from UV spectra

    Talia, M; Cimatti, A; Kurk, J; Berta, S; Bolzonella, M; Cassata, P; Daddi, E; Dickinson, M; Franceschini, A; Halliday, C; Pozzetti, L; Renzini, A; Rodighiero, G; Rosati, P; Zamorani, G


    We use rest-frame UV spectroscopy to investigate the properties related to large-scale gas outflows, and to the dust extinction and star-formation rates of a sample of z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies from the Galaxy Mass Assembly ultradeep Spectroscopic Survey (GMASS). Dust extinction is estimated from the rest-frame UV continuum slope and used to obtain dust-corrected star-formation rates for the galaxies of the sample. For the entire sample, a mean value of the continuum slope = -1.11 \\pm 0.44 (r.m.s.) was derived, while the average SFR was found to be = 52 \\pm 48 M_sun/yr (r.m.s.). A positive correlation between SFR and stellar mass was observed, in agreement with other works, the logarithmic slope of the relation being 1.10 \\pm 0.10. Low-ionization absorption lines, associated with the interstellar medium, were found to be blueshifted, with respect to the rest frame of the system, which indicates that there is outflowing gas with typical velocities of the order of ~ 100 km/s. Finally, investigating correlat...

  4. LOFAR VLBI studies at 55 MHz of 4C 43.15, a z = 2.4 radio galaxy

    Morabito, Leah K.; Deller, Adam T.; Röttgering, Huub; Miley, George; Varenius, Eskil; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Moldón, Javier; Jackson, Neal; Morganti, Raffaella; van Weeren, Reinout J.; Oonk, J. B. R.


    The correlation between radio spectral index and redshift has been exploited to discover high-redshift radio galaxies, but its underlying cause is unclear. It is crucial to characterize the particle acceleration and loss mechanisms in high-redshift radio galaxies to understand why their radio spectral indices are steeper than their local counterparts. Low-frequency information on scales of ˜1 arcsec are necessary to determine the internal spectral index variation. In this paper we present the first spatially resolved studies at frequencies below 100 MHz of the z = 2.4 radio galaxy 4C 43.15 which was selected based on its ultrasteep spectral index (α imaging resolution at 55 MHz with very long baseline interferometry techniques. Our study reveals low-frequency radio emission extended along the jet axis, which connects the two lobes. The integrated spectral index for frequencies index is due to a combination of the steepening spectrum at high frequencies with a break at intermediate frequencies.

  5. The evolution of metallicity and metallicity gradients from z=2.7-0.6 with KMOS3D

    Wuyts, Eva; Fossati, Matteo; Schreiber, Natascha M Förster; Genzel, Reinhard; Davies, Ric; Mendel, J Trevor; Naab, Thorsten; Röttgers, Bernhard; Wilman, David J; Wuyts, Stijn; Bandara, Kaushala; Beifiori, Alessandra; Belli, Sirio; Bender, Ralf; Brammer, Gabriel B; Burkert, Andreas; Chan, Jeffrey; Galametz, Audrey; Kulkarni, Sandesh K; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Nelson, Erica J; Rosario, David; Saglia, Roberto P; Seitz, Stella; Tacconi, Linda J; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Übler, Hannah; van Dokkum, Pieter


    We present measurements of the [NII]/Ha ratio as a probe of gas-phase oxygen abundance for a sample of 419 star-forming galaxies at z=0.6-2.7 from the KMOS3D near-IR multi-IFU survey. The mass-metallicity relation (MZR) is determined consistently with the same sample selection, metallicity tracer, and methodology over the wide redshift range probed by the survey. We find good agreement with long-slit surveys in the literature, except for the low-mass slope of the relation at z~2.3, where this sample is less biased than previous samples based on optical spectroscopic redshifts. In this regime we measure a steeper slope than some literature results. Excluding the AGN contribution from the MZR reduces sensitivity at the high mass end, but produces otherwise consistent results. There is no significant dependence of the [NII]/Ha ratio on SFR or environment at fixed redshift and stellar mass. The IFU data allow spatially resolved measurements of [NII]/Ha, from which we can infer abundance gradients for 180 galaxies...

  6. A UV Ultra-luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at Z=2.78 in NDWFS Bootes Field

    Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; Dey, Arjun; Green, Richard F; Maiolino, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; McGreer, Ian; Wang, Ran; Lin, Yen-Ting


    We present one of the most ultraviolet (UV) luminous Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) (J1432+3358) at z=2.78, discovered in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) Bootes field. The R-band magnitude of J1432+3358 is 22.29 AB, more than two magnitudes brighter than typical L* LBGs at this redshift. The deep z-band image reveals two components of J1432+3358 separated by 1.0" with flux ratio of 3:1. The high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) rest-frame UV spectrum shows Lya emission line and interstellar medium absorption lines. The absence of NV and CIV emission lines, the non-detection in X-ray and radio wavelengths and mid-infrared (MIR) colors indicate no or weak active galactic nuclei (AGN) (<10%) in this galaxy. The galaxy shows broader line profile with the full width half maximum (FWHM) of about 1000 km/s and larger outflow velocity (~500 km/s) than those of typical z~3 LBGs. The physical properties are derived by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) with stellar synthesis models. The dust extinction, ...

  7. Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria by cucumber volatiles (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and (E)-2-nonenal.

    Cho, M J; Buescher, R W; Johnson, M; Janes, M


    The effects of (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (NDE) and (E)-2-nonenal (NE) on Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium were investigated. A suspension of each organism of 6 to 9 log CFU/ml was incubated for 1 h at 37 degrees C in brain heart infusion solution that contained 0 to 500 or 1,000 ppm of NDE or NE. Depending on concentration, exposure to either NDE or NE caused a reduction in CFU of each organism. Treatment with 250 and 500 ppm NDE completely eliminated viable B. cereus and Salmonella Typhimurium cells, respectively. L. monocytogenes was the most resistant to NDE, showing only about a 2-log reduction from exposure to 500 ppm for 1 h. Conversely, this concentration of NDE caused a 5.8-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 cells. NE was also effective in inactivating organisms listed above. A higher concentration of NE, 1,000 ppm, was required to kill E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, or Salmonella Typhimurium compared with NDE. In conclusion, both NDE and NE demonstrated an apparent bactericidal activity against these pathogens.

  8. Synthesis and Structure of a New Dinuclear Tungsten(Ⅰ) Compound with Phenylselenol Ligand, [W2(SePh)2(CO)6(MeCN)2

    ZHOU Zhang-Feng; ZHUANG Bo-Tao; WU Ke-Chen; YAO Yuan-Gen


    The reaction of Et4NCl, C6H5SeNa and W(CO)6 in MeCN afforded a new dinuclear tungsten(Ⅰ) complex W2(SePh)2(CO)6(MeCN)2 1 (Mr = 929.98). The crystal structure has been determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. 1 Crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/n with a = 7.501(1), b = 18.387(2), c = 9.491(1) (A), β = 103.897(2)°, V = 1270.6(3) (A)3, Z = 2, Dc = 2.431g/cm3, μ = 119.50 cm-1, F(000) = 852, R = 0.0695 and wR = 0.1724 for 2220 independent reflections with I > 2σ(Ⅰ). The X-ray structure analysis reveals that the W2Se2 core of 1 is planar with W-W bond length of 3.0433(13) (A) and W-Se of 2.5922(17) (A).

  9. Pressure dependent low temperature kinetics for CN + CH3CN: competition between chemical reaction and van der Waals complex formation.

    Sleiman, Chantal; González, Sergio; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Talbi, Dahbia; El Dib, Gisèle; Canosa, André


    The gas phase reaction between the CN radical and acetonitrile CH3CN was investigated experimentally, at low temperatures, with the CRESU apparatus and a slow flow reactor to explore the temperature dependence of its rate coefficient from 354 K down to 23 K. Whereas a standard Arrhenius behavior was found at T > 200 K, indicating the presence of an activation barrier, a dramatic increase in the rate coefficient by a factor of 130 was observed when the temperature was decreased from 168 to 123 K. The reaction was found to be pressure independent at 297 K unlike the experiments carried out at 52 and 132 K. The work was complemented by ab initio transition state theory based master equation calculations using reaction pathways investigated with highly accurate thermochemical protocols. The role of collisional stabilization of a CNCH3CN van der Waals complex and of tunneling induced H atom abstractions were also considered. The experimental pressure dependence at 52 and 132 K is well reproduced by the theoretical calculations provided that an anharmonic state density is considered for the van der Waals complex CH3CNCN and its Lennard-Jones radius is adjusted. Furthermore, these calculations indicate that the experimental observations correspond to the fall-off regime and that tunneling remains small in the low-pressure regime. Hence, the studied reaction is essentially an association process at very low temperature. Implications for the chemistry of interstellar clouds and Titan are discussed.

  10. Thermographic Method Based Accelerated Fatigue Limit Calculation for Steel X5CrNi18-10 Subjected to Rotating Bending

    Lipski Adam


    Full Text Available The article presents an accelerated method for fatigue limit calculation which makes use of constant temperature increase rate observed in the middle time interval of specimen fatigue loading. The examination was performed on specimens prepared from drawn rods made of corrosion resistant austenitic steel X5CrNi18-10 (1.4301 subjected to rotating bending. For comparison purposes, the fatigue limit was also calculated with the aid of the Staircase method, using 30 specimens and assuming the base number of cycles equal to 10·106. Three specimens were used for accelerated examination during which their temperature was measured with the aid of the thermographic camera CEDIP Silver 420M (FLIR SC 5200. The applied loads were gradually increased until specimen damage took place. Based on the analysis of temperature changes during specimen loading, the average rate of temperature increase at successive loading stages was assessed. The obtained results were then approximated using the 2-nd order curve and its minimal value was assumed as corresponding to the fatigue limit. The performed statistic test has revealed that the fatigue limit calculated in the above way does not differ substantially from that determined using the Staircase method.

  11. Prediction of the Iron-Based Polynuclear Magnetic Superhalogens with Pseudohalogen CN as Ligands.

    Ding, Li-Ping; Shao, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Fang-Hui; Liu, Yun; Mu, Qiang


    To explore stable polynuclear magnetic superhalogens, we perform an unbiased structure search for polynuclear iron-based systems based on pseudohalogen ligand CN using the CALYPSO method in conjunction with density functional theory. The superhalogen properties, magnetic properties, and thermodynamic stabilities of neutral and anionic Fe2(CN)5 and Fe3(CN)7 clusters are investigated. The results show that both of the clusters have superhalogen properties due to their electron affinities (EAs) and that vertical detachment energies (VDEs) are significantly larger than those of the chlorine element and their ligand CN. The distribution of the extra electron analysis indicates that the extra electron is aggregated mainly into pseudohalogen ligand CN units in Fe2(CN)5(¯) and Fe3(CN)7(¯) cluster. These features contribute significantly to their high EA and VDE. Besides superhalogen properties, these two anionic clusters carry a large magnetic moment just like the Fe2F5(¯) cluster. Additionally, the thermodynamic stabilities are also discussed by calculating the energy required to fragment the cluster into various smaller stable clusters. It is found that Fe(CN)2 is the most favorable fragmentation product for anionic Fe2(CN)5(¯) and Fe3(CN)7(¯) clusters, and both of the anions are less stable against ejection of Fe atoms than Fe(CN)n-x.

  12. Nucleation modeling of the Antarctic stratospheric CN layer and derivation of sulfuric acid profiles

    Münch, Steffen; Curtius, Joachim


    Recent analysis of long-term balloon-borne measurements of Antarctic stratospheric condensation nuclei (CN) between July and October showed the formation of a volatile CN layer at 21-27 km altitude in a background of existing particles. We use the nucleation model SAWNUC to simulate these CN in subsiding air parcels and study their nucleation and coagulation characteristics. Our simulations confirm recent analysis that the development of the CN layer can be explained with neutral sulfuric acid-water nucleation and we show that outside the CN layer the measured CN concentrations are well reproduced just considering coagulation and the subsidence of the air parcels. While ion-induced nucleation is expected as the dominating formation process at higher temperatures, it does not play a significant role during the CN layer formation as the charged clusters recombine too fast. Further, we derive sulfuric acid concentrations for the CN layer formation. Our concentrations are about 1 order of magnitude higher than previously presented concentrations as our simulations consider that nucleated clusters have to grow to CN size and can coagulate with preexisting particles. Finally, we calculate threshold sulfuric acid profiles that show which concentration of sulfuric acid is necessary for nucleation and growth to observable size. These threshold profiles should represent upper limits of the actual sulfuric acid outside the CN layer. According to our profiles, sulfuric acid concentrations seem to be below midlatitude average during Antarctic winter but above midlatitude average for the CN layer formation.

  13. Discovery of an Enormous Lyα Nebula in a Massive Galaxy Overdensity at z = 2.3

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Yang, Yujin; Bian, Fuyan; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zabludoff, Ann; McGreer, Ian; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Green, Richard; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Frye, Brenda; Hamden, Erika; Jiang, Linhua; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Wang, Ran


    Enormous Lyα nebulae (ELANe), unique tracers of galaxy density peaks, are predicted to lie at the nodes and intersections of cosmic filamentary structures. Previous successful searches for ELANe have focused on wide-field narrowband surveys or have targeted known sources such as ultraluminous quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) or radio galaxies. Utilizing groups of coherently strong Lyα absorptions, we have developed a new method to identify high-redshift galaxy overdensities and have identified an extremely massive overdensity, BOSS1441, at z=2{--}3. In its density peak, we discover an ELAN that is associated with a relatively faint continuum. To date, this object has the highest diffuse Lyα nebular luminosity of {L}{nebula}=5.1+/- 0.1× {10}44 erg s‑1. Above the 2σ surface brightness limit of SB{}{Lyα }=4.8× {10}-18 erg s‑1 cm‑2 arcsec‑2, this nebula has an end-to-end spatial extent of 442 kpc. This radio-quiet source also has extended C iv λ 1549 and He ii λ 1640 emission on ≳ 30 {kpc} scales. Note that the Lyα, He ii, and C iv emissions all have double-peaked line profiles. Each velocity component has an FWHM of ≈700–1000 km s‑1. We argue that this Lyα nebula could be powered by shocks due to an active galactic nucleus–driven outflow or photoionization by a strongly obscured source.

  14. Constraining the low-mass Slope of the star formation sequence at 0.5 < z < 2.5

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Henry, Alaina; Rigby, Jane R. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbé, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, Cape Town 7935 (South Africa); Brammer, Gabriel B., E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We constrain the slope of the star formation rate (SFR; log Ψ) to stellar mass (log M {sub *}) relation down to log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) = 8.4 (log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) = 9.2) at z = 0.5 (z = 2.5) with a mass-complete sample of 39,106 star-forming galaxies selected from the 3D-HST photometric catalogs, using deep photometry in the CANDELS fields. For the first time, we find that the slope is dependent on stellar mass, such that it is steeper at low masses (log Ψ∝log M {sub *}) than at high masses (log Ψ∝(0.3-0.6)log M {sub *}). These steeper low-mass slopes are found for three different star formation indicators: the combination of the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR), calibrated from a stacking analysis of Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm imaging; β-corrected UV SFRs; and Hα SFRs. The normalization of the sequence evolves differently in distinct mass regimes as well: for galaxies less massive than log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) < 10 the specific SFR (Ψ/M {sub *}) is observed to be roughly self-similar with Ψ/M {sub *}∝(1 + z){sup 1.9}, whereas more massive galaxies show a stronger evolution with Ψ/M {sub *}∝(1 + z){sup 2.2-3.5} for log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) = 10.2-11.2. The fact that we find a steep slope of the star formation sequence for the lower mass galaxies will help reconcile theoretical galaxy formation models with the observations.

