WorldWideScience

Sample records for z-imaging single objects

  1. Reliability of a single objective measure in assessing sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Jackson, Nicholas; Maislin, Greg; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; George, Charles F; Pack, Allan I

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate reliability of single objective tests in assessing sleepiness. Subjects who completed polysomnography underwent a 4-nap multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) the following day. Prior to each nap opportunity on MSLT, subjects performed the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and divided attention driving task (DADT). Results of single versus multiple test administrations were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and adjusted for test administration order effects to explore time of day effects. Measures were explored as continuous and binary (i.e., impaired or not impaired). Community-based sample evaluated at a tertiary, university-based sleep center. 372 adult commercial vehicle operators oversampled for increased obstructive sleep apnea risk. N/A. AS CONTINUOUS MEASURES, ICC WERE AS FOLLOWS: MSLT 0.45, PVT median response time 0.69, PVT number of lapses 0.51, 10-min DADT tracking error 0.87, 20-min DADT tracking error 0.90. Based on binary outcomes, ICC were: MSLT 0.63, PVT number of lapses 0.85, 10-min DADT 0.95, 20-min DADT 0.96. Statistically significant time of day effects were seen in both the MSLT and PVT but not the DADT. Correlation between ESS and different objective tests was strongest for MSLT, range [-0.270 to -0.195] and persisted across all time points. Single DADT and PVT administrations are reliable measures of sleepiness. A single MSLT administration can reasonably discriminate individuals with MSL < 8 minutes. These results support the use of a single administration of some objective tests of sleepiness when performed under controlled conditions in routine clinical care.

  2. Linear and ultrafast nonlinear plasmonics of single nano-objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crut, Aurélien; Maioli, Paolo; Vallée, Fabrice; Del Fatti, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    Single-particle optical investigations have greatly improved our understanding of the fundamental properties of nano-objects, avoiding the spurious inhomogeneous effects that affect ensemble experiments. Correlation with high-resolution imaging techniques providing morphological information (e.g. electron microscopy) allows a quantitative interpretation of the optical measurements by means of analytical models and numerical simulations. In this topical review, we first briefly recall the principles underlying some of the most commonly used single-particle optical techniques: near-field, dark-field, spatial modulation and photothermal microscopies/spectroscopies. We then focus on the quantitative investigation of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of metallic nano-objects using linear and ultrafast optical techniques. While measured SPR positions and spectral areas are found in good agreement with predictions based on Maxwell’s equations, SPR widths are strongly influenced by quantum confinement (or, from a classical standpoint, surface-induced electron scattering) and, for small nano-objects, cannot be reproduced using the dielectric functions of bulk materials. Linear measurements on single nano-objects (silver nanospheres and gold nanorods) allow a quantification of the size and geometry dependences of these effects in confined metals. Addressing the ultrafast response of an individual nano-object is also a powerful tool to elucidate the physical mechanisms at the origin of their optical nonlinearities, and their electronic, vibrational and thermal relaxation processes. Experimental investigations of the dynamical response of gold nanorods are shown to be quantitatively modeled in terms of modifications of the metal dielectric function enhanced by plasmonic effects. Ultrafast spectroscopy can also be exploited to unveil hidden physical properties of more complex nanosystems. In this context, two-color femtosecond pump-probe experiments performed on individual

  3. From tomography to FWI with a single objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-06-10

    Reflections in our seismic data induce serious nonlinear behavior in the objective function of full waveform inversion (FWI). Thus, without a good initial velocity model, that can produce the reflections within a cycle of the frequency used in the inversion, convergence to the solution becomes hard. Such velocity models are usually extracted from migration velocity analysis or traveltime tomography, among other means, that are not guaranteed to adhere to the FWI requirements. As such, we promote an objective function based on the misfit in the instantaneous traveltime between the observed and modeled data. This phase based attribute of the wavefield, along with its phase unwrapping features, provide a frequency dependent traveltime function. With strong damping of the of the synthetic, potentially low frequency, data, this attribute admits first arrival traveltime that could be compared with picked ones from the observed data, like in wave equation tomography. As we relax the damping on the synthetic and observed data, the objective function measures the misfit in the phase, however unwrapped in an FWI type inversion. It, thus, provides a single objective function and a natural transition from traveltime tomography to full waveform inversion. A Marmousi example demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  4. From tomography to FWI with a single objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-01-01

    Reflections in our seismic data induce serious nonlinear behavior in the objective function of full waveform inversion (FWI). Thus, without a good initial velocity model, that can produce the reflections within a cycle of the frequency used

  5. Multi-objective compared to single-objective optimization with application to model validation and uncertainty quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Riegert, R.; Krosche, M.; Stekolschikov, K. [Scandpower Petroleum Technology GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Fahimuddin, A. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    History Matching in Reservoir Simulation, well location and production optimization etc. is generally a multi-objective optimization problem. The problem statement of history matching for a realistic field case includes many field and well measurements in time and type, e.g. pressure measurements, fluid rates, events such as water and gas break-throughs, etc. Uncertainty parameters modified as part of the history matching process have varying impact on the improvement of the match criteria. Competing match criteria often reduce the likelihood of finding an acceptable history match. It is an engineering challenge in manual history matching processes to identify competing objectives and to implement the changes required in the simulation model. In production optimization or scenario optimization the focus on one key optimization criterion such as NPV limits the identification of alternatives and potential opportunities, since multiple objectives are summarized in a predefined global objective formulation. Previous works primarily focus on a specific optimization method. Few works actually concentrate on the objective formulation and multi-objective optimization schemes have not yet been applied to reservoir simulations. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization approach applicable to reservoir simulation. It addresses the problem of multi-objective criteria in a history matching study and presents analysis techniques identifying competing match criteria. A Pareto-Optimizer is discussed and the implementation of that multi-objective optimization scheme is applied to a case study. Results are compared to a single-objective optimization method. (orig.)

  6. Time-domain single-source integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects

    KAUST Repository

    Valdé s, Felipe; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Single-source time-domain electric-and magnetic-field integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects are presented. Their temporal discretization is effected by using shifted piecewise polynomial temporal basis

  7. Analysis and optimization with ecological objective function of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.

  8. Label-free, single-object sensing with a microring resonator: FDTD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dan T; Norwood, Robert A

    2013-01-14

    Label-free, single-object sensing with a microring resonator is investigated numerically using the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method. A pulse with ultra-wide bandwidth that spans over several resonant modes of the ring and of the sensing object is used for simulation, enabling a single-shot simulation of the microring sensing. The FDTD simulation not only can describe the circulation of the light in a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microring and multiple interactions between the light and the sensing object, but also other important factors of the sensing system, such as scattering and radiation losses. The FDTD results show that the simulation can yield a resonant shift of the WGM cavity modes. Furthermore, it can also extract eigenmodes of the sensing object, and therefore information from deep inside the object. The simulation method is not only suitable for a single object (single molecule, nano-, micro-scale particle) but can be extended to the problem of multiple objects as well.

  9. Removing defocused objects from single focal plane scans of cytological slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Virtual microscopy and automated processing of cytological slides are more challenging compared to histological slides. Since cytological slides exhibit a three-dimensional surface and the required microscope objectives with high resolution have a low depth of field, these cannot capture all objects of a single field of view in focus. One solution would be to scan multiple focal planes; however, the increase in processing time and storage requirements are often prohibitive for clinical routine. Materials and Methods: In this paper, we show that it is a reasonable trade-off to scan a single focal plane and automatically reject defocused objects from the analysis. To this end, we have developed machine learning solutions for the automated identification of defocused objects. Our approach includes creating novel features, systematically optimizing their parameters, selecting adequate classifier algorithms, and identifying the correct decision boundary between focused and defocused objects. We validated our approach for computer-assisted DNA image cytometry. Results and Conclusions: We reach an overall sensitivity of 96.08% and a specificity of 99.63% for identifying defocused objects. Applied on ninety cytological slides, the developed classifiers automatically removed 2.50% of the objects acquired during scanning, which otherwise would have interfered the examination. Even if not all objects are acquired in focus, computer-assisted DNA image cytometry still identified more diagnostically or prognostically relevant objects compared to manual DNA image cytometry. At the same time, the workload for the expert is reduced dramatically.

  10. 3D high- and super-resolution imaging using single-objective SPIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Remi; Grenci, Gianluca; Aravind, Ajay; Viasnoff, Virgile; Studer, Vincent; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-07-01

    Single-objective selective-plane illumination microscopy (soSPIM) is achieved with micromirrored cavities combined with a laser beam-steering unit installed on a standard inverted microscope. The illumination and detection are done through the same objective. soSPIM can be used with standard sample preparations and features high background rejection and efficient photon collection, allowing for 3D single-molecule-based super-resolution imaging of whole cells or cell aggregates. Using larger mirrors enabled us to broaden the capabilities of our system to image Drosophila embryos.

  11. Simultaneous positioning and orientation of a single nano-object by flow control: theory and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathai, Pramod P; Berglund, Andrew J; Alexander Liddle, J; Shapiro, Benjamin A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically describe a method to simultaneously control both the position and orientation of single nano-objects in fluids by precisely controlling the flow around them. We develop and simulate a control law that uses electro-osmotic flow (EOF) actuation to translate and rotate rigid nano-objects in two spatial dimensions. Using EOF to control nano-objects offers advantages as compared to other approaches: a wide class of objects can be manipulated (no magnetic or electric dipole moments are needed), the object can be controlled over a long range (>100 μm) with sub-micrometer accuracy, and control may be achieved with simple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices. We demonstrate the theory and numerical solutions that will enable deterministic control of the position and orientation of a nano-object in solution, which can be used, for example, to integrate nanostructures in circuits and orient sensors to probe living cells.

  12. Convolutional Deep Belief Networks for Single-Cell/Object Tracking in Computational Biology and Computer Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Bineng; Pan, Shengnan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Tian; Du, Jixiang; Chen, Duansheng; Cao, Liujuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose deep architecture to dynamically learn the most discriminative features from data for both single-cell and object tracking in computational biology and computer vision. Firstly, the discriminative features are automatically learned via a convolutional deep belief network (CDBN). Secondly, we design a simple yet effective method to transfer features learned from CDBNs on the source tasks for generic purpose to the object tracking tasks using only limited amount of tra...

  13. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  14. A Method for Interactive 3D Reconstruction of Piecewise Planar Objects from Single Images

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm , Peter; Maybank , Steve

    1999-01-01

    International audience; We present an approach for 3D reconstruction of objects from a single image. Obviously, constraints on the 3D structure are needed to perform this task. Our approach is based on user-provided coplanarity, perpendicularity and parallelism constraints. These are used to calibrate the image and perform 3D reconstruction. The method is described in detail and results are provided.

  15. Multiplicative mixing of object identity and image attributes in single inferior temporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan Murty, N Apurva; Arun, S P

    2018-04-03

    Object recognition is challenging because the same object can produce vastly different images, mixing signals related to its identity with signals due to its image attributes, such as size, position, rotation, etc. Previous studies have shown that both signals are present in high-level visual areas, but precisely how they are combined has remained unclear. One possibility is that neurons might encode identity and attribute signals multiplicatively so that each can be efficiently decoded without interference from the other. Here, we show that, in high-level visual cortex, responses of single neurons can be explained better as a product rather than a sum of tuning for object identity and tuning for image attributes. This subtle effect in single neurons produced substantially better population decoding of object identity and image attributes in the neural population as a whole. This property was absent both in low-level vision models and in deep neural networks. It was also unique to invariances: when tested with two-part objects, neural responses were explained better as a sum than as a product of part tuning. Taken together, our results indicate that signals requiring separate decoding, such as object identity and image attributes, are combined multiplicatively in IT neurons, whereas signals that require integration (such as parts in an object) are combined additively. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. Single-trial multisensory memories affect later auditory and visual object discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Antonia; Talsma, Durk; Murray, Micah M

    2015-05-01

    Multisensory memory traces established via single-trial exposures can impact subsequent visual object recognition. This impact appears to depend on the meaningfulness of the initial multisensory pairing, implying that multisensory exposures establish distinct object representations that are accessible during later unisensory processing. Multisensory contexts may be particularly effective in influencing auditory discrimination, given the purportedly inferior recognition memory in this sensory modality. The possibility of this generalization and the equivalence of effects when memory discrimination was being performed in the visual vs. auditory modality were at the focus of this study. First, we demonstrate that visual object discrimination is affected by the context of prior multisensory encounters, replicating and extending previous findings by controlling for the probability of multisensory contexts during initial as well as repeated object presentations. Second, we provide the first evidence that single-trial multisensory memories impact subsequent auditory object discrimination. Auditory object discrimination was enhanced when initial presentations entailed semantically congruent multisensory pairs and was impaired after semantically incongruent multisensory encounters, compared to sounds that had been encountered only in a unisensory manner. Third, the impact of single-trial multisensory memories upon unisensory object discrimination was greater when the task was performed in the auditory vs. visual modality. Fourth, there was no evidence for correlation between effects of past multisensory experiences on visual and auditory processing, suggestive of largely independent object processing mechanisms between modalities. We discuss these findings in terms of the conceptual short term memory (CSTM) model and predictive coding. Our results suggest differential recruitment and modulation of conceptual memory networks according to the sensory task at hand. Copyright

  17. Effects of Implied Motion and Facing Direction on Positional Preferences in Single-Object Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Langlois, Thomas A

    2017-07-01

    Palmer, Gardner, and Wickens studied aesthetic preferences for pictures of single objects and found a strong inward bias: Right-facing objects were preferred left-of-center and left-facing objects right-of-center. They found no effect of object motion (people and cars showed the same inward bias as chairs and teapots), but the objects were not depicted as moving. Here we measured analogous inward biases with objects depicted as moving with an implied direction and speed by having participants drag-and-drop target objects into the most aesthetically pleasing position. In Experiment 1, human figures were shown diving or falling while moving forward or backward. Aesthetic biases were evident for both inward-facing and inward-moving figures, but the motion-based bias dominated so strongly that backward divers or fallers were preferred moving inward but facing outward. Experiment 2 investigated implied speed effects using images of humans, horses, and cars moving at different speeds (e.g., standing, walking, trotting, and galloping horses). Inward motion or facing biases were again present, and differences in their magnitude due to speed were evident. Unexpectedly, faster moving objects were generally preferred closer to frame center than slower moving objects. These results are discussed in terms of the combined effects of prospective, future-oriented biases, and retrospective, past-oriented biases.

  18. Validity of single-cycle objective functions for multicycle reload design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropaczek, D.J.; McElroy, J.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Beyond the equilibrium cycle scoping calculations used for determining numbers of feed assemblies and enrichment estimates, multicycle reload design currently consists of stagewise optimization of single-cycle core loading patterns, typically extending over a short-term planning horizon of perhaps three reload cycles. Particularly in transition cycles, however, optimizing a loading pattern over a single cycle for a stated objective, such as minimum core leakage, may have an adverse impact on subsequent cycles. The penalties paid may be in the form of reduced thermal margin or an increase in feed enrichment due to insufficient reactivity carryover from the open-quotes optimizedclose quotes cycle. In view of current practices, a study was performed that examined the behavior of the loading pattern as a function of the objective functions selected as implemented in the stagewise optimization of single-cycle core loading patterns from initial transition cycle through equilibrium using the FORMOSA-P code. The objective functions studied were region average discharge burnup maximization (with enrichment search) and feed enrichment minimization. It is noted at the beginning that the maximization of region average discharge has no meaning for the equilibrium cycle because region average discharge burnup is explicitly set by the feed size and cycle length independent of the loading pattern. In the nonequilibrium cycle, however, it was reasoned that this objective would provide the maximum reactivity carryover throughout the transition and thus have a direct effect on minimizing the multicycle levelized fuel cost

  19. Neural evidence for competition-mediated suppression in the perception of a single object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciamani, Laura; Scalf, Paige E; Peterson, Mary A

    2015-11-01

    Multiple objects compete for representation in visual cortex. Competition may also underlie the perception of a single object. Computational models implement object perception as competition between units on opposite sides of a border. The border is assigned to the winning side, which is perceived as an object (or "figure"), whereas the other side is perceived as a shapeless ground. Behavioral experiments suggest that the ground is inhibited to a degree that depends on the extent to which it competed for object status, and that this inhibition is relayed to low-level brain areas. Here, we used fMRI to assess activation for ground regions of task-irrelevant novel silhouettes presented in the left or right visual field (LVF or RVF) while participants performed a difficult task at fixation. Silhouettes were designed so that the insides would win the competition for object status. The outsides (grounds) suggested portions of familiar objects in half of the silhouettes and novel objects in the other half. Because matches to object memories affect the competition, these two types of silhouettes operationalized, respectively, high competition and low competition from the grounds. The results showed that activation corresponding to ground regions was reduced for high- versus low-competition silhouettes in V4, where receptive fields (RFs) are large enough to encompass the familiar objects in the grounds, and in V1/V2, where RFs are much smaller. These results support a theory of object perception involving competition-mediated ground suppression and feedback from higher to lower levels. This pattern of results was observed in the left hemisphere (RVF), but not in the right hemisphere (LVF). One explanation of the lateralized findings is that task-irrelevant silhouettes in the RVF captured attention, allowing us to observe these effects, whereas those in the LVF did not. Experiment 2 provided preliminary behavioral evidence consistent with this possibility. Copyright

  20. Convolutional Deep Belief Networks for Single-Cell/Object Tracking in Computational Biology and Computer Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bineng; Pan, Shengnan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Tian; Du, Jixiang; Chen, Duansheng; Cao, Liujuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose deep architecture to dynamically learn the most discriminative features from data for both single-cell and object tracking in computational biology and computer vision. Firstly, the discriminative features are automatically learned via a convolutional deep belief network (CDBN). Secondly, we design a simple yet effective method to transfer features learned from CDBNs on the source tasks for generic purpose to the object tracking tasks using only limited amount of training data. Finally, to alleviate the tracker drifting problem caused by model updating, we jointly consider three different types of positive samples. Extensive experiments validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Tabletop single-shot extreme ultraviolet Fourier transform holography of an extended object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Erik B; Monserud, Nils C; Brown, Christopher G; Wachulak, Przemyslaw W; Xu, Huiwen; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Chao, Weilun; Anderson, Erik; Marconi, Mario C

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate single and multi-shot Fourier transform holography with the use of a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser. The reference wave was produced by a Fresnel zone plate with a central opening that allowed the incident beam to illuminate the sample directly. The high reference wave intensity allows for larger objects to be imaged compared to mask-based lensless Fourier transform holography techniques. We obtain a spatial resolution of 169 nm from a single laser pulse and a resolution of 128 nm from an accumulation of 20 laser pulses for an object ~11x11μm(2) in size. This experiment utilized a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser that produces a highly coherent ~1.2 ns laser pulse at 46.9 nm wavelength.

  2. Single-Grasp Object Classification and Feature Extraction with Simple Robot Hands and Tactile Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Adam J; Liarokapis, Minas V; Calli, Berk; Dollar, Aaron M

    2016-01-01

    Classical robotic approaches to tactile object identification often involve rigid mechanical grippers, dense sensor arrays, and exploratory procedures (EPs). Though EPs are a natural method for humans to acquire object information, evidence also exists for meaningful tactile property inference from brief, non-exploratory motions (a 'haptic glance'). In this work, we implement tactile object identification and feature extraction techniques on data acquired during a single, unplanned grasp with a simple, underactuated robot hand equipped with inexpensive barometric pressure sensors. Our methodology utilizes two cooperating schemes based on an advanced machine learning technique (random forests) and parametric methods that estimate object properties. The available data is limited to actuator positions (one per two link finger) and force sensors values (eight per finger). The schemes are able to work both independently and collaboratively, depending on the task scenario. When collaborating, the results of each method contribute to the other, improving the overall result in a synergistic fashion. Unlike prior work, the proposed approach does not require object exploration, re-grasping, grasp-release, or force modulation and works for arbitrary object start positions and orientations. Due to these factors, the technique may be integrated into practical robotic grasping scenarios without adding time or manipulation overheads.

  3. A Single Unexpected Change in Target- but Not Distractor Motion Impairs Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke S. Meyerhoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addresses the question whether motion information of multiple objects contributes to maintaining a selection of objects across a period of motion. Here, we investigate whether target and/or distractor motion information is used during attentive tracking. We asked participants to track four objects and changed either the motion direction of targets, the motion direction of distractors, neither, or both during a brief flash in the middle of a tracking interval. We observed that a single direction change of targets is sufficient to impair tracking performance. In contrast, changing the motion direction of distractors had no effect on performance. This indicates that target- but not distractor motion information is evaluated during tracking.

  4. Design of a hybrid double-sideband/single-sideband (schlieren) objective aperture suitable for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijsse, Bart; Laarhoven, Frank M.H.M. van [FEI Company, PO Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schmid, Andreas K.; Cambie, Rossana; Cabrini, Stefano; Jin, Jian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glaeser, Robert M., E-mail: rmglaeser@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A novel design is described for an aperture that blocks a half-plane of the electron diffraction pattern out to a desired scattering angle, and then - except for a narrow support beam - transmits all of the scattered electrons beyond that angle. Our proposed tulip-shaped design is thus a hybrid between the single-sideband (ssb) aperture, which blocks a full half-plane of the diffraction pattern, and the conventional (i.e. fully open) double-sideband (dsb) aperture. The benefits of this hybrid design include the fact that such an aperture allows one to obtain high-contrast images of weak-phase objects with the objective lens set to Scherzer defocus. We further demonstrate that such apertures can be fabricated from thin-foil materials by milling with a focused ion beam (FIB), and that such apertures are fully compatible with the requirements of imaging out to a resolution of at least 0.34 nm. As is known from earlier work with single-sideband apertures, however, the edge of such an aperture can introduce unwanted, electrostatic phase shifts due to charging. The principal requirement for using such an aperture in a routine data-collection mode is thus to discover appropriate materials, protocols for fabrication and processing and conditions of use such that the hybrid aperture remains free of charging over long periods of time. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New objective-aperture design is proposed for imaging weak-phase objects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design produces single-sideband contrast at low spatial frequencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design also retains Scherzer-defocus phase contrast at higher resolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proof-of-concept results are presented for microfabricated apertures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Charging of such apertures during use remains an experimental challenge.

  5. A calderón-preconditioned single source combined field integral equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects

    KAUST Repository

    Valdé s, Felipe; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new regularized single source equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects is presented. The proposed equation is a linear combination of a Calderón-preconditioned single source electric field integral equation and a

  6. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, James N; Howard, Ian S; Flanagan, J Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field) perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar object dynamics

  7. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Ingram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar

  8. Single prolonged stress impairs social and object novelty recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Andrew L; Fitzpatrick, Chris J; Perrine, Shane A

    2013-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from exposure to a traumatic event and manifests as re-experiencing, arousal, avoidance, and negative cognition/mood symptoms. Avoidant symptoms, as well as the newly defined negative cognitions/mood, are a serious complication leading to diminished interest in once important or positive activities, such as social interaction; however, the basis of these symptoms remains poorly understood. PTSD patients also exhibit impaired object and social recognition, which may underlie the avoidance and symptoms of negative cognition, such as social estrangement or diminished interest in activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that single prolonged stress (SPS), models PTSD phenotypes, including impairments in learning and memory. Therefore, it was hypothesized that SPS would impair social and object recognition memory. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to SPS then tested in the social choice test (SCT) or novel object recognition test (NOR). These tests measure recognition of novelty over familiarity, a natural preference of rodents. Results show that SPS impaired preference for both social and object novelty. In addition, SPS impairment in social recognition may be caused by impaired behavioral flexibility, or an inability to shift behavior during the SCT. These results demonstrate that traumatic stress can impair social and object recognition memory, which may underlie certain avoidant symptoms or negative cognition in PTSD and be related to impaired behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Turbofan for an Advanced, Single-Aisle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable interest surrounds the design of the next generation of single-aisle commercial transports in the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 class. Aircraft designers will depend on advanced, next-generation turbofan engines to power these airplanes. The focus of this study is to apply single- and multi-objective optimization algorithms to the conceptual design of ultrahigh bypass turbofan engines for this class of aircraft, using NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project metrics as multidisciplinary objectives for optimization. The independent design variables investigated include three continuous variables: sea level static thrust, wing reference area, and aerodynamic design point fan pressure ratio, and four discrete variables: overall pressure ratio, fan drive system architecture (i.e., direct- or gear-driven), bypass nozzle architecture (i.e., fixed- or variable geometry), and the high- and low-pressure compressor work split. Ramp weight, fuel burn, noise, and emissions are the parameters treated as dependent objective functions. These optimized solutions provide insight to the ultrahigh bypass engine design process and provide information to NASA program management to help guide its technology development efforts.

  10. Objective quantification of the tinnitus decompensation by synchronization measures of auditory evoked single sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Daniel J; Delb, Wolfgang; D'Amelio, Roberto; Low, Yin Fen; Falkai, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Large-scale neural correlates of the tinnitus decompensation might be used for an objective evaluation of therapies and neurofeedback based therapeutic approaches. In this study, we try to identify large-scale neural correlates of the tinnitus decompensation using wavelet phase stability criteria of single sweep sequences of late auditory evoked potentials as synchronization stability measure. The extracted measure provided an objective quantification of the tinnitus decompensation and allowed for a reliable discrimination between a group of compensated and decompensated tinnitus patients. We provide an interpretation for our results by a neural model of top-down projections based on the Jastreboff tinnitus model combined with the adaptive resonance theory which has not been applied to model tinnitus so far. Using this model, our stability measure of evoked potentials can be linked to the focus of attention on the tinnitus signal. It is concluded that the wavelet phase stability of late auditory evoked potential single sweeps might be used as objective tinnitus decompensation measure and can be interpreted in the framework of the Jastreboff tinnitus model and adaptive resonance theory.

  11. Barack Obama Blindness (BOB): Absence of Visual Awareness to a Single Object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persuh, Marjan; Melara, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we evaluated whether a perceiver's prior expectations could alone obliterate his or her awareness of a salient visual stimulus. To establish expectancy, observers first made a demanding visual discrimination on each of three baseline trials. Then, on a fourth, critical trial, a single, salient and highly visible object appeared in full view at the center of the visual field and in the absence of any competing visual input. Surprisingly, fully half of the participants were unaware of the solitary object in front of their eyes. Dramatically, observers were blind even when the only stimulus on display was the face of U.S. President Barack Obama. We term this novel, counterintuitive phenomenon, Barack Obama Blindness (BOB). Employing a method that rules out putative memory effects by probing awareness immediately after presentation of the critical stimulus, we demonstrate that the BOB effect is a true failure of conscious vision.

  12. Barack Obama Blindness (BOB: Absence of visual awareness to a single object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan ePersuh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments we evaluated whether a perceiver’s prior expectations could alone obliterate his or her awareness of a salient visual stimulus. To establish expectancy, observers first made a demanding visual discrimination on each of three baseline trials. Then, on a fourth, critical trial, a single, salient and highly visible object appeared in full view at the center of the visual field and in the absence of any competing visual input. Surprisingly, fully half of the participants were unaware of the solitary object in front of their eyes. Dramatically, observers were blind even when the only stimulus on display was the face of U.S. President Barack Obama. We term this novel, counterintuitive phenomenon, Barack Obama Blindness (BOB. Employing a method that rules out putative memory effects by probing awareness immediately after presentation of the critical stimulus, we demonstrate that the BOB effect is a true failure of conscious vision.

  13. From Single- to Multi-Objective Auto-Tuning of Programs: Advantages and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Durillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic tuning (auto-tuning of software has emerged in recent years as a promising method that tries to automatically adapt the behaviour of a program to attain different performance objectives on a given computing system. This method is gaining momentum due to the increasing complexity of modern multicore-based hardware architectures. Many solutions to auto-tuning have been explored ranging from simple random search to more sophisticate methods like machine learning or evolutionary search. To this day, it is still unclear whether these approaches are general enough to encompass all the complexities of the problem (e.g. search space, parameters influencing the search space, input data sensitivity, etc., or which approach is best suited for a given problem. Furthermore, the growing interest in auto-tuning a program for several objectives is increasing this confusion even further. The goal of this paper is to formally describe the problem addressed by auto-tuning programs and review existing solutions highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of different techniques for single-objective as well as multi-objective auto-tuning approaches.

  14. Time-domain single-source integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects

    KAUST Repository

    Valdés, Felipe

    2013-03-01

    Single-source time-domain electric-and magnetic-field integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects are presented. Their temporal discretization is effected by using shifted piecewise polynomial temporal basis functions and a collocation testing procedure, thus allowing for a marching-on-in-time (MOT) solution scheme. Unlike dual-source formulations, single-source equations involve space-time domain operator products, for which spatial discretization techniques developed for standalone operators do not apply. Here, the spatial discretization of the single-source time-domain integral equations is achieved by using the high-order divergence-conforming basis functions developed by Graglia alongside the high-order divergence-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions of Valdés The combination of these two sets allows for a well-conditioned mapping from div-to curl-conforming function spaces that fully respects the space-mapping properties of the space-time operators involved. Numerical results corroborate the fact that the proposed procedure guarantees accuracy and stability of the MOT scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. From tomography to full-waveform inversion with a single objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-02-17

    In full-waveform inversion (FWI), a gradient-based update of the velocity model requires an initial velocity that produces synthetic data that are within a half-cycle, everywhere, from the field data. Such initial velocity models are usually extracted from migration velocity analysis or traveltime tomography, among other means, and are not guaranteed to adhere to the FWI requirements for an initial velocity model. As such, we evaluated an objective function based on the misfit in the instantaneous traveltime between the observed and modeled data. This phase-based attribute of the wavefield, along with its phase unwrapping characteristics, provided a frequency-dependent traveltime function that was easy to use and quantify, especially compared to conventional phase representation. With a strong Laplace damping of the modeled, potentially low-frequency, data along the time axis, this attribute admitted a first-arrival traveltime that could be compared with picked ones from the observed data, such as in wave equation tomography (WET). As we relax the damping on the synthetic and observed data, the objective function measures the misfit in the phase, however unwrapped. It, thus, provided a single objective function for a natural transition from WET to FWI. A Marmousi example demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  16. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers diminishing climate change by reducing Green House Gas Emissions, as well as providing energy security and enhancing rural development. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supply future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. Approaching this complex logistic problem as a multi-commodity network flow structure, the present work proposes the use of a genetic algorithm as a single objective optimization problem that considers the maximization of profit and the present work also proposes the use of a Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to simultaneously maximize profit while minimizing global warming potential. Most transportation optimization problems available in the literature have mostly considered the maximization of profit or the minimization of total travel time as potential objectives to be optimized. However, on this research work, we take a more conscious and sustainable approach for this logistic problem. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmental stewardship. The role of a transportation planner and designer is shifting from simple economic analysis to promoting sustainability through the integration of environmental objectives. To

  17. Analysis of process parameters in surface grinding using single objective Taguchi and multi-objective grey relational grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant J. Patil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Close tolerance and good surface finish are achieved by means of grinding process. This study was carried out for multi-objective optimization of MQL grinding process parameters. Water based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids of various concentrations are used as lubricant for MQL system. Grinding experiments were carried out on instrumented surface grinding machine. For experimentation purpose Taguchi's method was used. Important process parameters that affect the G ratio and surface finish in MQL grinding are depth of cut, type of lubricant, feed rate, grinding wheel speed, coolant flow rate, and nanoparticle size. Grinding performance was calculated by the measurement G ratio and surface finish. For improvement of grinding process a multi-objective process parameter optimization is performed by use of Taguchi based grey relational analysis. To identify most significant factor of process analysis of variance (ANOVA has been used.

  18. Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Single-Channel Speech Separation Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on performance evaluation of single-channel speech separation (SCSS) algorithms mostly focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR) accuracy as their performance measure. Assessing the separated signals by different metrics other than this has the benefit that the results...... are expected to carry on to other applications beyond ASR. In this paper, in addition to conventional speech quality metrics (PESQ and SNRloss), we also evaluate the separation systems output using different source separation metrics: blind source separation evaluation (BSS EVAL) and perceptual evaluation...... that PESQ and PEASS quality metrics predict well the subjective quality of separated signals obtained by the separation systems. From the results it is observed that the short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) measure predict the speech intelligibility results....

  19. Perception of Animacy from the Motion of a Single Sound Object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Høll; Vuust, Peter; Wallentin, Mikkel

    2015-02-01

    Research in the visual modality has shown that the presence of certain dynamics in the motion of an object has a strong effect on whether or not the entity is perceived as animate. Cues for animacy are, among others, self-propelled motion and direction changes that are seemingly not caused by entities external to, or in direct contact with, the moving object. The present study aimed to extend this research into the auditory domain by determining if similar dynamics could influence the perceived animacy of a sound source. In two experiments, participants were presented with single, synthetically generated 'mosquito' sounds moving along trajectories in space, and asked to rate how certain they were that each sound-emitting entity was alive. At a random point on a linear motion trajectory, the sound source would deviate from its initial path and speed. Results confirm findings from the visual domain that a change in the velocity of motion is positively correlated with perceived animacy, and changes in direction were found to influence animacy judgment as well. This suggests that an ability to facilitate and sustain self-movement is perceived as a living quality not only in the visual domain, but in the auditory domain as well. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  20. Dynamic Non-Rigid Objects Reconstruction with a Single RGB-D Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the 3D reconstruction problem for dynamic non-rigid objects with a single RGB-D sensor. It is a challenging task as we consider the almost inevitable accumulation error issue in some previous sequential fusion methods and also the possible failure of surface tracking in a long sequence. Therefore, we propose a global non-rigid registration framework and tackle the drifting problem via an explicit loop closure. Our novel scheme starts with a fusion step to get multiple partial scans from the input sequence, followed by a pairwise non-rigid registration and loop detection step to obtain correspondences between neighboring partial pieces and those pieces that form a loop. Then, we perform a global registration procedure to align all those pieces together into a consistent canonical space as guided by those matches that we have established. Finally, our proposed model-update step helps fixing potential misalignments that still exist after the global registration. Both geometric and appearance constraints are enforced during our alignment; therefore, we are able to get the recovered model with accurate geometry as well as high fidelity color maps for the mesh. Experiments on both synthetic and various real datasets have demonstrated the capability of our approach to reconstruct complete and watertight deformable objects.

