Sample records for yukos crude flow

  1. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails:,; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:


    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  2. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  3. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  4. CNPC Hopeful to Have Piece of YUKOS Assets


    @@ China's top oil and gas producer, CNPC, is likely to acquire a one-fifth stake of Yuganskneftegaz, a millionbarral-a-day oilunit of Yukos, according to Russian Energy Minister Viktor Khristenko. "The assets of Yuganskneftegaz will be spun off and transferred to a separate company, 100percent owned by the state," Khristenko said in a statement issued by his ministry. "Up to 20 percent of the shares in this company may be acquired by the Chinese National Petroleum Corporation. Such an option was mentioned in documents signed earlier with CNPC."

  5. Influence of incipient chain dimension of EVA flow improver on the rheological behaviour of crude oil

    Qian, J.W.; Qi, G.R.; Han, D.L.; Yang, S.L. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering


    The rheological behaviour of Daqing crude oil with different incipient chain dimensions of the same ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, prepared with different solvents, solution concentrations and temperatures was studied. It was shown that the EVA flow improver with a compact incipient shape before addition to the oil is preferable for reduction of apparent viscosity, pour point and wax crystallization temperature of crude oil. The compact dimension effect is probably due to strongly selective action in the flow of crude oil. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Aminated Copolymers as Flow Improvers for Super-viscous Crude Oils

    Zhang Hong; Shen Benxian


    The new flow improvers for super-viscous crude oils were developed via esterification of polybasic high carbon alcohol with methacrylate and copolymerization of monomers followed by amination of copolymers.The structure of the synthesized polymer flow improver additive was confirmed by IR spectroscopy and the crystal structure of the flow improver additives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.The structure of wax crystals was also studied at the same time.The results showed that the wax crystal structure was closely related with the crystal structure of the flow improver,which could change the pour point depression and viscosity reduction behavior of the crude oil.When the wax crystal structure matched well with that of the additive,the Wax crystals were dispersed satisfactorily,resulting in favorable effects in terms of pour point depression and viscosity reduction.The new synthesized aminated polymer flow improver additive was most efficient for treating super-viscous crude oils.The super-viscous crude oil had a high content of resins and asphaltenes,which might aggregate onto the surface of wax crystals to form blocks to limit the crude oil fluidity.However,amination of copolymers having similar structure with the resins and asphaltenes contained in crude oil could dissolve the huge polar groups to make the deposit formation difficult.

  7. Non-Newtonian steady shear flow characteristics of waxy crude oil

    黄树新; 陈鑫; 鲁传敬; 侯磊; 范毓润


    The experimental research on the non-Newtonian flow characteristic of a waxy crude oil was conducted through a rotational parallel-plates rheometer system.The test temperature is about 6.5 ℃ higher than its gel point.The shear stress and viscosity of the waxy crude oil show sophisticate non-Newtonian characteristics in the shear rate of 10-4-102 s-1,in which the shear stress can be divided into three parts qualitatively,i.e.stress-up region,leveling-off region,and stress-up region.This indicates that there is a yielding process in shearing for the waxy crude oil at the experimental temperature,which is similar to the yield phenomenon in thixotropy-loop test discussed by CHANG and BOGER.Furthermore,the steady shear experiment after the pre-shear process shows that the stress leveling-off region at low shear rate disappears for the waxy crude oil and the stress curve becomes a monotonic climbing one,which demonstrates that the internal structure property presenting through yielding stress at low shear rate can be changed by shearing.The experimental results also show that the internal structure of waxy crude oil presenting at low shear rate has no influence on the shear viscosity obtained at the shear rate higher than 0.1 s-1.The generalized Newtonian model is adopted to describe the shear-thinning viscosity property of the waxy crude oil at high shear rate.

  8. Air Flow Detection in Crude Oil by Infrared Light

    Guilherme Dutra


    Full Text Available In this paper, we used infrared light in the range of 8–12 μm to develop and test an optical imaging system to detect air bubbles flowing in oil. The system basically comprises a broadband light source and a 31 × 32 thermopile array to generate images. To analyze the effects related to light absorption, reflection, and refraction on air-oil boundaries, a numerical model was developed and the predominance of the refraction instead of the absorption in bubbles with diameters below a certain critical value was observed. The IR region of the electromagnetic spectrum has both optical and thermic behavior. To understand the limits of each effect on the oil flow imaging, a study of the influence of temperature variation on the petroleum optical detection was performed. The developed optical imaging system allowed the detection of air flow in static oil and in oil-air two-phase flow. With the presented system, it was possible to achieve images through up to 12 mm of oil volumes, but this may be enhanced by the use of optimized IR sources and detectors.