  15. Bulk-edge correspondence, spectral flow and Atiyah-Patodi-Singer theorem for the Z2-invariant in topological insulators

    Yu, Yue; Wu, Yong-Shi; Xie, Xincheng


    We study the bulk-edge correspondence in topological insulators by taking Fu-Kane spin pumping model as an example. We show that the Kane-Mele invariant in this model is Z2 invariant modulo the spectral flow of a single-parameter family of 1 + 1-dimensional Dirac operators with a global boundary condition induced by the Kramers degeneracy of the system. This spectral flow is defined as an integer which counts the difference between the number of eigenvalues of the Dirac operator family that flow from negative to non-negative and the number of eigenvalues that flow from non-negative to negative. Since the bulk states of the insulator are completely gapped and the ground state is assumed being no more degenerate except the Kramers, they do not contribute to the spectral flow and only edge states contribute to. The parity of the number of the Kramers pairs of gapless edge states is exactly the same as that of the spectral flow. This reveals the origin of the edge-bulk correspondence, i.e., why the edge states can be used to characterize the topological insulators. Furthermore, the spectral flow is related to the reduced η-invariant and thus counts both the discrete ground state degeneracy and the continuous gapless excitations, which distinguishes the topological insulator from the conventional band insulator even if the edge states open a gap due to a strong interaction between edge modes. We emphasize that these results are also valid even for a weak disordered and/or weak interacting system. The higher spectral flow to categorize the higher-dimensional topological insulators is expected.

  16. Revealing the z ~ 2.5 Cosmic Web with 3D Lyα Forest Tomography: a Deformation Tensor Approach

    Lee, Khee-Gan; White, Martin


    Studies of cosmological objects should take into account their positions within the cosmic web of large-scale structure. Unfortunately, the cosmic web has only been extensively mapped at low redshifts (z\\lt 1), using galaxy redshifts as tracers of the underlying density field. At z\\gt 1, the required galaxy densities are inaccessible for the foreseeable future, but 3D reconstructions of Lyα forest absorption in closely separated background QSOs and star-forming galaxies already offer a detailed window into z˜ 2-3 large-scale structure. We quantify the utility of such maps for studying the cosmic web by using realistic z = 2.5 Lyα forest simulations matched to observational properties of upcoming surveys. A deformation tensor-based analysis is used to classify voids, sheets, filaments, and nodes in the flux, which are compared to those determined from the underlying dark matter (DM) field. We find an extremely good correspondence, with 70% of the volume in the flux maps correctly classified relative to the DM web, and 99% classified to within one eigenvalue. This compares favorably to the performance of galaxy-based classifiers with even the highest galaxy densities from low-redshift surveys. We find that narrow survey geometries can degrade the recovery of the cosmic web unless the survey is ≳ 60 {h}-1 {Mpc} or ≳ 1 deg on the sky. We also examine halo abundances as a function of the cosmic web, and find a clear dependence as a function of flux overdensity, but little explicit dependence on the cosmic web. These methods will provide a new window on cosmological environments of galaxies at this very special time in galaxy formation, “high noon,” and on overall properties of cosmological structures at this epoch.

  17. The CALYMHA survey: Lyα escape fraction and its dependence on galaxy properties at z = 2.23

    Matthee, Jorryt; Sobral, David; Oteo, Iván; Best, Philip; Smail, Ian; Röttgering, Huub; Paulino-Afonso, Ana


    We present the first results from our CAlibrating LYMan α with Hα (CALYMHA) pilot survey at the Isaac Newton Telescope. We measure Lyα emission for 488 Hα selected galaxies at z = 2.23 from High-z Emission Line Survey in the COSMOS and UDS fields with a specially designed narrow-band filter (λc = 3918 Å, Δλ = 52 Å). We find 17 dual Hα-Lyα emitters [fLyα > 5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2, of which five are X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGN)]. For star-forming galaxies, we find a range of Lyα escape fractions (fesc, measured with 3 arcsec apertures) from 2 to 30 per cent. These galaxies have masses from 3 × 108 M⊙ to 1011 M⊙ and dust attenuations E(B - V) = 0-0.5. Using stacking, we measure a median escape fraction of 1.6 ± 0.5 per cent (4.0 ± 1.0 per cent without correcting Hα for dust), but show that this depends on galaxy properties. The stacked fesc tends to decrease with increasing star formation rate and dust attenuation. However, at the highest masses and dust attenuations, we detect individual galaxies with fesc much higher than the typical values from stacking, indicating significant scatter in the values of fesc. Relations between fesc and UV slope are bimodal, with high fesc for either the bluest or reddest galaxies. We speculate that this bimodality and large scatter in the values of fesc is due to additional physical mechanisms such as outflows facilitating fesc for dusty/massive systems. Lyα is significantly more extended than Hα and the UV. fesc continues to increase up to at least 20 kpc (3σ, 40 kpc [2σ]) for typical star-forming galaxies and thus the aperture is the most important predictor of fesc.

  18. Similarities and uniqueness of Lyα emitters among star-forming galaxies at z = 2.5

    Shimakawa, Rhythm; Kodama, Tadayuki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Tanaka, Ichi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Koyama, Yusei; Hayashi, Masao; Suzuki, Tomoko L.; Yamamoto, Moegi


    We conducted a deep narrow-band imaging survey with the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the Subaru Telescope and constructed a sample of Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.53 in the UDS-CANDELS field where a sample of Hα emitters (HAEs) at the same redshift is already obtained from our previous narrow-band observation at NIR. The deep narrow-band and multi broadband data allow us to find LAEs of stellar masses and star-formation rates (SFRs) down to ≳108 M⊙ and ≳0.2 M⊙/yr, respectively. We show that the LAEs are located along the same mass-SFR sequence traced by normal star-forming galaxies such as HAEs, but towards a significantly lower mass regime. Likewise, LAEs seem to share the same mass-size relation with typical star-forming galaxies, except for the massive LAEs, which tend to show significantly compact sizes. We identify a vigorous mass growth in the central part of LAEs: the stellar mass density in the central region of LAEs increases as their total galaxy mass grows. On the other hand, we see no Lyα line in emission for most of the HAEs. Rather, we find that the Lyα feature is either absent or in absorption (Lyα absorbers; LAAs), and its absorption strength may increase with reddening of the UV continuum slope. We demonstrate that a deep Lyα narrow-band imaging like this study is able to search for not only LAEs but also LAAs in a certain redshift slice. This work suggests that LAEs trace normal star-forming galaxies in the low-mass regime, while they remain as a unique population because the majority of HAEs are not LAEs.

  19. Bulk–edge correspondence, spectral flow and Atiyah–Patodi–Singer theorem for the Z2-invariant in topological insulators

    Yue Yu


    Full Text Available We study the bulk–edge correspondence in topological insulators by taking Fu–Kane spin pumping model as an example. We show that the Kane–Mele invariant in this model is Z2 invariant modulo the spectral flow of a single-parameter family of 1+1-dimensional Dirac operators with a global boundary condition induced by the Kramers degeneracy of the system. This spectral flow is defined as an integer which counts the difference between the number of eigenvalues of the Dirac operator family that flow from negative to non-negative and the number of eigenvalues that flow from non-negative to negative. Since the bulk states of the insulator are completely gapped and the ground state is assumed being no more degenerate except the Kramers, they do not contribute to the spectral flow and only edge states contribute to. The parity of the number of the Kramers pairs of gapless edge states is exactly the same as that of the spectral flow. This reveals the origin of the edge–bulk correspondence, i.e., why the edge states can be used to characterize the topological insulators. Furthermore, the spectral flow is related to the reduced η-invariant and thus counts both the discrete ground state degeneracy and the continuous gapless excitations, which distinguishes the topological insulator from the conventional band insulator even if the edge states open a gap due to a strong interaction between edge modes. We emphasize that these results are also valid even for a weak disordered and/or weak interacting system. The higher spectral flow to categorize the higher-dimensional topological insulators is expected.


    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Eilers, Anna-Christina [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stark, Casey; White, Martin [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [University of California Observatories, Lick Observatory, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Suzuki, Nao [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba (Japan); Croft, Rupert A. C. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Caputi, Karina I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Cassata, Paolo [Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso (Chile); Ilbert, Olivier; Le Brun, Vincent; Le Fèvre, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Garilli, Bianca [INAF-IASF, Via Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maccagni, Dario [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani,1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Nugent, Peter, E-mail: [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others


    We present the first observations of foreground Lyα forest absorption from high-redshift galaxies, targeting 24 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with z ∼ 2.3-2.8 within a 5' × 14' region of the COSMOS field. The transverse sightline separation is ∼2 h {sup –1} Mpc comoving, allowing us to create a tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) Lyα forest absorption field over the redshift range 2.20 ≤ z ≤ 2.45. The resulting map covers 6 h {sup –1} Mpc × 14 h {sup –1} Mpc in the transverse plane and 230 h {sup –1} Mpc along the line of sight with a spatial resolution of ≈3.5 h {sup –1} Mpc, and is the first high-fidelity map of a large-scale structure on ∼Mpc scales at z > 2. Our map reveals significant structures with ≳ 10 h {sup –1} Mpc extent, including several spanning the entire transverse breadth, providing qualitative evidence for the filamentary structures predicted to exist in the high-redshift cosmic web. Simulated reconstructions with the same sightline sampling, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio recover the salient structures present in the underlying 3D absorption fields. Using data from other surveys, we identified 18 galaxies with known redshifts coeval with our map volume, enabling a direct comparison with our tomographic map. This shows that galaxies preferentially occupy high-density regions, in qualitative agreement with the same comparison applied to simulations. Our results establish the feasibility of the CLAMATO survey, which aims to obtain Lyα forest spectra for ∼1000 SFGs over ∼1 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, in order to map out the intergalactic medium large-scale structure at (z) ∼ 2.3 over a large volume (100 h {sup –1} Mpc){sup 3}.

  1. What Are the Progenitors of Compact, Massive, Quiescent Galaxies at z=2.3? The Population of Massive Galaxies at z>3 from NMBS and CANDELS

    Stefanon, Mauro; Rudnick, Gregory H; Brammer, Gabriel B; Whitaker, Katherine E


    [Abridged] Using public data from the NMBS and CANDELS surveys, we study the population of massive galaxies at z>3 to identify the potential progenitors of z~2 compact, massive, quiescent (CMQ) galaxies, furthering our understanding of the evolution of massive galaxies. Our work is enabled by high-resolution CANDELS images and accurate photometric redshifts, stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) from 37-band NMBS photometry. The total number of z>3 massive galaxies is consistent with the number of massive quiescent (MQ) galaxies at z~2, implying that the SFRs for all of these galaxies must be much lower by z~2. We discover 4 CMQ galaxies at z>3, pushing back the time for which such galaxies have been observed. However, the volume density for these galaxies is significantly less than that of galaxies at z10^(10.6)Msun, likely to become members of the CMQ galaxy population at z~2. We evolve the stellar masses and SFRs of each individual z>3 galaxy adopting 5 different star formation histories (SFHs) an...

  2. Strong Nebular Line Ratios in the Spectra of z~2-3 Star-forming Galaxies: First Results from KBSS-MOSFIRE

    Steidel, C C; Strom, A L; Pettini, M; Reddy, N A; Shapley, A E; Trainor, R F; Erb, D K; Turner, M L; Konidaris, N P; Kulas, K R; Mace, G; Matthews, K; McLean, I S


    We present initial results of a large near-IR spectroscopic survey covering the 15 fields of the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS) using the recently-commissioned MOSFIRE instrument on the Keck 1 10m telescope. We focus on 179 galaxies with redshifts 2.0 < z < 2.6, most of which have high-quality MOSFIRE spectra in both H and K-band atmospheric windows, allowing sensitive measurements of [OIII]4960,5008, H-beta, [NII]6585, and H-alpha emission lines. We show unambiguously that the locus of z~2.3 galaxies in the "BPT" nebular diagnostic diagram exhibits an almost entirely disjoint, yet similarly tight, relationship between the line ratios [NII]/Halpha and [OIII]/Hbeta as compared to local galaxies. We argue that the offset of the z~2.3 BPT locus relative to that at z~0 is caused primarily by higher excitation (driven by both higher ionization parameter and harder stellar ionizing radiation field) than applies to most local galaxies. Also unlike nearby counterparts, a z~2.3 galaxy's position along the...

  3. Lyα Forest Tomography from Background Galaxies: The First Megaparsec-resolution Large-scale Structure Map at z > 2

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Stark, Casey; Prochaska, J. Xavier; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Eilers, Anna-Christina; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Suzuki, Nao; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Ilbert, Olivier; Garilli, Bianca; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Le Brun, Vincent; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Maccagni, Dario; Nugent, Peter; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Tasca, Lidia A. M.; Tresse, Laurence; Zamorani, Gianni; Zucca, Elena


    We present the first observations of foreground Lyα forest absorption from high-redshift galaxies, targeting 24 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with z ~ 2.3-2.8 within a 5' × 14' region of the COSMOS field. The transverse sightline separation is ~2 h -1 Mpc comoving, allowing us to create a tomographic

  4. The Dragonfly Galaxy. II. ALMA unveils a triple merger and gas exchange in a hyper-luminous radio galaxy at z = 2

    Emonts, B. H. C.; De Breuck, C.; Lehnert, M. D.; Vernet, J.; Gullberg, B.; Villar-Martín, M.; Nesvadba, N.; Drouart, G.; Ivison, R.; Seymour, N.; Wylezalek, D.; Barthel, P.


    The Dragonfly Galaxy (MRC 0152-209), at redshift z ~ 2, is one of the most vigorously star-forming radio galaxies in the Universe. What triggered its activity? We present ALMA Cycle 2 observations of cold molecular CO(6-5) gas and dust, which reveal that this is likely a gas-rich triple merger. It c

  5. A One-pot, Stereoselective Synthesis of (Z)-2-Sulfonyl-Substituted 1,3-Enynes by Hydrostannylation-Stille Tandem Reaction of Acetylenic Sulfones

    ZHAO Hong; ZHANG Hai-Yun; CAI Ming-Zhong


    (Z)-2-Sulfonyl-substituted 1,3-enynes can be stereoselectively synthesized in one pot by the palladiumcatalyzed hydrostannylation of acetylenic sulfones, followed by Stille coupling with alkynyl bromides. The present method has the advantages of readily available starting materials, straightforward and simple procedures, mild reaction conditions and good yields.

  6. Confirmation of the remarkable compactness of massive quiescent galaxies at z~2.3: early-type galaxies did not form in a simple monolithic collapse

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Kriek, Mariska; Holden, Bradford; Illingworth, Garth; Magee, Daniel; Bouwens, Rychard; Marchesini, Danilo; Quadri, Ryan; Rudnick, Greg; Taylor, Edward; Toft, Sune


    Using deep near-infrared spectroscopy Kriek et al. (2006) found that ~45% of massive galaxies at z~2.3 have evolved stellar populations and little or no ongoing star formation. Here we determine the sizes of these quiescent galaxies using deep, high-resolution images obtained with HST/NIC2 and laser guide star-assisted Keck/AO. Considering that their median stellar mass is 1.7x10^11 Solar masses the galaxies are remarkably small, with a median effective radius of 0.9 kpc. Galaxies of similar mass in the nearby Universe have sizes of ~5 kpc and average stellar densities which are two orders of magnitude lower than the z~2.3 galaxies. These results extend earlier work at z~1.5 and confirm previous studies at z>2 which lacked spectroscopic redshifts and imaging of sufficient resolution to resolve the galaxies. Our findings demonstrate that fully assembled early-type galaxies make up at most ~10% of the population of K-selected quiescent galaxies at z~2.3, effectively ruling out simple monolithic models for their...