  1. A versatile nanotechnology to connect individual nano-objects for the fabrication of hybrid single-electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernand-Mantel, A; Bouzehouane, K; Seneor, P; Fusil, S; Deranlot, C; Petroff, F; Fert, A; Brenac, A; Notin, L; Morel, R

    2010-01-01

    We report on the high yield connection of single nano-objects as small as a few nanometres in diameter to separately elaborated metallic electrodes, using a 'table-top' nanotechnology. Single-electron transport measurements validate that transport occurs through a single nano-object. The vertical geometry of the device natively allows an independent choice of materials for each electrode and the nano-object. In addition ferromagnetic materials can be used without encountering oxidation problems. The possibility of elaborating such hybrid nanodevices opens new routes for the democratization of spintronic studies in low dimensions.

  2. Single- and Multiple-Objective Optimization with Differential Evolution and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and evolutionary algorithms have been applied to solve numerous problems in engineering design where they have been used primarily as optimization procedures. These methods have an advantage over conventional gradient-based search procedures became they are capable of finding global optima of multi-modal functions and searching design spaces with disjoint feasible regions. They are also robust in the presence of noisy data. Another desirable feature of these methods is that they can efficiently use distributed and parallel computing resources since multiple function evaluations (flow simulations in aerodynamics design) can be performed simultaneously and independently on ultiple processors. For these reasons genetic and evolutionary algorithms are being used more frequently in design optimization. Examples include airfoil and wing design and compressor and turbine airfoil design. They are also finding increasing use in multiple-objective and multidisciplinary optimization. This lecture will focus on an evolutionary method that is a relatively new member to the general class of evolutionary methods called differential evolution (DE). This method is easy to use and program and it requires relatively few user-specified constants. These constants are easily determined for a wide class of problems. Fine-tuning the constants will off course yield the solution to the optimization problem at hand more rapidly. DE can be efficiently implemented on parallel computers and can be used for continuous, discrete and mixed discrete/continuous optimization problems. It does not require the objective function to be continuous and is noise tolerant. DE and applications to single and multiple-objective optimization will be included in the presentation and lecture notes. A method for aerodynamic design optimization that is based on neural networks will also be included as a part of this lecture. The method offers advantages over traditional optimization methods. It is more

  3. Error analysis of marker-based object localization using a single-plane XRII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habets, Damiaan F.; Pollmann, Steven I.; Yuan, Xunhua; Peters, Terry M.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The role of imaging and image guidance is increasing in surgery and therapy, including treatment planning and follow-up. Fluoroscopy is used for two-dimensional (2D) guidance or localization; however, many procedures would benefit from three-dimensional (3D) guidance or localization. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) using a C-arm mounted x-ray image intensifier (XRII) can provide high-quality 3D images; however, patient dose and the required acquisition time restrict the number of 3D images that can be obtained. C-arm based 3D CT is therefore limited in applications for x-ray based image guidance or dynamic evaluations. 2D-3D model-based registration, using a single-plane 2D digital radiographic system, does allow for rapid 3D localization. It is our goal to investigate - over a clinically practical range - the impact of x-ray exposure on the resulting range of 3D localization precision. In this paper it is assumed that the tracked instrument incorporates a rigidly attached 3D object with a known configuration of markers. A 2D image is obtained by a digital fluoroscopic x-ray system and corrected for XRII distortions (±0.035 mm) and mechanical C-arm shift (±0.080 mm). A least-square projection-Procrustes analysis is then used to calculate the 3D position using the measured 2D marker locations. The effect of x-ray exposure on the precision of 2D marker localization and on 3D object localization was investigated using numerical simulations and x-ray experiments. The results show a nearly linear relationship between 2D marker localization precision and the 3D localization precision. However, a significant amplification of error, nonuniformly distributed among the three major axes, occurs, and that is demonstrated. To obtain a 3D localization error of less than ±1.0 mm for an object with 20 mm marker spacing, the 2D localization precision must be better than ±0.07 mm. This requirement was met for all investigated nominal x-ray exposures at 28 cm FOV, and

  4. Single-objective vs. multi-objective autocalibration in modelling total suspended solids and phosphorus in a small agricultural watershed with SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolomanana, Santatriniaina Denise; Lessard, Paul; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    To obtain greater precision in modelling small agricultural watersheds, a shorter simulation time step is beneficial. A daily time step better represents the dynamics of pollutants in the river and provides more realistic simulation results. However, with a daily evaluation performance, good fits are rarely obtained. With the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) method embedded in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), two calibration approaches are available, single-objective or multi-objective optimization. The goal of the present study is to evaluate which approach can improve the daily performance with SWAT, in modelling flow (Q), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP). The influence of weights assigned to the different variables included in the objective function has also been tested. The results showed that: (i) the model performance depends not only on the choice of calibration approach, but essentially on the influential parameters; (ii) the multi-objective calibration estimating at once all parameters related to all measured variables is the best approach to model Q, TSS and TP; (iii) changing weights does not improve model performance; and (iv) with a single-objective optimization, an excellent water quality modelling performance may hide a loss of performance of predicting flows and unbalanced internal model components.

  5. Combining features from ERP components in single-trial EEG for discriminating four-category visual objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Xiong, Shi; Hu, Xiaoping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Jiacai

    2012-10-01

    Categorization of images containing visual objects can be successfully recognized using single-trial electroencephalograph (EEG) measured when subjects view images. Previous studies have shown that task-related information contained in event-related potential (ERP) components could discriminate two or three categories of object images. In this study, we investigated whether four categories of objects (human faces, buildings, cats and cars) could be mutually discriminated using single-trial EEG data. Here, the EEG waveforms acquired while subjects were viewing four categories of object images were segmented into several ERP components (P1, N1, P2a and P2b), and then Fisher linear discriminant analysis (Fisher-LDA) was used to classify EEG features extracted from ERP components. Firstly, we compared the classification results using features from single ERP components, and identified that the N1 component achieved the highest classification accuracies. Secondly, we discriminated four categories of objects using combining features from multiple ERP components, and showed that combination of ERP components improved four-category classification accuracies by utilizing the complementarity of discriminative information in ERP components. These findings confirmed that four categories of object images could be discriminated with single-trial EEG and could direct us to select effective EEG features for classifying visual objects.

  6. Object-oriented identification of forested landslides with derivatives of single pulse LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Kerle, Norman; Poesen, Jean; Hervás, Javier

    2012-11-01

    In contrast to the many studies that use expert-based analysis of LiDAR derivatives for landslide mapping in forested terrain, only few studies have attempted to develop (semi-)automatic methods for extracting landslides from LiDAR derivatives. While all these studies are pixel-based, it has not yet been tested whether object-oriented analysis (OOA) could be an alternative. This study investigates the potential of OOA using only single-pulse LiDAR derivatives, such as slope gradient, roughness and curvature to map landslides. More specifically, the focus is on both LiDAR data segmentation and classification of slow-moving landslides in densely vegetated areas, where spectral data do not allow accurate landslide identification. A multistage procedure has been developed and tested in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). The procedure consists of (1) image binarization and multiresolution segmentation, (2) classification of landslide parts (main scarps and landslide body segments) and non-landslide features (i.e. earth banks and cropland fields) with supervised support vector machines at the appropriate scale, (3) delineation of landslide flanks, (4) growing of a landslide body starting from its main scarp, and (5) final cleaning of the inventory map. The results obtained show that OOA using LiDAR derivatives allows recognition and characterization of profound morphologic properties of forested deep-seated landslides on soil-covered hillslopes, because more than 90% of the main scarps and 70% of the landslide bodies of an expert-based inventory were accurately identified with OOA. For mountainous areas with bedrock, on the other hand, creation of a transferable model is expected to be more difficult.

  7. Design of a box trainer for objective assessment of technical skills in single-port surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeman, Tim; Sun, Siyu; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.; Jansen, Frank William; Meijerink, Jeroen W. J. H. J.; Dankelman, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic single-port (SP) surgery uses only a single entry point for all instruments. The approach of SP has been applied in multiple laparoscopic disciplines owing to its improved cosmetic result. However, in SP surgery, instrument movements are further restricted, resulting in increased

  8. Long working distance objective lenses for single atom trapping and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, J. D., E-mail: jonathan.pritchard@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Isaacs, J. A.; Saffman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We present a pair of optimized objective lenses with long working distances of 117 mm and 65 mm, respectively, that offer diffraction limited performance for both Cs and Rb wavelengths when imaging through standard vacuum windows. The designs utilise standard catalog lens elements to provide a simple and cost-effective solution. Objective 1 provides NA = 0.175 offering 3 μm resolution whilst objective 2 is optimized for high collection efficiency with NA = 0.29 and 1.8 μm resolution. This flexible design can be further extended for use at shorter wavelengths by simply re-optimising the lens separations.

  9. Design optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchangers using single objective and multiobjective particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsays, Mostafa A.; Naguib Aly, M; Badawi, Alya A.

    2010-01-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers and determine the optimal feasible solutions so as to eliminate trial-and-error during the design process. The design formulation takes into account the area and the total annual cost of heat exchangers as two objective functions together with operating as well as geometrical constraints. The Nonlinear Constrained Single Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (NCSOPSO) algorithm is used to minimize and find the optimal feasible solution for each of the nonlinear constrained objective functions alone, respectively. Then, a novel Nonlinear Constrained Mult-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (NCMOPSO) algorithm is used to minimize and find the Pareto optimal solutions for both of the nonlinear constrained objective functions together. The experimental results show that the two algorithms are very efficient, fast and can find the accurate optimal feasible solutions of the shell and tube heat exchangers design optimization problem. (orig.)

  10. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  11. A calderón-preconditioned single source combined field integral equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects

    KAUST Repository

    Valdés, Felipe

    2011-06-01

    A new regularized single source equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects is presented. The proposed equation is a linear combination of a Calderón-preconditioned single source electric field integral equation and a single source magnetic field integral equation. The equation is immune to low-frequency and dense-mesh breakdown, and free from spurious resonances. Unlike dual source formulations, this equation involves operator products that cannot be discretized using standard procedures for discretizing standalone electric, magnetic, and combined field operators. Instead, the single source equation proposed here is discretized using a recently developed technique that achieves a well-conditioned mapping from div- to curl-conforming function spaces, thereby fully respecting the space mapping properties of the operators involved, and guaranteeing accuracy and stability. Numerical results show that the proposed equation and discretization technique give rise to rapidly convergent solutions. They also validate the equation\\'s resonant free character. © 2006 IEEE.

  12. Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting Range Profiling of Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedborg Julia

    2016-01-01

    TCSPC is a statistic method that requires an acquisition time and therefore the range profile of a non-stationary object (target may be corrupted. Here, we present results showing that it is possible to reconstruct the range profile of a moving target and calculate the velocity of the target.

  13. Single and Multiple Object Tracking Using a Multi-Feature Joint Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a tracking algorithm based on a multi-feature joint sparse representation. The templates for the sparse representation can include pixel values, textures, and edges. In the multi-feature joint optimization, noise or occlusion is dealt with using a set of trivial templates. A sparse weight constraint is introduced to dynamically select the relevant templates from the full set of templates. A variance ratio measure is adopted to adaptively adjust the weights of different features. The multi-feature template set is updated adaptively. We further propose an algorithm for tracking multi-objects with occlusion handling based on the multi-feature joint sparse reconstruction. The observation model based on sparse reconstruction automatically focuses on the visible parts of an occluded object by using the information in the trivial templates. The multi-object tracking is simplified into a joint Bayesian inference. The experimental results show the superiority of our algorithm over several state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  14. Optical encryption of multiple three-dimensional objects based on multiple interferences and single-pixel digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2018-03-01

    We present an optical encryption method of multiple three-dimensional objects based on multiple interferences and single-pixel digital holography. By modifying the Mach–Zehnder interferometer, the interference of the multiple objects beams and the one reference beam is used to simultaneously encrypt multiple objects into a ciphertext. During decryption, each three-dimensional object can be decrypted independently without having to decrypt other objects. Since the single-pixel digital holography based on compressive sensing theory is introduced, the encrypted data of this method is effectively reduced. In addition, recording fewer encrypted data can greatly reduce the bandwidth of network transmission. Moreover, the compressive sensing essentially serves as a secret key that makes an intruder attack invalid, which means that the system is more secure than the conventional encryption method. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method and show that the system has good security performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405130 and 61320106015).

  15. Perception of animacy from the motion of a single sound object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Høll; Vuust, Peter; Wallentin, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    Research in the visual modality has shown that the presence of certain dynamics in the motion of an object has a strong effect on whether or not the entity is perceived as animate. Cues for animacy are, among others, self-propelled motion and direction changes that are seemingly not caused...... that a change in the velocity of motion is positively correlated with perceived animacy, and changes in direction were found to influence animacy judgment as well. This suggests that an ability to facilitate and sustain self-movement is perceived as a living quality not only in the visual domain...

  16. A curve fitting method for extrinsic camera calibration from a single image of a cylindrical object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, A W; Zagar, B G

    2013-01-01

    An important step in the process of optical steel coil quality assurance is to measure the proportions of width and radius of steel coils as well as the relative position and orientation of the camera. This work attempts to estimate these extrinsic parameters from single images by using the cylindrical coil itself as the calibration target. Therefore, an adaptive least-squares algorithm is applied to fit parametrized curves to the detected true coil outline in the acquisition. The employed model allows for strictly separating the intrinsic and the extrinsic parameters. Thus, the intrinsic camera parameters can be calibrated beforehand using available calibration software. Furthermore, a way to segment the true coil outline in the acquired images is motivated. The proposed optimization method yields highly accurate results and can be generalized even to measure other solids which cannot be characterized by the identification of simple geometric primitives. (paper)

  17. A curve fitting method for extrinsic camera calibration from a single image of a cylindrical object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, A. W.; Zagar, B. G.

    2013-08-01

    An important step in the process of optical steel coil quality assurance is to measure the proportions of width and radius of steel coils as well as the relative position and orientation of the camera. This work attempts to estimate these extrinsic parameters from single images by using the cylindrical coil itself as the calibration target. Therefore, an adaptive least-squares algorithm is applied to fit parametrized curves to the detected true coil outline in the acquisition. The employed model allows for strictly separating the intrinsic and the extrinsic parameters. Thus, the intrinsic camera parameters can be calibrated beforehand using available calibration software. Furthermore, a way to segment the true coil outline in the acquired images is motivated. The proposed optimization method yields highly accurate results and can be generalized even to measure other solids which cannot be characterized by the identification of simple geometric primitives.

  18. Characterisation of a single photon counting pixel system for imaging of low-contrast objects

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, B; Dipasquale, G; Schwarz, C; Watt, J

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the Medipix collaboration the PCC, a single photon counting pixel chip, has been developed with the aim of improving the contrast resolution in medical imaging applications. The PCC consists of a matrix of 64x64 square pixels with 170 mm side length, each pixel comprising a 15 bit counter and a pulse height discriminator. The chip has been bump bonded to equally segmented 200 mm thick SI-LEC GaAs detectors showing a very high absorption energy for X-rays used in diagnostics. An absolute calibration of the system with a radioactive source and a synchrotron beam are described resulting in the value of the test input capacitance of ~24.7 fF. Using this value a full characterisation of the system from electrical measurements is presented. The entire system can reach a minimum threshold of ~2100 e- with ~250e- rms noise. One of the characteristics of the PCC is the possibility to adjust the thresholds of all pixels on a pixel-by-pixel basis with 3-bit precision. The threshold distribution after...

  19. An Enhanced Memetic Algorithm for Single-Objective Bilevel Optimization Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Monjurul; Singh, Hemant Kumar; Ray, Tapabrata; Sinha, Ankur

    2017-01-01

    Bilevel optimization, as the name reflects, deals with optimization at two interconnected hierarchical levels. The aim is to identify the optimum of an upper-level  leader problem, subject to the optimality of a lower-level follower problem. Several problems from the domain of engineering, logistics, economics, and transportation have an inherent nested structure which requires them to be modeled as bilevel optimization problems. Increasing size and complexity of such problems has prompted active theoretical and practical interest in the design of efficient algorithms for bilevel optimization. Given the nested nature of bilevel problems, the computational effort (number of function evaluations) required to solve them is often quite high. In this article, we explore the use of a Memetic Algorithm (MA) to solve bilevel optimization problems. While MAs have been quite successful in solving single-level optimization problems, there have been relatively few studies exploring their potential for solving bilevel optimization problems. MAs essentially attempt to combine advantages of global and local search strategies to identify optimum solutions with low computational cost (function evaluations). The approach introduced in this article is a nested Bilevel Memetic Algorithm (BLMA). At both upper and lower levels, either a global or a local search method is used during different phases of the search. The performance of BLMA is presented on twenty-five standard test problems and two real-life applications. The results are compared with other established algorithms to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  20. Identification of Auditory Object-Specific Attention from Single-Trial Electroencephalogram Signals via Entropy Measures and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing research has revealed that auditory attention can be tracked from ongoing electroencephalography (EEG signals. The aim of this novel study was to investigate the identification of peoples’ attention to a specific auditory object from single-trial EEG signals via entropy measures and machine learning. Approximate entropy (ApEn, sample entropy (SampEn, composite multiscale entropy (CmpMSE and fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn were used to extract the informative features of EEG signals under three kinds of auditory object-specific attention (Rest, Auditory Object1 Attention (AOA1 and Auditory Object2 Attention (AOA2. The linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM, were used to construct two auditory attention classifiers. The statistical results of entropy measures indicated that there were significant differences in the values of ApEn, SampEn, CmpMSE and FuzzyEn between Rest, AOA1 and AOA2. For the SVM-based auditory attention classifier, the auditory object-specific attention of Rest, AOA1 and AOA2 could be identified from EEG signals using ApEn, SampEn, CmpMSE and FuzzyEn as features and the identification rates were significantly different from chance level. The optimal identification was achieved by the SVM-based auditory attention classifier using CmpMSE with the scale factor τ = 10. This study demonstrated a novel solution to identify the auditory object-specific attention from single-trial EEG signals without the need to access the auditory stimulus.

  1. Defending a single object against an attacker trying to detect a subset of false targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, R.; Zhai, Q.Q.; Levitin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Deployment of false targets can be a very important and effective measure for enhancing the survivability of an object subjected to intentional attacks. Existing papers have assumed that false targets are either perfect or can be detected with a constant probability. In practice, the attacker may allocate part of its budget into intelligence actions trying to detect a subset of false targets. Analogously, the defender can allocate part of its budget into disinformation actions to prevent the false targets from being detected. In this paper, the detection probability of each false target is assumed to be a function of the intelligence and disinformation efforts allocated on the false target. The optimal resource distribution between target identification/disinformation and attack/protection efforts is studied as solutions of a non-cooperative two period min–max game between the two competitors for the case of constrained defense and attack resources. - Highlights: • A defense-attack problem is studied as a two-period min–max game. • Both intelligence contest over false targets and impact contest are considered. • Optimal defense and attack strategies are investigated with different parameters.

  2. Single-shot color fringe projection for three-dimensional shape measurement of objects with discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meiling; Yang, Fujun; He, Xiaoyuan

    2012-04-20

    A simple but effective fringe projection profilometry is proposed to measure 3D shape by using one snapshot color sinusoidal fringe pattern. One color fringe pattern encoded with a sinusoidal fringe (as red component) and one uniform intensity pattern (as blue component) is projected by a digital video projector, and the deformed fringe pattern is recorded by a color CCD camera. The captured color fringe pattern is separated into its RGB components and division operation is applied to red and blue channels to reduce the variable reflection intensity. Shape information of the tested object is decoded by applying an arcsine algorithm on the normalized fringe pattern with subpixel resolution. In the case of fringe discontinuities caused by height steps, or spatially isolated surfaces, the separated blue component is binarized and used for correcting the phase demodulation. A simple and robust method is also introduced to compensate for nonlinear intensity response of the digital video projector. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  3. A new hybrid genetic algorithm for optimizing the single and multivariate objective functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar [Idaho National Laboratory; McCulloch, Richard Chet James [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-07-01

    In this work a new hybrid genetic algorithm was developed which combines a rudimentary adaptive steepest ascent hill climbing algorithm with a sophisticated evolutionary algorithm in order to optimize complex multivariate design problems. By combining a highly stochastic algorithm (evolutionary) with a simple deterministic optimization algorithm (adaptive steepest ascent) computational resources are conserved and the solution converges rapidly when compared to either algorithm alone. In genetic algorithms natural selection is mimicked by random events such as breeding and mutation. In the adaptive steepest ascent algorithm each variable is perturbed by a small amount and the variable that caused the most improvement is incremented by a small step. If the direction of most benefit is exactly opposite of the previous direction with the most benefit then the step size is reduced by a factor of 2, thus the step size adapts to the terrain. A graphical user interface was created in MATLAB to provide an interface between the hybrid genetic algorithm and the user. Additional features such as bounding the solution space and weighting the objective functions individually are also built into the interface. The algorithm developed was tested to optimize the functions developed for a wood pelleting process. Using process variables (such as feedstock moisture content, die speed, and preheating temperature) pellet properties were appropriately optimized. Specifically, variables were found which maximized unit density, bulk density, tapped density, and durability while minimizing pellet moisture content and specific energy consumption. The time and computational resources required for the optimization were dramatically decreased using the hybrid genetic algorithm when compared to MATLAB's native evolutionary optimization tool.

  4. Face Validity of the Single Work Ability Item: Comparison with Objectively Measured Heart Rate Reserve over Several Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jensen, Bjørn Søvsø; Søgaard, Karen; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes; Christiansen, Caroline Stordal; Hanisch, Christiana; Holtermann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the face validity of the self-reported single item work ability with objectively measured heart rate reserve (%HRR) among blue-collar workers. Methods: We utilized data from 127 blue-collar workers (Female = 53; Male = 74) aged 18–65 years from the cross-sectional “New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD)” study. The workers reported their single item work ability and completed an aerobic capacity cycling test and objective measurements of heart rate reserve monitored with Actiheart for 3–4 days with a total of 5,810 h, including 2,640 working hours. Results: A significant moderate correlation between work ability and %HRR was observed among males (R = −0.33, P = 0.005), but not among females (R = 0.11, P = 0.431). In a gender-stratified multi-adjusted logistic regression analysis, males with high %HRR were more likely to report a reduced work ability compared to males with low %HRR [OR = 4.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.31 to 17.25]. However, this association was not found among females (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.16), and a significant interaction between work ability, %HRR and gender was observed (P = 0.03). Conclusions: The observed association between work ability and objectively measured %HRR over several days among male blue-collar workers supports the face validity of the single work ability item. It is a useful and valid measure of the relation between physical work demands and resources among male blue-collar workers. The contrasting association among females needs to be further investigated. PMID:24840350

  5. Face Validity of the Single Work Ability Item: Comparison with Objectively Measured Heart Rate Reserve over Several Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the face validity of the self-reported single item work ability with objectively measured heart rate reserve (%HRR among blue-collar workers. Methods: We utilized data from 127 blue-collar workers (Female = 53; Male = 74 aged 18–65 years from the cross-sectional “New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD” study. The workers reported their single item work ability and completed an aerobic capacity cycling test and objective measurements of heart rate reserve monitored with Actiheart for 3–4 days with a total of 5,810 h, including 2,640 working hours. Results: A significant moderate correlation between work ability and %HRR was observed among males (R = −0.33, P = 0.005, but not among females (R = 0.11, P = 0.431. In a gender-stratified multi-adjusted logistic regression analysis, males with high %HRR were more likely to report a reduced work ability compared to males with low %HRR [OR = 4.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 1.31 to 17.25]. However, this association was not found among females (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.16, and a significant interaction between work ability, %HRR and gender was observed (P = 0.03. Conclusions: The observed association between work ability and objectively measured %HRR over several days among male blue-collar workers supports the face validity of the single work ability item. It is a useful and valid measure of the relation between physical work demands and resources among male blue-collar workers. The contrasting association among females needs to be further investigated.

  6. One-single physical exercise session after object recognition learning promotes memory persistence through hippocampal noradrenergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Neves, Ben-Hur Souto das; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela

    2017-06-30

    Previously we showed the involvement of the hippocampal noradrenergic system in the consolidation and persistence of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that one-single physical exercise session performed immediately after learning promotes OR memory persistence and increases norepinephrine levels in the hippocampus. Additionally, effects of exercise on memory are avoided by an intra-hippocampal beta-adrenergic antagonist infusion. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise effects on memory can be related to noradrenergic mechanisms and acute physical exercise can be a non-pharmacological intervention to assist memory consolidation and persistence, with few or no side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical correction of anti-symmetric aberrations in single HRTEM images of weakly scattering 2D-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Ossi; Geiger, Dorin; Lee, Zhongbo; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Chen, Ming-Wei; Kis, Andras; Kaiser, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a numerical post-processing method for removing the effect of anti-symmetric residual aberrations in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of weakly scattering 2D-objects. The method is based on applying the same aberrations with the opposite phase to the Fourier transform of the recorded image intensity and subsequently inverting the Fourier transform. We present the theoretical justification of the method, and its verification based on simulated images in the case of low-order anti-symmetric aberrations. Ultimately the method is applied to experimental hardware aberration-corrected HRTEM images of single-layer graphene and MoSe 2 resulting in images with strongly reduced residual low-order aberrations, and consequently improved interpretability. Alternatively, this method can be used to estimate by trial and error the residual anti-symmetric aberrations in HRTEM images of weakly scattering objects

  8. Hydrologic Model Development and Calibration: Contrasting a Single- and Multi-Objective Approach for Comparing Model Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, M.; Maclean, A.; Tolson, B. A.; Burn, D. H.

    2009-05-01

    Hydrologic model calibration aims to find a set of parameters that adequately simulates observations of watershed behavior, such as streamflow, or a state variable, such as snow water equivalent (SWE). There are different metrics for evaluating calibration effectiveness that involve quantifying prediction errors, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient and bias evaluated for the entire calibration period, on a seasonal basis, for low flows, or for high flows. Many of these metrics are conflicting such that the set of parameters that maximizes the high flow NS differs from the set of parameters that maximizes the low flow NS. Conflicting objectives are very likely when different calibration objectives are based on different fluxes and/or state variables (e.g., NS based on streamflow versus SWE). One of the most popular ways to balance different metrics is to aggregate them based on their importance and find the set of parameters that optimizes a weighted sum of the efficiency metrics. Comparing alternative hydrologic models (e.g., assessing model improvement when a process or more detail is added to the model) based on the aggregated objective might be misleading since it represents one point on the tradeoff of desired error metrics. To derive a more comprehensive model comparison, we solved a bi-objective calibration problem to estimate the tradeoff between two error metrics for each model. Although this approach is computationally more expensive than the aggregation approach, it results in a better understanding of the effectiveness of selected models at each level of every error metric and therefore provides a better rationale for judging relative model quality. The two alternative models used in this study are two MESH hydrologic models (version 1.2) of the Wolf Creek Research basin that differ in their watershed spatial discretization (a single Grouped Response Unit, GRU, versus multiple GRUs). The MESH model, currently under development by Environment

  9. The role of auditory cortices in the retrieval of single-trial auditory-visual object memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusz, Pawel J; Thelen, Antonia; Amrein, Sarah; Geiser, Eveline; Anken, Jacques; Murray, Micah M

    2015-03-01

    Single-trial encounters with multisensory stimuli affect both memory performance and early-latency brain responses to visual stimuli. Whether and how auditory cortices support memory processes based on single-trial multisensory learning is unknown and may differ qualitatively and quantitatively from comparable processes within visual cortices due to purported differences in memory capacities across the senses. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) as healthy adults (n = 18) performed a continuous recognition task in the auditory modality, discriminating initial (new) from repeated (old) sounds of environmental objects. Initial presentations were either unisensory or multisensory; the latter entailed synchronous presentation of a semantically congruent or a meaningless image. Repeated presentations were exclusively auditory, thus differing only according to the context in which the sound was initially encountered. Discrimination abilities (indexed by d') were increased for repeated sounds that were initially encountered with a semantically congruent image versus sounds initially encountered with either a meaningless or no image. Analyses of ERPs within an electrical neuroimaging framework revealed that early stages of auditory processing of repeated sounds were affected by prior single-trial multisensory contexts. These effects followed from significantly reduced activity within a distributed network, including the right superior temporal cortex, suggesting an inverse relationship between brain activity and behavioural outcome on this task. The present findings demonstrate how auditory cortices contribute to long-term effects of multisensory experiences on auditory object discrimination. We propose a new framework for the efficacy of multisensory processes to impact both current multisensory stimulus processing and unisensory discrimination abilities later in time. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Woodland Mapping at Single-Tree Levels Using Object-Oriented Classification of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav) Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenari, A.; Erfanifard, Y.; Dehghani, M.; Pourghasemi, H. R.

    2017-09-01

    Remotely sensed datasets offer a reliable means to precisely estimate biophysical characteristics of individual species sparsely distributed in open woodlands. Moreover, object-oriented classification has exhibited significant advantages over different classification methods for delineation of tree crowns and recognition of species in various types of ecosystems. However, it still is unclear if this widely-used classification method can have its advantages on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) digital images for mapping vegetation cover at single-tree levels. In this study, UAV orthoimagery was classified using object-oriented classification method for mapping a part of wild pistachio nature reserve in Zagros open woodlands, Fars Province, Iran. This research focused on recognizing two main species of the study area (i.e., wild pistachio and wild almond) and estimating their mean crown area. The orthoimage of study area was consisted of 1,076 images with spatial resolution of 3.47 cm which was georeferenced using 12 ground control points (RMSE=8 cm) gathered by real-time kinematic (RTK) method. The results showed that the UAV orthoimagery classified by object-oriented method efficiently estimated mean crown area of wild pistachios (52.09±24.67 m2) and wild almonds (3.97±1.69 m2) with no significant difference with their observed values (α=0.05). In addition, the results showed that wild pistachios (accuracy of 0.90 and precision of 0.92) and wild almonds (accuracy of 0.90 and precision of 0.89) were well recognized by image segmentation. In general, we concluded that UAV orthoimagery can efficiently produce precise biophysical data of vegetation stands at single-tree levels, which therefore is suitable for assessment and monitoring open woodlands.

  11. WOODLAND MAPPING AT SINGLE-TREE LEVELS USING OBJECT-ORIENTED CLASSIFICATION OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chenari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Remotely sensed datasets offer a reliable means to precisely estimate biophysical characteristics of individual species sparsely distributed in open woodlands. Moreover, object-oriented classification has exhibited significant advantages over different classification methods for delineation of tree crowns and recognition of species in various types of ecosystems. However, it still is unclear if this widely-used classification method can have its advantages on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV digital images for mapping vegetation cover at single-tree levels. In this study, UAV orthoimagery was classified using object-oriented classification method for mapping a part of wild pistachio nature reserve in Zagros open woodlands, Fars Province, Iran. This research focused on recognizing two main species of the study area (i.e., wild pistachio and wild almond and estimating their mean crown area. The orthoimage of study area was consisted of 1,076 images with spatial resolution of 3.47 cm which was georeferenced using 12 ground control points (RMSE=8 cm gathered by real-time kinematic (RTK method. The results showed that the UAV orthoimagery classified by object-oriented method efficiently estimated mean crown area of wild pistachios (52.09±24.67 m2 and wild almonds (3.97±1.69 m2 with no significant difference with their observed values (α=0.05. In addition, the results showed that wild pistachios (accuracy of 0.90 and precision of 0.92 and wild almonds (accuracy of 0.90 and precision of 0.89 were well recognized by image segmentation. In general, we concluded that UAV orthoimagery can efficiently produce precise biophysical data of vegetation stands at single-tree levels, which therefore is suitable for assessment and monitoring open woodlands.

