Sample records for yushchenko discuss energy

  1. Adamkus, Yushchenko discuss energy cooperation / Kimberly Kweder

    Kweder, Kimberly


    Leedu president Valdas Adamkus ja Ukraina president Viktor Jushtshenko kohtusid Krimmis. Peateemaks olid energiaküsimused. Ukraina plaanib ehitada energiakoridori, mis ühendaks Kaspia merd ja Euroopat. Ukraina võib liituda tuumaelektrijaama projektiga Leedus

  2. Adamkus, Yushchenko discuss energy cooperation / Kimberly Kweder

    Kweder, Kimberly


    Leedu president Valdas Adamkus ja Ukraina president Viktor Jushtshenko kohtusid Krimmis. Peateemaks olid energiaküsimused. Ukraina plaanib ehitada energiakoridori, mis ühendaks Kaspia merd ja Euroopat. Ukraina võib liituda tuumaelektrijaama projektiga Leedus

  3. Public Energy Education: Issues for Discussion. Draft.

    Public Energy Education Task Force.

    This paper was intended to stimulate discussion of energy education issues at a conference on energy issues. The discussion ranges through numerous topics at issue in energy education including public energy awareness, definition of public education, the distinction between public education and public relations, and the presentation of a model…

  4. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    Vihriaelae, H. [ed.


    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference `95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  5. discussions

    Alex S. Poznyak


    Full Text Available This paper develops a version of Robust Stochastic Maximum Principle (RSMP applied to the Minimax Mayer Problem formulated for stochastic differential equations with the control-dependent diffusion term. The parametric families of first and second order adjoint stochastic processes are introduced to construct the corresponding Hamiltonian formalism. The Hamiltonian function used for the construction of the robust optimal control is shown to be equal to the Lebesque integral over a parametric set of the standard stochastic Hamiltonians corresponding to a fixed value of the uncertain parameter. The paper deals with a cost function given at finite horizon and containing the mathematical expectation of a terminal term. A terminal condition, covered by a vector function, is also considered. The optimal control strategies, adapted for available information, for the wide class of uncertain systems given by an stochastic differential equation with unknown parameters from a given compact set, are constructed. This problem belongs to the class of minimax stochastic optimization problems. The proof is based on the recent results obtained for Minimax Mayer Problem with a finite uncertainty set [14,43-45] as well as on the variation results of [53] derived for Stochastic Maximum Principle for nonlinear stochastic systems under complete information. The corresponding discussion of the obtain results concludes this study.

  6. Alternative energies. The bottom line in the discussion on energy; Alternative Energien. Eine Bestandsaufnahme zur Energiediskussion

    Freilaender, R. [Freilaender und Partner Beratende Ingenieure VBI, Mannheim (Germany)


    The topical discussion on problems of the security of energy supply since the first oil crisis in 1973 has meanwhile been replaced by apprehensions in connection with growing carbon dioxide pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels such as wood, coal, natural oil and natural gas. Under the catchword of the ``climate catastrophe``, the increase in atmospheric pollutants and the associated greenhouse effect have become the object of world-wide conferences and declarations of intent for cutting down pollutant emissions. Hopes are pinned on alternative and renewable energies. The article informs on the current state of matters. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Die seit der 1. Oelkrise 1973 aktuelle Diskussion um die Probleme einer sicheren Energieversorgung ist inzwischen von der Sorge um die steigende CO{sub 2}-Belastung bei der Verbrennung fossiler Brennstoffe wie Holz, Kohle, Erdoel und -gas verdraengt worden. Die Zunahme von Schadstoffen in der Atmosphaere und der damit verbundene Treibhauseffekt ist unter dem Schlagwort `Klimakatastrophe` Gegenstand weltweiter Konferenzen und Absichtserklaerungen zur Senkung der Schadstoffemissionen. Alternative und regenerative Energien gelten als Hoffnungstraeger. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen allgemeinen Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Dinge. (orig./RHM)

  7. The United States and World Energy: A Discussion Paper, Department of State.

    Smith, Ralph Stuart

    This publication is a summary of the world energy situation and its impact on the United States. A brief review of some interrelated diplomatic, commercial, and technical aspects of the energy crisis and their implications for the U.S. and its foreign policy is presented first. Next, discussions of world supplies, uses and problems with different…

  8. Estimating the Benefits of Government-Sponsored Energy R&D: Synthesis of Conference Discussions

    Lee, R.


    In 2001, a National Research Council (NRC) committee conducted a retrospective study of the benefits of some of the energy efficiency and fossil energy programs in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As part of its study, the NRC committee developed a methodological framework for estimating these benefits. Following the NRC report, a conference was organized by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to discuss ways of adapting and refining the NRC framework for possible use by DOE offices to help plan and manage their R&D. This report is a synthesis of the discussions at the conference.

  9. The need and necessity of an EU-wide renewable energy target for 2030. Discussion paper

    De Vos, R.; Winkel, T.; Klessmann, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    In 2020, some leading EU energy and climate policies will expire. At present, the EU and its Member States are discussing the design of a post-2020 policy portfolio. In a discussion paper commissioned by the European Copper Institute, Ecofys shows that an EU-wide renewable energy target is a necessary part of a 2030 portfolio. The paper analyses, in detail, two realistic policy portfolio options for renewable energy, target-setting in particular: one 'decarbonisation-only' EU target with voluntary national targets for renewable energy, and one that includes an EU-wide renewable energy target, broken down into binding national targets. The analysis shows that the latter option, when supported by appropriate and improved EU and Member States' policies and measures, is most suitable in facilitating a European low-carbon economy.

  10. The need and necessity of an EU-wide renewable energy target for 2030. Discussion paper

    De Vos, R.; Winkel, T.; Klessmann, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    In 2020, some leading EU energy and climate policies will expire. At present, the EU and its Member States are discussing the design of a post-2020 policy portfolio. In a discussion paper commissioned by the European Copper Institute, Ecofys shows that an EU-wide renewable energy target is a necessary part of a 2030 portfolio. The paper analyses, in detail, two realistic policy portfolio options for renewable energy, target-setting in particular: one 'decarbonisation-only' EU target with voluntary national targets for renewable energy, and one that includes an EU-wide renewable energy target, broken down into binding national targets. The analysis shows that the latter option, when supported by appropriate and improved EU and Member States' policies and measures, is most suitable in facilitating a European low-carbon economy.

  11. Intermittent energy restriction in type 2 diabetes: A short discussion of medication management

    Carter, Sharayah; Peter M. Clifton; Keogh, Jennifer B.


    AIM To discuss type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication changes required during the popular 5:2 intermittent energy restriction (IER) diet. METHODS A search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and Cochrane library for original research articles investigating the use of very low calorie diets (VLCD) in people with T2DM. The search terms used included “VLCD” or “very low energy diet” or “very low energy restriction” or “IER” or “intermittent fasting” or “calorie restriction” or “di...

  12. Discussion on the Energy Conservation across a Sharp Gradient Junction in SPACE-CAP Code

    Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Kim, Min Gi; Lee, Byung Chul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    SPACE code for RCS (Reactor Coolant System) analysis and CAP code for containment analysis are now under V and V (Validation and Verification). CAP code has undergone or will undergo so many test problems for following categories: 1) Fundamental phenomena. 2) Principle phenomena (mixing and transport) and components in containment. 3) Demonstration test by small, middle, large facilities and International Standard Problems. 4) Comparison with other containment codes such as GOTHIC or COMTEMPT. CAP V and V is now in the category 3 above. Most important demand for CAP code at this time is the capability of containment pressure and temperature analysis. Thus, the V and V for thermodynamics problems and energy conservation is extremely important. Energy conservation should be at times carefully examined in case of sharp gradient across a junction when the form of energy equation is based on the specific internal energy. This paper discusses on the energy conservation across a sharp gradient junction

  13. How to be smart and energy efficient: a general discussion on thermochromic windows.

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong


    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being "opaque" to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a "smart" window behave? Is a "smart" window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided.

  14. Validating Intelligent Power and Energy Systems { A Discussion of Educational Needs

    Kotsampopoulos, P.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Strasser, T. I.


    Traditional power systems education and training is flanked by the demand for coping with the rising complexity of energy systems, like the integration of renewable and distributed generation, communication, control and information technology. A broad understanding of these topics by the current....../future researchers and engineers is becoming more and more necessary. This paper identifies educational and training needs addressing the higher complexity of intelligent energy systems. Education needs and requirements are discussed, such as the development of systems-oriented skills and cross-disciplinary learning...

  15. Discussion on the geometric factor in the detection of high energy electrons in geospace


    High energy electron is a kind of sources to be detected in the geospace environment. Generally, the particle telescope with much thick semiconductor detector is used as the sensor for energetic electrons because they can penetrate deeply into the detector. The more energy of the electrons is, the deeper they can penetrate into, so that the geometric factor varies with energy of the incident electrons. We discuss the geometric factor of particle radiation detector (PRD), which is a payload on ZY-1 (CBERS-1 and CBERS-2) satellites to monitor the high energy particle radiation inside the satellites. According to the NASA's AE8 model, the geometric factors of electrons for the low energy bin (0.5-1.0 MeV) and the high energy bin (> 2.0 MeV) are 2.468 and 1.736 cm2·sr, respectively. These results are much different from the traditional calculation of the geometric factor that is 1.18 cm2·sr. The angle-response function of the telescope is also derived, which can be useful for design of the telescope and analysis of the directional distribution.

  16. Discussion on the geometric factor in the detection of high energy electrons in geospace


    High energy electron is a kind of sources to be detected in the geospace environ- ment. Generally, the particle telescope with much thick semiconductor detector is used as the sensor for energetic electrons because they can penetrate deeply into the detector. The more energy of the electrons is, the deeper they can penetrate into, so that the geometric factor varies with energy of the incident electrons. We discuss the geometric factor of particle radiation detector (PRD), which is a payload on ZY-1 (CBERS-1 and CBERS-2) satellites to monitor the high energy particle ra- diation inside the satellites. According to the NASA’s AE8 model, the geometric factors of electrons for the low energy bin (0.5―1.0 MeV) and the high energy bin (> 2.0 MeV) are 2.468 and 1.736 cm2·sr, respectively. These results are much differ- ent from the traditional calculation of the geometric factor that is 1.18 cm2·sr. The angle-response function of the telescope is also derived, which can be useful for design of the telescope and analysis of the directional distribution.

  17. Contribution to the european discussion on the energy strategy; Contribution au debat europeen sur la strategie energetique

    Revol, H.; Valade, J


    If no change occurs, the European Union will cover in 2020, 70% of its energy need by importation, for 50% today. This situation leads to a discussion on the energy dependence. In this context the European Commission provoked a discussion by publishing a ''green book'' on the european strategy concerning the energy supply. This document presents the point of view of the Senate Energy Study Group. (A.L.B.)

  18. BES-HEP Connections: Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics, Round Table Discussion

    Fradkin, Eduardo [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chatterjee, Lali [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of High Energy Physics; Davenport, James W [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of Basic Energy Sciences


    On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.

  19. Summary report of technical discussion, NASA-ERDA solar energy proposal


    The impact of the reduced energy requirements and cooling loads of solar collectors is assessed. Energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption have been implemented. It is indicated that solar chemical dehumidification was more efficient than solar absorption.

  20. Discussion on the Assessment Method of Wind Energy Resources by Using Regional Meteorological Data


    The exploitation status of wind energy resources was analyzed, and the distribution of wind energy resources and regional meteorological stations were introduced, and then the assessment method of wind energy resources by using data from regional meteorological station was studied taking Huangjin Regional Meteorological Station in Xinning County in Hunan Province for example, besides, corresponding software was compiled. By means of SQL database and program, the method was used simply and easily and had pos...

  1. A Discussion on the Policy of R&D Stock for China's Energy Technology


    The constraints of energy supply have been a long-term threat to the sustainable development of China.Technological progress and innovation are essential to helping solve this problem. Research and development (R&D)stock plays a key role in technological progress and innovation. Through comparisons with some other countries, it is found that China has fallen behind in the R&D stock for energy technology. The R&D stock can be improved by two means: one is putting capital and human resources in those strategically key fields; the other is taking advantage of the R&D resources from abroad. The strategically key fields include energy saving techniques, energy materials, the manufacture of key equipment and new energy resources.

  2. Discussion on building energy conservation%小议建筑节能



    In light of the contradict of social development and energy shortage, the paper explores the identification of building energy conservation and relevant technological measures, and mainly describes the energy-saving methods of wall, roof, door and window and utilization of new materials and new resources, with a view to promote domestic building industry to reduce and save energy and to realize sustainable development.%针对社会发展与能源短缺这一矛盾,探讨了建筑节能的概念及相关技术措施,着重阐述了墙体、屋面、门窗等不同部位的节能方法及新材料,新能源的利用,以促进国内建筑降耗节能,实现可持续发展。

  3. EAF Gas Waste Heat Utilization and Discussion of the Energy Conservation and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Yang, Ling-zhi; Zhu, Rong; Ma, Guo-hong


    As a large number of energy was taken away by the high temperature furnace gas during the EAF smelting process, a huge economic and environmental benefits would obtained to recycle and utilize. In this paper, the energy of the EAF was analyzed theoretically with the hot metal ratio of 50%. Combined with the utilization of the gas waste heat during the scrap preheating, electricity generation, production of steam and production of coal gas processes, the effect of the energy saving and emission was calculated with comprehensive utilization of the high temperature furnace gas. An optimal scheme for utilization of the waste heat was proposed based on the calculation. The results show that the best way for energy saving and carbon reduction is the production of coal gas, while the optimal scheme for waste heat utilization is combined the production of coal gas with the scrap preheating, which will save 170 kWh/t of energy and decrease 57.88 kg/t of carbon emission. As hot metal ratio in EAF steelmaking is often more than 50%, which will produce more EAF gas waste heat, optimizing EAF gas waste heat utilization will have more obvious effect on energy saving and emission reduction.

  4. European Power Electronic conference in Aalborg, Denmark - 1000 participants discussing the future energy technologies

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    The European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives conference with technical sponsorship of IEEE Industrial Electronic Society has been held in Aalborg, Denmark, during the first days of September 2007 with an overwhelming success and participation. It was hosted by Aalborg University......'s Institute of Energy Technology....

  5. 浅谈新能源汽车%Discussion on New Energy Vehicles



    The definitions、classifications and characteristics of new energy vehicles,such as hybrid vehicles,pure electric vehicles,fuel cell vehicles and so on ,are summarized in this paper.By analyzing development and application status of new energy vehicles,this paper notes some problems existing in pure electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles are needed to solved.%本文对新能源汽车(包括混合动力汽车、纯电动汽车、燃料电池汽车等)的定义、分类及特点进行了总结,通过分析新能源汽车的发展及应用现状,指出纯电动汽车和燃料电池汽车推广应用需解决的问题。

  6. Discussions on switching mechanism for ultimate reduction in energy consumption for STT-MRAM

    Yoda, H.; Shimomura, N.


    Critical switching current, ICsw, of STT (Spin Transfer Torque)-MRAM has been reduced by several orders with PMA (Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy)-MTJs and the state-of-the-art writing-charge, Qw, becomes the order of 100fC. With the small Qw, MRAM starts to save energy consumption even for mobile applications. The key to the Qw reduction is a development of MTJs having higher writing-efficiency. Especially coherent switching of storage-layer magnetization was found to be the root key to the high efficiency.

  7. A Discussion of the High Energy Density Primary Battery Employed in the FOTON M3 Mission

    Bennetti, A.; Reece, D.; Spurrett, R.; Schautz, M.; Green, K.


    In 2005, ABSL Space Products (ABSL) was contracted by QinetiQ to deliver the lithium sulfuryl chloride primary battery system for the FOTON M3 ESA (European Space Agency) mission. FOTON M3 was led by the ESA Directorate of Human Spaceflight & Exploration and carried a number of materials science, fluid physics and biology experiments as well as technology demonstration payloads. A number of the experiments required a very high energy density primary battery power source. This battery was manufactured by ABSL, and the mission was successfully completed in September 2007 following a twelve days orbiting in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

  8. 智能楼宇节能技术探讨%Discussion of Energy Saving Technology for IntelligentBuilding



    According to the theory of the intelligent architecture energy consumption, the energy consumption of theintelligent building was analyzed. On this basis, from the aspects of energy saving control and energy saving management, the energy saving technologies of the systems including heating,air conditioning, lighting,elevator,energy management and etc were discussed. And then, the development direction of the intelligent building energy saving was analyzed.%基于智能建筑用能理论,对智能楼宇用能进行了分析,在此基础上,从控制节能和管理节能两个方面,对智能楼宇的暖通、空调、照明、电梯、能源管理等系统的节能技术进行了探讨,并对未来智能楼宇节能的发展方向进行了展望。

  9. Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disruption on Energy Balance and Diabetes: A Summary of Workshop Discussions.

    Arble, Deanna M; Bass, Joseph; Behn, Cecilia Diniz; Butler, Matthew P; Challet, Etienne; Czeisler, Charles; Depner, Christopher M; Elmquist, Joel; Franken, Paul; Grandner, Michael A; Hanlon, Erin C; Keene, Alex C; Joyner, Michael J; Karatsoreos, Ilia; Kern, Philip A; Klein, Samuel; Morris, Christopher J; Pack, Allan I; Panda, Satchidananda; Ptacek, Louis J; Punjabi, Naresh M; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Scheer, Frank A; Saxena, Richa; Seaquest, Elizabeth R; Thimgan, Matthew S; Van Cauter, Eve; Wright, Kenneth P


    A workshop was held at the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases with a focus on the impact of sleep and circadian disruption on energy balance and diabetes. The workshop identified a number of key principles for research in this area and a number of specific opportunities. Studies in this area would be facilitated by active collaboration between investigators in sleep/circadian research and investigators in metabolism/diabetes. There is a need to translate the elegant findings from basic research into improving the metabolic health of the American public. There is also a need for investigators studying the impact of sleep/circadian disruption in humans to move beyond measurements of insulin and glucose and conduct more in-depth phenotyping. There is also a need for the assessments of sleep and circadian rhythms as well as assessments for sleep-disordered breathing to be incorporated into all ongoing cohort studies related to diabetes risk. Studies in humans need to complement the elegant short-term laboratory-based human studies of simulated short sleep and shift work etc. with studies in subjects in the general population with these disorders. It is conceivable that chronic adaptations occur, and if so, the mechanisms by which they occur needs to be identified and understood. Particular areas of opportunity that are ready for translation are studies to address whether CPAP treatment of patients with pre-diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) prevents or delays the onset of diabetes and whether temporal restricted feeding has the same impact on obesity rates in humans as it does in mice.

  10. 浅谈我国建筑能耗与节能措施%Discussion on China's Building Energy Consumption and Energy-saving Measures

    李进; 吴慎宝


    With the shortage of resources and energy, the increasing in population and improvement of people's living standards, it is increasing in requirements for thermal environment of the building and comfortable living and consumption of energy resources are also growing. The consumption of energy in construction industry can account for more than one-third in the consumption of total energy of the community. This paper discusses the status of energy saving in the building, and proposes recommendations and practical measures to save energy and maintain green and sustainable development of the economy.%随着在全世界范围内资源能源短缺、人口增多,人们生活水平提高,对建筑的热环境要求逐步提高,居住舒适度提高,能源资源消耗量日益加大.建筑业用能在社会总能源消耗中的比重超过三分之一.本文探讨了建筑的节能现状,从而提出建议,切实可行的措施,节约能源、保持经济的绿色可持续发展.

  11. 照明节能设计探讨%Discussion on Design for Energy Efficiency of Illumination



      本文结合全国及北京市建设领域节能减排监督检查工作,从照明器件选择、照度标准确定及照明功率密度计算等方面,探讨了照明节能设计中的几个问题。%The paper discusses several problems on the lighting energy-saving design from the selection of illumination element, determination of illuminance standard and the calculation of lighting power density, combining with the supervision and inspecting works on energy-saving and reducing the discharge amount of CO2 in the construction fields in Beijng and all over the country.

  12. Discussion tennis players mental energy reserves%网球运动员心理能量储备探讨



    网球运动是一项集技战术、体能、心理为一体的综合性体育运动项目。本文通过文献资料法,逻辑分析法,探讨心理能量储备在网球运动员训练与比赛中的重要性。研究发现:网球项目拥有区别于其它运动项目的固有特征:即短时间内上千次决策、拍面细微角度变化对球运行轨迹会产生巨大影响、没有基本的连续性,总是在打与停之间来回转换。这些特征就要求一名网球运动员需要具备较高的心理能量储备。因此,本文立足于如何提升网球运动员心理能量储备提出了几点建议,为网球运动员提供一定的实践参考价值。%Tennis is a set of technical and tactical,physical, psychological as integrated sports programs.Through literature,logical analysis, discuss the importance of mental energy reserve tennis players in training and competition.The study found:tennis is different from other sports have inherent features:the thousands of decisions in a short time,making surface slight change in angle of the ball trajectory will have a huge impact,there is no basic continuity,always in the fight and stop back and forth between. These features requires a tennis player needs to have a high mental energy reserves.Therefore,based on how to improve mental energy reserves tennis players made several suggestions, provide some practical reference value for the tennis player.

  13. Panel discussion

    No Author Given


    Panel discussion: summation and future projections. Introductory remarks by panelists followed by questions and comments from the floor. Panelists: Dr. Joseph Barnea (former director of Resources and Transport for the United Nations; energy consultant to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)); the Honorable Clyde F. Bel, Jr. (member of the Louisiana House of Representatives representing District 90 and New Orleans); Dr. David Lombard (acting chief of the Advanced Systems Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)); Fred C. Repper (vice-president of Central Power and Light Company in Corpus Christi, Texas); Dr. Hans Suter (environmental consultant in Corpus Christi, Texas; environmental columnist for the Corpus Christi Caller Times). Session chairman: Herbert Woodson.

  14. Discussion on the potential impact of the energy certificate on existing housing: the UK as a case study

    Sunikka, M.M.


    In 2003 the European Commission introduced the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) in recognition of the importance of energy savings in the urban housing stock. One of the key elements described in the Directive is the introduction of energy certificates in a property transaction. This

  15. Path towards achieving of China's 2020 carbon emission reduction target-A discussion of low-carbon energy policies at province level

    Wang Run, E-mail: [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu Wenjuan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiao Lishan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu Jian; Kao, William [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)


    Following the announcement of the China's 2020 national target for the reduction of the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% compared with 2005 levels, Chinese provincial governments prepared to restructure provincial energy policy and plan their contribution to realizing the State reduction target. Focusing on Fujian and Anhui provinces as case studies, this paper reviews two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target. That of the coastal province of Fujian proposes to do so largely through the development of nuclear power, whilst the coal-rich province of Anhui proposes to do so through its energy consumption rate rising at a lower rate than that of the rise in GDP. In both cases renewable energy makes up a small proportion of their proposed 2020 energy structures. The conclusion discusses in depth concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy. - Research Highlights: {yields} We review two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target of carbon emission in two provinces. {yields} Scenario review of energy structure in Fujian and Anhui Provinces to 2020. {yields} We discuss concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy.

  16. Discussion on New Energy Vehicle Development%新能源汽车发展趋势刍议

    张发龙; 陈春菊; 闫忠孝; 宋炯


    汽车工业的发展和汽车保有量的增加及能源和环境的变化对交通问题提出了严峻的挑战,遵循能源发展形势及能源发展战略,研发和使用节能减排的新能源汽车已经成为解决能源和交通问题的必由之路、发展趋势和重要举措.本文旨在通过剖析新能源汽车概念、类型、性能等,以揭示新能源汽车具有良好的发展趋势和远大的发展前景.%The development of the car industry and the increase of auto ownership, and energy and environment issue puts forward a serious challenge to traffic. Following the energy development situation and energy development strategy, and developing and using new energy vehicles with energy conservation and emission reduction has become the only road, development trend, and important measures to solve the energy and traffic issue, development trend and important measures. This paper aims to analyze the concept, type, and performance of new energy vehicles, so as to reveal the good development tendency and the great prospects of new energy vehicles.

  17. A brief discussion on the relationship between apparent stress and slip-weakening law based on the energy partition criteria

    Boyan Liu; Baoping Shi


    According to the representation theorem of seismic energy radiation, we know that, at any point on the fault, the instantaneous seismic radiation energy, Es, the seismic moment M0, and the apparent stress σa=μS/Mo(μis the shear modulus on the fault plane) should be positive values at any time during an earthquake faulting. However, we have noticed that, in recent source parameter inversion scheme for deriving the critical slip-weakening distance, the apparent stress used as a constraint condition on the fault plane could be less than zero or negative value, and the negative part was considered as dissipation energy and incorporated to the fracture energy. Although the mathematical formula in such case has no influence to the fmal resolution, however, the earthquake dynamic source process violates obviously the basic physical law, which could results in the overestimating of radiated seismic energy. In this study, we have proposed an alternative way to take ac-count of the apparent stress expression based on the earthquake energy partition principle, and at the same time, we have also suggested that an additional constraint regarding to the radiation energy conservation on the fault could be added into the source parameter inversion in order to estimate the critical slip-weakening distance Dc.

  18. 浅谈现代建筑的节能设计%Discuss the Energy Efficiency Design of Modern Building



    节能技术对于当前的社会发展来讲十分重要。因为能源利用已经融入到百姓生活的方方面面,所以人们在保护环境发展方面节约使用生存能源变得尤为重要。对于现代建筑工程来讲,能源的消耗都是必然的。%Energy saving technology is very important to the current social development. Because energy utilization has corporate into every aspect of people’s lives, it’s particularly important for people to save the useful energy in the aspect of protecting the environment development. As for the modern architecture engineering, the energy consumption is inevitable.

  19. Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties

    Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J.


    The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  20. 浅谈纺织空调节能设计%Discussion on Energy Saving Design of Textile Air-conditioner

    谭兴霞; 贺晋; 李淑萍


    文章从纺织空调系统的设计角度,提出几种行之有效的节能措施,为纺织空调设计提供几种节能方案。%Several effective energy saving measures were put forward from the aspects of design of air-conditioner system, and several energy saving methods were provided for the design of air-conditioner.

  1. 'Powering Nova Scotia's economy --- a public discussion paper on the province's energy strategy



    This discussion paper sets out for debate several major goals and principles for the energy sector of Nova Scotia, outlines important issues and questions that need to be considered and answered in order for Nova Scotia to realize its potential of becoming a major petroleum producer and exporter. It also provides background information on topics relevant to the development of the energy industry in the province. Nova Scotia's energy sector was first reviewed in 1991. The arrival of oil and natural gas, the changes in the way electric utilities are regulated, the environmental targets established by the Kyoto Protocols, changes in the province's coal industry and changes in the global landscape for energy, all demand a fresh approach and a new strategy to pursue the challenges and opportunities that have opened up in the last decade. This new strategy will assess the likely development of the industry provincially, nationally and internationally. Since the changes are ongoing, they will have implications for decades to come. Therefore , to be equal to the challenge, the issues require a bold vision, balanced with practicality and flexibility. The principal strategic goal for the province's energy sector is to create a world-class energy sector that can achieve sustainable economic development while maintaining high social and environmental standards. Public consultation, fairness, transparency, accountability, responsible regulatory practices, consumer choice and competition, partnership with the private sector, the widest possible distribution within the province of industrial benefits and revenues generated by the province's energy resources, and serious consideration of potential environmental impacts in all energy policy-making decisions are the principles that will guide strategic and policy choices. Appended to the discussion paper are a series of energy sector profiles, a discussion of environmental, regulatory, fiscal and economic issues

  2. 浅谈建筑围护结构节能技术%Discussion on Building Energy Saving Technology



    在当下能源环境下,建筑节能技术在实际工程中的实施中已占有一席之地。本文旨在通过对围护结构的节能技术的讨论来介绍在实际应用中能够发挥作用的设计与方案。%Under the circumstance of the energy efficiency,it is quite important to use the technique of building energy saving in projects. By talking about the energy efficiency in the building envelope,this article mainly introduce the designs and programs which play an important part in the buildings

  3. 浅谈节能建筑设计措施%Discuss the Energy Efficient Measures of Building Design



    With the development of the society, people’s req-uirements for construction in constant growth, and the energy consumption of building is also increasing. People must dev-elop the energy conservation and environmental protection technology so as to make the energy conservation and environ-mental protection of our country into a new level. This article mainly introduces the residential building energy saving design measures in hot summer and warm winter area in China.%随着社会的发展,人们对建筑要求在不断的增长,建筑能耗也在不断的增加。我们必须大力发展节能环保技术,以便使我国节能环保进入一个新的水平。本文主要介绍了在我国夏热冬暖地区,居住建筑节能设计的一些措施。

  4. Discussion on energy saving method of refrigerating machine%浅谈制冷机的节能方法



    In order to potential of energy saving refrigerator equipment for mining in cigarette enterprises. This paper mainly introduces the operating characteristics from the refrigerator, equipment maintenance, use system operation, automatic control, fan and pump and other aspects, to explore in the cigarette business this energy hungry, energy saving method of refrigeration machine of this kind of power equipment, provide the reference for the refrigerator energy saving enterprise.%为了挖掘卷烟企业中制冷机设备的节能潜力。本文主要通过介绍制冷机运行特性,从设备维护、系统运行、自动化控制、风机与泵的使用等方面入手,探讨在卷烟企业这个耗能大户中,制冷机这类动力设备的节能方法,为相关企业的制冷机节能提供参考。

  5. First discussion for fostering the photovoltaic energy in Mexico; Primer coloquio para el fomento de la energia fotovoltaica en Mexico



    The varied spheres (political, environmental, economic, scientific and social) day by day are looking for the key issues, which are going to make them to preserve or disappear either in the present or in the future. Therefore, it was carried out the first conversation in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. Here there were shown different advances related to the renewable energies by those spheres. Generally speaking, it was in this event where there were gather together private and government organs in order to present every issue related to the use and to the promotion of the renewable energies. By these means, it was probed that the renewable energies are: the current market, the groundbreaking technology, the best option friendly-environment, the panacea for the society and for the improvement of the economy of many countries both developing countries and developed countries. The renewable energy topic is seen from different point of views. [Spanish] Las diferentes esferas que rigen el dia a dia; es decir, la politica, el medio ambiente, la economia, las ciencias y la sociedad, siempre estan en busca de cuestiones que las hagan crecer y evolucionar para asi seguir ocupando un espacio no solo en el presente sino tambien en el futuro. En esta ocasion fue en el primer coloquio, realizado en el Estado de Zacatecas, Mexico, donde dichas esferas se reunieron con el fin de mostrar sus diversos avances acerca de las energias fotovoltaicas. En otras palabras, fue en este coloquio donde se reunieron organos privados y gubernamentales con el fin de mostrar todo lo relacionado con el uso y la promocion de las energias renovables. Comprobando que las energias renovables son tanto: el mercado de hoy, la tecnologia de punta, la mejor opcion ambiental, la panacea para la sociedad y para la mejora de la economia de muchos paises en vias de desarrollo y de primer mundo. En estas ponencias no solo se habla de las energias renovables desde un aspecto cientifico, sino tambien financiero

  6. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) Scenario Analysis: Quantitative Estimates Used to Facilitate Working Group Discussions (2008-2010)

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.; Frazier, R.


    This report provides details on the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) Scenario Analysis to identify potential policy options and evaluate their impact on reaching the 70% HECI goal, present possible pathways to attain the goal based on currently available technology, with an eye to initiatives under way in Hawaii, and provide an 'order-of-magnitude' cost estimate and a jump-start to action that would be adjusted with a better understanding of the technologies and market.

  7. Salmonid Council of Newfoundland and Labrador comments on public discussion paper : Developing an energy plan for Newfoundland and Labrador

    Hustins, D.


    The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador has promoted public debate on the future energy needs of the province in order to assess all alternatives. The Salmonid Council of Newfoundland and Labrador (SCNL) supports this effort and recognizes that new energy needs are necessary to support the developing economy. The SCNL has provided advice on preserving the valuable sport fishery for Atlantic salmon and trout in the province. The Council is dedicated to the conservation and wise management of salmonids and their habitat. The 12 affiliated members of the Council were identified along with other organizations that actively support the objectives of the SCNL. The Council has been active in the following activities: development of salmon and trout management plants; establishment of the Cooperation Agreement for Salmonid Enhancement; moratorium on the commercial exploitation of wild salmon; moratorium on small hydroelectric development; growth and development of community stewardship groups; conservation and restoration of salmon stocks in the province; and, the promotion of catch and release angling. This document reviewed issues such as the value of the sport fishing industry; stock status; effects of hydroelectric development on salmon; candidate rivers for hydroelectric development; and, recent investments in restoring salmonid habitat and stocks. This document also presented the Council's 12 recommendations to the government to develop the maximum amount of power with the least environmental damage. The Council's vision is to double the growth of sport fishery over the next 10 years through improved management of this resource which generates economic wealth throughout the province, particularly in rural areas that are greatly challenged in available economic opportunities.

  8. Discussion on the energy content of the galactic dark matter Bose-Einstein condensate halo in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

    De Souza, J.C.C.; Pires, M.O.C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia 166, Santo André, SP, 09210-170 (Brazil)


    We show that the galactic dark matter halo, considered composed of an axionlike particles Bose-Einstein condensate [6] trapped by a self-graviting potential [5], may be stable in the Thomas-Fermi approximation since appropriate choices for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length are made. The demonstration is performed by means of the calculation of the potential, kinetic and self-interaction energy terms of a galactic halo described by a Boehmer-Harko density profile. We discuss the validity of the Thomas-Fermi approximation for the halo system, and show that the kinetic energy contribution is indeed negligible.