  9. Homogeneous and Stratified Liquid-Liquid Flow Effect of a Viscosity Reducer: I. Comparison in parallel plates for heavy crude

    E. J. Suarez-Dominguez


    Full Text Available Production of heavy crude oil in Mexico, and worldwide, is increasing which has led to the application of different methods to reduce viscosity or to enhance transport through stratified flow to continue using the existing infrastructures. In this context, injecting a viscosity improver that does not mix completely with the crude, establishes a liquid-liquid stratified flow. On the basis of a parallel plates model, comparing the increase of flow that occurs in the one-phase case which assumes a complete mixture between the crude and the viscosity improver against another stratified liquid-liquid (no mixing between the oil and compared improver; it was found that in both cases there is a flow increase for the same pressure drop with a maximum for the case in which the flow improver is between the plates and the crude.

  10. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)


    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils. (author)

  11. Synthesis of phthalimide and succinimide copolymers and their evaluation as flow improvers for an Egyptian waxy crude oil

    A.M. Al-Sabagh


    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis, characterization and performance evaluation of three phthalimide and three succinimide copolymers of vinyl acetate, styrene and methyl methacrylate as flow improvers for waxy crude oil. The prepared copolymers were named as; (VAPh; (StPh; (MMAPh; (VAS; (StS and (MMAS. These copolymers were characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The molecular weights and nitrogen content of these copolymers were determined by using the GPC technique and the Kjeldhal method, respectively. The rheological properties of crude oil (with and without additives were studied. From the obtained results, it was remarked that the styrene phthalimide copolymer (StPh exhibited the maximum pour point depression (ΔPP500 ppm = 30. The results of the rheological flow properties showed that the Bingham yield values (τβ for crude oil without additives at 15, 27 and 39 °C were 0.286, 0.131 and 0.075 Pa respectively, whereas the τβ for the treated crude oil by the styrene phthalimide (StPh copolymer were 0.021, 0.0164 and 0.0081 Pa at 500 ppm at the same temperatures.

  12. ethod of straight lines for a Bingham problem as a model for the flow of waxy crude oils

    German Ariel Torres


    Full Text Available In this work, we develop a method of straight lines for solving a Bingham problem that models the flow of waxy crude oils. The model describes the flow of mineral oils with a high content of paraffin at temperatures below the cloud point (i.e. the crystallization temperature of paraffin and more specifically below the pour point at which the crystals aggregate themselves and the oil takes a jell-like structure. From the rheological point of view such a system can be modelled as a Bingham fluid whose parameters evolve according to the volume fractions of crystallized paraffin and the aggregation degree of crystals. We prove that the method is well defined for all times, a monotone property, qualitative behaviour of the solution, and a convergence theorem. The results are compared with numerical experiments at the end of this article.

  13. HPV Direct Flow CHIP: a new human papillomavirus genotyping method based on direct PCR from crude-cell extracts.

    Herraez-Hernandez, Elsa; Alvarez-Perez, Martina; Navarro-Bustos, Gloria; Esquivias, Javier; Alonso, Sonia; Aneiros-Fernandez, Jose; Lacruz-Pelea, Cesar; Sanchez-Aguera, Magdalena; Santamaria, Javier Saenz; de Antonio, Jesus Chacon; Rodriguez-Peralto, Jose Luis


    HPV Direct Flow CHIP is a newly developed test for identifying 18 high-risk and 18 low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. It is based on direct PCR from crude-cell extracts, automatic flow-through hybridization, and colorimetric detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of HPV Direct Flow CHIP in the analysis of 947 samples from routine cervical screening or the follow-up of abnormal Pap smears. The specimens were dry swab samples, liquid-based cytology samples, or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. The genotype distribution was in agreement with known epidemiological data for the Spanish population. Three different subgroups of the samples were also tested by Linear Array (LA) HPV Genotyping Test (n=108), CLART HPV2 (n=82), or Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) HPV DNA Test (n=101). HPV positivity was 73.6% by HPV Direct Flow CHIP versus 67% by LA, 65.9% by HPV Direct Flow CHIP versus 59.8% by CLART, and 62.4% by HPV Direct Flow CHIP versus 42.6% by HC2. HPV Direct Flow CHIP showed a positive agreement of 88.6% with LA (k=0.798), 87.3% with CLART (k=0.818), and 68.2% with HC2 (k=0.618). In conclusion, HPV Direct Flow CHIP results were comparable with those of the other methods tested. Although further investigation is needed to compare the performance of this new test with a gold-standard reference method, these preliminary findings evidence the potential value of HPV Direct Flow CHIP in HPV vaccinology and epidemiology studies.