  12. Automated single-trial assessment of laser-evoked potentials as an objective functional diagnostic tool for the nociceptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, S M; Hu, L; Ragé, M; Gierasimowicz, A; Plaghki, L; Bouhassira, D; Attal, N; Iannetti, G D; Mouraux, A

    2012-12-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of an automated analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs). Nociceptive laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and non-nociceptive somatosensory electrically-evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 37 patients with syringomyelia and 21 controls. LEP and SEP peak amplitudes and latencies were estimated using a single-trial automated approach based on time-frequency wavelet filtering and multiple linear regression, as well as a conventional approach based on visual inspection. The amplitudes and latencies of normal and abnormal LEP and SEP peaks were identified reliably using both approaches, with similar sensitivity and specificity. Because the automated approach provided an unbiased solution to account for average waveforms where no ERP could be identified visually, it revealed significant differences between patients and controls that were not revealed using the visual approach. The automated analysis of ERPs characterized reliably and objectively LEP and SEP waveforms in patients. The automated single-trial analysis can be used to characterize normal and abnormal ERPs with a similar sensitivity and specificity as visual inspection. While this does not justify its use in a routine clinical setting, the technique could be useful to avoid observer-dependent biases in clinical research. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrofitting of heat exchanger networks involving streams with variable heat capacity: Application of single and multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreepathi, Bhargava Krishna; Rangaiah, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Heat exchanger network (HEN) retrofitting improves the energy efficiency of the current process by reducing external utilities. In this work, HEN retrofitting involving streams having variable heat capacity is studied. For this, enthalpy values of a stream are fitted to a continuous cubic polynomial instead of a stepwise approach employed in the previous studies [1,2]. The former methodology is closer to reality as enthalpy or heat capacity changes gradually instead of step changes. Using the polynomial fitting formulation, single objective optimization (SOO) and multi-objective optimization (MOO) of a HEN retrofit problem are investigated. The results obtained show an improvement in the utility savings, and MOO provides many Pareto-optimal solutions to choose from. Also, Pareto-optimal solutions involving area addition in existing heat exchangers only (but no new exchangers and no structural modifications) are found and provided for comparison with those involving new exchangers and structural modifications as well. - Highlights: • HEN retrofitting involving streams with variable heat capacities is studied. • A continuous approach to handle variable heat capacity is proposed and tested. • Better and practical solutions are obtained for HEN retrofitting in process plants. • Pareto-optimal solutions provide many alternate choices for HEN retrofitting

  14. Using aided cortical assessment as an objective tool to evaluate cochlear implant fitting in users with single-sided deafness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Távora-Vieira

    Full Text Available To assess the use of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs to verify, and if necessary, optimize the cochlear implant (CI fitting of adult CI users with postlingual single-sided deafness (SSD.Sound field cortical responses to the speech tokens /m/, /g/, /t/, and /s/ were recorded from input to the CI while the normal hearing ear was masked. Responses were evaluated by visual inspection and classified as presence or absence of the CAEPs components P1, N1, P2. In case of an absence fitting was adjusted accordingly. After fitting, subjects were asked to use their new setting for 2-3 weeks for acclimatization purposes and then return for retesting. At retesting, new CAEP recordings were performed to objectively ensure that the new fitting maps effectively activated the auditory cortex.In 14/19 subjects, as per visual inspection, clear CAEPs were recorded by each speech token and were, therefore, not refit. In the other 5 subjects, CAEPs could not be evoked for at least one speech token. The fitting maps in these subjects were adjusted until clear CAEPs were evoked for all 4 speech tokens.CAEP can be used to quickly and objectively verify the suitability of CI fitting in experienced adult CI users with SSD. If used in the early post-implantation stage, this method could help CI users derive greater benefit for CI use and, therefore, be more committed to auditory training.

  15. Comparison of single distance phase retrieval algorithms by considering different object composition and the effect of statistical and structural noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R C; Rigon, L; Longo, R

    2013-03-25

    Phase retrieval is a technique for extracting quantitative phase information from X-ray propagation-based phase-contrast tomography (PPCT). In this paper, the performance of different single distance phase retrieval algorithms will be investigated. The algorithms are herein called phase-attenuation duality Born Algorithm (PAD-BA), phase-attenuation duality Rytov Algorithm (PAD-RA), phase-attenuation duality Modified Bronnikov Algorithm (PAD-MBA), phase-attenuation duality Paganin algorithm (PAD-PA) and phase-attenuation duality Wu Algorithm (PAD-WA), respectively. They are all based on phase-attenuation duality property and on weak absorption of the sample and they employ only a single distance PPCT data. In this paper, they are investigated via simulated noise-free PPCT data considering the fulfillment of PAD property and weakly absorbing conditions, and with experimental PPCT data of a mixture sample containing absorbing and weakly absorbing materials, and of a polymer sample considering different degrees of statistical and structural noise. The simulation shows all algorithms can quantitatively reconstruct the 3D refractive index of a quasi-homogeneous weakly absorbing object from noise-free PPCT data. When the weakly absorbing condition is violated, the PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA obtain better result than PAD-BA and PAD-MBA that are shown in both simulation and mixture sample results. When considering the statistical noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio values decreases as the photon number is reduced. The structural noise study shows that the result is progressively corrupted by ring-like artifacts with the increase of structural noise (i.e. phantom thickness). The PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA gain better density resolution than the PAD-BA and PAD-MBA in both statistical and structural noise study.

  16. Calibration and Validation Parameter of Hydrologic Model HEC-HMS using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms – Single Objective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Garmeh

    2016-02-01

    model that simulates both wet and dry weatherbehavior.Programming of HEC –HMS has been done by MATLAB and techniques such as elite mutation and creating confusion have been used in order to strengthen the algorithm and improve the results. The event-based HEC-HMS model simulatesthe precipitation-runoff process for each set of parameter values generated by PSO. Turbulentand elitism with mutation are also employed to deal with PSO premature convergence. The integrated PSO-HMS model is tested on the Kardeh dam basin located in the Khorasan Razavi province. Results and Discussion: Input parameters of hydrologic models are seldomknown with certainty. Therefore, they are not capable ofdescribing the exact hydrologic processes. Input data andstructural uncertainties related to scale and approximationsin system processes are different sources of uncertainty thatmake it difficult to model exact hydrologic phenomena.In automatic calibration, the parameter values dependon the objective function of the search or optimization algorithm.In characterizing a runoff hydrograph, threecharacteristics of time-to-peak, peak of discharge and totalrunoff volume are of the most importance. It is thereforeimportant that we simulate and observe hydrographs matchas much as possible in terms of those characteristics. Calibration was carried out in single objective cases. Model calibration in single-objective approach with regard to the objective function in the event of NASH and RMSE were conducted separately.The results indicated that the capability of the model was calibrated to an acceptable level of events. Continuing calibration results were evaluated by four different criteria.Finally, to validate the model parameters with those obtained from the calibration, tests perfomed indicated poor results. Although, based on the calibration and verification of individual events one event remains, suggesting set is a possible parameter. Conclusion: All events were evaluated by validations and the

  17. The role of auditory cortices in the retrieval of single-trial auditory-visual object memories.

    OpenAIRE

    Matusz, P.J.; Thelen, A.; Amrein, S.; Geiser, E.; Anken, J.; Murray, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Single-trial encounters with multisensory stimuli affect both memory performance and early-latency brain responses to visual stimuli. Whether and how auditory cortices support memory processes based on single-trial multisensory learning is unknown and may differ qualitatively and quantitatively from comparable processes within visual cortices due to purported differences in memory capacities across the senses. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) as healthy adults (n = 18) performed a ...

  18. The influence of wall resonances on the levitation of objects in a single-axis acoustic processing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B. B.

    1980-01-01

    Instabilities were observed in high temperature, single axis acoustic processing chambers. At certain temperatures, strong wall resonances were generated within the processing chamber itself and these transverse resonances were thought sufficient to disrupt the levitation well. These wall resonances are apparently not strong enough to cause instabilities in the levitation well.

  19. Simple Objective Detection of Human Lyme Disease Infection Using Immuno-PCR and a Single Recombinant Hybrid Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Micah D.; Molins, Claudia R.; Schriefer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A serology-based tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease, but it lacks sensitivity in the early stages of disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated the use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patient serum samples that were positive for Lyme disease. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and variability of the background of the assay across samples from a healthy population (n = 36) were analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12) demonstrated a strong correlation with that of 2-tier testing. Furthermore, a simplified iPCR approach using a single hybrid antigen and detecting only IgG antibodies confirmed the 2-tier diagnosis in the Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12). Validation of the hybrid antigen IgG iPCR assay using a blinded panel of Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 92) resulted in a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50% to 84%), compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 59% (95% CI, 41% to 76%), and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 91% to 100%) compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 97% (95% CI, 88% to 100%). A single-tier hybrid antigen iPCR assay has the potential to be an improved method for detecting host-generated antibodies against B. burgdorferi. PMID:24899074

  20. A single night of sleep loss impairs objective but not subjective working memory performance in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rångtell, Frida H; Karamchedu, Swathy; Andersson, Peter; Liethof, Lisanne; Olaya Búcaro, Marcela; Lampola, Lauri; Schiöth, Helgi B; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Benedict, Christian

    2018-01-31

    Acute sleep deprivation can lead to judgement errors and thereby increases the risk of accidents, possibly due to an impaired working memory. However, whether the adverse effects of acute sleep loss on working memory are modulated by auditory distraction in women and men are not known. Additionally, it is unknown whether sleep loss alters the way in which men and women perceive their working memory performance. Thus, 24 young adults (12 women using oral contraceptives at the time of investigation) participated in two experimental conditions: nocturnal sleep (scheduled between 22:30 and 06:30 hours) versus one night of total sleep loss. Participants were administered a digital working memory test in which eight-digit sequences were learned and retrieved in the morning after each condition. Learning of digital sequences was accompanied by either silence or auditory distraction (equal distribution among trials). After sequence retrieval, each trial ended with a question regarding how certain participants were of the correctness of their response, as a self-estimate of working memory performance. We found that sleep loss impaired objective but not self-estimated working memory performance in women. In contrast, both measures remained unaffected by sleep loss in men. Auditory distraction impaired working memory performance, without modulation by sleep loss or sex. Being unaware of cognitive limitations when sleep-deprived, as seen in our study, could lead to undesirable consequences in, for example, an occupational context. Our findings suggest that sleep-deprived young women are at particular risk for overestimating their working memory performance. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm for multi-objective single machine group scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times and learning effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lei; Guan, Zailin; Saif, Ullah; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Group scheduling is significant for efficient and cost effective production system. However, there exist setup times between the groups, which require to decrease it by sequencing groups in an efficient way. Current research is focused on a sequence dependent group scheduling problem with an aim to minimize the makespan in addition to minimize the total weighted tardiness simultaneously. In most of the production scheduling problems, the processing time of jobs is assumed as fixed. However, the actual processing time of jobs may be reduced due to "learning effect". The integration of sequence dependent group scheduling problem with learning effects has been rarely considered in literature. Therefore, current research considers a single machine group scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and learning effects simultaneously. A novel hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm (HPABC) with some steps of genetic algorithm is proposed for current problem to get Pareto solutions. Furthermore, five different sizes of test problems (small, small medium, medium, large medium, large) are tested using proposed HPABC. Taguchi method is used to tune the effective parameters of the proposed HPABC for each problem category. The performance of HPABC is compared with three famous multi objective optimization algorithms, improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). Results indicate that HPABC outperforms SPEA2, NSGAII and PSO and gives better Pareto optimal solutions in terms of diversity and quality for almost all the instances of the different sizes of problems.

  2. Evaluation of autoradiographs and images of biological objects with the electronically operating image analyzer 'Densitron II'. II. Determination of the specific and total radioactivity of single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J; Korn, U; Freyer, K; Ermisch, A [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1976-01-01

    Using the TV image analyzer Densitron, transparencies and areas can be measured by the grey value discrimination method equidensitometry. The time, necessary for one measurement, is approximately 1 min, the standard deviations do not exceed 2%. Microscopical objects such as single cells can be analyzed by this method. Photo-blackings and areas have been measured in autoradiographs of goldfish brain-sections after injection of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. As a parallel, blacking and area calibration curves were obtained which allowed a conversion of the relative values into absolute ones. Using this conversion method, neurons of different brain regions were in the range from 104 to 1476..mu..m/sup 2/ in area and from 4.17 to 14.43..mu..Ci . cm/sup -3/ in specific radioactivity. The standard deviations of the absolute values were 6 and 4.5%, respectively. On the basis of these and additional values (thickness of section, number of sections per cell), calculations of the total radioactivity of a cell section or the whole cell can be made.

  3. NLP modeling for the optimization of LiBr-H_2O absorption refrigeration systems with exergy loss rate, heat transfer area, and cost as single objective functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussati, Sergio F.; Gernaey, Krist V.; Morosuk, Tatiana; Mussati, Miguel C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A NLP model is used for simultaneous optimization of sizes and operating conditions. • Total exergy loss rate and transfer area are optimized as single objective functions. • Theoretical and practical bounds for cost optimization problems are computed. • A systematic solution strategy is proposed for total annual cost optimization. • Relevance of components is ranked by heat transfer area, exergy loss rate, and cost. - Abstract: Based on a nonlinear mathematical programming model, the sizes and operating conditions of the process units of single-effect absorption refrigeration systems operating with a LiBr–H_2O solution are optimized for a specified cooling capacity by minimizing three single objective functions: the total exergy loss rate, the total heat transfer area, and the total annual cost of the system. It was found that the optimal solution obtained by minimization of the total exergy loss rate provides “theoretical” upper bounds not only for the total heat transfer area of the system but also for each process unit and all stream temperatures, while the optimal solution obtained by minimization of the total heat transfer area provides the lower bounds for these model variables, to solve a cost optimization problem. The minimization of the total exergy loss rate by varying parametrically the available total heat transfer area between these bounds was also performed, allowing to see how the optimal distribution of the available total heat transfer area among the system components, as well as the operating conditions (stream temperature, pressure, composition, and mass flow rate) and heat loads, vary qualitatively and quantitatively with increasing available total heat transfer area. These optimization results allowed to find a “practical” value of the total heat transfer area, i.e. no benefits can be obtained by increasing the available total heat transfer area above this value since the minimal total exergy loss value cannot

  4. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  5. Dense Plasma Focus: physics and applications (radiation material science, single-shot disclosure of hidden illegal objects, radiation biology and medicine, etc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V. A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Chernyshova, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pimenov, V. N.; Demina, E. V.; Niemela, J.; Crespo, M.-L.; Cicuttin, A.; Tomaszewski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Pytel, K.; Zawadka, A.; Giannini, G.; Longo, F.; Talab, A.; Ul'yanenko, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents some outcomes obtained during the year of 2013 of the activity in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency Co-ordinated research project "Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion-Relevant Pulses". The main results are related to the effects created at the interaction of powerful pulses of different types of radiation (soft and hard X-rays, hot plasma and fast ion streams, neutrons, etc. generated in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) facilities) with various materials including those that are counted as perspective ones for their use in future thermonuclear reactors. Besides we discuss phenomena observed at the irradiation of biological test objects. We examine possible applications of nanosecond powerful pulses of neutrons to the aims of nuclear medicine and for disclosure of hidden illegal objects. Special attention is devoted to discussions of a possibility to create extremely large and enormously diminutive DPF devices and probabilities of their use in energetics, medicine and modern electronics.

  6. Dense Plasma Focus: physics and applications (radiation material science, single-shot disclosure of hidden illegal objects, radiation biology and medicine, etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V A; Miklaszewski, R; Paduch, M; Zielinska, E; Chernyshova, M; Pisarczyk, T; Sadowski, M J; Pimenov, V N; Demina, E V; Niemela, J; Crespo, M-L; Cicuttin, A; Tomaszewski, K; Skladnik-Sadowska, E; Pytel, K; Zawadka, A; Giannini, G; Longo, F; Talab, A; Ul'yanenko, S E

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents some outcomes obtained during the year of 2013 of the activity in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency Co-ordinated research project 'Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion-Relevant Pulses'. The main results are related to the effects created at the interaction of powerful pulses of different types of radiation (soft and hard X-rays, hot plasma and fast ion streams, neutrons, etc. generated in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) facilities) with various materials including those that are counted as perspective ones for their use in future thermonuclear reactors. Besides we discuss phenomena observed at the irradiation of biological test objects. We examine possible applications of nanosecond powerful pulses of neutrons to the aims of nuclear medicine and for disclosure of hidden illegal objects. Special attention is devoted to discussions of a possibility to create extremely large and enormously diminutive DPF devices and probabilities of their use in energetics, medicine and modern electronics. (paper)

  7. Damage to the surface of the small intestinal villus: an objective scale of assessment of the effects of single and fractionated radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, K.E.; Watt, C. (Glasgow Univ. (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Hamlet, R.; Nias, A.H.W. (Glasgow Inst. of Radiotherapeutics and Oncology (UK))

    1983-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to compare damage to mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation with different doses of photons and neutrons. Various stages of the collapse of villous structure seen after radiation include the production of conical and rudimentary villi and a flattened mucosa. A scale is proposed to relate radiation to villous damage. Points from this scale are taken to produce comparative ratios for equivalent damage produced by different radiation conditions. RBE values are quoted for neutron, X and gamma radiation given as single or fractionated irradiation doses and as whole or partial body irradiation. The relationship between the stroma in intravillous pegs and that of the pericryptal compartment is explored.

  8. Damage to the surface of the small intestinal villus: an objective scale of assessment of the effects of single and fractionated radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; Watt, C.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to compare damage to mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation with different doses of photons and neutrons. Various stages of the collapse of villous structure seen after radiation include the production of conical and rudimentary villi and a flattened mucosa. A scale is proposed to relate radiation to villous damage. Points from this scale are taken to produce comparative ratios for equivalent damage produced by different radiation conditions. RBE values are quoted for neutron, X and gamma radiation given as single or fractionated irradiation doses and as whole or partial body irradiation. The relationship between the stroma in intravillous pegs and that of the pericryptal compartment is explored. (author)

  9. Energy policy in the European Community: conflicts between the objectives of the unified single market, supply security and a clean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Policies for energy and the environment in Europe were previously the preserve of national governments, but the Commission of the European Community has gained a role in both policy areas in the past few years. This was due to the 1987 Single European Act which, in effect, extends the writ of competition law throughout the energy and other previously excluded sectors, expresses the desire to reduce acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions, and reaffirms Europe's renewed concern for long-term oil and gas supply security after the Gulf War and the disintegration of the USSR. The Commission's proposals for the unified internal energy market were driven by concern for competition and free market forces, and seemed to exclude any scope for long-term policy considerations. This paper argues that the implementation of those proposals will be uneven and protracted, and that the Commission's more recent proposals for reducing CO 2 emissions and the European Energy Charter appear to mark positive steps towards a long-term strategy for a clean environment, energy efficiency, and oil and gas supply security. 27 refs., 4 tabs

  10. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  11. Single versus Multiple Objective(s) Decision Making: An Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    rather than exception in many real life decision-making circumstances. For example ...... stakeholders' relative importance of various attributes in the utility function. (Steuer 1986). ..... Multiple Criteria Optimization: Theory, Computation and.

  12. Treatment of Previously Treated Facial Capillary Malformations: Results of Single-Center Retrospective Objective 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Efficacy of Large Spot 532 nm Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiek, Bartłomiej; Ambroziak, Marcin; Osipowicz, Katarzyna; Kowalewski, Cezary; Rożalski, Michał

    2018-06-01

    Current treatment of facial capillary malformations (CM) has limited efficacy. To assess the efficacy of large spot 532 nm lasers for the treatment of previously treated facial CM with the use of 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis. Forty-three white patients aged 6 to 59 were included in this study. Patients had 3D photography performed before and after treatment with a 532 nm Nd:YAG laser with large spot and contact cooling. Objective analysis of percentage improvement based on 3D digital assessment of combined color and area improvement (global clearance effect [GCE]) were performed. The median maximal improvement achieved during the treatment (GCE) was 59.1%. The mean number of laser procedures required to achieve this improvement was 6.2 (range 1-16). Improvement of minimum 25% (GCE25) was achieved by 88.4% of patients, a minimum of 50% (GCE50) by 61.1%, a minimum of 75% (GCE75) by 25.6%, and a minimum of 90% (GCE90) by 4.6%. Patients previously treated with pulsed dye lasers had a significantly less response than those treated with other modalities (GCE 37.3% vs 61.8%, respectively). A large spot 532 nm laser is effective in previously treated patients with facial CM.

  13. Acid and nonacid gastroesophageal reflux after single anastomosis gastric bypass. An objective assessment using 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH metry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulami, Georgia; Triantafyllou, Stamatina; Albanopoulos, Konstantinos; Natoudi, Maria; Zografos, Georgios; Theodorou, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    Single anastomosis gastric bypass (SaGB) was introduced in 2001 as an alternative to "loop" gastric bypass. It was considered as a procedure that would eliminate alkaline reflux and associated esophagitis. Existing evidence about the postoperative incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) after SaGB is based on studies using symptom questionnaires. The aim of our study was to evaluate GERD 12 months after SaGB by using 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance pH metry (24-h MIIpH). Surgical department of a university hospital METHODS: Morbidly obese candidates for SaGB underwent 24-hour MIIpH prior and 12 months after their bariatric procedure. There were 11 patients included in this prospective study. Results of 24-hour MIIpH revealed that DeMeester score (40.48 versus 24.16, P = .339) had an increasing trend 12 months after SaGB. Acid reflux episodes decreased, whereas nonacid reflux episodes increased postoperatively, both in proximal and distal esophagus. Total median bolus clearance time and acid clearance time increased. De novo GERD developed in 2 patients (28.6%) and worsening of already existing GERD developed in all patients with preoperative evidence of GERD. The use of symptom questionnaires to assess postoperative GERD after SaGB may not accurately depict the real image. Twenty-four-hour MIIpH in 12 months after SaGB revealed an increase of total number of nonacid reflux episodes and a decrease of total number of acid reflux episodes, with longer duration of each acid reflux episode. Close postoperative follow-up with reflux testing and possibly endoscopy could eliminate the risk of complicated GERD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi objective optimization of performance parameters of a single cylinder diesel engine running with hydrogen using a Taguchi-fuzzy based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Probir Kumar; Deb, Madhujit; Banerjee, Rahul; Majumder, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues and rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels are the major concerns over the past two decades to search for alternative fuels. Among various alternatives hydrogen is a long-term renewable and least polluting fuel. Its clean burning capability helps to meet the stern emission norms. Full substitution of diesel with hydrogen may not be convenient for the time being but employing of hydrogen in a diesel engine in dual fuel mode is possible. In this experimental investigation a TMI (timed manifold injection) system has been developed using ECU (electronic control unit) with varying injection strategy to deliver hydrogen on to the intake manifold. Through adopting this technique in the existing diesel engine a momentous improvement in performance and combustion parameters has been observed. The study also attempts to explain the application of the fuzzy logic based Taguchi analysis to optimize the performance parameters i.e. BSEC (Brake specific energy consumption), Vol. Eff. (Volumetric efficiency) and BTHE (brake thermal efficiency) for the different hydrogen injection strategies. - Highlights: • A timed manifold injection system has been developed which enhances the BTHE by 31.74% at full load conditions. • Use of hydrogen-diesel dual fuel of BSEC was reduced by a maximum of 68.98% at full load condition compared to diesel. • Τhe Vol. Eff. reduced by 73.14% in dual fuel mode as compared to 77.23% at full load condition with base diesel. • A fuzzy based Taguchi's parameter design technique has been involved in multi objective optimization for prediction. • Predicted optimum combination improved BTHE and Vol. Eff. by 24.04% and 72.87% respectively and reduced BSEC by 59.03%

  15. Elegant objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bugayenko, Yegor

    2017-01-01

    There are 23 practical recommendations for object-oriented programmers. Most of them are completely against everything you've read in other books. For example, static methods, NULL references, getters, setters, and mutable classes are called evil. Compound variable names, validators, private static literals, configurable objects, inheritance, annotations, MVC, dependency injection containers, reflection, ORM and even algorithms are our enemies.

  16. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  17. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  18. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  19. A P300-based Brain-Computer Interface with Stimuli on Moving Objects: Four-Session Single-Trial and Triple-Trial Tests with a Game-Like Task Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, Ilya P.; Shishkin, Sergei L.; Kaplan, Alexander Y.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are tools for controlling computers and other devices without using muscular activity, employing user-controlled variations in signals recorded from the user’s brain. One of the most efficient noninvasive BCIs is based on the P300 wave of the brain’s response to stimuli and is therefore referred to as the P300 BCI. Many modifications of this BCI have been proposed to further improve the BCI’s characteristics or to better adapt the BCI to various applications. However, in the original P300 BCI and in all of its modifications, the spatial positions of stimuli were fixed relative to each other, which can impose constraints on designing applications controlled by this BCI. We designed and tested a P300 BCI with stimuli presented on objects that were freely moving on a screen at a speed of 5.4°/s. Healthy participants practiced a game-like task with this BCI in either single-trial or triple-trial mode within four sessions. At each step, the participants were required to select one of nine moving objects. The mean online accuracy of BCI-based selection was 81% in the triple-trial mode and 65% in the single-trial mode. A relatively high P300 amplitude was observed in response to targets in most participants. Self-rated interest in the task was high and stable over the four sessions (the medians in the 1st/4th sessions were 79/84% and 76/71% in the groups practicing in the single-trial and triple-trial modes, respectively). We conclude that the movement of stimulus positions relative to each other may not prevent the efficient use of the P300 BCI by people controlling their gaze, e.g., in robotic devices and in video games. PMID:24302977

  20. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    -- an outline which at the same time indicates the need for transformations of the Durkheimian model on decisive points. Thus, thirdly, it returns to Durkheim and undertakes to develop his concepts in a direction suitable for a sociological theory of fashion. Finally, it discusses the theoretical implications......This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...

  1. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  2. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  3. HipMatch: an object-oriented cross-platform program for accurate determination of cup orientation using 2D-3D registration of single standard X-ray radiograph and a CT volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan; Steppacher, Simon D; Murphy, Stephen B; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz

    2009-09-01

    The widely used procedure of evaluation of cup orientation following total hip arthroplasty using single standard anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is known inaccurate, largely due to the wide variability in individual pelvic orientation relative to X-ray plate. 2D-3D image registration methods have been introduced for an accurate determination of the post-operative cup alignment with respect to an anatomical reference extracted from the CT data. Although encouraging results have been reported, their extensive usage in clinical routine is still limited. This may be explained by their requirement of a CAD model of the prosthesis, which is often difficult to be organized from the manufacturer due to the proprietary issue, and by their requirement of either multiple radiographs or a radiograph-specific calibration, both of which are not available for most retrospective studies. To address these issues, we developed and validated an object-oriented cross-platform program called "HipMatch" where a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining an iterative landmark-to-ray registration with a 2D-3D intensity-based registration was implemented to estimate a rigid transformation between a pre-operative CT volume and the post-operative X-ray radiograph for a precise estimation of cup alignment. No CAD model of the prosthesis is required. Quantitative and qualitative results evaluated on cadaveric and clinical datasets are given, which indicate the robustness and the accuracy of the program. HipMatch is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway), VTK, and Coin3D and is transportable to any platform.

  4. Channels as Objects in Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is often a sort of a protocol associated to each class, stating when and how certain methods should be called. Given that this protocol is, if at all, described in the documentation accompanying the class, current mainstream object-oriented languages cannot provide for the verification of client code adherence against the sought class behaviour. We have defined a class-based concurrent object-oriented language that formalises such protocols in the form of usage types. Usage types are attached to class definitions, allowing for the specification of (1 the available methods, (2 the tests clients must perform on the result of methods, and (3 the object status - linear or shared - all of which depend on the object's state. Our work extends the recent approach on modular session types by eliminating channel operations, and defining the method call as the single communication primitive in both sequential and concurrent settings. In contrast to previous works, we define a single category for objects, instead of distinct categories for linear and for shared objects, and let linear objects evolve into shared ones. We introduce a standard sync qualifier to prevent thread interference in certain operations on shared objects. We formalise the language syntax, the operational semantics, and a type system that enforces by static typing that methods are called only when available, and by a single client if so specified in the usage type. We illustrate the language via a complete example.

  5. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics. T...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object.......This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...

  6. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  7. Object Recognition via Information-Theoretic Measures/Metrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Repperger, Daniel W; Pinkus, Alan R; Skipper, Julie A; Schrider, Christian D

    2006-01-01

    .... In aerial military images, objects with different orientation can be reasonably approximated by a single identification signature consisting of the average histogram of the object under rotations...

  8. Object-based warping: an illusory distortion of space within objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Timothy J; Chun, Marvin M

    2010-12-01

    Visual objects are high-level primitives that are fundamental to numerous perceptual functions, such as guidance of attention. We report that objects warp visual perception of space in such a way that spatial distances within objects appear to be larger than spatial distances in ground regions. When two dots were placed inside a rectangular object, they appeared farther apart from one another than two dots with identical spacing outside of the object. To investigate whether this effect was object based, we measured the distortion while manipulating the structure surrounding the dots. Object displays were constructed with a single object, multiple objects, a partially occluded object, and an illusory object. Nonobject displays were constructed to be comparable to object displays in low-level visual attributes. In all cases, the object displays resulted in a more powerful distortion of spatial perception than comparable non-object-based displays. These results suggest that perception of space within objects is warped.

  9. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  10. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit ma...

  11. Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnovatyi Kogan, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects are reviewed in this paper. First the accretion of the magnetized matter into a single black hole and spectra of radiation are considered. Then the magnetic-field phenomena in the disk accretion, when the black hole is in a pair are discussed. Furthermore, the magnetohydrodynamics phenomena during supernova explosion are considered. Finally the magnetohydrodynamics in the accretion of a neutron star is considered in connection With x-ray sources

  12. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  13. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  14. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Veron, P.

    1977-01-01

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  15. Designing the Object Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Diane; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The Object Game is an exploratory design game and an experiment of developing a tangible object that can spark dialogue and retrospection between collaborative partners and act as a boundary object. The objective of this article is to show and elaborate on the development of the Object Game......, and to provide case examples of the game in action. The Object Game has two parts – Story-building and Co-rating of objects – with the aim of stimulating a collaborative reflection on knowledge sharing with different objects. In Story-building, the participants visualize their knowledge sharing process...... these facilitated knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, knowledge generation, and knowledge integration. The participants collaborative reflected on their use of different objects for knowledge sharing and learn which objects have been effective (and which have not been effective) in their collaborative...

  16. Effect of objective function on multi-objective inverse planning of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoli; Wu Yican; Song Gang; Wang Shifang

    2006-01-01

    There are two kinds of objective functions in radiotherapy inverse planning: dose distribution-based and Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH)-based functions. The treatment planning in our days is still a trial and error process because the multi-objective problem is solved by transforming it into a single objective problem using a specific set of weights for each object. This work investigates the problem of objective function setting based on Pareto multi-optimization theory, and compares the effect on multi-objective inverse planning of those two kinds of objective functions including calculation time, converge speed, etc. The basis of objective function setting on inverse planning is discussed. (authors)

  17. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  18. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  19. Objectivity And Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Magni, Sergio Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The relativity of morals has usually been taken as an argument against the objectivity of ethics. However, a more careful analysis can show that there are forms of moral objectivism which have relativistic implications, and that moral relativism can be compatible with the objectivity of ethics. Such an objectivity is not always in contrast to moral relativism and it is possible to be relativists without having to give up the claim of objectivity in ethics

  20. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  1. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  2. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  3. Single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  4. 7 CFR 3550.51 - Program objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program objectives. 3550.51 Section 3550.51... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.51 Program objectives..., applicants are required to use section 502 funds in conjunction with funding or financing from other sources...

  5. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  6. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  7. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  8. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects...... interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced...... system, knowledge about its own embodiment as well as knowledge about geometric relationships such as rigid body motion. This prior knowledge allows the extraction of representations that are semantically richer compared to many other approaches....

  9. Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the understanding of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects is reviewed. The results of optical studies of the proper motions and alignments, variability, and polarization of HH objects and the results of spectroscopic studies are discussed. Ground-based infrared studies and far-infrared observations are reviewed. Findings on the properties of molecular clouds associated with HH objects, on gas flows associated with HH IR stars, on maser emission, and on radio continuum observations are considered. A history of proposed excitation mechanisms for HH objects is briefly presented, and the salient shock-wave calculations aimed at synthesizing the spectra of HH objects are summarized along with hypotheses that have been advanced about the origin of the objects. 141 references

  10. Non-convex multi-objective optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos M; Žilinskas, Julius

    2017-01-01

    Recent results on non-convex multi-objective optimization problems and methods are presented in this book, with particular attention to expensive black-box objective functions. Multi-objective optimization methods facilitate designers, engineers, and researchers to make decisions on appropriate trade-offs between various conflicting goals. A variety of deterministic and stochastic multi-objective optimization methods are developed in this book. Beginning with basic concepts and a review of non-convex single-objective optimization problems; this book moves on to cover multi-objective branch and bound algorithms, worst-case optimal algorithms (for Lipschitz functions and bi-objective problems), statistical models based algorithms, and probabilistic branch and bound approach. Detailed descriptions of new algorithms for non-convex multi-objective optimization, their theoretical substantiation, and examples for practical applications to the cell formation problem in manufacturing engineering, the process design in...

  11. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  12. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is given of the principal characteristics and problems associated with the prototype BL Lacertae. The most important characteristics of this group and its relevance, the consideration of a few particular objects in moderate detail, the relation between these objects QSOs, and normal galaxies, and finally the possible physical nature of BL Lac objects and the important questions they raise are treated. 15 references

  13. An Integrated Account of Generalization across Objects and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Shafto, Patrick; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2012-01-01

    Humans routinely make inductive generalizations about unobserved features of objects. Previous accounts of inductive reasoning often focus on inferences about a single object or feature: accounts of causal reasoning often focus on a single object with one or more unobserved features, and accounts of property induction often focus on a single…

  14. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  15. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  16. Ranking Specific Sets of Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jan; Woltran, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Ranking sets of objects based on an order between the single elements has been thoroughly studied in the literature. In particular, it has been shown that it is in general impossible to find a total ranking - jointly satisfying properties as dominance and independence - on the whole power set of objects. However, in many applications certain elements from the entire power set might not be required and can be neglected in the ranking process. For instance, certain sets might be ruled out due to hard constraints or are not satisfying some background theory. In this paper, we treat the computational problem whether an order on a given subset of the power set of elements satisfying different variants of dominance and independence can be found, given a ranking on the elements. We show that this problem is tractable for partial rankings and NP-complete for total rankings.

  17. Optimal scheduling of micro grids based on single objective programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue

    2018-04-01

    Faced with the growing demand for electricity and the shortage of fossil fuels, how to optimally optimize the micro-grid has become an important research topic to maximize the economic, technological and environmental benefits of the micro-grid. This paper considers the role of the battery and the micro-grid and power grid to allow the exchange of power not exceeding 150kW preconditions, the main study of the economy to load for the goal is to minimize the electricity cost (abandonment of wind), to establish an optimization model, and to solve the problem by genetic algorithm. The optimal scheduling scheme is obtained and the utilization of renewable energy and the impact of the battery involved in regulation are analyzed.

  18. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...... are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc....