  7. EST Table: CN373995 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available x mori] dbj|BAE53372.1| antibacterial peptide [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAF51564.1| gloverin2 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/01 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS917189 L12 ... ...CN373995 rzhswba0_009205 10/09/28 95 %/144 aa ref|NP_001037683.1| gloverin 2 [Bomby

  8. EST Table: CN373825 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN373825 rzhswba0_000992 10/09/28 77 %/105 aa ref|NP_001036841.1| Annexin IX isofor...m A [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAA92809.1| annexin IX-A [Bombyx mori] 10/09/01 66 %/105 aa FBpp0280989|DpseGA19090-PA...| PREDICTED: similar to Annexin IX CG5730-PC [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001043376 L12 ... ... 57 %/105 aa gnl|Amel|GB16448-PA 10/09/10 65 %/105 aa gi|91092420|ref|XP_967931.1

  9. EST Table: CN376997 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN376997 rzhswab0_005805 10/09/28 96 %/147 aa ref|NP_731941.1| effete [Drosophila m...elanogaster] ref|NP_001119686.1| effete [Acyrthosiphon pisum] ref|XP_310998.2| AGAP000145-PA [Anopheles gamb...ein ligase) (Ubiquitin carrier protein) (Protein effete) [Tribolium castaneum] re...ame: Full=Ubiquitin-protein ligase; AltName: Full=Ubiquitin carrier protein; AltName: Full=Protein effete em...b|CAA44453.1| ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAF55093.1| effet

  10. EST Table: CN376061 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available ina] gb|ADE18578.1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit III [Bombyx mandarina] gb|ADE18682....1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit III [Bombyx mandarina] 10/09/01 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS925277 L12 ... ...CN376061 rzhswab0_006808 10/09/28 47 %/102 aa gb|ADE18188.1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit III [Bombyx mandar

  11. EST Table: CN374235 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available aa ref|XP_974743.1| PREDICTED: similar to Prp18 CG6011-PA [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ98537.1| hypothetical...%/112 aa F32B6.3#CE35518#WBGene00009320#Human HPRP18 protein like#status:Partiall...58903:1|gene:AGAP002307 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 56 %/120 aa gi|91077322|ref|XP_974743.1| PREDICTED: similar to Prp18 CG6011-PA [Tribolium castaneum] CN374235 L12 ...

  12. Fiscal Year 2008 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-33 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Bechtel Jacobs


    The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2161&D2) (Zone 2 ROD) acknowledged that most of the 800 acres in Zone 2 were contaminated, but that sufficient data to confirm the levels of contamination were lacking. The Zone 2 ROD further specified that a sampling strategy for filling the data gaps would be developed. The Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2224&D3) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP) defined the sampling strategy as the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS), generally following the approach used for characterization of the Zone 1 exposure units (EUs). The Zone 2 ROD divided the Zone 2 area into seven geographic areas and 44 EUs. To facilitate the data quality objectives (DQOs) of the DVS process, the Zone 2 RDR/RAWP regrouped the 44 EUs into 12 DQO scoping EU groups. These groups facilitated the DQO process by placing similar facilities and their support facilities together and allowing identification of data gaps. The EU groups were no longer pertinent after DQO planning was completed and characterization was conducted as areas became accessible. As the opportunity to complete characterization became available, the planned DVS program and remedial actions (RAs) were completed for EU Z2-33. Remedial action was also performed at two additional areas in adjacent EU Z2-42 because of their close proximity and similar nature to a small surface soil RA in EU Z2-33. Remedial actions for building slabs performed in EU Z2-33 during fiscal year (FY) 2007 were reported in the Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2723&D1). Recommended RAs for EU Z2-42 were described in the Fiscal Year 2006 Phased Construction

  13. A new technique of integral representations in Cn

    YAO; Zongyuan


    [1]Bochner, S., Analytic and meromorphic continuation by means of Green's formula, Ann. of Math., 1943, 44: 652—671.[2]Yao Zongyuan, An integral formula on bounded domains in Cn, Science in China, Ser. A (in Chinese), 1992, 22(1): 1—10.[3]Zhong Tongde, Huang Sha, Complex Analysis in Several Variables (in Chinese), Shijiazhuang: Hebei Educational Press, 1990.[4]Henkin, G. M., Leiterer, J., Theory of Functions on Complex Manifolds, Berlin: Academie-Verlag Berlin and Birkh user-Verlag Boston, 1984.[5]Yao Zongyuan, Bochner-Ono formula for the local solution of the -equation on bounded domains in Cn, Advances in Mathematics (in Chinese), 1993, 22(6): 550—560.[6]Henkin, G. M., Integral representations of holomorphic functions in strictly pseudoconvex domains and some applications, Mat. Sb. (in Russian), 1969, 78(120): 611—632.[7]Henkin, G. M., Integral representations of holomorphic functions in strictly pseudoconvex domains and applications to the  problem, Mat. Sb. (in Russian), 1970, 82(124): 300—308.[8]Grauert, H., Lieb, I., Das Ramirezsche integral und diellisung der Gleichung f=α im bereich der beschr nkten fornen, Proc. Conf. Complex Analysis, Rice Univ. Studies, 1970, 56: 29—50.

  14. CN Morphology Studies of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    Knight, Matthew M


    We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December the northern and southern features were roughly equal in brightness and looked like more side-on corkscrews; in January the southern feature was dominant but the morphology was indistinct due to very low signal. The morphology changed smoothly during each night and similar morphology was seen from night to night. However, the morphology did not exactly repeat each rotation cycle, suggesting that there is a small non-principal axis rotation. Based on the repetition of the morphology, we find evidence that the fundamental rotation period was increasing: 16.7 hr from August 13-17,...

  15. Homeomorphic extension of strongly spirallike mappings in C~n

    CURT; Paula; KOHR; Gabriela; KOHR; Mirela


    In this paper we consider a proper subclass nA of the full class of spirallike mappings on the Euclidean unit ball Bn in Cn with respect to a given linear operator A. We use the method of subordination chains to obtain an upper growth result for nA , and we obtain various examples of mappings in the same class of normalized biholomorphic mappings on the unit ball Bn in Cn . We also prove that the class nA is compact, while the full class of spirallike mappings with respect to a linear operator need not be compact in dimension n≥2, even when the operator is diagonal. This is one of the motivations for considering the class nA . Finally we prove that if f is a quasiregular strongly spirallike mapping on Bn such that ||[Df(z)]-1 Af(z)|| is uniformly bounded on Bn , then f extends to a homeomorphism of R2n onto itself. In addition, if A + A* = 2aI n for some a >0, this extension is also quasiconformal on R2n .

  16. SImulator of GAlaxy Millimetre/submillimetre Emission (SÍGAME): CO emission from massive z = 2 main-sequence galaxies

    Olsen, Karen P.; Greve, Thomas R.; Brinch, Christian; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jesper; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew


    We present SÍGAME (SImulator of GAlaxy Millimetre/submillimetre Emission), a new numerical code designed to simulate the 12CO rotational line spectrum of galaxies. Using sub-grid physics recipes to post-process the outputs of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, a molecular gas phase is condensed out of the hot and partly ionized SPH gas. The gas is subjected to far-UV radiation fields and cosmic ray ionization rates which are set to scale with the local star formation rate volume density. Level populations and radiative transport of the CO lines are solved with the 3D radiative transfer code LIME. We have applied SÍGAME to cosmological SPH simulations of three disc galaxies at z = 2 with stellar masses in the range ˜0.5-2 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates ˜40-140 M⊙ yr-1. Global CO luminosities and line ratios are in agreement with observations of disc galaxies at z ˜ 2 up to and including J = 3-2 but falling short of the few existing J=5-4 observations. The central 5 kpc regions of our galaxies have CO 3 - 2/1 - 0 and 7 - 6/1 - 0 brightness temperature ratios of ˜0.55-0.65 and ˜0.02-0.08, respectively, while further out in the disc the ratios drop to more quiescent values of ˜0.5 and <0.01. Global CO-to-H2 conversion (αCO) factors are {˜eq } 1.5 {{M_{⊙}} pc^{-2} (K km s^{-1})^{-1}}, i.e. ˜2-3 times below the typically adopted values for disc galaxies, and αCO increases with radius, in agreement with observations of nearby galaxies. Adopting a top-heavy Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) mass spectrum does not significantly change the results. Steepening the GMC density profiles leads to higher global line ratios for Jup ≥ 3 and CO-to-H2 conversion factors [{˜eq } 3.6 {{M_{⊙}} pc^{-2} (K km s^{-1})^{-1}}].

  17. A Census of Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Quasars at z = 2-4

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael; Ganguly, Rajib; Tytler, David; Kirkman, David; Suzuki, Nao; Lubin, Dan


    We use Keck HIRES spectra of 37 optically bright quasars at z=2-4 to study narrow absorption lines that are intrinsic to the quasars (intrinsic NALs, produced in gas that is physically associated with the quasar central engine). We identify 150 NAL systems, which contain 124 C IV, 12 N V, and 50 Si IV doublets, of which 18 are associated systems (within 5000 km s-1 of the quasar redshift). We use partial coverage analysis to separate intrinsic NALs from NALs produced in cosmologically intervening structures. We find 39 candidate intrinsic systems (28 reliable determinations and 11 that are possibly intrinsic). We estimate that 10%-17% of C IV systems at blueshifts of 5000-70,000 km s-1 relative to quasars are intrinsic. At least 32% of quasars contain one or more intrinsic C IV NALs. Considering N V and Si IV doublets showing partial coverage as well, at least 50% of quasars host intrinsic NALs. This result constrains the solid angle subtended by the absorbers to the background source(s). We identify two families of intrinsic NAL systems, those with strong N V absorption and those with negligible absorption in N V but with partial coverage in the C IV doublet. We discuss the idea that these two families represent different regions or conditions in accretion disk winds. Of the 26 intrinsic C IV NAL systems, 13 have detectable low-ionization absorption lines at similar velocities, suggesting that these are two-phase structures in the wind rather than absorbers in the host galaxy. We also compare possible models for quasar outflows, including radiatively accelerated disk-driven winds, magnetocentrifugally accelerated winds, and pressure-driven winds, and we discuss ways of distinguishing between these models observationally. The data presented here were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  18. Attempts to improve the fatigue characteristics of the austenitic steel X5CrNi18-10 in the temperature range of 25-600 C by mechanical boundary layer hardening; Zur Verbesserung des Ermuedungsverhaltens des austenitischen Stahls X5CrNi18-10 im Temperaturbereich 25-600 C durch mechanische Randschichtverfestigungsverfahren

    Nikitin, Ivan


    Pieces of the austenitic steel X5CrNi18-10 whose boundary layers had been hardened by different methods were investigated with a view to their fatigue deformation characteristics in the temperature range of 25-600 degC. Parallel to this, microstructural and X-ray analyses provided deeper understanding of fatigue deformation. The microstructure was characterized, among others, by TEM. Boundary layers were solidified by rolling, by a combination of mechanical and thermal processes, by high-temperature rolling, and by laser shock solidification. The analyses focused on microstructural processes and on the intrinsic stress stability and provided important information on the fabrication of structural components with optimised life. (orig.)

  19. Absorption spectroscopy of RDX monopropellant flames: CN and NH concentrations

    Homan, B. E.; Vanderhoff, John A.


    UV-visible multi-channel absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe the self-sustained combustion of pressed RDX, a main energetic ingredient found in modern day propellants and explosives. The two dimensional feature of an intensified CCD detector allowed simultaneous recording of multiple, spatially distinct absorption spectra. Between 10 and 12 equally spaced absorption spectra with spatial resolution as small as 0.163 mm have been obtained during 1 ms exposure. The number of absorption spectra and the spatial resolution can easily be set by the detector software, size of the excitation sheet and the focal length of the collection lens. Temporal resolution in the UV region has been increased to 1 ms by pulsing the light source. A 0.54 joule pulse with a duration of 0.75 ms was added to a simmering Xenon arc lamp for the measurement of combustion species. The increase in light intensity of 30 and 70 times the non-pulsed output provided the necessary light flux to achieve single pulse, multiple absorption spectra. To increase the species concentration sensitivity of the experiment, a triple pass optical arrangement was adopted. Partially silvered windows were installed at an angle to the beam providing for three passes across the samples. The corresponding path length was increased by a factor of 2.8 times the sample diameter. Least squares analysis of absorption spectra provide mole fraction profiles for OH, CN and NH along with temperature. Profiles for NC and HN have been determined for self-sustained combustion of RDX in 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 atm air. Peak CN mole fractions of about 200 ppm are observed at 1 atm pressure and the NH mole fraction is about a factor of two lower. As the pressure is increased the reactive CN and HN species peak closer to the combusting surface and reside over a smaller spatial extent. Peak concentrations drop for these higher pressures, but may be due, at least in part, to limitations of the spatial resolution of the absorption

  20. Laser annealing of sputter-deposited -SiC and -SiCN films

    M A Fraga; M Massi; I C Oliveira; F D Origo; W Miyakawa


    This work describes the laser annealing of -SiC and -SiCN films deposited on (100) Si and quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Two samples of -SiCN thin films were produced under different N2/Ar flow ratios. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), Raman analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) techniques were used to investigate the composition and bonding structure of as-deposited and laser annealed SiC and SiCN films.

  1. Acceleration of Advanced CN Antidote Agents for Mass Exposure Treatments: DMTS


    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0098 TITLE: Acceleration of Advanced CN Antidote Agents for Mass Exposure Treatments: DMTS...26 Sept 2012 – 25 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acceleration of Advanced CN Antidote Agents for Mass Exposure Treatments: DMTS 5a. CONTRACT...gas values and blood pressure during CN treatment and reversal. In the first year of this work, stability and IM antidote administration studies were

  2. VLT adaptive optics imaging of QSO host galaxies and close environment at z ~2.5: results from a pilot program

    Falomo, R; Scarpa, R; Treves, A


    We report ESO-VLT near-infrared adaptive optics imaging of one radio-loud (PKS 0113-283) and two radio-quiet (Q 0045-3337 and Q 0101-337) QSOs at z > 2. In the first case, we are able to resolve the QSO and find that it is hosted by an elliptical of absolute magnitude M(K) = -27.6. For the other two objects, no extended emission has been unambiguously detected. This result, though restricted to a single object, extends up to z ~2.5 the finding that cosmic evolution of radio-loud QSO hosts follows the trend expected for luminous and massive spheroids undergoing passive evolution. For Q 0045-3337, our high resolution images show that it is located 1.2 arcsec from a K = 17.5 foreground disc galaxy, which may act as a gravitational lens, since the QSO most probably lies within the galaxy Einstein radius.

  3. K-shell X-ray production in Silicon (Z2 = 14) by (1 ⩽ Z1 ⩽ 53) slow ions

    Lei, Yu; Zhao, Yongtao; Zhou, Xianming; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Xing; Sun, Yuanbo; Liu, Shidong; Ren, Jieru; Wang, Yuyu; Zhang, Xiaoan; Li, Yaozong; Liang, Changhui; Xiao, Guoqing


    K-shell X-ray emission of Silicon induced by near-Bohr-velocity ions was systematically investigated in collision systems for which the ratio of projectile-to-target atomic numbers (Z1/Z2) ranged from 0.07 to 3.79. The results show that, in asymmetric collisions, the measured K-shell X-ray production cross sections of Silicon fit very well with the predictions of different direct ionization models depending on the atomic number of projectile. In the case of near-symmetric collisions (Z1/Z2 ∼ 1), an obvious enhancement of the X-ray production cross section was observed, which can be attributed to the vacancy transfer within the framework of quasi-molecular model.

  4. Intramolecular Aminocyanation of Alkenes via N–CN Bond Cleavage**

    Pan, Zhongda; Pound, Sarah M.; Rondla, Naveen R.; Douglas, Christopher J.


    A metal-free, Lewis acid-promoted intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes was developed. B(C6F5)3 activates N-sulfonyl cyanamides, leading an formal cleavage of the N-CN bonds in conjunction with vicinal addition of sulfonamide and nitrile groups across an alkene. This method enables atom-economical access to indolines and tetrahydroquinolines in excellent yields, and provides a complementary strategy for regioselective alkene difunctionalizations with sulfonamide and nitrile groups. Labeling experiments with 13C suggest a fully intramolecular cyclization pattern due to lack of label scrambling in double crossover experiments. Catalysis with Lewis acid is realized and the reaction can be conducted under air. PMID:24719371

  5. Intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes by N-CN bond cleavage.

    Pan, Zhongda; Pound, Sarah M; Rondla, Naveen R; Douglas, Christopher J


    A metal-free, Lewis acid promoted intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes was developed. B(C6F5)3 activates N-sulfonyl cyanamides, thus leading to a formal cleavage of the N-CN bonds in conjunction with vicinal addition of sulfonamide and nitrile groups across an alkene. This method enables atom-economical access to indolines and tetrahydroquinolines in excellent yields, and provides a complementary strategy for regioselective alkene difunctionalizations with sulfonamide and nitrile groups. Labeling experiments with (13)C suggest a fully intramolecular cyclization pattern due to the lack of label scrambling in double crossover experiments. Catalysis with Lewis acid is realized and the reaction can be conducted under air. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. CN and C2H in IRC +10216

    Huggins, P. J.; Glassgold, A. E.; Morris, M.