  14. Experimental research on characteristic of start-up pressure wave propagation in gelled crude oil by large-scale flow loop

    崔秀国; 艾慕阳; 姜保良; 霍连风; 张立新


    In order to research start-up pressure wave propagation mechanism and determine pressure wave speed in gelled crude oil pipelines accurately,experiment of Large-scale flow loop was carried out.In the experiment,start-up pressure wave speeds under various operation conditions were measured,and effects of correlative factors on pressure wave were analyzed.The experimental and theoretical analysis shows that thermal shrinkage and structural properties of gelled crude oils are key factors influencing on start-up pressure wave propagation.The quantitative analysis for these effects can be done by using volume expansion coefficient and structural property parameter of gelled crude oil.A new calculation model of pressure wave speed was developed on the basis of Large-scale flow loop experiment and theoretical analysis.

  15. Shared Freight Transportation and Energy Commodities Phase One: Coal, Crude Petroleum, & Natural Gas Flows

    Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Diane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive picture of nationwide freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas for all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns selected flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The latest release of FAF is known as FAF4 with a base year of 2012. The FAF4 origin-destination-commodity-mode (ODCM) matrix is provided at national, state, major metropolitan areas, and major gateways with significant freight activities (e.g., El Paso, Texas). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in using FAF4 database for its strategic planning and policy analysis, particularly in association with the transportation of energy commodities. However, the geographic specification that DOE requires is a county-level ODCM matrix. Unfortunately, the geographic regions in the FAF4 database were not available at the DOE desired detail. Due to this limitation, DOE tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist in generating estimates of county-level flows for selected energy commodities by mode of transportation.

  16. Determination of low levels of methanol in crude oils by multi-dimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) using novel micro channel flow technology.

    Tipler, Andrew; Marotta, Lee; DiSanzo, Frank; Grecsek, Heidi


    The accurate and precise determination of methanol in crude oils at concentrations less than 10 ppm is of economic value to the petroleum industry. This report presents the optimization, results and long term performance of a flow switching device MDGC hardware, the Swafer™, for the rapid and precise analysis of methanol from approximately 0.4 ppm (w/w) to 1000 ppm. The use of low temperature injection and backflush technique decreases maintenance and increases sample throughput. The short term quantitative percent relative standard deviations at 1, 30 and 1000 ppm (w/w) methanol in crude oils are 5, 3 and 0.3, respectively. The MDGC procedure follows closely that described in ASTM D7059 for determination of crude oils; however, D7059 previously has not been evaluated at concentrations of less than 10 ppm. This work further extends the application of D7059 to concentrations of <10 ppm.

  17. Emulsion, problem or solution for the flow of heavy crude oil; Emulsao, problema ou solucao para o escoamento de oleos pesados

    Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Monteiro de; Oliveira, Roberto Carlos Goncalves de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail:;


    During the last decades, giant offshore crude oil reserves were discovered around the world. Most of them comprise heavy and high viscosity crude oils. During oil production, it is common to have co-production of emulsified water. The water may originate from the producing formation itself or be a consequence of recovery processes. The formation of water in oil emulsions (W/O) during production is highly undesirable due to the increase of the oil viscosity. Several studies have been carried out to prevent the formation of this type of emulsion or even to promote phase inversion production, creating oil in water emulsions (O/W) of low viscosity. In the present work experimental results are presented that show the influence of emulsion type on flow parameters. The flow parameters were evaluated from a flow simulator especially designed for this purpose. (author)

  18. Modeling of the re-starting of waxy crude oil flows in pipelines; Modelisation du redemarrage des ecoulements de bruts paraffiniques dans les conduites petrolieres

    Vinay, G.


    Pipelining crude oils that contain large proportions of paraffins can cause many specific difficulties. These oils, known as waxy crude oils, usually exhibit high 'pour point', where this temperature is higher than the external temperature conditions surrounding the pipeline. During the shutdown, since the temperature decreases in the pipeline, the gel-like structure builds up and the main difficulty concerns the issue of restarting. This PhD attempts to improve waxy crude oil behaviour understanding thanks to experiment, modelling and numerical simulation in order to predict more accurately time and pressure required to restart the flow. Using various contributions to the literature, waxy crude oils are described as viscoplastic, thixotropic and compressible fluid. Strong temperature history dependence plays a prevailing role in the whole shutdown and restart process. Thus, waxy crude oils under flowing conditions correspond to the non-isothermal flow of a viscoplastic material with temperature-dependent rheological properties. Besides, the restart of a waxy crude oil is simulated by the isothermal transient flow of a weakly compressible thixotropic fluid in axisymmetric pipe geometry. We retain the Houska model to describe the thixotropic/viscoplastic feature of the fluid and compressibility is introduced in the continuity equation. The viscoplastic constitutive equation is involved using an augmented Lagrangian method and the resulting equivalent saddle-point problem is solved thanks to an Uzawa-like algorithm. Governing equations are discretized using a Finite Volume method and the convection terms are treated thanks to a TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) scheme. The Lagrangian functional technique usually used for incompressible viscoplastic flows, is adapted to compressible situations. Several numerical results attest the good convergence properties of the proposed transient algorithm. The non-isothermal results highlight the strong sensitivity of