  9. Discussion on the Approaches to Save Electrical Energy in Salt Production Area%探讨盐区节约电能的途径



    The Aapproaches to save electrial energy in salt production area are introduced in the article. To do this, that design of electric power, loss in wire, energy saving of lighting and power consumption mangement in salt field is preliminary discussed.%文章阐述了盐区节约电能的途径,主要对电力设计、线路损耗,照明节电,及盐田用电管理进行初步探讨.

  10. Record of the Japan - U.S. Energy Discussions / Maui Meeting. March 25-27, 1996; Nichibei energy kyogi Maui kaigi. 1996 nen 3 gatsu 25 nichi - 27 nichi



    The paper summarized the status of the Japan-U.S. Energy Discussions held in the Maui Island during March 25-27, 1996. With relation to the energy supply, reported and discussed were the present situation in the Middle East, Russia, Ukraine, and the former U.S.S.R. and effects of the political situation on the world. The paper also described effects of the intergovernmental resolutions on climate change on the energy issue. In addition to comprehensive prospects in the energy field, reported and discussed were issues related to coal, electric power, nuclear power, petroleum, gas and renewable energy. The following were generally commented on: There are uncertainties and unclearability in the future energy field in terms of politics, technology and environment, and in order to quickly respond these, dialogue of a global scale is necessary. In the energy industry, it is important to pursue effectiveness by the price mechanism, the market, and governmental policies. The international cooperation is much more needed, and the Japan-U.S. cooperation is desirable especially in the fields of stabilization of international politics, promotion of technical innovation, assistance for environmental orientation in developing countries, proposal of politics, etc.

  11. Are high energy proton beams ideal for AB-BNCT? A brief discussion from the viewpoint of fast neutron contamination control.

    Lee, Pei-Yi; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei


    High energy proton beam (>8MeV) is favorable for producing neutrons with high yield. However, the produced neutrons are of high energies. These high energy neutrons can cause severe fast neutron contamination and degrade the BNCT treatment quality if they are not appropriately moderated. Hence, this study aims to briefly discuss the issue, from the viewpoint of fast neutron contamination control, whether high energy proton beam is ideal for AB-BNCT or not. In this study, D2O, PbF4, CaF2, and Fluental(™) were used standalone as moderator materials to slow down 1-, 6-, and 10-MeV parallelly incident neutrons. From the calculated results, we concluded that neutrons produced by high energy proton beam could not be easily moderated by a single moderator to an acceptable contamination level and still with reasonable epithermal neutron beam intensity. Hence, much more complicated and sophisticated designs of beam shaping assembly have to be developed when using high energy proton beams.

  12. Recent energy situation in the U.S. and Europe. Trend of discussions on energy safety security and energy policies in the E.U. and CIS (commonwealth of independent states) countries; Obei ni okeru saikin no energy jijo. Energy anzen hosho ni kansuru giron no doko to EU oyobi CIS shokoku no energy seisaku



    The E.U. intends to establish the stabilized new partnership and economic area, based on free trades and tighter economic cooperation with Mediterranean countries. For the purpose of establishing the effective cooperative relationship in the energy field, the E.U. committee taking the short- and medium-term initiative prepares as follows: The establishment of the European/Mediterranean Energy Forum is thought of. This is for the joint management of cooperation in the energy field and the organization of the conferences and meetings of information exchanges between partners. The discussion is started for the final joining in the organization of partners of Mediterranean countries who do not participate in the Pan-European Energy Charter conference. They study options adoptable for easing investments. They cooperate with the related countries for carrying out the project having common interest in the TENs (Trans-European energy networks) field. The working-out of plans and projects is promoted for coordinating energy projects according to the purposes and procedures of MEDA. 59 refs.

  13. LNG蒸汽冷能在船舶上的应用探讨%Discussion of Using Cold Energy of LNG Steam on Ship

    石庆国; 胡以怀


    首先介绍了LNG蒸汽的性质特点,结合船舶的功能特点,探讨了LNG蒸汽冷能可以应用于船舶伙食冰库、海水淡化装置、空气分离装置等领域.然后根据LNG船舶的特殊性,探讨了将LNG蒸汽冷能用于上述装置时需要达到的要求.最后对其进行了展望,伴随着陆上运用LNG蒸汽冷能技术的进一步成熟,在船舶上利用LNG蒸汽冷能技术将逐步实现.%The paper firstly introduces the characteristics of LNG steam and, combining with the junction features of the ship, discusses the possibility of adopting the cold energy of LNG steam to shipboard provision cold store, sea water desalination and air separation etc. Secondly, according to the specificity of LNG ship, the paper discusses the requirements which should be meeting when applying the cold energy of LNG steam. At last, the paper discusses the prospect of the new technology. With further improvements of the technology of using cold energy of LNG steam on land, the application on board will come true.

  14. 探讨高效节能的绿色建筑设计%Discuss the Green Building Design of High Efficiency and Energy Saving



    随着能源危机的日益严重,保护能源迫在眉捷。绿色节能建筑是通过环境与建筑体系之间的关系,使建筑体系减小对环境的破坏。本文对绿色建筑设计进行了探讨,为能够设计出更多高效节能的绿色建筑提供了参考。%With the increasingly serious energy crisis, the en-ergy protection is eyebrow nimble. Green energy-saving build-ings are making the building system reduce the damage to the environment through the relationship between the environment and building system. This article discusses the green building design to provide reference for design a more efficient ener-gy-saving green building.

  15. Report made on behalf of the parity mixed commission in charge of proposing a text about the dispositions of the project of energy orientation law remaining to be discussed; Rapport fait au nom de la commission mixte paritaire (1) chargee de proposer un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie



    The project of energy orientation law aims at fixing the main principles of the French energy policy for the next decades. It foresees: the re-launching of the French nuclear program (building of an experimental European pressurized reactor (EPR)), the reinforcement of the mastery of energy demand (3% per year, creation of energy saving certificates and reinforcement of buildings energy efficiency rules), and the sustain of renewable energies development. This document presents, first, a direct comparison, article by article, of the text adopted in second lecture by the House of Commons, with the text adopted in second lecture by the Senate. Then, a text is proposed for the last dispositions that remained to be discussed and is presented in the second part of the report. (J.S.)

  16. Energy sector tops Baltic discussions


    7. mail toimunud Läti peaministri Valdis Dombrovskise ja USA eriesindaja Euraasia energeetika küsimustes Richard Morningstari kohtumisel räägiti energiaalasest koostööst. Leedu peaministri Andrius Kubiliuse ja Daniel B. Ponemani kohtumisel räägiti tuumaelektrijaama ehitamisest. Venemaa välispoliitilisest doktriinist

  17. General discussion

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.


    The general discussion focuses on some aspects that are of overarching relevance for all the preceding chapters. The fi rst subject that is discussed is the relationship between systems theory and the philosophy of science. After a short summary of the principles of system science and the

  18. Investigation and discussion of marine structures integrated with ocean energy devices%海工构筑物海洋能集成利用技术探讨

    王树杰; 王举田; 刘锦昆; 袁鹏; 刘臻; 徐志刚; 季文峰


    将海工构筑物作为海洋能获能装置的安装载体可大幅降低海洋能发电的成本,同时,海工构筑物等海上设施客观上存在利用海洋能实现能量供应的需求,因此海洋能发电装置与海工构筑物相互结合具有良好的综合效益,将是未来海洋能利用的一个发展方向。针对波浪能和潮流能两种海洋能发电方式,分别对柔性叶片潮流能水轮机与进海路集成利用技术;垂直轴和水平轴潮流能水轮机以及振荡浮子式波能装置与导管架石油平台集成利用技术;OWC波能装置与沉箱防波堤集成利用技术进行了探讨,并提出海工构筑物海洋能集成利用技术中需要解决的几点问题。%Ocean energy devices installed on marine structures can greatly reduce the cost of ocean energy power generation. On the other hand, marine structures such as offshore installations need to gain power generated by ocean energy nearby. Therefore, marine structures equipped with ocean energy devices have comprehensive benefits, which will be developed in the future. According to the classification of ocean energy power generation utilizing wave and tidal current, some types of integrated utilization are investigated and discussed, such as flexible tidal current turbines integrated with perforated sea roads, vertical and horizontal tidal current turbines integrated with jacket platforms, oscillating buoys integrated with jacket platforms and OWC wave energy devices integrated with caisson breakwaters. At the same time, some questions and suggestions are put forward in order to make the utilization mature.

  19. Discussion about community energy planning and its operation method%社区能源综合规划及其方法初探

    于航; 黄子硕; 彭震伟


    社区能源规划是低碳生态城市规划建设的重要内容之一。基于社区能源规划的已有研究和实践,阐述了能源规划的主要任务和内容。通过社区能源规划与一次能源规划的对比分析,指出社区能源规划是对一次能源规划的补充和延伸,可视为二次能源规划,即社区能源综合规划。总结了近年来国内外社区能源规划的计算工具及其结构特点,对比分析了社区能源规划中自上而下与自下而上两种工作模式的特点,指出两种模式的融合将有助于推动社区能源规划的广泛实施。%Community energy planning (CEP)is one of the important contents during the construction planning of low-carbon city.Based on the current discussion about CEP,expounds the main tasks and contents of CEP.Comparing CEP with the first energy planning (traditional urban energy planning), indicates that CEP is the supplementation and extension of the first energy planning.CEP may be regarded as a secondary energy planning,i.e.,community comprehensive energy planning.Summarizes the calculation tools for CEP and their structural features at home and abroad.Compares and analyses the features of two modes,including up-bottom and bottom-up.Points out that a new CEP model,which is a blend of the two modes,is helpful to promoting the widespread implement of CEP.

  20. Discussion on energy saving technology of building envelop enclosure structure exterior%谈建筑围护结构外墙节能技术



    介绍了建筑外墙结构的保温技术,论述了外墙外保温技术的优势,分析了聚苯板薄抹灰外墙外保温施工中的技术问题,总结出施工中的几点建议与技术措施,从而提高了建筑围护结构的节能水平,减少了资源浪费.%The paper introduced the thermal insulation technology of building exterior structure,discussed the advantages of external wall thermal insulation technology,analyzed the technical problems in polystyrene board external wall thermal insulation construction,summarized several sug-gestions and technical measures in construction,so as to improve the energy saving level of building exterior,reduced the resources waste.

  1. Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policy. The discussion in Germany and the Netherlands by comparison; Fracking im Spannungsfeld zwischen Energie- und Umweltpolitik. Die Diskussion in Deutschland und den Niederlanden im Vergleich

    Kontny, Kerstin


    The shale gas production using the so-called fracking method represents for opponents the use of a high-risk technology. Proponents see it, however a technological advance, and the answer to current energy issues. For the citizens of a country, the debate involves mainly uncertainties, the technology is still associated with risks that are not only difficult to assess for the layman. Due to these uncertainties, there is a danger that scientific evidence for political purposes are exploited. Particularly exciting is therefore the question of how the subject is discussed in different countries. In Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policies are the debates in natural gas country Netherlands and the country of energy transition, Germany are compared. Kerstin Kontry's research put emphasis on the parties to the debate actors, the course of the debate and the issues are discussed. The main question is to what extent the discussions are shaped by national factors. [German] Die Schiefergasfoerderung mit Hilfe der sogenannten Fracking-Methode stellt fuer Gegner die Anwendung einer Hochrisikotechnologie dar, Befuerworter sehen darin hingegen einen technologischen Fortschritt und die Antwort auf derzeitige Energiefragen. Fuer die Buerger eines Landes birgt die Debatte vor allem Unsicherheiten, ist die Technologie doch mit Risiken verbunden, die nicht nur fuer den Laien schwer einzuschaetzen sind. Aufgrund dieser Unsicherheiten droht die Gefahr, dass wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse fuer politische Zwecke instrumentalisiert werden. Besonders spannend ist daher die Frage, wie die Thematik in unterschiedlichen Laendern diskutiert wird. In Fracking im Spannungsfeld zwischen Energie- und Umweltpolitik werden die Debatten im Erdgasland Niederlande und dem Land der Energiewende, Deutschland, verglichen. Den Schwerpunkt legt Kerstin Kontny dabei auf die an der Debatte beteiligten Akteure, den Verlauf der Debatte sowie die behandelten Themen. Dabei

  2. PA Discussion Topics


    lower priority discussion ADD-TARDEC Network Centric Military Energy Control (NCMEC) Future discussion ADD-TARDEC M&S for Hybrid Electric Vehicles ...Approved for public release • OBJECTIVES: Reduce Thermal Burden on Vehicles Reduce Converter Operating Power • APPROACH: Develop compact...APU) that delivers 5 kWe (Threshold), 10 kWe (Objective) of vehicle electrical power demonstrated at TRL 5. • System designed to fit into an

  3. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program



    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  4. Dynamic Energy Balance: An Integrated Framework for Discussing Diet and Physical Activity in Obesity Prevention-Is it More than Eating Less and Exercising More?

    Manore, Melinda M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Houtkooper, Linda


    Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not fully understand their impact on energy flux and how diet alters energy expenditure and energy expenditure alters diet. Many nutrition educators have little training in exercise science; thus, they may not have the knowledge essential to understanding the benefits of PA for health or weight management beyond burning calories. This paper highlights the importance of advancing nutrition educators' understanding about PA, and its synergistic role with diet, and the value of incorporating a dynamic energy balance approach into obesity-prevention programs. Five key points are highlighted: (1) the concept of dynamic vs. static energy balance; (2) the role of PA in weight management; (3) the role of PA in appetite regulation; (4) the concept of energy flux; and (5) the integration of dynamic energy balance into obesity prevention programs. The rationale for the importance of understanding the physiological relationship between PA and diet for effective obesity prevention programming is also reviewed.

  5. Discussion on the design oflow energy consumption buildingintegrated GUD system%探讨集成GUD系统的低能耗建筑设计



    低能耗建筑有利于减少能源的消耗,促进我国经济的可持续发展。集成设计作为实现低能耗建筑的重要方法,此方法全面整合各种节能技术与建筑设计,有效改善建筑物热能耗,达到良好的节能效果。因此,在低能耗建筑设计中广泛使用集成GUD系统,具有重要的意义。本文主要围绕集成GUD系统的低能耗建筑设计,展开全面的阐述。%Low energy buildings to reduce the consumption of energy,promote the sustainable development of China's economy.Integrated design as an important approach to achieve low energy building,the method of comprehensive integration of various energy saving technology and architectural design,effectively improve the building energy consumption,to achieve good energy saving effect.Therefore,extensive use.Therefore, extensive use of integrated GUD system in low energy building design,has the vital significance.Low energy consumption design of this article focuses on the integrated GUD system,a comprehensive exposition.

  6. Discussion on Application Technology of Building Energy Efficiency in China%我国建筑节能的技术探讨



    Building energy efficiency can reduce the growth in the total energy consumption of the building speed, this paper mainly expounds the recently the focus of the work of building energy conservation in our country, gradually strengthen control on building energy consumption of the actual operation, strengthen the building energy-saving technology and technology innovation etc..%建筑节能可以降低建筑总能耗增长的速度。本文主要阐述了近期我国建筑节能的工作重点、逐步加强对建筑实际运行能耗的控制、加强建筑节能的技术基础和技术创新等问题。

  7. Discussion on Construction Technology and Building Energy Consumption%浅议建筑施工技术与建筑能耗

    刘宝安; 余冰磊


    为有效解决建筑能耗问题,应当在建筑施工中积极采用各种节能技术,从根本上降低建筑能耗。基于此点,本文就建筑施工技术与建筑能耗进行了研究。%Energy-saving technologies should be actively ado- pted in the construction to solve the problem of building ene- rgy consumption in order to reduce building energy consump- tion fundamentally. Based on this point, this paper studied the construction technology and building energy consumption of buildings.

  8. Discussion on the design and application of building energy saving%谈建筑节能的设计与应用



    The paper describes the importance of implementing building energy-saving design,analyzes building energy-saving design concepts and specialties,studies specific application of energy-saving design concept in building design,and finally points out that:it has significant meaning for realizing sustainable building industry development to strengthen building energy-saving design and application.%阐述了实施建筑节能设计的重要性,对建筑节能设计理念及其特色进行了分析说明,并对节能设计理念在建筑设计中的具体应用进行了研究,指出加强建筑节能的设计与应用研究对实现建筑行业的可持续发展有重要意义。

  9. Discuss the High-rise Building Electrical Energy Saving System%浅谈高层建筑电气节能体系



    The huge energy consumption of high-rise building has no longer adapts to the development of green energy-sav-ing buildings. After analyzing the energy consumption of buil-ding electrical systems, this article elaborates the target object of building energy efficiency management, summarizes Chine-se building electrical energy saving design technology system in recent years, and further promotes the building electrical en-ergy saving ideas and technology.%高层建筑的巨大能耗已经不再适应建筑绿色节能的发展要求,在对建筑电气系统进行能耗分析后,简述了建筑节能管理的目标对象,总结了近年来我国形成的建筑电气节能设计技术体系,进一步推广了建筑电气节能理念与技术。


    Bagdasaryan, Gevorg Y.


    Full Text Available A comprehensive theoretical analysis of a dynamic thermo-ferro-electric pre-stressed bimorph energy harvester is performed. The analysis also takes into account pyroelectric and thermal expansion effects. The most general analytical expression for the energy conversation coefficients are presented for bi-layer. These coefficients we derive for more general situation when mechanical, electrical, thermal fields are present. We derive coefficients (transformation coefficients for sensing, actuating, and energy harvesting. As a particular case, we derive an analytical expression for the energy harvesting coefficient due to pyroelectric and thermal expansion effects in a rater general situation. This is a function of material properties, location of boundary conditions, vibration frequency, and in plane compressive/tensile follower force. Numerical simulations of the analytical results are presented. Effects of volume fraction, material properties, applied mechanical loads, and boundary conditions on the harvesting coefficients are introduced in the figures. The results for a cantilever and a simply-supported plate-layer are obtained as particular cases. The result for a low frequency (static system is obtained as a particular case by approaching the vibration frequency to zero. It is shown that volume fraction, material properties, plain compressive/tensile follower force, the location of the boundary conditions, and the vibrational frequency of the bimorph strongly influence the strain distribution, and this in effect influences the charge coefficient and the generation of energy. The proposed model can be extended to thermal energy harvesters of piezoelectric-shape memory alloy (SMA composites.




    Building energy saving is an important part for implementation of national sustainable development strategy, because it is advantageous to promote development of national economy and effective use of resources, reduce air pollution, alleviate greenhouse effect and ameliorate habitat environment. It is also an important aspect for deepening economic system reform. In consideration of status quo of energy saving and new technology for building energy-saving, several suggestions are proposed for building energy saving on the aspects of solar air-conditioning system, photovoltaic building roof, building cooling, heating and power combined supply system, utilization of wind energy in building, energy-saving product and "capillary network" system for building energy saving, etc.%建筑节能是贯彻国家可持续发展战略的重要组成部分,建筑节能有利于发展国民经济,其中,有效利用资源,降低大气污染,减轻温室效应,改善人居环境,也是深化经济体制改革的一项重要组成部分.结合节能的现状和建筑节能新技术,从太阳能空调系统、光伏建筑屋面、热电冷二联供系统、建筑中风能的利用、节能产品以及建筑节能“毛细管网”系统等方面,提出对建筑节能方面的建议.

  12. 能源合同制度构建的法律基础刍议%Discussion on the legal basis of constructing energy contract system



    能源的稀缺性、不可再生性等独有特征另其身价倍增,尤其在当代社会,能源的地位更是举足轻重。但在中国,能源的开发利用等环节由一些国有企业垄断性的经营,这样的状况导致能源产业并没有得到长足的发展。在速度决定经济的今天,我们必须提高能源的利用率以,促成更多快捷的交易。这就需要法律法规来扮演一个中立的角色,使市场变得自由而有规范,而能源与合同的结合是外国市场经营能源产业的一大法宝,也是我国能源发展的一个趋势导向。这种模式在节能减排的同时,可以为双方带来利益,且政府在这种模式的推广中将起到巨大的作用。%The scarcity, non renewable and other unique features of energy makes the multiplier value, especially in the modern society, the status of energy plays a decisive role. But in the Chinese, energy development and utilization and other links by some state-owned enterprises monopoly business, this situation leads to the energy industry has not obtained the considerable development. In the speed of the economy today, we must improve the energy utilization rate, promote more quick transaction. This requires laws and regulations to play a neutral role, enable the market to become free and specification, and binding energy and the contract is a magic weapon to management of energy industry in foreign markets, a trend in China's energy development. At the same time, this model in energy-saving emission reduction, can bring benefits for both parties, and the government play great effect in this model of promotion.

  13. Discussion on the application of building energy-saving technology%谈建筑节能技术的应用



    The paper introduces the building energy-saving methods,mainly studies energy-saving methods of building heating system,water sup-ply and drainage system and electrical system,and describes energy-saving design matters and principles,with a view to rationally apply various renewable energy resources and to achieve optimal living and office environment with the least energy consumption.%介绍了建筑节能的途径,主要针对建筑采暖系统、给排水系统与电气系统的节能方式进行了研究,阐述了在节能设计中需注意的事项及遵循的原则,以期合理利用各类可再生资源,以最少的能源消耗达到最优的居住和办公环境。

  14. 绿色建筑被动式节能设计技术%Preliminary Discussion on Passive Energy Conservation Design for Green Architecture



    本文从保温隔热、自然通风、采光遮阳和雨水收集等方面研究分析,提出一整套被动式节能设计策略,为现代建筑设计的绿色节能方面提供参考。%Under the background of global environment and energy crisis,the building′s comfort should not be at the cost of great energy consumption.It has become the focus of the construction to reduce the building energy consumption by architectural design.Through analyzing building insulation,natural ventilation,daylighting,rainwater collection and some other concerned aspects,this paper puts forward a set of passive design strategies,in hope of some reference for green building design.

  15. Discussion on the Building Planning and Design Based on Energy Conservation Idea%基于节能理念探讨建筑规划设计



    In the development of construction industry, not only should it pays attention to the selection and use of bu- ilding materials, also needs pay atention to the overall pla- nning and architectural design. As far as possible to reduce energy consumption, realize the sustainable development. Bas- ed on the energy conservation idea, this article explores the building planning and design and puts forward the measures and suggestions for energy saving design.%建筑业在发展中不仅要注重建筑材料的选择和使用,还应该注重建筑的整体规划与设计。尽可能降低能耗,实现可持续发展。本文立足于节能理念,探究了建筑的规划设计,提出了节能设计的措施和建议。

  16. 校园建筑中节能环保设计的探讨%Discussion on Energy-saving and Environmental Protection Design of Campus Buildings



    本文主要针对校园建设节能环保设计进行了探讨研究,简述了校园中进行节能环保设计的要点,并对建设性问题提出了解决措施。施工前应准确了解当地情况,避免产生能源、建筑材料等的浪费,大力推广可持续发展,建设节能环保型社会与绿色校园。%This paper mainly studied the energy-saving and environmental protection design of campus buildings, and br-iefly described the main points of energy-saving and environ-mental protection design in campus and put forward sugges-tions to solve the problem of construction. The author stated that before the construction, builders should accurately under-stand the local situation to avoid waste of energy and building materials, and vigorously promote the construction of sustain-able development, to construct an energy-saving and environ-mental protection society and green campus.

  17. Discussion about Measures for Energy Conservation of Steam Jet Veneer Dryers%喷气式网带单板干燥机节能途径探讨

    吕坤; 梅玉春; 张建平


    In order to improve the energy efficiency during the veneer drying process, the analysis of the veneer drying pro-cess is analyzed, with effective energy-saving measures taken. The utilization of the system for recovering the waste heat from veneer dryer exhaust is put forward to reduce the heat loss due to the direct discharge of exhaust, realizing energy conserva-tion by means of recovery of waste heat from exhaust;the utilization of steam cascade to recover the heat from condensate wa-ter to realize energy conservation of waste heat from condensate water.%为了提高单板干燥过程中的能源利用效率,对单板干燥过程进行了分析并提出有效的节能措施与途径。提出利用单板干燥尾气余热回收系统,以减少尾气直接排入大气时的热量损失,对尾气余热回收利用;提出蒸汽梯级利用回收冷凝水的热量,达到对冷凝水余热回收利用的目的。

  18. Discussion on Fire Safety of Energy Conservation Material in Building%建筑节能材料防火安全探讨

    李丽红; 刘晓涛


    Analyzes the wide range application of building energy conservation and thermal insulation material about the aspect of building energy conservation and thermal insulation.Through comparing those with foreign current situation indicate that EPS and XPS exit serious problems in fire safety.Puts forward Suggestions to improve the energy conservation system of the building and building energy conservation and thermal insulation material flame retardant property specifications,puts forward the research objective of new PU composite insulation wall.%对国内应用较为广泛的建筑节能保温材料,在节能保温以及防火安全方面进行了分析,与国外建筑保温材料应用现状进行了比较,指出了EPS及XPS在防火安全方面存在的问题,提出了建筑节能体系的建立和建筑节能保温材料阻燃性能规范制定的建议,提出新型PU复合保温墙体的研究目标。

  19. Measuring the environmental load of household consumption using some methods based on input-output energy analysis : A comparison of methods and a discussion of results

    Kok, Rixt; Benders, René M. J.; Moll, Henri C.


    A proper analysis (an evaluation) of the environmental load of consumption is important in the context of sustainable development. Presently, different methods are used to calculate the environmental load of household consumption, mainly in energy and or greenhouse gas emission terms. These methods

  20. 建筑设计中的节能措施探讨%Discuss the Energy Conservation Measure in Architectural Design



    In today's increasingly prominent environmental protection consciousness, energy saving and emission reducti-on design of building has become the important trend of the development in construction industry in the future. It accords with the strategic target of the sustainable development of economic construction of our country, and has very significant effect on improving building's economic performance and red-ucing building energy consumption.%在环保意识日益突出的今天,建筑节能减排设计已经成为了建筑行业未来发展的重要趋势。建筑节能减排符合我国经济建设可持续发展的战略目标,对提高建筑收益率、缩减建筑能耗等方面的作用非常显著。

  1. 建筑给水排水节能途径的探讨%Discuss the Energy Saving Approach of Building Water Supply and Drainage



    文章针对建筑的给水与排水,分析了建筑给水排水节能途径,同时针对建筑给水排水节能的重要性进行了探究。旨在全面促进现代化建筑事业的发展,促进可持续社会和资源节约型社会的建设。%This article aims at the building water supply and drainage, analyzes the energy saving approach of building w-ater supply and drainage, and explores the importance of bu-ilding water supply and drainage energy saving at the same ti-me so as to comprehensively promote the development of mo-dern buildings and promote sustainable social and the const-ruction of a conservation-minded society.

  2. Discussion on the green energy saving technology application in building construction%谈建筑施工中绿色节能技术的应用



    This paper elaborated the role application of green energy saving technology in building construction,according to the principle of green energy saving technology in building construction,researched the internal green construction technology measures of building top,interior walls,exterior walls,laid foundation for the sustainable development of construction industry.%阐述了建筑施工中应用绿色节能技术的作用,根据绿色节能技术在建筑施工中的原则,对建筑顶部、内墙、外墙、内部的绿色施工技术措施作了研究,为建筑业的可持续发展奠定了基础。

  3. Applicability discussion on energy efficiency classification of air filters%空气过滤器能效分级适用性探讨

    包必超; 廖明月; 林忠平; 张晓磊


    Tests the filtration performance of sixteen air filters with different filtration classification based on EN 779 standard and classifies their energy efficiency classification according to the method stipulated by EUROVENT 4/1 1 standard.Analysis results of the testing data indicate that the limited range of average pressure drop for fine filters suggested in EUROVENT 4/1 1 standard could not accurately reflect the actual energy consumption difference of the filters.Suggests that two times initial filter pressure drop should be taken as the finial pressure drop to calculate average pressure drop and energy efficiency classification should be based on average energy consumption per unit dust holding capacity.%根据EN 779标准对16只不同过滤级别的空气过滤器样品进行了性能试验,依据EUROVENT 4/11的能效分级方法对受试空气过滤器进行了能效分级。试验数据分析结果表明,该分级标准对于部分类型(F级)过滤器的平均阻力范围选取过小,不能准确反映过滤器在实际应用过程中的能耗差异。提出应以2倍初阻力作为计算终阻力,同时建议采用单位容尘量平均能耗作为过滤器能效评价标准。

  4. A Tentative Discussion on the Performance Legal Relationship of Energy Contracting%试论合同能源管理的法律关系

    闫海; 燕晓静


    Energy performance contracting is a new service mechanism which can achieve the purpose of energysaving by means of marketing promotion. Its legal characteristics include high professional level, long life cycle, mutual obligation, compensation, transfer of ownership and possession being not the same as, the legal relation- ship of energy performance contracting closely relates to the hire, leasing, technology contracts. It is an un- named contract which contains a part of named contract terms. Energy service companies and energy units are important subjects of the legal relations of energy performance contracting. To adjust the legal relationship of en- ergy performance contracting, we should focus on the text of the standard contract design, risk allocation and management, modification and rescission of contract, remedy for breach and credit matters.%合同能源管理是一种以节能改造为目的、以市场推广为手段的新型服务机制,其法律关系具有专业性强且周期长、双务且有偿、占有与权属不同时转移等特征。合同能源管理法律关系与分期付款合同、融资租赁合同、技术合同密切相关,是有名合同部分条款有机结合而成的无名合同。节能服务公司与用能单位是合同能源管理法律关系的重要主体。调整合同能源管理的法律关系,应当注重标准合同文本设计、风险分配与管理、合同变更与解除、违约救济与信用保障等事项。

  5. 低温甲醇洗工艺节能降耗浅析%Discussion on Energy Saving and Consumption Reducing in the Rectisol Process

    陈玉民; 王亚敏


    阐述影响低温甲醇洗系统甲醇、电、蒸汽、低压氮气、脱盐水消耗的因素,通过改进设备及优化工艺,达到节能降耗的目的。%Describe the factors which affecting consumption of methanol ,electricity ,steam ,low ‐pressure nitrogen ,desalinated water in the rectisol unit . After improving the equipment and optimizing the process ,the purpose of saving energy and reducing consumption is achieved .

  6. 能量平衡疗法治疗中风偏瘫的理论探讨%Theoretical Discussion of Energy Balance Therapy in Treatment of Hemiplegia

    董冉; 李江山


      介绍能量平衡疗法治疗中风偏瘫的理论基础,认为中风偏瘫与脏腑、经络、肌肉均有关系,在治疗时应通过对脏腑、经络、肌肉进行调节来治疗中风偏瘫。%This paper introduced the theoretical basis of energy balance therapy in treating hemi-plegia, and considered that it had relation between hemiplegia and viscera, meridian and muscle, so hemiplegia should be treated through adjusting viscera, meridian and muscle.

  7. Brief Discussion on the Boiler Energy Saving and Enviroment Protection Measures in our Company%浅谈我公司锅炉节能环保措施



    介绍了四川南充顺城盐化有限责任公司近年来在锅炉节能环保方面采取的一些措施,同时也指出了在使用中一些注意事项,为中小型锅炉技术改造,提供借鉴。%This paper introduces some measures that have been used in the boiler energy saving and enviroment protection in our company in recent years,and meanwhile points out some precautions in the process of application and which is of some reference for the technical modification of small and medium size boiler.

  8. Discussion on air-conditioning design from the aspect of energy conservation%从节能的角度谈空调设计



    从合理选择设计参数、负荷计算、水力计算、系统划分等多方面详细阐述了在空调设计方面的重要性,并对节能设计提出了可以采取的一些措施,从而保证空调系统的节能运行。%The paper describes the signifieanee of air-conditioning design from various aspects of rational design parameter selection, load calculation, hydraulic calculation and system division, and puts forward some suitable measures of energy-saving design, so as to ensure the energysaving operation of the air-conditioner system.

  9. Discussion on Design of Technical Measures for Reducing Energy Conversation of Railway Building%铁路建筑节能设计技术措施探讨



    Railway buildings take a bigger share of China's railway entire energy consumption.In order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions,and realize low energy consumption,pollution and emission,starting with railway building energy conversation and combining with the regional climate characteristics,this paper,starting with building palisade struc-ture,expounded through the rational design of railway construction station and yard planning,the control of window-wall ratio,the effective use of building design and micro climate,the construction of architectural technology and ener-gy,and make full use of favorable climate conditions and withstand unfavorable climate effect.To enhance the heat pres-ervation and heat insulation performance of external building envelope of railway constructions such as walls,doors and windows,roofs,floors and sunshade,and enhance the thermal stability of construction,reduce the heat transfer coeffi-cient of the walls,doors,windows and roofs,specific measures to improve the performance of heat transfer resistance of building envelope and lower heat loss,so as to promote sustainable development of railway construction.%针对铁路建筑能耗占我国铁路总能耗较大比重的情况,为减少二氧化碳排放量,实现低能耗、低污染、低排放的减排目标,以铁路建筑节能为出发点,结合地区气候特征,从建筑物围护结构入手,阐述通过对铁路建筑合理设计站场规划、控制建筑体形系数、控制窗墙比,将建筑设计与建筑微气候,建筑技术和能源的有效利用相结合,充分利用有利的气候条件和抵御不利气候因素的影响,以增强铁路建筑物的墙体、门窗、屋顶、楼地面、遮阳等外围护结构的保温隔热性能,增强建筑的热稳定性,降低外围护墙体、门窗及屋面的传热系数,提高围护结构的传热阻,降低保温隔热性能冷热量损失的具体措施,从而促进铁路建筑可持续发展。

  10. Discussion on How to Carry Out Energy Saving and Emission Reduction%浅议如何开展节能减排工作



    节约资源,保护环境是我国的基本国策,关系经济社会可持续发展,关系广大人民群众切身利益.本文结合学校开展节能减排工作的实践与探索,就深入开展此项工作在组织领导、宣传教育、项目建设、者评体系方面的一些成功经验进行交流,以期推动节约型校园的建设.%Resource conservation and environmental protection is a basic state policy in China, which concerns sustainable economic and social development and is related to the vital interests of the masses.In this paper, combined with practice and exploration of energy saving and emission reduction work in the school, some successful experiences are communicated on organization and leadership, education, construction and evaluation system in order to promote the construction of the saving-campus.