    The effects of the production of the radicals CN and C2H from the dissociation of HCN and C2H2 by ambient UV photons in the outer envelope of IRC +10216 are investigated. The spatial distribution of the radicals and their observable millimeter emission-line characteristics are calculated from the inferred abundances of the progenitor species in the envelope of IRC +10216 using photochemical and radiative transfer models. These are compared with available observations to examine whether photoproduction is a possible explanation of the observed emission from these species. The results suggest that the variable abundances induced by photodestruction of their progenitors do affect the observed emission from the radicals.

  7. Light fragment preformation in cold fission of {sup 282}Cn

    Poenaru, D.N.; Gherghescu, R.A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    In a previous article, published in Phys. Rev. C 94, 014309 (2016), we have shown for the first time that the best dynamical trajectory during the deformation toward fission of the superheavy nucleus {sup 286}Fl is a linearly increasing radius of the light fragment, R{sub 2}. This macroscopic-microscopic result reminds us about the α or cluster preformation at the nuclear surface, assumed already in 1928, and proved microscopically many times. This time we give more detailed arguments for the nucleus {sup 282}Cn. Also similar figures are presented for heavy nuclei {sup 240}Pu and {sup 252} Cf. The deep minimum of the total deformation energy near the surface is shown for the first time as a strong argument for cluster preformation. (orig.)

  8. A facile stereospecific synthesis of (Z)-2-sulfonyl-substituted 1,3-enynes via Sonogashira coupling of (E)-α-iodovinyl sulfones with 1-alkynes


    (E)-α-Iodovinyl sulfones 1 underwent the Sonogashira coupling reactions with terminal alkynes 2 in piperidine at room temperature in the presence of 5 mol% of Pd(PPh3)4 and 10 mol% of CuI to stereospecifically afford the corresponding (Z)-2-sulfonyl-substituted 1,3-enynes 3 in high yields.(C) 2007 Ming Zhong Cai. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting Quiescence: The Dependence of Specific Star Formation Rate on Galaxy Size and Central Density at 0.5<z<2.5

    Whitaker, Katherine E; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Franx, Marijn; van der Wel, Arjen; Brammer, Gabriel; Forster-Schreiber, Natascha M; Giavalisco, Mauro; Labbe, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Nelson, Erica J; Skelton, Rosalind


    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between star formation and structure, using a mass-complete sample of 27,893 galaxies at 0.50.5 dex from z~2 to z~0.7. Neither a compact galaxy size nor a high n are sufficient to assess the likelihood of quiescence for the average galaxy; rather, it is the combination of these two parameters together with stellar mass that results in a unique quenching threshold in central density or velocity.

  10. Bifurcation of limit cycles in 3rd-order Z2 Hamiltonian planar vector fields with 3rd-order perturbations

    Yu, Pei; Han, Maoan


    In this paper, we show that a Z2-equivariant 3rd-order Hamiltonian planar vector fields with 3rd-order symmetric perturbations can have at least 10 limit cycles. The method combines the general perturbation to the vector field and the perturbation to the Hamiltonian function. The Melnikov function is evaluated near the center of vector field, as well as near homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits.

  11. Estimation of CN Parameter for Small Agricultural Watersheds Using Asymptotic Functions

    Tomasz Kowalik


    Full Text Available This paper investigates a possibility of using asymptotic functions to determine the value of curve number (CN parameter as a function of rainfall in small agricultural watersheds. It also compares the actually calculated CN with its values provided in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS National Engineering Handbook Section 4: Hydrology (NEH-4 and Technical Release 20 (TR-20. The analysis showed that empirical CN values presented in the National Engineering Handbook tables differed from the actually observed values. Calculations revealed a strong correlation between the observed CN and precipitation (P. In three of the analyzed watersheds, a typical pattern of the observed CN stabilization during abundant precipitation was perceived. It was found that Model 2, based on a kinetics equation, most effectively described the P-CN relationship. In most cases, the observed CN in the investigated watersheds was similar to the empirical CN, corresponding to average moisture conditions set out by NEH-4. Model 2 also provided the greatest stability of CN at 90% sampled event rainfall.

  12. An early phase of environmental effects on galaxy properties unveiled by near-infrared spectroscopy of protocluster galaxies at z>2

    Shimakawa, Rhythm; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Masao; Koyama, Yusei; Tanaka, Ichi


    This work presents the results from our near-infrared spectroscopy of narrow-band selected H$\\alpha$ emitters (HAEs) in two rich protoclusters (PKS 1138-262 at $z=2.2$ and USS 1558-003 at $z=2.5$) with the Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru telescope. These protoclusters are the ancestors of the most massive class of galaxy clusters seen today. The identified HAEs at $z>2$ show very high excitation levels as characterized by much higher [OIII]/H$\\beta$ line ratios than those of low-$z$ galaxies. Such a high excitation level is qualitatively driven by their high specific star formation rates (sSFRs) and lower gaseous metallicities. Furthermore, we investigate the environmental dependence of gaseous metallicities by comparing the HAEs in the protoclustrers with those in the general field at similar redshifts. We find that the gaseous metallicities of protocluster galaxies are more chemically enriched than those of field galaxies at a given stellar mass in the range of M$_\\star&...

  13. Molecular Gas in Lensed z>2 Quasar Host Galaxies and the Star Formation Law for Galaxies with Luminous Active Galactic Nuclei

    Riechers, Dominik A


    We report the detection of luminous CO(2-1), CO(3-2), and CO(4-3) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars B1938+666 (z=2.059), HE0230-2130 (z=2.166), HE1104-1805 (z=2.322), and B1359+154 (z=3.240), using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). B1938+666 was identified in a `blind' CO redshift search, demonstrating the feasibility of such investigations with millimeter interferometers. These galaxies are lensing-amplified by factors of mu_L~11-170, and thus allow us to probe molecular gas in intrinsically fainter galaxies than currently possible without the aid of gravitational lensing. We report lensing-corrected intrinsic CO line luminosities of L'(CO) = 0.65-21 x 10^9 K km/s pc^2, translating to H2 masses of M(H2) = 0.52-1.7 x 10^9 (alpha_CO/0.8) M_sun. To investigate whether or not the AGN in luminous quasars substantially contribute to L_FIR, we study the L'(CO)-L_FIR relation for quasars relative to galaxies without a luminous AGN as a function of redshift. We ...

  14. IRAC Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field South: Star Formation Histories and Stellar Masses of Red Galaxies at z>2

    Labbé, I; Franx, M; Rudnick, G; Barmby, P; Daddi, E; Van Dokkum, P G; Fazio, G G; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Moorwood, A F M; Rix, H W; Rottgering, H; Trujillo, I; Van der Werf, P P


    We present deep 3.6 - 8 micron imaging of the Hubble Deep Field South with IRAC on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We study Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs) at z>2 selected by Js - Ks > 2.3 and compare them to a sample of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z=2-3. The observed UV-to-8 micron spectral energy distributions are fit with stellar population models to constrain star formation histories and derive stellar masses. We find that 70% of the DRGs are best described by dust-reddened star forming models and 30% are very well fit with old and ``dead'' models. Using only the I - Ks and Ks - 4.5 micron colors we can effectively separate the two groups. The dead systems are among the most massive at z~2.5 (mean stellar mass = 0.8 x 10^11 Msun) and likely formed most of their stellar mass at z>5. To a limit of 0.5 x 10^11 Msun their number density is ~10 x lower than that of local early-type galaxies. Furthermore, we use the IRAC photometry to derive rest-frame near-infrared J, H, and K fluxes. The DRGs and LBGs together s...

  15. The hidden AGN main sequence: Evidence for a universal SMBH accretion to star formation rate ratio since z~2 producing a M_BH-M* relation

    Mullaney, J R; Béthermin, M; Elbaz, D; Juneau, S; Pannella, M; Sargent, M T; Alexander, D M; Hickox, R C


    Using X-ray stacking analyses we estimate the average amounts of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth taking place in star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z~1 and z~2 as a function of galaxy stellar mass (M*). We find the average rate of SMBH growth taking place in SFGs follows remarkably similar trends with both M* and redshift as the average star-formation rates (SFRs) of these galaxies (i.e., dM_BH/dt ~ M*^(0.86+/-0.39) for the z~1 sample and dM_BH/dt ~ M*^(1.05+/-0.36) for the z~2 sample). It follows that the ratio of SMBH growth rate to SFR is (a) flat with respect to galaxy stellar mass (b) not evolving with redshift and (c) close to the ratio required to maintain/establish a SMBH to stellar mass ratio of ~10^(-3) as also inferred from today's M_BH-M_Bulge relationship. We interpret this as evidence that SMBHs have, on average, grown in-step with their host galaxies since at least z~2, irrespective of host galaxy mass and AGN triggering mechanism and that the relative growth rates are more important in esta...

  16. Shadow of a Colossus: A z=2.45 Galaxy Protocluster Detected in 3D Ly-a Forest Tomographic Mapping of the COSMOS Field

    Lee, Khee-Gan; White, Martin; Prochaska, J Xavier; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Schlegel, David J; Rich, R Michael; Suzuki, Nao; Stark, Casey W; Fevre, Olivier Le; Nugent, Peter E; Salvato, Mara; Zamorani, Gianni


    Using moderate-resolution optical spectra from 58 background Lyman-break galaxies and quasars at $z\\sim 2.3-3$ within a $11.5'\\times13.5'$ area of the COSMOS field ($\\sim 1200\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ projected area density or $\\sim 2.4\\,h^{-1}\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}$ mean transverse separation), we reconstruct a 3D tomographic map of the foreground Ly$\\alpha$ forest absorption at $2.2<z<2.5$ with an effective smoothing scale of $\\sigma_{3d}\\approx3.5\\,h^{-1}\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}$ comoving. Comparing with 61 coeval galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the same volume, we find that the galaxy positions are clearly biased towards regions with enhanced IGM absorption in the tomographic map. We find an extended IGM overdensity with deep absorption troughs at $z=2.45$ associated with a recently-discovered galaxy protocluster at the same redshift. Based on simulations matched to our data, we estimate the enclosed dark matter mass within this IGM overdensity to be $M_{\\rm dm} (z=2.45) = (9\\pm4)\\times 10^{13}\\,h^{-1}\\,\\mathrm{M_\\o...

  17. Ages of massive galaxies at $0.5 < z < 2.0$ from 3D-HST rest-frame optical spectroscopy

    Fumagalli, Mattia; van Dokkum, Pieter; Whitaker, Katherine E; Skelton, Rosalind E; Brammer, Gabriel; Nelson, Erica; Maseda, Michael; Momcheva, Ivelina; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Lundgren, Britt; Rix, Hans-Walter


    We present low-resolution near-infrared stacked spectra from the 3D-HST survey up to $z=2.0$ and fit them with commonly used stellar population synthesis models: BC03 (Bruzual & Charlot, 2003), FSPS10 (Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis, Conroy & Gunn 2010), and FSPS-C3K (Conroy, Kurucz, Cargile, Castelli, in prep). The accuracy of the grism redshifts allows the unambiguous detection of many emission and absorption features, and thus a first systematic exploration of the rest-frame optical spectra of galaxies up to $z=2$. We select massive galaxies ($\\rm log(M_{*} / M_{\\odot}) > 10.8$), we divide them into quiescent and star-forming via a rest-frame color-color technique, and we median-stack the samples in 3 redshift bins between $z=0.5$ and $z=2.0$. We find that stellar population models fit the observations well at wavelengths below $\\rm 6500 \\AA$ rest-frame, but show systematic residuals at redder wavelengths. The FSPS-C3K model generally provides the best fits (evaluated with a $\\chi^2_{red}$ s...

  18. A CANDELS WFC3 Grism Study of Emission-Line Galaxies at z~2: A Mix of Nuclear Activity and Low-Metallicity Star Formation

    Trump, Jonathan R; Scarlata, Claudia; Kocevski, Dale D; Bell, Eric F; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Koo, David C; Faber, S M; Laird, Elise S; Mozena, Mark; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan, Renbin; Yesuf, Hassen; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L; Dunlop, James S; Ferguson, Henry C; Finkelstein, Steven L; Grogin, Norman A; Hathi, Nimish P; Juneau, Stephanie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Koekemoer, Anton M; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A; Rodney, Steven A; Straughn, Amber N; Teplitz, Harry I


    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z~2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with >5-sigma detections of emission lines to f > 2.5x10^{-18} erg/s/cm^2, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically ~7 times less massive (median M_* = 10^{9.5} M_sun) than previously studied z~2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have OIII/Hb ratios which are very similar to previously studied z~2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the OIII emission line is more spatially concentrated than the Hb emission line with 98.1 confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are...

  19. No More Active Galactic Nuclei in Clumpy Disks Than in Smooth Galaxies at z~2 in CANDELS / 3D-HST

    Trump, Jonathan R; Juneau, Stephanie; Weiner, Benjamin J; Luo, Bin; Brammer, Gabriel B; Bell, Eric F; Brandt, W Niel; Dekel, Avishai; Guo, Yicheng; Hopkins, Philip F; Koo, David C; Kocevski, Dale D; McIntosh, Daniel H; Momcheva, Ivelina; Faber, S M; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lotz, Jennifer; Maseda, Michael; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Rosario, David J; Zeimann, Gregory R


    We use CANDELS imaging, 3D-HST spectroscopy, and Chandra X-ray data to investigate if active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially fueled by violent disk instabilities funneling gas into galaxy centers at 1.3<z<2.4. We select galaxies undergoing gravitational instabilities using the number of clumps and degree of patchiness as proxies. The CANDELS visual classification system is used to identify 44 clumpy disk galaxies, along with mass-matched comparison samples of smooth and intermediate morphology galaxies. We note that, despite being being mass-matched and having similar star formation rates, the smoother galaxies tend to be smaller disks with more prominent bulges compared to the clumpy galaxies. The lack of smooth extended disks is probably a general feature of the z~2 galaxy population, and means we cannot directly compare with the clumpy and smooth extended disks observed at lower redshift. We find that z~2 clumpy galaxies have slightly enhanced AGN fractions selected by integrated line ratio...

  20. Threshold Ionization Spectroscopy of La(CH_{3}CN) and La(C_{4}H_{9}CN) Radicals Formed by la Reactions with Alkane Nitriles

    Ullah, Ahamed; Kim, Jong Hyun; Cao, Wenjin; Yang, Dong-Sheng


    La atom reactions with acetonitrile (CH_{3}CN) and pentanenitrile (C_{4}H_{9}CN) are carried out in a laser-vaporization supersonic molecular beam source. Metal-containing species are observed using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In this talk, we report the mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopic characterization of two metal-containing radicals, La(CH_{3}CN) and La(C_{4}H_{9}CN), formed by La associations with acetonitrile and pentanenitrile, respectively. Adiabatic ionization energies of the two La-alkane nitrile species and their vibrational frequencies are measured from the MATI spectra. Metal-ligand binding modes and molecular structures are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic measurements with density functional theory calculations and spectral simulations. For both alkane nitriles, the preferred La binding site is identified to be the nitrile group with a π-bind mode, the resultant metal complexes are three-membered metallacycles. While a single isomer is observed for La(CH_{3}CN), two rotational conformers are identified for La(C_{4}H_{9}CN). The binding and structures of these metal-alkane nitrile radicals are different from those formed by metal ion reactions, where metal ions were reported to favor σ binding with the nitrogen atom. K. Eller, W. Zummack, H. Schwarz, L. M. Roth, B. S. Freiser, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 833-839

  1. Oxidative cleavage of benzylic C-N bonds under metal-free conditions.

    Gong, Jin-Long; Qi, Xinxin; Wei, Duo; Feng, Jian-Bo; Wu, Xiao-Feng


    An interesting procedure for the oxidative cleavage of benzylic C-N bonds has been developed. Using TBAI as the catalyst and H2O2 as the oxidant, various benzylamines were transformed into their corresponding aromatic aldehydes in moderate to good yields. Notably, this is the first example of an oxidative cleavage of benzylic C-N bonds under metal-free conditions.