  19. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States (Summary)

    DeRosa, Sean e. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Crude oil produced on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) is primarily transported on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) to in-state refineries and the Valdez Marine Terminal in southern Alaska. From the Terminal, crude oil is loaded onto tankers and is transported to export markets or to three major locations along the U.S. West Coast: Anacortes-Ferndale area (Washington), San Francisco Bay area, and Los Angeles area. North Slope of Alaska production has decreased about 75% since the 1980s, which has reduced utilization of TAPS.

  20. Method for the quantification of vanadyl porphyrins in fractions of crude oils by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Flow Injection-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Wandekoken, Flávia G.; Duyck, Christiane B.; Fonseca, Teresa C. O.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.


    High performance liquid chromatography hyphenated by flow injection to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-FI-ICP-MS) was used to investigate V linked to porphyrins present in fractions of crude oil. First, the crude oil sample was submitted to fractionation by preparative liquid chromatography with UV detection, at the porphyrin Soret band wavelength (400 nm). The obtained porphyrin fractions were then separated in a 250 mm single column, in the HPLC, and eluted with different mobile phases (methanol or methanol:toluene (80:20; v:v)). The quantification of V-porphyrins in the fractions eluted from HPLC was carried out by online measuring the 51V isotope in the ICP-MS, against vanadyl octaethylporphine standard solutions (VO-OEP), prepared in the same solvent as the mobile phase, and injected post-column directly into the plasma. A 20 μg L- 1 Ge in methanol was used as internal standard for minimizing non-spectral interference, such as short-term variations due to injection. The mathematical treatment of the signal based on Fast Fourier Transform smoothing algorithm was employed to improve the precision. The concentrations of V as V-porphyrins were between 2.7 and 11 mg kg- 1 in the fractions, which were close to the total concentration of V in the porphyrin fractions of the studied crude oil.

  1. Application of backflush and micro-flow techniques to the analysis of C5-C13 hydrocarbons in crude oils and its geochemical significance


    An Agilent 6890N GC equipped with both FID and Agilent 5975 MSD analyzer has been employed to analyze C5-C13 hydrocarbon fractions of crude oils. A technical combination of program temperature volatilizer injection, backflush and micro-flow controller afforded a fine separation of C5-C13 compounds on a PONA column with the heavy part of crude oils being cut off before entering the analytical column. Both GC-FID chromatogram and GC-MS mass chromatograrns (MID and full scan) could be obtained at the same time. The retension time differences of nC6-nC13 alkanes between GC and TIC were in the range of 0.02-0. 58 minutes. Totally 286 peaks have been assigned group compositions. Results on 8 typical oil samples from CNPC Key Laboratory Crude Oil Library showed that the characteristics of C6-C13 hydrocarbon group composition could be used in oil-oil correlation studies.

  2. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  3. Studying the rheological properties and the influence of drag reduction on a waxy crude oil in pipeline flow

    M.H. Hassanean


    The rheological behaviors of tested waxy crude oil were studied at different temperatures (varies from 67 to 102 °F and different DRA concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 ppm. The results showed that at all constant DRA concentrations, the viscosity highly decreased until 80 °F (above pour point by 15 °F. However, by increasing the DRA concentration, the viscosity is increased at temperatures lower than 80 °F. This is because the DRA is a high molecular weight polymer which participates in increasing viscosity by increasing its concentration. After 80 °F, the DRA concentration has an insignificant effect on viscosity. So the effect of the DRA is not in reducing viscosity but mainly in reducing the degree of turbulence energy. The field studies were performed at a normal temperature of tested pipeline sections (100 °F. The tested DRA has an improving effect on reducing the pressure drop of pipeline which leads to reduction in crude oil pumping energy or an increase in the pipeline capacity with a high efficiency of the DRA.