  19. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  20. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  1. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  2. Objects of Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Describes learning objects, also known as granules, chunks, or information nuggets, and likens them to help screens. Discusses concerns about how they can go wrong: (1) faulty pretest questions; (2) missing links in the learning object chain; (3) poor frames of reference; and (4) lack of customization. (JOW)

  3. Per Object statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    of a specific class in turn, and uses as pair of PPO stages to derive the statistics and then assign them to the objects' Object Variables. It may be that this could all be done in some other, simply way, but several other ways that were tried did not succeed. The procedure ouptut has been tested against...

  4. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  5. Stability of multihypernuclear objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rather, Asloob A.; Usmani, A.A.; Patra, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    In present work, we analyze the stability of multi-hypernuclear objects having higher content of strangeness. The aim of this work is to test the stability of such objects which might be produced in heavy-ion reactions. Studies of such type of systems might have great implication to nuclear-astrophysics

  6. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...

  7. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei; Keyser, John

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many

  8. Object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  9. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  10. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  11. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  12. Real Objects Can Impede Conditional Reasoning but Augmented Objects Do Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuri; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Knauff and Johnson-Laird's (2002) visual impedance hypothesis (i.e., mental representations with irrelevant visual detail can impede reasoning) is applied to the domain of external representations and diagrammatic reasoning. We show that the use of real objects and augmented real (AR) objects can control human interpretation and reasoning about conditionals. As participants made inferences (e.g., an invalid one from "if P then Q" to "P"), they also moved objects corresponding to premises. Participants who moved real objects made more invalid inferences than those who moved AR objects and those who did not manipulate objects (there was no significant difference between the last two groups). Our results showed that real objects impeded conditional reasoning, but AR objects did not. These findings are explained by the fact that real objects may over-specify a single state that exists, while AR objects suggest multiple possibilities. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Tracking multiple objects is limited only by object spacing, not by speed, time, or capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franconeri, S L; Jonathan, S V; Scimeca, J M

    2010-07-01

    In dealing with a dynamic world, people have the ability to maintain selective attention on a subset of moving objects in the environment. Performance in such multiple-object tracking is limited by three primary factors-the number of objects that one can track, the speed at which one can track them, and how close together they can be. We argue that this last limit, of object spacing, is the root cause of all performance constraints in multiple-object tracking. In two experiments, we found that as long as the distribution of object spacing is held constant, tracking performance is unaffected by large changes in object speed and tracking time. These results suggest that barring object-spacing constraints, people could reliably track an unlimited number of objects as fast as they could track a single object.

  14. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  15. Object-based attention: strength of object representation and attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomstein, Sarah; Behrmann, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Two or more features belonging to a single object are identified more quickly and more accurately than are features belonging to different objects--a finding attributed to sensory enhancement of all features belonging to an attended or selected object. However, several recent studies have suggested that this "single-object advantage" may be a product of probabilistic and configural strategic prioritizations rather than of object-based perceptual enhancement per se, challenging the underlying mechanism that is thought to give rise to object-based attention. In the present article, we further explore constraints on the mechanisms of object-based selection by examining the contribution of the strength of object representations to the single-object advantage. We manipulated factors such as exposure duration (i.e., preview time) and salience of configuration (i.e., objects). Varying preview time changes the magnitude of the object-based effect, so that if there is ample time to establish an object representation (i.e., preview time of 1,000 msec), then both probability and configuration (i.e., objects) guide attentional selection. If, however, insufficient time is provided to establish a robust object-based representation, then only probabilities guide attentional selection. Interestingly, at a short preview time of 200 msec, when the two objects were sufficiently different from each other (i.e., different colors), both configuration and probability guided attention selection. These results suggest that object-based effects can be explained both in terms of strength of object representations (established at longer exposure durations and by pictorial cues) and probabilistic contingencies in the visual environment.

  16. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...

  17. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  18. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  19. Registration of Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Tedd, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Space objects are subject to registration in order to allocate "jurisdiction and control" over those objects in the sovereign-free environment of outer space. This approach is similar to the registration of ships in view of the high sea and for aircrafts with respect to the international airspace. Registration is one of the basic principles of space law, starting with UN General Assembly Resolution 1721 B (XVI) of December 20, 1961, followed by Resolution 1962 (XVIII) of December 13, 1963, then formulated in Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and as specified in the Registration Convention of 1975. Registration of space objects can be seen today as a principle of customary international law, relevant for each spacefaring state. Registration is divided into a national and an international level. The State Party establishes a national registry for its space objects, and those registrations have to be communicated via diplomatic channel to the UN Register of space objects. This UN Register is handled by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and is an open source of information for space objects worldwide. Registration is linked to the so-called launching state of the relevant space object. There might be more than one launching state for the specific launch event, but only one state actor can register a specific space object. The state of registry gains "jurisdiction and control" over the space object and therefore no double registration is permissible. Based on the established UN Space Law, registration practice was subject to some adaptions due to technical developments and legal challenges. After the privatization of the major international satellite organizations, a number of non-registrations had to be faced. The state actors reacted with the UN Registration Practice Resolution of 2007 as elaborated in the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS, the Committee for the Peaceful Use of Outer Space. In this context an UNOOSA Registration Information

  20. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  1. CODAS object monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, M.R.; Rainford, M.

    2001-01-01

    The primary Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) of JET is based on a TCP/IP network of more than 150 computers. The CODAS computers provide the JET machine control and data acquisition for over 70,000 digital and analog signals. The Object Monitoring Service (OMS) is used by applications for monitoring objects for presentation to the JET machine operators and for the operation of individual software components (such as valve state, access control, mimic definition changes and internal data distribution). Each server typically handles connections from around 60 clients monitoring upwards of 2000 objects. Some servers have over 150 clients and 5000 objects. Acquisition libraries are dynamically linked into a running server as required either to acquire data values for objects or to forward requests to other OMS servers. A mechanism involving dynamic linking allows new libraries to be integrated without stopping or changing running software. OMS provides a very reliable and highly successful 'data-type independent' means of monitoring many different objects. It allows applications to take advantage of new data sources, without the need to change existing code

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles

  3. Sensing single electrons with single molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakhotnik, Taras

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for probing transport of just one electron, a process of great importance both in nature and in artificial devices. Our idea for locating a single electron is analogues to the conventional GPS where signals from several satellites are used to locate a macro object. Using fluorescent molecules as tiny sensors, it is possible to determine 3D displacement vector of an electron

  4. Objects of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald David Hoffman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a conscious agent. We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  5. Object permanence tests on gibbons (Hylobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Skollár, Gabriella; Szerencsy, Nóra; Ujhelyi, Mária

    2008-11-01

    Ten gibbons of various species (Symphalangus syndactylus, Hylobates lar, Nomascus gabriellae, and Nomascus leucogenys) were tested on object permanence tasks. Three identical wooden boxes, presented in a linear line, were used to hide pieces of food. The authors conducted single visible, single invisible, double invisible, and control displacements, in both random and nonrandom order. During invisible displacements, the experimenter hid the object in her hand before putting it into a box. The performance of gibbons was better than expected by chance in all the tests, except for the randomly ordered double displacement. However, individual analysis of performance showed great variability across subjects, and only 1 gibbon is assumed to have solved single visible and single invisible displacements without recourse to a strategy that the control test eliminated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  7. Advances in single chain technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-07

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  8. Integration trumps selection in object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Toni P.; Landy, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Finding and recognizing objects is a fundamental task of vision. Objects can be defined by several “cues” (color, luminance, texture etc.), and humans can integrate sensory cues to improve detection and recognition [1–3]. Cortical mechanisms fuse information from multiple cues [4], and shape-selective neural mechanisms can display cue-invariance by responding to a given shape independent of the visual cue defining it [5–8]. Selective attention, in contrast, improves recognition by isolating a subset of the visual information [9]. Humans can select single features (red or vertical) within a perceptual dimension (color or orientation), giving faster and more accurate responses to items having the attended feature [10,11]. Attention elevates neural responses and sharpens neural tuning to the attended feature, as shown by studies in psychophysics and modeling [11,12], imaging [13–16], and single-cell and neural population recordings [17,18]. Besides single features, attention can select whole objects [19–21]. Objects are among the suggested “units” of attention because attention to a single feature of an object causes the selection of all of its features [19–21]. Here, we pit integration against attentional selection in object recognition. We find, first, that humans can integrate information near-optimally from several perceptual dimensions (color, texture, luminance) to improve recognition. They cannot, however, isolate a single dimension even when the other dimensions provide task-irrelevant, potentially conflicting information. For object recognition, it appears that there is mandatory integration of information from multiple dimensions of visual experience. The advantage afforded by this integration, however, comes at the expense of attentional selection. PMID:25802154

  9. Integration trumps selection in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Toni P; Landy, Michael S

    2015-03-30

    Finding and recognizing objects is a fundamental task of vision. Objects can be defined by several "cues" (color, luminance, texture, etc.), and humans can integrate sensory cues to improve detection and recognition [1-3]. Cortical mechanisms fuse information from multiple cues [4], and shape-selective neural mechanisms can display cue invariance by responding to a given shape independent of the visual cue defining it [5-8]. Selective attention, in contrast, improves recognition by isolating a subset of the visual information [9]. Humans can select single features (red or vertical) within a perceptual dimension (color or orientation), giving faster and more accurate responses to items having the attended feature [10, 11]. Attention elevates neural responses and sharpens neural tuning to the attended feature, as shown by studies in psychophysics and modeling [11, 12], imaging [13-16], and single-cell and neural population recordings [17, 18]. Besides single features, attention can select whole objects [19-21]. Objects are among the suggested "units" of attention because attention to a single feature of an object causes the selection of all of its features [19-21]. Here, we pit integration against attentional selection in object recognition. We find, first, that humans can integrate information near optimally from several perceptual dimensions (color, texture, luminance) to improve recognition. They cannot, however, isolate a single dimension even when the other dimensions provide task-irrelevant, potentially conflicting information. For object recognition, it appears that there is mandatory integration of information from multiple dimensions of visual experience. The advantage afforded by this integration, however, comes at the expense of attentional selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TESS Objects of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Natalia; Glidden, Ana; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the search for TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs), led by the MIT branch of the TESS Science Office (TSO). TSO has developed a tool called TESS Exoplanet Vetter (TEV) to facilitate this process. Individuals independently examine data validation products for each target and assign a category to the object: planet candidate, eclipsing binary, other astrophysical, stellar variability, or instrument noise/systematic. TEV assigns a preliminary follow-up priority designation to each object and allows for modification when final dispositions are decided on in a group setting. When all targets are vetted, TEV exports a catalogue of TOIs which is delivered to the TESS Follow-Up Observing Program (TFOP), working with ExoFOP-TESS, and made publicly available on the official TESS website and the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  11. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.

  12. Media, journalism, objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the text around the themes: Media and Journalism, are confronted two directions of opinions: humanism and elitism. Humanism believes that media and journalism must be metaphysically objective: able to tell the truth regardless of time, place and terms of events. Another approach, elitism, is connected with Hegel's philosophy of history. Hegel's conceptual apparatus includes: Idea, History dialectic, 'cunning mind,' self- development and self-realization. In this context, media and journalism are considered as organic unity, an inseparable part of some dialectical totality. More specifically media and journalism can be objective only if they defend concrete ideological assumptions of society to which they belong. Any other understanding of these two concepts is non-objective, mere moralizing and / or demagoguery.

  13. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  14. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  15. Quantum objective realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednorz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether quantum measurements reflect some underlying objective reality has no generally accepted answer. We show that a description of such reality is possible under natural conditions such as linearity and causality, although in terms of moments and cumulants of finite order and without relativistic invariance. The proposed construction of observations’ probability distribution originates from weak, noninvasive measurements, with detection error replaced by some external finite noise. The noise allows us to construct microscopic objective reality, but remains dynamically decoupled and hence unobservable at the macroscopic level. (paper)

  16. Learning Objects Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os...... sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni...

  17. Multiple objects tracking in fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2009-01-01

    Many processes in cell biology are connected to the movement of compact entities: intracellular vesicles and even single molecules. The tracking of individual objects is important for understanding cellular dynamics. Here we describe the tracking algorithms which have been developed in the non-biological fields and successfully applied to object detection and tracking in biological applications. The characteristics features of the different algorithms are compared.

  18. Random clustering ferns for multimodal object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Villamizar Vergel, Michael Alejandro; Garrell Zulueta, Anais; Sanfeliu Cortés, Alberto; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    The final publication is available at link.springer.com We propose an efficient and robust method for the recognition of objects exhibiting multiple intra-class modes, where each one is associated with a particular object appearance. The proposed method, called random clustering ferns, combines synergically a single and real-time classifier, based on the boosted assembling of extremely randomized trees (ferns), with an unsupervised and probabilistic approach in order to recognize efficient...

  19. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  20. Technical objectives of inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Schneider, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The various technical objectives of inspection are discussed in a very general manner. The discussion includes how the inspection function is related to the assumed threat, the various degrees of assurance and reliance on criteria, and the hierarchy of assurance which is obtained from the various types or levels of inspection

  1. Testing object Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a unit testing approach for multi-purposes object-oriented programming languages in the style of Java and C#. Our approach includes the definition of a test specification language which results from extending the programming language with new designated specification

  2. Boundary-Object Trimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt

    2014-01-01

    implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...

  3. The Object of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Jonathan; Figueiredo, Bernardo; Pico Larsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    The paper outlines a methodological approach for investigating how consumers create brand meaning using the material resources companies provide. The approach draws from Material Engagement Theory—to discuss the role of consumers in creating patterns of meaning by engaging with objects. It also e...

  4. Robust video object cosegmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih

    2015-10-01

    With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).

  5. Multi-objective engineering design using preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, J.; Martinez, M.; Blasco, X.

    2008-03-01

    System design is a complex task when design parameters have to satisy a number of specifications and objectives which often conflict with those of others. This challenging problem is called multi-objective optimization (MOO). The most common approximation consists in optimizing a single cost index with a weighted sum of objectives. However, once weights are chosen the solution does not guarantee the best compromise among specifications, because there is an infinite number of solutions. A new approach can be stated, based on the designer's experience regarding the required specifications and the associated problems. This valuable information can be translated into preferences for design objectives, and will lead the search process to the best solution in terms of these preferences. This article presents a new method, which enumerates these a priori objective preferences. As a result, a single objective is built automatically and no weight selection need be performed. Problems occuring because of the multimodal nature of the generated single cost index are managed with genetic algorithms (GAs).

  6. Quantum teleportation between stationary macroscopic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Wei [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Xu, Xiao-Fan [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Li, Che-Ming [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2010-07-01

    Quantum teleportation is a process to transfer a quantum state of an object without transferring the state carrier itself. So far, most of the teleportation experiments realized are within the photonic regime. For the teleportation of stationary states, the largest system reported is a single ion. We are now performing an experiment to teleport the state of an macroscopic atomic cloud which consists about 10{sup 6} single atoms. In our experiment two atomic ensembles are utilized. In the first ensemble A we prepare the collective atomic state to be teleported using the quantum feedback technique. The second ensemble B is utilized to generate entanglement between it collective state with a scattered single-photon. Teleportation is realized by converting the atomic state of A to a single-photon and making a Bell state measurement with the scattered single-photon from ensemble B.

  7. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain

  8. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  9. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  10. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  11. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  12. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  13. Assessing the Cartographic Visualization of Moving Objects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four representations are considered in this research: the single static map, multiple static maps, animation, and the space-time cube. The study is conducted by considering four movement characteristics (or aspects of moving objects): speed change, returns, stops, and path of movement. The ability of users to perceive and ...

  14. Single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information

  15. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  16. Numerical Analysis Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael

    1997-08-01

    The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.

  17. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The Danish amateur scholar Christian Jürgensen Thomsen has often been described as a founder of modern “scientific” archaeology. Thomsen's innovation, this essay argues, reflects developments within neighboring fields, such as philology and history. He reacted against historians who limited....... The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...

  18. Remote viewing of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motin, J.D.; Reformatsky, I.A.; Sinitsyn, P.R.; Ivanov, N.M.; Ivanov, B.I.; Malakhov, I.K.

    1979-01-01

    An object in a nuclear power plant is viewed through a radiation-proof shield by means of an entrance lens, optic fibre bundle and exit lens. The optic fibre bundle being heated to ensure thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of ionising radiation. Heating is by an electric heating coil. Alternatively, heating may be by argon itself heated by an electric heating element, a coating of resistive heating material, or absorption of neutrons in the material of the fibres or a coating therefor. Viewing may be on a CRT screen. (author)

  19. Part Objects and Their Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects...

  20. Object-Based Benefits without Object-Based Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, George Angelo; Fougnie, Daryl; Cormiea, Sarah M

    2012-01-01

    The organization of visual information into objects strongly influences visual memory: Displays with objects defined by two features (e.g. color, orientation) are easier to remember than displays with twice as many objects defined by one feature (Olson & Jiang, 2002). Existing theories suggest that this ‘object-benefit’ is based on object-based limitations in working memory: because a limited number of objects can be stored, packaging features together so that fewer objects have to be remembe...

  1. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  2. Review of Meeting Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2011-01-01

    This is the 21st meeting of the International Atomic and Molecular Data Centres Network. The traditional DCN meeting objectives are: to exchange information about activities in the Centres and review progress; to coordinate work in the Centres; to assess priorities in data evaluation and data production; to make plans for specific evaluations; and to evaluate and revise procedures for collection and exchange of bibliographical and numerical data. All of these are objectives for the present meeting too. In addition to the presentations from DCN and prospective DCN members we have two participants from outside the field of fusion data: Dr N. Mason will tell us about coordination of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre and Dr S. Simakov will describe the manner in which nuclear structure and cross-section database development is coordinated by our colleagues in the Nuclear Data Section. In the discussions on Thursday and Friday there are two topics that need special attention this year: the future of our bibliographical data compilation and ways in which we can strengthen data evaluation activities, all with emphasis on collision processes and plasma-material interaction. The first 3 Data Centre Network meetings were held in 1977, 1980 and 1982 and the reports of those meetings make interesting reading and can still provide inspiration for the present meeting. I show some excerpts in the presentation. In 1977 the emphasis was on the coordination of the bibliographical database, AMBDAS, and a collision data index, CIAMDA, as the initial activities of the Network and of the newly formed IAEA A+M Data Unit. In 1980 the central topic of discussion at the meeting shifted to the numerical database and to data evaluation. The Network recommended that numerical data be reviewed by a selected group of scientists and that no unevaluated numerical A+M collision data should be distributed by the IAEA. The report of the meeting in 1982 shows that the bibliographical

  3. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this symposium was to discuss the sorts of evidence of molecular alterations in DNA which can be used to study causation of the stochastic effects of importance in radiation protection. Specifically, the aim was to address the following: what sort of indications might show whether a cancer was caused by radiation; whether there is a radiogenic signature to distinguish damage caused by ionizing radiation; whether bio-markers might be available for susceptibility, for exposure, for biological consequences. Despite a number of epidemiological studies (referred to), there is no clear, credible, defensible answer as to whether low-level radiation increases the risk of cancer. A new ethical question is, what rules should be in place for identifying and protecting genetically sensitive individuals. 1 tab

  4. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    The author defined the objectives of the symposium as follows: to present and examine the recent evidence associating clusters of leukemia with sources of ionizing radiation; to examine the statistical basis for the analysis of clustering; to examine the underlying assumptions in epidemiological studies that clusters must have an environmental cause; to examine the extent to which we can take into account the biological causes of non-randomness in populations, particularly those of geographic and genetic origin; to evaluate the relative merits of different kinds of epidemiological studies for yielding significant information concerning clustering; to consider the potential utility of combining the results from existing studies, and whether new epidemiological studies might be helpful; to consider what other directions, including application of the technologies of molecular biology, are likely to help clarify the underlying mechanisms or causes

  5. Time and multiple objectives in scheduling and routing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabia, S.

    2012-01-01

    Many optimization problems encountered in practice are multi-objective by nature, i.e., different objectives are conflicting and equally important. Many times, it is not desirable to drop some of them or to optimize them in a composite single objective or hierarchical manner. Furthermore, cost

  6. Storage and binding of object features in visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, Paul M; Wu, Emma Y; Husain, Masud

    2010-01-01

    An influential conception of visual working memory is of a small number of discrete memory “slots”, each storing an integrated representation of a single visual object, including all its component features. When a scene contains more objects than there are slots, visual attention controls which objects gain access to memory.

  7. Orienting attention to objects in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Toffanin, Paolo; Luria, Roy; Joliccoeur, Pierre

    We measured electroencephalographic activity during visual search of a target object among objects available to perception or among objects held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). For perceptual search, a single shape was shown first (pre-cue) followed by a search-array and the task was to decide

  8. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  9. Salient Object Detection via Structured Matrix Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Houwen; Li, Bing; Ling, Haibin; Hu, Weiming; Xiong, Weihua; Maybank, Stephen J

    2016-05-04

    Low-rank recovery models have shown potential for salient object detection, where a matrix is decomposed into a low-rank matrix representing image background and a sparse matrix identifying salient objects. Two deficiencies, however, still exist. First, previous work typically assumes the elements in the sparse matrix are mutually independent, ignoring the spatial and pattern relations of image regions. Second, when the low-rank and sparse matrices are relatively coherent, e.g., when there are similarities between the salient objects and background or when the background is complicated, it is difficult for previous models to disentangle them. To address these problems, we propose a novel structured matrix decomposition model with two structural regularizations: (1) a tree-structured sparsity-inducing regularization that captures the image structure and enforces patches from the same object to have similar saliency values, and (2) a Laplacian regularization that enlarges the gaps between salient objects and the background in feature space. Furthermore, high-level priors are integrated to guide the matrix decomposition and boost the detection. We evaluate our model for salient object detection on five challenging datasets including single object, multiple objects and complex scene images, and show competitive results as compared with 24 state-of-the-art methods in terms of seven performance metrics.

  10. Data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberer, F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or open-quotes betterclose quotes data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used

  11. Data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  12. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  13. Workshop objectives and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of the Workshop was to create a platform in order to better understand different approaches to managing uncertainty in post-closure safety cases and regulatory approaches in different national waste management programmes. The principal objectives of the Workshop were to: - To identify common elements in different approaches for managing uncertainty. - To facilitate information exchange and to promote discussion on different technical approaches to the management and characterisation of uncertainty and on the role of risk. - To explore the merits of alternative approaches to risk-informed decision making. - To identify the potential for further developments of methods or strategies to support the management of uncertainties. The workshop was organised into plenary sessions and working group discussions: The first plenary session focused on establishing a framework for understanding the management of uncertainties and the use of risk. It comprised oral presentations drawing on a range of experience from both active participants in the development and assessment of safety cases and keynotes presentations by external participants involved in risk management in other sectors. The working group discussions covered three technical themes: Risk management and decision making. Regulatory requirements and review of uncertainty and risk in safety cases. Practical approaches and tools for the management of uncertainties and the assignment of probabilities, the use of expert judgements, and the presentation of information on uncertainties and risk were examined. The aim of the working groups was to develop an understanding of the specific issues, and to identify any further activities that will support the development and/or evaluation of safety cases. The round up plenary session brought together information and conclusions from each of the working groups. Common elements in the different approaches to treating uncertainty and risk were identified, along with

  14. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments.

  15. Effects of Selected Object Characteristics on Object Permanence Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, Kathleen M.; Lingle, John H.

    A study was conducted to investigate the degree to which both object familiarity and motivational factors influence infants' search behavior in an object permanence test. Infants' search behavior for an unfamiliar test object was compared with search behavior for (a) an experientially familiar object that each infant had played with daily for a…

  16. Singled out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Frank

    2004-03-01

    The increasing use of single use medical devices is being driven by a growing awareness of iatrogenic (from the Greek; caused by the doctor) and nosocomial infections. Public health perceptions relating to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, specifically variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B are high on the political agenda and a matter of concern to healthcare professionals.

  17. Passive Aerial Grasping of Ferrous Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Fiaz, Usman Amin

    2017-10-19

    Aerial transportation is probably the most efficient way to supply quick and effective aid especially in cases of emergency like search and rescue operations. Thus the ability to grasp and deliver objects is of vital importance in all sorts of unmanned and autonomous aerial operations. We detail a simple yet novel approach for aerial grasping of ferrous objects using a passive magnetic pickup and an impulse based drop mechanism. The design enables our gripper to grasp ferrous objects using single as well as multiple gripping pads, with visual as well as pickup and drop feedback. We describe the various components of the gripper with emphasis on its low mass and high lift capability since weight is a matter of high consideration in all aerial applications. In addition, we investigate and address the issues that may cause our design to fail. We demonstrate by experiments that the proposed design is robust and effective, based on its high payload capability, its sturdiness against possible slide during aggressive aerial maneuvers, and optimum performance of the drop mechanism for the designed range of payloads. We also show that the gripper is able to pick up and drop a single as well as multiple ferrous objects of different shapes, curvature, and inclination, which also involves picking up an object and then grasping the next, while keeping hold of the previous one.

  18. Passive Aerial Grasping of Ferrous Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Fiaz, Usman; Toumi, Noureddine; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Aerial transportation is probably the most efficient way to supply quick and effective aid especially in cases of emergency like search and rescue operations. Thus the ability to grasp and deliver objects is of vital importance in all sorts of unmanned and autonomous aerial operations. We detail a simple yet novel approach for aerial grasping of ferrous objects using a passive magnetic pickup and an impulse based drop mechanism. The design enables our gripper to grasp ferrous objects using single as well as multiple gripping pads, with visual as well as pickup and drop feedback. We describe the various components of the gripper with emphasis on its low mass and high lift capability since weight is a matter of high consideration in all aerial applications. In addition, we investigate and address the issues that may cause our design to fail. We demonstrate by experiments that the proposed design is robust and effective, based on its high payload capability, its sturdiness against possible slide during aggressive aerial maneuvers, and optimum performance of the drop mechanism for the designed range of payloads. We also show that the gripper is able to pick up and drop a single as well as multiple ferrous objects of different shapes, curvature, and inclination, which also involves picking up an object and then grasping the next, while keeping hold of the previous one.

  19. Multi objective multi refinery optimization with environmental and catastrophic failure effects objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khogeer, Ahmed Sirag

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum refining is a capital-intensive business. With stringent environmental regulations on the processing industry and declining refining margins, political instability, increased risk of war and terrorist attacks in which refineries and fuel transportation grids may be targeted, higher pressures are exerted on refiners to optimize performance and find the best combination of feed and processes to produce salable products that meet stricter product specifications, while at the same time meeting refinery supply commitments and of course making profit. This is done through multi objective optimization. For corporate refining companies and at the national level, Intea-Refinery and Inter-Refinery optimization is the second step in optimizing the operation of the whole refining chain as a single system. Most refinery-wide optimization methods do not cover multiple objectives such as minimizing environmental impact, avoiding catastrophic failures, or enhancing product spec upgrade effects. This work starts by carrying out a refinery-wide, single objective optimization, and then moves to multi objective-single refinery optimization. The last step is multi objective-multi refinery optimization, the objectives of which are analysis of the effects of economic, environmental, product spec, strategic, and catastrophic failure. Simulation runs were carried out using both MATLAB and ASPEN PIMS utilizing nonlinear techniques to solve the optimization problem. The results addressed the need to debottleneck some refineries or transportation media in order to meet the demand for essential products under partial or total failure scenarios. They also addressed how importing some high spec products can help recover some of the losses and what is needed in order to accomplish this. In addition, the results showed nonlinear relations among local and global objectives for some refineries. The results demonstrate that refineries can have a local multi objective optimum that does not

  20. The management object in risk management approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic review of the last 55 years of research within risk management this paper explores how risk management as a management technology (methodologies, tools and frameworks to mitigate or manage risks) singles out risks as an object for management in order to make action possible. The paper synthesise by developing a framework of how different views on risk management enable and constrain the knowledge about risk and thus frame the possibilities to measure, analyse an...

  1. Basic objects of marketing in project activities

    OpenAIRE

    Онищенко, Світлана Петрівна; Берневек, Тетяна Іванівна

    2013-01-01

    The article identified the main types of a project product from the point of view of a business level that is necessary to determine the specificity of the project marketing. As such objects of marketing - variants of the project product we have singled out: a product, a combination "product-market segment," a commodity group, a strategic business unit, a company. We have analyzed the relation "product life cycle - project-organization" and received a generalized representation of this relati...

  2. Information model of the 'Ukryttya' object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batij, E.V.; Ermolenko, A.A.; Kotlyarov, V.T.

    2008-01-01

    There were described the building principles and content of the 'Ukryttya' object information model that has been developed at the Institute for Safety Problems of NPP. Using the client/server architecture in this system (the simultaneous access of the many users), Autodesk Map Guide and ASP.NET technologies allowed avoiding the typical defects of the 'stand-alone desktop' information systems (that aimed for a single user)

  3. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    the space of the object affordances, i.e., the space of possible actions that are applied on a given object. This way, 3D body tracking reduces to action tracking in the object (and context) primed parameter space of the object affordances. This reduces the high-dimensional joint-space to a low...

  4. Object grammars and random generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dutour

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new systematic approach for the uniform random generation of combinatorial objects. The method is based on the notion of object grammars which give recursive descriptions of objects and generalize context-freegrammars. The application of particular valuations to these grammars leads to enumeration and random generation of objects according to non algebraic parameters.

  5. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  6. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Typically, objects are monolithic entities with a fixed interface. To increase the flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct. An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects. It may also be used...... for a special kind of method invocation involving multiple objects in a dynamic lookup process. With support for feature access and late-bound method calls object sets are similar to ordinary objects, only more flexible. The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type...

  7. Object width modulates object-based attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Joseph C; Neppi-Modona, Marco; Strother, Lars; Behrmann, Marlene; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-04-24

    Visual input typically includes a myriad of objects, some of which are selected for further processing. While these objects vary in shape and size, most evidence supporting object-based guidance of attention is drawn from paradigms employing two identical objects. Importantly, object size is a readily perceived stimulus dimension, and whether it modulates the distribution of attention remains an open question. Across four experiments, the size of the objects in the display was manipulated in a modified version of the two-rectangle paradigm. In Experiment 1, two identical parallel rectangles of two sizes (thin or thick) were presented. Experiments 2-4 employed identical trapezoids (each having a thin and thick end), inverted in orientation. In the experiments, one end of an object was cued and participants performed either a T/L discrimination or a simple target-detection task. Combined results show that, in addition to the standard object-based attentional advantage, there was a further attentional benefit for processing information contained in the thick versus thin end of objects. Additionally, eye-tracking measures demonstrated increased saccade precision towards thick object ends, suggesting that Fitts's Law may play a role in object-based attentional shifts. Taken together, these results suggest that object-based attentional selection is modulated by object width.

  8. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  9. Haptic identification of objects and their depictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzky, R L; Loomis, J M; Lederman, S J; Wake, H; Fujita, N

    1993-08-01

    Haptic identification of real objects is superior to that of raised two-dimensional (2-D) depictions. Three explanations of real-object superiority were investigated: contribution of material information, contribution of 3-D shape and size, and greater potential for integration across the fingers. In Experiment 1, subjects, while wearing gloves that gently attenuated material information, haptically identified real objects that provided reduced cues to compliance, mass, and part motion. The gloves permitted exploration with free hand movement, a single outstretched finger, or five outstretched fingers. Performance decreased over these three conditions but was superior to identification of pictures of the same objects in all cases, indicating the contribution of 3-D structure and integration across the fingers. Picture performance was also better with five fingers than with one. In Experiment 2, the subjects wore open-fingered gloves, which provided them with material information. Consequently, the effect of type of exploration was substantially reduced but not eliminated. Material compensates somewhat for limited access to object structure but is not the primary basis for haptic object identification.

  10. Implications of perspective in teaching objects first and object design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    There are an increasing number of books published on the important topics of "object-oriented programming" and "object-oriented design" for use in education. However, object-orientation can be viewed from a number of different perspectives---each perspective having its benefits and liabilities...

  11. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a......) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  12. Two Types of Visual Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypulec Błażej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While it is widely accepted that human vision represents objects, it is less clear which of the various philosophical notions of ‘object’ adequately characterizes visual objects. In this paper, I show that within contemporary cognitive psychology visual objects are characterized in two distinct, incompatible ways. On the one hand, models of visual organization describe visual objects in terms of combinations of features, in accordance with the philosophical bundle theories of objects. However, models of visual persistence apply a notion of visual objects that is more similar to that endorsed in philosophical substratum theories. Here I discuss arguments that might show either that only one of the above notions of visual objects is adequate in the context of human vision, or that the category of visual objects is not uniform and contains entities properly characterized by different philosophical conceptions.

  13. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  14. Foreign Objects in the Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse (See ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse NOTE: ...

  15. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  16. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  17. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  18. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  19. A Model for Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for concurrent objects where obejcts interact by taking part in common events that are closely matched to form call-response pairs, resulting in resulting in rendez-vous like communications. Objects are built from primitive objects by parallel composition, encapsulation...

  20. Decoupling Object Detection and Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether there exists a behavioral dependency between object detection and categorization. Previous work (Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005) suggests that object detection and basic-level categorization may be the very same perceptual mechanism: As objects are parsed from the background they are categorized at the basic level. In…

  1. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon

  2. Independent effects of colour on object identification and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2009-02-01

    We examined the effects of colour on object identification and memory using a study-test priming procedure with a coloured-object decision task at test (i.e., deciding whether an object is correctly coloured). Objects were selected to have a single associated colour and were either correctly or incorrectly coloured. In addition, object shape and colour were either spatially integrated (i.e., colour fell on the object surface) or spatially separated (i.e., colour formed the background to the object). Transforming the colour of an object from study to test (e.g., from a yellow banana to a purple banana) reduced priming of response times, as compared to when the object was untransformed. This utilization of colour information in object memory was not contingent upon colour falling on the object surface or whether the resulting configuration was of a correctly or incorrectly coloured object. In addition, we observed independent effects of colour on response times, whereby coloured-object decisions were more efficient for correctly than for incorrectly coloured objects but only when colour fell on the object surface. These findings provide evidence for two distinct mechanisms of shape-colour binding in object processing.