  2. InterProScan Result: CN374573 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available CN374573 CN374573_1_ORF2 E80B182A29F5AA6F PANTHER PTHR23256:SF268 TYROSINE PROTEIN KINASE FES (FPS) (PTK GRO...UP IV) 9.9e-17 T IPR020764 Tyrosine-protein kinase, non-receptor Fes Molecular Func

  3. Theoretical study on the reaction mechanism of CN radical with ketene


    The bimolecular single collision reaction potential energy surface of CN radical with ketene (CH2CO) was investigated by means of B3LYP and QCISD(T) methods. The calculated results indicate that there are three possible channels in the reaction. The first is an attack reaction by the carbon atom of CN at the carbon atom of the methylene of CH2CO to form the intermediate NCCH2CO followed by a rupture reaction of the C-C bond combined with -CO group to the products CH2CN+CO. The second is a direct addition reaction between CN and CH2CO to form the intermediate CH2C(O)CN followed by its isomerization into NCCH2CO via a CN-shift reaction, and subsequently, NCCH2CO dissociates into CH2CN+CO through a CO-loss reaction. The last is a direct hydrogen abstraction reaction of CH2CO by CN radical. Because of the existence of a 15.44 kJ/mol reaction barrier and higher energy of reaction products, the path can be ruled out as an important channel in the reaction kinetics. The present theoretical computation results, which give an available suggestion on the reaction mechanism, are in good agreement with previous experimental studies.

  4. Sequence Variation in the Gp120 region of SHIV-CN97001 during in vivo Passage

    Qiang LIU; Gui-bo YANG; Yue MA; Chen-li QIU; Jie-jie DAI; Hui XING; Yi-ming SHAO


    SHIV-CN97001 played an important role in assessing the immune effect and strategy of the AIDS vaccine which included genes of the predominant prevalent HIV-1 strain in China. In this study, SHIV-CN97001 was in vivo passaged serially to construct pathogenic SHIV-CN97001/rhesus macaques model. To identify variation in the gp120 region of SHIV-CN97001 during passage, the fragments of gp120 gene were amplified by RT-PCR from the plasma of SHIV-CN97001 infected animals at the peak viral load time point and the gene distances (divergence, diversity) were calculated using DISTANCE. The analysis revealed that the genetic distances of SHIV-CN97001 in the third passage animals were the highest during in vivo passage. It had a relationship between viral divergence from the founder strain and viral replication ability. The nucleic acid sequence of the V3 region was highly conservative. All of the SHIV-CN97001 strains had V3 loop central motif (GPGQ) and were predicted to be using CCR5 co-receptor on the basis of the critical amino acids within V3 loop. These results show that there was no significant increase in the genetic distance during serial passage, and SHIV-CN97001 gp120 gene evolved toward ancestral states upon transmission to a new host. This could partly explain why there was no pathogenic viral strain obtained during in vivo passage.

  5. Laguerre expansion on the Heisenberg group and Fourier-Bessel transform on Cn

    CHANG; Der-Chen; GRIENER; Peter; TIE; Jingzhi


    Given a principal value convolution on the Heisenberg group Hn = Cn × R, we study the relation between its Laguerre expansion and the Fourier-Bessel expansion of its limit on Cn. We also calculate the Dirichlet kernel for the Laguerre expansion on the group Hn.

  6. Preparation and properties of SiCN diffusion barrier layer for Cu interconnect in ULSI

    ZHOU Ji-cheng; SHI Zhi-jie; ZHENG Xu-qiang


    SiCN thin films and Cu/SiCN/Si structures were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. And some samples underwent the rapid thermal annealing(RTA) processing. The thin-film surface morphology, crystal structure and electronic properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy(AFM), X-ray diffractometry(XRD), Fourier transform infrared transmission(FTIR) and four-point probe(FPP) analyses. The results reveal the formation of complex networks among the three elements, Si, C and N, and the existence of different chemical bonds in the SiCN films, such as Si-C, Si-N, C-N and C=N. The as-deposited SiCN thin films are amorphous in the Cu/SiCN/Si structures and have good thermal stability, and the SiCN thin films are still able to prevent the diffusion reaction between Cu and Si interface after RTA processing at 600 ℃ for 5 min.

  7. Structural transition, dielectric and bonding properties of BeCN2

    Gou, Hui-Yang; Gao, Fa-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Wu; Li, Zhi-Ping


    By means of first principle total energy calculations, this paper studies the structural transition, elastic, mechanical, dielectric and electronic properties of BeCN2. The calculations in total energy indicate that under ambient condition, the orthorhombic BeSiN2-type BeCN2 (space group Pna21) is a more favoured structure than the tetragonal chalcopyritetype one (space group I-42d). The results of elastic properties reveal that BeCN2 in both orthorhombic and tetragonal structure has higher bulk and shear moduli and smaller Poisson's ratio. The calculated Vicker hardness of tetragonal phase is 36.8 GPa, indicating a hard material. The analyses of electronic structure and electron density difference demonstrate that these excellent mechanical properties are attributed to the stronger covalent-bonding of CN4 and BeN4 subunits in BeCN2 crystal. Also, the orthorhombic BeCN2 phase is found to be a transparent semiconductor material with the calculated direct band gap of about 5.56 eV, superior to the indirect band gap of diamond and c-BN. Moreover, it also calculates Born effective charges and dielectric constants of BeCN2. These results suggest that BeCN2 may have some useful applications as optoelectronic, optical window and wear resistant materials.

  8. CN Zeeman observations of the NGC 2264-C protocluster

    Maury, Anaëlle J; Thum, Clemens


    From an observational point of view, the role of magnetic fields in star formation remains unclear, and two main theoretical scenarios have been proposed so far to regulate the star-formation processes. The first model assumes that turbulence in star-forming clumps plays a crucial role, and especially that protostellar outflow-driven turbulence is crucial to support cluster-forming clumps; while the second scenario is based on the consideration of a magnetically-supported clump. Previous studies of the NGC 2264-C protocluster indicate that, in addition to thermal pressure, some extra support might effectively act against the gravitational collapse of this cluster-forming clump. We previously showed that this extra support is not due to the numerous protostellar outflows, nor the enhanced turbulence in this protocluster. Here we present the results of the first polarimetric campaign dedicated to quantifying the magnetic support at work in the NGC 2264-C clump. Our Zeeman observations of the CN(1-0) hyperfine l...

  9. Delayed presentation of traumatic facial nerve (CN VII) paralysis.

    Napoli, Anthony M; Panagos, Peter


    Facial nerve paralysis (Cranial Nerve VII, CN VII) can be a disfiguring disorder with profound impact upon the patient. The etiology of facial nerve paralysis may be congenital, iatrogenic, or result from neoplasm, infection, trauma, or toxic exposure. In the emergency department, the most common cause of unilateral facial paralysis is Bell's palsy, also known as idiopathic facial paralysis (IFP). We report a case of delayed presentation of unilateral facial nerve paralysis 3 days after sustaining a traumatic head injury. Re-evaluation and imaging of this patient revealed a full facial paralysis and temporal bone fracture extending into the facial canal. Because cranial nerve injuries occur in approximately 5-10% of head-injured patients, a good history and physical examination is important to differentiate IFP from another etiology. Newer generation high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans are commonly demonstrating these fractures. An understanding of this complication, appropriate patient follow-up, and early involvement of the Otolaryngologist is important in management of these patients. The mechanism as well as the timing of facial nerve paralysis will determine the proper evaluation, consultation, and management for the patient. Patients with total or immediate paralysis as well as those with poorly prognostic audiogram results are good candidates for surgical repair.

  10. Anything But Ordinary ——



    In the present era of accelerated technological development with its proliferation of new digital media,PC and Internet,the main questions concerning communication practices examine the patterns of interaction between these practices and the use of‘old’media,such as print,the electronic and audiovisual media,television,radio and VCR,which have all dominated the communication scene until fairly recently.Definitely we can say that the internet has become a family member that no one can live without it,especially the new types electronic products’sale in the markets and the development of the wireless(wifi),what’s more,the high click rates of facebook,youtube,twitter and so on.This great change also have happened in China that you can see the first thing for everyone in the morning is connecting the internet so as to read weibo(micro blog,its function is similar to twitter,now it is the most popular and famous micro blog in China),youku(similar to ytube),xiaonei(like facebook)and so on.Therefore a great many‘old’media in China is now experiencing the large reform.CRI(China Radio International)cannot lag behind.In this paper,I am trying to introduce one website from CRI which is called""as a landscape to state her"birth","grow up(development)"and her"future".

  11. Photometric Modelling of Close Binary Star CN And

    D. M. Z. Jassur; A. Khodadadi


    The results of two color photometry of active close binary CN And are presented and analyzed. The light curves of the system are obviously asymmetric, with the primary maximum brighter than the secondary maximum, which is known as the O’Conell effect. The most plausible explanation of the asymmetry is expected to be due to spot activity of the primary component. For the determination of physical and geometrical parameters, the most new version of W–D code was used, but the presence of asymmetry prevented the convergence of the method when the whole light curves were used. The solutions were obtained by applying mode 3 of W–D code to the first half of the light curves, assuming synchronous rotation and zero eccentricity. Absolute parameters of the system were obtained from combining the photometric solution with spectroscopic data obtained from radial velocity curve analysis. The results indicate the poor thermal contact of the components and transit primary minimum. Finally the O–C diagram was analyzed. It was found that the orbital period of the system is changing with a rate of / = -2.2(6) × 10-10 which corresponds to mass transfer from more massive component to less massive with the rate of / ∼ 4.82 × 10-88sun/year.

  12. (Z-2-(4-{[(E-2-Hydroxybenzylidene]amino}phenyl-3-[4-(1,4,7,10-tetraoxa-13-azacyclopentadecan-13-ylphenyl]acrylonitrile

    Xin Zhang


    Full Text Available The title compound, C32H35N3O5, is an important fluorescence probe. It is composed of a 1,4,7,10-tetraoxa-13λ2-azacyclopentadecane unit linked to a twisted (Z-2-(4-{[(E-2-hydroxybenzylidene]amino}phenyl-3-phenylacrylonitrile chain. In the molecule, an O—H...N hydrogen bond forms an S(6 ring motif. There is also in intramolecular C—H...N hydrogen bond in the azacrown ether moiety, which also forms an S(6 ring motif. In the crystal, molecules are linked via pairs of C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers.

  13. On the computation of the term $w_{21}z^2\\bar{z}$ of the series defining the center manifold for a scalar delay differential equation

    Ion, Anca-Veronica


    In computing the first several terms of the series of powers of the center manifold at an equilibrium point of a scalar delay differential equation, some problems occur at the term $w_{21}z^2\\ovbarrline{z}.$ More precisely, in order to determine the values at 0, respectively $-r$ of the function $w_{21}(\\,.\\,),$ an algebraic system of equations must be solved. We show that the two equations are dependent, hence the system has an infinity of solutions. Then we show how we can overcome this lack of uniqueness.

  14. Modelling galaxy spectra at redshifts 0.2<z<2.3 by the [OII]/Hb and [OIII]/Hb line ratios

    Contini, M


    We present the detailed modelling of line spectra emitted from galaxies at redshifts 0.2<z<2.3. The spectra account only for a few oxygen to Hb line ratios. The results show that [OII]3727+3729/Hb and [OIII]5007+4959/Hb are not sufficient to constrain the models. The data at least of an auroral line, e.g. [OIII]4363, should be known. We have found by modelling the spectra observed from ultrastrong emission line galaxy and faint galaxy samples, O/H relative abundances ranging between 1.8 X 10^{-4} and 6.6 X 10^{-4}.

  15. Young, Star-forming Galaxies and their local Counterparts: the Evolving Relationship of Mass-SFR-Metallicity since z ~ 2.1

    Gebhardt, Henry S Grasshorn; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Bridge, Joanna S; Schneider, Donald P; Trump, Jonathan R


    We explore the evolution of the Stellar Mass-Star Formation Rate-Metallicity Relation using a set of 256 COSMOS and GOODS galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 3 . 10^40 ergs s^-1) local galaxies, and this offset cannot be explained by simple systematic offsets in the derived quantities. At stellar masses above ~10^9 Msol and star formation rates above ~10 Msol yr^-1, the z ~ 2.1 galaxies have higher oxygen abundances than their local counterparts, while the opposite is true for lower-mass, lower-SFR systems.

  16. Asymmetric Synthesis of (3R, 5R)-3-((tert-Butyldimethylsily)oxy)-5-((Z)-2-Bromovinyl)-Tetrahydro-Furan-2-one, an Intermediate for the Synthesis of Fostriecin


    (3R,5R)-3-((tert-Butyldimethylsily)oxy)-5-((Z)-2-bromovinyl)-tetrahydro-furan-2-one, an intermediate for the synthesis of Fostriecin was achieved by intramolecular asymmetric induction in propene addition of (-)-8-phenylmenthyl glyoxylate followed by inversion of C3-hydroxyl group and Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation with simultaneous cyclization to give lactone 5. Then protection of C3-hydroxyl group and oxidation of the C6-primary hydroxyl group which reacted with Wittig reagent to yield the target compound 4.

  17. Ion beam analysis, corrosion resistance and nanomechanical properties of TiAlCN/CN{sub x} multilayer grown by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Alemón, B.; Flores, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, J. Guadalupe Zuno 48, Los Belenes, Zapopan, Jal. 45101 (Mexico); Canto, C. [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Avenida de la Investigación S/N, Coyoacán, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Andrade, E., E-mail: [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Avenida de la Investigación S/N, Coyoacán, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Lucio, O.G. de [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Avenida de la Investigación S/N, Coyoacán, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Rocha, M.F. [ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ALM Zacatenco, Mexico, DF 07738 (Mexico); Broitman, E. [Thin Films Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)


    A novel TiAlCN/CN{sub x} multilayer coating, consisting of nine TiAlCN/CN{sub x} periods with a top layer 0.5 μm of CN{sub x}, was designed to enhance the corrosion resistance of CoCrMo biomedical alloy. The multilayers were deposited by dc and RF reactive magnetron sputtering from Ti{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5} and C targets respectively in a N{sub 2}/Ar plasma. The corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray diffraction tests were used to measure the element composition profiles and crystalline structure of the films. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization measurements using simulated body fluid (SBF) at typical body temperature and the nanomechanical properties of the multilayer evaluated by nanoindentation tests were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. It was found that the multilayer hardness and the elastic recovery are higher than the substrate of CoCrMo. Furthermore the coated substrate shows a better general corrosion resistance than that of the CoCrMo alloy alone with no observation of pitting corrosion.

  18. CN and NH2 atmospheres of Comet C/1999 J3 (Linear)

    Korsun, P. P.; Jockers, K.


    Observations of Comet C/1999 J3 were made at the 2-m telescope of the Pik Terskol Observatory on September 19, 1999. Narrow-band CCD images of the CN, NH2, and dust atmospheres have been recorded using the two-channel focal reducer of the Max-Plank-Institute for Aeronomy. To fit distributions of the CN and NH2 molecules in the comet atmosphere Monte Carlo model was adopted. Model calculations were successful with photodissociation lifetimes equal to τCN=1.5×105s and τ{CNparent}=3.2×104s for CN and its parent, τ{NH2}=1.0×105s and τ{NH2parent}=5.0×103s for NH2 and its parent, respectively. These results are in agreement with HCN as the main source of the CN radicals and NH3 as the main source of the NH2 radicals in the atmosphere of Comet C/1999 J3 (Linear). The gas-production rates of CN, Q(CN)=3.8×1025 mol-1, and NH2, Q(NH2)=2.6×1025 mol-1, have been determined as well. These values are about 0.24% and 0.16%, respectively, of the water production rate.