  11. Discussion on the Engineering of Green Energy-Saving Building Quality Supervision%绿色节能建筑工程质量监督的探讨



    近年来,随着我国国民经济水平的提高,绿色建筑作为新兴快速发展的产业链被社会愈加重视,节能工程的质量问题也越来越成为关注的焦点。为做好质量监督工作,要认真地了解各责任主体的质量行为,施工工艺,只有探讨了解相关的知识才能在平常的监督管理工作中做到游刃有余、保质保量。%In recent years,along with our country national economy level,green building is emerging as the rapid development of industry chain is the society more and more attention,the quality problem of energy-saving project has increasingly become the focus of attention. To do a good job in quality supervision, quality behavior to understand the responsibility main body,construction technology,only to understand the relevant knowledge can be in daily supervision and management work to do a job with skill and ease,guarantee the quantity.

  12. Energy

    Foland, Andrew Dean


    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  13. Discussion on politics of energy and environment in Finland in 1974, '79 and '86. Bases for analysis of the discussion, preliminry analysis of empirical material and working-hypotheses. Energia- ja ympaeristoepoliittinen keskustelu Suomessa vuosina 1974, -79 ja -86

    Kantola, I.


    The goal of the study has been to establish a reliable picture of the mediation of messages in politics related to energy and environment in the mass-media of the modern differentiated society. The jounals issued by social movements, industries and professional societies indicate the self-consciousness of their members. To some extent, however, these journals affect also it. In order to describe these relations the main arguments and corresponding changes in these arguments on politics of energy and environment during more than ten last years were discerned. The overall structure of the discussion was outlined from different points of view and theoretical framework. The theoretical structure of the discussion backing up the knowledge and cognition of energy and environmental questions was one of the main results of the study. Some possible alternatives to shape values through aesthetics and through the so-called 'communicative rationality' were also outlined. The second part of the report highlights the mode of shaping consciousness among the different professional, branch-specific and movement-specific journals.

  14. Discussion on green and energy-saving renovation and "passive building" energy saving%绿色节能改造和“被动建筑”节能的探讨



    分别对外墙、门窗、屋面等不同部位的节能改造技术作了简要介绍,并对目前逐渐兴起的"被动建筑"节能技术进行了具体阐述,以期促进建筑围护结构节能改造工作的开展,实现建筑经济性和资源使用的合理性。%This paper respectively made briefly introduction to the energy-saving renovation technology of outer walls, doors and windows, roofing and other different parts, and elaborated in detail the energy-saving technology of gradual rising "passive building", in order to promote the development of energy-saving renovation works of building envelope structure, realized the economy of building and the rational use of resources.

  15. Energy

    Robertson, William C


    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  16. Discussion on the Application of Energy-saving Technology in Building External Envelope Structure Design%节能技术在建筑外围护结构设计中的应用刍议



    In today’s increasingly economic development soc-iety, energy consumption is more and more fast, the importa-nce of energy is more and more prominent. This paper mainly introduces the several methods of energy-saving design in the building external envelope structure, discusses the energy-savi-ng of building envelope structure like wal s, doors and wind-ows, roofing and other aspects, in order to improve the effect of building structure energy saving.%在当今经济日益发展,能源消耗速度越来越快的社会里,能源的重要性越来越凸显。本文主要简单介绍了对建筑外围护结构进行节能设计的几种方法,针对建筑外围结构中的外墙、门窗、屋面等方面的节能进行探讨,以提高建筑结构的节能效果。

  17. 新常态下发电厂能效对标实践与探讨%Practice and Discussion on Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of Power Plant under the New Normal

    祝庆一; 阮亚良


    With the increasingly serious situation of power generation and supply and constantly higher re-quirements on energy saving and emission reduction, it is imperative for a power plant to conduct energy effi-ciency benchmarking management. Energy efficiency benchmarking can enhance the implementation of throughflow retrofit and other technical measures for energy-saving. The paper elaborates on the implementa-tion of energy efficiency benchmarking in a company; besides, it discusses the roles that the economic dis-patching of auxiliary load and direct power supply to major consumers play in lowering costs of power plant.%随着发供电形势日益严峻和节能减排要求不断提高,发电厂开展能效对标管理工作势在必行。能效对标可推动机组设备通流改造等一系列节能技改措施的落实,重点介绍了某公司能效对标的实施情况,在此基础上探讨了厂内负荷经济调度和大用户直供电等措施在降低电厂成本方面的作用。

  18. Discussing nuclear energy / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.


    Venemaa ja Valgevene allkirjastasid peaminister Vladimir Putini visiidi ajal kokkuleppe uue tuumajaama ehitamiseks Valgevene ja Leedu piiri lähistele. Mõeldes Jaapanis hiljuti juhtunud tuumaõnnetusele ei ole Leedu selle otsusega rahul

  19. Discussing nuclear energy / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.


    Venemaa ja Valgevene allkirjastasid peaminister Vladimir Putini visiidi ajal kokkuleppe uue tuumajaama ehitamiseks Valgevene ja Leedu piiri lähistele. Mõeldes Jaapanis hiljuti juhtunud tuumaõnnetusele ei ole Leedu selle otsusega rahul

  20. 严寒地区公共环境下的节能设计探讨%Discussion on the Energy Conservation Design of Public Environment in Cold Regions



      本文通过对严寒地区公共环境下的围护结构设计、建筑体形、建筑材料的选择、外窗设计、太阳能能源利用等几方面的讲解和研究,对严寒地区公共环境下的节能设计问题进行了探讨。%Based on the research and explain of some aspects like design of retaining structure, the public environment in cold area of the building, building materials selection, wind-ow design, and solar energy utilization, this paper discusses the energy-saving design of public environment in cold regions.

  1. Discussions on the Conservation of Mechanical Energy of Simple Harmonic Motion%一些简谐振动系统中机械能守恒的探讨

    朱光来; 许新胜


    For some simple harmonic motion systems, it is simpler to solve problems by conservation of mechanical energy than Newton's laws of motion.Based on conservation of mechanical energy, equation of motion and their vibration periods of several special simple harmonic motion systems were discussed.%对于一些作简谐振动的系统,利用机械能守恒定律往往比用牛顿定律解决问题更简捷。本文利用机械能守恒讨论总结了几组典型谐振系统的动力学方程,并给出了相应的周期。

  2. 举重竞赛中运动员称重后到出场前阶段能量补充的探讨%Discussion on Energy Recharge After Weighing and Before Appearance on Weight -Hfting Competition



    通过文献综述法和专家访谈法就举重运动员称体重后到赛前能量补充进行探讨分析。提出通过合理安排赛前营养的摄入来提高运动员的比赛能力和水平。%This paper adopted methods of documentation and interview to discuss and analysis energy recharge after weighing and before appearance on weight - lifting competition, put forward that arrange the intake of nutrients reasonable before competition to improve the competitive ability and level for athletes.

  3. Energy


    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04 an emerging national crisis (war), emergency (natural disaster), or major impact event (Y2K). Certain resources are generally critical to the

  4. Discussion on Airflow Control and Energy Saving System for Laboratory Environment%实验室通风气流控制系统及节能技术探讨

    陈华平; 黄庆; 邵征宇; 陈烈钢; 敖顺荣


    本文以浙江中烟技术中心实验室为例,对实验室通风气流控制的特性进行了分析,提出了实验室安全、节能运转条件下气流控制系统应达到的性能要求。根据这些要求,本文详细描述了实验室通风柜面风速和房间压力控制方案,并对方案的节能效果进行了分析。%Taking the laboratory of CTZI technical center as an example, this paper discusses the characters of the laboratory airflow control, brings up the specifications that the airflow control system should meet for laboratory running under safety and energy saving conditions. Upon these specifications, the paper discusses the corresponding control strategies of face velocity of laboratory fume hood and room pressure, then analyses the energy saving effect as well.

  5. Alternative energies for motor vehicle drives. Lectures with discussion on September 7, 1995 in Bonn; Alternative Energien fuer den Antrieb von Kraftfahrzeugen. Vortraege mit Diskussion, 7. September 1995, Bonn



    In our endeavour to protect the environment and conserve our classical resources we must search for new possibilities that are both economically efficient and sufficiently safe. However, these two are not the only criteria we must observe. Given the present multitude of constraints it will not be easy for alternative energies to make headway in the world market - this we know from our daily discussions - but we are nevertheless sticking to our course. As far as the motor vehicle is concerned we are dealing with the fossil fuels, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas, but also with hydrogen and so-called renewable energies from natural sources such as solar energy as well as cultivable raw materials such as diesel oil from rapeseed. All of these energy sources are dealt with in the lectures contained in this booklet. (orig./KO) [Deutsch] Zunehmend muessen wir unter den Aspekten des Umweltschutzes und der Schonung unserer klassischen Ressourcen nach neuen Moeglichkeiten suchen, die einerseits wirtschaftlich, andererseits auch sicher genug sind. Dabei gilt es, neben diesen beiden auch andere Rahmenbedingungen einzuhalten. Unter den genannten Zwaengen haben es die alternativen Energien nicht leicht, sich in dieser Welt Marktanteile zu erobern - wir wissen das aus der taeglichen Diskussion -, aber wir sind auf dem Wege dahin. Wenn wir uns heute mit dem Thema Kraftfahrzeug befassen, meinen wir die fossilen Brennstoffe Fluessiggas und Erdgas, aber auch Wasserstoff sowie die sogenannten erneuerbaren Energien aus natuerlichen Quellen oder die nachwachsenden Rohstoffe wie etwa die Sonnenenergie oder Dieseloel aus Raps. Von all diesen Energiequellen wird die Rede sein. (orig./KO)

  6. The German energy policy as a consequence of Fukushima. The scientific discussion between nuclear phase-out and economic growth; Die deutsche ''Energiewende'' nach Fukushima. Der wissenschaftliche Diskurs zwischen Atomausstieg und Wachstumsdebatte

    Radtke, Joerg [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe fuer Energie und Infrastruktur; Hennig, Bettina (ed.) [Forschungsstelle Nachhaltigkeit und Klimapolitik, Leipzig (Germany)


    The book on the German energy policy as a consequence includes the following contributions: The German energy turnaround - scientific contributions. The energy turnaround in Germany - issue of interdisciplinary science. The transformation of the energy systems as social and technical challenge, - on the need of integrating energy research. Transformations and transformation blockades in the German energy system. The German energy turnaround in the context of international best practice. Energy turnaround also in Japan? - The chances of a nuclear phase-out. Possibilities and limits of public participation for the realization of an energy turnaround. Public energy in Germany - a model for participation? A plea for a comprehensive analysis of the energy turnaround in relation to the omnipresent crisis. Challenges and development in the German energy industry - consequences of the increasing percentage of renewable energies on the costs and the security of supply. Research funding and innovation promotion in the area of selected renewable energies. The economic chances of an energy turnaround. The need of appropriate monetary boundary conditions for the energy turnaround and the possibilities of an organization. The human factor in the context of the energy turnaround - environmental-psychological research approaches. The legal contribution to the energy turnaround. Vulnerability and resilience of energy systems. Geography of renewable energies -spatial constraints of a sustainable energy system. Critics and alternatives: The German energy turnaround that is no turnaround.

  7. The cutaneous lesions of dioxin exposure: lessons from the poisoning of Victor Yushchenko.

    Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Kaya, Guerkan; Saxer-Sekulic, Nikolina; Pardo, Bruno; Becker, Minerva; Fontao, Lionel; Mottu, Florence; Carraux, Pierre; Pham, Xuan-Cuong; Barde, Caroline; Fontao, Fabienne; Zennegg, Markus; Schmid, Peter; Schaad, Olivier; Descombes, Patrick; Sorg, Olivier


    Several million people are exposed to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, primarily through food consumption. Skin lesions historically called "chloracne" are the most specific sign of abnormal dioxin exposure and classically used as a key marker in humans. We followed for 5 years a man who had been exposed to the most toxic dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), at a single oral dose of 5 million-fold more than the accepted daily exposure in the general population. We adopted a molecular medicine approach, aimed at identifying appropriate therapy. Skin lesions, which progressively covered up to 40% of the body surface, were found to be hamartomas, which developed parallel to a complete and sustained involution of sebaceous glands, with concurrent transcriptomic alterations pointing to the inhibition of lipid metabolism and the involvement of bone morphogenetic proteins signaling. Hamartomas created a new compartment that concentrated TCDD up to 10-fold compared with serum and strongly expressed the TCDD-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 1A1, thus representing a potentially significant source of enzymatic activity, which may add to the xenobiotic metabolism potential of the classical organs such as the liver. This historical case provides a unique set of data on the human tissue response to dioxin for the identification of new markers of exposure in human populations. The herein discovered adaptive cutaneous response to TCDD also points to the potential role of the skin in the metabolism of food xenobiotics.

  8. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Curt Dudley-Marling


    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  9. Highlights of the Discussions.

    Olson, Christine M.; Gillespie, Ardyth H.


    Summarizes the discussions and identified research priorities from a 1980 Workshop on Nutrition Education Research relating to areas of anthropology, communications, psychology, and social psychology. (DS)

  10. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.


    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  11. Leading Classroom Discussions

    Gonzalez, Gloriana; DeJarnette, Anna F.


    Classroom discourse is a valuable teaching and learning tool. Discussions allow students to improve their communication and reasoning skills in mathematics and help teachers assess students' understanding of mathematical ideas. To get the greatest benefit from discussion, teachers must elicit student thinking, listen carefully to their ideas,…

  12. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.


    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  13. The Use of Discussion.

    Brunner, Edmund deS.; And Others

    Research on the use of discussion in adult education has been largely concerned with comparing it with the use of other instructional techniques and with measuring opinion change. Many studies, such as Kurt Lewin's study of food habits, have compared the effectiveness of group discussion as contrasted with lecture in changing opinions and…

  14. ''Improving the EEG''. PHOTON discussion with experts of German political parties on the future of reimbursement for alternative energy; ''Das EEG weiter entwickeln''. PHOTON-Streitgesprach mit Energie-Experten der Bundestagsfraktionen ueber die kuenftige Solarstromfoerderung



    In a PHOTON discussion with Rainer Brinkmann (SPD), Franz Obermeier (CSU), Hans-Josef Fell (Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen), Walter Hirche (FDP) and Eva Bullinger-Schrter (PDS), it became clear that the FDP is not the only political party in Germany to oppose the EEG (Renewable Energy Act). The CSU is thinking about replacing reimbursement for alternative energy sources by a tendering procedure. [German] Weil Wahlprogramme sich meist in Allgemeinplaetzen verlieren, baten wir Energie-Experten aus den fuenf Bundestagsfraktionen in einem Streitgespraech um Klartext: Wie sehen die Plaene zur Solarstromfoerderung aus? Bei der lebhaften Diskussion zwischen Rainer Brinkmann (SPD), Franz Obermeier (CSU), Hans-Josef Fell (Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen), Walter Hirche (FDP) und Eva Bulling-Schroeter (PDS) wurde deutlich: Nicht nur die FDP ist gegen das Erneuerbaree-Energien-Gesetz (EEG). Auch in der Union gibt es Ueberlegungen, die Einspeiseverguetung fuer Solarstrom durch einen Ausschreibungswettbewerb abzuloesen. (orig.)

  15. Proceedings of the workshop ''Decarbonisation. 100 % renewable energy and more''. A report to document the presentations and discussions during the course of the event

    Donat, Lena; Duwe, Matthias; Roberts, Ennid [Ecologic Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany)


    The workshop ''Decarbonisation - 100% Renewable Energy and more'', was held on 9 November 2015 in Berlin, hosted by the German Environment Agency and organised by Ecologic Institute. It offered a valuable opportunity for decision-makers, academia, business and civil society from EU Member States, to exchange ideas and lessons learned on the design and implementation of longterm decarbonisation strategies and discuss how industrialised nations, regions and cities can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in various economic sectors. Workshop participants, Source: Ecologic Institute. The workshop generated important momentum for raising awareness on the topic and advancing the debate at EU level. This report gives an overview of the key presentations of the workshop and outcomes of the debate, clustered along the following topics: - Introduction: the case for action - National long-term strategies - Experience with implementation of national strategies - Local and regional examples The report's structure follows the internal logic and outline of the workshop agenda. Substituting for the presentations made on the day, it is made up of articles written by the original presenters, which contain the main facts and summarise their key messages. These are complemented by background and conclusions prepared by researchers from Ecologic Institute, the organisation that implemented the workshop on behalf of the German Environment Agency.

  16. Germany without renewables? Electricity costs and security of supply without the supply of renewable energy in 2011-2013. Discussion paper; Deutschland ohne Erneuerbare Energien? Stromkosten und Versorgungssicherheit ohne die Einspeisung Erneuerbarer Energien in den Jahren 2011-2013. Diskussionspapier

    Dillig, Marius; Karl, Juergen


    In the years 2010 to 2013, the share of electricity produced from renewable energy of approximately 17 rose to 24%. For this share compared to conventional production results significantly increased electricity costs, which are allocated on the EEG surcharge to the final consumer. In public discussion of these costs, however, often is ignored that the rapid rise of the share of renewable energy lead to an oversupply of power and therefore decreasing electricity costs in total resulted. By the oversupply the trend of a strong increase in the 2000 to 2008 of Electricity prices on the European electricity markets was broken. The aim of this discussion paper is to reconstruct based on historical price data on the spot market of the Leipzig electricity exchange which prices would be set on the electricity market in the years 2011 to 2013 without the power supply from wind and photovoltaic. The analysis shows that electricity prices have increased without wind and sun, for example, for 2013, due to the significantly lower power supply by an average of 5.29 ct / kWh in the ''day-ahead'' trade on the spot market. The cost of the EEG surcharge of approximately EUR 20.4 billion are thus in 2013 savings of conventional electricity of approximately 31.6 billion euros. This saved a total of approximately 11.2 billion euros in 2013 for the German final consumers. About 269 hours of the year, the demand could not be satisfied with the offered maximal power of 2013. This does not automatically mean that in these situations, major faults (''blackouts'') would have been incurred because the consideration Reserve power plants for system services (''control reserve'') are not taken into account and possible additional import electricity. A stable network operation was reliably ensured only by the supply of renewable energy in these situations, however. Due to the massive development of renewable energy is therefore reduced to

  17. Focus group discussions

    Hennink, Monique M


    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  18. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    P. Pokorny


    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  19. Writing a Discussion.

    Smith, Sue; And Others

    A unit used in an Australian school to teach English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students how to write a discussion is described. The 3-week unit was planned and implemented jointly by an ESL resource teacher, class teacher, and teacher librarian. The class was divided into three heterogeneous groups, two of which were observed for this study and…

  20. Promoting Lively Literature Discussion

    Gritter, Kristine


    When students create personal connections with literature during whole-class discussion, they make sense both of text and of their life experiences. In this article, the author shares tips that help students make text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections. She offers classroom examples to illustrate how conversations that encourage…

  1. Discussion of Environmental Protection



    Knowledge about environment issues was introduced. The influence of pollution on human beings as well as ecosystem was analyzed. And the management of environment protection and the roles that both the local government and central government should play were discussed. Finally, the legislation and supervision for environment protection were put forward.

  2. Reply to the discussion



    @@ Alan Lee adds to the topic and work of the paper by providing highly insightful discussion and new results. I thank him. In particular he provides further reasons for working with the derived values, Win-Tie-Loss,rather that actual goal counts themselves.

  3. Cotton Pricing Discussion


    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  4. Summaries of group discussions

    Jensen, L. D.


    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  5. Discussion on advanced manufacturing

    WANG Xiankui


    Advanced manufacturing consists of continuity of manufacturing,its broad sense,and the core of the manufacturing process.The technology of continuous manufacturing is discussed according to both historical and modern perspectives.The relationship between human development and manufacturing technology is also discussed.Manufacturing is a continuously evolving topic.It is not only the foundation and means of imagination,conception,the science,and the technology of material change,but also the expression of national economy,national defense,and the support industries.The broad sense of manufacturing theory,which extends the concept of manufacturing,is an important development in the 20th century.The sense is analyzed in connection with design,material forming theory,synthesis of manufacturing technology,manufacturing modes,life cycle of product,hardware and sottware,and support environment,etc.At the same time,the core action and the development of the theory and technology of process is also discussed.At the end of this paper,the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.

  6. Solar Energy.

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  7. QCD under extreme conditions: an informal discussion

    Fraga, E S


    We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions un- der extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 and 2015 CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experi- mental high-energy physics.

  8. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Tengland, Per-Anders


    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  9. Medical Physics Panel Discussion

    Guèye, Paul; Avery, Steven; Baird, Richard; Soares, Christopher; Amols, Howard; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Drew


    The panel discussion will explore opportunities and vistas in medical physics research and practice, medical imaging, teaching medical physics to undergraduates, and medical physics curricula as a recruiting tool for physics departments. Panel members consist of representatives from NSBP (Paul Guèye and Steven Avery), NIH/NIBIB (Richard Baird), NIST (Christopher Soares), AAPM (Howard Amols), ASTRO (Prabhakar Tripuraneni), and Jefferson Lab (Stan Majewski and Drew Weisenberger). Medical Physicists are part of Departments of Radiation Oncology at hospitals and medical centers. The field of medical physics includes radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. It also ranges from basic researcher (at college institutions, industries, and laboratories) to applications in clinical environments.

  10. Conclusion et discussion

    Bertrand, Romain; Wachtel, Nathan; Berger, Laurent; Levi, Giovanni; Boucheron, Patrick; Calvo, Thomas


    M. Romain BERTRANDNous voilà désormais rendus au terme probablement très provisoire concernant les débats et les discussions des travaux de Nathan WACHTEL lors de cette rencontre. Il nous reste une trentaine de minutes pour engager le débat avec les participants de la dernière séance et, le cas échéant, faire valoir des remarques générales sur telle ou telle session. Je souhaiterais inviter Nathan WACHTEL à initier cet échange s’il le souhaite. M. Nathan WACHTELComme je l’expliquais à Romain,...

  11. Results of discussions with those involved in deep geothermal energy projects; Befunde der Gespraeche mit Akteuren der tiefen Geothermie. Rueckmeldungen zum Bericht 'Betriebs- und Traegerschaftskonzept fuer eine Explorationsgesellschaft der tiefen Geothermie' (Projekt 102'924) - Schlussbericht

    Keiser, U.; Goetz, R.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the reactions obtained in connection with the report entitled 'Operational and support concept for an exploratory company for deep geothermal energy'. Topics dealt with include: Concessions for exploratory drilling, unavailable access to experts, low level of knowledge concerning Swiss bedrock, technological developments, drilling costs and risks. Possible directions to be taken for future work are looked at, including four possible work modules.

  12. Energies; Energies



    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Discussion on the application of green environment protection and energy saving in building decoration%试述绿色环保节能在建筑装饰中的运用



    介绍了绿色环保及节能在建筑装饰工程中的应用情况,重点探讨了一些绿色环保节能材料在建筑装饰中的应用,希望能够对于今后建筑装饰行业的环保节能发展有所帮助。%The paper introduces the application conditions of green environment protection and energy saving in building decoration engineering, and mainly explores the application of green environment protection and energy-saving material in building decoration,with a view to be some help for environment protection and energy-saving development of building decoration industry in future.

  14. 高层建筑外墙的保温及节能之浅见%Discussion of Heat Preservation and Energy Saving of Exterior Wall in High-rise Building



    The function of heat preservation and energy sav-ing to building has been paid more at ention in recent years. Although energy conservation technology in high-rise building has been widely applied, the knowledge of the aspects stil is not comprehensive. The paper focuses on heat preservation and energy saving of exterior wal in high-rise building in Chi-na at current.%近年来人们更加关注建筑的保温和节能功能。尽管高层建筑节能技术得到了广泛应用,但对此方面的认识尚且不够全面。作者主要针对当前我国高层建筑外墙的保温和节能进行了全面探究。

  15. 拉萨市公共建筑外围护节能改造设计依据探讨%Discussion on Lhasa City Public Building Envelope Energy Saving Retrofit Design Basis

    王俊清; 秦萍; 袁艳平


    In the area of Lhasa local public building energy efficiency design standard has not yet promulgated circumstances, considering the building energy consumption is given priority to with heat consumption in the Lhasa area, through the theoretical analysis is proposed national standard, the basic idea of the relative heating energy saving rate, as both the energy-saving reform of the public building envelope design basis and standard of evaluation standards, and in Lhasa existent public buildings, for example, by building energy efficiency design software (BECS2010) simulation study different than public building shape coefficient and window wall per unit area in heating energy saving rate with the change of the insulation layer thickness, analyzed the existent public building envelope construction energy conservation transformation design based on the specific heating energy saving rate.%在拉萨地区地方性公共建筑节能设计标准尚未出台情况下,考虑到拉萨地区建筑能耗以耗热量为主的情况,通过理论分析提出采用国标的基本思想——相对采暖节能率,作为既有公共建筑外围护结构节能改造的设计依据及达标的评判标准,并以拉萨市既有公共建筑为例,通过建筑节能设计软件(BECS2010)模拟研究不同体形系数、窗墙比公共建筑单位面积年采暖节能率随保温层厚度变化情况,分析论证拉萨市既有公共建筑外围护结构节能改造设计依据的具体采暖节能率指标。

  16. Discussion of policies and developments of energy industry——Centered in German renewable energy law%政策法制与能源产业推动之探讨——以德国再生能源法为中心

    蔡岳勋; 鲁裕申


    The global problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel and climate change become serious.And thus,aiming at sustainable development,to explore and use renewable energy are the current energy policies around the world;and most of them are in way of legislation.In general,many countries legislate for energy,and execute with concrete,accurate,compulsive regulation or economic encouragement.The law concerning renewable energy of Germany is a remarkable example.In 2000,German Government passed the first law concerning renewable energy in the world and named it Law for the Procedure of Renewable Energy(Gesetz für den Vorrang Erneuerbarer Energien).Renewable Energy Law(Ernererbare-Energien-Gesetz,EEG) in short.It has been revised many times so far.This article will cut in from the EEG and observe the core of the law,which is called Feed-in Tariff(FIT) and the direction of legislative revision in current years to discuss the background and current situation of the development of renewable energy industry in Germany.%全球传统石化能源耗竭及气候变迁等负面效应日益严重,以永续发展为目标,再生能源之开发利用备受关注,已成为世界各国能源政策的主要施政方针,其中多以立法手段积极推动.综观各国已提出亦或正在施行的政策和措施,皆由订定法令来体现,以法律的形式确立发展目标,再透过具体而明确的强制规范或经济激励措施,进而得其实质成效.德国再生能源法相关法规范即为明证.德国于2000年制定全球首部再生能源优先法(Gesetz fürden Vorrang Erneuerbarer Energien),简称再生能源法(Ernererbare-Energien-Gesetz,EEG),至今已历多次修法.本文将从德国再生能源法制探讨,观其核心固定电价制度(Feed-in Tariff,FIT)与近年修法方向,说明德国再生能源产业发展之背景及现况,希祈能就推动发展再生能源有所帮助.

  17. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P


    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  18. Discussion on Energy Saving Reconstruction of Existing Buildings in Hot Summer and Warm Winter Area%夏热冬暖地区既有建筑节能改造初探

    赵红军; 颜亮; 茹志鹏


    This paper expounds the current situation of building energy consumption in the hot summer and warm winter area, puts forward the main points and measures for energy saving renovation of existing buildings in this area and mainly analyzes the transformation of external envelope, air conditioning system, automatic control system, lighting system and the use of green energy to provide scientific basis and technical reference for the energy saving reconstruction of existing buildings in hot summer and warm winter area.%概述了夏热冬暖地区既有建筑的能耗现状,结合夏热冬暖地区气候特点,提出了针对该地区既有建筑节能改造的要点和措施,重点分析了外围护结构、空调系统、自控系统、照明系统的改造以及绿色能源的利用。为夏热冬暖地区既有建筑节能改造提供科学依据和技术参考。

  19. 车辆制动能量回收领域中液压技术的应用研究论述%Discussion on the Application of Hydraulic Technology in the Field of Vehicle Braking Energy Recovery



    由于城市人口、车辆较为集中,车辆需要频繁起步加速、换挡制动,特别是公交车辆,能源消耗量大,环境污染严重.液压技术实现车辆制动能量回收,能提高能量利用率,改善车辆的排放性能,降低对环境的污染程度,达到节能减排的目的.%Due to the urban population, the vehicle is more concentrated, the vehicle needs to start accelerating, shift brake, especially the public transport vehicles, energy consumption, environmental pollution is serious. Subsequently, the hydraulic technology is applied to the vehicle braking energy recovery, can improve the energy utilization rate, improve the vehicle emission performance, reduce the pollution degree of the environment, and achieve the purpose of energy saving and emission reduction.

  20. 浅谈工业锅炉节能技术(产品)评价体系建立%Discussion on Evaluation System of the Industrial Boiler Energy-saving Technology or Products

    陆倩; 徐慎忠


    At present, the overall operating efifciency of China's industrial boiler was low, and the energy boiler energy-saving technology and product respond to national conserve energy call was various, but there was no uniifed comprehensive evaluation method on their applicability, economical efifciency and popularization. Although the energy saving evaluation system at home and abroad had been more and more mature, but most aimed at large power station boilers, central heating, etc., with no reference to the sparser industrial boiler energy saving technology (product). In the future, based on literature research, combined with engineering analysis and questionnaire survey, supplemented by experimental verification, typical case analysis and numerical simulation and other methods, the multivariate industrial boiler energy-saving technology (product) evaluation index model combining qualitative and quantitative, technical and market, safety and energy saving could been established.%目前我国工业锅炉整体运行效率低下,响应国家节能号召的锅炉节能技术与产品繁多,缺少统一的评价方法对其适用性、经济性和推广性进行综合评价。虽然目前国内外的节能评价体系日趋成熟,但多是针对大型电站锅炉、集中供暖等,对分布较广、较分散的工业锅炉节能技术(产品)借鉴性不足。未来可以采用文献研究为基础、工程分析与问卷调研相结合的方式,辅以实验验证、典型案例分析、数值仿真模拟等方法,形成定性、定量相结合,技术与市场相结合,安全与节能相结合的多元工业锅炉节能技术(产品)评价指标模型。

  1. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992



    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  2. Discussion and Analysis on Energy-saving Optimization Design of Water Supply System for Passenger Train%旅客列车注水系统节能优化设计探析

    邢军朝; 席社


    At present the water amount of water supply system on a domestic passenger train is too small to meet the need for rapid and sufficient water supply to the passenger train which has been sped up.However,if the water supply facilities at the station surface were put into renovation for improving the water supply ability,the renovation effectiveness would be not only unsatisfactory but also with large energy consumption and high cost.For this reason,this paper researched the ways of improving water supply ability of passenger train water supply system,analyzed the functional relationship between passenger train water supply ability and energy consumption.And then by combining this functional relationship with functional curve graph,the paper analyzed the technical indexes respectively before and after the optimization of passenger train water supply system,such as the water amount,energy consumption etc,therefore the rationality of system energy-saving optimization design was illustrated.%国内旅客列车车上注水系统上水量小,满足不了提速后客车快速足量补水的作业要求,改造车站地面上水设施以提高客车上水能力的成效低,还造成系统能耗高,投资大等问题.通过研究提高客车上水系统上水能力的途径,分析客车上水能力与系统能耗的函数关系,并用该函数关系,结合函数曲线图分析旅客列车注水系统优化前后的上水量及能耗等技术指标,从而论证了系统节能优化设计的合理性.