  3. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  4. Occlusion Handling in Videos Object Tracking: A Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B Y; Liew, L H; Cheah, W S; Wang, Y C

    2014-01-01

    Object tracking in video has been an active research since for decades. This interest is motivated by numerous applications, such as surveillance, human-computer interaction, and sports event monitoring. Many challenges related to tracking objects still remain, this can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns of objects and the scene, non-rigid object structures and most significant are occlusion of tracked object be it object-to-object or object-to-scene occlusions. Generally, occlusion in object tracking occur under three situations: self-occlusion, inter-object occlusion by background scene structure. Self-occlusion occurs most frequently while tracking articulated objects when one part of the object occludes another. Inter-object occlusion occurs when two objects being tracked occlude each other whereas occlusion by the background occurs when a structure in the background occludes the tracked objects. Typically, tracking methods handle occlusion by modelling the object motion using linear and non-linear dynamic models. The derived models will be used to continuously predicting the object location when a tracked object is occluded until the object reappears. Example of these method are Kalman filtering and Particle filtering trackers. Researchers have also utilised other features to resolved occlusion, for example, silhouette projections, colour histogram and optical flow. We will present some result from a previously conducted experiment when tracking single object using Kalman filter, Particle filter and Mean Shift trackers under various occlusion situation in this paper. We will also review various other occlusion handling methods that involved using multiple cameras. In a nutshell, the goal of this paper is to discuss in detail the problem of occlusion in object tracking and review the state of the art occlusion handling methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Moreover, we discuss the important

  5. Occlusion Handling in Videos Object Tracking: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. Y.; Liew, L. H.; Cheah, W. S.; Wang, Y. C.

    2014-02-01

    Object tracking in video has been an active research since for decades. This interest is motivated by numerous applications, such as surveillance, human-computer interaction, and sports event monitoring. Many challenges related to tracking objects still remain, this can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns of objects and the scene, non-rigid object structures and most significant are occlusion of tracked object be it object-to-object or object-to-scene occlusions. Generally, occlusion in object tracking occur under three situations: self-occlusion, inter-object occlusion by background scene structure. Self-occlusion occurs most frequently while tracking articulated objects when one part of the object occludes another. Inter-object occlusion occurs when two objects being tracked occlude each other whereas occlusion by the background occurs when a structure in the background occludes the tracked objects. Typically, tracking methods handle occlusion by modelling the object motion using linear and non-linear dynamic models. The derived models will be used to continuously predicting the object location when a tracked object is occluded until the object reappears. Example of these method are Kalman filtering and Particle filtering trackers. Researchers have also utilised other features to resolved occlusion, for example, silhouette projections, colour histogram and optical flow. We will present some result from a previously conducted experiment when tracking single object using Kalman filter, Particle filter and Mean Shift trackers under various occlusion situation in this paper. We will also review various other occlusion handling methods that involved using multiple cameras. In a nutshell, the goal of this paper is to discuss in detail the problem of occlusion in object tracking and review the state of the art occlusion handling methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Moreover, we discuss the important

  6. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential

  7. A multi-objective decision framework for lifecycle investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, S.H.J.T.; Schumacher, J.M.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multi-objective decision framework for lifecycle investment choice. Instead of optimizing individual strategies with respect to a single-valued objective, we suggest evaluation of classes of strategies in terms of the quality of the tradeoffs that they provide. The

  8. Phase object retrieval through scattering medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Meijing; Wu, Houde; Xu, Wenhai

    2018-05-01

    Optical imaging through a scattering medium has been an interesting and important research topic, especially in the field of biomedical imaging. However, it is still a challenging task due to strong scattering. This paper proposes to recover the phase object behind the scattering medium from one single-shot speckle intensity image using calibrated transmission matrices (TMs). We construct the forward model as a non-linear mapping, since the intensity image loses the phase information, and then a generalized phase retrieval algorithm is employed to recover the hidden object. Moreover, we show that a phase object can be reconstructed with a small portion of the speckle image captured by the camera. The simulation is performed to demonstrate our scheme and test its performance. Finally, a real experiment is set up, we measure the TMs from the scattering medium, and then use it to reconstruct the hidden object. We show that a phase object of size 32 × 32 is retrieved from 150 × 150 speckle grains, which is only 1/50 of the speckles area. We believe our proposed method can benefit the community of imaging through the scattering medium.

  9. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploiting core knowledge for visual object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurgin, Mark W; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Humans recognize thousands of objects, and with relative tolerance to variable retinal inputs. The acquisition of this ability is not fully understood, and it remains an area in which artificial systems have yet to surpass people. We sought to investigate the memory process that supports object recognition. Specifically, we investigated the association of inputs that co-occur over short periods of time. We tested the hypothesis that human perception exploits expectations about object kinematics to limit the scope of association to inputs that are likely to have the same token as a source. In several experiments we exposed participants to images of objects, and we then tested recognition sensitivity. Using motion, we manipulated whether successive encounters with an image took place through kinematics that implied the same or a different token as the source of those encounters. Images were injected with noise, or shown at varying orientations, and we included 2 manipulations of motion kinematics. Across all experiments, memory performance was better for images that had been previously encountered with kinematics that implied a single token. A model-based analysis similarly showed greater memory strength when images were shown via kinematics that implied a single token. These results suggest that constraints from physics are built into the mechanisms that support memory about objects. Such constraints-often characterized as 'Core Knowledge'-are known to support perception and cognition broadly, even in young infants. But they have never been considered as a mechanism for memory with respect to recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Duality and calculus of convex objects (theory and applications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkhuis, Ya; Tikhomirov, V M

    2007-01-01

    A new approach to convex calculus is presented, which allows one to treat from a single point of view duality and calculus for various convex objects. This approach is based on the possibility of associating with each convex object (a convex set or a convex function) a certain convex cone without loss of information about the object. From the duality theorem for cones duality theorems for other convex objects are deduced as consequences. The theme 'Duality formulae and the calculus of convex objects' is exhausted (from a certain precisely formulated point of view). Bibliography: 5 titles.

  12. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives. Though there is a growing body of literature on this subject, little of it makes explicit under what circumstances special methods are needed to solve multi-obj...

  13. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  14. Rethinking the objectivity of ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, Charles Burke

    2011-01-01

    Commonsense says that morality is objective. But skeptics deny that the normativity and fallibility that characterize this objectivity really exist. I disagree. I develop an account of moral facts that vindicates the objectivity of ethics. Moreover, I do this without relying on either the strong foundational claims of realism and constructivism, or the revisionary logic of expressivism. Instead, I build from a moral psychology that is modest and familiar--one that focuses on the distinctive, ...

  15. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Michał; Szewczyk, Roman

    2013-12-02

    This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth's field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  16. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth’s field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  17. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  18. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  19. Intuitive modeling of vaporish objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Dmitry; Gentil, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to model gases in computer graphics started in the late 1970s. Since that time, there have been many approaches developed. In this paper we present a non-physical method allowing to create vaporish objects like clouds or smoky characters. The idea is to create a few sketches describing the rough shape of the final vaporish object. These sketches will be used as condensation sets of Iterated Function Systems, providing intuitive control over the object. The advantages of the new method are: simplicity, good control of resulting shapes and ease of eventual object animation.

  20. Object 'Ukryttya' 1986-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Krasnov, V.A.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Shcherbin, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph summarizes the materials pertaining to 'Ukryttya' Object state. The results of researches of fuel containing materials conditions and of forecast of their future behavior are demonstrated, aerosol characterizations, mechanisms of production of liquid radioactive waste, radiation conditions at SO industrial site and NSC assembly site, as well as analysis of 'Ukryttya' Objects environmental impact, are performed. The conditions of 'Ukryttya' Object building structures are described. Preparation and realization of international projects for conversion of 'Ukryttya' Object into an ecologically safe system, including the 'Ukryttya' Implementation Plan (SIP), are considered

  1. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  2. Identification of computer graphics objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossinskyi Yu.M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of computer graphics methods in problems of creating drawings, charts, drafting, etc. The widespread use of these methods requires the development of efficient algorithms for the identification of objects of drawings. The article analyzes the model-making algorithms for this problem and considered the possibility of reducing the time using graphics editing operations. Editing results in such operations as copying, moving and deleting objects specified images. These operations allow the use of a reliable identification of images of objects methods. For information on the composition of the image of the object along with information about the identity and the color should include information about the spatial location and other characteristics of the object (the thickness and style of contour lines, fill style, and so on. In order to enable the pixel image analysis to structure the information it is necessary to enable the initial code image objects color. The article shows the results of the implementation of the algorithm of encoding object identifiers. To simplify the process of building drawings of any kind, and reduce time-consuming, method of drawing objects identification is proposed based on the use as the ID information of the object color.

  3. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  4. Multiple Level Crowding: Crowding at the Object Parts Level and at the Object Configural level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, identification of a peripheral target in the presence of nearby flankers is worse than when the target appears alone. Prevailing theories hold that crowding occurs because of integration or "pooling" of low-level features at a single, relatively early stage of visual processing. Recent studies suggest that crowding can occur also between high-level object representations. The most relevant findings come from studies with faces and may be specific to faces. We examined whether crowding can occur at the object configural level in addition to part-level crowding, using nonface objects. Target (a disconnected square or diamond made of four elements) identification was measured at varying eccentricities. The flankers were similar either to the target parts or to the target configuration. The results showed crowding in both cases: Flankers interfered with target identification such that identification accuracy decreased with an increase in eccentricity, and no interference was observed at the fovea. Crowding by object parts, however, was weaker and had smaller spatial extent than crowding by object configurations; we related this finding to the relationship between crowding and perceptual organization. These results provide strong evidence that crowding occurs not only between object parts but also between configural representations of objects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Multi-Objective Parameter Selection for Classifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mussel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting the free parameters of classifiers to different values can have a profound impact on their performance. For some methods, specialized tuning algorithms have been developed. These approaches mostly tune parameters according to a single criterion, such as the cross-validation error. However, it is sometimes desirable to obtain parameter values that optimize several concurrent - often conflicting - criteria. The TunePareto package provides a general and highly customizable framework to select optimal parameters for classifiers according to multiple objectives. Several strategies for sampling andoptimizing parameters are supplied. The algorithm determines a set of Pareto-optimal parameter configuration and leaves the ultimate decision on the weighting of objectives to the researcher. Decision support is provided by novel visualization techniques.

  6. Gravitational lens effect and pregalactic halo objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontz, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The changes in flux, position, and size of a distant extended (galaxy, etc.) source that result from the gravitational lens action of a massive opaque object are discussed. The flux increase is described by a single function of two parameters. One of these parameters characterizes the strength of the gravitational lens, the other describes the alignment of source and lens object. This function also describes the relative intensity of the images formed by lens. ( A similar formalism is discussed by Bourassa et al. for a point source). The formalism is applied to the problem of the galactic halo. It appears that a massive (10 1 2 M/sub sun/) spherical halo surrounding the visible part of the galaxy is consistent with the observable properties of extragalactic sources

  7. Lightness constancy: Object identity and temporal integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Sunčica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of lightness constancy typically involve the comparison of two objects of the same shade that have been placed under different illuminations. In this study, we introduce factors such as object identity and immediate prior experience to measure the effect of these manipulations on constancy. In the first experiment, conditions sufficient to reproduce classical constancy failure (illumination difference, target values, articulation level were determined. In the second experiment a lightness judgment was made for a gray target that was then seen to move into another illumination level for the second match. Motion was used in an attempt to stress the target’s identity. The shade was still judged significantly lighter when placed under the higher than under the lower illumination. Failure of constancy thus occurred even when object identity was not in question. In the third experiment a priming paradigm was used, to assess the strength of constancy: one shade would appear in one illumination level and another shade in the other illumination level. Motion was used to trick observers into thinking that only a single object was presented. The estimated shade varied as a function of the shade of the prime. In the last experiment, observers were asked to make another match when the object was removed from view: the match of its true color independent of illumination. The value of this match-from-memory was based on the value obtained in the higher illumination level. Taken together, the experiments show that through object identity, immediate prior experience can influence lightness in systematic fashion.

  8. Relativistic rotation and the anholonomic object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to call attention to the conceptual economy provided by the object of anholonomity for the theory of relativity. This geometric object expresses certain consequences of relativity theory and provides a single, simple framework for discussing a variety of phenomena. It particularly clarifies the description of relativistic rotation. The relativistic rotational transformation of the four coordinate differentials of flat space--time generates a set of anholonomic, or inexact differentials, whose duals are an orthogonal set of basis vectors. How should a rotating observer interpret physical events referred to such orthogonal, but anholonomic frames The answer to this question rests upon the origin and physical significance of the object of anholonomity. It is demonstrated that not only is the rotational Lorentz transformation an anholonomic transformation, but that the intrinsic anholonomic effects are essential to interpreting rotational phenomena. In particular, the Sagnac effect may be interpreted as the physical manifestation of temporal anholonomity under rotation. The Thomas precession of a reference axis may be interpreted as a consequence of the spatial anholonomity of the rotating frame. Further, the full four-dimensional covariance of Maxwellian electrodynamics, under a relativistic Lorentz rotation, is possible only with the inclusion of anholonomic effects. The anholonomic approach clarifies the distinction between the physically different operations of source rotation and observer rotation in a flat space--time. It is finally concluded that a consistant theory of relativistic rotation, satisfying the principle of general covariance, inherently requires the presence of the object of anholonomity

  9. Refining Visually Detected Object poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Preben; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2010-01-01

    to the particular object and in order to handle the demand for flexibility, there is an increasing demand for avoiding such dedicated mechanical alignment systems. Rather, it would be desirable to automatically locate and grasp randomly placed objects from tables, conveyor belts or even bins with a high accuracy...

  10. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  11. Welding. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a basic welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (2 hours daily) course developed to teach the fundamentals of welding shop work, to become familiar with the operation of the welding shop…

  12. What Makes an Object Memorable?

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit

    2016-02-19

    Recent studies on image memorability have shed light on what distinguishes the memorability of different images and the intrinsic and extrinsic properties that make those images memorable. However, a clear understanding of the memorability of specific objects inside an image remains elusive. In this paper, we provide the first attempt to answer the question: what exactly is remembered about an image? We augment both the images and object segmentations from the PASCAL-S dataset with ground truth memorability scores and shed light on the various factors and properties that make an object memorable (or forgettable) to humans. We analyze various visual factors that may influence object memorability (e.g. color, visual saliency, and object categories). We also study the correlation between object and image memorability and find that image memorability is greatly affected by the memorability of its most memorable object. Lastly, we explore the effectiveness of deep learning and other computational approaches in predicting object memorability in images. Our efforts offer a deeper understanding of memorability in general thereby opening up avenues for a wide variety of applications. © 2015 IEEE.

  13. Moving eyes and naming objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, F.F. van der

    2001-01-01

    The coordination between eye movements and speech was examined while speakers were naming objects. Earlier research has shown that eye movements reflect on the underlying visual attention. Also, eye movements were found to reflect upon not only the visual and conceptual processing of an object, but

  14. [The Object Permanence Fallacy.] Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ben S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Greenberg's challenge to the centrality of object permanence in developmental thinking reveals that developmentalists' theories about childhood speak about their own self-images. Notes that developmentalists have been guilty of not only the object permanence fallacy but also the genetic fallacy, or the mistaken belief that describing…

  15. Introducing Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2008-01-01

    The practice of teaching programming at universities, colleges and high schools went through a major change roughly in the mid 1990s: The teaching of objectorientation in introductory courses slowly became mainstream. Fairly soon, the Object First or Objects Early school of thought was formulated...

  16. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  17. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal

  18. What Makes an Object Memorable?

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit; Peterson, Joshua; Khosla, Aditya; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on image memorability have shed light on what distinguishes the memorability of different images and the intrinsic and extrinsic properties that make those images memorable. However, a clear understanding of the memorability of specific objects inside an image remains elusive. In this paper, we provide the first attempt to answer the question: what exactly is remembered about an image? We augment both the images and object segmentations from the PASCAL-S dataset with ground truth memorability scores and shed light on the various factors and properties that make an object memorable (or forgettable) to humans. We analyze various visual factors that may influence object memorability (e.g. color, visual saliency, and object categories). We also study the correlation between object and image memorability and find that image memorability is greatly affected by the memorability of its most memorable object. Lastly, we explore the effectiveness of deep learning and other computational approaches in predicting object memorability in images. Our efforts offer a deeper understanding of memorability in general thereby opening up avenues for a wide variety of applications. © 2015 IEEE.

  19. Turbulent wakes of fractal objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staicu, A.D.; Mazzi, B.; Vassilicos, J.C.; Water, van de W.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are

  20. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  1. Exploring Power with Object Theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Ylirisku, Salu; Knutz, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores Object Theatre as an approach to address power in design. We understand power as a relational activity that emerges and is upheld through particular ways of relating (Elias, 1991; Stacey, 2007). The spontaneity in participant actions through Object Theatre exercises renders pr...

  2. Semantic memory in object use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta

    2009-10-01

    We studied five patients with semantic memory disorders, four with semantic dementia and one with herpes simplex virus encephalitis, to investigate the involvement of semantic conceptual knowledge in object use. Comparisons between patients who had semantic deficits of different severity, as well as the follow-up, showed that the ability to use objects was largely preserved when the deficit was mild but progressively decayed as the deficit became more severe. Naming was generally more impaired than object use. Production tasks (pantomime execution and actual object use) and comprehension tasks (pantomime recognition and action recognition) as well as functional knowledge about objects were impaired when the semantic deficit was severe. Semantic and unrelated errors were produced during object use, but actions were always fluent and patients performed normally on a novel tools task in which the semantic demand was minimal. Patients with severe semantic deficits scored borderline on ideational apraxia tasks. Our data indicate that functional semantic knowledge is crucial for using objects in a conventional way and suggest that non-semantic factors, mainly non-declarative components of memory, might compensate to some extent for semantic disorders and guarantee some residual ability to use very common objects independently of semantic knowledge.

  3. Object Oriented Programming in Director

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Director is one of the most popular authoring software. As software for developing multimedia applications, Director is an object oriented programming environment. A very important issue to develop multimedia applications is the designing of their own classes. This paper presents the particular aspects concerning the available facilities offered by Lingo to design classes and to generate objects.

  4. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...

  5. Properties of BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, A.M.; Pittsburgh, University, Pittsburgh, Pa.)

    1980-01-01

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are examined in light of their recently realized similarities to quasars and associations with galactic radiation. The criteria typically used to define BL Lac objects are analyzed, with attention given to radio spectra, optical continual, radio and optical variability, optical polarization and emission lines, and evidence that BL Lac objects and optically violent variables represent the most compact and strongly variable sources among the general class of quasars is discussed. Connections between BL Lac objects and the galaxies in which they have been observed to be embedded are discussed and it is pointed out that no low-luminosity quasars have been found to be associated with first-ranked giant ellipticals. Future observations which may clarify the properties and relationships of BL Lac objects are indicated

  6. The Surrealist Collection of Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I shall discuss the Surrealist collection of objects as a form of art which arises out of mass production forces of the new era. These goods, deeply rooted in the capitalist laws of use-, exchange- and surplus-value, carry in themselves two materialist approaches which end in dialectical materialism. On the one hand, they epitomize the supreme forces of commodity fetishism ingrained in capitalist structures; on the other hand, they arouse unconscious desires which respond to the needs of the society of consumption. Thus, I will explore the act of object-collecting in the most radical Surrealist practices (dream objects, found objects, poème-objets, calligrammes, readymades and Surrealist objects as a way to not only delve into a new art, but also to reflect on societal ongoing transformations and paradoxes.

  7. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection).

  8. Bi-objective branch-and-cut algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Sune Lauth; Ehrgott, Matthias; Nielsen, Lars Relund

    Most real-world optimization problems are of a multi-objective nature, involving objectives which are conflicting and incomparable. Solving a multi-objective optimization problem requires a method which can generate the set of rational compromises between the objectives. In this paper, we propose...... are strengthened by cutting planes. In addition, we suggest an extension of the branching strategy "Pareto branching''. Extensive computational results obtained for the bi-objective single source capacitated facility location problem prove the effectiveness of the algorithms....... and compares it to an upper bound set. The implicit bound set based algorithm, on the other hand, fathoms branching nodes by generating a single point on the lower bound set for each local nadir point. We outline several approaches for fathoming branching nodes and we propose an updating scheme for the lower...

  9. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  12. Conscientious objection in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuře Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with conscientious objection in health care, addressing the problems of scope, verification and limitation of such refusal, paying attention to ideological agendas hidden behind the right of conscience where the claimed refusal can cause harm or where such a claim is an attempt to impose certain moral values on society or an excuse for not providing health care. The nature of conscientious objection will be investigated and an ethical analysis of conscientious objection will be conducted. Finally some suggestions for health care policy will be proposed.

  13. Multi-objective optimization using genetic algorithms: A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konak, Abdullah; Coit, David W.; Smith, Alice E.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-objective formulations are realistic models for many complex engineering optimization problems. In many real-life problems, objectives under consideration conflict with each other, and optimizing a particular solution with respect to a single objective can result in unacceptable results with respect to the other objectives. A reasonable solution to a multi-objective problem is to investigate a set of solutions, each of which satisfies the objectives at an acceptable level without being dominated by any other solution. In this paper, an overview and tutorial is presented describing genetic algorithms (GA) developed specifically for problems with multiple objectives. They differ primarily from traditional GA by using specialized fitness functions and introducing methods to promote solution diversity

  14. Object manipulation facilitates kind-based object individuation of shape-similar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) wer...

  15. Ghost Imaging of Space Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ghost imaging is an optical imaging technique that utilizes the correlations between optical fields in two channels. One of the channels contains the object, however...

  16. Delphi FND Application Object Library -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi FND Application Object Library contains the following data elements, but are not limited to temporary data tables for the logged in session, information about...

  17. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses...

  18. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  19. Laser sources for object illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, G.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The considerations which formulate the specifications for a laser illuminator are explained, using the example of an underwater object. Depending on the parameters which define the scenario, widely varying laser requirements result.

  20. Topological objects in hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1988-01-01

    The notion of topological objects in hadronic physics is discussed, with emphasis on the role of the Wess-Zumino term and induced transmutation of quantum numbers in chiral bag models. Some applications to nuclear systems are given

  1. On the Aging of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2016-01-01

    The article seeks to develop a new conceptual framework suitable for analysing the ageing processes of objects in modern culture. The basic intuition is that object experience cannot be analysed separately from collective participation. The article focuses on the question of the ‘timeless’ nature...... of modernist design and seeks to understand why modernist objects age more slowly than other objects. First, inspired by the late Durkheim’s account of symbolism, I turn to the experiential effects of collective embeddedness. Second, I enter the field of architectural practices and architectural theory....... Visiting early modernist ideologue Adolf Loos, I seek to understand the modernist attitude as a direct response to experiences of the acceleration of ageing processes characteristic of modern culture. I then try to show how Loos’s explicit awareness of the collective dimension is ignored by the subsequent...

  2. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...... development: Grounding We develop an empirically based conceptualization of modelling and use of models in system development projects characterized by a high degree of uncertainty in requirements and point to implications for tools and techniques for modelling in such a setting. Techniques We introduce......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...

  3. Object detection and tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tian J.

    2017-05-30

    Methods and apparatuses for analyzing a sequence of images for an object are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the method identifies a region of interest in the sequence of images. The object is likely to move within the region of interest. The method divides the region of interest in the sequence of images into sections and calculates signal-to-noise ratios for a section in the sections. A signal-to-noise ratio for the section is calculated using the section in the image, a prior section in a prior image to the image, and a subsequent section in a subsequent image to the image. The signal-to-noise ratios are for potential velocities of the object in the section. The method also selects a velocity from the potential velocities for the object in the section using a potential velocity in the potential velocities having a highest signal-to-noise ratio in the signal-to-noise ratios.

  4. Exotic objects of atomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eletskii, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    There has been presented a short survey of physical properties, methods of production and exploration as well as directions of practical usage of the objects of atomic physics which are not yet described in detail in modern textbooks and manuals intended for students of technical universities. The family of these objects includes negative and multicharged ions, Rydberg atoms, excimer molecules, clusters. Besides of that, in recent decades this family was supplemented with new nanocarbon structures such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The textbook “Exotic objects of atomic physics” [1] edited recently contains some information on the above-listed objects of the atomic physics. This textbook can be considered as a supplement to classic courses of atomic physics teaching in technical universities.

  5. Precise object tracking under deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This frame-work focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling , rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results.

  6. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Typically, an object is a monolithic entity with a fixed interface.  To increase flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct.  An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects.  It may also be use...... to a mainstream virtual machine in order to improve on the support for family polymorphism.  The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type system has been shown by a mechanically checked proof in Coq....

  7. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, L.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij)

    1983-07-01

    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex structure of Seyfert galaxies, quasars and lacertae objects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronouys radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation.

  8. Command in the Objective Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbeck, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer what type of command will best serve the Army's Objective Force in gaining the initiative, building momentum, and exploiting success to achieve land dominance in the future...

  9. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  10. Well-Being and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the issue of whether there exists an objective element of well-being, completely independent of anyone’s desires, interests and preferences. After rejecting health-based and convention-based approaches to objectivity, I conclude that the element in question consists in respecting autonomy, voluntariness of every purposive agent and the principle of non-aggression.

  11. A Real-Time Method to Estimate Speed of Object Based on Object Detection and Optical Flow Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaizhan; Ye, Yunming; Li, Xutao; Li, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In recent years Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has been widely used in computer vision field and makes great progress in lots of contents like object detection and classification. Even so, combining Convolutional Neural Network, which means making multiple CNN frameworks working synchronously and sharing their output information, could figure out useful message that each of them cannot provide singly. Here we introduce a method to real-time estimate speed of object by combining two CNN: YOLOv2 and FlowNet. In every frame, YOLOv2 provides object size; object location and object type while FlowNet providing the optical flow of whole image. On one hand, object size and object location help to select out the object part of optical flow image thus calculating out the average optical flow of every object. On the other hand, object type and object size help to figure out the relationship between optical flow and true speed by means of optics theory and priori knowledge. Therefore, with these two key information, speed of object can be estimated. This method manages to estimate multiple objects at real-time speed by only using a normal camera even in moving status, whose error is acceptable in most application fields like manless driving or robot vision.

  12. Single-Molecule Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2010-04-01

    Single-molecule magnets straddle the classical and quantum mechanical worlds, displaying many fascinating phenomena. They may have important technological applications in information storage and quantum computation. We review the physical properties of two prototypical molecular nanomagnets, Mn12-acetate and Fe8: Each behaves as a rigid, spin-10 object and exhibits tunneling between up and down directions. As temperature is lowered, the spin-reversal process evolves from thermal activation to pure quantum tunneling. At low temperatures, magnetic avalanches occur in which the magnetization of an entire sample rapidly reverses. We discuss the important role that symmetry-breaking fields play in driving tunneling and in producing Berry-phase interference. Recent experimental advances indicate that quantum coherence can be maintained on timescales sufficient to allow a meaningful number of quantum computing operations to be performed. Efforts are under way to create monolayers and to address and manipulate individual molecules.

  13. Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities; they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities; and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism are usually justified in different ways. In this paper, we show that the three norms can all be subsumed under a single justification in terms of minimising worst-case expected loss. This, in turn, is equivalent to maximising a generalised notion of entropy. We suggest that requiring language invariance, in addition to minimising worst-case expected loss, motivates maximisation of standard entropy as opposed to maximisation of other instances of generalised entropy. Our argument also provides a qualified justification for updating degrees of belief by Bayesian conditionalisation. However, conditional probabilities play a less central part in the objective Bayesian account than they do under the subjective view of Bayesianism, leading to a reduced role for Bayes’ Theorem.

  14. An object model for beamline descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.W.; Martono, H.; Gillespie, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Translation of beamline model descriptions between different accelerator codes presents a unique challenge due to the different representations used for various elements and subsystems. These differences range from simple units conversions to more complex translations involving multiple beamline components. A representation of basic accelerator components is being developed in order to define a meta-structure from which beamline models, in different codes, can be described and to facilitate the translation of models between these codes. Sublines of basic components will be used to represent more complex beamline descriptions and bridge the gap between codes which may represent a beamline element as a single entity, and those which use multiple elements to describe the same physical device. A C++ object model for supporting this beamline description and a grammar for describing beamlines in terms of these components is being developed. The object model will support a common graphic user interface and translation filters for representing native beamline descriptions for a variety of accelerator codes. An overview of our work on the object model for beamline descriptions is presented here. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Testing Object-Oriented Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Skov, Stefan H.

    The report is a result of an activity within the project Centre for Object Technology (COT), case 2. In case 2 a number of pilot projects have been carried out to test the feasibility of using object technology within embedded software. Some of the pilot projects have resulted in proto-types that......The report is a result of an activity within the project Centre for Object Technology (COT), case 2. In case 2 a number of pilot projects have been carried out to test the feasibility of using object technology within embedded software. Some of the pilot projects have resulted in proto......-types that are currently being developed into production versions. To assure a high quality in the product it was decided to carry out an activ-ity regarding issues in testing OO software. The purpose of this report is to discuss the issues of testing object-oriented software. It is often claimed that testing of OO...... software is radically different form testing traditional software developed using imperative/procedural programming. Other authors claim that there is no difference. In this report we will attempt to give an answer to these questions (or at least initiate a discussion)....

  16. Object Pragmatics and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to investigate the advent of language in the light of the appropriation of the cultural uses of the material objects related to material culture and the constitution of their public and shared meanings linked to their uses. First, we suggest that the Object Pragmatics paradigm offers a framework which allows us to take into account the uses of objects in daily life as a site of social conventions, communication and public and shared meanings. Second, we would like to underline the key role of the adult's mediations in the child's ability to evolve towards linguistic development. This contribution will discuss the notion of scenario involving primarily the object, as a possible semiotic tool to support the child's transition to language. We will finally illustrate that it is possible to take into consideration the mastery of conventional uses of the object in the child's ability to engage in a scenario and then to move towards communication and speech development. These issues will be addressed in the context of a research project which focuses on the observation of children interacting with an adult at 16, 20 and 24 months. These longitudinal data were collected by video in a semi-experimental triadic interaction design. The triadic interaction is considered as a relevant unit for the observation and analysis of the role of material culture in speech development, suggesting the existence of new mechanisms to be taken into account in addition to the interactive conditions largely mentioned in literature.

  17. Object technology: A white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, S.R.; Arrowood, L.F.; Cain, W.D.; Stephens, W.M.; Vickers, B.D.

    1992-05-11

    Object-Oriented Technology (OOT), although not a new paradigm, has recently been prominently featured in the trade press and even general business publications. Indeed, the promises of object technology are alluring: the ability to handle complex design and engineering information through the full manufacturing production life cycle or to manipulate multimedia information, and the ability to improve programmer productivity in creating and maintaining high quality software. Groups at a number of the DOE facilities have been exploring the use of object technology for engineering, business, and other applications. In this white paper, the technology is explored thoroughly and compared with previous means of developing software and storing databases of information. Several specific projects within the DOE Complex are described, and the state of the commercial marketplace is indicated.

  18. Exploring object-oriented technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Object oriented technologies are the corner stone of modern software development. A piece of software is today conceived, constructed and tested as a set of objects interacting with each other, rather than as a large sequential program. OO is present throughout the whole software life cycle allowing for maintainable code re-use, clean design and manageable complexity. OO is also the seed upon which other technologies are being built and deployed, such as distributed computing, component models, open interoperability, etc.This series of three seminars will provide a pragmatic overview on the main ideas behind OO software development and will explain the inner workings of the most outstanding technologies being built on OO, such as UML, CORBA, Component Models, Agent Oriented Computing, Business Objects, etc.

  19. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  20. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex strUcture of Seyfert galaxies quasars and lacertae ob ects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronoUs radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation

  1. BILATERAL SINGLE SESSION URETEROSCOPY FOR URETERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility, safety and success rate of bilateral single session rigid retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) for bilateral ureteral calculi. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients underwent bilateral single session ureteroscopic calculus removal. Results: Out of 70 renal units in 35 patients treated, ...

  2. Elaborazione didattica di Learning Objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guerra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available L’idea di un modello didattico problematico per la realizzazione di Learning Objects riprende i temi del problematicismo pedagogico e si impegna a definire un’ipotesi formativa complessa capace di valorizzare la possibile positiva compresenza integrata di strategie didattiche diverse (finanche antitetiche ma componibili in una logica appunto di matrice problematicista. Il punto di partenza del modello proposto è rappresentato dalla opportunità di definire tre tipologie fondamentali di Learning Objects, rispettivamente centrati sull’oggetto, sul processo e sul soggetto dell’apprendimento.

  3. TACTILE SENSING FOR OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    2009-01-01

    The artificial sense of touch is a research area that can be considered still in demand, compared with the human dexterity of grasping a wide variety of shapes and sizes, perform complex tasks, and switch between grasps in response to changing task requirements. For handling unknown objects...... in unstructured environments, tactile sensing can provide more than valuable to complementary vision information about mechanical properties such as recognition and characterization, force, pressure, torque, compliance, friction, and mass as well as object shape, texture, position and pose. In this paper, we...