  4. Characteristic Temperatures of Waxy Crude Oils

    Zhu Yingru; Zhang Jinjun; Li Hongying; Chen Jun


    Gel point or pour point is widely used to evaluate the low temperature flowability of crude oil. However, it is not adequate to describe the gelling properties of waxy crude oils under flow conditions with gel point or pour point,since the rheological behavior of crude oils is dependent on shear history. Waxy crude oils tend to gel at a low temperature. Based on gelation theory, the characteristic temperature of waxy crude oil was determined by analyzing viscosity-temperature data. Two mathematical models were developed for calculating characteristic temperatures of virgin crude oils and pour point depressants (PPD) beneficiated crude oils, respectively. By using these two models, the characteristic temperatures of crude oils that have experienced shearing and thermal histories can be predicted. The model for predicting the characteristic temperature of virgin crude oils has an average relative deviation of 4.5%, and all predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. Tested by 42 sets of data, the prediction model for crude oil treated with PPD has a high accuracy, with an average relative deviation of 4.2%, and 95.2 percent of predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. These two models provide useful ways for predicting the flowability of crude oils in pipelines when only wax content, wax appearance point and gel point are available.

  5. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光


    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  6. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A


    The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods. Four cows in one Latin square were fitted with ruminal cannulas to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The dietary treatment factors were CP (14.9 vs. 17.5%; dry matter basis) and RDP (63 vs. 69% of CP) contents. Dietary RDP concentration was manipulated by including unprocessed or micronized canola meal. Diet adaptation (d 1-20) was followed by 8d (d 21-29) of sample and data collection. Continuous intrajugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]-urea (220mg/d) were conducted for 4d (d 25-29) with concurrent total collections of urine and feces to estimate N balance and whole-body urea kinetics. Proportions of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(14)N(15)N]-urea in urinary urea, and (15)N enrichment in feces were used to calculate urea kinetics. For the low-CP diets, cows fed the high-RDP diet had a greater DM intake compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but the opposite trend was observed for cows fed the high-CP diets. Dietary treatment had no effect on milk yield. Milk composition and milk component yields were largely unaffected by dietary treatment; however, on the low-CP diets, milk fat yield was greater for cows fed the low-RDP diet compared with those fed the high-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the high-CP diets. On the high-CP diets, milk urea nitrogen concentration was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the low-CP diets. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to

  7. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  8. Crude glycerin in swine

    With the rapid expansion of the bio-diesel industry, there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of bio-diesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of f...

  9. Crude glycerin for monogastrics

    With the rapid expansion of the biodiesel industry there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of biodiesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of fat ...

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of Tahe Medium Gravity Crude

    Li Li; Zou Ying; Weng Huixin


    The comprehensive evaluation of Tahe medium gravity crude has demonstrated that this type of crude belongs to a intermediate base sour crude, featuring high vanadium content (103ppm), high carbon residue content, low pour point, and low acid value. Based on the crude processing conditions at SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Branch Company, a proposal on the appropriate process flow scheme for processing Tahe crude oil has been raised with the main ideas presented as follows. The IBP-175 ℃ fraction is not an ideal feedstock for catalytic reforming; the 75-250℃ fraction is a qualified feedstock for zeolite de-waxing; the 140-230℃ fraction can be used to manufacture the No. 3 jet fuel through appropriate distillation range adjustment and product refining; the 175-350℃ fraction can be directly used to manufacture No.-10 diesel through proper refining; the atmospheric resid boiling over 350℃ is not suited to be used as the RFCC feedstock; the 350-520℃ vacuum distillate oil can be used as the FCC feedstock; and the vacuum residuum boiling over 520℃ is a good feedstock for manufacture of asphalt.

  11. Towards a Rational Design of a Continuous-Flow Method for the Acetalization of Crude Glycerol: Scope and Limitations of Commercial Amberlyst 36 and AlF3·3H2O as Model Catalysts

    Sandro Guidi


    Full Text Available The acetalization of six different types of glycerol including pure, wet, and crude-like grade compounds of compositions simulating those of crude glycerols produced by the biodiesel manufacture, was carried out with two model ketones such as acetone and 2-butanone. The reaction was investigated under continuous-flow (CF conditions through a comparative analysis of an already known acetalization catalyst such as Amberlyst 36 (A36, and aluminum fluoride three hydrate (AlF3·3H2O, AF whose use was never previously reported for the synthesis of acetals. At 10 bar and 25 °C, A36 was a highly active catalyst allowing good-to-excellent conversion (85%–97% and selectivity (99% when either pure or wet glycerol was used as a reagent. This catalyst however, proved unsuitable for the CF acetalization of crude-like glycerol (CG since it severely and irreversibly deactivated in a few hours by the presence of low amounts of NaCl (2.5 wt % which is a typical inorganic impurity of raw glycerol from the biorefinery. Higher temperature and pressure (up to 100 °C and 30 bar were not successful to improve the outcome. By contrast, at 10 bar and 100 °C, AF catalyzed the acetalization of CG with both acetone and 2-butanone, yielding stable conversion and productivity up to 78% and 5.6 h−1, respectively. A XRD analysis of fresh and used catalysts proved that the active phase was a solid solution (SS of formula Al2[F1-x(OHx]6(H2Oy present as a component of the investigated commercial AF sample. A hypothesis to explain the role of such SS phase was then formulated based on the Brønsted acidity of OH groups of the solid framework. Overall, the AF catalyst allowed not only a straightforward upgrading of CG to acetals, but also a more cost-efficient protocol avoiding the expensive refining of raw glycerol itself.