  3. Discussion on energy utilization pattern of hydro-photovoltaic hybrid in Ngari area of Tibet%西藏阿里地区水光互补能源利用模式探讨

    李建兵; 罗洋涛; 冯宇


    Based on the development and utilization condition of energy and resources and power energy demand in the Ngari area of Tibet, possible power supply schemes were studied. A clean energy utilization hybrid model of a reservoir power station and photovoltaic plant is proposed through comprehensive comparison of power system requirements, operation and maintenance, environmental protection, and economics. The system structure, power generation characteristics, and operation effect of this hydro-photovoltaic hybrid system are analyzed. The results show that the complementary power-generating characteristic of the energy utilization pattern using the reservoir power station and photovoltaic plant is beneficial to photovoltaic power consumption and power network safety operation.%根据西藏阿里地区各类能源资源开发利用条件和系统用电需求,研究可能的能源电力供应方案;通过对各方案在满足电力系统需求、运行维护、环境保护及经济性等方面的综合比较,提出“调节水库电站+光伏”互补运行的清洁能源利用模式,并对该地区水光互补系统的构成、发电特性、运行效果等方面进行分析,结果表明该模式利用调节水库电站与光伏双向互补发电特性有利于并网光伏电能消纳及电网安全稳定运行。

  4. 利用可再生能源的反渗透膜法海水淡化方案探讨%Discussion of Seawater Desalination Schemes through RO Process with Renewable Energy Sources

    叶华; 陈斌伟


    The optimization of system function,seawater treatment and storage capacity,equipment selection,operation and management for conventional reverse osmosis seawater desalination system were suggested in this paper. The optimization could not only solve the contradiction between the fluctuation of electric production from renewable energy and desalination load,but also increase utilization hours of generating set,which improves the adaption of desalination system for the fluctuation of renewable energy to secure working. The integration of reverse osmosis seawater desalination with renewable energy could guarantee fresh water production and also create a novel mode of circular economy on utilization of renewable energy and seawater resource in China.%该文对常规膜法海水淡化系统的系统功能、设备出力、蓄水能力、设备选型、运行管理等方面提出了优化调整意见,使之在安全运行的前提下,适应可再生能源电力波动的特点,如此不但能解决可再生能源发电量不稳定、发电量与用电负荷不匹配等问题,大幅提高可再生能源发电设备的利用小时数,还能解决我国淡水资源紧缺问题,创造利用可再生能源和海水资源的新循环经济模式。

  5. Discussions on the Equivalence of Potential Energy Principle in Elastic Mechanics%对弹性力学势能原理等价性提法的商榷

    汤安民; 李智慧


    从热力学第一定律出发可得到功能原理、平衡条件、几何方程.从热力学第二定律出发可得到最小变形能原理、最小势能原理.热力学第一定律和热力学第二定律是两类物理性质不同的弹性变形条件,二者相互独立,前者可确定弹性变形大小,后者可确定弹性变形分布规律.弹性力学中最小势能原理等价于平衡条件、广义势能原理等价于弹性力学基本方程的提法并不正确.%The principle of work and energy, equilibrium conditions and geometric equations can be de-rived based on the first law of thermodynamics, and minimum deformation principle and principle of mini-mum potential energy can be derived based on the second law of thermodynamics. These are two elastic deformation conditions with different physical properties, and being independent of each other. The mag-nitudes of elastic deformation can be determined by the former, and the distributions law can be deter-mined by the latter. The wordings that principle of minimum potential energy is equivalent to equilibrium conditions and generalized principle of potential energy is equivalent to the basic equations of elasticity are not correct.

  6. 25 t/h循环双流化床锅炉在节能改造中的应用与探讨%Application and Discussion of 25t/h Circulating Double Fluidized Bed Boiler in Energy Saving Reform



    从技术特点、生产运行情况、经济效益、改进完善等多方面对循环双流化床锅炉在节能改造中的运用进行分析,总结该锅炉节能改造中存在的利弊,促进该炉型的不断改进和完善,并结合设计规范与设计理念,对今后锅炉的结构与节能措施提出设想和建议,促进该炉型更好的推广应用。%This paper makes analysis on the application of circulating double fluidized bed boiler in the energy saving from the technical characteristics, production operation , economic benefits, use improving and other aspects of the analysis and concludes the existing advantages and disadvantages in energy saving reform of boiler. It promotes the continuous improvement of the boiler type. Combining with the design concept and design specification, this paper proposes suggestions for measures of energy saving and the future structure of the boiler, which promotes the popularization and application of this type boiler.

  7. Discussion on the Low Carbon Buildings of China Hangzhou Low Carbon Science and Technology Museum Green Energy-saving%浅谈中国杭州低碳科技馆绿色节能之低碳建筑



      “绿色节能”已成为全世界共同关注的话题,同时也成为节约成本、提高能效的一个重要途径,建筑节能的根本就是低碳。本文以某项目的节能技术应用为例,通过材料、构造、新能源利用等应用情况进行分析,综述低碳建筑发展的必要性。%“Green energy” has become a topic of common concern in the world, but also become an important way to save cost, improve efficiency, the fundamental of building en-ergy efficiency is low carbon. This paper taking the application of energy saving technology in a project as an example, thro-ugh the analysis of materials, construction, new energy in the application, sums the necessity of development of low carbon building.

  8. Discussion on municipal wastewater treatment plant energy-saving evaluation standards%城市污水处理厂节能水平评估标准探讨

    梅小乐; 周燕


    以我国现行典型城市污水处理厂实际运行情况为依托,结合国内外经验成果,在筛选影响城市污水处理厂节能水平重要因子的前提下,初步提出采用打分形式对城市污水处理厂节能水平进行评估的设想,从而建立城市污水处理厂节能水平等级划分标准.%Based on current typical municipal wastewater treatment plants operation in China and both home and abroad operation experience, and the selection of municipal wastewater treatment plant energy-saving efficiency impact factors, the primary plan for municipal wastewater treatment plant energy-saving level evaluation by credits was proposed, and then the standards for grade classification of municipal wastewater treatment plant energy-saving levels were also set up.

  9. Report on behalf of the ''Commission mixte Paritaire'' commissioned to propose a text on the arrangements remaining in discussion and concerning the law project relative to the gas and electric power market and to the energy public utilities; Rapport au nom de la Commission mixte paritaire chargee de proposer un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi relatif aux marches energetiques et au service public de l'energie



    In the framework of the energy market opening, this document presents by a comparative table, the recommendations of the Senate and the National Assembly. After examination of this table, the ''Commission Paritaire'' elaborates a common text, presented in the second part of the document. (A.L.B.)

  10. 顺丁橡胶凝聚节能与降耗技术探讨%Discussion on Energy-saving and Consumption Reduction Technology of Butadiene Rubber During Condensation

    张玉鸽; 郭灏


    With the principle of the heterogeneous steam distillation, the paper presents detailed calculation and analysis for steam unit-consumption and action during double-kettle and three-kettle differential-pressure condensation process of nickel-based butadiene rubber, and points out that energy consumption and material consumption are a pair of conflicts with the solvent vaporization impetus as the link, so that the key to energy conservation during condensation process is to reduce steam consumption from gas-phase solvent in the kettle. Based on the three-kettle differential-pressure condensation, the pre-condensation technology is adopted and the steam addition pattern is changed in order to reduce the material consumption under the premise of without increasing energy consumption. Through comparison of energy and material consumptions from two groups of nickel-based butadiene rubber during condensation process, optimized measures are taken respectively for the purpose of energy-saving consumption-reduction.%本文利用非均相水蒸气蒸馏原理,对镍系顺丁橡胶双釜和三釜差压凝聚过程蒸汽单耗、作用进行了详细计算和剖析。指出能耗和物耗是以溶剂汽化推动力为纽带的一对矛盾,减少从釜内带出气相溶剂的蒸汽消耗是凝聚过程节能的关键。在三釜差压凝聚的基础上,采用预凝聚工艺,改变了蒸汽的加入方式,实现了在不增加能耗前提下降低物耗。通过两套镍系顺丁差压凝聚过程能耗、物耗对比,分别提供了节能降耗优化措施。

  11. Economy Discussion on Energy Conservation Design of Envelope Structure of Multi-storey Residence in Chongqing%重庆地区多层住宅围护结构节能设计经济性探讨

    周强; 王永超; 周书兵; 毛伟


    随着围护结构节能设计要求的不断提升,节能材料的成本价格也在日趋增高。住宅建筑在建筑总量中占有相当大的比重,有必要对其节能设计的经济性进行探讨。文章调研了重庆地区多层住宅围护结构主要部位传热系数情况和重庆地区保温材料现行市场价格,对满足相同传热系数的不同材料进行了经济性比对分析。此外,还对重庆主城区的典型多层住宅建筑进行节能模拟分析,选定不同的材料组合方案,比较分析其成本因素,得到满足节能规范要求并且成本较优的多层住宅围护结构节能设计策略。%With the gradual increase of requirements on energy conservation design of building envelope structure, the cost of energy conservation mate-rials is also on the rise. As the residential building accounts for the biggest proportion, it is necessary to explore the economy of energy conservation de-sign. The heat transfer coefficients of the major parts of the building envelope used in multi-storey residential building and the market price of thermal in-sulation materials in Chongqing are investigated and the economy of different materials with the same heat transfer coefficient is comparatively analyzed. Moreover, the energy conservation of the typical multi-storey residence in Chongqing is simulated and analyzed to select different material combination plans and comparatively analyzed their cost reasons so that a best energy conservation design can be obtained.

  12. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.


    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)


    彭秀芳; 王秀杰; 辜晋德


    The offshore roughness length is an important influence factor on the offshore wind energy resource assessment. A novel method to calculate the offshore roughness length to deduce the sea surface roughness using measured wind speed at 10m altitude was presented. Based on the analysis, calculation and comparison with the measured wind speed, wind velocity error was 2. 04 percent using the novel method while it was 4. 51 percent using the traditional calculation method. Wind energy density error is 10. 39 percent comparing with 16. 88 percent using the traditional method. The errors for wind speed and wind power density in the windy periods, using traditional calculation method were 3.42% and 5.04%. The example shows that it is more reliable to assess the wind energy resource using the new method.%提出一种利用海上10m高度的实测风速推求海面粗糙度的新方法.通过分析计算并与实测值进行对比,采用新方法计算时,风速误差为2.04%,风功率密度的误差为10.39%;采用传统零粗糙度计算方法时,风速误差为4.51%,风功率密度的误差为16.88%;在大风时段,用新方法计算时风速和风功率密度的计算结果比传统方法的计算结果更接近实测值.实例表明:采用新的粗糙度计算方法能够使海面推求的风资源结果更接近真实值.

  14. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and energy management in petroleum history, discussions and proposals; Gestao de gases do efeito estufa (GEE) e energia na historia do refino de petroleo: discussoes e propostas

    Rodrigues, Glenda Rangel; Perisse, Juarez Barbosa; Bittencourt, Roberto Carlos Pontes [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The oil refining is an intense activity in energy consumption ends up suffering pressures to reduce this consumption and therefore the emissions. In the case of the Brazilian refining park, it is time to increase conversion and hydrotreating, adjusting the quality of the products to the growing demand for fuel allowing fleet renewal, with better efficiency and lower emissions. This article presents an overview of refining, the analysis of the technological route chosen for the Hydrogen Generation Unit (HGU) and an example of emission evolution summarizing the impact of changes in greenhouse gas emissions in a refinery.

  15. Energy for Mankind

    Pincherle, L.; Rice-Evans, P.


    Discusses statistics concerning world energy requirements and supplies of different types of fuels. Also discusses the storage and transmission of energy and pollution problems related to energy utilization. (MLH)

  16. 脱硫特许经营无功补偿节能改造的研究%Discussion on Reactance Compensation and Energy Saving Reform in Desulfurization License Management



    电费是脱硫特许经营一项重要的日常运营费用,对脱硫电气系统进行无功补偿节能改造,可降低供电损耗以节约电费。根据某发电厂脱硫工程设计数据和脱硫特许经营实际运营数据,对在不同地点进行无功补偿改造的效益进行计算,得到在脱硫380V电动机就地安装无功补偿装置进行节能改造较合理的结论。%The electrical charge is an important daily operation charge, the electrical system of desulfurization which is carried through reactance compensation and energy saving reform, can decrease power supply consumption and save electri-cal charges. Based on the designing data of desulfurization engineering in a certain power plant and the actual operation data of desulfurization license management as wel as beneifts of reactance compensation reform counted in different sites, the rational conclusion is gained when energy saving and reform are conducted in the desulfurization 380V electromotor which instals reactance compensation device on the spot.

  17. 7th cooperative working conference of the State and Laender in the field of raw materials and energy research. Papers and discussions. 7. Arbeitstagung der Bund-Bundeslaenderkooperation auf dem Gebiet der Rohstoff- und Energieforschung. Vortraege und Diskussionen


    Within the framework of the cooperation between the State and the Laender in the field of raw materials and energy research, a workshop is organized every year in one of the states. In this workshop, the main research issues of the organizing state are presented and the states are offered an opportunity to exchange their experiences. The 7th workshop took place in Eisenerz on October 4-5, 1984 and was titled '10 years of raw materials research in the Steiermark' as 10 years had passed since the State Government of the Steiermark had decided in 1974 to record the raw material resources of the Steiermark and it seemed to be the time to report on the results. Thus, the results of the raw material research over the past ten years were documented for this workshop.

  18. Energy Storage.

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  19. Discussion on Energy Saving of Converter Used in Belt Conveyor in Coal Mine%关于煤矿皮带机变频器节能的探究



    Coal belt conveyor has relations with the transport of coal supplies and reduction losses in transport, and extending the life of the belt and so on, which has important significance for the mine development. In view of this, this paper mainly researched on energy-saving of converter used in belt conveyor in coal mine in order to deepen understanding of the coal belt drive, and improve application quality of coal belt conveyor.%煤矿皮带机关系着原煤物资运输、降低运输过程中的损耗、延长皮带使用寿命等,对煤矿发展具有重要的意义。鉴于此,主要就煤矿皮带机变频器节能进行研究,希望加深对煤矿皮带变频器的了解,提升煤矿皮带机的应用质量。

  20. 某大型能源央企招标采购管理模式实践与探讨%Practice and Discussion of BI and Purchasing Management Mode of Certain Large-scale Energy Enterprise



    对招标采购管理模式的类型进行分析,以某大型能源央企招标采购管理模式为例,分析了该企业从中央指导、分散操作型管理模式向中央领导型模式的转变和中央领导型管理模式的特点,对中央领导型管理模式各阶段主要任务与内容进行分解,以期为其他企业招标采购管理提供借鉴.%In this paper, we analyzed the categorization of the BI and purchasing management modes, then in the case of a certain large-scale central enterprise in the energy business, analyzed its transition from the centrally instructed and distributively operative management mode to the central leadership mode, introduced the characteristics of the central leadership management mode, and at the end, decomposed the major tasks and contents of the various stages of the mode.

  1. 细纱车间采用间接蒸发冷却技术的节能探讨%Energy-saving Discussion of Adopting Indirect Evaporation Cooling in Spinning Workshop

    葛向荣; 颜苏芊; 黄翔; 文力


    Reducing cooling capacity effect of adopting indirect evaporation cooling in spinning workshop was dis-cussed. Taking a spinning workshop summer air treatment process in Xi'an as example, according to the characteristics of high temperature and drying exhaust, indirect evaporation cooling technology was used to save cooling capacity. The tech-nology running costs, equipment investment and cost recovery period were calculated. The result shows that the cost re-covery period is about 4 years. It is considered that indirect evaporation cooling can decrease fresh-air capacity and workshop cooling capacity.%探讨细纱车间采用间接蒸发冷却技术节约制冷量的效果.以西安某细纱车间夏季空气处理过程为例,根据车间断头吸棉排风高温干燥的特点,采用间接蒸发冷却技术空气处理方法,节约制冷量.计算了该技术运行费、设备投入及设备成本回收周期,结果表明:运行约4年可收回成本.认为:间接蒸发冷却技术不仅可以降低新风量还可以减少车间制冷量.

  2. 农机维修节能减排技术推广探讨%Discussion on Technical Extension of Energy-saving and Emission-reducing for Agricultural Machinery Maintenance and Reparation



    In order to select and extend techniques of energy-saving and emission-reducing for agricultural machinery maintenance and reparation which suit current status , based on the research and data analysis , the paper stated the ne-cessity and feasibility of technical extension for standard fuel transmission and injection pump & injection nozzle debug -ging , and also raised several proposals regarding its extension .The techniques of standard fuel transmission and injection pump &injection nozzle debugging are most worth extension in the field of agricultural machinery maintenance and repa -ration.The paper suggest the government should support to establish the standard fuel transmission network , carry out subsidy policy to farmer who maintain or repair fuel injection pump and injection nozzle , select proper area to test before broad extension .%为了选择、推广适于当前现状的农机维修节能减排技术,采用调查研究、数理统计分析方法,阐述了喷油泵标准油量传递技术、喷油泵和喷油器调试技术推广的必要性和可行性,并提出了推广建议。在农机维修节能减排技术中,喷油泵标准油量传递技术、喷油泵和喷油器调试技术最具有推广价值和推广意义,建议采取国家扶持建设标准油量传递网络、对喷油泵和喷油器调试实施补贴,以及先试点后推广的方法进行推广。

  3. Alternative Energies

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.


    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  4. A Discussion with Jacques Derrida.

    Derrida, Jacques


    Presents an edited transcript of a discussion held in April 1989 between Jacques Derrida and a group of students and professors concerning Derrida's "Afterword: Toward an Ethic of Discussion." Discusses Derrida's views on "deconstruction" as a term and a movement, the idea of arguments and persuasion, and specific power…

  5. Energy crisis

    Subrahmanyam, K.V.; Mudgal, A.G. (comp.)


    Energy sources and energy consumption in India are discussed. Human and animal power constitute the principal sources of energy; both are extremely efficient users of the energy in food if they get enough; the food itself takes little energy to grow if energy-intensive agriculture does not take over from traditional methods. Of the commercial sources of energy with which India is endowed, the scarcest are natural gas and petroleum; the most abundant and reasonably well distributed geographically, except for the metallurgical grade, is coal; the one which holds out the greatest promise for the future is nuclear energy. The most important aspect of the energy problem in India is the short supply of coal to steel plants, electric utilities, and such vital industries as cement and textiles. There is a stark confession of the absence of progress on the energy front during the past 18 years. (MCW)

  6. mkt607 all week discussions latest 2015 [ all 16 discussions



    mkt607 all week discussions latest 2015 [ all 16 discussions] Click Link Below To Buy:   week 1   What are the components of a common marketing plan? Why is it important have a strategic marketing plan? How does the type of product or service affect the marketing strategy? Provide an example.       diss 2 What are the aspects of marketing management? How has the marketing management proc...

  7. Conversational Markers of Constructive Discussions

    Niculae, Vlad


    Group discussions are essential for organizing every aspect of modern life, from faculty meetings to senate debates, from grant review panels to papal conclaves. While costly in terms of time and organization effort, group discussions are commonly seen as a way of reaching better decisions compared to solutions that do not require coordination between the individuals (e.g. voting)---through discussion, the sum becomes greater than the parts. However, this assumption is not irrefutable: anecdotal evidence of wasteful discussions abounds, and in our own experiments we find that over 30% of discussions are unproductive. We propose a framework for analyzing conversational dynamics in order to determine whether a given task-oriented discussion is worth having or not. We exploit conversational patterns reflecting the flow of ideas and the balance between the participants, as well as their linguistic choices. We apply this framework to conversations naturally occurring in an online collaborative world exploration ga...

  8. 浅议节能材料以及节能技术在现代建筑工程中的应用%Discussion on the Application of Energy-saving Materials and Energy-saving Technology in Modern Construction



    Along with the increasing energy consumption, en-ergy conservation has become the focus of global at ention. The use of energy-saving materials or the use of energy-saving technology can save energy in the modern construction. This paper analyzes the significance of energy saving and modern architectural engineering construction energy conservation pre-sent situation, enumerates some common energy-saving techn-ologies used in modern architecture.%随着能源消耗不断增大,节约能源已成为全球关注的焦点。在现代建筑工程中使用节能材料或采用节能技术能够节约能源。本文分析了现代建筑工程节能的意义和建筑节能现状,列举了一些常见节能技术在现代建筑中的运用。

  9. Acquiring Knowledge from Asynchronous Discussion

    Teo, Yiong Hwee; Webster, Len


    This article discusses a study which was designed to explore how online scaffolding can be incorporated to support knowledge acquisition in asynchronous discussion. A group of Singapore preservice teachers engaged in collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video…

  10. Salinity Energy.

    Schmitt, Walter R.


    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  11. Zatlers discusses energy issues in Lithuania / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.


    10. veebruaril alanud Läti presidendi Valdis Zatlersi Leedu riigivisiidist, mille käigus ta kohtus ka Leedu presidendi Dalia Grybauskaitega. Kohtumisel räägiti energeetika teemadel ja rõhutati, et riikidevahelised suhted on jätkuvalt head

  12. Small group discussion: Students perspectives.

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran


    Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1(st) year medical students of 2014-2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods.

  13. Wind Energy

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)


    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  14. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    Rembert, Ron B.


    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  15. Group discussion improves lie detection

    Nadav Klein; Nicholas Epley


    ... identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions...

  16. Discussion of "interpretation and play".

    Pick, Irma Brenman


    This discussion addresses the conflict in technique between play versus interpretation. It further considers how the nature of the interpretation may be affected by a consideration of what is being projected into the analyst.

  17. Discussion-Induced Attitude Polarization

    Myers, David G.


    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that the average of group members' responses following group discussion will generally be more extreme in the same direction as the average of individual pregroup preferences. (Author/MLF)

  18. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion


    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  19. Alternative energies. Alternative Energien

    Hayes, D.


    This is a popular review of problems of present and, in particular, future energy supply. All energy sources available are discussed, including improved energy use and energy conservation. Solar energy is favoured as energy source of the future. A great number of examples are given along with many bibliographic references.

  20. Using the Amatrice (Italy) seismic sequence we asses the soil-structure in the case of San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039) in Acquasanta Terme town. We tried to figure out how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

    Caserta, A.; Doumaz, F.; Costanzo, A.; Buongiorno, M. F.


    We used the moderate-magnitude aftershocks succeeding to the 2016 August 24th, Mw = 6.0, Amatrice (Italy) mainshok to asses, specially during an ongoing seismic sequence, the soil-structure interaction where cultural Heritage is involved. We have chosen as case study the San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039) in Acquasanta Terme town, about 20 Km northeast of Amatrice. First of all we studied the soil shaking features in order to characterize the input to the monument. Then, using the recordings in the church, we tried to figure out how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

  1. Speed-Discussion: Engaging Students in Class Discussions

    Kornfield, Sarah; Noack, Kristen


    Courses: Communication Criticism, Rhetorical Criticism, Family and Communication, Gender and Communication, Popular Communication, and theory-based courses. Objectives: This activity engages students in dynamic, supportive, social discussion groups; helps them to identify and review the central ideas from the reading; and creates a record of their…

  2. Energy and environmental assessment

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut


    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  3. Energy and environmental assessment

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut


    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  4. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Changgeng, Li


    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  5. Mathematical Induction: A Pedagogical Discussion.

    Ernest, Paul


    Discusses the nature of mathematical induction and what constitutes a correct proof by this method and common misconceptions of induction with recommendations for their remediation. The topic is also analyzed into behavioral skills and subjected to a conceptual analysis. Criteria for analyzing and evaluating textbook treatment of induction are…

  6. Learning through synchronous electronic discussion

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.


    This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective ped

  7. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Changgeng, Li


    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on others to…

  8. Five Discussions on Postsecondary Education.

    Jobe, E. R., Ed.

    Topics discussed are: (1) student aid and access to postsecondary education (Jack L. Woodward); (2) values in athletics (Grant Dungee); (3) some considerations in planning for postsecondary education (Paul G. Orr); (4) the open university as a challenge for postsecondary education in Mississippi (Cleopatra D. Thompson); and (5) comprehensive…

  9. The EEG as an instrument of the Federal areal management of renewable energies - also a contribution to the discussion about energy sectoral planning; Das EEG als Instrument des Bundes zur raeumlichen Steuerung der erneuerbaren Energien - zugleich ein Beitrag zur Diskussion um eine Energiefachplanung

    Gruener, Anna-Maria [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sailer, Frank [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany). Forschungsgebiet Energieanlagen- und Infrastrukturrecht


    The areal management of the power generation structure takes place at first glance mainly on the Zoning and Planning Law, less than the energy law. The only sporadically encountered jurisprudential work for controlling effect of the EEG came to the conclusion, the current configuration of the support system in the EEG is in deficit and ''blind'' to the localization and areal distribution of energy generation plants in the Federal territory, although the EEG is representing a ''downright predestined management tool''. On closer inspection, however, shows that individual provisions have entirely certain location preferences or cause areal distribution effects and the EEG thus play a management effect. The contribution is therefore devoted to the question of whether and how the EEG 2014, with the overall network expansion and payment system is able to manage the energy production from renewable energy sources in the area and whether an energy specialist planning is useful and necessary. [German] Die raeumliche Steuerung der Energieerzeugungsstruktur findet auf den ersten Blick vornehmlich ueber das Raumordnungs- und Planungsrecht statt, weniger ueber das Energierecht. Die allenfalls vereinzelt anzutreffenden rechtswissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zur Steuerungsleistung des EEG kommen zu dem Ergebnis, die jetzige Ausgestaltung des Foerdersystems im EEG sei defizitaer und ''blind'' gegenueber der Lokalisierung und raeumlichen Verteilung von EE-Anlagen im Bundesgebiet, obwohl das EEG doch ein ''geradezu praedestiniertes Steuerungsinstrument'' darstelle. Bei naeherer Betrachtung zeigt sich jedoch, dass einzelne Regelungen durchaus bestimmte Standortpraeferenzen aufweisen bzw. raeumliche Verteilungseffekte bewirken und dem EEG damit eine steuernde Wirkung zukommt. Der Beitrag widmet sich daher der Frage, ob und wie das EEG 2014 sowie das allgemeine Netzausbau- und -entgeltsystem die Energieerzeugung

  10. Solar energy

    Rapp, D.


    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  11. Solar energy

    Rapp, D.


    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  12. Solar water splitting: efficiency discussion

    Juodkazyte, Jurga; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Sebeka, Benjaminas; Savickaja, Irena; Malinauskas, Tadas; Badokas, Kazimieras; Juodkazis, Kestutis; Juodkazis, Saulius


    The current state of the art in direct water splitting in photo-electrochemical cells (PECs) is presented together with: (i) a case study of water splitting using a simple solar cell with the most efficient water splitting electrodes and (ii) a detailed mechanism analysis. Detailed analysis of the energy balance and efficiency of solar hydrogen production are presented. The role of hydrogen peroxide formation as an intermediate in oxygen evolution reaction is newly revealed and explains why a...

  13. Discussion on "Methodology for Building Envelope Trade-off Option" in Promotional Teaching Material of Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings%对《公共建筑节能设计标准宣贯辅导教材》中“围护结构热工性能权衡判断法”的一点商榷

    韩学廷; 朱建章; 李国富


    The building envelope trade-off option is realized by comparing the annual heating and air-conditioning energy consumption of design building and reference building through calculation, so as to judge whether the overall thermal performance of building envelope is standard, and determine the thermal energy efficiency parameters of the design building. During the calculation of energy consumption, the equipment energy efficiency ratio of heating and air-conditioning system adopted by the design building and reference building shall be the same. However, in Promotional Teaching Material of Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings, some equipment energy efficiency ratios were higher than the compulsory values in Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings(GB 50189-2005) .which was conflict with the process for determining the building thermal limited indexes in the compulsory method. In this paper,this issue was analyzed and discussed.%围护结构热工性能权衡判断是通过计算比较设计建筑和参照建筑的全年采暖空调能耗,以判定围护结构的总体热工性能是否达标,从而确定设计建筑的热工节能参数.在计算能耗时,设计建筑和参照建筑两者所用的采暖空调设备能效比应当相同.但是,《公共建筑节能设计标准宣贯辅导教材》中却有几处要求设计建筑采用的设备能效比要高于《公共建筑节能设计标准》( GB 50189-2005)中的规定值,这与在规定性方法中确定建筑热工指标限值的做法有所混淆.本文就这一问题进行了分析和讨论.

  14. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas


    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment.

  15. Discussion boards: boring no more!

    Adelman, Deborah S; Nogueras, Debra J


    Creating discussion boards (DBs) that capture student imaginations and contain meaningful interactions can be a difficult process. Traditional DBs use a question-and-answer format that often is boring for both the student and instructor. The authors present creative approaches to DBs that result in lively debates and student-to-student and student-to-faculty interactions, including role playing, blogging, wikis, and the use of voice.

  16. What Were the Deputies Discussing?


    IN the last five years, since the Seventh Chinese Women’s National Congress, the women’s movement of China has developed vigorously. For the purposes of moving the women’s cause into the next century, the Eighth Chinese Women’s National Congress recently convened in Beijing to hold wideranging discussions on women’s issues. More than one thousand deputies came from different nationalities and social

  17. Discussions on Hypnosis and Schizophrenia.

    Haley, Jay


    A classic paper in intellect and argument, this article contains a transcript of a conversation between Jay Haley, John Weakland, and Milton Erickson as they discuss the role of communication in hypnosis and schizophrenia. In 1955, schizophrenia was considered primarily a psychological disorder. Whereas today schizophrenia is mostly considered a biological disorder, this very early, unpublished paper still gives much food for thought and a further glimpse into Haley and Erickson's thinking and intellect at a fervent time in schizophrenia research.

  18. Solar energy

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))


    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  19. Some discussions on Arctic vortex

    Li Hai; Sun Lantao; Wu Huiding; Li Xiang


    The Arctic vortex is a persistent large-scale cyclonic circulation in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere. Its activity and variation control the semi-permanent active centers of Pan-Arctic and the short-time cyclone activity in the subarctic areas. Its strength variation, which directly relates to the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and ecosystem of the Arctic, can affect the lower atmospheric circulation, the weather of subarctic area and even the weather of middle latitude areas. The 2003 Chinese Second Arctic Research Expedition experienced the transition of the stratosphereic circulation from a warm anticyclone to a cold cyclone during the ending period of Arctic summertime, a typical establishing process of the polar vortex circulation. The impact of the polar vortex variation on the low-level circulation has been investigated by some scientists through studying the coupling mechanisms of the stratosphere and troposphere. The impact of the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SFW) events on the polar vortex variation was drawing people's great attention in the fifties of the last century. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) , relating to the variation of the Arctic vortex, has been used to study the impact of the Arctic vortex on climate change. The recent Arctic vortex studies are simply reviewed and some discussions on the Arctic vertex are given in the paper. Some different views and questions are also discussed.

  20. Homoeopathy: Discussion on scientific validation

    Lex Rutten


    Full Text Available Background: There are diverging opinions about scientific evidence for Homoeopathy, but evidence for conventional medicine is not perfect either. In fact, proof for Homoeopathy is not inferior to conventional. However, the evidence for Homoeopathy has been downplayed by selection of trials (cherry-picking. The effect of Homoeopathy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs, however, is small due to many ineffective prescriptions. This is caused by shortcomings of our Materia Medica and Repertories. Discussion: The hegemony of the RCT is increasingly questioned; it does not provide all answers, especially not for the individual patient. The individual patient wants to know his individual prognosis: Will this medicine work for him? This is even more important than his individual diagnosis. It is possible to assess prognosis scientifically the same way as diagnosis. Prognostic research is based on daily practice; practitioners should have knowledge about statistics to fulfill their role in this process. Conclusion: The discussion in this paper elucidates that RCT has its limitations, especially for the patient whose main concern is recovery/prognosis. Drug validation is a key to improve the outcome of clinical practice in Homoeopathy.

  1. Solar water splitting: efficiency discussion

    Juodkazyte, Jurga; Sebeka, Benjaminas; Savickaja, Irena; Malinauskas, Tadas; Badokas, Kazimieras; Juodkazis, Kestutis; Juodkazis, Saulius


    The current state of the art in direct water splitting in photo-electrochemical cells (PECs) is presented together with: (i) a case study of water splitting using a simple solar cell with the most efficient water splitting electrodes and (ii) a detailed mechanism analysis. Detailed analysis of the energy balance and efficiency of solar hydrogen production are presented. The role of hydrogen peroxide formation as an intermediate in oxygen evolution reaction is newly revealed and explains why an oxygen evolution is not taking place at the thermodynamically expected 1.23 V potential. Solar hydrogen production with electrical-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 52% is demonstrated using a simple ~0.7%-efficient n-Si/Ni Schottky solar cell connected to a water electrolysis cell. This case study shows that separation of the processes of solar harvesting and electrolysis avoids photo-electrode corrosion and utilizes optimal electrodes for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions and achieves ~10% efficiency in light...

  2. Discussion on the Thermal Efficiency Test of Energy Efficiency Standard of Automatic Electric Rice Cooker GB 12021.6-2008%关于自动电饭锅能效标准GB 12021.6-2008热效率检测的探讨



    本文主要根据标准GB12021.6-2008中附录A中电饭锅热效率的试验方法,通过不确定度分析和测试方法入手,对自动电饭锅能效检测中的热效率检测进行探讨并得出实践中的测试方法。%According to the appendix A of GB 12021.6-2008 in the rice cooker thermal efficiency test method, through the uncertainty analysis and test methods, the thermal efficiency test of automatic electric rice cooker’s energy efficiency testing were discussed, and test method was concluded in practice.

  3. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

    companies in the corridor, attracting innovative international companies, and supporting the creation of new knowledge intensive businesses is thus at the core of the strategy. New areas of collaboration will have to be identified systematically. Cooperation among COINCO businesses have...... The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on common cultural, social and environmental values. The strategy comprises of a vision and more detailed aims and actions within three different areas: Corridor infrastructure, Innovation and Cooperation. In this way, the COINCO partners want to establish a political platform for transborder collaboration...

  4. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California


    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI ( PMID:22414797


    Abbasova, A.A.


    Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language

  6. Archival description: a conceptual discussion

    Luciane Paula Vital


    Full Text Available Introduction: Contextualizes the activity of archival description in the processes of organization and representation of information. Objective: Features aimed at identifying the concept of archival description presented in scientific articles of Information Science. Methodology: It is a literature that employs techniques of content analysis. 9 examines scientific articles recovered Base Reference Data Journal Articles in Information Science (BRAPCI and International Basis Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA, that meet the criteria. Results: Considers the concept of archival description in the literature of information science considered a form of representation of information through a process of analyzing, organizing and recording information. Information is represented by structure elements (support and means of access and elements of content and context. Conclusions: Highlights the paucity of studies that present a theoretical discussion about the theme and possible approaches to the areas of organization and representation of information.

  7. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  8. Geothermal energy in Nevada


    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  9. Panel discussion: Gas emissions with diesel efficiency

    Cole, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)


    The second of three papers in the panel discussion outlined the characteristics of spark-ignited natural gas (SING) engines. Currently, the SING engine is considered less efficient than a diesel engine because of the reduced compression ratio, the use of air-throttles, retarded ignition for low NOx, and increased heat transfer. To improve upon these characteristics and to make the SING engine equal to, or even surpass the diesel engine in efficiency, more research work needs to be done on advanced controls. These include (knock, misfire, humidity detection), various ignition enhancements (variable energy/gap plug, long-life plug, laser ignition), and possibly camless operation (cylinder deactivation, throttleless operation). The late-cycle High Pressure Gas Injection (LaCHIP) as an alternate means of improving the efficiency of natural gas engines was also described.

  10. Energy conservation and energy efficiency; Energiebesparing en energie-efficientie

    Ossevoort, H.


    The author discusses the important role of the concepts of energy conservation and energy efficiency in the design and construction of buildings [Dutch] De auteur bespreekt hoe belangrijk de rol is van de begrippen energiebesparing en energie efficientie bij het ontwerpen en bouwen van gebouwen.

  11. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    Nelson, Vaughn; Nelson, Vaughn


    Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measur

  12. [SENTIERI Project: discussion and conclusions].

    Pirastu, Roberta; Ricci, Paolo; Comba, Pietro; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Biggeri, Annibale; Conti, Susanna; Fazzo, Lucia; Forastiere, Francesco; Iavarone, Ivano; Martuzzi, Marco; Musmeci, Loredana; Pasetto, Roberto; Zona, Amerigo; Crocetti, Emanuele


    showing the increase, considering latency and the length of the observation period. Of further interest are results relating to diseases of the urinary tract such as kidney failure in the NPCSs of Basso bacino del fiume Chienti, Taranto, Milazzo and Priolo. Overall, the results discussed above are consistent with the previous findings pertaining to mortality for 1995-2002. The present analysis also introduces a new element - the study of cancer incidence and hospital discharges - which can tell us a great deal about diseases with high survival rates or non lethal ones. The first is the case of thyroid cancer, which presents increases in both databases and for both genders in a number of NPCSs (Brescia-Caffaro, Laghi di Mantova, Milazzo, Sassuolo- Scandiano and Taranto). The study of cancer incidence and hospital discharges also revealed cancer excesses for melanoma, breast cancer and non Hodgkin lymphoma in Brescia-Caffaro NPCS where PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyl) are the site's main pollutant. PCBs, according to the 2013 evaluation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are ascertained human carcinogens for melanoma and probable carcinogens for breast cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The results pertaining to cancer incidence in the 17 NPCSs can also be presented using rankings by area or disease analyzed by a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian model. These rankings reveal an overlapping of credibility intervals, such that it is not possible to speak of a limited number of cancer sites or of certain NPCSs as being particularly affected. Every NPCS, therefore, must be considered individually and ordering them by ranking of cancer incidence wouldn't be appropriate. Data collected concerning some of the NPCSs in the context of the SENTIERI Project is so conclusive that remediation measures can immediately be put in place. This is the case in the Biancavilla and Brescia-Caffaro NPCSs. A similar conclusion can be drawn for complex locations such as Taranto

  13. Energy systems security

    Voeller, John G


    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  14. Nuclear Hybrid energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Green, M.; Sabharwall, P.; Yoon, S. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. B.; Stoot, C.


    Without growing concerns in reliable energy supply, the next generation in reliable power generation via hybrid energy systems is being developed. A hybrid energy system incorporates multiple energy input source sand multiple energy outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these combined systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilization because stored excess energy is used later to meet peak energy demands. With high thermal energy production the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct thermal properties. This paper discusses the criteria for efficient energy storage and molten salt energy storage system options for hybrid systems. (Author)

  15. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Xia Yishan


    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  16. Energy use and changing energy policies of Trinidad and Tobago

    Ugursal, V. Ismet, E-mail: Ismet.Ugursal@Dal.Ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3J 2X4 (Canada)


    Trinidad and Tobago is an energy rich country that has been using energy with low efficiency and low socio-economic benefit. Recently, the focus of the government has changed to emphasize energy efficiency, conservation and management in its energy policies. This paper reviews the energy consumption patterns of Trinidad and Tobago, as well as its new policy focus on energy efficiency. - Highlights: > Trinidad and Tobago is an energy rich country that has been using energy with low efficiency. > Energy consumption patterns of Trinidad and Tobago reviewed and discussed. > New policy focus of the government on energy efficiency reviewed and discussed.

  17. The Study on the Function Evolution of Chinese New Energy Automotive Industry's Innovation System with a Discussion on the Role of Government Measures%中国新能源汽车产业创新系统功能演化研究--兼论政府措施的作用

    侯沁江; 陈凯华; 蔺洁; 段佩伶


    As one of the seven strategic emerging industries in China , there are significant theoretical and practical value to analyze the process of its innovation system development and improvement , to identify factors affecting the development process , and to understand how the government intervenes and guides the whole industry . Based on the theory of innovation system functions , this article constructs a function framework to analyze China's new energy automotive industry's evolution , and discusses the intervention mechanism and guidance role of government measures in the evolution process of the functional system of China's new energy automotive industry . This study finds that the innovation system of China's new energy automobile industry is in a rapid developing stage . The functions of knowledge acquisition and industrial legitimating et al have been mature , while the infrastructure construction , the industrial chain integration and development of positive externality remain to be further improved . The study also finds that , the introduction of government measures in new energy auto-motive industry play a positive role in the developing process , and is closely related to the impediments in the development process . The type and focus of measure also varies along with the changing impediments .%新能源汽车产业是中国重点发展的七大战略性新兴产业之一,剖析其创新系统的发展与完善过程,识别发展过程中的影响因素,并了解政府在这一演化过程中如何进行介入和引导,对新能源汽车以及其他新兴产业的发展具有重要的理论与实践价值。本文以创新系统功能理论为基础,构建了针对中国新能源汽车产业创新系统演化分析的功能框架,剖析了中国新能源汽车产业创新系统功能体系的发展与完善过程,同时讨论了政府措施在这一过程中的引导与支撑作用。研究发现,中国新能源汽车产业创新体系正

  18. The future of energy

    Towler, Brian F


    Using the principle that extracting energy from the environment always involves some type of impact on the environment, The Future of Energy discusses the sources, technologies, and tradeoffs involved in meeting the world's energy needs. A historical, scientific, and technical background set the stage for discussions on a wide range of energy sources, including conventional fossil fuels like oil, gas, and coal, as well as emerging renewable sources like solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. Readers will learn that there are no truly ""green"" energy sources-all energy usage involves some trad

  19. Energy Futures

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia


    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  20. Energy Futures

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia


    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  1. Dynamical Mutation of Dark Energy

    Abramo, L R; Liberato, L; Rosenfeld, R


    We discuss the intriguing possibility that dark energy may change its equation of state in situations where large dark energy fluctuations are present. We show indications of this dynamical mutation in some generic models of dark energy.

  2. Discussion on ``Foundations of the Second Law''

    Silbey, Robert; Ao, Ping; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Freedman, Steven; Graeff, Roderich; Keck, James C.; Lloyd, Seth; Maroney, Owen; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Weissman, Michael


    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Seth Lloyd, Owen Maroney, Silviu Guiasu, Ping Ao, Jochen Gemmer, Bernard Guy, Gian Paolo Beretta, Speranta Gheorghiu-Svirschevski, and Dorion Sagan. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law true? Is it an inviolable law of nature? If not, is it possible to develop a perpetual motion machine of the second kind? • Are second law limitations objective or subjective, real or apparent, due to the nature of physical states or the representation and manipulation of information? Is entropy a physical property in the same sense as energy is universally understood to be an intrinsic property of matter? • Does the second law conflict with quantum mechanics? Are the differences between mechanical and thermodynamic descriptions of physical phenomena reconcilable? Does the reversible law of motion of hamiltonian mechanics and quantum mechanics conflict with the empirical observation of irreversible phenomena?

  3. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    Montemayor, V. [Germantown Academy (United States)


    learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can

  4. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    Thollander, Patrik


    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  5. Vacuum Energy: Myths and Reality

    Volovik, G. E.


    We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological constant, such as: ``unbearable lightness of space-time''; the dominating contribution of zero point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy; non-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on the overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance for gravity; the vacuum energy depends on the vacuum content; cosmological constant changes after the phase transition...

  6. Solar energy perspectives for public power

    Woodley, N. H.


    Perspectives on the utilization of solar energy for electricity production and thermal energy utilization by the public are briefly discussed. Wind energy conversion, biomass conversion, solar thermal, OTEC, photovoltaics, and solar heating and cooling are discussed. (WHK)

  7. Increasing Moral Reasoning Skills through Online Discussions

    Cain, Jeff; Smith, Doug


    This study examined the effects that online asynchronous dilemma discussions have on moral reasoning scores of pharmacy students. In contrast to face-to-face group discussions, asynchronous threaded discussions afford all participants time to reflect and respond during discussions. Anonymity features may lessen inhibitions in responding critically…

  8. Elements of energy conversion

    Russell, Charles R


    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  9. Physics students` conceptions of energy and technological development in energy

    Zain, A.N.M. [University of Science Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Educational Studies; Sulaiman, F. [University of Science Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Physics


    This study was designed to find out students` conceptions of the relationship of energy use and technological development in energy. It was conducted by administering a questionnaire to 133 first year physics students at a University. The results were analyzed to identify students` conceptions on energy use and technological development in energy. Finally, implications on teaching of energy is discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. 76 FR 26695 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee


    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet to hear briefings on the state of renewable energy finance and to discuss the development of recommendations on increasing...

  11. Energy in Indonesia

    Symon, A.


    The report surveys Indonesia`s energy sector with the following interest groups in mind: operators and equipment suppliers, investors, purchasers of Indonesian oil, gas and coal, and those working in roles concerned with energy in Indonesia. It deals with each energy source in turn: electricity, including private power; oil; gas; coal; geothermal energy; hydropower; solar and other alternative energy systems; and nuclear power. For each industry it gives an overview, discusses resources, outlines government policy and regulatory framework, gives figures for production and discusses the industry outlook. 11 figs., 71 tabs., 7 apps.

  12. Foundry energy conservation workbook


    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  13. Energy Crises in Perspective

    Fisher, John C.


    Discusses some long-range aspects of energy resources and consumption, including the history of current energy crisis, resource and reserve estimates, and future of the energy industry. Indicates that the United States of American has enough fossil and nuclear fuel to last, respectively, for 500 years and a million years. (CC)

  14. Energy and National Security

    Abelson, Philip H.


    Discussed in this editorial is the need for a broad and detailed government policy on energy use. Oil companies can not be given complete responsibility to demonstrate usage of different energy sources. The government should construct plants because energy is connected with national security. (PS)

  15. Solar Energy and You.

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  16. Energy Parodoxes in Economics

    Burdo O.G.


    Full Text Available The analysis of the energy situation in the world and in the Post-Soviet area was carried out. The main focus was on the energy problems in Ukraine. The current paper presents existing energy sector paradoxes. Issues of the comfort level and of the natural environment dependence on the energy resources consumption are being discussed. The relationship between the human life quality level and the level of energy consumption is shown. The analysis of the energy resources distribution in the world is provided. The likely review of the energy re-sources market is forecasted. State energy policies and strategies are being compared. The high profitability of the centralized energy supply management in municipalities is being underlined. Issues regarding the scientific poten-tial and the energy management development are considered. The compliance of energy resource prices with the level of thermal protection of buildings and with energy projects investment principles is being analyzed. The importance of the market-based choice of energy resources considering energy company mergers and decision power concentration is presented. The compliance between the energy policy of Ukraine and the obligations resulting from gas contract with Russia is being discussed. The role of energy in the agricultural processing chain is analyzed.

  17. Talk by Philippe Descola and discussion

    DESCOLA, Philippe


    One hour talk, followed by hour of discussion, chaired by Stephen Hugh-Jones and filmed by Alan Macfarlane on 13 February 2004 Talk to anthropology seminar at Cambridge University by Philippe Descola on 'Ontologies', followed by questions and discussion.

  18. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  19. Discussion on the Teaching Experience of "Rational Use of Energy" Chapter in the Course of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics——Examples of the Teaching Case for Energy Analysis in the Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering%浅谈化工热力学课程中“合理用能”章节的教学体会——以化工单元过程为教学案例的能量分析

    彭阳峰; 施云海


    本文阐述了化工热力学与化工原理两门课程在能量有效利用方面的内在联系,分析了热力学第一定律在化工原理动量传递中的有关应用;探讨了热力学第二定律在流体流动等单元过程中的应用;并采用热力学方法对化工单元操作过程的经济性进行了分析与讨论。在化工热力学教学中,结合这些知识点的讲授可帮助学生更深层次地理解与掌握化工单元过程的内涵,提高对本课程的学习兴趣,培养学会应用热力学基本原理和方法处理工程实际问题的能力。%The internal relations between the two courses of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics and Principles of Chemical Engineering are expounded for effective utilization of energy aspects in this paper.The relevant application of the First Law of Thermodynamics for momentum transfer in the course of chemical principle is reviewed.And the applications of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in fluid flow process are investigated in detail.The economics of the unit operations of Chemical Engineering is also analyzed and discussed by the method of Thermodynamics.By integrating these knowledge points in teaching,it will help the students deepen the understanding of the connotative meaning of unit process of Chemical Engineering,arouse their study interests,and improve their capabilities of solving practical engineering problems based on the basic principle and approach of Thermodynamics

  20. Monthly energy review, June 1993


    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  1. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  2. Panel discussion: Proposals for improving OCL

    Brucker, Achim D.; Clark, Tony; Dania, Carolina; Georg, Geri; Gogolla, Martin; Jouault, Frederic; Teniente López, Ernest; Wolff, Burkhart


    During the panel session at the OCL workshop, the OCL community discussed, stimulated by short presentations by OCL experts, potential future extensions and improvements of the OCL. As such, this panel discussion continued the discussion that started at the OCL meeting in Aachen in 2013 and on which we reported in the proceedings of the last year's OCL workshop. This collaborative paper, to which each OCL expert contributed one section, summarises the panel discussion as well as describes the...

  3. Discussion Technique: The Twice-Around

    Andersen, Kent


    In this article, the author offers a discussion technique: the twice-around. A variant on the circular response discussion, the twice-around engages students by beginning with students' questions, ensuring equal time for all participants and inviting discussants to build on previous contributions. In the twice-around, participants sit in a circle,…

  4. 及时补充人体正能量是健康长寿的根本--谈谈怎么样多活10年%Supplementing positive energy in time is the foundation of health and longevity--Discussion on increasing 10 years of lifetime



    及时补充人体正能量是健康长寿之本。本文介绍了人体正能量的内涵及其缺失的信号,并分别列举补充人体正能量的十大食物、十大药物、十大穴位,帮助人们认识及时补充人体正能量的重要性。%Supplementing positive energy in time is the foundation of health and longevity. This paper introduces the meaning of the positive energy of human body and the signal of lacking the positive energy. Ten kinds of food, ten medicinals and ten points are listed which can supplement positive energy to help people understand the importance of supplementing positive energy.

  5. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh


    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  6. Nuclear energy; L'energie nucleaire

    Reuss, Paul


    With simple and accessible explanations, this book presents the physical principles, the history and industrial developments of nuclear energy. More than 25 years after the Chernobyl accidents and few months only after the Fukushima one, it discusses the pros and cons of this energy source with its assets and its risks. (J.S.)

  7. Diversification of energy sources


    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  8. Energy conservation in infants.

    Blass, Elliott


    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  9. China's New Energy Strategy

    Cui Shuhong


    @@ At one of the routine meetings recently held by the State Council, the Chinese Government discussed and approved in principle the draft "Platform of Energy Development Plan (2004-2020)". This platform document is regarded as important to China's energy industrial development,according to the industrial insiders. In an interview with news media, Director of Energy Research Institute of State Development and Reform Commission Zhou Dadi specified eight key points of the new energy strategy.

  10. Diversification of energy sources


    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  11. Revisiting energy efficiency fundamentals

    Perez-Lombard, L.; Velazquez, D. [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX (United Kingdom)


    Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.

  12. Energy and resource consumption


    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  13. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)


    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  14. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Energy Rebates

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.


    This report functions as a primer for renewable energy rebate programs. It highlights the impacts of specific renewable energy rebate programs on renewable energy markets around the country, as well as rebate program impacts on overarching energy policy drivers. It also discusses lessons learned, challenges, ideal applications, keys to success, and complementary and alternative policies. Results indicate that rebate programs can have a strong deployment impact on emerging renewable energy markets. This report focuses on renewable energy rebate programs, which are being analyzed as part of the State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project. SCEPA is being used to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states.

  15. State Clean Energy Practices. Renewable Energy Rebates

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report functions as a primer for renewable energy rebate programs. It highlights the impacts of specific renewable energy rebate programs on renewable energy markets around the country, as well as rebate program impacts on overarching energy policy drivers. It also discusses lessons learned, challenges, ideal applications, keys to success, and complementary and alternative policies. Results indicate that rebate programs can have a strong deployment impact on emerging renewable energy markets. This report focuses on renewable energy rebate programs, which are being analyzed as part of the State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project. SCEPA is being used to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states.

  16. Efficient use of energy

    Dryden, IGC


    The Efficient Use of Energy, Second Edition is a compendium of papers discussing the efficiency with which energy is used in industry. The collection covers relevant topics in energy handling and describes the more important features of plant and equipment. The book is organized into six parts. Part I presents the various methods of heat production. The second part discusses the use of heat in industry and includes topics in furnace design, industrial heating, boiler plants, and water treatment. Part III deals with the production of mechanical and electrical energy. It tackles the principles o

  17. Solar energy engineering

    Sayigh, A.A.M. (ed.)


    The scope and advantages of solar energy are dealt with. The nature of the sun, the solar radiation spectrum, the estimation of total, direct, and diffuse radiation, and the heat transfer fundamentals for solar energy application are explained. The fundamentals, fabrication, and uses of various water and air heaters are outlined. Optics and concentrating collectors are dealt with, as well as solar furnaces. The various applications of solar energy are discussed, namely, solar pond, solar distillation, photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, solar refrigeration, solar hydrogen production, space applications, and solar measuring equipment. The cost of solar appliances is discussed. (MHR)

  18. The Global Energy Challenge

    Connolly, David


    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years....... Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy...

  19. Accounting for Outcomes in Case Discussions.

    Corrigan, Stephanie Zweig; Morine-Dershimer, Greta

    This study analyzes the reaction essays of 24 elementary preservice teachers who read and discussed the same case. The preservice teachers were in two different sections of the same special topics course. Care was taken to balance the sections as closely as possible by age, ethnicity, and major areas. Graduate discussion leaders were chosen to…

  20. Engaging All Students in Mathematical Discussions

    Bahr, Damon L.; Bahr, Kim


    Many teachers try to engage their students in meaningful mathematical discussions in which one or more students share their thinking about a problem while the other students are expected to listen and learn from the sharing. Indeed, such discussions can help students learn from one another and promote high levels of mathematical proficiency.…

  1. Discussion Starters. Technical Note No. 25.

    Yunus, Ibrahim; Dilts, Russ

    Discussion starters, the result of collaboration between the Indonesian Directorate General of Nonformal Education, Youth, and Sports, and World Education, Inc., are simple learning tools used to generate discussion among community groups involved in nonformal education. Appropriate in and adaptable to a variety of settings, content areas, and…

  2. Discussion across Borders: Benefits for Collaborative Learning.

    Whatley, Janice; Bell, Frances


    Discussion of computer mediated communication in higher education online learning focuses on a report of two cycles of action research into the use of online discussion forums to enable groups of students from different countries to collaborate with each other in achieving learning outcomes specific to each group. (Author/LRW)

  3. Interteaching: Discussion Group Size and Course Performance

    Truelove, Jacob C.; Saville, Bryan K.; Van Patten, Ryan


    Researchers have yet to examine whether discussion group size affects student performance in an interteaching-based course. In the current study, we addressed this question by manipulating discussion group size (smaller groups of 2 students vs. larger groups of 4 students) across 2 sections of an undergraduate psychology course. We found no…

  4. Enhancing Understanding and Interest through Group Discussion

    Cannon, Patrick


    Group discussion allows students to learn how to "talk to someone." Through group discussion, students can acquire or refine a broad range of attributes, from basic oratory skills to a more sophisticated development of communicative competence to embracing and valuing dialogic interchange and reflexivity. In this article, the author explains how…

  5. Three discussions on object-oriented typing

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens


    This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors.......This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors....

  6. Enduring Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Proceedings of a panel discussion

    Walter, C. E., LLNL


    The panel reviewed the complete nuclear fuel cycle in the context of alternate energy resources, energy need projections, effects on the environment, susceptibility of nuclear materials to theft, diversion, and weapon proliferation. We also looked at ethical considerations of energy use, as well as waste, and its effects. The scope of the review extended to the end of the next century with due regard for world populations beyond that period. The intent was to take a long- range view and to project, not forecast, the future based on ethical rationales, and to avoid, as often happens, long-range discussions that quickly zoom in on only the next few decades. A specific nuclear fuel cycle technology that could satisfy these considerations was described and can be applied globally.

  7. National GAP Conference 2007-Discussion Groups Report

    Ratz, Joan M.; Lamb, Berton Lee


    We led two discussion groups during the 2007 National GAP Conference. These discussion groups provided information to help develop a survey of National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data users. One group discussed technical issues, and the second group discussed the use of GAP data for decisionmaking. Themes emerging from the technical issues group included concerns about data quality, need for information on how to use data, and passive data distribution. The decisionmaking discussion included a wide range of topics including the need to understand presentation of information, the need to connect with and understand users of data, the revision of GAP's mission, and the adaptability of products and data. The decisionmaking group also raised concerns regarding technical issues. One conclusion is that a deep commitment to ongoing information transfer and support is a key component of success for the GAP program.

  8. Energy visions 2050


    Energy Visions 2050 considers measures for addressing the enormous future challenges facing the energy sector, focusing on technological and techno-economic perspectives. The analysis of the development of technologies covers the whole energy chain, highlighting the necessity of efficient energy use in all activities of societies. The contents include a discussion on potential future low-emission and renewable energy conversion technologies, as well as new technology solutions in the industrial, building and transport sectors and in energy supply systems. The move towards zero-emission energy systems has consequenses for energy supply, and makes the analysis of energy resources presented in the book all the more valuable. Scenarios of alternative development paths to 2050 at the global, European and Finnish levels are presented, assuming different technological development options, economic growth rates, degrees of globalisation and information flows. The results show interesting differences between the scenarios with regard to energy production and use, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and global warming. Energy Visions 2050 in mainly intended for those who have a fairly good knowledge of the energy sector and energy technologies, e.g. energy policymakers, experts responsible for energy-related issues in industry, and investors in energy technologies. The topics are approached from a global perspective. In some technological details, however, Finnish technology and Finland's technological achievements are highlighted. The topics and viewpoints of the book will certainly be of interest to international readers as well

  9. Wind energies; Energies eoliennes

    Martin, J.


    The main part of this study is focused on the wind turbine, including a full overview of turbine types, with in each case advantages, disadvantages and conditions of use. Subsidiary elements are mentioned, for support or energy conversion (into electricity, water pumping, heat generation). A glimpse is added to energy storage, and an economic balance is stroke. (D.L.)

  10. Energy, ecology, and the environment

    Wilson, Richard F


    Energy, Ecology, and the Environment discusses how our need for energy and the different means required to obtain it affect the environment and the harnessing of different natural resources. The book also aims to show more efficient ways to use and generate energy. The book, after a brief introduction to the concept of energy, covers topics such as the different energy resources and the demands, costs, and policies regarding energy. The book also discusses the problems brought about by the production of energy such as the hazards to nature and man; environmental problems and pollution; and

  11. The nuclear power discussion in change. Nuclear controversy has shifted

    Schmidt-Kuester, Wolf J.; Popp, Manfred


    The public discussion on nuclear energy is not focused on power plant safety anymore. A globally good safety statistic and years of information activity on safety technology provided progress, even though all incidents are still discussed with great dedication. Nevertheless the field of disposal receives more prominence in public discussions since 1976; reprocessing of irradiated fuels and storage of nuclear waste follow the topic of nuclear power plants with temporary shift. During a long preparation time technical and operational know-how was gathered for both fields that is now available for use on large technical scale. For the entire disposal complex exists a comprehensive concept prepared by the federal government, which has to be put into practice together with the industry. The priority assignment for a dialogue with the public is to comprehensively inform on extend and quality of problem solutions and to highlight that even here the safety of the biological-cycle is the guiding principle for all considerations.

  12. The Economics of Energy Security


    Energy security is the ability of households, businesses, and government to accommodate disruptions in supply in energy markets. This survey considers the economic dimensions of energy security and political and other noneconomic security concerns and discusses policy approaches that could enhance US energy security. A number of points emerge. First, energy security is enhanced by reducing consumption, not imports. A policy to eliminate oil imports, for example, will not enhance US energy sec...

  13. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    Li, L


    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  14. Asia clean energy forum: policy and finance solutions for energy security and climate change



    The presentations (viewgraphs/overheads) discussed clean energy policy, finance and the scaling up of clean energy technologies. Sessions included energy efficiency, renewable energy, cleaner coal, sustainable transport, carbon markets, and knowledge management.

  15. SMARTS Present and Future - A Discussion

    Bailyn, Charles; van der Bliek, N. S.; Fischer, D.


    The second session of the SMARTS "Meeting-in-a-Meeting" will be devoted to discussing the future of the consortium. As a basis for discussion, the SMARTS Principal Scientist (Charles Bailyn) and the CTIO Deputy Director (Nicole van der Bliek) will present information on the current SMARTS operation, and future options. Specific updates will be presented on current oversubscription and publication rates for the various SMARTS capabilities, along with some implications for the long-term viability of the current financial model. A number of options for future instrumentation upgrades and possibilities for changes in the current observing modes will be presented for discussion.

  16. Panel Discussion on Inducer Design Criteria

    Marc Wegner


    Full Text Available This article reports a panel discussion titled Inducer Design Criteria presented at the 9th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-9. The presentations of the panelists and the subsequent discussions are summarized. It is shown that cavitation instabilities are major problems in modern turbopumps and that design criteria to eliminate them are needed. Available design methods for inducers and marine propellers are reviewed, and new criteria to enhance stability are proposed. The current status of CFD is reviewed and an example of successful application is shown. Discussions of several specific topics are reported and future research needs are noted.

  17. Energy from Biomass.

    Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others


    Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

  18. Energy from Biomass.

    Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others


    Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

  19. Construction legislation and energy efficiency. A discussion on the covered open spaces for ventilation adopted by the Rio de Janeiro city building code, Brazil; Legislacao edilicia e eficiencia energetica. Uma discussao sobre os vaos de ventilacao adotados pelo codigo de obras do Rio de Janeiro

    Pimenta, Gustavo Carvalho; Barroso-Krause, Claudia [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Arquitetura]. E-mails:;


    This paper analyses, under the energetic efficiency viewpoint, the critical points of the Rio de Janeiro city construction legislation, by the time that decrees the directives for covered open spaces for ventilation in multi-familiar buildings. The paper also demonstrates where and how the building code influences the architectonic project to induce energy consumption not contributing for an efficient architecture.

  20. Energy efficiency in refrigerated transport

    Gerwen, R.J.M. van; Sluis, S.M. van der; Schiphouwer, H.


    In refrigerated road transport, 10 to 40 `)/0 of the total energy consumption is related to refrigeration. However, energy consumption and energy efficiency of refrigerated transport equipment is rarely mentioned in the discussions about energy saving, potentials in road transport. Two main approach

  1. Teaching Organizational Behavior Through Discussion Groups

    Fineman, Stephen; Hamblin, Anthony C.


    An educational experiment in teaching organizational behavior to undergraduates in England is reported, with focus on the value and limitations of a systematic form of discussion-group learning based upon a framework outlined by Fawcett Hill. (LBH)

  2. Enhancing critical thinking with literary discussion

    رضا پیشقدم


    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to investigate the effect of literary discussion on critical thinking. To this end, two classes (experimental and control groups were selected from College of Ferdowsi University. In both groups literature was used as supplementary homework. Students were supposed to read short stories and poems at home and present them in class. The students in the experimental group were discussing the materials in class and the students in the control group only memorized the texts and retold them. At the end of the term, the students were asked to take a questionnaire on critical thinking. The results demonstrated that there was a significant difference between means of two groups, implying that literary discussion can enhance critical thinking. Finally, results were discussed in the context of education in Iran and some suggestions were made.

  3. Discussing College English Learners' Attitude and Motivation



    Many English learners claim that they have trouble in communicating with foreigners.Therefore,this paper isto discuss college English learners' attitude and motivation toward English learning by analyzing the obstacles of English learning.

  4. Learning Styles and Online Discussion Posts

    Herbert Rau


    Full Text Available Scholars have suggested models proposing a variety of learning styles for humans. Human Dynamics is one such model, and it has been suggested within its model that one style of learning is enhanced by discussion among learners. While this style of learning may be accomplished relatively easily in an on-campus person-to-person situation, it is not clear how a discussion mode (online posts of learning might be accomplished in an online format. A study of more than 9,000 posts from 240 students in 11 different online classes was conducted to determine whether differences in online discussion posts by individuals with different learning styles were evident. Results of the study suggest that discussion post activity, if managed with suitable rubrics and guiding principles, and augmented by appropriate modeling behavior, is an effective teaching mode for all dynamics, but seem to be a more successful learning mode for individuals of Physically Centered dynamics.

  5. Dr. Irvin Yalom Discusses Group Psychotherapy.

    Forester-Miller, Holly


    In this interview, Dr. Irvin Yalom, director of the Adult Psychiatry Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine, discusses his beginnings as a group psychotherapist, current issues in group work, and the future of group work. (Author/TE)

  6. Finding Malicious Cyber Discussions in Social Media


    One of our goals with the cyber classifiers we are developing is to have them filter or concentrate documents from social media sources so an analyst...1 » Finding Malicious Cyber Discussions in Social Media Richard P. Lippmann, William M. Campbell, David J. Weller-Fahy, Alyssa C. Mensch...Giselle M. Zeno, and Joseph P. Campbell Today’s analysts manually examine social media networks to find discussions concerning planned cyberattacks

  7. Divisions Panel Discussion: Astronomy for Development

    Govender, Kevin; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Wolter, Anna; Haghighipour, Nader; Yan, Yihua; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Silva, David; Guinan, Edward


    The main purpose of this panel discussion was to encourage conversation around potential collaborations between the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and IAU Divisions. The discussion was facilitated by the OAD and the conversation revolved mainly around two questions: (i) What should the OAD be doing to enhance the work of the Divisions? (ii) What could the Divisions (both members and respective scientific discipline in general) contribute towards the implementation of the IAU strategic plan?

  8. Towards Sutatinable Energy Interventions

    Ejstrup, Henriette


    Material and energy overuse of the past centuries has created a need for energy sufficiency and a sustainable building culture both in new constructions and in existing buildings. But conventional interventions like energy renovation neglect the embedded energy and the tectonics of the existing......, Denmark, this paper investigates if the historic seaweed material and building technique has informed new constructions. Furthermore, it discusses how new interventions can be integrated into the tectonics of an existing building and if the historic knowledge can contribute to the modern concept of energy...

  9. Energy Handbook; Energy Vademecum

    Israels, E.; Stofberg, F.


    This is the third and revised print of the Handbook energy-conscious designing of new dwellings. The handbook addresses the latest developments in the field of developing, designing and realizing of new dwellings. [Dutch] Dit is een derde en sterk herziene druk van het 'Vademecum energiebewust ontwerpen van nieuwbouwwoningen', dat in 1992 verscheen. In het 'EnergieVademecum' komen de nieuwste ontwikkelingen op het gebied van energiebewust ontwikkelen, ontwerpen en realiseren van nieuwbouwwoningen aan bod.

  10. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    Howard, J.


    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  11. Geothermal energy in Nevada: development and utilization


    The nature of geothermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of using geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and state programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. (MHR)

  12. Solar energy an introduction

    Mackay, Michael E


    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  13. Making energy efficiency happen

    Hirst, E.


    Improving energy efficiency is the least expensive and most effective way to address simultaneously several national issues. Improving efficiency saves money for consumers, increases economic productivity and international competitiveness, enhances national security by lowering oil imports, and reduces the adverse environmental effects of energy production. This paper discusses some of the many opportunities to improve efficiency, emphasizing the roles of government and utilities.

  14. Flexible energy systems

    Lund, Henrik


    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  15. Learning about Renewable Energy.

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

  16. Fossil energy research meeting

    Kropschot, R. H.; Phillips, G. C.