  4. Object oriented JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    You will first be introduced to object-oriented programming, then to the basics of objects in JavaScript. This book takes a do-it-yourself approach when it comes to writing code, because the best way to really learn a programming language is by writing code. You are encouraged to type code into Firebug's console, see how it works and then tweak it and play around with it. There are practice questions at the end of each chapter to help you review what you have learned.For new to intermediate JavaScript developer who wants to prepare themselves for web development problems solved by smart JavaSc

  5. Storage of features, conjunctions and objects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, E K; Woodman, G F; Luck, S J

    2001-02-01

    Working memory can be divided into separate subsystems for verbal and visual information. Although the verbal system has been well characterized, the storage capacity of visual working memory has not yet been established for simple features or for conjunctions of features. The authors demonstrate that it is possible to retain information about only 3-4 colors or orientations in visual working memory at one time. Observers are also able to retain both the color and the orientation of 3-4 objects, indicating that visual working memory stores integrated objects rather than individual features. Indeed, objects defined by a conjunction of four features can be retained in working memory just as well as single-feature objects, allowing many individual features to be retained when distributed across a small number of objects. Thus, the capacity of visual working memory must be understood in terms of integrated objects rather than individual features.

  6. Object-oriented Matlab adaptive optics toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, R.; Correia, C.

    2014-08-01

    Object-Oriented Matlab Adaptive Optics (OOMAO) is a Matlab toolbox dedicated to Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. OOMAO is based on a small set of classes representing the source, atmosphere, telescope, wavefront sensor, Deformable Mirror (DM) and an imager of an AO system. This simple set of classes allows simulating Natural Guide Star (NGS) and Laser Guide Star (LGS) Single Conjugate AO (SCAO) and tomography AO systems on telescopes up to the size of the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). The discrete phase screens that make the atmosphere model can be of infinite size, useful for modeling system performance on large time scales. OOMAO comes with its own parametric influence function model to emulate different types of DMs. The cone effect, altitude thickness and intensity profile of LGSs are also reproduced. Both modal and zonal modeling approach are implemented. OOMAO has also an extensive library of theoretical expressions to evaluate the statistical properties of turbulence wavefronts. The main design characteristics of the OOMAO toolbox are object-oriented modularity, vectorized code and transparent parallel computing. OOMAO has been used to simulate and to design the Multi-Object AO prototype Raven at the Subaru telescope and the Laser Tomography AO system of the Giant Magellan Telescope. In this paper, a Laser Tomography AO system on an ELT is simulated with OOMAO. In the first part, we set-up the class parameters and we link the instantiated objects to create the source optical path. Then we build the tomographic reconstructor and write the script for the pseudo-open-loop controller.

  7. A linear actuator for precision positioning of dual objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yuxin; Cao, Jie; Guo, Zhao; Yu, Haoyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a linear actuator for precision positioning of dual objects is proposed based on a double friction drive principle using a single piezoelectric element (PZT). The linear actuator consists of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet, which are connected by the PZT. The electromagnet serves as an object 1, and another object (object 2) is attached on the permanent magnet by the magnetic force. For positioning the dual objects independently, two different friction drive modes can be alternated by an on–off control of the electromagnet. When the electromagnet releases from the guide way, it can be driven by impact friction force generated by the PZT. Otherwise, when the electromagnet clamps on the guide way and remains stationary, the object 2 can be driven based on the principle of smooth impact friction drive. A prototype was designed and constructed and experiments were carried out to test the basic performance of the actuator. It has been verified that with a compact size of 31 mm (L) × 12 mm (W) × 8 mm (H), the two objects can achieve long strokes on the order of several millimeters and high resolutions of several tens of nanometers. Since the proposed actuator allows independent movement of two objects by a single PZT, the actuator has the potential to be constructed compactly. (paper)

  8. Acoustic features of objects matched by an echolocating bottlenose dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Caroline M; Au, Whitlow W L; Lemonds, David W; Harley, Heidi E; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2006-03-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate how dolphins use acoustic features in returning echolocation signals to discriminate among objects. An echolocating dolphin performed a match-to-sample task with objects that varied in size, shape, material, and texture. After the task was completed, the features of the object echoes were measured (e.g., target strength, peak frequency). The dolphin's error patterns were examined in conjunction with the between-object variation in acoustic features to identify the acoustic features that the dolphin used to discriminate among the objects. The present study explored two hypotheses regarding the way dolphins use acoustic information in echoes: (1) use of a single feature, or (2) use of a linear combination of multiple features. The results suggested that dolphins do not use a single feature across all object sets or a linear combination of six echo features. Five features appeared to be important to the dolphin on four or more sets: the echo spectrum shape, the pattern of changes in target strength and number of highlights as a function of object orientation, and peak and center frequency. These data suggest that dolphins use multiple features and integrate information across echoes from a range of object orientations.

  9. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op...

  10. Interaction between beans and objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between the X-ray beans and objects are studied, with the modification in the intensity. The kilovolt, the bundle filtration, the structure and composition of the patient and the quantity of scattered radiation are also described, as the main parameters for the contrast and for the dose of the patient. (C.G.C.) [pt

  11. Photogrammetric Measurements of Heritage Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumeliene, E.; Nareiko, V.; Suziedelyte Visockiene, J.

    2017-12-01

    Cultural heritage is an invaluable example of human culture and creativity. The majority of them can become unstable or can be destroyed due to a combination of human and natural disturbances. In order to restore, preserve, and systematize data about architectural heritage objects, it is necessary to have geodetic, photogrammetric measurements of such data and to constantly monitor condition of the objects. The data of immovable cultural objects for many years are stored in photogrammetric data archives. Such archives have Germany, Lithuania, England and other countries. The article gives a brief introduction of the history of data archives formation and presents a photogrammetric and modern methods of modelling the spatial geometric properties of objects currently used to reveal immovable cultural properties and to evaluate geometric sizes. The pilot work was done with the Concept Capture simulation program that was developed by the Bentley company with photos of the Blessed Virgin Mary painting in Pivašiūnai of Trakai district. A shot from the ground with 12.4 MP resolution Pentax K-x camera was done using lenses with different focal lengths. The painting of the Blessed Virgin Mary is coordinated by 4 reference geodesic points and therefore after the modelling work it was possible to evaluate the accuracy of the created model. Based on the results of the spatial (3D) model, photo shooting and modelling recommendations are presented, the advantages of the new technology are distinguished.

  12. Michael Beitz: Objects of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefferle, Mary

    2014-01-01

    For this Instructional Resource, the author interviewed contemporary sculptor Michael Beitz, who uses art to explore the role of designed objects in human communication and emotional experience. This column was written in response to calls for using Enduring Understandings/Big Ideas (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013; Stewart &…

  13. Managed Objects for Infrastructure Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Erik; Bodum, Lars; Kolar, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Using data objects to describe features in the real world is a new idea and several approaches have already been shown to match scientific paradigms exceedingly well. Depending on the required level of abstraction, it is possible to represent the world more or less close to reality. In the realm ...

  14. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  15. Quantitative Nuclear Cardiology: How objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, J.C.W.; Raval, U.; Soman, P.; Lahiri, A.

    1997-01-01

    The object of this study was to establish the accuracy required from the operator in indicating the centre and axis the left ventricle, and in placing regions of interest (ROIs), whilst using the MYO TOMO and MYO QUANT software to analyze tomographic data from nuclear cardiology

  16. Teachers' Careers: The Objective Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evetts, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the objective dimension of teachers' careers showing how 530 British male/female teachers are distributed throughout the pay scale and promotions making up the formal structure of teaching. Indicates length of experience is the rewarding but not the sole factor in bureaucratic structure and differential male/female career achievements.…

  17. Compact objects and accretion disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandford, Roger; Agol, Eric; Broderick, Avery; Heyl, Jeremy; Koopmans, Leon; Lee, Hee-Won

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in the spectropolarimetric study of compact objects, specifically black holes (stellar and massive) and neutron stars are reviewed. The lectures are organized around five topics: disks, jets, outflows, neutron stars and black holes. They emphasize physical mechanisms and are

  18. The Objective of Financial Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermann, Kenneth R.

    1986-01-01

    Alerts public school business officials to a financial reporting concepts statement to be issued by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board in late 1986. The new directive will outline four objectives concerned with accountability procedures, resource management and compliance information, operating results, and future financial capabilities.…

  19. Objective consensus from decision trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Pra, Alan Dal; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties

  20. Objective techniques for psychological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Ross, T.

    1973-01-01

    A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.

  1. Fast and Objective MRTD measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Bakker, S.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Manufacturers and Users of the Thermal Imagers have spent very much time upon the definition and measurement of the generally accepted performance curve: MRTD (Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference). The need for a cheap and fast, objective measurement method has considerably increased since the

  2. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  3. How Medical Students Use Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Terrill A.; And Others

    Two related studies were undertaken at Southern Illinois University on how students in the School of Medicine use the instructional objectives faculty prepare for them. Students in the classes of 1978 and 1979 were surveyed in their final month of training. The second survey was modified, based on responses from the first. The five research…

  4. 'Shelter' object safety. Structural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosheev, P.I.; Nemchinov, Yu.I.; Bambura, A.N.; Sokolov, A.P.; Shenderovich, V.Ya.; Vasyagin, R.V.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Tokarevskij, V.V.; Belousov, E.L.; Khejger, D.; Gorodetskij, L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the group of the international experts including Ukrainian organizations and 'Shelter' Object ChNPP are developed the plan of SO transformation into ecological safe status (plan SIP). The realization of the plan was carried out on basis of international tender. The results of structural aspects of SO safety and it transformation into ecological safe state (ESS) are resented in this report

  5. Recurrent processing during object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall C. O'Reilly

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of of naturally-occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain's visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time.

  6. Design of object processing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoras, D.R.; Hoede, C.

    Object processing systems are met rather often in every day life, in industry, tourism, commerce, etc. When designing such a system, many problems can be posed and considered, depending on the scope and purpose of design. We give here a general approach which involves graph theory, and which can

  7. ANNOTATION SUPPORTED OCCLUDED OBJECT TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracking occluded objects at different depths has become as extremely important component of study for any video sequence having wide applications in object tracking, scene recognition, coding, editing the videos and mosaicking. The paper studies the ability of annotation to track the occluded object based on pyramids with variation in depth further establishing a threshold at which the ability of the system to track the occluded object fails. Image annotation is applied on 3 similar video sequences varying in depth. In the experiment, one bike occludes the other at a depth of 60cm, 80cm and 100cm respectively. Another experiment is performed on tracking humans with similar depth to authenticate the results. The paper also computes the frame by frame error incurred by the system, supported by detailed simulations. This system can be effectively used to analyze the error in motion tracking and further correcting the error leading to flawless tracking. This can be of great interest to computer scientists while designing surveillance systems etc.

  8. Objects as closures: Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss denotational semantics of object-oriented languages, using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin, in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  9. Objects as closures - Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1988-01-01

    The denotational semantics of object-oriented languages is discussed using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin (1988), in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  10. Objective-guided image annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Gao, Shenghua

    2013-04-01

    Automatic image annotation, which is usually formulated as a multi-label classification problem, is one of the major tools used to enhance the semantic understanding of web images. Many multimedia applications (e.g., tag-based image retrieval) can greatly benefit from image annotation. However, the insufficient performance of image annotation methods prevents these applications from being practical. On the other hand, specific measures are usually designed to evaluate how well one annotation method performs for a specific objective or application, but most image annotation methods do not consider optimization of these measures, so that they are inevitably trapped into suboptimal performance of these objective-specific measures. To address this issue, we first summarize a variety of objective-guided performance measures under a unified representation. Our analysis reveals that macro-averaging measures are very sensitive to infrequent keywords, and hamming measure is easily affected by skewed distributions. We then propose a unified multi-label learning framework, which directly optimizes a variety of objective-specific measures of multi-label learning tasks. Specifically, we first present a multilayer hierarchical structure of learning hypotheses for multi-label problems based on which a variety of loss functions with respect to objective-guided measures are defined. And then, we formulate these loss functions as relaxed surrogate functions and optimize them by structural SVMs. According to the analysis of various measures and the high time complexity of optimizing micro-averaging measures, in this paper, we focus on example-based measures that are tailor-made for image annotation tasks but are seldom explored in the literature. Experiments show consistency with the formal analysis on two widely used multi-label datasets, and demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method over state-of-the-art baseline methods in terms of example-based measures on four

  11. The Management Object in Risk Management Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ulrik

    Using a systematic review of the last 55 years of research within risk management this paper explores how risk management as a management technology (methodologies, tools and frameworks to mitigate or manage risks) singles out risks as an object for management in order to make action possible....... The paper synthesise by developing a framework of how different views on risk management enable and constrain the knowledge about risk and thus frame the possibilities to measure, analyse and calculate uncertainty and risk. Inspired by social studies of finance and accounting, the paper finally develops...... three propositions that illustrate how the framing of risk establishes a boundary for how managers might understand value creation and the possible future and how this impacts the possible responses to risk....

  12. Tagging partially reconstructed objects with jet substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytsis, Marat, E-mail: freytsis@uoregon.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Volansky, Tomer [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Walsh, Jonathan R. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    We present a new tagger which aims at identifying partially reconstructed objects, in which only some of the constituents are collected in a single jet. As an example, we focus on top decays in which either part of the hadronically decaying W or the b jet is soft or falls outside of the top jet cone. We construct an observable to identify remnant substructure from the decay and employ aggressive jet grooming to reject QCD backgrounds. The tagger is complementary to existing ones and works well in the intermediate boost regime where jet substructure techniques usually fail. It is anticipated that a similar tagger can be used to identify non-QCD hadronic jets, such as those expected from hidden valleys.

  13. Tagging partially reconstructed objects with jet substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytsis, Marat; Volansky, Tomer; Walsh, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new tagger which aims at identifying partially reconstructed objects, in which only some of the constituents are collected in a single jet. As an example, we focus on top decays in which either part of the hadronically decaying W or the b jet is soft or falls outside of the top jet cone. We construct an observable to identify remnant substructure from the decay and employ aggressive jet grooming to reject QCD backgrounds. The tagger is complementary to existing ones and works well in the intermediate boost regime where jet substructure techniques usually fail. It is anticipated that a similar tagger can be used to identify non-QCD hadronic jets, such as those expected from hidden valleys.

  14. Tagging partially reconstructed objects with jet substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytsis, Marat; Volansky, Tomer; Walsh, Jonathan R.

    2017-06-01

    We present a new tagger which aims at identifying partially reconstructed objects, in which only some of the constituents are collected in a single jet. As an example, we focus on top decays in which either part of the hadronically decaying W or the b jet is soft or falls outside of the top jet cone. We construct an observable to identify remnant substructure from the decay and employ aggressive jet grooming to reject QCD backgrounds. The tagger is complementary to existing ones and works well in the intermediate boost regime where jet substructure techniques usually fail. It is anticipated that a similar tagger can be used to identify non-QCD hadronic jets, such as those expected from hidden valleys.

  15. The Agency of Memory Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2016-01-01

    and international tourists’ photographs and notes, especially their visual encounters with the exhibition, are understood as participatory interactions in the course of memory work. The article’s aim is twofold: introducing an ANT-inspired methodology to the field of memory studies, and mapping a Sowetan memory......This article analyses the multifarious acts of cultural memory taking place in the small, almost hidden, exhibition space of the famous Regina Mundi Church in Soweto, South Africa, home to the photographic exhibition “The Story of Soweto.” Next to the photographs (1950-2010) by well-known apartheid...... of action, examining the idea that objects, such as images, that leave a trace can act as mediators of memory. Starting from visitors’ appropriations of the exhibition space, the essay sheds light on the different life cycles of memory objects, in particular images, and their diverse mediations. Domestic...

  16. Swarm Science objectives and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, Hermann; Hulot, Gauthier

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme to be launched in 2009. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The innovative constellation concept and a unique set of dedicated instrume......Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme to be launched in 2009. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The innovative constellation concept and a unique set of dedicated...... instruments will provide the necessary observations that are required to separate and model the various sources of the geomagnetic field. This will provide new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth’s interior and Sun-Earth connection processes....

  17. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other.

  18. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capovilla, R.; Guven, J.; Rojas, E.

    2004-12-01

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler Lagrange equations.

  19. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  20. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capovilla, R; Guven, J; Rojas, E

    2004-01-01

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations

  1. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  2. WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Badyuk, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Badyuk N. S. WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS. АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ ТРАНСПОРТНОЙ МЕДИЦИНЫ № 3 (17), 2009 г. P. 96-104 DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1020024 http://dspace.nbuv.gov.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/23091/13-Badyuk.pdf?sequence=1 WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS Badyuk N. S. Ukrainian Research Institute for Medicine of Transport, Odessa, Ukraine Summary In the work presented they discuss several peculiarities of wa...

  3. MDSplus objects-Python implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredian, T., E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.ed [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Science and Fusion Center, NW17-268, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stillerman, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Science and Fusion Center, NW17-268, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, G. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    MDSplus is a data acquisition and analysis software package used widely throughout the international fusion research community. During the past year, an important set of enhancements were designed under the project name of 'MDSobjects' which would provide a common, powerful application programming interface (API) to MDSplus in programming languages with object-oriented capabilities. This paper will discuss the Python language implementation of this API and some of the capabilities that this implementation provides for data storage and retrieval using the MDSplus system. We have implemented a new MDSplus Python module which exposes the MDSplus objects features to the language. The internal MDSplus programming language, TDI, has also been enhanced to be able to invoke Python commands from the TDI language. Now that Python is aware of the complex data structures in MDSplus such as Signals, the language becomes a very good candidate for applications ranging from data acquisition device support to analysis and visualization.

  4. MDSplus objects-Python implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredian, T.; Stillerman, J.; Manduchi, G.

    2010-01-01

    MDSplus is a data acquisition and analysis software package used widely throughout the international fusion research community. During the past year, an important set of enhancements were designed under the project name of 'MDSobjects' which would provide a common, powerful application programming interface (API) to MDSplus in programming languages with object-oriented capabilities. This paper will discuss the Python language implementation of this API and some of the capabilities that this implementation provides for data storage and retrieval using the MDSplus system. We have implemented a new MDSplus Python module which exposes the MDSplus objects features to the language. The internal MDSplus programming language, TDI, has also been enhanced to be able to invoke Python commands from the TDI language. Now that Python is aware of the complex data structures in MDSplus such as Signals, the language becomes a very good candidate for applications ranging from data acquisition device support to analysis and visualization.

  5. Object recognition by implicit invariants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Kautsky, J.; Šroubek, Filip

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 856-863 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Invariants * implicit invariants * moments * orthogonal polynomials * nonlinear object deformation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http:// staff .utia.cas.cz/sroubekf/papers/CAIP_07.pdf

  6. Advertising. Advanced placement of objects

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the ...

  7. Hijazi Architectural Object Library (haol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Boehm, J.

    2017-02-01

    As with many historical buildings around the world, building façades are of special interest; moreover, the details of such windows, stonework, and ornaments give each historic building its individual character. Each object of these buildings must be classified in an architectural object library. Recently, a number of researches have been focusing on this topic in Europe and Canada. From this standpoint, the Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) has reproduced Hijazi elements as 3D computer models, which are modelled using a Revit Family (RFA). The HAOL will be dependent on the image survey and point cloud data. The Hijazi Object such as Roshan and Mashrabiyah, become as vocabulary of many Islamic cities in the Hijazi region such as Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, and even for a number of Islamic historic cities such as Istanbul and Cairo. These architectural vocabularies are the main cause of the beauty of these heritage. However, there is a big gap in both the Islamic architectural library and the Hijazi architectural library to provide these unique elements. Besides, both Islamic and Hijazi architecture contains a huge amount of information which has not yet been digitally classified according to period and styles. Due to this issue, this paper will be focusing on developing of Heritage BIM (HBIM) standards and the HAOL library to reduce the cost and the delivering time for heritage and new projects that involve in Hijazi architectural styles. Through this paper, the fundamentals of Hijazi architecture informatics will be provided via developing framework for HBIM models and standards. This framework will provide schema and critical information, for example, classifying the different shapes, models, and forms of structure, construction, and ornamentation of Hijazi architecture in order to digitalize parametric building identity.

  8. Truth as a Mathematical Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Béziau

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss in which sense truth is considered as a mathematical object in propositional logic. After clarifying how this concept is used in classical logic, through the notions of truth-table, truth-function and bivaluation, we examine some generalizations of it in non-classical logics: many-valued matrix semantics with three and four values, non-truth-functional bivalent semantics, Kripke possible world semantics.

  9. Object discrimination using electrotactile feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Tapas J; Hasse, Brady A; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2018-04-09

    A variety of bioengineering systems are being developed to restore tactile sensations in individuals who have lost somatosensory feedback because of spinal cord injury, stroke, or amputation. These systems typically detect tactile force with sensors placed on an insensate hand (or prosthetic hand in the case of amputees) and deliver touch information by electrically or mechanically stimulating sensate skin above the site of injury. Successful object manipulation, however, also requires proprioceptive feedback representing the configuration and movements of the hand and digits. Therefore, we developed a simple system that simultaneously provides information about tactile grip force and hand aperture using current amplitude-modulated electrotactile feedback. We evaluated the utility of this system by testing the ability of eight healthy human subjects to distinguish among 27 objects of varying sizes, weights, and compliances based entirely on electrotactile feedback. The feedback was modulated by grip-force and hand-aperture sensors placed on the hand of an experimenter (not visible to the subject) grasping and lifting the test objects. We were also interested to determine the degree to which subjects could learn to use such feedback when tested over five consecutive sessions. The average percentage correct identifications on day 1 (28.5%  ±  8.2% correct) was well above chance (3.7%) and increased significantly with training to 49.2%  ±  10.6% on day 5. Furthermore, this training transferred reasonably well to a set of novel objects. These results suggest that simple, non-invasive methods can provide useful multisensory feedback that might prove beneficial in improving the control over prosthetic limbs.

  10. Concurrent Models for Object Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Diertens, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for the concurrent execution of functions on different levels of abstraction. It shows that the traditional sequential execution of function is just a possible implementation of an abstract computational model that allows for the concurrent execution of functions. We use this framework as base for the development of abstract computational models that allow for the concurrent execution of objects.

  11. Cosmic objects and elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozental, I L [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij

    1977-02-01

    Considered are the connections between the parameters of elementary particles (mass ''size'') and the characteristics of stars (the main sequence stars, white dwarf stars and pulsars). Presented is the elementary theory of black hole radiation in the framework of which all the regularities of the process are derived. The emphiric numerical sequence connecting nucleon mass and universe constants (G, h, c) with the masses of some cosmic objects is given.

  12. POMP - Pervasive Object Model Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Kari Rye; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    The focus on mobile devices is continuously increasing, and improved device connectivity enables the construction of pervasive computing systems composed of heterogeneous collections of devices. Users who employ different devices throughout their daily activities naturally expect their applications...... computing environment. This system, named POM (Pervasive Object Model), supports applications split into coarse-grained, strongly mobile units that communicate using method invocations through proxies. We are currently investigating efficient execution of mobile applications, scalability to suit...

  13. Persistent Identifiers as Boundary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1989, Leigh Star and Jim Griesemer defined the seminal concept of `boundary objects'. These `objects' are what Latour calls `immutable mobiles' that enable communication and collaboration across difference by helping meaning to be understood in different contexts. As Star notes, they are a sort of arrangement that allow different groups to work together without (a priori) consensus. Part of the idea is to recognize and allow for the `interpretive flexibility' that is central to much of the `constructivist' approach in the sociology of science. Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) can clearly act as boundary objects, but people do not usually assume that they enable interpretive flexibility. After all, they are meant to be unambiguous, machine-interpretable identifiers of defined artifacts. In this paper, we argue that PIDs can fill at least two roles: 1) That of the standardized form, where there is strong agreement on what is being represented and how and 2) that of the idealized type, a more conceptual concept that allows many different representations. We further argue that these seemingly abstract conceptions actually help us implement PIDs more effectively to link data, publications, various other artifacts, and especially people. Considering PIDs as boundary objects can help us address issues such as what level of granularity is necessary for PIDs, what metadata should be directly associated with PIDs, and what purpose is the PID serving (reference, provenance, credit, etc.). In short, sociological theory can improve data sharing standards and their implementation in a way that enables broad interdisciplinary data sharing and reuse. We will illustrate this with several specific examples of Earth science data.

  14. TEACHING TRANSLATION: OBJECTIVES AND METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Kobyakova, Iryna; Shvachko, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on the set of items: teaching translation, objectives, exercises and assignments (both word-centered and text-centered translation), translation analysis. The choice of the items is motivated by the dominant functions of transatology (nominative and communicative). The latter succeed in identification of adequate, congruent, equivalent translation. The article discusses the problems of professional validity, theoretical insertions, textocentric analysis. Gains, achievem...

  15. Mastering object-oriented Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a standard tutorial approach with approximately 750 code samples spread through the 19 chapters. This amounts to over 5,900 lines of code that illustrate each concept.This book is aimed at programmers who have already learned the basics of object-oriented Python and need to write more sophisticated, flexible code that integrates seamlessly with the rest of Python. This book assumes a computer science background, with experience of common Python design patterns.

  16. Cortical processing of object affordances for self and others’ action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMaranesi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of objects does not rely only on visual brain areas, but also involves cortical motor regions. In particular, different parietal and premotor areas host neurons discharging during both object observation and grasping. Most of these cells often show similar visual and motor selectivity for a specific object (or set of objects, suggesting that they might play a crucial role in representing the potential motor act afforded by the object. The existence of such a mechanism for the visuomotor transformation of object physical properties in the most appropriate motor plan for interacting with them has been convincingly demonstrated in humans as well. Interestingly, human studies have shown that visually presented objects can automatically trigger the representation of an action provided that they are located within the observer’s reaching space (peripersonal space. The affordance effect also occurs when the presented object is outside the observer’s peripersonal space, but inside the peripersonal space of an observed agent. These findings recently received direct support by single neuron studies in monkey, indicating that space-constrained processing of objects in the ventral premotor cortex might be relevant to represent objects as potential targets for one’s own or others' action.

  17. ADAPTIVE SELECTION OF AUXILIARY OBJECTIVES IN MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Petrova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We propose to modify the EA+RL method, which increases efficiency of evolutionary algorithms by means of auxiliary objectives. The proposed modification is compared to the existing objective selection methods on the example of travelling salesman problem. Method. In the EA+RL method a reinforcement learning algorithm is used to select an objective – the target objective or one of the auxiliary objectives – at each iteration of the single-objective evolutionary algorithm.The proposed modification of the EA+RL method adopts this approach for the usage with a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. As opposed to theEA+RL method, in this modification one of the auxiliary objectives is selected by reinforcement learning and optimized together with the target objective at each step of the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. Main Results.The proposed modification of the EA+RL method was compared to the existing objective selection methods on the example of travelling salesman problem. In the EA+RL method and its proposed modification reinforcement learning algorithms for stationary and non-stationary environment were used. The proposed modification of the EA+RL method applied with reinforcement learning for non-stationary environment outperformed the considered objective selection algorithms on the most problem instances. Practical Significance. The proposed approach increases efficiency of evolutionary algorithms, which may be used for solving discrete NP-hard optimization problems. They are, in particular, combinatorial path search problems and scheduling problems.

  18. Probabilistic object and viewpoint models for active object recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ,θ′(f occ). V. EXPERIMENTS A. Dataset For our experiments, we use the active recognition dataset introduced by [12]. The training data consists of everyday objects such as cereal boxes, ornaments, spice bottle, etc. Images were captured every 20 degrees... are to be verified TABLE I CONFUSION MATRIX FOR BINARY A MODEL Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Cereal Battery Curry box Elephant Handbag MrMin Salad Bottle Spice Bottle Spray Can Spray Can 1 Cereal 0.9800 0...

  19. Interfacial dynamics of dissolving objects in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, Chris; Bazant, Martin

    2013-11-01

    An advection-diffusion-limited dissolution model of an object being eroded by a two-dimensional potential flow will be presented. By taking advantage of conformal invariance of the model, a numerical method will be introduced that tracks the evolution of the object boundary in terms of a time-dependent Laurent series. Simulations of several dissolving objects will be shown, all of which show collapse to a single point in finite time. The simulations reveal a surprising connection between the position of the collapse point and the initial Laurent coefficients, which was subsequently derived analytically using residue calculus.

  20. Power magnetic devices a multi-objective design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sudhoff, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Presents a multi-objective design approach to the many power magnetic devices in use today Power Magnetic Devices: A Multi-Objective Design Approach addresses the design of power magnetic devices-including inductors, transformers, electromagnets, and rotating electric machinery-using a structured design approach based on formal single- and multi-objective optimization. The book opens with a discussion of evolutionary-computing-based optimization. Magnetic analysis techniques useful to the design of all the devices considered in the book are then set forth. This material is then used for ind

  1. Ghost Imaging of Space Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Erkmen, Baris I; Yu Nan

    2013-01-01

    The term 'ghost imaging' was coined in 1995 when an optical correlation measurement in combination with an entangled photon-pair source was used to image a mask placed in one optical channel by raster-scanning a detector in the other, empty, optical channel. Later, it was shown that the entangled photon source could be replaced with thermal sources of light, which are abundantly available as natural illumination sources. It was also shown that the bucket detector could be replaced with a remote point-like detector, opening the possibility to remote-sensing imaging applications. In this paper, we discuss the application of ghost-imaging-like techniques to astronomy, with the objective of detecting intensity-correlation signatures resulting from space objects of interest, such as exo-planets, gas clouds, and gravitational lenses. An important aspect of being able to utilize ghost imaging in astronomy, is the recognition that in interstellar imaging geometries the object of interest can act as an effective beam splitter, yielding detectable variations in the intensity-correlation signature.

  2. [Depressive realism: happiness or objectivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birinci, Fatih; Dirik, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Realism is described as objective evaluations and judgments about the world; however, some research indicates that judgments made by "normal" people include a self-favored, positive bias in the perception of reality. Additionally, some studies report that compared to normal people, such cognitive distortions are less likely among depressive people. These findings gave rise to the depressive realism hypothesis. While results of several studies verify the notion that depressive people evaluate reality more objectively, other studies fail to support this hypothesis. Several causes for these inconsistent findings have been proposed, which can be characterized under 3 headings. One proposed explanation suggests that what is accepted as "realistic" in these studies is not quite objective and is in fact ambiguous. According to another perspective, the term "depressive" used in these studies is inconsistent with the criteria of scientific diagnostic methods. Another suggests that the research results can only be obtained under the specific experimental conditions. General negativity and limited processing are popular approaches used for explaining the depressive realism hypothesis. Nowadays, the debate over this hypothesis continues. The present review focuses on frequently cited research related to depressive realism and discusses the findings.

  3. Voting based object boundary reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qi; Zhang, Like; Ma, Jingsheng

    2005-07-01

    A voting-based object boundary reconstruction approach is proposed in this paper. Morphological technique was adopted in many applications for video object extraction to reconstruct the missing pixels. However, when the missing areas become large, the morphological processing cannot bring us good results. Recently, Tensor voting has attracted people"s attention, and it can be used for boundary estimation on curves or irregular trajectories. However, the complexity of saliency tensor creation limits its applications in real-time systems. An alternative approach based on tensor voting is introduced in this paper. Rather than creating saliency tensors, we use a "2-pass" method for orientation estimation. For the first pass, Sobel d*etector is applied on a coarse boundary image to get the gradient map. In the second pass, each pixel puts decreasing weights based on its gradient information, and the direction with maximum weights sum is selected as the correct orientation of the pixel. After the orientation map is obtained, pixels begin linking edges or intersections along their direction. The approach is applied to various video surveillance clips under different conditions, and the experimental results demonstrate significant improvement on the final extracted objects accuracy.

  4. Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations

  5. Documentation of Cultural Heritage Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Grobovšek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The first and important phase of documentation of cultural heritage objects is to understand which objects need to be documented. The entire documentation process is determined by the characteristics and scope of the cultural heritage object. The next question to be considered is the expected outcome of the documentation process and the purpose for which it will be used. These two essential guidelines determine each stage of the documentation workflow: the choice of the most appropriate data capturing technology and data processing method, how detailed should the documentation be, what problems may occur, what the expected outcome is, what it will be used for, and the plan for storing data and results. Cultural heritage objects require diverse data capturing and data processing methods. It is important that even the first stages of raw data capturing are oriented towards the applicability of results. The selection of the appropriate working method can facilitate the data processing and the preparation of final documentation. Documentation of paintings requires different data capturing method than documentation of buildings or building areas. The purpose of documentation can also be the preservation of the contemporary cultural heritage to posterity or the basis for future projects and activities on threatened objects. Documentation procedures should be adapted to our needs and capabilities. Captured and unprocessed data are lost unless accompanied by additional analyses and interpretations. Information on tools, procedures and outcomes must be included into documentation. A thorough analysis of unprocessed but accessible documentation, if adequately stored and accompanied by additional information, enables us to gather useful data. In this way it is possible to upgrade the existing documentation and to avoid data duplication or unintentional misleading of users. The documentation should be archived safely and in a way to meet

  6. Multi-sensor Object Recognition: The Case of Electronics Recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dop, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    In automated object recognition systems, measurements from a single source of information do not always suffice for the reconstruction of the underlying scene. Incompleteness, inaccuracy and unreliability of the information often leaves room for multiple interpretations of the world which are

  7. Multisensory memory for object identity and location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Philippi, T.G.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have reported that audiovisual object presentation improves memory encoding of object identity in comparison to either auditory or visual object presentation. However, multisensory memory effects on retrieval, on object location, and of other multisensory combinations are yet unknown. We

  8. Object permanence and working memory in cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, S; Doré, F Y; Rousseau, R

    1994-10-01

    Cats (Felis catus) find an object when it is visibly moved behind a succession of screens. However, when the object is moved behind a container and is invisibly transferred from the container to the back of a screen, cats try to find the object at or near the container rather than at the true hiding place. Four experiments were conducted to study search behavior and working memory in visible and invisible displacement tests of object permanence. Experiment 1 compared performance in single and in double visible displacement trials. Experiment 2 analyzed search behavior in invisible displacement tests and in analogs using a transparent container. Experiments 3 and 4 tested predictions made from Experiment 1 and 2 in a new situation of object permanence. Results showed that only the position changes that cats have directly perceived are encoded and activated in working memory, because they are unable to represent or infer invisible movements.