  19. Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

    Cools, Nathalie; Vesterdal, Lars; De Vos, Bruno


    The C:N ratio is considered as an indicator of nitrate leaching in response to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the C:N ratio is influenced by a multitude of other site-related factors. This study aimed to unravel the factors determining C:N ratios of forest floor, mineral soil...... and peat top soils in more than 4000 plots of the ICP Forests large-scale monitoring network. The first objective was to quantify forest floor, mineral and peat soil C:N ratios across European forests. Secondly we determined the main factors explaining this C:N ratio using a boosted regression tree...... analysis (BRT), including fifteen site and environmental variables. Ninety-five percent of the C:N ratios were between 16 and 44 in the forest floor, between 13 and 44 in the peat topsoil and between 10 and 32 in the mineral topsoil. Within the aerated forest floor and the mineral soil, the C:N ratios...

  20. CN, NH2, and dust in the atmosphere of comet C/1999 J3 (LINEAR)

    Korsun, P. P.; Jockers, K.


    Comet C/1999 J3 (LINEAR) was observed with 2 m telescope of the Pik Terskol Observatory on September 19, 1999. Narrow-band CCD images of the CN, NH2, and dust atmospheres were recorded with the Two-Channel focal reducer of the Max-Plank-Institute for Aeronomy. The distributions of the CN and NH2 molecules in the comet atmosphere were fitted with a Monte Carlo model. For the CN atmosphere the best agreement between observed and calculated surface profiles was reached with the CN photodissociation lifetime tau (CN)=1.5*E5 s and with the parent photodissociation lifetime tau (CNparent)=3.2*E4 s. This result indicates that HCN is the main source of the CN radicals in the atmosphere of comet C/1999 J3 (LINEAR). Regarding the NH2 radicals, there is no doubt that NH3 is the dominant source of this species in the comet atmosphere. The lifetimes tau (NH2)=1.0*E5 s for NH2 and tau (NH2 parent)=5.0*E3 s for its parent are close to theoretical calculations. The gas-production rates of CN, Q(CN)=3.8 *E25 mol s-1, and NH2, Q(NH2)=6.9*E25 mol s-1 have also been determined. The appearance of the comet and the obtained data show that the comet is a gaseous one. The Afrho values are 21.6 cm for the blue spectral window and 23.4 cm for the red one. The normalized spectral gradient of the cometary dust is low, 4.0% per 1000 Å. The ratio log((Afrho )443/Q(CN)) = -24.25 indicates a very low dust to gas ratio as well.

  1. Discovery of a Strongly-Lensed Massive Quiescent Galaxy at z=2.636: Spatially-Resolved Spectroscopy and Indications of Rotation

    Newman, Andrew B; Ellis, Richard S


    We report the discovery of RG1M0150, a massive, recently quenched galaxy at z=2.636 that is multiply imaged by the cluster MACSJ0150.3-1005. We derive a stellar mass of log M_*=11.49+0.10-0.16 and a half-light radius of R_e,maj =1.8+-0.4 kpc. Taking advantage of the lensing magnification, we are able to spatially resolve a remarkably massive yet compact quiescent galaxy at z>2 in ground-based near-infrared spectroscopic observations using Magellan/FIRE and Keck/MOSFIRE. We find no gradient in the strength of the Balmer absorption lines over 0.6 R_e - 1.6 R_e, which are consistent with an age of 760 Myr. Gas emission in [NII] broadly traces the spatial distribution of the stars and is coupled with weak Halpha emission (log [NII]/Halpha = 0.6+-0.2), indicating that OB stars are not the primary ionizing source. The velocity dispersion within the effective radius is sigma_e = 271+-41 km/s. We detect rotation in the stellar absorption lines for the first time beyond z~1. Using a two-integral Jeans model that accou...

  2. Deep spectroscopy of the FUV-optical emission lines from a sample of radio galaxies at z~2.5: metallicity and ionization

    Humphrey, A; Vernet, J; Fosbury, R; Alighieri, S di Serego; Binette, L


    We present long-slit NIR spectra, obtained using the ISAAC instrument at the Very Large Telescope, for nine radio galaxies at z~2.5. One-dimensional spectra have been extracted and cross calibrated with optical spectra from the literature to produce line spectra spanning a rest wavelength of ~1200-7000 A. We have also produced a composite of the rest-frame UV-optical line fluxes of powerful, z~2.5 radio galaxies. We have investigated the relative strengths of Ly-alpha, H-beta, H-alpha, HeII 1640 and HeII 4687, and we find that Av can vary significantly from object to object. In addition, we identify new line ratios to calculate electron temperature: [NeV] 1575/[NeV] 3426, [NeIV] 1602/[NeIV] 2423, OIII] 1663/[OIII] 5008 and [OII] 2471/[OII]3728. We model the emission line spectra and conclude they are best explained by AGN-photoionization with the ionization parameter U varying between objects. Single slab photoionization models are unable to reproduce the high- and the low-ionization lines simultaneously: thi...

  3. Metallicities of Emission-Line Galaxies from HST ACS PEARS and HST WFC3 ERS Grism Spectroscopy at 0.6 < z < 2.4

    Xia, Lifang; Rhoads, James; Pirzkal, Nor; Straughn, Amber; Finkelstein, Steven; Cohen, Seth; Kuntschner, Harald; Kümmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy; Windhorst, Rogier A; O'Connell, Robert


    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission line strength show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low-resolution grism spectra in the optical with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Using a sample of 11 emission line galaxies (ELGs) at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 < M_B < -19, which have [OII], H\\beta, and [OIII] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 < 12+log(O/H) < 8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (\\piMC^2) fitting of their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), and span the mass range 8.1 < log(M_*/M_\\sun) < 10.1. These galaxies show a mass-metallicity (M-L) and Lumin...

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Observations of Escaping Lyman Continuum Radiation from Galaxies and Weak AGN at Redshifts z~2.3--5

    Smith, Brent M; Jansen, Rolf A; Cohen, Seth H; Jiang, Linhua; Dijkstra, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M; Bielby, Richard; Inoue, Akio K; MacKenty, John W; O'Connell, Robert W; Silk, Joseph I


    We present observations of escaping Lyman Continuum (LyC) radiation from 50 massive star-forming galaxies and 14 weak AGN with reliable spectroscopic redshifts at z~2.3--5.8. We analyzed HST WFC3/UVIS mosaics of the ERS field in three UV filters, and ACS B in the GOODS-South field to sample the rest-frame LyC over these redshifts. The average LyC emission of galaxies at z_mean=2.38, 2.68, 3.47, and 5.02 is detected at the >=3sigma level in image stacks of 11--15 galaxies in the WFC3/UVIS F225W, F275W, F336W, and ACS/WFC F435W filters. Their average LyC flux corresponds to AB~29.5--30.7 mag. The LyC flux of weak AGN is typically ~1 mag brighter at z~2.3--4.8, but averaged over ~4x fewer galaxies. The stacked galaxy LyC profiles are flatter than their non-ionizing UV-continuum profiles out to r~0".7, possibly indicating a radial porosity dependence in the ISM. The average LyC emission from AGN is more extended and sometimes more elongated compared to galaxies without AGN, possibly due to the viewing-angle at wh...

  5. Quiescent Galaxies in the 3D-HST Survey: Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Large Number of Galaxies with Relatively Old Stellar Populations at z~2

    Whitaker, Katherine E; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Skelton, Rosalind; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt F; Nelson, Erica J; Patel, Shannon G; Rix, Hans-Walter


    Quiescent galaxies at z~2 have been identified in large numbers based on rest-frame colors, but only a small number of these galaxies have been spectroscopically confirmed to show that their rest-frame optical spectra show either strong Balmer or metal absorption lines. Here, we median stack the rest-frame optical spectra for 171 photometrically-quiescent galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2.2 from the 3D-HST grism survey. In addition to Hbeta (4861A), we unambiguously identify metal absorption lines in the stacked spectrum, including the G-band (4304A), Mg I (5175A), and Na I (5894A). This finding demonstrates that galaxies with relatively old stellar populations already existed when the universe was ~3 Gyr old, and that rest-frame color selection techniques can efficiently select them. We find an average age of 1.3^0.1_0.3 Gyr when fitting a simple stellar population to the entire stack. We confirm our previous result from medium-band photometry that the stellar age varies with the colors of quiescent galaxies: th...

  6. SMM J04135+10277: A Candidate Early-Stage "Wet-Dry" Merger of Two Massive Galaxies at z=2.8

    Riechers, Dominik A


    We report interferometric imaging of CO(J=3-2) emission toward the z=2.846 submillimeter-selected galaxy SMM J04135+10277, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). SMM J04135+10277 was previously thought to be a gas-rich, submillimeter-selected quasar, with the highest molecular gas mass among high-z quasars reported in the literature. Our maps at ~6x improved linear resolution relative to earlier observations spatially resolve the emission on ~1.7" scales, corresponding to a (lensing-corrected) source radius of ~5.2 kpc. They also reveal that the molecular gas reservoir, and thus, likely the submillimeter emission, is not associated with the host galaxy of the quasar, but with an optically faint gas-rich galaxy at 5.2", or 41.5 kpc projected distance from the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The obscured gas-rich galaxy has a dynamical mass of M_dyn sin2(i)=5.6x10^11 M_sun, corresponding to a gas mass fraction of ~21%. Assuming a typical M_BH/M* ratio for z>2 quasars, the two...

  7. Alma And Jvla Imaging Of Intense Galaxy-Wide Star Formation In Z 2 Galaxies In The Hudf: Bridging Smgs To The Main Sequence

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu


    We present 0.4'' resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 main-sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z 2. These galaxies are selected from deep ALMA and JVLA surveys of the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at 1.3 mm and 5 cm. Morphological classification performed on spatially-resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray AGN. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distribution, with a median r_e = 2.4 kpc, thereby providing direct evidence of galaxy-wide star formation in z 2 main-sequence SFGs. In X-ray AGN where radio emission is enhanced over the level associated with star formation, the radio excess pinpoints the AGN, which are found to be cospatial with star formation. The median extinction-independent size of main-sequence SFGs is 2x larger than those of luminous SMGs, providing a constraint on the characteristic SFR of 300 Msun/yr above which a significant population of more compact SFGs appears to emerge, possibly bridging the populations of SMGs to main-sequence SFGs.

  8. The End of Helium Reionization at z ~= 2.7 Inferred from Cosmic Variance in HST/COS He II Lyα Absorption Spectra

    Worseck, Gábor; Prochaska, J. Xavier; McQuinn, Matthew; Dall'Aglio, Aldo; Fechner, Cora; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Reimers, Dieter; Richter, Philipp; Wisotzki, Lutz


    We report on the detection of strongly varying intergalactic He II absorption in HST/COS spectra of two z em ~= 3 quasars. From our homogeneous analysis of the He II absorption in these and three archival sightlines, we find a marked increase in the mean He II effective optical depth from ≃ 1 at z ~= 2.3 to ≳ 5 at z ~= 3.2, but with a large scatter of 2≲ τ_{eff,He II} ≲ 5 at 2.7 background, rather than density variations that are probed by the coeval H I forest. Semianalytic models of He II absorption require a strong decrease in the He II-ionizing background to explain the strong increase of the absorption at z >~ 2.7, probably indicating He II reionization was incomplete at z reion >~ 2.7. Likewise, recent three-dimensional numerical simulations of He II reionization qualitatively agree with the observed trend only if He II reionization completes at z reion ~= 2.7 or even below, as suggested by a large τ_{eff,He II}≳ 3 in two of our five sightlines at z Technology, the University of California and NASA; it was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (programs 166.A.-0106, 071.A-0066, 083.A-0421).

  9. A quasar reddened by a sub-parsec sized, metal-rich and dusty cloud in a damped Lyman-alpha absorber at z=2.13

    Krogager, J -K; Noterdaeme, P; Zafar, T; Møller, P; Ledoux, C; Krühler, T; Stockton, A


    We present a detailed analysis of a red quasar at z=2.32 with an intervening damped Lyman-alpha absorber (DLA) at z=2.13. Using high quality data from the X-shooter spectrograph at ESO Very Large Telescope we find that the absorber has a metallicity consistent with Solar. We observe strong C I and H$_2$ absorption indicating a cold, dense absorbing medium. Partial coverage effects are observed in the C I lines, from which we infer a covering fraction of $27 \\pm 6$ % and a physical diameter of the cloud of 0.1 pc. From the covering fraction and size, we estimate the size of the background quasar's broad line region. We search for emission from the DLA counterpart in optical and near-infrared imaging. No emission is observed in the optical data. However, we see tentative evidence for a counterpart in the H and K' band images. The DLA shows high depletion (as probed by [Fe/Zn]=-1.22) indicating that significant amounts of dust must be present in the DLA. By fitting the spectrum with various dust reddened quasar ...

  10. On representation of an integer as a sum by X^2+Y^2+Z^2 and the modular equations of degree 3 and 5

    Berkovich, Alexander


    I discuss a variety of results involving s(n), the number of representations of n as a sum of three squares. One of my objectives is to reveal numerous interesting connections between the properties of this function and certain modular equations of degree 3 and 5. In particular, I show that s(25n)=(6-(-n|5))s(n)-5s(n/25) follows easily from the well known Ramanujan modular equation of degree 5. Moreover, I establish new relations between s(n) and h(n), g(n), the number of representations of $n$ by the ternary quadratic forms 2x^2+2y^2+2z^2-yz+zx+xy and x^2+y^2+3z^2+xy, respectively. I also find generating function formulae for various subsequences of {s(n)}, for instance 6 Product{j=1}^{infty}(1-q^{2j})^2(1-q^{10j})(1+q^{-1+2j})^4 (1+q^{-3+10j})(1+q^{-7+10j}) = sum_{n=0}^{infty}s(5n+1)q^n. I propose an interesting identity for s(p^2n)- p s(n) with p being an odd prime.

  11. Crystal structure of (E-13-{4-[(Z-2-cyano-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylethenyl]phenyl}parthenolide methanol hemisolvate

    Narsimha Reddy Penthala


    Full Text Available The title compound, C33H35NO6 [systematic name: (Z-3-(4-{(E-[(E-1a,5-dimethyl-9-oxo-2,3,7,7a-tetrahydrooxireno[2′,3′:9,10]cyclodeca[1,2-b]furan-8(1aH,6H,9H,10aH,10bH-ylidene]methyl}phenyl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacrylonitrile methanol hemisolvate], C33H35NO6·0.5CH3OH, was prepared by the reaction of (Z-3-(4-iodophenyl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacrylonitrile with parthenolide [systematic name: (E-1a,5-dimethyl-8-methylene-2,3,6,7,7a,8,10a,10b-octahydrooxireno[2′,3′:9,10]cyclodeca[1,2-b]furan-9(1aH-one] under Heck reaction conditions. The molecule is built up from fused ten-, five- (lactone and three-membered (epoxide rings with a {4-[(Z-2-cyano-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylethenyl]phenyl}methylidene group as a substituent. The 4-[(Z-2-cyano-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylethenyl]phenyl group on the parthenolide exocyclic double bond is oriented in a trans position to the lactone ring to form the E isomer. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring of the phenyl moiety and the lactone ring mean plane is 21.93 (4°.