  12. Towards a Rational Design of a Continuous-Flow Method for the Acetalization of Crude Glycerol: Scope and Limitations of Commercial Amberlyst 36 and AlF₃·3H₂O as Model Catalysts.

    Guidi, Sandro; Noè, Marco; Riello, Pietro; Perosa, Alvise; Selva, Maurizio


    The acetalization of six different types of glycerol including pure, wet, and crude-like grade compounds of compositions simulating those of crude glycerols produced by the biodiesel manufacture, was carried out with two model ketones such as acetone and 2-butanone. The reaction was investigated under continuous-flow (CF) conditions through a comparative analysis of an already known acetalization catalyst such as Amberlyst 36 (A36), and aluminum fluoride three hydrate (AlF₃·3H₂O, AF) whose use was never previously reported for the synthesis of acetals. At 10 bar and 25 °C, A36 was a highly active catalyst allowing good-to-excellent conversion (85%-97%) and selectivity (99%) when either pure or wet glycerol was used as a reagent. This catalyst however, proved unsuitable for the CF acetalization of crude-like glycerol (CG) since it severely and irreversibly deactivated in a few hours by the presence of low amounts of NaCl (2.5 wt %) which is a typical inorganic impurity of raw glycerol from the biorefinery. Higher temperature and pressure (up to 100 °C and 30 bar) were not successful to improve the outcome. By contrast, at 10 bar and 100 °C, AF catalyzed the acetalization of CG with both acetone and 2-butanone, yielding stable conversion and productivity up to 78% and 5.6 h(-1), respectively. A XRD analysis of fresh and used catalysts proved that the active phase was a solid solution (SS) of formula Al₂[F1-x(OH)x]₆(H₂O)y present as a component of the investigated commercial AF sample. A hypothesis to explain the role of such SS phase was then formulated based on the Brønsted acidity of OH groups of the solid framework. Overall, the AF catalyst allowed not only a straightforward upgrading of CG to acetals, but also a more cost-efficient protocol avoiding the expensive refining of raw glycerol itself.

  13. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  14. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.


    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  15. Incineration and its heat utilization for sludge and spent grains recycling. Beer kasu dassui odei shokyakunetsu no yuko riyo

    Ogawa, T. (Asahi Breweries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper introduces a case of effectively utilizing dehydrated sludge and spent grains as a boiler fuel, and industrial wastes from breweries to reduce the amount of wastes. These wastes show as high water content as 80% to 83%, but dried wastes are constituted of hydrocarbon, excepting ash. Especially beer spent grains have a calorific power of close to 5000 kcal/kg. The key point is how to blow off water efficiently (existence of a dehydration and drying process accompanies such advantages and disadvantages as facility simplification, necessity of auxiliary fuels, and generation of high-BOD water associated with beer lees dehydration). As a result of discussions and tests, a fluidized bed boiler (with a pressure of 14 kg/cm[sup 2] at a flow rate of 8.1 t/h) was adopted. Wastes to be burned dry up before they reach the floor of a fluidized furnace and are burned on the floor, and any unburned components are burned completely in a secondary combustion chamber. The boiler has been operating smoothly since the operation has started in 1989. An integrating comparison of various costs has resulted in annual economy of 81 million yen. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and fixed wavelength fluorescence detection of PAHs metabolites in bile in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) exposed to a dispersed topped crude oil in a continuous flow system

    Camus, L. [Elf Petroleum Norge AS, Randaberg (Norway); Aas, E. [RF-Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway); Borseth, J.F. [RF-Rogaland Research, Randaberg (Norway)


    Long term effects of sublethal concentrations of oil on the marine environment have become of general concern. Cytochrome P4501A activity (EROD) in liver and fixed wavelength fluorescence detection of PAHs metabolites (FF) have in this study been used as biomarkers for dispersed oil exposure on a long term period of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). A Continuous Flow System was used to carry out the study. The fish were continuously exposed to 0.125, 0.5 or 2.0 mg litre{sup -1} dispersed topped crude oil for 6, 15, 24h 4 and 21 days followed by a 9 day recovery period in clean seawater. No induction of the cytochrome P4501A was measured. A maximum level in bile metabolites (4- to 5-fold) was recorded after 24h of exposure revealing thereby a detoxification process, but a decline occurred from day 4 to day 21. This study demonstrated that FF detection of PAHs metabolites in bile could be a more sensitive biomarker than EROD activity in a long term exposure to sublethal concentration of oil. (author)

  17. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Knolle, Ernst G.