    U.S. ERDA's research programs in fossil energy are reviewed with brief descriptions, budgets, etc. Of general interest are discussions related to the capabilities for such research of national laboratories, universities, energy centers, etc. Of necessity many items are treated briefly, but a general overview of the whole program is provided. (LTN)

  17. Ionization Energies of Lanthanides

    Lang, Peter F.; Smith, Barry C.


    This article describes how data are used to analyze the pattern of ionization energies of the lanthanide elements. Different observed pathways of ionization between different ground states are discussed, and the effects of pairing, exchange, and orbital interactions on ionization energies of the lanthanides are evaluated. When all the above…

  18. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots


    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  19. Canadian leadership in energy



    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Energy emergency handbook


    This Handbook identifies selected state and federal measures available to mitigate the impact of an energy emergency, and provides a comprehensive energy emergency communications directory. In the case of state remedial actions, particular emphasis has been placed on typical implementation procedures and likely impacts. The discussions of federal actions focus on initation and implementation procedures. The directory is designed to facilitate communications of all types (telephone, Telex, TWX, or facsimile) among key energy emergency officials in the federal and state governments.

  1. hosp310 all week discussion latest 2015 october [ all 14 discussions



      hosp310 all week discussion latest 2015 october [ all 14 discussions] Click Link Below To Buy:   Discussion 1 Why are the baby boomers so important? What impact do you see them having on the hospitality industry in the next few years? In the longer-term future? Please refer to Chapter Two as you participate in this discussion.  Tip for Beginning the Discussion: Of course, you can draw from your own experi...

  2. Conference Discussion of the Nuclear Force

    Gross, Franz; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Machleidt, Ruprecht


    Discussion of the nuclear force, lead by a round table consisting of T. Cohen, E. Epelbaum, R. Machleidt, and F. Gross (chair). After an invited talk by Machleidt, published elsewhere in these proceedings, brief remarks are made by Epelbaum, Cohen, and Gross, followed by discussion from the floor moderated by the chair. The chair asked the round table and the participants to focus on the following issues: (i) What does each approach (chiral effective field theory, large Nc, and relativistic phenomenology) contribute to our knowledge of the nuclear force? Do we need them all? Is any one transcendent? (ii) How important for applications (few body, nuclear structure, EMC effect, for example) are precise fits to the NN data below 350 MeV? How precise do these fits have to be? (iii) Can we learn anything about nonperturbative QCD from these studies of the nuclear force? The discussion presented here is based on a video recording made at the conference and transcribed afterward.

  3. [Disseminated sporotrichosis - clinical case and discussion].

    Barroso Pereira, João Cláudio; Grijó, Amorita; Ribeiro Machado Pereira, Rosângela; Noel S Oliveira, Andreza; de Andrade, Ana Cláudia; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia M; Corrêa Brant Machado, Christiane; Veiga Coutinho, Débora; Vale Rios, Danilo; Pereira Pires, Bárbara


    The authors report a case of a patient with a prior history of alcohol abuse who developed nodules and ulcerated skin lesions on his trunk and lower extremities along the line of the lymphatic draining area. The patient's X-ray showed reticular nodular intersticial infiltrates at the lung bases. There was a positive culture of supraclavicular lymph node for Sporothrix schenckii. After specific treatment using mainly potassium iodide, there was regression of cutaneous lesions and lung infiltrates. The authors present a discussion on the deseases' forms of presentation, highlighting the lung involvement ans further discuss the diagnosis and treatment of sporotrichosis.

  4. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder



    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  5. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)


    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  6. Future: Solar energy. Zukunft: Sonnenenergie

    Lange, V.


    The first chapter, 'Solar energy - more than just Utopia' deals with the following: Alternatives to nuclear energy problems of energy supply, solar energy use, commencement of the solar age in space, solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany, solar collectors, wind power, energy from hydrogen. The second chapter 'Solar energy - its contribution to future energy supply' discusses prospects for the future (interviews with scientists and engineers). The third and last chapter gives practical hints (solar energy use: self-construction of solar plants). (HWJ).

  7. Energy Technology.

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  8. A Discussion Strategy for an Online Class

    Reese-Durham, Nancy Faith


    As a former teacher of face-to-face classes now assigned to teach only online classes, Nancy Reese Durham found herself challenged to change to accommodate online learners. She was determined to provide an environment in the online class where the high level of discussion she had provided in face-to-face classes could flourish as well. Here she…

  9. Nonlinearity in the Cochlea—Moderated Discussions

    Mountain, David C.; Guinan, John J.


    Discussions moderated by the authors on the topic "Nonlinearity in the Cochlea" were held on 18 and 21 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the two sessions.

  10. Maps of student discussions about sustainability

    Lindahl, Mats; Bruun, Jesper; Linder, Cedric

    We use a combination of network analysis (NA), text-mining (TM) techniques, and thematic discourse analysis (TDA) to characterise and compare student discussions about sustainable development. Three student groups at three different times were analysed. The analysis entails an iterative design...

  11. Panel discussion: The future of IR astronomy

    Caroff, Lawrence J.


    A panel discussion was held on the future of IR astronomy. The chairman gave a brief introduction to current planned programs for NASA and other space agencies, followed by short contributions from the six panel members on a variety of special topics. After that, a short question and answer session was held.

  12. Parametric Instability: An Elementary Demonstration and Discussion.

    Case, William


    Discusses parametric oscillators and parametric instability. A simple, easy-to-construct system which exhibits parametric instability is presented. The two lowest-order resonances are described and analyzed in detail. The analysis stresses the physical and intuitive aspects of the problem. (Author/HM)

  13. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Groarke, J


    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  14. Role Modelling in MOOC Discussion Forums

    Hecking, Tobias; Chounta, Irene-Angelica; Hoppe, H. Ulrich


    To further develop rich and expressive ways of modelling roles of contributors in discussion forums of online courses, particularly in MOOCs, networks of forum users are analyzed based on the relations of information-giving and information-seeking. Specific connection patterns that appear in the information exchange networks of forum users are…

  15. Rethinking critical criminology - A panel discussion

    R. van Swaaningen (René); I. Taylor (Ian)


    textabstractThis paper takes the form of a report on the panel discussion held at the conclusion of the 1992 meetings of the European Group for the Study of Deviance and Social Control in Padua in September 1992. In the light of a perceived crisis of relevance for earlier, 1970s notions of critique

  16. Discussion on a Student Satisfaction Evaluation



    Reforms in today's education models require changing the concept of quality from "quality conformity" to "applicability, service mode" within the schools. This paper uses schools as a case study to discuss issues of customers in education industry and their needs, student satisfaction evaluation, and some suggestions.

  17. Technical discussions II - Flow cytometric analysis

    Cunningham, A; Cid, A; Buma, AGJ


    In this paper the potencial of flow cytometry as applied to the aquatic life sciences is discussed. The use of flow cytometry for studying the ecotoxicology of phytoplankton was introduced. On the other hand, the new flow cytometer EUROPA was presented. This is a multilaser machine which has been sp

  18. [Discussion on logistics management of medical consumables].

    Deng, Sutong; Wang, Miao; Jiang, Xiali


    Management of medical consumables is an important part of modern hospital management. In modern medical behavior, drugs and medical devices act directly on the patient, and are important factors affecting the quality of medical practice. With the increasing use of medical materials, based on practical application, this article proposes the management model of medical consumables, and discusses the essence of medical materials logistics management.


    This paper is a background document for a meeting of neurotoxicity experts to discuss the central nervous system effects of exposure to perchloroethylene (perc). The document reviews the literature on neurological testing of people exposed to perc occupationally in dry cleanin...

  20. Structural Changes in Online Discussion Networks

    Yang, Yang; Medaglia, Rony


    Social networking platforms in China provide a hugely interesting and relevant source for understanding dynamics of online discussions in a unique socio-cultural and institutional environment. This paper investigates the evolution of patterns of similar-minded and different-minded interactions over...

  1. Interaction in online interprofessional education case discussions.

    Waterston, Rosemary


    This study investigated online interaction within a curriculum unit at the University of Toronto, Canada that included an interprofessional case study discussion in a mixed-mode (face-to-face and online) format. Nine of the 81 teams that completed the four-day curriculum were selected for detailed review based on the attitudes students expressed on a survey about the value of collaborating online for enhancing their appreciation of other health care professions. Five of the teams selected were 'positive' and four were 'negative'. The responses to other survey items by members of these teams were then compared, as well as their message posting patterns and the content of their online discussions. Differences between the two sets were situated within a theoretical framework drawn from the contact theory, social interdependence theory, and the Community of Inquiry model. Institutional support in the form of facilitator involvement, individual predispositions to online and group learning, the group composition, the learning materials, task and assignment, and technical factors all affected the levels of participation online. Discourse and organizational techniques were identified that related to interactivity within the online discussions. These findings can help curriculum planners design interprofessional case studies that encourage the interactivity required for successful online discussions.

  2. How to Facilitate Discussions in History

    Reisman, Abby


    In this article, Abby Reisman offers four instructional practices that educators can use to help students grapple with history's contradictions and engage in meaningful text-based discussions. Reisman details two suggestions that can be used in history classrooms and across the disciplines: orient students to one another and orient students to the…

  3. Online Discussion Assignments Improve Students' Class Preparation

    Lineweaver, Tara T.


    To increase the number of students who read the text before class and to promote student interaction centering on text material, I developed an online discussion assignment as a required component of a cognitive psychology course. Across 2 studies, this assignment had a limited effect on examination performance, but students completing online…

  4. A Brief Discussion on Sex Language

    Fang Jianbo


    This thesis presents a discussion on the two following issues with concrete instances: [ 1 ] People's attitudes to-wards women; [2] Women's use of language. It concludes that the sex priority issue, as far as language is concerned, may not be important.

  5. Political discussions with family and friends

    Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten


    . These findings support previous studies in political communication suggesting that people tend to avoid social situations where political disagreements are likely to appear. Furthermore, the results show that there are significant gender differences when analysing the role of the parents as political discussion...

  6. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Heller, Jan C


    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.

  7. Discussing social managment: concepts and protagonists

    Mariangela Belfiore Wanderley


    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the social management conception as the management of public actions within the scope of social policies, addressing concepts and protagonists. We have given special attention to social and public notions in management as well as listed their main challenges: interdisciplinarity, intersectoriality and territorialization

  8. Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch--A Discussion

    Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kolling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel


    This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the…

  9. Workplace Mobbing: A Discussion for Librarians

    Hecker, Thomas E.


    Workplace mobbing occurs in libraries but is usually unrecognized and unchecked because the phenomenon has not been described and given a name. This discussion provides the library profession with an overview but also with specific background details to assist with recognizing mobbing and preventing severe harm to employees and organizations.

  10. School PE through Internet Discussion Forums

    Lauritsalo, Kirsti; Sääkslahti, Arja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena


    Background: Physical education is a subject that generates strong feelings and emotions, as can be seen in written accounts of PE experiences. It is also important to listen to students' voices in the research context. Nowadays, students can be listened to in a new way--through the Internet. Various discussion forums on the Internet make it…

  11. Maps of student discussions about sustainability

    Lindahl, Mats; Bruun, Jesper; Linder, Cedric

    We use a combination of network analysis (NA), text-mining (TM) techniques, and thematic discourse analysis (TDA) to characterise and compare student discussions about sustainable development. Three student groups at three different times were analysed. The analysis entails an iterative design...

  12. Hydrogen embrittlement: future directions-discussion.

    Lambert, H; Chen, Y-S


    The final session of the meeting consisted of a discussion panel to propose future directions for research in the field of hydrogen embrittlement and the potential impact of this research on public policy.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Technical discussions II - Flow cytometric analysis

    Cunningham, A; Cid, A; Buma, AGJ


    In this paper the potencial of flow cytometry as applied to the aquatic life sciences is discussed. The use of flow cytometry for studying the ecotoxicology of phytoplankton was introduced. On the other hand, the new flow cytometer EUROPA was presented. This is a multilaser machine which has been sp

  14. Evaluating the Best Renewable Energy Technology for Sustainable Energy Plannin

    Ozgur Demirta


    Energy is one of the main factors that must be considered in the discussions of sustainable development. The basic dimensions of sustainability of energy production are environmentally, technically, economically and socially sustainable supply of energy resources that, in the long term, is reliable, adequate and affordable. Renewable, clean and cost effective energy sources are preferred but unfortunately no one of the alternative energy sources can meet these demands solely. So, the problem ...

  15. Promoting Discussion in Peer Instruction: Discussion Partner Assignment and Accountability Scoring Mechanisms

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun


    Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…

  16. The Misuse of Non-Argumentative Approaches in Practical Ethics Discussions: A Dialogue with Discussion

    Gough, Jim


    This paper presents a description of a set of classroom discussions with students in an introductory college ethics course, with typical responses from the instructor to the students, as well as post discussion observations by the writer/instructor. It is intended as an open-ended paper, one which introduces the reader to discussions and invites…

  17. Chem 1 Supplement: Energy Interconversions in Photosynthesis.

    Bering, Charles L.


    Examines energy interconversions in photosynthesis, limiting the discussion to areas pertinent to chemistry (particularly the energetics of the light reactions). Topic areas considered include bioenergetics, photochemistry, conversion of light energy into electrical potential energy, the chemiosmotic hypothesis, and others. (JN)

  18. Chem 1 Supplement: Energy Interconversions in Photosynthesis.

    Bering, Charles L.


    Examines energy interconversions in photosynthesis, limiting the discussion to areas pertinent to chemistry (particularly the energetics of the light reactions). Topic areas considered include bioenergetics, photochemistry, conversion of light energy into electrical potential energy, the chemiosmotic hypothesis, and others. (JN)

  19. Green energy and efficiency an economic perspective

    Ansuategi, Alberto; Galarraga, Ibon


    Directed toward informing and assisting academics and policymakers with a general interest in energy, climate change and environmental economics, this book discusses and analyzes the major issues surrounding regarding green energy and energy efficiency.

  20. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Roman, Harry T.


    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  1. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Roman, Harry T.


    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  2. Intelligent Buildings and pervasive computing - research perspectives and discussions

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Krogh, Peter Gall; Kyng, Morten


    Intelligent Buildings have been the subject of research and commercial interest for more than two decades. The different perspectives range from monitoring and controlling energy consumption over interactive rooms supporting work in offices and leisure in the home, to buildings providing informat......Intelligent Buildings have been the subject of research and commercial interest for more than two decades. The different perspectives range from monitoring and controlling energy consumption over interactive rooms supporting work in offices and leisure in the home, to buildings providing...... information to by-passers in plazas and urban environments. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the coming decade will witness a dramatic increase in both quality and quantity of intelligent buildings due to the emerging field of pervasive computing: the next generation computing environments where...... displays. This paper provides an overview of the field and discusses some central future research perspectives....

  3. Remedial actions: A discussion of technological, regulatory and construction issues

    Manrod, W.E.; Miller, R.A.; Barton, W.D. III; Pierce, T.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Div.


    The Oak Ridge Reservation consists of approximately 35,252 acres located in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains in Eastern Tennessee. Three Department of Energy facilities are located on the Reservation: the Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The plants have, over the years, disposed of low-level and mixed waste in various areas on the reservation principally with shallow land burial. A discussion is presented of some of the actions to remediate and close areas used for disposal of waste in the past. Current or planned activities for waste disposal and storage are also discussed. Closures completed to date have complied with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Regulations. The new approach for disposal and storage has adopted ideas that have been successfully used by the French to dispose of low-level waste, as well as, improved on older shallow burial disposal techniques.

  4. Alternative energies and innovation thrusts

    Suter, P.


    Today, well-conceived systems for exploiting renewable energy sources are economically viable in many cases, despite various obstacles. Improved prospects are appearing for some of these energy forms through new innovative technologies. The present importance of renewable energy sources as well as the state of the art and obstacles to the use of these energy sources are discussed. The exploitation of solar energy, photocells, biomass, heat pumps, and geothermal heat is reviewed.

  5. The status and direction of hydrate research - a discussion

    Kneafsey, T. J.


    An open discussion will be moderated on the direction of gas hydrate research around the world. Please bring your ideas and thoughts to concisely present and discuss as time allows. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the deposition, location, configuration, and properties of hydrate-bearing sediments. Field, lab, and numerical studies have been performed covering a wide range of interests having geological, energy, safety, and climate foci. As we continue our investigations into the second most common form of solid water on earth, let's take a few minutes to thoughtfully discuss our current position and future important topics. Some questions to inspire thought/discussion: Incredible modeling capabilities have been developed to understand hydrate systems. What is now needed to enhance model reliability? Are the constitutive models adequately supported? How should confidence be built? What physics, chemistry, biology is needed but not included? The ability to locate subsurface and subsea gas hydrate deposits has improved dramatically. What additional developments are needed, and how will those developments be evaluated, selected, and validated? Are we adequately considering climate and environmental impacts? Are our gas production concepts adequate and robust? What processes are missing? What is novel?

  6. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    Nørgaard, Jørgen


    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...... and discussed. This finally leads to the difficulties in combining a more free market for energy in EU with a strong efforts to save energy. Ideas for electricity and heat saving policies are suggested....

  7. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David


    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  8. Renewable energy annual 1995



    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  9. Small Wind Energy Systems


    This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...... to the public distibutor, it can serve as a backup system, as a non-interruptible power supply (with storage aggregation), provide low-voltage support, or give a clean surplus of energy transferred to the public network under economical and technological basis. In this chapter, several factors are also...

  10. Analysis of the Characteristics of Discussion Materials that Promote Group Discussion in the Medical Humanities.

    Ahn, Jae Hee; Jeon, Woo Taek


    This study aims to analyze the characteristics of discussion materials that promote student participation in discussions, satisfaction with student instruction, and tutor intervention in the medical humanities. We surveyed 117 premedical students and 7 tutors who attended 4-week group discussions in the medical humanities in 2010. We described the discussion materials using the following 4 characteristics as independent variables: material type, level of understanding, interest, and quantity. Dependent variables were: student participation in the discussion, student instruction satisfaction, and tutor intervention. Correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and crosstab were performed using SPSS 15.0. The correlation between the characteristics of the discussion materials differed by grade. When the books were chosen as the discussion material in the instruction of first-year premedical students, the correlation between level of understanding, interest, and quantity was negative. Higher levels of understanding of the material and interest in the material led to an increase in discussion participation among both first- and second-year premedical students. Higher levels of understanding and interest of the discussion material also increased student satisfaction with the instruction, regardless of grade. Finally, levels of understanding of the material affected the degree of tutor intervention. Tutors intervened more often in discussions with first-year premedical students than with second-year premedical students. Differences in grades and the understanding of the discussion material should be considered when choosing discussion materials. Further study is required to continue the development of the discussion model and improve methods of facilitate discussion among students in the medical humanities.

  11. How to write a discussion section?

    Şanlı, Öner; Erdem, Selçuk; Tefik, Tzevat


    Writing manuscripts to describe study outcomes, although not easy, is the main task of an academician. The aim of the present review is to outline the main aspects of writing the discussion section of a manuscript. Additionally, we address various issues regarding manuscripts in general. It is advisable to work on a manuscript regularly to avoid losing familiarity with the article. On principle, simple, clear and effective language should be used throughout the text. In addition, a pre-peer review process is recommended to obtain feedback on the manuscript. The discussion section can be written in 3 parts: an introductory paragraph, intermediate paragraphs and a conclusion paragraph. For intermediate paragraphs, a "divide and conquer" approach, meaning a full paragraph describing each of the study endpoints, can be used. In conclusion, academic writing is similar to other skills, and practice makes perfect.

  12. CERN in discussions with its neighbours


    CERN recently invited local partners, elected representatives, and representatives of local administrations and associations to an information and discussion evening, giving those invited an opportunity to raise various topics linked to CERN’s presence in the local area. On Tuesday, 20 October the Globe of Science and Innovation took on a distinctly regional flavour when some 60 representatives of local administrations and public bodies in Switzerland and France as well as teachers, heads of local schools and chairs of local associations attended an information and discussion evening at the invitation of the Director-General. In his opening address, the Director-General underlined CERN’s commitment to transparency and the desire to enhance its communication with the local community. This address was followed by four presentations. Philippe Bloch, head of the Physics Department, explained the scientific goals of the LHC and the L...

  13. Skilled Toy Train Discussions about Business Innovation

    Buur, Jacob; Beuthel, Marie Rosa


    innovation session, we investigate how participants get to new concepts through analysing their skilled behaviours, movements, actions and negotiations. We observe that the final result of the workshop is indeed innovative and is co-constructed by all group members. We show why the toy train works: While......In this paper we show how industrialists in an innovation workshop employ tangible material – a toy train set – to innovate their business model. In multidisciplinary teams the process of co-creating new understandings is crucial for work to progress. Based on video data form this participatory...... encouraging group discussion of the ‘customer journey’, it keeps both hands and mind busy, it allows silent participation, and it expands the vocabulary of the discussion....

  14. Quantum clock: A critical discussion on spacetime

    Burderi, Luciano; Iaria, Rosario


    We critically discuss the measure of very short time intervals. By means of a Gedankenexperiment, we describe an ideal clock based on the occurrence of completely random events. Many previous thought experiments have suggested fundamental Planck-scale limits on measurements of distance and time. Here we present a new type of thought experiment, based on a different type of clock, that provide further support for the existence of such limits. We show that the minimum time interval $\\Delta t$ that this clock can measure scales as the inverse of its size $\\Delta r$. This implies an uncertainty relation between space and time: $\\Delta r$ $\\Delta t$ $> G \\hbar / c^4$; where G, $\\hbar$ and c are the gravitational constant, the reduced Planck constant, and the speed of light, respectively. We outline and briefly discuss the implications of this uncertainty conjecture.

  15. Restorative culture in school. Continuation of discussion

    A.A. Pentin


    Full Text Available The article deals with the lack of effective ways of building relationships, parenting responsibility and conflict solving in the school community. It is addressed to the whole school community – to the administration, psychologists and social workers, to the faculty, parents and students. We discuss the key concepts and principles of “restorative culture” and the reasons for its introduction in educational institutions. The restorative culture refers to activities on formation and spread of interpersonal relations value in the aspect of its understanding, trust, acceptance of active responsibility, separation of problems and subjects, and focus on the successful experience. We briefly discuss the theory of restorative justice and narrative practice. Particular attention is paid to the typical methods of school response to conflicts, and to zero-tolerance policy. We propose that the school community needs a number of specific technologies that would optimally suit for different types of situations and would constitute a part of the system


    K. M. H. Cavalcante


    Full Text Available Aimed to identify and discuss nursing diagnosis present in 50 Case Studies developed by students of graduation nursing of Federal University of Mato Grosso - Campus of Sinop, in a unit of clinical medical. Documentary research that addressed quantitatively the nursing diagnosis proposed using the Taxonomy II of NANDA-I (2009-2011. It was documented 82 different diagnosis, and covered all the 13 domains. The involvement of all the domains and the large variability of diagnoses identified suggested a possible holistic view of patient care and emphasized the individuality of the care plan. However, it may indicate an immaturity of these students, because often different diagnosis are related, and interventions set to one of these can solve the other, so opting for one avoids large health plans. Researchers and professors should conduct investigations and discussions to be identified teaching methods best suited to the teaching of the diagnostic process.

  17. Energy comes home

    Aune, Margrethe [Department of Interdisciplinary Studies of Culture, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway)


    The growth in private energy consumption is an increasing problem in western countries. From an environmental point of view, this consumption has to be reduced. On the basis of two Norwegian case studies, this article discusses private energy consumption and possibilities for reduction, with a special focus on the home. It argues against a rational economic view of the consumer and emphasizes the significance of a more subtle understanding of private energy use. The article approaches the challenges of reducing private energy consumption by analysing the domestication of the home and discusses everyday life activities as well as the phenomenon of rebuilding and redecorating. By using the concept of domestication, the article challenges the linear understanding of technological as well as behavioural change. Private energy consumption is part of a complex network and it is necessary to understand this network in order to achieve a more permanent reduction. (author)

  18. Energy Crisis: A Review

    Swati Pathak


    Full Text Available The impending energy crisis and climate change concerns coupled with the mounting oil prices and the depleting fossil fuel sources, have grabbed significant attention from around the globe toward the establishment of environment friendly, renewable, carbon-neutral alternative fuels to fulfil the growing energy demands. Bioenergy derived from the micro-organisms is of great interest in the present world‟s energy scenario due to its renewability. Fuel cells and batteries powered by various sources such as blood, urine, bacteria, viruses, mitochondria have been discussed herein. Energy from biomass and derived fuels like biodiesel, which is a promising candidate to replace fossil fuels as the primary transport energy source may also lead to an era of economic bloom and prosperity of the society. The batteries and fuels discussed in the composition could be the next-generation fuels and a breakthrough to a less polluted, better, greener society, the way we all dream our world to be!

  19. Discussion about the Working Tatent Energy of the Staff of Tobacco on the Basis of the Motivational Theory%基于激励理论对烟草企业员工工作潜能开发的探讨

    胡为明; 曹润林; 杨其刚


    Because that in China Tobacco the competition for talent is not high, performance appraisal system is not scientific, issues such as wages and benefits system is imperfect, the employee's potential stimulation has been restricted. The paper based on the motivational theory, that the tobacco enterprises should improve talent competition, performance examining and salary incentives, strengthen staffs training, innovative corporate culture constantly, offer strong support for development of staff's working latent energy, in order to improve the staff's working enthusiasm, thus release their inherent latent energy, make its important innovation, that becomes tobacco enterprise's development clicked.%由于我国烟草企业存在着人才竞争程度不高、绩效考核体系不够科学、工资福利制度不完善等问题,制约了员工工作潜能的激发.文章基于激励理论,认为烟草企业应该完善人才竞争、绩效考核、薪酬管理激励机制,不断加强员工培训、创新企业文化,为员工工作潜能的开发提供有力的支持,以提高员工的工作积极性,从而释放出他们的内在潜能,使之成为烟草行业发展的重要创新点.


    K. M. H. Cavalcante; Botelho, M.L.; P. P. Cavalcanti; F. M. P. Garcia


    Aimed to identify and discuss nursing diagnosis present in 50 Case Studies developed by students of graduation nursing of Federal University of Mato Grosso - Campus of Sinop, in a unit of clinical medical. Documentary research that addressed quantitatively the nursing diagnosis proposed using the Taxonomy II of NANDA-I (2009-2011). It was documented 82 different diagnosis, and covered all the 13 domains. The involvement of all the domains and the large variability of diagnoses identified sug...

  1. Summary of Study Group Session Discussions


    The relationship between gravitational physiology and calcium metabolism is examined. The role of gravity on the problems of bone response, low gravity environments, calcium in plants, and the potential in animal systems for alterations in nerve and muscle function as variations in extracellular calcium levels occurred are discussed. Innovative materials for experiments on interactions between calcium and gravity, experiments that could utilize ionospheres or calcium-measuring dyes, and specific gravity calcium experiments are also addressed.

  2. Discussing three pillars of corporate governance



    This paper is a meaningful attempt to critically analyze the cohesion and relationship between three fundamental pillars of the corporate governance system: the shareholders, the board of directors and the employees. We present the characteristics of each pillar and discuss its relevance in corporate governance. A couple of world-renowned corporate governance models are considered. A synthetic conclusion is drawn based on information presented.

  3. Teaching Methods - Policy Possibilities for Public Discussion

    Bakaradze, Ekaterine; Bezovski, Zlatko; Grabova, Perseta; Hasaj, Alkida; Jurcic, Ana; Kalemi, Marsel; Natsvlishvili, Ia; Simic, Ruzica


    The discussion on Teaching Methods was conducted in cooperation with The George Washington University’s Research Program in Social and Organizational Learning. Its participants included university teachers from Albania, Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia, and Georgia who had come to the United States under the auspices of the United States State Department’s Junior Faculty Development Program and the Open Society Institute to learn about new teaching methods that they might use in their classes back ...

  4. Public discussion, art practice between 3 generations

    O'Connell, Tina


    Bealtaine Festival have invited sculptor Tina O Connell, painter Brian Bourke and Sarah Tynan spending time exploring their practices. The idea behind the residency is to create a quiet space over the course of two weeks for artists of mixed generations to consider their practices, and the changing contexts of those practices as time has moved on in their career, over a two week period. At the end of the residency there will be a public discussion with the three artists.

  5. The Current Discussion on Men and Masculinities


    Full Text Available In the past gender specific problems were mainly discussed in a female perspective. In the meantime there is a rising attentiveness in the living conditions of men and their coping strategies within critical life events. In this paper an appropriate frame of reference is outlined which can be used in those areas of social work where men are already discovered as a target group with special difficulties and needs.

  6. Islamophobia? The German Discussion about Islamophobia

    Astrid Bötticher


    Full Text Available Islamophobia is a term which is relatively new in the world of social science; it is a neologism. Kofi Annan has warned about it but there is not a clear, undoubted concept to it yet – and it is questionable if there ever will be, especially if one looks into the German controversy about the term. The German discussion is not unique though, and must fall into the pattern of wider, European discussion about the Islamic minority. Prominent figures of Islamic hatred in Europe are for instance Oriana Fallaci and Brigitte Bardot. Against them, there stands a more liberal community that does not want to follow the language of violence and hatred. Two different standpoints are the main poles of discussion. One group wants to use Islamophobia as a concept, the other group opposes the term. In between, there is the scientific concept of Islamophobia that is threatened to be pulverized before it is even fully conceptualized. In the middle position there are also intellectuals known as Islamic reformers who argue that Islamophobia should be replaced by the term Islam-critique.

  7. Discussion on geobiology,biogeology and geobiofacies

    YIN HongFu; XIE ShuCheng; QING JianZhong; YAN JiaXin; LUO GenMing


    Here we first discuss the definition of and the difference between geobiology and biogeology following a brief introduction of recent geobiology research in China.Geobiology is defined as an interdisciplinary study of life sciences and earth sciences,and biogeology as an interdisciplinary study of biology and geology.Scope of the term geobiology covers that of the term biogeology.Branch interdisciplines of both are listed.We then propose the term geobiofacies,defined as the facies of a geologic body embodying the whole process of interaction between organisms and environments.Differences among geobiofacies,biofacies,and organic facies are discussed.Main parameters defining a geobiofacies include habitat type,biotic composition and productivity,paleo-oxygenation regimes,and early diagenesis phases.Each of them is discussed in detail,and a semi-quantitative assessment of the biogeofacies of source rocks is proposed based on these parameters.A two-fold terminology for geobiofacies is recommended,namely,the biological and environmental aspects of biota and the redox conditions during life-burial-diagenesis process.

  8. Discussion on geobiology, biogeology and geobiofacies


    Here we first discuss the definition of and the difference between geobiology and biogeology following a brief introduction of recent geobiology research in China. Geobiology is defined as an interdisciplinary study of life sciences and earth sciences, and biogeology as an interdisciplinary study of biology and geology. Scope of the term geobiology covers that of the term biogeology. Branch interdisciplines of both are listed. We then propose the term geobiofacies, defined as the facies of a geologic body embodying the whole process of interaction between organisms and environments. Differences among geobiofacies, biofacies, and organic facies are discussed. Main parameters defining a geobiofacies include habitat type, biotic composition and productivity, paleo-oxygenation regimes, and early diagenesis phases. Each of them is discussed in detail, and a semi-quantitative assessment of the biogeofacies of source rocks is proposed based on these parameters. A two-fold terminology for geobiofacies is recommended, namely, the biological and environmental aspects of biota and the redox conditions during life-burial-diagenesis process

  9. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig


    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devote...... service level and technology are demonstrated as the main determinants of future energy consumption. In the concluding remarks, the main flaws of present energy policy and some visions of the future are discussed.......The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply technology...

  10. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig


    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devote...... service level and technology are demonstrated as the main determinants of future energy consumption. In the concluding remarks, the main flaws of present energy policy and some visions of the future are discussed.......The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply technology...

  11. Energy intermittency

    Sorensen, Bent


    The first book to consider intermittency as a key point of an energy system, Energy Intermittency describes different levels of variability for traditional and renewable energy sources, presenting detailed solutions for handling energy intermittency through trade, collaboration, demand management, and active energy storage. Addressing energy supply intermittency systematically, this practical text:Analyzes typical time-distributions and intervals between episodes of demand-supply mismatch and explores their dependence on system layouts and energy source characteristicsSimulates scenarios regar

  12. Binding Energy and Enzymatic Catalysis.

    Hansen, David E.; Raines, Ronald T.


    Discussed is the fundamental role that the favorable free energy of binding of the rate-determining transition state plays in catalysis. The principle that all of the catalytic factors discussed are realized by the use of this binding energy is reviewed. (CW)

  13. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik


    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model.......This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological...... development are one of the main causes for the very diverging results which have been obtained using bottom-up and top-down models for analysing the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. One of the objectives for studies comparing model results have been to create comparable model assumptions regarding...

  14. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Bayliss, B. P.