  12. SXDF-ALMA 1.5 arcmin^2 deep survey. A compact dusty star-forming galaxy at z=2.5

    Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Ikarashi, Soh; Aretxaga, Itziar; Berta, Stefano; Caputi, Karina I; Dunlop, James S; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hayashi, Masao; Hughes, David H; Ivison, Rob; Izumi, Takuma; Koyama, Yusei; Lutz, Dieter; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W; Wuyts, Stijn; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S


    We present first results from the SXDF-ALMA 1.5 arcmin^2 deep survey at 1.1 mm using Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The map reaches a 1sigma depth of 55 uJy/beam and covers 12 Halpha-selected star-forming galaxies at z = 2.19 or z=2.53. We have detected continuum emission from three of our Halpha-selected sample, including one compact star-forming galaxy with high stellar surface density, NB2315-07. They are all red in the rest-frame optical and have stellar masses of log (M*/Msun)>10.9 whereas the other blue, main-sequence galaxies with log(M*/Msun)=10.0-10.8 are exceedingly faint, <290 uJy (2sigma upper limit). We also find the 1.1 mm-brightest galaxy, NB2315-02, to be associated with a compact (R_e=0.7+-0.1 kpc), dusty star-forming component. Given high gas fraction (44^{+20}_{-8}% or 37^{+25}_{-3}%) and high star formation rate surface density (126^{+27}_{-30} Msun yr^{-1}kpc^{-2}), the concentrated starburst can within less than 50^{+12}_{-11} Myr build up a stellar surface density matching th...

  13. Measurement of isolated myocyte volume using the Coulter models Z2 and ZM/C256: a comparison of instrument function.

    Said, S; Tamura, T; Gerdes, A M


    Changes in cardiac structure that depart from normal have generally been termed "remodeling". Assessment of ventricular remodeling at the cellular level should include measurement of myocyte dimensions. A well-established and reliable method to assess myocyte remodeling uses isolated cells and the Coulter Counter/Channelyzer system. The new Coulter Model Z2 has numerous modifications and improvements from the Model Z predecessor(s) interfaced to a pulse-height analyzer (e.g., channelyzer). Improvements of the Model Z2 over older instruments include: (i) elimination of the mercury manometer with accompanying oil-displacement pump; (ii) reduced size and weight; (iii) a higher degree of mechanization and automation; (iv) inclusion of an advanced comprehensive statistical package and (v) a substantial reduction in cost. The purpose of this study was to determine if the newly modified instrument produces the same results as the previous instrument combinations, which were shown to produce reliable cell volume data from irregularly shaped cells such as cardiac myocytes.

  14. Deep HeII and CIV Spectroscopy of a Giant Lyman alpha Nebula: Dense Compact Gas Clumps in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z~2 Quasar

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Prochaska, J Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano


    The recent discovery by Cantalupo et al. (2014) of the largest (~500 kpc) and luminous Ly-alpha nebula associated with the quasar UM287 (z=2.279) poses a great challenge to our current understanding of the astrophysics of the halos hosting massive z~2 galaxies. Either an enormous reservoir of cool gas is required $M\\simeq10^{12}$ $M_{\\odot}$, exceeding the expected baryonic mass available, or one must invoke extreme gas clumping factors not present in high-resolution cosmological simulations. However, observations of Ly-alpha emission alone cannot distinguish between these two scenarios. We have obtained the deepest ever spectroscopic integrations in the HeII and CIV lines with the goal of detecting extended line emission, but detect neither line to a 3$\\sigma$ limiting SB $\\simeq10^{-18}$ erg/s/cm$^2$/arcsec$^2$. We construct models of the expected emission spectrum in the highly probable scenario that the nebula is powered by photoionization from the central hyper-luminous quasar. The non-detection of HeII ...

  15. The Lyman-alpha forest of a Lyman Break Galaxy VLT Spectra of MS1512-cB58 at z=2.724

    Savaglio, S; Padovani, P


    The high redshift galaxy MS1512-cB58 (z=2.724, m_V=20.64) has been observed with the very efficient high resolution echelle spectrograph VLT/UVES. Although this is a very challenging observational program for a Southern hemisphere telescope (the galaxy is located at +36 deg declination), high resolution spectra (FWHM ~ 26 km/s) have revealed, with unprecedented detail along a galaxy sight line, the Lyman-alpha forest due to intervening clouds in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The mean depression D_A due to IGM absorption blueward of the galaxy Ly-alpha wavelength and the number density dn/dz of Ly-alpha clouds have been compared with equivalent results obtained for QSO sight lines at similar redshifts. Our results indicate a possible excess of absorption close to the galaxy. The mean depression at ~ 150 h_65^-1 Mpc comoving (Omega_m=0.3, Omega_Lambda=0.7) from the galaxy is D_A=0.36+/-0.03, to be compared with 0.22+/-0.04, expected from a best fit to QSO sight lines. In the same region (z=2.610), the number ...

  16. First results from the VIRIAL survey: the stellar content of $UVJ$-selected quiescent galaxies at $1.5 < z < 2$ from KMOS

    Mendel, J Trevor; Bender, Ralf; Beifiori, Alessandra; Chan, Jeffrey; Fossati, Matteo; Wilman, David J; Bandara, Kaushala; Brammer, Gabriel B; Schreiber, Natascha M Förster; Galametz, Audrey; Kulkarni, Sandesh; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Nelson, Erica J; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Whitaker, Katherine E; Wuyts, Stijn


    We investigate the stellar populations of 25 massive, galaxies ($\\log[M_\\ast/M_\\odot] \\geq 10.9$) at $1.5 < z < 2$ using data obtained with the K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) on the ESO VLT. Targets were selected to be quiescent based on their broadband colors and redshifts using data from the 3D-HST grism survey. The mean redshift of our sample is $\\bar{z} = 1.75$, where KMOS YJ-band data probe age- and metallicity-sensitive absorption features in the rest-frame optical, including the $G$ band, Fe I, and high-order Balmer lines. Fitting simple stellar population models to a stack of our KMOS spectra, we derive a mean age of $1.03^{+0.13}_{-0.08}$ Gyr. We confirm previous results suggesting a correlation between color and age for quiescent galaxies, finding mean ages of $1.22^{+0.56}_{-0.19}$ Gyr and $0.85^{+0.08}_{-0.05}$ Gyr for the reddest and bluest galaxies in our sample. Combining our KMOS measurements with those obtained from previous studies at $0.2 < z < 2$ we find evidence for a...

  17. The Quantized $O(1,2)/O(2)\\times Z_2$ Sigma Model Has No Continuum Limit in Four Dimensions; 1, Theoretical Framework

    De Lyra, J L; Foong, S K; Gallivan, T E; Harrington, R; Kapulkin, A; Myers, E; Polchinski, Joseph; Lyra, Jorge de; Witt, Bryce De; Foong, See Kit; Gallivan, Timothy; Harrington, Rob; Kapulkin, Arie; Myers, Eric; Polchinski, Joseph


    The nonlinear sigma model for which the field takes its values in the coset space $O(1,2)/O(2)\\times Z_2$ is similar to quantum gravity in being perturbatively nonrenormalizable and having a noncompact curved configuration space. It is therefore a good model for testing nonperturbative methods that may be useful in quantum gravity, especially methods based on lattice field theory. In this paper we develop the theoretical framework necessary for recognizing and studying a consistent nonperturbative quantum field theory of the $O(1,2)/O(2)\\times Z_2$ model. We describe the action, the geometry of the configuration space, the conserved Noether currents, and the current algebra, and we construct a version of the Ward-Slavnov identity that makes it easy to switch from a given field to a nonlinearly related one. Renormalization of the model is defined via the effective action and via current algebra. The two definitions are shown to be equivalent. In a companion paper we develop a lattice formulation of the theory ...

  18. Discovery of a rich proto-cluster at z=2.9 and associated diffuse cold gas in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS)

    Cucciati, O; Lemaux, B C; Bardelli, S; Cimatti, A; Fevre, O Le; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Pentericci, L; Tasca, L A M; Thomas, R; Vanzella, E; Zucca, E; Amorin, R; Capak, P; Cassara, L; Castellano, M; Cuby, J G; de la Torre, S; Durkalec, A; Fontana, A; Giavalisco, M; Grazian, A; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Moreau, C; Paltani, S; Ribeiro, B; Salvato, M; Schaerer, D; Scodeggio, M; Sommariva, V; Talia, M; Taniguchi, Y; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Wang, P W; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Fotopoulou, S; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Mellier, Y; Scoville, N


    [Abridged] We characterise a massive proto-cluster at z=2.895 that we found in the COSMOS field using the spectroscopic sample of the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS). This is one of the rare structures at z~3 not identified around AGNs or radio galaxies, so it is an ideal laboratory to study galaxy formation in dense environments. The structure comprises 12 galaxies with secure spectroscopic redshift in an area of 7'x8', in a z bin of Dz=0.016. The measured galaxy number overdensity is delta_g=12+/-2. This overdensity has total mass of M~8.1x10^(14)M_sun in a volume of 13x15x17 Mpc^3. Simulations indicate that such an overdensity at z~2.9 is a proto-cluster that will collapse in a cluster of total mass M~2.5x10^(15)M_sun at z=0. We compare the properties of the galaxies within the overdensity with a control sample at the same redshift but outside the overdensity. We did not find any statistically significant difference between the properties (stellar mass, SFR, sSFR, NUV-r, r-K) of the galaxies inside and outs...

  19. The production and escape of Lyman-Continuum radiation from star-forming galaxies at z~2 and their redshift evolution

    Matthee, Jorryt; Best, Philip; Khostovan, Ali Ahmad; Oteo, Ivan; Bouwens, Rychard; Röttgering, Huub


    We study the production and escape of ionizing photons of a sample of 588 H$\\alpha$ (Ha) emitters (HAEs) at z=2.2 in COSMOS by exploring their rest-frame Lyman Continuum (LyC) with GALEX/NUV data. We find 8 candidate LyC leakers with f$_{esc}$>60% out of a clean subsample of 191 HAEs (i.e. without any neighbour or foreground galaxy inside the GALEX PSF). Overall, we measure a very low escape fraction f$_{esc}$ <5.5(12.7)% through median (mean) stacking. By combining the Ha luminosity density with IGM emissivity measurements from absorption studies, we find a globally averaged f$_{esc}$ of 5.9$^{+9.3}_{-2.6}$ %. We find similarly low values of the global f$_{esc}$ at z~3-5, indicating little evolution of f$_{esc}$ with redshift and ruling out a high f$_{esc}$ at z<5. We also measure the typical number of ionizing photons per unit UV luminosity, $\\xi_{ion}$=10$^{24.77\\pm0.04}$ Hz erg$^{-1}$. HAEs at z=2.2 are typically three times less ionizing than typically assumed in the reionization era, but higher va...

  20. Charge-changing transitions and capture strengths of pf-shell nuclei with $T_{z} = -2$ at proton drip-line

    Rahman, Muneeb-Ur


    Charge-changing transitions, commonly referred to as Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions, and electron capture/$\\beta^{+}$-decay strengths for pf-shell nuclei with $T_{z} = - 2$ at proton drip-line have been calculated using the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) model. The total GT$_{+}$ strength values and electron capture/$\\beta^{+}$-decay rates are needed for the study of the late stages of the stellar evolution. The pn-QRPA theory is used for a microscopic calculation of GT strength distribution functions and associated stellar electron capture/$\\beta^{+}$-decay rates of proton-rich pf-shell nuclei with $T_{z} = - 2$ in the mass range 46 $\\leq$ A $\\leq$ 56 at proton drip-line. Standard quenching factor of 0.74, usually implemented in the shell model calculation, has been incorporated for the comparison with experimental data (wherever available). The calculated GT strength of the two proton-rich nuclei, $^{52}$Ni and $^{56}$Zn are compared with experimental data of corresponding...

  1. Lyman-Alpha-Emitting Galaxies at z = 2.1 in ECDF-S: Building Blocks of Typical Present-day Galaxies?

    Guaita, L; Padilla, N; Francke, H; Bond, N A; Gronwall, C; Ciardullo, R; Feldmeier, J J; Sinawa, S; Blanc, G A; Virani, S


    We discovered a sample of 261 Ly-Alpha emitting (LAE) galaxies at z=2.1 in an ultra-deep 3727 A narrow-band MUSYC image of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. LAEs were selected to have rest-frame equivalent widths (EW) >20 A and emission line fluxes F>2.0 x 10^(-17)erg /cm^2/s, after carefully subtracting the continuum contributions from narrow band photometry. The median flux of our sample is F = 4.1 x 10^(-17)erg/cm^2/s, corresponding to a median Lya luminosity = 1.3 x 10^(42) erg/s at z=2.1. At emission line fluxes F= 3.8 x 10^(-17) erg/cm^2/s our sample is 90% complete. 3% of the original candidates were detected in X-rays by Chandra, and 7% were detected in the rest-frame far-UV by GALEX. The remainder of our sample has median rest-frame EW of 39 A, with only a few galaxies having rest frame EW bigger than 200 A. We find a number density of 3.2+/-0.9 x 10^(-3) Mpc^(-3), a factor of 2.1+/-0.7 increase versus LAEs at z ~ 3. We used the rest frame UV luminosity to estimate a median star formation rate o...

  2. Herschel FIR counterparts of selected Ly-alpha emitters at z~2.2. Fast evolution since z~3 or missed obscured AGNs?

    Bongiovanni, A; Cepa, J; Garcia, A M Perez; Sanchez-Portal, M; Ederoclite, A; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E J; Altieri, B; Andreani, P; Aparicio-Villegas, M T; Aussel, H; Benitez, N; Berta, S; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Cano, J; Castander, F J; Cava, A; Cervino, M; Chulani, H; Cimatti, A; Cristobal-Hornillos, D; Daddi, E; Dominguez, H; Elbaz, D; Fernandez-Soto, A; Schreiber, N Forster; Genzel, R; Gomez, M F; Delgado, R M Gonzalez; Grazian, A; Gruppioni, C; Herreros, J M; Iglesias-Groth, S; Infante, L; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; Magdis, G; Maiolino, R; Marquez, I; Martinez, V J; Masegosa, J; Moles, M; Molino, A; Nordon, R; del Olmo, A; Perea, J; Poglitsch, A; Popesso, P; Pozzi, F; Prada, F; Quintana, J M; Riguccini, L; Rodighiero, G; Saintonge, A; Sanchez, S F; Santini, P; Shao, L; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L; Valtchanov, I


    Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs) are seen everywhere in the redshift domain from local to z~7. Far-infrared (FIR) counterparts of LAEs at different epochs could provide direct clues on dust content, extinction, and spectral energy distribution (SED) for these galaxies. We search for FIR counterparts of LAEs that are optically detected in the GOODS-North field at redshift z~2.2 using data from the Herschel Space Telescope with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The LAE candidates were isolated via color-magnitude diagram using the medium-band photometry from the ALHAMBRA Survey, ancillary data on GOODS-North, and stellar population models. According to the fitting of these spectral synthesis models and FIR/optical diagnostics, most of them seem to be obscured galaxies whose spectra are AGN-dominated. From the analysis of the optical data, we have observed a fraction of AGN or composite over source total number of ~0.75 in the LAE population at z~2.2, which is marginally consistent with the fractio...

  3. A new Leray formula for smooth functions on bounded domains in Cn

    YAO; Zongyuan(姚宗元); QIU; Chunhui(邱春晖); ZHONG; Chunping


    By means of a new technique of integral representations in Cn given by the authors, we establish a new abstract formula with a vector function W for smooth functions on bounded domains in Cn, which is different from the well-known Leray formula, This new formula eliminates the term that contains the parameter λ from the classical Leray formula, and especially on some domains the uniform estimates for the -equation are very simple. From the new Leray formula, we can obtain correspondingly many new formulas for smooth functions on many domains in Cn, which are different from the classical ones, when we properly select the vector function W.

  4. 碳酸铯存在下铁催化立体选择性合成(Z)-2-亚基-1,4-苯并二噁烷衍生物%Iron-Catalyzed Stereoselective Synthesis of (Z)-2-Ylidene-1,4-benzodioxanes in the Presence of Cs2CO3

    梁淋峰; 方奇; 徐晓冰; 李艳忠


    A series of monopropargyl catechol derivatives synthesized via the Sonogashira coupling reaction were stereose-lectively converted to (Z)-2-ylidene-l,4-benzodioxanes using FeCl3 as the catalyst, and structurally characterized by 'H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS techniques.%通过Sonogashira偶联反应合成了邻炔丙基醚苯酚衍生物,在Cs2CO3存在和FeCl3的催化下,进而发生分子内环化反应,立体选择性地合成了一系列(Z)-2-亚基-1,4-苯并二噁烷衍生物.产物的结构通过了1H NMR,13C NMR和HRMS等表征.