  9. Final Report: Legion Core Object Model, March 1, 1996 - September 30, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.

    1999-09-30

    The model specifies the composition and functionality of Legion's core objects - those objects that cooperate to create, locate, manage, and remove objects from the legion project. In particular, the object model facilitates a flexible extensible implementation, provides a single persistent name space, grants site autonomy to participating organizations, and scales to millions of sites and trillions of objects. Further, it offers a framework that is well suited to providing mechanisms for high performance, security, fault tolerance and commerce.

  10. Accelerator operation management using objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, H.; Timossi, C.; Valdez, M.

    1995-04-01

    Conflicts over control of shared devices or resources in an accelerator control system, and problems that can occur due to applications performing conflicting operations, are usually resolved by accelerator operators. For these conflicts to be detected by the control system, a model of accelerator operation must be available to the system. The authors present a design for an operation management system addressing the issues of operations management using the language of Object-Oriented Design (OOD). A possible implementation using commercially available software tools is also presented.

  11. Accelerator operation management using objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, H.; Timossi, C.; Valdez, M.

    1995-01-01

    Conflicts over control of shared devices or resources in an accelerator control system, and problems that can occur due to applications performing conflicting operations, are usually resolved by accelerator operators. For these conflicts to be detected by the control system, a model of accelerator operation must be available to the system. The authors present a design for an operation management system addressing the issues of operations management using the language of Object-Oriented Design (OOD). A possible implementation using commercially available software tools is also presented

  12. Objective - oriented financial analysis introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostova – Pickett

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of financial analysis has been immeasurably strengthened in recent years thanks to the ongoing evolution of computerized approaches in the form of spreadsheets and computer-based financial models of different types. These devices not only relieved the analyst's computing task, but also opened up a wide range of analyzes and research into alternative sensitivity, which so far has not been possible. The main potential for object-oriented financial analysis consists in enormously expanding the analyst's capabilities through an online knowledge and information interface that has not yet been achieved through existing methods and software packages.

  13. Ten objectives for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A

    2000-02-01

    Sustainable development is one of the fundamental strategies for China's socioeconomic development in its 10th 5-Year Plan (2001-2005) period and beyond. It is a human-centered strategy focusing on improved quality of life in which environmental quality is an important part. This article presents 10 objectives that must be achieved for the sustainable development strategy to succeed. These objectives are: 1) continue to implement the family planning program; 2) maintain a dynamic balance of arable land (not less than 123 million hectares) and implement an agricultural development strategy; 3) maintain a dynamic balance of water resources by reducing water consumption for every unit of gross development product growth and agricultural value added; 4) import large quantities of oil and natural gas; 5) control emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide by large cities and industries and close high-pollution thermal power plants; 6) compensate for ¿forest deficit¿ with ¿trade surplus¿ by reducing timber production and increase timber import; 7) import large quantities of iron ore, copper, zinc, aluminum, and other minerals and encourage foreign participation in resource exploration and development; 8) make time-bound commitments to clean up large cities, rivers, and lakes and forcefully close down seriously polluting enterprises; 9) implement a massive ecological construction project to slow down ecological degradation; and 10) develop the environmental industry and eco-buildup to expand domestic demand, increase employment, and alleviate poverty.

  14. Object reasoning for waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.J.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    A large number of contaminated waste sites across the United States await size remediation efforts. These sites can be physically complex, composed of multiple, possibly interacting, contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being designed and developed to support decisions concerning the selection of remediation alternatives. The goal of this system is to broaden the consideration of remediation alternatives, while reducing the time and cost of making these considerations. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system, designed and constructed using object-oriented, knowledge- based systems, and structured programming techniques. RAAS uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning to consider and suggest remediation alternatives. The reasoning process that drives this application is centered around an object-oriented organization of remediation technology information. This paper describes the information structure and organization used to support this reasoning process. In addition, the paper describes the level of detail of the technology related information used in RAAS, discusses required assumptions and procedural implications of these assumptions, and provides rationale for structuring RAAS in this manner. 3 refs., 3 figs

  15. Inertial objects in complex flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Rayhan; Ho, George; Cavas, Samuel; Bao, Jialun; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    Chaotic Advection and Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents both describe stirring and transport in complex and time-dependent flows, but FTLE analysis has been largely limited to either purely kinematic flow models or high Reynolds number flow field data. The neglect of dynamic effects in FTLE and Lagrangian Coherent Structure studies has stymied detailed information about the role of pressure, Coriolis effects and object inertia. We present results of laboratory and numerical experiments on time-dependent and multi-gyre Stokes flows. In the lab, a time-dependent effectively two-dimensional low Re flow is used to distinguish transport properties of passive tracer from those of small paramagnetic spheres. Companion results of FTLE calculations for inertial particles in a time-dependent multi-gyre flow are presented, illustrating the critical roles of density, Stokes number and Coriolis forces on their transport. Results of Direct Numerical Simulations of fully resolved inertial objects (spheroids) immersed in a three dimensional (ABC) flow show the role of shape and finite size in inertial transport at small finite Re. We acknowledge support of NSF DMS-1418956.

  16. AVNG system objectives and concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macarthur, Duncan W.; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander; Kondratov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released to the monitoring party. At the same time, the monitoring party must gain sufficient confidence from the measurement to believe that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The AVNG that we describe is an attribute measurement system built by RFNC-VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG measures the three attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass >2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ( 240 Pu to 239 Pu) <0.1' and was demonstrated in Sarov for a joint US/Russian audience in June 2009. In this presentation, we will outline the goals and objectives of the AVNG measurement system. These goals are driven by the two, sometimes conflicting, requirements mentioned above. We will describe the conceptual design of the AVNG and show how this conceptual design grew out of these goals and objectives.

  17. The Formation of Primordial Luminous Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripamonti, Emanuele; Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen; Abel, Tom; KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-01-01

    The scientific belief that the universe evolves in time is one of the legacies of the theory of the Big Bang. The concept that the universe has an history started to attract the interest of cosmologists soon after the first formulation of the theory: already Gamow (1948; 1949) investigated how and when galaxies could have been formed in the context of the expanding Universe. However, the specific topic of the formation (and of the fate) of the first objects dates to two decades later, when no objects with metallicities as low as those predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis (Z ∼ -10 ∼ 10 -8 Z # circle d ot#) were found. Such concerns were addressed in two seminal papers by Peebles and Dicke (1968; hereafter PD68) and by Doroshkevich, Zel'Dovich and Novikov (1967; hereafter DZN67), introducing the idea that some objects could have formed before the stars we presently observe. (1) Both PD68 and DZN67 suggest a mass of ∼ 10 5 M # circle d ot# for the first generation of bound systems, based on the considerations on the cosmological Jeans length (Gamow 1948; Peebles 1965) and the possible shape of the power spectrum. (2) They point out the role of thermal instabilities in the formation of the proto-galactic bound object, and of the cooling of the gas inside it; in particular, PD68 introduces H 2 cooling and chemistry in the calculations about the contraction of the gas. (3) Even if they do not specifically address the occurrence of fragmentation, these papers make two very different assumptions: PD68 assumes that the gas will fragment into ''normal'' stars to form globular clusters, while DZN67 assumes that fragmentation does not occur, and that a single ''super-star'' forms. (4) Finally, some feedback effects as considered (e.g. Peebles and Dicke considered the effects of supernovae). Today most of the research focuses on the issues when fragmentation may occur, what objects are formed and how they influence subsequent structure formation. In these notes we will

  18. Observations of fast variable objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    A problem on studying fast variable astronomic objects is considered. The basis of the method used in the experiment is a detailed photoelectric study of a fast variableness along with spectroscopy of a high time resolution. Power spectrum of the SS Cyg brightness oscillations and autocorrelation function of the AX Mon brightness are analyzed as an example. To provide a reliable identification of parameters of star active regions responsible for the fast variableness, an experiment is proposed, the ''synchronous spectroscopy'' method being used. The method is based on the supposition about temporary stationarity of occasional processes within the limits of the time scale of several hours. The block diagram of the experiment is described

  19. Passenger baggage object database (PBOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Jaxon M.; Suknot, April N.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Spaulding, Terry W.; Wenrich, Steve A.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of anomalies of interest in x-ray images is an ever-evolving problem that requires the rapid development of automatic detection algorithms. Automatic detection algorithms are developed using machine learning techniques, which would require developers to obtain the x-ray machine that was used to create the images being trained on, and compile all associated metadata for those images by hand. The Passenger Baggage Object Database (PBOD) and data acquisition application were designed and developed for acquiring and persisting 2-D and 3-D x-ray image data and associated metadata. PBOD was specifically created to capture simulated airline passenger "stream of commerce" luggage data, but could be applied to other areas of x-ray imaging to utilize machine-learning methods.

  20. Classification of Building Object Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    made. This is certainly the case in the Danish development. Based on the theories about these abstraction mechanisms, the basic principles for classification systems are presented and the observed misconceptions are analyses and explained. Furthermore, it is argued that the purpose of classification...... systems has changed and that new opportunities should be explored. Some proposals for new applications are presented and carefully aligned with IT opportunities. Especially, the use of building modelling will give new benefits and many of the traditional uses of classification systems will instead...... be managed by software applications and on the basis of building models. Classification systems with taxonomies of building object types have many application opportunities but can still be beneficial in data exchange between building construction partners. However, this will be performed by new methods...

  1. Infrared spectroscopy of evolved objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.K.; Roche, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    In this review, the authors are concerned with spectroscopic observations of evolved objects made in the wavelength range 1-300μm. Spectroscopic observations can conveniently be divided into studies of narrow lines, bands and broader continua. The vibrational frequencies of molecular groups fall mainly in this spectral region and appear as vibration-rotation bands from the gas phase, and as less structured, but often broader, features from the solid state. Many ionic lines, including recombination lines of abundant species and fine structure lines of astrophysically important ions also appear in this region. The continuum can arise from a number of mechanisms - photospheric emission, radiation from dust, free-free transitions in ionized gas and non-thermal processes. (Auth.)

  2. Location mortgage in accounting objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygiska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the mechanism of the implementation of all kinds of mortgage (mortgage, pledge, mortgage of securities, security of property rights, the mortgage of goods in circulation or processing, tax lien defined the specificity of receipt/return of the mortgage, particularly payments between mortgagor and the mortgagee. Determine the subject property entities that can act as mortgage; identified by their place in the system of objects of accounting mortgagor and the mortgagee. The peculiarities of the balance sheet and off-balance sheet assets as a reflection of your collateral. Identified two groups of mortgage transactions: transactions with mortgage for its receipt and transmission; business transactions related to the conditions of loan agreements (loan and mortgage. The results are shown in the research paper proposals allow for further research to develop mortgage organizational and methodological support the operations accounting for the effective management of financial resources and obligations, collateralised.

  3. Towards lexicographic multi-objective linear programming using grossone methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cococcioni, Marco; Pappalardo, Massimo; Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.

    2016-10-01

    Lexicographic Multi-Objective Linear Programming (LMOLP) problems can be solved in two ways: preemptive and nonpreemptive. The preemptive approach requires the solution of a series of LP problems, with changing constraints (each time the next objective is added, a new constraint appears). The nonpreemptive approach is based on a scalarization of the multiple objectives into a single-objective linear function by a weighted combination of the given objectives. It requires the specification of a set of weights, which is not straightforward and can be time consuming. In this work we present both mathematical and software ingredients necessary to solve LMOLP problems using a recently introduced computational methodology (allowing one to work numerically with infinities and infinitesimals) based on the concept of grossone. The ultimate goal of such an attempt is an implementation of a simplex-like algorithm, able to solve the original LMOLP problem by solving only one single-objective problem and without the need to specify finite weights. The expected advantages are therefore obvious.

  4. ROME (Request Object Management Environment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M.; Good, J. C.; Berriman, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    Most current astronomical archive services are based on an HTML/ CGI architecture where users submit HTML forms via a browser and CGI programs operating under a web server process the requests. Most services return an HTML result page with URL links to the result files or, for longer jobs, return a message indicating that email will be sent when the job is done. This paradigm has a few serious shortcomings. First, it is all too common for something to go wrong and for the user to never hear about the job again. Second, for long and complicated jobs there is often important intermediate information that would allow the user to adjust the processing. Finally, unless some sort of custom queueing mechanism is used, background jobs are started immediately upon receiving the CGI request. When there are many such requests the server machine can easily be overloaded and either slow to a crawl or crash. Request Object Management Environment (ROME) is a collection of middleware components being developed under the National Virtual Observatory Project to provide mechanism for managing long jobs such as computationally intensive statistical analysis requests or the generation of large scale mosaic images. Written as EJB objects within the open-source JBoss applications server, ROME receives processing requests via a servelet interface, stores them in a DBMS using JDBC, distributes the processing (via queuing mechanisms) across multiple machines and environments (including Grid resources), manages realtime messages from the processing modules, and ensures proper user notification. The request processing modules are identical in structure to standard CGI-programs -- though they can optionally implement status messaging -- and can be written in any language. ROME will persist these jobs across failures of processing modules, network outages, and even downtime of ROME and the DBMS, restarting them as necessary.

  5. Radiological characterisation - Know your objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindow, Veronica; Moeller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When developing a programme for mapping the radiological characteristics of a facility to be decommissioned it is important to take into account the objectives of the programme. Will the results be used to plan for radiological control and selection of appropriate decontamination and dismantling techniques? Will the radiological inventory be used for dimensioning of future waste repositories? These are two examples of the applications for such studies, which could require that a radiological characterisation programme be adapted to provide the data appropriate to the intended use. The level of detail and scope needed for a radiological characterisation will also vary depending on how the data will be used. An application to free-release a facility requires a comprehensive survey and well documented analysis in order to ensure that no radioactive contamination above prescribed levels is present. A bounding calculation to determine the maximum anticipated volumes and activity of radioactive waste requires a different approach. During the past few years, older decommissioning studies for the Swedish nuclear power plants have been updated (or are in the process of being updated). The decommissioning study's main purpose is to estimate the cost for decommissioning. The cost estimation is based on material and activity inventories, which in turn is based on previous and, in some cases, updated radiological characterisations of the facilities. The radiological inventory is an important part of the study as it affects the cost of decommissioning but also the uncertainties and accuracy of the cost estimation. The presentation will discuss the challenges in specifying a radiological characterisation programme with multiple objectives, together with insights on how data delivered can be applied to yield results suitable for the intended purpose, without introducing excessive conservatism. The intent of the presentation is to define issues that can be of use in various aspects

  6. Object-based target templates guide attention during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2018-05-03

    During visual search, attention is believed to be controlled in a strictly feature-based fashion, without any guidance by object-based target representations. To challenge this received view, we measured electrophysiological markers of attentional selection (N2pc component) and working memory (sustained posterior contralateral negativity; SPCN) in search tasks where two possible targets were defined by feature conjunctions (e.g., blue circles and green squares). Critically, some search displays also contained nontargets with two target features (incorrect conjunction objects, e.g., blue squares). Because feature-based guidance cannot distinguish these objects from targets, any selective bias for targets will reflect object-based attentional control. In Experiment 1, where search displays always contained only one object with target-matching features, targets and incorrect conjunction objects elicited identical N2pc and SPCN components, demonstrating that attentional guidance was entirely feature-based. In Experiment 2, where targets and incorrect conjunction objects could appear in the same display, clear evidence for object-based attentional control was found. The target N2pc became larger than the N2pc to incorrect conjunction objects from 250 ms poststimulus, and only targets elicited SPCN components. This demonstrates that after an initial feature-based guidance phase, object-based templates are activated when they are required to distinguish target and nontarget objects. These templates modulate visual processing and control access to working memory, and their activation may coincide with the start of feature integration processes. Results also suggest that while multiple feature templates can be activated concurrently, only a single object-based target template can guide attention at any given time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Super-resolution imaging applied to moving object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalaganata, Galandaru; Ratna Sulistyaningrum, Dwi; Setiyono, Budi

    2017-10-01

    Moving object tracking in a video is a method used to detect and analyze changes that occur in an object that being observed. Visual quality and the precision of the tracked target are highly wished in modern tracking system. The fact that the tracked object does not always seem clear causes the tracking result less precise. The reasons are low quality video, system noise, small object, and other factors. In order to improve the precision of the tracked object especially for small object, we propose a two step solution that integrates a super-resolution technique into tracking approach. First step is super-resolution imaging applied into frame sequences. This step was done by cropping the frame in several frame or all of frame. Second step is tracking the result of super-resolution images. Super-resolution image is a technique to obtain high-resolution images from low-resolution images. In this research single frame super-resolution technique is proposed for tracking approach. Single frame super-resolution was a kind of super-resolution that it has the advantage of fast computation time. The method used for tracking is Camshift. The advantages of Camshift was simple calculation based on HSV color that use its histogram for some condition and color of the object varies. The computational complexity and large memory requirements required for the implementation of super-resolution and tracking were reduced and the precision of the tracked target was good. Experiment showed that integrate a super-resolution imaging into tracking technique can track the object precisely with various background, shape changes of the object, and in a good light conditions.

  8. Informed multi-objective decision-making in environmental management using Pareto optimality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureen C. Kennedy; E. David Ford; Peter Singleton; Mark Finney; James K. Agee

    2008-01-01

    Effective decisionmaking in environmental management requires the consideration of multiple objectives that may conflict. Common optimization methods use weights on the multiple objectives to aggregate them into a single value, neglecting valuable insight into the relationships among the objectives in the management problem.

  9. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  10. Advertising. Advanced placement of objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the classification and content of the basic concepts of marketing. The article considers the potential effectiveness of the basic types of advertising communications, and especially the impact of these promotional activities on the perception of the end user. Particular attention is paid to the study of certain promising areas of advertising, namely, advertising at airports and in airplanes, it is a special case of transit advertising. The author describes the identified advantages and disadvantages of this direction of marketing communications as well as the analysis of statistical data on the effectiveness of advertising at airports and in airplanes. It is suggested to consider this type of advertising as promising and effective in the conditions of modern times because there is the tendency to increase the dynamic potential users of the specified mode of transport and, as a consequence, it is possible with certainty to predict the transformation of potential passengers into real consumers of the studied type of advertising

  11. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OBJECT AS AN OBJECT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bondar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to highlight the main areas of the system of strategic management accounting, improvement of the principles on which it operates. Subject of research is theoretical and practical aspects of functioning and development of strategic management accounting. Subject area is focused on strategic management information support towards the implementation of the principle of balancing of activity of the entities. Objectives of the research is to determine the place and role of strategic management accounting in the creation of information infrastructure management in the current economic conditions; disclosure of decomposition problems and improvement of the functioning of the system of strategic management accounting, prioritization of development. Hypothesis of the research is based on the assumption that the effectiveness of entities management adapted to the needs of the market environment of complete, accurate and timely information, which is formed in properly organized system of strategic management accounting. Methodology is based on analysis of data of respondents from 125 industrial entities of Kharkiv region. Data was collected through direct surveys and in the preparation of Kharkiv Oblast Development Strategy for the period until 2020. Respondents were asked a number of questions that determine: results of the system of information support of strategic management in enterprises employing respondents; direction of the system of strategic management accounting in enterprises employing respondents. By means of expert assessments was evaluated important source of information for making strategic management decisions. General system of research methodology is based on a systematic approach. Conclusion. During the research was confirmed the role and importance of strategic management accounting information for the purpose of strategic management. According to the results outlined challenges facing the leaders of

  12. Blue objects in the vicinity of M13. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Eh.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    Presented are photometric data in the UBV system for 225 objects in the region of 16 square degrees in size, adjacent to M13 cluster. ''Two-colour diagram'' and ''colour-luminosity'' diagram are built, and on their basis analysis of the data obtained is made. Half the objects investigated are subdwarfs. Among others there are white - blue dwarfs conventional stars of the main sequence stars, halo stars, stars of globular clusters and objects, which might be of extragalactic nature. On the basis of object distribution as to brightness and colour, and also according to their visible distribution several different groups can be singled out. Several variable stars are also found as a result of photometric investigation

  13. Fuzzy-Rule-Based Object Identification Methodology for NAVI System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaacob Sazali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an object identification methodology applied in a navigation assistance for visually impaired (NAVI system. The NAVI has a single board processing system (SBPS, a digital video camera mounted headgear, and a pair of stereo earphones. The captured image from the camera is processed by the SBPS to generate a specially structured stereo sound suitable for vision impaired people in understanding the presence of objects/obstacles in front of them. The image processing stage is designed to identify the objects in the captured image. Edge detection and edge-linking procedures are applied in the processing of image. A concept of object preference is included in the image processing scheme and this concept is realized using a fuzzy-rule base. The blind users are trained with the stereo sound produced by NAVI for achieving a collision-free autonomous navigation.

  14. Fuzzy-Rule-Based Object Identification Methodology for NAVI System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R.; Sainarayanan, G.; Yaacob, Sazali; Porle, Rosalyn R.

    2005-12-01

    We present an object identification methodology applied in a navigation assistance for visually impaired (NAVI) system. The NAVI has a single board processing system (SBPS), a digital video camera mounted headgear, and a pair of stereo earphones. The captured image from the camera is processed by the SBPS to generate a specially structured stereo sound suitable for vision impaired people in understanding the presence of objects/obstacles in front of them. The image processing stage is designed to identify the objects in the captured image. Edge detection and edge-linking procedures are applied in the processing of image. A concept of object preference is included in the image processing scheme and this concept is realized using a fuzzy-rule base. The blind users are trained with the stereo sound produced by NAVI for achieving a collision-free autonomous navigation.

  15. Nanospintronics: when spintronics meets single electron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneor, Pierre; Bernand-Mantel, Anne; Petroff, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    As spintronics goes nano, new phenomena are predicted resulting from the interplay between spin dependent transport and single electron physics. The long term goal of manipulating spins one by one would open a promising path to quantum computing. Towards this end, there is an ever-growing effort to connect spin tanks (i.e. ferromagnetic leads) to smaller and smaller objects in order to study spintronics in reduced dimensions. As the dimensions are reduced, spin dependent transport is predicted to interplay with quantum and/or single electron charging effects. We review experiments and theories on the interplay between Coulomb blockade and spin properties (namely magneto-Coulomb effects) in structures where a single nano-object is connected to ferromagnetic leads. We then discuss briefly future directions in the emerging field of nanospintronics towards quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and single molecule magnets

  16. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  17. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  18. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  19. P3-22: Perception of Emotion on Object Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritaka Kouroki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that perceived animacy from object movement using simple figures (i.e., Heider & Simmel, 1944 American Journal of Psychology 57 243–259. Other studies using a single figure suggested that the complexity and animacy on the object movement operating change timing, change frequency, and acceleration increased the preference to the object (Matsuda et al., 2010 8th Congress of the Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology, showed that observers could estimate the common emotion from the simple object movement (Tomikawa & Oda, 2009 The Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers 33 1–4. The perception of emotion to the object movement might influence the increase of preference with perceiving animacy in Matsuda et al. (2010. This study examined the perception of the six basic emotions (Ekman & Freisen, 1975 Unmasking the Face on object movement using the paradigm in Matsuda et al. (2010. As a result, evaluation scores for “happiness” and “surprise” increased in a high frequency condition, and scores for “sad” increased in a low frequency condition. This result seemed to affect the increase of preference to the object with complex movement in Matsuda et al. (2010. Evaluation scores for the emotion needed for the subject to feel it—such as “anger”, “disgust”, and “fear”—were low for each condition. Also, in comparison with other emotions, evaluation scores for “surprise” were similar to the scores for animacy in Matsuda et al. (2010. This result seems to show that the perception of “surprise” contributed to the perception of animacy on a single object movement.

  20. Object feature extraction and recognition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Min; Xiang Rujian; Wan Yongxing

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of objects, especially flying objects, are analyzed, which include characteristics of spectrum, image and motion. Feature extraction is also achieved. To improve the speed of object recognition, a feature database is used to simplify the data in the source database. The feature vs. object relationship maps are stored in the feature database. An object recognition model based on the feature database is presented, and the way to achieve object recognition is also explained

  1. Subordinate-level object classification reexamined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, I; Subramaniam, S; Bar, M; Kalocsai, P; Fiser, J

    1999-01-01

    The classification of a table as round rather than square, a car as a Mazda rather than a Ford, a drill bit as 3/8-inch rather than 1/4-inch, and a face as Tom have all been regarded as a single process termed "subordinate classification." Despite the common label, the considerable heterogeneity of the perceptual processing required to achieve such classifications requires, minimally, a more detailed taxonomy. Perceptual information relevant to subordinate-level shape classifications can be presumed to vary on continua of (a) the type of distinctive information that is present, nonaccidental or metric, (b) the size of the relevant contours or surfaces, and (c) the similarity of the to-be-discriminated features, such as whether a straight contour has to be distinguished from a contour of low curvature versus high curvature. We consider three, relatively pure cases. Case 1 subordinates may be distinguished by a representation, a geon structural description (GSD), specifying a nonaccidental characterization of an object's large parts and the relations among these parts, such as a round table versus a square table. Case 2 subordinates are also distinguished by GSDs, except that the distinctive GSDs are present at a small scale in a complex object so the location and mapping of the GSDs are contingent on an initial basic-level classification, such as when we use a logo to distinguish various makes of cars. Expertise for Cases 1 and 2 can be easily achieved through specification, often verbal, of the GSDs. Case 3 subordinates, which have furnished much of the grist for theorizing with "view-based" template models, require fine metric discriminations. Cases 1 and 2 account for the overwhelming majority of shape-based basic- and subordinate-level object classifications that people can and do make in their everyday lives. These classifications are typically made quickly, accurately, and with only modest costs of viewpoint changes. Whereas the activation of an array of

  2. Sustainable Development of Lithuanian Seacoast Recreational Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Abromas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recreational architecture is a branch of architectural activity whose main object is formation of recreational spaces (territories, buildings, complexes and equipment. The goal of recreational architecture is to create optimal (comfortable, lovely and realizable environment for all recreation types and forms. This goal is realized by projects which are based on scientific research and recommendations. This activity needs more than casual work and living environment. It needs special space and equipment: territory, water area, buildings, and rooms. Everything can be called recreational environment. Recreational environment can be of various dimensional scales: enormous seaside or lake areas intended for recreation, resorts, recreational institution complexes and many single buildings, beaches, forest parks, pools. Recreational environment is possible not only out of town but in town as well. Beginning of recreational architecture is observed in antique cultures, but as a separate specific architectural activity branch it rapidly began to spread in last century first half and in Lithuania – in the last four decades. In this work, analysis of evaluating recreational architecture is made seeking to reveal recreational architecture evaluating criteria and their use .Article in Lithuanian

  3. Feature-fused SSD: fast detection for small objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guimei; Xie, Xuemei; Yang, Wenzhe; Liao, Quan; Shi, Guangming; Wu, Jinjian

    2018-04-01

    Small objects detection is a challenging task in computer vision due to its limited resolution and information. In order to solve this problem, the majority of existing methods sacrifice speed for improvement in accuracy. In this paper, we aim to detect small objects at a fast speed, using the best object detector Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD) with respect to accuracy-vs-speed trade-off as base architecture. We propose a multi-level feature fusion method for introducing contextual information in SSD, in order to improve the accuracy for small objects. In detailed fusion operation, we design two feature fusion modules, concatenation module and element-sum module, different in the way of adding contextual information. Experimental results show that these two fusion modules obtain higher mAP on PASCAL VOC2007 than baseline SSD by 1.6 and 1.7 points respectively, especially with 2-3 points improvement on some small objects categories. The testing speed of them is 43 and 40 FPS respectively, superior to the state of the art Deconvolutional single shot detector (DSSD) by 29.4 and 26.4 FPS.

  4. Layout design of user interface components with multiple objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-goal layout problem may be formulated as a Quadratic Assignment model, considering multiple goals (or factors, both qualitative and quantitative in the objective function. The facilities layout problem, in general, varies from the location and layout of facilities in manufacturing plant to the location and layout of textual and graphical user interface components in the human–computer interface. In this paper, we propose two alternate mathematical approaches to the single-objective layout model. The first one presents a multi-goal user interface component layout problem, considering the distance-weighted sum of congruent objectives of closeness relationships and the interactions. The second one considers the distance-weighted sum of congruent objectives of normalized weighted closeness relationships and normalized weighted interactions. The results of first approach are compared with that of an existing single objective model for example task under consideration. Then, the results of first approach and second approach of the proposed model are compared for the example task under consideration.

  5. Single atom oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiorkowski, P.; Walther, H.

    1990-01-01

    Modern methods of laser spectroscopy allow the study of single atoms or ions in an unperturbed environment. This has opened up interesting new experiments, among them the detailed study of radiation-atom coupling. In this paper, the following two experiments dealing with this problem are reviewed: the single-atom maser and the study of the resonance fluorescence of a single stored ion. The simplest and most fundamental system for studying radiation-matter coupling is a single two-level atom interacting with a single mode of an electromagnetic field in a cavity. This problem received a great deal of attention shortly after the maser was invented

  6. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  7. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  8. Investigation of nuclear power safety objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    It is a report of ground and concept of nuclear safety objects and future issues in Japan, which has investigated by the Committee of Experts on Investigation of Nuclear Safety Objects in the Nuclear Safety Research Association. The report consisted of member of committee, main conclusions and five chapters. The first chapter contains construction of safety objects and range of object, the second chapter qualitative safety objects, the third chapter quantitative safety objects, the forth subsiding objects and the fifth other items under consideration. The qualitative safety objects on individual and society, the quantitative one on effects on health and social cost, aspect of safety objects, relation between radiation protection and safety objects, practical objective values and earthquake are stated. (S.Y.)

  9. Automatic Discovery and Geotagging of Objects from Street View Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Krylov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many applications, such as autonomous navigation, urban planning, and asset monitoring, rely on the availability of accurate information about objects and their geolocations. In this paper, we propose the automatic detection and computation of the coordinates of recurring stationary objects of interest using street view imagery. Our processing pipeline relies on two fully convolutional neural networks: the first segments objects in the images, while the second estimates their distance from the camera. To geolocate all the detected objects coherently we propose a novel custom Markov random field model to estimate the objects’ geolocation. The novelty of the resulting pipeline is the combined use of monocular depth estimation and triangulation to enable automatic mapping of complex scenes with the simultaneous presence of multiple, visually similar objects of interest. We validate experimentally the effectiveness of our approach on two object classes: traffic lights and telegraph poles. The experiments report high object recall rates and position precision of approximately 2 m, which is approaching the precision of single-frequency GPS receivers.

  10. Eye movements during object recognition in visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Leek, E; Patterson, Candy; Paul, Matthew A; Rafal, Robert; Cristino, Filipe

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the first ever detailed study about eye movement patterns during single object recognition in visual agnosia. Eye movements were recorded in a patient with an integrative agnosic deficit during two recognition tasks: common object naming and novel object recognition memory. The patient showed normal directional biases in saccades and fixation dwell times in both tasks and was as likely as controls to fixate within object bounding contour regardless of recognition accuracy. In contrast, following initial saccades of similar amplitude to controls, the patient showed a bias for short saccades. In object naming, but not in recognition memory, the similarity of the spatial distributions of patient and control fixations was modulated by recognition accuracy. The study provides new evidence about how eye movements can be used to elucidate the functional impairments underlying object recognition deficits. We argue that the results reflect a breakdown in normal functional processes involved in the integration of shape information across object structure during the visual perception of shape. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cavlectometry: Towards holistic reconstruction of large mirror objects

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a method based on the deflectometry principle for the reconstruction of specular objects exhibiting significant size and geometric complexity. A key feature of our approach is the deployment of an Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) as pattern generator. To unfold the full power of this experimental setup, an optical encoding scheme is developed which accounts for the distinctive topology of the CAVE. Furthermore, we devise an algorithm for detecting the object of interest in raw deflectometric images. The segmented foreground is used for single-view reconstruction, the background for estimation of the camera pose, necessary for calibrating the sensor system. Experiments suggest a significant gain of coverage in single measurements compared to previous methods. © 2014 IEEE.

  12. Object Oriented Toolbox for Modelling and Simulation of Dynamical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin; Wagner, Falko Jens; Thomsen, Per Grove

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ongoing project, dealing with design and implementation of a simulation toolbox based on object oriented modelling techniques. The paper describes an experimental implementation of parts of such a toolbox in C++, and discusses the experiences drawn from that ...... that process. Essential to the work is the focus on simulation of complex dynamical systems, from modelling the single components/subsystems to building complete systemssuch a toolbox in C++, and discusses the experiences drawn from that process....

  13. Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) by precise object displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, Sebastien; Trausch, Gregory; Cordier, Benoit; Grandclaude, Denis; Retournard, Alain; Fraissard, Jacques; Canet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A mechanical device (NMR lift) has been built for displacing vertically an object (typically a NMR sample tube) inside the NMR probe with an accuracy of 1 Μm. A series of single pulse experiments are performed for incremented vertical positions of the sample. With a sufficiently spatially selective rf field, one obtains chemical shift information along the displacement direction (one dimensional Chemical Shift Imaging – CSI). Knowing the vertical radio-frequency (rf) f...

  14. Object-based connectedness facilitates matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.R.; Lier, R.J. van

    2003-01-01

    In two matching tasks, participants had to match two images of object pairs. Image-based (113) connectedness refers to connectedness between the objects in an image. Object-based (OB) connectedness refers to connectedness between the interpreted objects. In Experiment 1, a monocular depth cue

  15. Locating Objects in Wide-Area Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M. van; Hauck, F.J.; Homburg, P.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    Locating mobile objects in a worldwide system requires a scalable location service. An object can be a telephone or a notebook computer, but also a software or data object, such as a file or an electronic document. Our service strictly separates an object's name from the addresses where it can be

  16. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  17. Accessing OSI Managed Objects from ANSAware

    OpenAIRE

    Genilloud, Guy; Gay, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism allowing an ODP compliant distributed system, ANSA, to access OSI network management objects as if they were ANSA objects. It defines a mapping from the OSI object model to the ANSA object model, and it specifies how an adapter implements this mapping.