    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  15. NANA Strategic Energy Plan & Energy Options Analysis

    Jay Hermanson; Brian Yanity


    NANA Strategic Energy Plan summary NRC, as an Alaska Native Corporation, has committed to addressing the energy needs for its shareholders. The project framework calls for implicit involvement of the IRA Councils in the Steering Committee. Tribal Members, from the NRC to individual communities, will be involved in development of the NANA Energy Plan. NRC, as the lead tribal entity, will serve as the project director of the proposed effort. The NRC team has communicated with various governmental and policy stakeholders via meetings and discussions, including Denali Commission, Alaska Energy Authority, and other governmental stakeholders. Work sessions have been initiated with the Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, the NW Arctic Borough, and Kotzebue Electric Association. The NRC Strategic Energy Plan (SEP) Steering committee met monthly through April and May and weekly starting in June 2008 in preparation of the energy summit that was held from July 29-31, 2008. During preparations for the energy summit and afterwards, there was follow through and development of project concepts for consideration. The NANA regional energy summit was held from July 29-31, 2008, and brought together people from all communities of the Northwest Arctic Borough. The effort was planned in conjunction with the Alaska Energy Authority’s state-wide energy planning efforts. Over $80,000 in cash contributions was collected from various donors to assist with travel from communities and to develop the summit project. Available funding resources have been identified and requirements reviewed, including the Denali Commission, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Alaska Energy Authority. A component of the overall plan will be a discussion of energy funding and financing. There are current project concepts submitted, or are ready for submittal, in the region for the following areas: • Wind-diesel in Deering, Buckland, Noorik, and Kiana areas; potential development around Red Dog mine.

  16. Schizophrenic Energy Users

    Andersen, Maria Wael; Halgaard, Anne-Marie Rud; Rasmussen, Tove Arendt


      On the basis of qualitative interviews on 'Energibyen Frederikshavn' (Energy City Frederikshavn), the article reveals various rationales underlying modern consumers' often contradictory opinions and attitudes to climate change and energy consumption. It may seem hard to decide whether...... the interest in sustainable, alternative sources of energy is conditioned by the soaring price of oil or present threats of climate change. And does it really matter what the motivations are as long as behaviour is changed? The article will discuss the energy discourses produced by the people...

  17. Energy sustainability through green energy

    Sharma, Atul


    This book shares the latest developments and advances in materials and processes involved in the energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage. Chapters are written by researchers in the energy and materials field. Topics include, but are not limited to, energy from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; solar, wind, geothermal, hydro power, wave energy; energy-transmission, distribution and storage; energy-efficient lighting buildings; energy sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; energy policy for new and renewable energy technologies and education for sustainable energy development

  18. States of Cybersecurity: Electricity Distribution System Discussions

    Pena, Ivonne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Maurice [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    State and local entities that oversee the reliable, affordable provision of electricity are faced with growing and evolving threats from cybersecurity risks to our nation's electricity distribution system. All-hazards system resilience is a shared responsibility among electric utilities and their regulators or policy-setting boards of directors. Cybersecurity presents new challenges and should be a focus for states, local governments, and Native American tribes that are developing energy-assurance plans to protect critical infrastructure. This research sought to investigate the implementation of governance and policy at the distribution utility level that facilitates cybersecurity preparedness to inform the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis; states; local governments; and other stakeholders on the challenges, gaps, and opportunities that may exist for future analysis. The need is urgent to identify the challenges and inconsistencies in how cybersecurity practices are being applied across the United States to inform the development of best practices, mitigations, and future research and development investments in securing the electricity infrastructure. By examining the current practices and applications of cybersecurity preparedness, this report seeks to identify the challenges and persistent gaps between policy and execution and reflect the underlying motivations of distinct utility structures as they play out at the local level. This study aims to create an initial baseline of cybersecurity preparedness within the distribution electricity sector. The focus of this study is on distribution utilities not bound by the cybersecurity guidelines of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to examine the range of mechanisms taken by state regulators, city councils that own municipal utilities, and boards of directors of rural cooperatives.

  19. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian


    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials.

  20. Renewable energy.

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry


    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  1. Energy resources

    Simon, Andrew L


    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  2. Energy enters guilty plea. [Department of Energy human experimentation

    Makhijani, A. (Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Takoma Park, MD (United States))

    This article discusses the history leading up to the admission from Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary that the Energy Department had conducted secret, dangerous, and immoral experiments on the American people. The article describes some of the experimentation on human subjects, attempts to identify the rationale behind exposing human subjects to radiation, and discusses the lack of ethics displayed by the Energy Department in both its experimentation and in its analysis of results. 16 refs.

  3. Energy planning in the Arab world

    Elshafei, A.N.


    Efficient use of energy is of interest to the energy-surplus regions as well as the energy-deficit regions. Similarly, concern about energy conservation is not confined to the industrially developed regions of the world. This article discusses energy planning from the Arab point of view. A framework for Arab energy modeling is first described. Then the application of a computer model - that of Mesarovic and Pestel - to Arab energy-planning needs is discussed and some of the results are presented. Finally, current priorities in Arab energy-modeling studies are outlined. The Appendix surveys some existing models which address regional and international energy problems.

  4. Understanding Energy

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine


    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  5. Energy Demand

    Stehfest, E. et al.


    Key policy issues – How will energy demand evolve particularly in emerging and medium- and low- income economies? – What is the mix of end-use energy carriers to meet future energy demand? – How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on t

  6. Computer-assisted Instruction And Discussion



    From drill-and-practice software,to word-processing programs,to network and hypertext software,the gradual integration of technology in classrooms over the last twenty years has tended to reflect the technological developments and more importantly the theories of learning and instruction developed by scholars.Thus,the introduction of network technologies in education coincided with a shift in education from an interest in cognitive and developmental theories of learning to a social and collaborative view of learning.The present paper focuses on synchronous computer-mediated interaction,namely computer-assisted instruction and discussion in the second language classroom.

  7. Creative Research Methods - a reflective online discussion

    Ruth Leary


    Full Text Available In November 2013, the Institute of Advanced Studies (University of Warwick hosted a meeting of interdisciplinary colleagues interested in Creative Research Methods. The aspirations were to kick-start the debate at Warwick and create a platform from which researchers can develop projects that embrace new forms of intellectual enquiry and knowledge production. Following the meeting, several of the attendees agreed to develop some of the discussion points and briefly responded to a number of questions in an online document over a period of a few weeks. This paper is the result of that real space and online collaboration.

  8. Public Spaces For The Discussion Of Peru.

    Cynthia E. Milton.


    Full Text Available In theaftermath of civil conflict and a truth commission into twenty years of violence (19802000, Peru is presently engaged in the difficult task of establishing overarching narratives that provide frameworks for organizing personal and collective memories in the few public spaces available for the discussion of this recent past. This article looks at two public spaces, a series of performative events in Ayacucho duringthe submission of the truth commission's Final Report, and Lima's memorysite, The Eye that Cries. One contentious memory is over who are appropriate victims and heroes to remember.

  9. FM Discusses China’s External Relations


    Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi answered questions from journalists at home and abroad at a press conference in Beijing on March 12.The press conference,held on the sidelines of this year’s session of the National People’s Congress,is an annual routine for the foreign minister.Yang’s main points follow: China-Japan relations President Hu Jintao will visit Japan in the near future,and the two countries’diplomats are discussing the details of the itinerary. This historic visit,Hu’s first trip to Japan as president,will boost relations between the two countries,said Yang.

  10. Energy harvesting and wireless energy transmission for embedded sensor nodes

    Farinholt, Kevin; Taylor, Stuart; Miller, Nathan; Sifuentes, Wilfredo; Moro, Erik; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles; Flynn, Eric; Mascarenas, David; Todd, Michael


    In this paper, we present experimental investigations using energy harvesting and wireless energy transmission to operate embedded structural health monitoring sensor nodes. The goal of this study is to develop sensing systems that can be permanently embedded within a host structure without the need for an on-board power source. With this approach the required energy will be harvested from the ambient environment, or periodically delivered by a RF energy source to supplement conventional harvesting approaches. This approach combines several transducer types to harvest energy from multiple sources, providing a more robust solution that does not rely on a single energy source. Both piezoelectric and thermoelectric transducers are considered as energy harvesters to extract the ambient energy commonly available on civil structures such as bridges. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  11. The science of energy

    Newton, Roger G


    This book aims to describe the scientific concepts of energy. Accessible to readers with no scientific education beyond high-school chemistry, it starts with the basic notion of energy and the fundamental laws that govern it, such as conservation, and explains the various forms of energy, such as electrical, chemical, and nuclear. It then proceeds to describe ways in which energy is stored for very long times in the various fossil fuels (petroleum, gas, coal) as well as for short times (flywheels, pumped storage, batteries, fuel cells, liquid hydrogen). The book also discusses the modes of transport of energy, especially those of electrical energy via lasers and transmission lines, as well as why the latter uses alternating current at high voltages. The altered view of energy introduced by quantum mechanics is also discussed, as well as how almost all the Earth's energy originates from the Sun. Finally, the history of the forms of energy in the course of development of the universe is described, and how this ...

  12. Energy Price Reform in China


    Market-based reform of energy prices is the most effective approach to enhancing energy efficiency. The policies of energy conservation and enhancing energy efficiency in the 1 lth Five-year Plan period (2006-2010) work directly to set up a series of reform measures related to energy pricing by market mechanism. Energy price reform will deeply influence China's industrial interest pattern, and its development in the next five years and even 10 or 20 years.This paper analyzes the significance, timing, present status and problems related to energy price reform, and discusses the goal, principle and measures of coal, electricity, oil and gas price reform separately.

  13. Diversity: How to Begin the Discussion

    Brenda Alston-Mills


    Full Text Available The perception of diversity and inclusion, as it relates to social justice, often evokes destructive responses, either spoken or unspoken. It is one of the ‘malicious problems’ found in the classroom, the workplace, and amongst other parts of our society. In challenging these problems with diversity and inclusion, conversations regarding the substantive aspects of oppression and inequitable distribution of power of one group over another must be initiated to educate or expand the thinking of our modern day society. Formulating solutions from these conversations, willing individuals must be able to name the issue, analyze its impact, and enact a positive change, while acknowledging the difficulties in creating conversations of an issue that is in dire need of revelation. This report provides a non-controversial presentation, beginning with reasons for resistance, followed by survival strategies, and ending with pro-active strategies to establish dialogue and to allow for personal stories. Further discussion will analyze aggressive behavior, examine critical core values for an individual and organization, discuss positive and effective methods for combating mistreatment, and empowerment strategies to respond positively to oppression. Strategies for engaging an organization are included, such as how to use these tools to co-create a vision for a welcoming environment in organizations, while acknowledging the uncomfortable atmosphere that surrounds the topic of cultural change. Accepting that this uncomfortable environment stems from fear itself, fear is a viable part of the process towards trust and resolution.

  14. Disgust discussed: introduction to the special section.

    Pole, Nnamdi


    The author introduces a special section of Psychological Bulletin devoted to the study of disgust. After discussing conflicts between its supposed role as a basic emotion and its more recently understood involvement in responding to moral transgressions, the author summarizes 3 articles contained in the special section. Widen and Russell (2013) present a developmental account of disgust highlighting the ages at which children experience, express, understand, verbalize, and recognize disgust. The article shows that disgust is present early but that recognition of disgust in others is considerably delayed. Chapman and Anderson (2013) review evidence pertaining to the question of whether genuine disgust is elicited by moral transgressions. Their review covers data from self-report, brain imaging, facial behavior, and implicit measures gathered from both experimental and correlational studies. They conclude that moral transgressions elicit genuine disgust. Russell and Giner-Sorolla (2013) ask what types of moral transgressions are most likely to elicit pure disgust. They find that moral transgressions involving body violations are more likely than others to elicit such disgust. Moreover, they suggest that disgust elicited by body violations is likely to be more resistant to modification by context, situation, and efforts at rationalization. Taken together, the reviews support the view that rudiments of disgust to physical objects are present early in life but later become adapted to social influence and new moral purposes. Social implications are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  15. Just a routine operation: a critical discussion.

    McClelland, G; Smith, M B


    This article has summarised a critical discussion of the human factors that contributed to the death of a patient from a failure to respond appropriately to a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. The contributory factors included the clinical team's inability to communicate, prioritise tasks and demonstrate effective leadership and assertive followership. The film Just a routine operation has now been in circulation for several years. When a system is designed and introduced with the intention of making a change to clinical practice, it can quickly become just another component of an organisation's architecture and complacency around its use can develop. This article has been written specifically for perioperative practitioners to renew the debate around the human factors that contribute to patient harm. By critically discussing Just a routine operation and attempting to review why the incident occurred, this article has attempted to emphasise that some of the conditions and behaviours that contributed to the death of Elaine Bromiley may be latent within our organisations and teams, and may continue to contribute to failures that affect patient safety.

  16. Discussion on Earthquake Forecasting and Early Warning

    Zhang Xiaodong; Jiang Haikun; Li Mingxiao


    Through analysis of natural and social attributes of earthquake forecasting,the relationship between the natural and social attributes of earthquake forecasting (early warning) has been discussed.Regarding the natural attributes of earthquake forecasting,it only attempts to forecast the magnitude,location and occurrence time of future earthquake based on the aualysis of observational data and relevant theories and taking into consideration the present understanding of seismogeny and earthquake generation.It need not consider the consequences an earthquake forecast involves,and its purpose is to check out the level of scientific understanding of earthquakes.In respect of the social aspect of earthquake forecasting,people also focus on the consequence that the forecasting involves,in addition to its natural aspect,such as the uncertainty of earthquake prediction itself,the impact of earthquake prediction,and the earthquake resistant capability of structures (buildings),lifeline works,etc.In a word,it highlights the risk of earthquake forecasting and tries to mitigate the earthquake hazard as much as possible.In this paper,the authors also discuss the scientific and social challenges faced in earthquake prediction and analyze preliminarily the meanings and content of earthquake early warning.

  17. Brain plasticity, memory, and aging: a discussion

    Bennett, E.L.; Rosenzweig, M.R.


    It is generally assumed that memory faculties decline with age. A discussion of the relationship of memory and aging and the possibility of retarding the potential decline is hampered by the fact that no satisfactory explanation of memory is available in either molecular or anatomical terms. However, this lack of description of memory does not mean that there is a lack of suggested mechanisms for long-term memory storage. Present theories of memory usually include first, neurophysiological or electrical events, followed by a series of chemical events which ultimately lead to long-lasting anatomical changes in the brain. Evidence is increasing for the biochemical and anatomical plasticity of the nervous system and its importance in the normal functioning of the brain. Modification of this plasticity may be an important factor in senescence. This discussion reports experiments which indicate that protein synthesis and anatomical changes may be involved in long-term memory storage. Environmental influences can produce quantitative differences in brain anatomy and in behavior. In experimental animals, enriched environments lead to more complex anatomical patterns than do colony or impoverished environments. This raises fundamental questions about the adequacy of the isolated animal which is frequently being used as a model for aging research. A more important applied question is the role of social and intellectual stimulation in influencing aging of the human brain.

  18. Climate - Greenhouse effect - Energy; Klima - drivhuseffekt - energi

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf


    This book explains what is understood by climate systems and the concept of greenhouse effect. It also gives a survey of the world's energy consumption, energy reserves and renewable energy sources. Today, 75 - 80 per cent of the world's energy consumption involves fossil fuel. These are the sources that cause the CO{sub 2} emissions. What are the possibilities of reducing the emissions? The world's population is increasing, and to provide food and a worthy life for everybody we have to use more energy. Where do we get this energy from without causing great climate changes and environmental changes? Should gas power plants be built in Norway? Should Swedish nuclear power plants be shut down, or is it advisable to concentrate on nuclear power, worldwide, this century, to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions until the renewable energy sources have been developed and can take over once the petroleum sources have been depleted? The book also discusses the global magnetic field, which protects against particle radiation from space and which gives rise to the aurora borealis. The book is aimed at students taking environmental courses in universities and colleges, but is also of interest for anybody concerned about climate questions, energy sources and living standard.

  19. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    Krozer, Y.


    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  20. Business development in renewable energy

    Krozer, Yoram; Visa, Ion


    This paper discusses how to foster development of renewable energy business. Factors that impede or enhance renewable energy in the EU 27 member states in the period 1998–2008 are analyzed. Nine factors are considered: population density, production output and energy sector output to indicate market

  1. Sustainable energy research at DTU

    Nielsen, Rolf Haugaard; Andersen, Morten

    out in close cooperation with internationally leading institutions and experts. Based on a wealth of core competencies, DTU takes a broadand holistic approach to energy research within both energy supply and consumption. Against this background, DTU identifies, presents and discusses new energy...

  2. Business development in renewable energy

    Krozer, Yoram; Visa, Ion


    This paper discusses how to foster development of renewable energy business. Factors that impede or enhance renewable energy in the EU 27 member states in the period 1998–2008 are analyzed. Nine factors are considered: population density, production output and energy sector output to indicate market

  3. 浅谈大同推广应用智能电网技术--电能量采集和负荷管理系统%Discussion on Electric Energy Acquisition and Load Management System Which Is the Smart Grid Technology Promoted and Applied by Datong



    According to the"Twelve-Five"power marketing development plan of national grid company, Datong Power Supply Company speeds up the marketing modernization and measurement scientization construction, actively promotes the use of smart grid technology, vigorously implements the construction of electric energy acquisition and load management system in order to achieve the change from artificial remote meter reading to the automated meter reading, implement the techniques and services to electricity customers through modern management, and realize digital and fine marketing management based on the existing management platforms and technical conditions. These measures have important strategic significance for enhancing the company's power marketing automation and intelligence level.%根据国家电网公司“十二五”电力营销发展规划,大同供电公司加快营销现代化和计量科学化建设,积极推广应用智能电网技术,大力实施电能量采集和负荷管理系统的建设,实现由人工抄表到远程自动化抄表方式的转变,通过现代化技术将管理和服务落实到用电客户,基于现有的管理平台和技术条件,实现营销管理的数字化、精细化。对于提升公司电力营销自动化、智能化水平具有重要的战略意义。

  4. Student Participation Patterns in Online Discussion: Incorporating Constructivist Discussion into Online Courses

    Kim, Hoe Kyeung; Bateman, Betzi


    The purpose of this article was to explore student participation patterns in online discussion boards related to their characteristics and question types. The characteristics of students enrolled in an online course and the impact of types of discussion questions on student posts were examined. During the 16 weeks of a course, the participation…

  5. Values and Commitments Underlying Discussion. Professional Development on Discussion: Group Images in Action.

    Francis, Eileen

    The Discussion Development Group (DDG) at Moray House College of Education, Scotland, is a resource center designed as an open learning system to provide inservice training, consultancy support, and resources on classroom discussion. A case study involving 17 teachers and recently conducted by the DDG explored features of process innovation and…

  6. Science in Discussions: An Analysis of the Use of Science Content in Socioscientific Discussions

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis


    This paper presents a normative pragmatics analysis of students' use of science content in eight socioscientific group discussions about human gene therapy. The specific focus of the paper is on the argumentative role that invocations of science had in the dialectics of the discussions. The analysis suggests that science content occasionally…

  7. Literature Discussion Groups: The Role of Teacher Talk in Discussing Social Issues

    Guay, Mary


    The purpose of this study was to examine how teacher talk influenced the way issues of race, culture, and disability were addressed in literature discussion groups. Discussions of one teacher with two groups of students, of varying reading levels, were studied. The research questions were: 1) How does the teacher's perspective on the students…

  8. Energy, tourism

    Frantál, B.


    The chapter provides a general definition of energy and resume the role and environmental impacts of tourism as one of the largest global industries and energy consumers.Then the energy tourism nexus is conceptualized from three perspectives: The first is energy as a driver of tourism. The second is energy as a constraint of tourism. The third is energy as an attraction and object of tourists´interests.

  9. International energy outlook 1999



    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  10. Strategic principles workshops: Discussion drafts and workshop notes



    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste-Management in the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of this nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. Although embodied in the Federal repository program that began with studies in the late 1950s, this mission was explicitly established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and reaffirmed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. To fulfill our mission, we are developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for monitored retrievable storage, and a system for transporting the waste. This discussion draft was developed to help involve parties affected by or interested in the waste-management program in the formulation of the basic principles on which the program will be based. It reviews existing objectives, policies, and strategic principles under which the system is currently being developed. Then discussed are issues of strategic importance for which additional strategic principles may be needed. For these issues in particular, views from affected and interested parties is solicited, but comments regarding alternative approaches to the issues presented as well as suggestions for additional issues will also be welcome. Finally, background information on the waste-management program pertinent to the issues discussion is presented.

  11. Equal or different? LGBTI rights under discussion

    Eduardo J. Arrubia


    Full Text Available Feminism has emerged in a context of struggle for equality.  As formal rights gained ground, material inequalities resulting from ineffective legal rules became evident. These issues are the starting point for the discussion on equality and differences in the field of LGBTI human rights theory. Accordingly, this essay explores the new legal rights gained by the LGBTI community in the Argentine Republic, along with material tensions arising from social reality. Such reality is addressed by relevant literature as well as by the analysis of interviews conducted in the city of Azul, Province of Buenos Aires. The core idea of this essay focuses on the search for a theory connecting both equality and difference when it comes to sexual minorities. 

  12. Discussion of Muskingum method parameter X

    Xiao-fang RUI


    Full Text Available The parameter X of the Muskingum method is a physical parameter that reflects the flood peak attenuation and hydrograph shape flattening of a diffusion wave in motion. In this paper, the historic process that hydrologists have undergone to find a physical explanation of this parameter is briefly discussed. Based on the fact that the Muskingum method is the second-order accuracy difference solution to the diffusion wave equation, its numerical stability condition is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn: X<=0.5 is the uniform condition satisfying the demands for its physical meaning and numerical stability. It is also pointed out that the methods that regard the sum of squares of differences between the calculated and observed discharges or stages as the objective function and the routing coefficients C0 , C1 and C2 of the Muskingum method as the optimization parameters cannot guarantee the physical meaning of X.

  13. Discussion on ``Teaching the Second Law''

    Silbey, Robert; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Hatsopoulos, George N.; Keck, James C.; Lewins, Jeffery; Lior, Noam; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Steinfeld, Jeffrey; von Spakovsky, Michael R.; Wang, Lin-Shu; Zanchini, Enzo


    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 5, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Joseph Smith Jr., Howard Butler, Andrew Foley, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli, Bernhardt Trout, Jeffery Lewins, Enzo Zanchini, and Michael von Spakovsky. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law taught in so many different ways? Why so many textbooks on thermodynamics? Why so many schools of thought? • Some say that thermodynamics is limited to equilibrium, others that it extends to nonequilibrium. How is entropy defined for nonequilibrium states?

  14. VIA Discussions at XIV Bled Workshop

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu


    Virtual Institute of Astroparticle Physics (VIA), integrated in the structure of Laboratory of AstroParticle physics and Cosmology (APC) is evolved in a unique multi-functional complex of $e-science$ and $e-learning$, supporting various forms of collaborative scientific work as well as programs of education at distance. The activity of VIA takes place on its website and includes regular videoconferences with systematic basic courses and lectures on various issues of astroparticle physics, regular online transmission of APC Colloquiums, participation at distance in various scientific meetings and conferences, library of their records and presentations, a multilingual Forum. VIA virtual rooms are open for meetings of scientific groups and for individual work of supervisors with their students. The format of a VIA videoconferences was effectively used in the program of XIV Bled Workshop to provide a world-wide participation at distance in discussion of the open questions of physics beyond the standard model. The...

  15. Is rational discussion of open access possible?

    Rick Anderson


    Full Text Available Open Access (OA, like any other model or strategy for the dissemination of knowledge, carries with it clear benefits as well as costs and downsides. These vary depending on the OA strategy in question, and in order for OA to bring maximum benefit to the world of scholarship, its costs and benefits need be examined carefully and dispassionately so that the former can be maximized and the latter minimized. Unfortunately, the OA advocacy community tends to resist all attempts to examine OA in this way, to the point that those who approach OA in a spirit of critical analysis (rather than celebration and evangelism are attacked and punished. This article describes the problem, provides examples of it, and proposes strategies for promoting a more rigorous and analytical discussion of OA.

  16. Discussing and managing hematologic germ line variants.

    Kohlmann, Wendy; Schiffman, Joshua D


    With the introduction of genomic technologies, more hereditary cancer syndromes with hematologic malignancies are being described. Up to 10% of hematologic malignancies in children and adults may be the result of an underlying inherited genetic risk. Managing these patients with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including familial leukemia, remains a clinical challenge because there is little information about these relatively rare disorders. This article covers some of the issues related to the diagnosis and interpretation of variants associated with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including the importance of an accurate family history in interpreting genetic variants associated with disease. The challenges of screening other family members and offering the most appropriate early malignancy detection is also discussed. We now have a good opportunity to better define hereditary cancer syndromes with associated hematologic malignancies and contribute to clinically effective guidelines.

  17. Discussion of Muskingum method parameter X

    Rui Xiaofang; Liu Fanggui; Yu Mei


    The parameter X of the Muskingum method is a physical parameter that reflects the flood peak attenuation and hydrograph shape flattening of a diffusion wave in motion. In this paper, the historic process that hydrologists have undergone to find a physical explanation of this parameter is briefly discussed. Based on the fact that the Muskingum method is the second-order accuracy difference solution to the diffusion wave equation, its numerical stability condition is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn: X ≤ 0.5 is the uniform condition satisfying the demands for its physical meaning and numerical stability. It is also pointed out that the methods that regard the sum of squares of differences between the calculated and observed discharges or stages as the objective function and the routing coefficients Co, C0, and C2 of the Muskingum method as the optimization parameters cannot guarantee the physical meaning of X.

  18. Discussion on the parameters of design waves

    WANG Yan-ying


    In order to respond the discredit on the design wave standard and to recommend new consideration on design wave parameters, based on the long-term distribution of statistic characteristics of waves and the short-term probability properties of sea state defined by giving the return period, the calculation of the return period, the height, the period, and the oceanic wave parameters of the design wave and the forecasting methods are discussed in this paper. To provide references for the operation reliability of floating structures in the extreme sea state, the method of determining the design wave parameters is resurveyed. A proposal is recommended that the design wave, which can be either significant wave with 500-year of the return period, or the maximum wave with 1/N of exceeding probability, 100-year of the return period, can be applied in the engineering design practice.

  19. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: an open discussion.

    Nagy, Corina; Turecki, Gustavo


    Much controversy surrounds the idea of transgenerational epigenetics. Recent papers argue that epigenetic marks acquired through experience are passed to offspring, but as in much of the field of epigenetics, there is lack of precision in the definitions and perhaps too much eagerness to translate animal research to humans. Here, we review operational definitions of transgenerational inheritance and the processes of epigenetic programing during early development. Subsequently, based on this background, we critically examine some recent findings of studies investigating transgenerational inheritance. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain transgenerational inheritance, including transmission of an epigenetic blueprint, which may predispose offspring to specific epigenetic patterning. Taken together, we conclude that presently, the evidence suggesting that acquired epigenetic marks are passed to the subsequent generation remains limited.

  20. A Contribution to Arc Length Discussion

    Stephan Egerland


    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation was raising the question: "What does 'arc length' mean?" Actually, it is considered expressing a kind of natural relationship between arc voltage and arc column shape. Statements such as "The higher the voltage the longer the arc" or "The arc voltage proves approximately proportional to the arc length", are frequently noticed in this conjunction. However, the author suggests that there is no general possibility of describing 'arc length' over the whole welding process range. Instances are represented in this paper, showing both theoretical attempts of definition and practical observations. This paper intends to contribute to a serious discussion of something trivial, indeed very well-known or used among welding experts, but actually yet hardly understood, at least as when it comes to closer examination

  1. WTC. A discussion on built space regeneration

    Marina Mihăilă


    Full Text Available Before 9/11 WTC was an international landmark. The definition of the two high-rise buildings identity, their tourist, social, visual and economic significance, disappeared with the destruction of their materiality. As a result, the contemplative visual and unwritten discourse of the Lower Manhattan disappeared together with the architectural, urban, technological essence and also with the philosophy of stability and equilibrium of a prosperous society. At the social-mental level this event triggers a crisis in personal and collective consciences (of the American Nation but also of the Nations, and a crisis of humanity. The architectural - urban and ideas competition organized to select the best urban-social-architectural concept proved to be a difficult task. Not only it had to “fill” a particular place on earth, but it also needed to configure a philosophy of place that would ‘heal” the wounds of the local and international communities, namely the lack of security and prosperity brought on by a no longer hidden technology of aggression bringing cities and communities under threats never experienced before at times of peace. In its first part the article discusses the competition, proposals and the finalized urban project. The particular challenges related to the selection of design in the case of WTC are doubled by a certain complexity related to the institutional arrangements common to most large urban development projects. It is also clear that there is interdependency between the project governance and the project results. These aspects are discussed in the second part of the article.

  2. 基于等效电路法的负阻尼能量机理及振荡源定位方法探讨%Discussion on Energy Mechanism of Negative Damping and Oscillation Source Locating Method Based on Equivalent Circuit Method

    杨毅强; 刘天琪; 李兴源; 王锋; 赵睿


    2.School of Automation and Electronic Information,Sichuan University of Science & Engineering,Zigong 643000,China) In order to explain the mechanism of forming oscillation source in free oscillation,an equivalent circuit method based on the energy method is proposed.The equivalent circuits of various parts of the power system are developed,and the equivalent circuit of the system is obtained by combining them together.According to the circuit theory,an oscillation source locating criterion calculated with integral is converted into a variety of criteria represented by phasors.Three criteria are proposed for locating the oscillation source of the excitation system.By converting the three criteria into criteria represented by phasors and combining them together,the mechanism of forming oscillation source in the excitation system is analyzed.The correctness and effectiveness of the methods are verified by simulation.The methods proposed can be used to locate the oscillation source in the excitation system online and analyze the mechanism of oscillation source formed by inappropriate excitation parameter setting.%为解释自由振荡中产生振荡源的机理,在能量法基础之上提出了等效电路法。对电力系统各元件分别建立了其等效电路并组合得到系统的等效电路。根据电路理论,将积分形式的振荡源定位判据转化为相量判据。对于励磁系统,提出了3种振荡源定位判据。将这3种判据转化为相量形式并组合,分析了励磁系统产生振荡源的机理。算例仿真证明了该分析方法的正确性和有效性。该方法可用于在线定位励磁系统振荡源,并分析由于励磁参数设定不当而形成振荡源的机理。

  3. Multiple Energy System Analysis of Smart Energy Systems

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck


    To eliminate the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector it is necessary to transition to future 100% renewable energy systems. One approach for this radical change in our energy systems is Smart Energy Systems. With a focus on development and interaction between smart electricity grids, smart...... guidelines to municipalities in the transition to future 100% renewable Smart Energy Systems. A tool with such capabilities enables better discussions of energy systems and can potentially handle multiple country analyses. This paper discusses the development and consequences of modelling an energy system...... analysis tools capable of handling multiple system. This includes a review of how interconnection works, and what assumptions make sense when integrating them in large scale analysis of national energy systems. The result of the paper is the development of an actual tool capable of simulating and analyzing...

  4. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    Williams, J. R.


    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  5. A hydrogen energy carrier. Volume 1: Summary. [for meeting energy requirements

    Savage, R. L. (Editor); Blank, L. (Editor); Cady, T. (Editor); Cox, K. E. (Editor); Murray, R. (Editor); Williams, R. D. (Editor)


    The production, technology, transportation, and implementation of hydrogen into the energy system are discussed along with the fossil fuel cycle, hydrogen fuel cycle, and the demands for energy. The cost of hydrogen production by coal gasification; electrolysis by nuclear energy, and solar energy are presented. The legal aspects of a hydrogen economy are also discussed.

  6. Energy management manual


    The Pueblo of Laguna lies in the Grants Uranium Belt. The Grants belt is the source of more than half of all uranium produced in the US. Currently the Pueblo has development agreements with Conoco and Anaconda. Only the Anaconda leasehold has been developed - an open pit mine and 2 underground mines. The Pueblo has several areas of concern in managing mineral development. These include monitoring and enforcing performance standards, and taxing severance of uranium from the land. Constraints on tribal regulation of energy development are discussed in Chapter 1. Energy management program needs of the Pueblo of Laguna are discussed in Chapter 2. Chapter three contains the energy management plan to be used by the Pueblo as it formulates and implements an energy development and management strategy. (DMC)

  7. Holographic Dark Energy

    Wang, Shuang; Li, Miao


    We review the paradigm of holographic dark energy (HDE), which arises from a theoretical attempt of applying the holographic principle (HP) to the dark energy (DE) problem. Making use of the HP and the dimensional analysis, we derive the general formula of the energy density of HDE. Then, we describe the properties of HDE model, in which the future event horizon is chosen as the characteristic length scale. We also introduce the theoretical explorations and the observational constraints for this model. Next, in the framework of HDE, we discuss various topics, such as spatial curvature, neutrino, instability of perturbation, time-varying gravitational constant, inflation, black hole and big rip singularity. In addition, from both the theoretical and the observational aspects, we introduce the interacting holographic dark energy scenario, where the interaction between dark matter and HDE is taken into account. Furthermore, we discuss the HDE scenario in various modified gravity (MG) theories, such as Brans-Dick...

  8. Use of global context for handling noisy names in discussion texts of a homeopathy discussion forum

    Mukta Majumder


    Full Text Available The task of identifying named entities from the discussion texts in Web forums faces the challenge of noisy names. As the names are often misspelled or abbreviated, the conventional techniques have failed to detect the noisy names properly. In this paper we propose a global context based framework for handling the noisy names. The framework is tested on a named entity recognition system designed to identify the names from the discussion texts in a homeopathy diagnosis discussion forum. The proposed global context-based framework is found to be effective in improving the accuracy of the named entity recognition system.