  5. 一类Z2-等变扰动的三次哈密顿系统极限环的个数与分布%The Number and Distributions of Limit Cycles of a Cubic Hamiltonian System with Z2-symmetry Perturbation

    周宏宪; 张燕


    This paper is concerned with the number and distributions of limit cycles of a cubic Z2-symmetry Hamiltonian system under quintic perturbation. By using qualitative analysis of differential equation, bifurcation theory of dynamical systems and the method of detection function, we obtain that this system exists at least 14 limit cycles with the distribution C91 (∪) [C11 + 2(C23 (∪) 2C21)].

  6. 40 CFR 721.10005 - 2-Butenoic acid, 4,4′-[(dibutylstannylene)bis(oxy)]bis [4-oxo-, (2Z,2′Z)-, di-C19-11-isoalkyl...


    ...-oxo-, (2Z,2′Z)-, di-C19-11-isoalkyl esters, C10-rich. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...′Z)-, di-C9-11-isoalkyl esters, C10-rich (PMN P-98-1182) is subject to reporting under this section...-, (2Z,2â²Z)-, di-C19-11-isoalkyl esters, C10-rich. 721.10005 Section 721.10005 Protection of Environment...

  7. Fiscal Year 2010 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-32 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Bechtel Jacobs


    The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOEIORJO 1-2161 &D2) (Zone 2 ROD) acknowledged that most of the 800 acres in Zone 2 were contaminated, but that sufficient data to confirm the levels of contamination were lacking. The Zone 2 ROD further specified that a sampling strategy for filling the data gaps would be developed. The Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOEIORIO 1 -2224&D3) (RDRJRAWP) defined the sampling strategy as the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS), generally following the approach used for characterization of the Zone I exposure units (EUs). The Zone 2 ROD divided the Zone 2 area into seven geographic areas and 44 EUs. To facilitate the data quality objectives (DQOs) of the DVS process, the RDR/RAWP regrouped the 44 EUs into 12 DQO scoping EU groups. These groups facilitated the DQO process by placing similar facilities and their support facilities together, which allowed identification of data gaps. The EU groups were no longer pertinent after DQO planning was completed and characterization was conducted as areas became accessible. As the opportunity to complete characterization became available, the planned DVS program was completed for the EU addressed in this document (EU Z2-32). The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to address the following: (1) Document DVS characterization results for EU Z2-32. (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation and determine if the EU meets the Zone 2 ROD requirements for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs. (3) Identify additional areas not defined in the Zone 2 ROD that require remediation based on the DVS evaluation results. (4) Describe the remedial action performed in the K-1066-G Yard in EU Z2-32. Approximately 18.4 acres are included in the EU

  8. On the Coefficients Problem of Quasi-convex Mappings and Starlike Mapppings in Cn

    LIUWei-xian; WANGYu-min


    Let Bn be the unit ball in Cn, we study quasi-convex mappings and starlike mappings on Bn.The upper bounds of second order item coefficients ofr quasi-convex mappings and starlike mappings are obtained.




    The authors investigate the Toeplitz C≠-algebra over the L-shaped domain in Cn by the groupoid approach, and successfully parameterize the unit space of the groupoid assocated to the Toeplitz C≠-algebra.

  10. Synthesis and the Network Structure of the SupramolecularCompound [ NEt4 ] [ Mn(salophen) ( H2O )2 ]2[ Fe(CN) 6 ]· H2O· CH3OH%[NEt4][Mn(salophen)(H2O)2]2[Fe(CN)6]· H2O· CH3OH超分子化合物的合成和结构

    李淑妮; 李君; 唐宗薰; 周忠远


    室温下将[ NEt4 ]3 [ Fe ( CN )6 ] 和 [ Mn ( salophen ) ( H2O ) ( CH3OH ) ] C1O4 反应,得到了超分子化合物[ NEt4 ] [ Mn(salophen) ( H2O)2 ] 2[ Fe( CN)6 ]· H2O· CH3 OH ( salophenH2 = 双水杨醛缩邻苯二胺),并对其进行了晶体结构测定.结果表明,该晶体属三斜晶系,空间群P1,晶胞参数a=1.2150(4)nm,b=1.4834(6)nm,c=1.6625(6)nm,α=81.896(7)°,β=76.980(8)°,γ=81.120(6)°,V=2.872(2)nm3,Z=2,Dc=1.388 g·cm-3.晶体的各部分间以氢键连接成网状超分子体系.

  11. The MOSDEF Survey: The Strong Agreement Between Hα and UV-To-FIR Star Formation Rates for z ~ 2 Star-Forming Galaxies

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen; Kriek, Mariska T.; Shapley, Alice E.; Mobasher, Bahram; Coil, Alison L.; Siana, Brian D.; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona; Freeman, William R.; Azadi, Mojegan


    We present the first direct comparison between Balmer line and panchromatic SED-based star-formation rates (SFRs) for z ~ 2 galaxies. While dust-corrected SFRs(Hα,Hβ) using Balmer decrements are commonly used at low redshift, it has been argued that Balmer lines may miss optically thick star-forming regions at high redshifts. In order to investigate this possible bias, we compare the SFRs(Hα,Hβ) with independently measured UV-to-far-IR SFRs for star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2. For this comparison we use a sample of galaxies selected from the unique spectroscopic dataset of the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. The MOSDEF survey is a multi-year project that uses the near-IR MOSFIRE spectrograph on the 10-m Keck I telescope to characterize the gaseous and stellar contents of ~ 1500 rest-frame optically selected galaxies at 1.37 ≤ z ≤ 3.80. In addition to the rest-frame optical spectra, we use data from Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm, Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm, and Herschel/SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 μm to measure mid- and far-IR fluxes. We fit the UV-to-far-IR SEDs with the state-of-the-art flexible stellar population synthesis (FSPS) models, which utilize energy balance to fit the stellar and dust emission simultaneously. Comparing the SFR(Hα,Hβ) with the robust UV-to-far-IR SED inferrred SFRs, show us how accurately Balmer decrements predict the obscuration of the nebular lines in order to robustly calculate SFRs for star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Furthermore, we use our data to assess SFR indicators based on modeling the UV-to-mid-IR SEDs or by adding SFR(UV) and SFR(IR), for which the latter is based on the empirical conversions from mid-IR to total IR luminosity. This study shed light on the validity of various SFR indicators, specifically the nebular emission lines, for galaxies at z ~ 2.

  12. Fiscal Year 2009 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-36 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Bechtel Jacobs


    The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to present fiscal year (FY) 2009 results of Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS) characterization activities for exposure unit (EU) Z2-36 in Zone 2 at the East Tennessee technology Park (ETTP). The ETTP is located in the northwest corner of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and encompasses approximately 5000 acres that have been subdivided into three zones--Zone 1 ({approx} 1400 acres), Zone 2 ({approx} 800 acres), and the Boundary Area ({approx} 2800 acres). Zone 2 comprises the highly industrial portion of ETTP and consists of all formerly secured areas of the facility, including the large processing buildings and direct support facilities; experimental laboratories and chemical and materials handling facilities; materials storage and waste disposal facilities; secure document records libraries; and shipping and receiving warehouses. The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2005) (Zone 2 ROD) specifies the future end use for Zone 2 acreage as uncontrolled industrial for the upper 10 ft of soils. Characterization activities in these areas were conducted in compliance with the Zone 2 ROD and the DVS and data quality objectives (DQOs) presented in the Main Plant Group DQO Scoping Package (July 2006) and the Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2007a) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP). The purpose of this PCCR is to address the following: (1) Document EU Z2-36 DVS characterization results; (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation and determine if the EU meets the Zone 2 ROD requirements for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs, and (3) Identify additional areas not defined in the Zone 2 ROD that require remediation based on the DVS

  13. The mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations at z > 2 using very large telescope and Subaru near-infrared spectroscopy of zCOSMOS galaxies

    Maier, C.; Ziegler, B. L. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lilly, S. J.; Peng, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Contini, T. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, CNRS, 14 avenue Édouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Pérez Montero, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Balestra, I., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85741 Garching b. München (Germany)


    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called 'fundamental metallicity relation' (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al.

  14. AGN-host connection at 0.5 < z < 2.5: A rapid evolution of AGN fraction in red galaxies during the last 10 Gyr

    Wang, Tao; Elbaz, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Xue, Y. Q.; Gabor, J. M.; Juneau, S.; Schreiber, C.; Zheng, X.-Z.; Wuyts, S.; Shi, Y.; Daddi, E.; Shu, X.-W.; Fang, G.-W.; Huang, J.-S.; Luo, B.; Gu, Q.-S.


    We explore the dependence of the incidence of moderate-luminosity (L0.5-8 keV = 1041.9-43.7 erg s-1) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the distribution of their accretion rates on host color at 0.5 1010 M⊙. We use extinction-corrected rest-frame U-V colors to divide both AGN hosts and non-AGN galaxies into red sequence (red), green valley (green), and blue cloud (blue) populations. We find that the fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN at fixed X-ray luminosity increases with stellar mass and redshift for all the three galaxy populations, independent of their colors. However, both the AGN fraction at fixed stellar mass and its evolution with redshift are clearly dependent on host colors. Most notably, red galaxies have the lowest AGN fraction ( 5%) at z 1 yet with most rapid evolution with redshift, increasing by a factor of 5 (24%) at z 2. Green galaxies exhibit the highest AGN fraction across all redshifts, which is most pronounced at z 2 with more than half of them hosting an AGN at M∗ > 1010.6 M⊙. Together with the high AGN fraction in red galaxies at z 2, this indicates that (X-ray) AGNs could be important in both transforming (quenching) star-forming galaxies into quiescent ones and subsequently maintaining their quiescence at high redshift. Furthermore, consistent with previous studies at lower redshifts, we show that the probability of hosting an AGN for the total galaxy population can be characterized by a universal Eddington ratio (as approximated by LX/M∗) distribution (p(λEdd) λEdd-0.4), which is independent on host mass. Yet consistent with their different AGN fractions, galaxies with different colors appear to also have different p(λEdd) with red galaxies exhibiting more rapid redshift evolution compared with that for green and blue galaxies. Evidence for a steeper power-law distribution of p(λEdd) in red galaxies (p(λEdd) λEdd-0.6) is also presented, though larger samples are needed to confirm. These results suggest that the AGN accretion

  15. Constraints on the Assembly and Dynamics of Galaxies. I. Detailed Rest-frame Optical Morphologies on Kiloparsec Scale of z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Shapley, A. E.; Erb, D. K.; Genzel, R.; Steidel, C. C.; Bouché, N.; Cresci, G.; Davies, R.


    We present deep and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope NIC2 F160W imaging at 1.6 μm of six z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies with existing near-infrared integral field spectroscopy from SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope. The unique combination of rest-frame optical imaging and nebular emission-line maps provides simultaneous insight into morphologies and dynamical properties. The overall rest-frame optical emission of the galaxies is characterized by shallow profiles in general (Sérsic index n Gini (G), multiplicity (Ψ), and M 20 coefficients. The estimated strength of the rest-frame optical emission lines in the F160W bandpass indicates that the observed structure is not dominated by the morphology of line-emitting gas, and must reflect the underlying stellar mass distribution of the galaxies. The sizes and structural parameters in the rest-frame optical continuum and Hα emission reveal no significant differences, suggesting similar global distributions of the ongoing star formation and more evolved stellar population. While no strong correlations are observed between stellar population parameters and morphology within the NIC2/SINFONI sample itself, a consideration of the sample in the context of a broader range of z ~ 2 galaxy types (K-selected quiescent, active galactic nucleus, and star forming; 24 μm selected dusty, infrared-luminous) indicates that these galaxies probe the high specific star formation rate and low stellar mass surface density part of the massive z ~ 2 galaxy population, with correspondingly large effective radii, low Sérsic indices, low G, and high Ψ and M 20. The combined NIC2 and SINFONI data set yields insights of unprecedented detail into the nature of mass accretion at high redshift. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555, and at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern

  16. Complete Genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis Siphophage CN1A

    Kongari, Rohit R.; Yao, Guichun W.; Chamakura, Karthik R.


    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described. PMID:24309731

  17. Complete Genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis Siphophage CN1A.

    Kongari, Rohit R; Yao, Guichun W; Chamakura, Karthik R; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F


    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described.

  18. Complete Genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis Siphophage CN1A

    Kongari, Rohit R.; Yao, Guichun W.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.


    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described.

  19. A Mysterious Population of Stars With Weak CN Absorption in the Disk of M31

    Kamath, Anika; Sales, Alyssa; Sarukkai, Atmika; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Hays, Jon; Rosenfield, Philip; SPLASH Collaboration; PHAT Collaboration


    From our study of certain stars in the Andromeda Galaxy, we found stars with clear evidence of the molecule cyanogen (CN) alongside molecules typically in oxygen-rich stars (TiO, Calcium) in their atmospheres. The juxtaposition of these molecules is amplified by our observation that stars do not normally simultaneously exhibit carbonaceous and oxygenaceous molecules. Due to the less apparent presence of CN in these stars compared to carbon stars, we initially named these stars ‘weak CN’ stars and assumed a relationship between these stars and carbon stars. To further deepen our understanding of the characteristics of these stars, we measured and analyzed their spectroscopic data, position on Color Magnitude Diagrams, variations in velocity, and placement in evolutionary stellar models. While spectra of weak CN and carbon stars indicated a shared presence of CN in both star groups, the placements of these stars on color magnitude diagrams suggested that these two populations are unrelated due to variations in brightness and temperature. Additional analyses of velocity, based on an observed correlation between velocity dispersion and age of a star (Dorman 2015), further implied that these weak CN stars are a younger and clearly separate group of stars. Finally, using stellar models to track changes in temperature and luminosity of stars over time, we mapped positions of weak CN stars to a region on the evolutionary path of massive stars. Based on our knowledge of this region, we found sufficient evidence to conclude that weak CN stars are part of a relatively unknown, young evolutionary phase of massive stars called red core Helium burning (RCHeB) stars. Over the course of our research, we also built a detection program to identify other weak CN stars based on their subtle spectral features. In the future, we hope to apply other limitations based on our knowledge of red core Helium burning stars to refine our search and expand our knowledge on this population of

  20. Syntheses,Spectroscopic Properties and Crystal Structures of (2-Cl-C6H4CH2)3SnS2CN(C5H10) and (2-Cl-C6H4CH2)3SnS2CN(C4H9N)

    尹汉东; 王传华; 邢秋菊


    Two tri(2-chlorobenzyl)tin(IV) complexes with dithiocarbamate ligands (2-Cl- C6H4CH2)3SnS2CN(C5H10) 1 and (2-Cl-C6H4CH2)3SnS2CN(C4H9N) 2 have been synthesized by the reaction of tri(2-chlorobenzyl)tin(IV) chloride with dithiocarbamates and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR. The crystal structures were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The crystal of complex 1 belongs to triclinic, space group Pī with a = 9.121(5), b = 10.788(6), c = 15.549(8)(A), α = 77.812(6), β = 88.279(8), γ = 72.023(6)°, Z = 2, V = 1421.5(13) (A)3, Dc = 1.532 g/cm3, μ = 1.344 mm-1, F(000) = 660, R = 0.0382 and wR = 0.0984; and that of complex 2 is of monoclinic, space group P21/n with a = 13.892(10), b = 2.1274(8), c = 2.0553(15) (A), β = 107.145(11)°, Z = 4, V = 2726(3) (A)3, Dc = 1.600 g/cm3, μ = 1.403 mm-1, F(000) = 1320, R = 0.0361 and wR = 0.0826. Their structures show a distorted trigonal bipyramidal configuration with five- coordination for the central tin atoms.