  18. Single Cathode Ion Thruster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Objective is to design an electrostatic ion thruster that is more efficient, simpler, and lower cost than the current gridded ion thruster. Initial objective is to...

  19. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  20. Expanding the Operational Limits of the Single-Point Impedance Diagnostic for Internal Temperature Monitoring of Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinner, Neil S.; Love, Corey T.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Tuttle, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-point impedance diagnostic technique demonstrated for lithium-ion batteries • Correlation between imaginary impedance and internal temperature determined • Instantaneous monitoring of commercial lithium-ion battery internal temperature • Expanded temperature range from −10°C up to 95°C • Non-invasive method useful for practical temperature monitoring of commercial cells - Abstract: Instantaneous internal temperature monitoring of a commercial 18650 LiCoO 2 lithium-ion battery was performed using a single-point EIS measurement. A correlation between the imaginary impedance, –Z imag , and internal temperature at 300 Hz was developed that was independent of the battery’s state of charge. An Arrhenius-type dependence was applied, and the activation energy for SEI ionic conductivity was found to be 0.13 eV. Two separate temperature-time experiments were conducted with different sequences of temperature, and single-point impedance tests at 300 Hz were performed to validate the correlation. Limitations were observed with the upper temperature range (68°C < T < 95°C), and consequently a secondary, empirical fit was applied for this upper range to improve accuracy. Average differences between actual and fit temperatures decreased around 3-7°C for the upper range with the secondary correlation. The impedance response at this frequency corresponded to the anode/SEI layer, and the SEI is reported to be thermally stable up to around 100°C, at which point decomposition may occur leading to battery deactivation and/or total failure. It is therefore of great importance to be able to track internal battery temperatures up to this critical point of 100°C, and this work demonstrates an expansion of the single-point EIS diagnostic to these elevated temperatures

  1. Enumeration of connected Catalan objects by type

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoades, Brendon

    2010-01-01

    Noncrossing set partitions, nonnesting set partitions, Dyck paths, and rooted plane trees are four classes of Catalan objects which carry a notion of type. There exists a product formula which enumerates these objects according to type. We define a notion of `connectivity' for these objects and prove an analogous product formula which counts connected objects by type. Our proof of this product formula is combinatorial and bijective. We extend this to a product formula which counts objects wit...

  2. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different stru......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  3. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  4. Sequential sampling of visual objects during sustained attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong Jia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In a crowded visual scene, attention must be distributed efficiently and flexibly over time and space to accommodate different contexts. It is well established that selective attention enhances the corresponding neural responses, presumably implying that attention would persistently dwell on the task-relevant item. Meanwhile, recent studies, mostly in divided attentional contexts, suggest that attention does not remain stationary but samples objects alternately over time, suggesting a rhythmic view of attention. However, it remains unknown whether the dynamic mechanism essentially mediates attentional processes at a general level. Importantly, there is also a complete lack of direct neural evidence reflecting whether and how the brain rhythmically samples multiple visual objects during stimulus processing. To address these issues, in this study, we employed electroencephalography (EEG and a temporal response function (TRF approach, which can dissociate responses that exclusively represent a single object from the overall neuronal activity, to examine the spatiotemporal characteristics of attention in various attentional contexts. First, attention, which is characterized by inhibitory alpha-band (approximately 10 Hz activity in TRFs, switches between attended and unattended objects every approximately 200 ms, suggesting a sequential sampling even when attention is required to mostly stay on the attended object. Second, the attentional spatiotemporal pattern is modulated by the task context, such that alpha-mediated switching becomes increasingly prominent as the task requires a more uniform distribution of attention. Finally, the switching pattern correlates with attentional behavioral performance. Our work provides direct neural evidence supporting a generally central role of temporal organization mechanism in attention, such that multiple objects are sequentially sorted according to their priority in attentional contexts. The results suggest

  5. Attention as the 'glue' for object integration in parietal extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Groß, Julia; Keller, Ingo; Müller, Hermann J; Finke, Kathrin

    2018-04-01

    Patients with unilateral, parietal brain damage frequently show visual extinction, which manifests in a failure to identify contralesional stimuli when presented simultaneously with other, ipsilesional stimuli (but full awareness for single stimulus presentations). Extinction reflects an impairment of spatial selective attention, leaving basic preattentive processing unaffected. For instance, access to bilaterally grouped objects is usually spared in extinction, suggesting that grouping occurs at a stage preceding (in the patients: abnormally biased) spatial-attentional selection. Here, we reinvestigated this notion by comparing (largely between participants, but also within a single-case participant) conditions with objects that varied in their dominant direction of grouping: from the attended to the non-attended hemifield (data from Conci et al., 2009) versus from the non-attended to the attended hemifield (new data). We observe complete absence of extinction when shape completion extended from the attended hemifield. By contrast, extinction was not diminished when object groupings propagate from the unattended hemifield. Moreover, we found the individual severity of the attentional impairment (assessed by a standard "inattention" test) to be directly related to the degree of completion in the unattended hemifield. This pattern indicates that grouping can overcome visual extinction only when object integration departs from the attended visual field, implying, contrary to many previous accounts, that attention is crucial for grouping to be initiated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fast grasping of unknown objects using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Wisse, Martijn

    2017-09-01

    Fast grasping of unknown objects has crucial impact on the efficiency of robot manipulation especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. In order to accelerate grasping speed of unknown objects, principal component analysis is utilized to direct the grasping process. In particular, a single-view partial point cloud is constructed and grasp candidates are allocated along the principal axis. Force balance optimization is employed to analyze possible graspable areas. The obtained graspable area with the minimal resultant force is the best zone for the final grasping execution. It is shown that an unknown object can be more quickly grasped provided that the component analysis principle axis is determined using single-view partial point cloud. To cope with the grasp uncertainty, robot motion is assisted to obtain a new viewpoint. Virtual exploration and experimental tests are carried out to verify this fast gasping algorithm. Both simulation and experimental tests demonstrated excellent performances based on the results of grasping a series of unknown objects. To minimize the grasping uncertainty, the merits of the robot hardware with two 3D cameras can be utilized to suffice the partial point cloud. As a result of utilizing the robot hardware, the grasping reliance is highly enhanced. Therefore, this research demonstrates practical significance for increasing grasping speed and thus increasing robot efficiency under unpredictable environments.

  7. New neural-networks-based 3D object recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmaesumi, Purang; Jahed, M.

    1997-09-01

    Three-dimensional object recognition has always been one of the challenging fields in computer vision. In recent years, Ulman and Basri (1991) have proposed that this task can be done by using a database of 2-D views of the objects. The main problem in their proposed system is that the correspondent points should be known to interpolate the views. On the other hand, their system should have a supervisor to decide which class does the represented view belong to. In this paper, we propose a new momentum-Fourier descriptor that is invariant to scale, translation, and rotation. This descriptor provides the input feature vectors to our proposed system. By using the Dystal network, we show that the objects can be classified with over 95% precision. We have used this system to classify the objects like cube, cone, sphere, torus, and cylinder. Because of the nature of the Dystal network, this system reaches to its stable point by a single representation of the view to the system. This system can also classify the similar views to a single class (e.g., for the cube, the system generated 9 different classes for 50 different input views), which can be used to select an optimum database of training views. The system is also very flexible to the noise and deformed views.

  8. Farm Planning by Fuzzy Multi Objective Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Raei Jadidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In current study, Fuzzy Goal Programming (FGP model by considering a set of social and economic goals, was applied to optimal land allocation in Koshksaray district, Marand city, East Azarbaijan province, Iran. Farmer goals including total cultivable area, factor of production, production levels of various crops and total expected profit were considered fuzzily in establishment of the model. The goals were considered by 16 scenarios in the form of single objective, compound and priority structures. Results showed that, cost minimization in single objective and compound scenario is the best as compared with current conditions. In priority structure, scenario 10 with priorities of profit maximization, cost minimization, satisfying of production goals considering cost minimization and production goals, and scenario 13 with priorities of profit maximization, satisfying factor of production goals, cost minimization and fulfilling production goals, had minimum Euclidean Distance and satisfied the fuzzy objectives. Moreover, dry barley, irrigated and dry wheat and irrigated barely had maximum and minimum cultivated area, respectively. According to the findings, by reallocation of resources, farmers can achieve their better goals and objectives.

  9. Algorithm of resonance orders for the objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, YongGang; Zhang, JianXue

    2018-03-01

    In mechanical engineering, the object resonance phenomena often occur when the external incident wave frequency is close to object of the natural frequency. Object resonance phenomena get the maximum value when the external incident frequency is equal to object the natural frequency. Experiments found that resonance intension of the object is changed, different objects resonance phenomena present different characteristics of ladders. Based on object orders resonance characteristics, the calculation method of object orders resonance is put forward in the paper, and the application for the light and sound waves on the seven order resonance characteristics by people feel, the result error is less than 1%.Visible in this paper, the method has high accuracy and usability. The calculation method reveals that some object resonance occur present order characteristic only four types, namely the first-orders resonance characteristics, third-orders characteristics, five orders characteristic, and seven orders characteristic.

  10. Popularity and user diversity of online objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Hua; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Han, Jingti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The popularity has been widely used to describe the object property of online user-object bipartite networks regardless of the user characteristics. In this paper, we introduce a measurement namely user diversity to measure diversity of users who select or rate one type of objects by using the information entropy. We empirically calculate the user diversity of objects with specific degree for both MovieLens and Diggs data sets. The results indicate that more types of users select normal-degree objects than those who select large-degree and small-degree objects. Furthermore, small-degree objects are usually selected by large-degree users while large-degree objects are usually selected by small-degree users. Moreover, we define 15% objects of smallest degrees as unpopular objects and 10% ones of largest degrees as popular objects. The timestamp is introduced to help further analyze the evolution of user diversity of popular objects and unpopular objects. The dynamic analysis shows that as objects become popular gradually, they are more likely accepted by small-degree users but lose attention among the large-degree users.

  11. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloe, Rebecca; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2013-12-14

    Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action.

  12. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Results Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Conclusion Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action. PMID:24330638

  13. Reconciling change blindness with long-term memory for objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Katherine; Simons, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    How can we reconcile remarkably precise long-term memory for thousands of images with failures to detect changes to similar images? We explored whether people can use detailed, long-term memory to improve change detection performance. Subjects studied a set of images of objects and then performed recognition and change detection tasks with those images. Recognition memory performance exceeded change detection performance, even when a single familiar object in the postchange display consistently indicated the change location. In fact, participants were no better when a familiar object predicted the change location than when the displays consisted of unfamiliar objects. When given an explicit strategy to search for a familiar object as a way to improve performance on the change detection task, they performed no better than in a 6-alternative recognition memory task. Subjects only benefited from the presence of familiar objects in the change detection task when they had more time to view the prechange array before it switched. Once the cost to using the change detection information decreased, subjects made use of it in conjunction with memory to boost performance on the familiar-item change detection task. This suggests that even useful information will go unused if it is sufficiently difficult to extract.

  14. The Visual Object Tracking VOT2016 Challenge Results

    KAUST Repository

    Kristan, Matej; Leonardis, Aleš; Matas, Jiři; Felsberg, Michael; Pflugfelder, Roman; Čehovin, Luka; Vojí r̃, Tomá š; Hä ger, Gustav; Lukežič, Alan; Ferná ndez, Gustavo; Gupta, Abhinav; Petrosino, Alfredo; Memarmoghadam, Alireza; Garcia-Martin, Alvaro; Solí s Montero, André s; Vedaldi, Andrea; Robinson, Andreas; Ma, Andy J.; Varfolomieiev, Anton; Alatan, Aydin; Erdem, Aykut; Ghanem, Bernard; Liu, Bin; Han, Bohyung; Martinez, Brais; Chang, Chang-Ming; Xu, Changsheng; Sun, Chong; Kim, Daijin; Chen, Dapeng; Du, Dawei; Mishra, Deepak; Yeung, Dit-Yan; Gundogdu, Erhan; Erdem, Erkut; Khan, Fahad; Porikli, Fatih; Zhao, Fei; Bunyak, Filiz; Battistone, Francesco; Zhu, Gao; Roffo, Giorgio; Subrahmanyam, Gorthi R. K. Sai; Bastos, Guilherme; Seetharaman, Guna; Medeiros, Henry; Li, Hongdong; Qi, Honggang; Bischof, Horst; Possegger, Horst; Lu, Huchuan; Lee, Hyemin; Nam, Hyeonseob; Chang, Hyung Jin; Drummond, Isabela; Valmadre, Jack; Jeong, Jae-chan; Cho, Jae-il; Lee, Jae-Yeong; Zhu, Jianke; Feng, Jiayi; Gao, Jin; Choi, Jin Young; Xiao, Jingjing; Kim, Ji-Wan; Jeong, Jiyeoup; Henriques, Joã o F.; Lang, Jochen; Choi, Jongwon; Martinez, Jose M.; Xing, Junliang; Gao, Junyu; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Lebeda, Karel; Gao, Ke; Mikolajczyk, Krystian; Qin, Lei; Wang, Lijun; Wen, Longyin; Bertinetto, Luca; Rapuru, Madan Kumar; Poostchi, Mahdieh; Maresca, Mario; Danelljan, Martin; Mueller, Matthias; Zhang, Mengdan; Arens, Michael; Valstar, Michel; Tang, Ming; Baek, Mooyeol; Khan, Muhammad Haris; Wang, Naiyan; Fan, Nana; Al-Shakarji, Noor; Miksik, Ondrej; Akin, Osman; Moallem, Payman; Senna, Pedro; Torr, Philip H. S.; Yuen, Pong C.; Huang, Qingming; Martin-Nieto, Rafael; Pelapur, Rengarajan; Bowden, Richard; Laganiè re, Robert; Stolkin, Rustam; Walsh, Ryan; Krah, Sebastian B.; Li, Shengkun; Zhang, Shengping; Yao, Shizeng; Hadfield, Simon; Melzi, Simone; Lyu, Siwei; Li, Siyi; Becker, Stefan; Golodetz, Stuart; Kakanuru, Sumithra; Choi, Sunglok; Hu, Tao; Mauthner, Thomas; Zhang, Tianzhu; Pridmore, Tony; Santopietro, Vincenzo; Hu, Weiming; Li, Wenbo; Hü bner, Wolfgang; Lan, Xiangyuan; Wang, Xiaomeng; Li, Xin; Li, Yang; Demiris, Yiannis; Wang, Yifan; Qi, Yuankai; Yuan, Zejian; Cai, Zexiong; Xu, Zhan; He, Zhenyu; Chi, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2016 aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 70 trackers are presented, with a large number of trackers being published at major computer vision conferences and journals in the recent years. The number of tested state-of-the-art trackers makes the VOT 2016 the largest and most challenging benchmark on short-term tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description is provided in the Appendix. The VOT2016 goes beyond its predecessors by (i) introducing a new semi-automatic ground truth bounding box annotation methodology and (ii) extending the evaluation system with the no-reset experiment. The dataset, the evaluation kit as well as the results are publicly available at the challenge website (http://votchallenge.net).

  15. The Visual Object Tracking VOT2015 Challenge Results

    KAUST Repository

    Kristan, Matej; Matas, Jiri; Leonardis, Ale; Felsberg, Michael; Cehovin, Luka; Fernandez, Gustavo; Vojir, Toma; Hager, Gustav; Nebehay, Georg; Pflugfelder, Roman; Gupta, Abhinav; Bibi, Adel Aamer; Lukezic, Alan; Garcia-Martin, Alvaro; Saffari, Amir; Petrosino, Alfredo; Montero, Andres Solıs; Varfolomieiev, Anton; Baskurt, Atilla; Zhao, Baojun; Ghanem, Bernard; Martinez, Brais; Lee, ByeongJu; Han, Bohyung; Wang, Chaohui; Garcia, Christophe; Zhang, Chunyuan; Schmid, Cordelia; Tao, Dacheng; Kim, Daijin; Huang, Dafei; Prokhorov, Danil; Du, Dawei; Yeung, Dit-Yan; Ribeiro, Eraldo; Khan, Fahad Shahbaz; Porikli, Fatih; Bunyak, Filiz; Zhu, Gao; Seetharaman, Guna; Kieritz, Hilke; Yau, Hing Tuen; Li, Hongdong; Qi, Honggang; Bischof, Horst; Possegger, Horst; Lee, Hyemin; Nam, Hyeonseob; Bogun, Ivan; Jeong, Jae-chan; Cho, Jae-il; Lee, Jae-Yeong; Zhu, Jianke; Shi, Jianping; Li, Jiatong; Jia, Jiaya; Feng, Jiayi; Gao, Jin; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Ji-Wan; Lang, Jochen; Martinez, Jose M.; Choi, Jongwon; Xing, Junliang; Xue, Kai; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Lebeda, Karel; Alahari, Karteek; Gao, Ke; Yun, Kimin; Wong, Kin Hong; Luo, Lei; Ma, Liang; Ke, Lipeng; Wen, Longyin; Bertinetto, Luca; Pootschi, Mahdieh; Maresca, Mario; Danelljan, Martin; Wen, Mei; Zhang, Mengdan; Arens, Michael; Valstar, Michel; Tang, Ming; Chang, Ming-Ching; Khan, Muhammad Haris; Fan, Nana; Wang, Naiyan; Miksik, Ondrej; Torr, Philip H S; Wang, Qiang; Martin-Nieto, Rafael; Pelapur, Rengarajan; Bowden, Richard; Laganiere, Robert; Moujtahid, Salma; Hare, Sam; Hadfield, Simon; Lyu, Siwei; Li, Siyi; Zhu, Song-Chun; Becker, Stefan; Duffner, Stefan; Hicks, Stephen L; Golodetz, Stuart; Choi, Sunglok; Wu, Tianfu; Mauthner, Thomas; Pridmore, Tony; Hu, Weiming; Hubner, Wolfgang; Wang, Xiaomeng; Li, Xin; Shi, Xinchu; Zhao, Xu; Mei, Xue; Shizeng, Yao; Hua, Yang; Li, Yang; Lu, Yang; Li, Yuezun; Chen, Zhaoyun; Huang, Zehua; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Zhe; He, Zhenyu; Hong, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    The Visual Object Tracking challenge 2015, VOT2015, aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 62 trackers are presented. The number of tested trackers makes VOT 2015 the largest benchmark on short-term tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description is provided in the appendix. Features of the VOT2015 challenge that go beyond its VOT2014 predecessor are: (i) a new VOT2015 dataset twice as large as in VOT2014 with full annotation of targets by rotated bounding boxes and per-frame attribute, (ii) extensions of the VOT2014 evaluation methodology by introduction of a new performance measure. The dataset, the evaluation kit as well as the results are publicly available at the challenge website.

  16. The Visual Object Tracking VOT2016 Challenge Results

    KAUST Repository

    Kristan, Matej

    2016-11-02

    The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2016 aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 70 trackers are presented, with a large number of trackers being published at major computer vision conferences and journals in the recent years. The number of tested state-of-the-art trackers makes the VOT 2016 the largest and most challenging benchmark on short-term tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description is provided in the Appendix. The VOT2016 goes beyond its predecessors by (i) introducing a new semi-automatic ground truth bounding box annotation methodology and (ii) extending the evaluation system with the no-reset experiment. The dataset, the evaluation kit as well as the results are publicly available at the challenge website (http://votchallenge.net).

  17. Imaging of Phase Objects using Partially Coherent Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravizza, F. L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Screening high-power laser optics for light intensifying phase objects that cause laserinduced damage on downstream optics is critical to sustaining laser operation. Identifying such flaws on large-apertures is quite challenging since they are relatively small and invisible to conventional inspection methods. A Linescan Phase Differential Imaging (LPDI) system was developed to rapidly identify these flaws on large-aperture optics within a single full-aperture dark-field image. We describe a two-step production phase object screening process consisting of LPDI mapping and image analysis, followed by high-resolution interferometry and propagation based evaluation of the downstream damage potential of identified flaws. An image simulation code capable of modeling the LPDI partially coherent illumination was used to optimize its phase object sensitivity.

  18. The Visual Object Tracking VOT2015 Challenge Results

    KAUST Repository

    Kristan, Matej

    2015-12-07

    The Visual Object Tracking challenge 2015, VOT2015, aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 62 trackers are presented. The number of tested trackers makes VOT 2015 the largest benchmark on short-term tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description is provided in the appendix. Features of the VOT2015 challenge that go beyond its VOT2014 predecessor are: (i) a new VOT2015 dataset twice as large as in VOT2014 with full annotation of targets by rotated bounding boxes and per-frame attribute, (ii) extensions of the VOT2014 evaluation methodology by introduction of a new performance measure. The dataset, the evaluation kit as well as the results are publicly available at the challenge website.

  19. EC nuclear: toward the single market 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, L.V.

    1991-01-01

    The setting-up of a single market has long been an objective (Euratom Treaty). One of the Commission's (CEC) concerns will be to ensure that safety requirements are met in the worldwide trend in standardization of components. Cost advantages (manufacture, operation and maintenance) and improved safety are gained from standardization, and are important in a slack market

  20. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. Module 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on parts of the machine, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains eight sections. Each section contains the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

  1. A new method for solving single and multi-objective fuzzy minimum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in internet transmission (Liu & Kao 2004) petroleum industry (Ghatee ... A number has been proposed for the ranking of fuzzy numbers. ...... Chanas S and Kuchta D 1998 Fuzzy integer transportation problem. Fuzzy ... Model 32: 1289–1297.

  2. An Improved Marriage in Honey Bees Optimization Algorithm for Single Objective Unconstrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Celik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marriage in honey bees optimization (MBO is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm developed by inspiration of the mating and fertilization process of honey bees and is a kind of swarm intelligence optimizations. In this study we propose improved marriage in honey bees optimization (IMBO by adding Levy flight algorithm for queen mating flight and neighboring for worker drone improving. The IMBO algorithm’s performance and its success are tested on the well-known six unconstrained test functions and compared with other metaheuristic optimization algorithms.

  3. Particle Swarm Optimization for Single Objective Continuous Space Problems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonyadi, Mohammad Reza; Michalewicz, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The review has been focused on high impact recent articles that have analyzed and/or modified PSO algorithms. This paper also presents some potential areas for future study.

  4. From tomography to full-waveform inversion with a single objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Choi, Yun Seok

    2014-01-01

    compared to conventional phase representation. With a strong Laplace damping of the modeled, potentially low-frequency, data along the time axis, this attribute admitted a first-arrival traveltime that could be compared with picked ones from the observed

  5. Collisions Between Single Stars in Dense Clusters: Runaway Formation of a Massive Object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitag, M.; Gürkan, M.A.; Rasio, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo codes, we follow the collisional evolution of clusters in a variety of scenarios. We consider the conditions under which a cluster of main-sequence stars may undergo rapid core collapse due to mass segregation, thus entering a phase of runaway collisions, forming a very massive

  6. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  7. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  8. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  9. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  10. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  11. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  12. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  13. Compact objects in relativistic theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada da Silva, Hector

    2017-05-01

    In this dissertation we discuss several aspects of compact objects, i.e. neutron stars and black holes, in relativistic theories of gravity. We start by studying the role of nuclear physics (encoded in the so-called equation of state) in determining the properties of neutron stars in general relativity. We show that low-mass neutron stars are potentially useful astrophysical laboratories that can be used to constrain the properties of the equation of state. More specifically, we show that various bulk properties of these objects, such as their quadrupole moment and tidal deformability, are tightly correlated. Next, we develop a formalism that aims to capture how generic modifications from general relativity affect the structure of neutron stars, as predicted by a broad class of gravity theories, in the spirit of the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism (PPN). Our "post-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff" formalism provides a toolbox to study both stellar structure and the interior/exterior geometries of static, spherically symmetric relativistic stars. We also apply the formalism to parametrize deviations from general relativity in various astrophysical observables related with neutron stars, including surface redshift, apparent radius, Eddington luminosity. We then turn our attention to what is arguably the most well-motivated and well-investigated generalization of general relativity: scalar-tensor theory. We start by considering theories where gravity is mediated by a single extra scalar degree of freedom (in addition to the metric tensor). An interesting class of scalar-tensor theories passes all experimental tests in the weak-field regime of gravity, yet considerably deviates from general relativity in the strong-field regime in the presence of matter. A common assumption in modeling neutron stars is that the pressure within these object is spatially isotropic. We relax this assumption and examine how pressure anisotropy affects the mass, radius and moment of inertia

  14. Empirical study on mutual fund objective classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue-jun; Yang, Xiao-lan

    2004-05-01

    Mutual funds are usually classified on the basis of their objectives. If the activities of mutual funds are consistent with their stated objectives, investors may look at the latter as signals of their risks and incomes. This work analyzes mutual fund objective classification in China by statistical methods of distance analysis and discriminant analysis; and examines whether the stated investment objectives of mutual funds adequately represent their attributes to investors. That is, if mutual funds adhere to their stated objectives, attributes must be heterogeneous between investment objective groups and homogeneous within them. Our conclusion is to some degree, the group of optimized exponential funds is heterogeneous to other groups. As a whole, there exist no significant differences between different objective groups; and 50% of mutual funds are not consistent with their objective groups.

  15. Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan; Task, H. L

    2000-01-01

    ...: interpupillary distance, tilt, eye relief, height, eyepiece and objective lens focus. Currently, aircrew use a Hoffman 20/20 test unit to pre-focus their NVG objective lenses at optical infinity before boarding their aircraft...

  16. Magnetic De-spinning of Space Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Objects in orbit about the earth rotate such that a service spacecraft cannot grapple to them. There are few techniques available to despin a space object without...

  17. Unrewarded Object Combinations in Captive Parrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Marie Isabel Auersperg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In primates, complex object combinations during play are often regarded as precursors of functional behavior. Here we investigate combinatory behaviors during unrewarded object manipulation in seven parrot species, including kea, African grey parrots and Goffin cockatoos, three species previously used as model species for technical problem solving. We further examine a habitually tool using species, the black palm cockatoo. Moreover, we incorporate three neotropical species, the yellow- and the black-billed Amazon and the burrowing parakeet. Paralleling previous studies on primates and corvids, free object-object combinations and complex object-substrate combinations such as inserting objects into tubes/holes or stacking rings onto poles prevailed in the species previously linked to advanced physical cognition and tool use. In addition, free object-object combinations were intrinsically structured in Goffin cockatoos and in kea.

  18. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  19. San Jacinto Tries Management by Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William

    1974-01-01

    San Jacinto, California, has adopted a measurable institutional objectives approach to management by objectives. Results reflect, not only improved cost effectiveness of community college education, but also more effective educational programs for students. (Author/WM)

  20. From learning objects to learning activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses and questions the current metadata standards for learning objects from a pedagogical point of view. From a social constructivist approach, the paper discusses how learning objects can support problem based, self-governed learning activities. In order to support this approach......, it is argued that it is necessary to focus on learning activities rather than on learning objects. Further, it is argued that descriptions of learning objectives and learning activities should be separated from learning objects. The paper presents a new conception of learning objects which supports problem...... based, self-governed activities. Further, a new way of thinking pedagogy into learning objects is introduced. It is argued that a lack of pedagogical thinking in learning objects is not solved through pedagogical metadata. Instead, the paper suggests the concept of references as an alternative...

  1. Applying Fuzzy Possibilistic Methods on Critical Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Choros, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    Providing a flexible environment to process data objects is a desirable goal of machine learning algorithms. In fuzzy and possibilistic methods, the relevance of data objects is evaluated and a membership degree is assigned. However, some critical objects objects have the potential ability to affect...... the performance of the clustering algorithms if they remain in a specific cluster or they are moved into another. In this paper we analyze and compare how critical objects affect the behaviour of fuzzy possibilistic methods in several data sets. The comparison is based on the accuracy and ability of learning...... methods to provide a proper searching space for data objects. The membership functions used by each method when dealing with critical objects is also evaluated. Our results show that relaxing the conditions of participation for data objects in as many partitions as they can, is beneficial....

  2. Multidisciplinary Optimization Object Library, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a library of Common MDO Objects is proposed, in which the software objects will automate a variety of recurring problems in the development of MDO...

  3. Multidisciplinary Optimization Object Library, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a library of Common MDO Objects is proposed, in which the software objects will automate a variety of recurring problems in the development of MDO...

  4. Anticorrosional protection in nuclear power station objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnocki, A.; Kwiatkowski, A.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution and qualities of chemical protection and demands concerning preparation of the bottom for protecting coats in nuclear power station objects are discussed. The solutions of protections applied abroad and in the objects of ''MARIA'' reactor are presented. (author)

  5. Export pricing objectives and factors influencing them

    OpenAIRE

    Snieškienė, Gabrielė; Pridotkienė, Jūratė

    2010-01-01

    Pricing is recognized as one of the most important tools to achieve a successful export operation. The starting point in every pricing effort is the process of creating pricing objectives. Pricing objectives are the strategic and economic goals desired by management in pricing the product. Pricing objectives constitute the basis on which pricing methods and policies are formulated. Therefore, a better understanding of the pricing objectives should direct the company’s overall pricing process....

  6. Creation of 'Ukrytie' objects computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, A.B.; Kotlyarov, V.T.; Ermolenko, A.I.; Podbereznyj, S.S.; Postil, S.D.; Shaptala, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    A partial computer model of the 'Ukrytie' object was created with the use of geoinformation technologies. The computer model makes it possible to carry out information support of the works related to the 'Ukrytie' object stabilization and its conversion into ecologically safe system for analyzing, forecasting and controlling the processes occurring in the 'Ukrytie' object. Elements and structures of the 'Ukryttia' object were designed and input into the model

  7. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  8. Hawk: A Runtime System for Partitioned Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Hassen, S.; Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Hawk is a language-independent runtime system for writing data-parallel programs using partitioned objects. A partitioned object is a multidimensional array of elements that can be partitioned and distributed by the programmer. The Hawk runtime system uses the user-defined partitioning of objects

  9. Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

  10. Approximating multi-objective scheduling problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabia, S.; Talbi, El-Ghazali; Woensel, van T.; Kok, de A.G.

    2013-01-01

    In many practical situations, decisions are multi-objective by nature. In this paper, we propose a generic approach to deal with multi-objective scheduling problems (MOSPs). The aim is to determine the set of Pareto solutions that represent the interactions between the different objectives. Due to

  11. 7 CFR 3560.602 - Program objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.602 Program objectives. In addition to the objectives stated in § 3560.52, on-farm labor housing funds will be used to... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program objectives. 3560.602 Section 3560.602...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.552 - Program objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.552 Program objectives. (a) In addition to the objectives stated in § 3560.52, off-farm labor housing loan and grant funds... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program objectives. 3560.552 Section 3560.552...

  13. Preparing Instructional Objectives: Agony or Ecstasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…

  14. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  15. 32 CFR 634.5 - Program objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program objectives. 634.5 Section 634.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Introduction § 634.5 Program objectives. (a) The objectives of motor vehicle traffic...

  16. 23 CFR 657.7 - Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Objective. 657.7 Section 657.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF SIZE AND WEIGHT ENFORCEMENT § 657.7 Objective. The objective of this regulation is the development and operation by each State...

  17. 7 CFR 2903.7 - Project objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.7 Project objectives. (a) Successful... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project objectives. 2903.7 Section 2903.7 Agriculture... following objectives: (1) Enhance current efforts to collect and disseminate biodiesel information; (2...

  18. Feature-Oriented Programming with Object Algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C.d.S. Oliveira (Bruno); T. van der Storm (Tijs); A. Loh; W.R. Cook

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractObject algebras are a new programming technique that enables a simple solution to basic extensibility and modularity issues in programming languages. While object algebras excel at defining modular features, the composition mechanisms for object algebras (and features) are still

  19. Multiple Object Permanence Tracking: Maintenance, Retrieval and Transformation of Dynamic Object Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Saiki, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Multiple object permanence tracking (MOPT) task revealed that our ability of maintaining and transforming multiple representations of complex feature-bound objects is limited to handle only 1-2 objects. Often reported capacity of 3-5 objects likely reflects memory for partial representations of objects and simple cases such as just color and their locations. Also, performance in multiple object tracking (MOT) task is likely mediated by spatiotemporal indices, not by feature-bound object repre...

  20. Single-Arc IMRT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, Thomas; Webb, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The idea of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator in a continuous dynamic mode during a single rotation of the gantry has recently gained momentum both in research and industry. In this note we investigate the potential of this Single-Arc IMRT technique at a conceptual level. We consider the original theoretical example case from Brahme et al that got the field of IMRT started. Using analytical methods, we derive deliverable intensity 'landscapes' for Single-Arc as well as standard IMRT and Tomotherapy. We find that Tomotherapy provides the greatest flexibility in shaping intensity landscapes and that it allows one to deliver IMRT in a way that comes close to the ideal case in the transverse plane. Single-Arc and standard IMRT make compromises in different areas. Only in relatively simple cases that do not require substantial intensity modulation will Single-Arc be dosimetrically comparable to Tomotherapy. Compared with standard IMRT, Single-Arc could be dosimetrically superior in certain cases if one is willing to accept the spreading of low dose values over large volumes of normal tissue. In terms of treatment planning, Single-Arc poses a more challenging optimization problem than Tomotherapy or standard IMRT. We conclude that Single-Arc holds potential as an efficient IMRT technique especially for relatively simple cases. In very complex cases, Single-Arc may unduly compromise the quality of the dose distribution, if one tries to keep the treatment time below 2 min or so. As with all IMRT techniques, it is important to explore the tradeoff between plan quality and the efficiency of its delivery carefully for each individual case. (note)