    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  18. Effects of feeding wheat or corn-wheat dried distillers grains with solubles in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal function, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and performance in cows.

    Chibisa, G E; Mutsvangwa, T


    A study was conducted to determine the effects of including either wheat-based (W-DDGS) or corn-wheat blend (B-DDGS) dried distillers grains with solubles as the major protein source in low- or high-crude protein (CP) diets fed to dairy cows on ruminal function, microbial protein synthesis, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and milk production. Eight lactating Holstein cows (768.5 ± 57.7 kg of body weight; 109.5 ± 40.0 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods (18d of dietary adaptation and 10d of measurements) and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in one Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, urea-N recycling kinetics, and omasal nutrient flow. The treatment factors were type of distillers co-product (W-DDGS vs. B-DDGS) and dietary CP content [15.2 vs. 17.3%; dry matter (DM) basis]. The B-DDGS was produced from a mixture of 15% wheat and 85% corn grain. All diets were formulated to contain 10% W-DDGS or B-DDGS on a DM basis. No diet effect was observed on DM intake. Yields of milk, fat, protein, and lactose, and plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations were lower in cows fed the low-CP compared with those fed the high-CP diet. Although feeding B-DDGS tended to reduce ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration compared with feeding W-DDGS (9.3 vs. 10.5mg/dL), no differences were observed in plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations. Additionally, dietary inclusion of B-DDGS compared with W-DDGS did not affect rumen-degradable protein supply, omasal flows of total N, microbial nonammonia N (NAN), rumen-undegradable protein, and total NAN, or urea-N recycling kinetics and milk production. However, cows fed the low-CP diet had lower N intake, rumen-degradable protein supply, ruminal NH3-N concentration, and omasal flows of N, microbial NAN, and total NAN compared with those fed the high-CP diet

  19. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail:


    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  20. Low Temperature Rheological Behavior of Umbarka Waxy Crude and Influence of Flow Improver Etude du comportement rhéologique du brut paraffinique d'Umbarka à basse température et de l'influence d'un additif pour l'amélioration des caractéristiques d'écoulement

    El-Gamal I. M.


    Full Text Available The low temperature flow properties; pour point and rheological parameters; have been determined for untreated and additive treated Umbarka waxy crude. The rheological characteristics of the crude showed non-Newtonian yield pseudoplastic flow behavior and pronounced thixotropic effect. Viscometric data are fitted to Bingham, Casson and Herschel-Bulkley plastic flow models using linear and non-linear computer regression analysis. Herschel parameters showed inconsistent results whereas Casson equation fitted the data reasonably well. Treatment of the crude with flow improver ameliorated both rheological properties and pour point but in a different manner. The influence of the additive on the rheology of the crude is greatly affected by shear rate. The thixotropic phenomenon of the crude is likely to be temperature-dependent in addition to the other controlling factors. L'objet de cette étude est de déterminer les caractéristiques du brut paraffinique d'Umbarka, avec et sans additif pour l'amélioration de l'écoulement, à savoir, l'écoulement à basse température, le point d'écoulement, et les données rhéologiques. Les caractéristiques rhéologiques du brut font apparaître un comportement d'écoulement pseudoplastique avec une limite élastique non newtonienne ainsi qu'un effet thixotropique accusé. Une corrélation a été établie entre les données viscométriques et les modèles d'écoulement plastique de Bingham, Casson et Herschel-Bulkley en utilisant une analyse de régression informatique linéaire et non linéaire. Si les paramètres de Herschel conduisent à des résultats incohérents, l'équation de Casson, en revanche, permet d'établir une corrélation raisonnablement satisfaisante des données. Le traitement du brut à l'aide d'un additif d'amélioration de l'écoulement a des répercussions positives, quoique différentes, sur les propriétés rhéologiques et le point d'écoulement. Les effets de l'additif sur la rh

  1. A new approach to model strain change of gelled waxy crude oil under constant stress

    Hou, Lei; Song, Changyu; Yan, Wei


    Deformation of gelled waxy crude oil with loaded stress is worthy of research for the flow assurance of pipelining system. A dispersion parameter was introduced to characterize the disruption degree of wax crystal structure in crude oil with shear action. Based on fractional calculus theory, a rh...