  9. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures


    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  10. China's energy-challenges and strategies

    NI Weidou


    In this century,China started facing five major challenges in the energy field:energy supply,shortage of liquid fuel,environmental pollution,green house gas (GHG)emission,and energy supply in rural areas.In this paper,the Chinese energy development strategy and general technical scheme (including energy conservation,utilization of coal,alternative fuel and renewable energy) are discussed,and some key scientific problems in the fundamental research of energy are put forward.

  11. Learner intuitions about energy degradation

    Daane, Abigail R; Vokos, Stamatis


    A primary learning goal for energy in K-12 science instruction is that energy cannot be created or destroyed. However, learners' everyday ideas about energy often involve energy being "used up" or "wasted." In physics, the concept of energy degradation can connect those everyday ideas to the principle of energy conservation. Learners' spontaneous discussions of aspects of energy degradation and the second law of thermodynamics include ideas concerning the inaccessibility, usefulness and dispersion of energy. These ideas have motivated us to introduce new learning goals into our K-12 teacher professional development courses. We identify alignments between these learning goals and learners' informal ideas and discuss instructional implications created by these alignments. Our aim is to create stronger ties between formal physics knowledge and sociopolitical issues by making these learning goals a priority in our professional development.

  12. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Charles, Eric P


    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  13. Discussion on variance reduction technique for shielding

    Maekawa, Fujio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    As the task of the engineering design activity of the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER), on 316 type stainless steel (SS316) and the compound system of SS316 and water, the shielding experiment using the D-T neutron source of FNS in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been carried out. However, in these analyses, enormous working time and computing time were required for determining the Weight Window parameter. Limitation or complication was felt when the variance reduction by Weight Window method of MCNP code was carried out. For the purpose of avoiding this difficulty, investigation was performed on the effectiveness of the variance reduction by cell importance method. The conditions of calculation in all cases are shown. As the results, the distribution of fractional standard deviation (FSD) related to neutrons and gamma-ray flux in the direction of shield depth is reported. There is the optimal importance change, and when importance was increased at the same rate as that of the attenuation of neutron or gamma-ray flux, the optimal variance reduction can be done. (K.I.)

  14. Energy Theater

    Daane, Abigail R.; Wells, Lindsay; Scherr, Rachel E.


    Energy Theater is a dynamic, full-body activity that engages all students in representing the flow of energy in various phenomena, such as a light bulb burning steadily or a refrigerator cooling food. In Energy Theater, each participant acts as a unit of energy that has one form at a time. Regions on the floor correspond to objects in a physical…

  15. Energy Management.

    Bete, Tim, Ed.


    Presents the opinions of three energy experts on the issue of school facility energy management. The experts respond to the following questions: will energy deregulation occur in all 50 states and will it provide real savings; and will the majority of districts hire ESCOs to manage their energy needs? (GR)

  16. Energy Theater

    Daane, Abigail R.; Wells, Lindsay; Scherr, Rachel E.


    Energy Theater is a dynamic, full-body activity that engages all students in representing the flow of energy in various phenomena, such as a light bulb burning steadily or a refrigerator cooling food. In Energy Theater, each participant acts as a unit of energy that has one form at a time. Regions on the floor correspond to objects in a physical…

  17. Energy and the Environment

    Meyer, Niels I


    Denmark was one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to reduction targets for CO2 emission. Official Danish energy plans are reviewed in the light of the actual energy development. The EU Commission has been promoting a liberalisation of the electricity market for some years....... At a meeting in June 1996 in the EU Council of Ministers agreement was reached concerning the main market principles. The consequences for sustainable development are discussed in this paper....

  18. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  19. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  20. Annual Energy Review 1993


    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA`s renewables data, see p. xix, ``Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.`` Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986.

  1. Discussion on ``Frontiers of the Second Law''

    Lloyd, Seth; Bejan, Adrian; Bennett, Charles; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Butler, Howard; Gordon, Lyndsay; Grmela, Miroslav; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Hatsopoulos, George N.; Jou, David; Kjelstrup, Signe; Lior, Noam; Miller, Sam; Rubi, Miguel; Schneider, Eric D.; Sekulic, Dusan P.; Zhang, Zhuomin


    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Adrian Bejan, Bjarne Andresen, Miguel Rubi, Signe Kjelstrup, David Jou, Miroslav Grmela, Lyndsay Gordon, and Eric Schneider. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Is the second law relevant when we trap single ions, prepare, manipulate and measure single photons, excite single atoms, induce spin echoes, measure quantum entanglement? Is it possible or impossible to build Maxwell demons that beat the second law by exploiting fluctuations? • Is the maximum entropy generation principle capable of unifying nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, chemical kinetics, nonlocal and nonequilibrium rheology, biological systems, natural structures, and cosmological evolution? • Research in quantum computation and quantum information has raised many fundamental questions about the foundations of quantum theory. Are any of these questions related to the second law?

  2. Assessing clinical competency: reports from discussion groups.

    Turnwald, Grant; Stone, Elizabeth; Bristol, David; Fuentealba, Carmen; Hardie, Lizette; Hellyer, Peter; Jaeger, Laurie; Kerwin, Sharon; Kochevar, Deborah; Lissemore, Kerry; Olsen, Christopher; Rogers, Kenita; Sabin, Beth; Swanson, Cliff; Warner, Angeline


    This report describes proposed new models for assessment of eight of the nine clinical competencies the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education requires for accreditation. The models were developed by discussion groups at the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' Clinical Competency Symposium. Clinical competencies and proposed models (in parentheses) are described. Competency 1: comprehensive patient diagnosis (neurologic examination on a dog, clinical reasoning skills); Competency 2: comprehensive treatment planning (concept mapping, computerized case studies); Competency 3: anesthesia, pain management (student portfolio); Competency 4: surgery skills (objective structured clinical examination, cased-based examination, "super dog" model); Competency 5: medicine skills (clinical reasoning and case management, skills checklist); Competency 6: emergency and intensive care case management (computerized case study or scenario); Competency 7: health promotion, disease prevention/biosecurity (360 degrees evaluation, case-based computer simulation); Competency 8: client communications and ethical conduct (Web-based evaluation forms, client survey, communicating with stakeholders, telephone conversation, written scenario-based cases). The report also describes faculty recognition for participating in clinical competency assessments.

  3. Theoretical NMR correlations based Structure Discussion

    Junker Jochen


    Full Text Available Abstract The constitutional assignment of natural products by NMR spectroscopy is usually based on 2D NMR experiments like COSY, HSQC, and HMBC. The actual difficulty of the structure elucidation problem depends more on the type of the investigated molecule than on its size. The moment HMBC data is involved in the process or a large number of heteroatoms is present, a possibility of multiple solutions fitting the same data set exists. A structure elucidation software can be used to find such alternative constitutional assignments and help in the discussion in order to find the correct solution. But this is rarely done. This article describes the use of theoretical NMR correlation data in the structure elucidation process with WEBCOCON, not for the initial constitutional assignments, but to define how well a suggested molecule could have been described by NMR correlation data. The results of this analysis can be used to decide on further steps needed to assure the correctness of the structural assignment. As first step the analysis of the deviation of carbon chemical shifts is performed, comparing chemical shifts predicted for each possible solution with the experimental data. The application of this technique to three well known compounds is shown. Using NMR correlation data alone for the description of the constitutions is not always enough, even when including 13C chemical shift prediction.

  4. Vicarious learning through capturing taskdirected discussions

    F. Dineen


    Full Text Available The research programme on vicarious learning, part of which we report in this paper, has been aimed at exploring the idea that learning can be facilitated by providing learners with access to the experiences of other learners. We use Bandura's term vicarious learning to describe this (Bandura, 1986, and we believe it to be a paradigm that offers particular promise when seen as an innovative way of exploiting recent technical advances in multimedia and distance learning technologies. It offers the prospect of a real alternative to the building of intelligent tutors (which directly address the problem of allowing learners access to dialogue, but which have proved largely intractable in practice or to the direct support of live dialogues (which do not offer a solution to the problem of providing 'live' tutors - unless they are between peer learners. In the research reported here our main objectives were to develop techniques to facilitate learners' access to, especially, dialogues and discussions which have arisen when other learners were faced with similar issues or problems in understanding the material. This required us to investigate means of indexing and retrieving appropriate dialogues and build on these to create an advanced prototype system for use in educational settings.

  5. Discussion of material rotation and stress rate

    Dienes, J.K.


    Characterization of material behavior can be divided into two parts, the analysis of deformation and the underlying physics, though these are intimately related. A significant advance in the analysis of deformation was made when the polar decomposition theorem was introduced, making it possible to separate large deformations into a stretch and a rotation. Consequences of the theorem affect the way rate processes should be characterized. In particular, rate of material rotation is different from vorticity, and the stress rate for finite strains is different from the usual stress rate of Zaremba, Jaumann, and Noll. It is convenient to define a strain rate that is different from the stretching that is the symmetric part of the velocity gradient. These concepts are described in detail in a 1979 paper. Various criticisms of that paper have appeared in the Journal of Applied Mechanics, which are discussed herein. To illustrate the distinction, it is shown that the rate of rotation in a classical vortex does not vanish, though the vorticity is zero. It is also shown that the rate of material rotation recently computed by Nemat-Nasser, which involves an eigenvalue expansion, is equivalent to the one given in the 1979 paper, which makes use of matrix inversion, and it asseverated that the matrix inversion approach is computationally more efficient. 17 refs.

  6. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W


    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility.

  7. The future of MEBC: panel discussion.

    Biczó, G


    The expected developments in the not too distant future (5-10 years) of molecular electronics and biocomputing (MEBC) are discussed. In the short-term, the study of very specific basic phenomena is expected (e.g. conducting polymers, strange electronic states of insulating polymers, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), arrays of molecules, self-organization of biomaterials, very specific biological systems, quantum coherence in cytoskeletal microtubules, optoelectronic information storage, associative memories, pattern recognition, hierarchical nature of biological information). New application fields outside the range of conventional technology (e.g. randomized algorithms, optoelectronic devices, chemical and biosensors, as well as a certain extent of commercialisation) have also been predicted. In the long-term, the study and solution of much deeper (sometimes scientific fiction-like) problems were foreseen, such as the self-organization of biomaterials, artificial self-reproduction, implementation of artificial cell dynamic control structures based on molecular devices for medical and environmental applications and the construction of neuronal computers as aids to the human brain.

  8. Advantage Energy



    Increased focus has been placed on the issues of energy access and energy poverty over the last number of years, most notably indicated by the United Nations (UN) declaring 2012 as the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All'. Although attention in these topics has increased, incorrect assumptions and misunderstandings still arise in both the literature and dialogues. Access to energy does not only include electricity, does not only include cook stoves, but must include access to all types of energy that form the overall energy system. This paper chooses to examine this energy system using a typology that breaks it into 3 primary energy subsystems: heat energy, electricity and transportation. Describing the global energy system using these three subsystems provides a way to articulate the differences and similarities for each system's required investments needs by the private and public sectors.

  9. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary


    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  10. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

    Tegen, Suzanne


    The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

  11. Wind energy: An engineering survey

    Nahas, M.N.; Mohamad, A.S.; Akyurt, M.; El-Kalay, A.K.


    This paper presents an extensive survey of literature about wind energy and wind machines, their design and their applications. The paper intends to provide those who plan for energy policy with thorough information about this renewable type of energy and the available machines that convert wind energy into useful mechanical or electrical work. The machines which are available at present range from the simple Savonius rotor to the powerful multi-blade windmills. The advantages and shortcomings of all types are discussed here.

  12. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    Recalde, Marina, E-mail: [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS) - Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICET), 12 de Octubre 1198 piso 7, B8000CTX Bahia Blanca (Argentina)


    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: > This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. > There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. > It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. > A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. > Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  13. Green corridor : energy efficiency initiatives

    Bartlett, M.; Strickland, R.; Harding, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)


    This presentation discussed environmental sustainability using alternative energy technologies. It discussed Ecohouse, which is a house designed using conventional and inventive products and techniques to represent an eco-efficient model for living, a more sustainable house, demonstrating sustainable technologies in action and setting a new standard for resource efficiency in Windsor. The presentation provided a building analysis and discussed the following: geothermal heating; distributive power; green roof; net metering; grey water plumbing; solar water heating; passive lighting; energy efficient lighting and geothermal heating and cooling. It also discussed opportunities for innovation, namely: greenhouse; composting toilets; alternative insulation; net metering; solar arrays; hydroponics; and expansion of the house. Also discussed were a nature bridge, an underwater electric kite, and a vertically aerodynamic turbine. The benefits of renewable energy, small hydro power potential, and instream energy generation technology were presented. 9 refs., figs.

  14. Bioethics and multiculturalism: nuancing the discussion.

    Durante, Chris


    In his recent analysis of multiculturalism, Tom Beauchamp has argued that those who implement multicultural reasoning in their arguments against common morality theories, such as his own, have failed to understand that multiculturalism is neither a form of moral pluralism nor ethical relativism but is rather a universalistic moral theory in its own right. Beauchamp's position is indeed on the right track in that multiculturalists do not consider themselves ethical relativists. Yet, Beauchamp tends to miss the mark when he argues that multiculturalism is in effect a school of thought that endorses a form of moral universalism that is akin to his own vision of a common morality. As a supporter of multiculturalism, I would like to discuss some aspects of Beauchamp's comments on multiculturalism and clarify what a multicultural account of public bioethics might look like. Ultimately, multiculturalism is purported as a means of managing diversity in the public arena and should not be thought of as endorsing either a version of moral relativism or a universal morality. By simultaneously refraining from the promotion of a comprehensive common moral system while it attempts to avoid a collapse into relativism, multiculturalism can serve as the ethico-political framework in which diverse moralities can be managed and in which opportunities for ethical dialogue, debate and deliberation on the prospects of common bioethical norms are made possible. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Water, food, and population -- a panel discussion.


    This paper summarizes a conference panel discussion among parliamentarians and researchers on water and food supplies and population growth in Asia. The Western Samoa legislator urged delegates to be aware of human development that was no more than the promotion of values associated with a market economy. Samoans increased their per capita caloric consumption. The food supply is provided locally, and 90% of exports are food products. Food security would be jeopardized by a fivefold increase in population. Samoan human development indicators were relatively good for a developing country. However, the country was still ranked as a low-income, food-deficit country. The Pakistani delegate explained that Pakistan's agriculture used the largest, continuous irrigation system in the world. However, the system operated inefficiently. There was concern that future high population growth would jeopardize food security. Another barrier was institutional mismanagement of irrigation and reliance on imports for staple items. Agricultural productivity must increase to meet the increased needs of continued population growth. All available land is currently under cultivation. Future strategies will necessitate international cooperation and innovative and environmentally sound technology. Professor Xuan remarked that increased population growth and rising demand, decreased water quality, and changing consumption patterns were a threat to water supplies. Sustainable increases in food production would entail better water management: reforestation to reduce and prevent water runoff, better technological exploitation of rain water, and more efficient use of irrigation systems. Better international financing schemes were needed for support of these policy changes. Professor Ness suggested free markets in water in order to price water at actual rates of consumption. Polluters should pay. Water management was also threatened by global warming.

  16. Effectiveness and Discussion of Ventilation Design with Automatic Revolving Window

    Chang Jing Yi


    Full Text Available This paper aims to improve and discuss the effectiveness of automatic revolving window ventilation on human comfort, where the temperature sensor mounted indoors gives the signal to start the stepping motor of the revolving window. There is a controller for automatic regulation according to the difference between the preset temperature and indoor temperature, where the air flow of ventilating fan imports outside air to take excess heat away from the room, in order to reduce the indoor temperature. The revolving window opening angle is simulated and analyzed, and the impact of different air rates on the indoor temperature is analyzed. This system can regulate the indoor temperature to effectively reach the optimal human comfort temperature, and can reduce the frequency of using air conditioning, in order to attain the goals of energy saving, carbon reduction, and environmental protection.

  17. Discussing the Strehler-Mildvan model of mortality

    Maxim Finkelstein


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Half a century ago Strehler and Mildvan (1960 have published the seminal paper that, based on some assumptions (postulates, theoretically 'justified' the Gompertz law of mortality. OBJECTIVE We wish to discuss assumptions and limitations of the original Strehler-Mildvan model (as well as of the Strehler-Mildvan correlation and consider some modifications and departures from this model. METHODS We use the framework of stochastic point processes for analyzing the original Strehler-Mildvan model. We also suggest the 'lifesaving approach' for describing the departure from rectangularization to shifts in survival curves for human mortality that has been observed in the second half of the previous century. RESULTS We show that the Strehler-Mildvan model can be justified only under the additional assumption that the process of shocks (demands for energy follows the Poisson pattern. We also suggest a modification that accounts for the oldest-old mortality plateau.

  18. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.


    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  19. Electrochemical energy storage

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie


    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  20. Low-energy neutrinos

    Ludhova, Livia


    There exist several kinds of sources emitting neutrinos in the MeV energy range. These low-energy neutrinos from different sources can be often detected by the same multipurpose detectors. The status-of-art of the feld of solar neutrinos, geoneutrinos, and the search for sterile neutrino with artifcial neutrino sources is provided here; other neutrino sources, as for example reactor or high-energy neutrinos, are described elsewhere. For each of these three felds, the present-day motivation and open questions, as well as the latest experimental results and future perspectives are discussed.

  1. Available Energy and Exergy

    Richard A. Gaggioli


    Full Text Available

    An "available energy" is defined for every state of any system. The definition is independent of (a the concept of work. (b any reference environment, and (c the makeup of the system (e.g. "macro" or "micro. On the basis of this available energy, given any composite system, the contribution of each subsystem to the available energy -- that is, the exergy content of a subsystem -- is defined, as well as the instantaneous "dead state" of the composite and each subsystem.

    Some pedagogical, scientific and engineering implications are discussed.

  2. Energy-consumption modelling

    Reiter, E.R.


    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  3. The energy spectrum of cosmic rays at the highest energies

    Tsunesada Yoshiki


    Full Text Available One of several working groups established for this workshop was charged with examining results and methods associated with the UHECR energy spectrum. We summarize the results of our discussions, which include a better understanding of the analysis choices made by groups and their motivation. We find that the energy spectra determined by the larger experiments are consistent in normalization and shape after energy scaling factors are applied. Those scaling factors are within systematic uncertainties in the energy scale, and we discuss future work aimed at reducing these systematics.

  4. Energy audit and energy security

    Beata Agnieszka Kulessa


    Full Text Available In article, we present the issue of energy security. This article to answer the questions concerning the future of energy in Poland. These activities are directly related to energy security and the reduction of CO2 emissions. One element of this plan is the introduction in the EU energy certification of buildings. The energy certificates in Poland launched on 01.01.2009 and implements the objectives adopted by the European Union and contribute to energy security, increasing energy efficiency in construction and environmental protection.

  5. Energy Saving and Efficient Energy Use By Power Electronic Systems


    , such as in the applications of adjustable speed drives and solid-state lighting systems. Power electronics gives also a high flexibility when renewable power production is introduced to electrical energy systems. Future research opportunities and challenges will finally be discussed.......In the development of the modern society, one of the key factors is to save energy in order to become more independent of other energy resources. Two important approaches can be taken—one is to change behavior and thereby save energy—the second one is to develop new technology which is able to save...... energy in different applications. This chapter will give an overview of challenges and possibilities in terms of energy saving and also energy efficient use. This includes a discussion on high efficiency power electronics devices and the systems they are used for energy loss reduction. The key enabling...

  6. Transport, energy and environment



    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  7. Small Wind Energy Systems

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede


    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  8. Energy efficiency and conservation

    Warren, A. [Association for the Conservation of Energy, London (United Kingdom)


    The article discusses energy efficiency and conservation in the light of what is termed 'least cost planning'. It is explained how the normal market economy scenario of producing and purchasing in terms of supply and demand are not sufficient to describe the energy market. Seven market imperfections and barriers which hinder optimal investment in energy efficiency are listed. Much of the article is devoted to explaining the meaning of least cost planning and compares energy bills with energy prices. Sub-headings in the article include: (i) Integrated Resource Planning as an Instrument of Strategic Resource Planning; (ii) Accounting for the Environmental Externalities of Electricity Production in the USA; (iii) Monetization Using Damage Costs; (iv) Monetization Using Control Costs; (v) Damage Costs versus Control Costs for Policy Purposes and (vi) Unpriceable Environmental Costs.



    Japan energy saving activities of refineries in 1970s and 1980s were reviewed. The activities led by task teams were strongly supported by the corporate management. The teams consisted of well-trained and experienced persons from technical, maintenance, operation and manufacturing planning, and focused on cost cut, preventing energy losses, uncovering a lot of energy losses and preventing losses with no or small investment. For instance, loss measurement, less stripping steam, less reflux ratios, less treat gas, lower pressure and lower temperature, etc. In 1990s, environmental discussions suggested to introduce ultra low sulfur fuels and less CO2 emission fuels. In addition to the above, oil prices hike and supply shortage drive these activities. Energy saving should be evaluated by the overall optimization (saving and value generation). Energy utilization can be managed.

  10. Graph Energy

    Li, Xueliang; Gutman, Ivan


    This book is about graph energy. The authors have included many of the important results on graph energy, such as the complete solution to the conjecture on maximal energy of unicyclic graphs, the Wagner-Heuberger's result on the energy of trees, the energy of random graphs or the approach to energy using singular values. It contains an extensive coverage of recent results and a gradual development of topics and the inclusion of complete proofs from most of the important recent results in the area. The latter fact makes it a valuable reference for researchers looking to get into the field of g

  11. What energies for tomorrow?; Quelles energies pour demain?

    Botte, J.M.; Canal, P.; Chaouch, A.; Chevallier, B.; Lesne, C.; Roth, P.; Salomon, A.; Susbielles, G.; Wiltz, B.; Le Brun, S.; Delmonico, C.; Gombart, G. [Association des techniciens et professionnels du petrole - AFTP, 45 rue Louis Blanc, 92400 Courbevoie (France)


    This book focusses on fossil fuels but treats of energies in general. It makes a status of the present day situation and presents some future perspectives. Many international and national oil companies are progressively becoming multi-energy companies, like many companies of the para-petroleum industry. In a similar manner, the energy subject can be discussed only from the point of view of the energy mix, i.e. the various usable energy sources. The book comprises four main parts: 1 - the worldwide aspects of the energy sector: markets, prices, companies constraints and strategies; 2 - the petroleum industry, from the front end to the back end; 3 - the other energy sources: coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies; 4 - energies and society. The energy production is approached only from its technical and economical aspects. The energy saving is only briefly presented in the 'energy and society' and 'energy and transports' chapters. Electricity is mainly presented in the part devoted to nuclear energy, while the other power generation means are presented in the chapters about primary energy use and consumption. Hydrogen is approached in a very concise way because of its secondary aspects and its low use. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.


    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  13. Comparison of outcomes for cancer patients discussed and not discussed at a multidisciplinary meeting.

    Rogers, M J; Matheson, L; Garrard, B; Maher, B; Cowdery, S; Luo, W; Reed, M; Riches, S; Pitson, G; Ashley, D M


    Comparison of outcomes for cancer patients discussed and not discussed at a multidisciplinary meeting (MDM). Retrospective analysis of the association of MDM discussion with survival. All newly diagnosed cancer patients from 2009 to 2012, presenting to a large regional cancer service in South West Victoria, Australia (620 colorectal, 657 breast, 593 lung and 511 haematological) were recorded and followed up to 5 years after diagnosis. Treatment patterns and survival of patients whose treatment was discussed at an MDM compared to those who were not, were explored. The proportion of patients presented to an MDM within 60 days after diagnosis was 56% (n = 366) for breast cancer, 59% (n = 363) for colorectal cancer, 27% (n = 137) for haematological malignancies and 60% (n = 355) for lung cancer. Seventy-three percent (n = 886) of patients discussed at an MDM had their tumour stage recorded in their medical records while only 52% (n = 604) of patients not discussed had their tumour stage recorded (P HR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.76, P HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35-0.96, P = 0.03) compared to patients whose cases were not discussed at an MDM after adjusting for the potential cofounders of age, stage, comorbidities and treatment. This was not the case for colorectal and breast cancer patients where there was no significant difference. MDM discussion has been recommended as best practice in the management of cancer patients, however, from a public health perspective this creates potential issues around access and resources. It is likely that MDM presentation patterns and outcomes across tumour streams are linked in complex ways. We believe that our data would demonstrate that these patterns differ across tumour streams and that more detailed work is required to better allocate relatively scarce and potentially costly MDM resources to tumour streams and patient groups that may get the most benefit. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health

  14. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.


    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  15. Geothermal Energy

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.


    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  16. Energy economics

    Develi, Abdulkadir; Kaynak, Selahattin (eds.)


    Energy resources, the basic input in every area of the economy, have a fundamental function for society's welfare. Traditional energy resources are, however, rapidly decreasing. Energy supply has been falling behind in meeting global demand, and is causing increased focus on efficiency and economy concepts in recent energy policies. Since the existing energy resources are not spread evenly among the countries, but instead are concentrated in certain regions and countries, a monopolistic situation arises. Equally, supply assurance is an issue, since the energy supply is held by certain regions and countries who have monopolistic pricing power. Both the EU and many other countries are studying how to marketize energy. This book focuses on the importance of energy and the problems posed by it. It will be useful for the academic community, related sectors and decision makers.

  17. Energy Drinks

    ... W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase alertness and enhance physical and mental performance. Marketing targeted at young people has been quite ...

  18. The nuclear symmetry energy

    Dieperink, AEL; van Neck, D; Suzuki, T; Otsuka, T; Ichimura, M


    The role of isospin asymmetry in nuclei and neutron stars is discussed, with an emphasis on the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Results obtained with the self-consistent Green function method are presented and compared with various other theoretical predictions. Implications for t

  19. Energy policy and federalism

    Thur, L.M. (ed.)


    Separate abstracts are prepared for six papers presented as the product of an international seminar on Energy Policy and Federalism in North America. Specially commissioned papers for the seminar are presented along with a summary of the discussions. The summary appears in English, French, and Spanish; the other papers are in English. (MCW)

  20. Oscillations at low energies

    Dwyer, D A


    A concise summary of the "Oscillation at low energies" parallel session at the 2014 Neutrino Oscillation Workshop is provided. Plans to use man-made neutrinos and antineutrinos to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, search for sterile neutrinos, and to observe coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering were discussed. Potential measurements of solar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and geoneutrinos are also summarized.

  1. Nuclear energy technology

    Buden, David


    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  2. NEMVP: North American energy measurement and verification protocol



    This measurement and verification protocol discusses procedures that,when implemented, allow buyers, sellers, and financiers of energy projects to quantify energy conservation measure performance and savings.

  3. Atomic energy


    Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.

  4. Energy storage

    Brunet, Yves


    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  5. World population and energy growth: Impact on the Caribbean and the roles of energy efficiency improvements and renewable energies

    Sheffield, J.


    This paper briefly describes population and energy use trends and their consequences, particularly to the Caribbean region. Historical trends for transitional countries show a decrease in population growth rate as annual per capita commercial energy use increases. If trends continue, an increase in per capita energy will be important to stabilizing populations of transitional countries. Energy efficiency improvements, the role of fossil energy, and the use of alternative energy sources in Caribbean nations are briefly discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  6. World population and energy growth: Impact on the Caribbean and the roles of energy efficiency improvements and renewable energies

    Sheffield, J.


    This paper briefly describes population and energy use trends and their consequences, particularly to the Caribbean region. Historical trends for transitional countries show a decrease in population growth rate as annual per capita commercial energy use increases. If trends continue, an increase in per capita energy will be important to stabilizing populations of transitional countries. Energy efficiency improvements, the role of fossil energy, and the use of alternative energy sources in Caribbean nations are briefly discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Gray energy of building materials; Graue Energie von Baustoffen

    Kasser, U.; Poell, M. [Buero fuer Umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland)


    The report highlights the importance of gray energy and discusses the relationship to environmental balances. Literature values for the most important building materials are collated and commented. 9 figs., tabs., 59 refs.

  8. Energy-Aware Software Engineering

    Eder, Kerstin; Gallagher, John Patrick


    A great deal of energy in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems can be wasted by software, regardless of how energy-efficient the underlying hardware is. To avoid such waste, programmers need to understand the energy consumption of programs during the development process rather t......, the chapter discusses how energy analysis and modelling techniques can be incorporated in software engineering tools, including existing compilers, to assist the energy-aware programmer to optimise the energy consumption of code.......A great deal of energy in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems can be wasted by software, regardless of how energy-efficient the underlying hardware is. To avoid such waste, programmers need to understand the energy consumption of programs during the development process rather...

  9. Education confronts the energy dilemma



    The conference was convened to present a role that America's schools could play in solving or coping with the energy crisis. Eleven sessions were conducted to fulfill this concern: Our Energy Crisis and Education: A Critical Assessment; The Energy Agenda at the Office of Education; Energy Resources: Scenarios for the Future; The Moral Dilemma of Energy Education; Constraints Influencing Education's Role; Energy Education: What's Been Done to Date; Practitioners Discuss Their Future Roles, Responsibilities; Politics of Energy Education; Confronting the Energy Dilemma; The Meaning of Scarcity; and The Impact of the Carter Energy Program on American Schools. Summary reports and reactions to the conference conclude the proceedings. (MCW)

  10. Vacuum Energy and Its Consequences

    Hewett, Lionel


    Intuitively one would think that a perfect vacuum should contain no energy. However, quantum mechanics asserts that virtual particles popping in and out of existence too fast to be observed directly should produce a non-zero average energy density for empty space. This presentation discusses how quantum mechanics predicts too large a value for this energy density, how the Casimir effect correctly predicts the measured value of the vacuum energy between closely spaced objects, how time-symmetric cosmology predicts the energy density of interstellar space, how vacuum energy produces negative pressure, how vacuum energy causes the current universe to accelerate its expansion, and why vacuum energy cannot be tapped so as to produce an inexhaustible source of energy for all mankind.

  11. Geothermal Energy

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S. [eds.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.


    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  12. Energy requirements

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.


    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an appr

  13. Energy requirements

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an

  14. Discussion Tourism Industry on Energy of Green Tourism and Green Hotel

    Wang Zeyung


    Full Text Available Tourism industry is closely linked with the natural environment but with a highly indivisibility of symbiotic relationship. Green tourism and green tourism hotel are not only the spindle stage of development industry. The environmental protection is also an environmental conservation and sustainable development of substantive liability demonstration. The study is also belong to the substance RDF itself, so we can call “clean energy”. The raw materials came from agricultural waste through proper blending ratio and control technology, after PP14 adhesive extruded through the fluidized bed pyrolysis cracking process to burn stability. The recovery can also be used as fuel volatile process of drying and gasification. However, in the actual economic cost of the test running the hotel industry can reduce the cost per MJ USD $ 0.0082, more economical than coal expenses 23.17% of the fuel. Therefore, green hotel through biomass fuels RDF as clean fuels can further reduce carbon emissions to reach the green hotel of expectations.

  15. Optimizing the building envelopes with green roofs : a discussion of architectural and energy performance requirements

    Hagerman, J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering]|[Rafael Vinoly Architects, New York, NY (United States); Hodge, D. [Rafael Vinoly Architects, New York, NY (United States)


    This paper provided recommendations for optimized green roof technologies inspired by an architect firm's involvement in designing a 255,000 square foot green roof on top of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Janelia Farm Research Campus in Virginia. During the course of the green roof construction and installation, the architects found that green roofs needed design flexibility to meet their conceptual design requirements. It was suggested that the use of a modular system might allow for easier inspection access as well as the ability for the planting material to be reconfigured. It was noted that green roof systems can sometimes conflict with water management strategies of the building envelope. Green roof component lists do not make reference to the layers of construction within the building envelope, as it is often assumed that they are irrelevant to green roof design. Modular products offer Architects flexibility in design and maintenance, and products can be incorporated into more sophisticated water management details, offering simplicity of design, ease of installation, and ease of roof membrane inspection. A thermal analysis of modular and monolithic roof assemblies was conducted which showed that the assemblies contributed very little to the overall thermal insulation envelope when the positive thermal benefits of the green roof failed. It was recommended that green roof installations should be designed to sit directly on top of the roof membranes to replace the building's insulation envelope. Foamglas was proposed as a material for building insulation and to prevent root penetration. An evaluation of the R-values of various green roof systems at failure was also provided to give guidance to Architects incorporating green roofs in building envelopes. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. 地热能利用浅谈%Brief discussion on geothermal energy and its application

    刘勇; 刘万福



  17. 关于电梯能耗的探讨%Discussion of Elevator Energy Consumption

    万忠培; 朱武标; 何新民



  18. Globalisering, forbrugskultur og energi

    Rüdiger, Mogens


    of regional integration, and as a part of the global debate on climate and sustainable development. The Califormian energy crisis 2000-2001 is brought in to illustrate how the current consumer culture affected the crisis, and it underlines that globalisation is a process with immanent conflicts.......In the first part of the article, John Tomlinson's and Mike Featherstone's theoretical discussion of the concepts of homogenisation, de-territorialisation, consumer culture and lifestyle are presented. In order to capture omportant aspects of a consumer culture based on large scale consumption...... of energy, two terms, the "well-being individual" and the "20 degree culture", are then introduced and related to these concepts. The second part of the article discusses the globalisation of the energy sector on three levels: as a process based on liberalisation and de-regulation, as a consequence...

  19. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald


    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  20. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede


    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....