  2. Jet fuels from synthetic crudes

    Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.


    An investigation was conducted to determine the technical problems in the conversion of a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or a coal synthetic crude oil into a suitable aviation turbine fuel. Three syncrudes were used, one from shale and two from coal, chosen as representative of typical crudes from future commercial production. The material was used to produce jet fuels of varying specifications by distillation, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Attention is given to process requirements, hydrotreating process conditions, the methods used to analyze the final products, the conditions for shale oil processing, and the coal liquid processing conditions. The results of the investigation show that jet fuels of defined specifications can be made from oil shale and coal syncrudes using readily available commercial processes.

  3. 7 CFR 29.1010 - Crude.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.1010 Section 29.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1010 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a...

  4. Some advances in crude oil rheology and its application

    张劲军; 柳歆


    Waxy crude oil exhibits complex shear-and-thermal-history-dependent non-Newtonian behaviors.In the past 10 years,driven by the petroleum industry,crude oil rheology has been an active field.Studies on crude oil rheology have been passing a way from simply relying on rheological measurements,through quantitative experimental simulation of shear and thermal history effects in pipelining,to recent development of correlation between flow properties and shear and thermal history.Currently,the study is toward quantitative inquiry of relations between the rheological behaviors and micro-structures of wax crystals as well as oil compositions.Advances achieved by the author’ team are summarized,including simulation of the thermal and shear history effects,correlations and computation of flow properties,fractal characterization of morphology and structure of wax crystals,relations of rheological behaviors to fractal dimension and oil compositions,and the most successful example of the application of rheology in crude oil pipelining.Future studies are prospected.

  5. Processing of Liaohe Highly Sour Crude

    Zhang Shijie


    In order to solve the problems related with processing low-quality Liaohe highly sour crude, the Liaohe Petrochemical Company has explored the possibility in optimizing the processing of highly sour crude by adopting different process schemes depending upon the properties of the highly sour crude. The Liaohe naphthenic-base crude oil with low freezing point is earmarked for manufacture of naphthenic lube oils and heavy traffic paving asphalt, while the extra-heavy Liaohe crude with high acid number is routed directly to delayed coking unit coupled with corresponding corrosion preventing measures, resulting in tackling the problem of equipment corrosion arising from refining of Liaohe highly sour crude to obtain light distillates from Liaohe heavy crude through a short process scheme.

  6. Crude Imports Triggers Investment Fever of Oil Wharves in China


    @@ China's record high crude import of 80 million tons in 2003 has triggered a fever of oil wharf construction along the country's eastern coastal regions. Reportedly, the coastal harbor cities, such as Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Nantong, Ningbo,Zhoushan, Maoming and Zhanjiang, have stepped up the efforts for construction of wharves, the large-scale berths for oil products in particular, so as to stimulate the rapid development of the local petrochemical and commodity flow industries.

  7. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo


    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash.

  8. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.


    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  9. Viscosity-temperature correlation for crude oils

    Shanshool, J.; Niazi, E. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad (Iraq)


    The kinematic viscosities of crude oils were measured over a temperature range 10-50 C and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to develop a method to predict the viscosity of crude oils, based upon API gravity, pour point and molecular weight. The proposed new correlation has been verified using data base of about twelve Middle East crude oils, showing significantly improved correlation, with an average absolute deviation of 5.3%. The correlation is also applicable to crude oils with a wide range of API gravities, pour points and molecular weights. (orig.)

  10. Development of GIS for feasibility study on effective use of sewage heat; Gesui netsu yuko riyo kanosei kaiseki tsuru toshite no GIS no kaihatsu

    Ichinose, T. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Kawahara, H. [Fujitsu Facom Information Processing Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Hanaki, K. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] Matsuo, T. [Univ.of Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School


    Water and energy in addition to matter such as products and materials from outside flowed into the urban areas, and waste, sewage, the exhausted gas and the waste heat were released into the environment as a result of the urban action. This process is called the urban metabolism analogous to the metabolism of living things. Reducing loads to environment in the urban action is nothing but to optimize the urban metabolism structures. In this study, concerning districts of the heat supply facilities to effectively reuse the heat energy obtained from sewage being a representative unused energy in urban areas, GIS was developed for conducting the analysis on the spatial conformity to reuse the waste heat in the work of head demand and heat supply. The feasibility investigation on the effective use of the sewage heat was carried out as objective examples of 23 districts in Tokyo by using this method. It was confirmed that the relationship between heat demand and supply and the amount of usable heat depended on the land use in the district. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. 7 CFR 29.6009 - Crude.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.6009 Section 29.6009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6009 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. (See Rule 15.)...

  12. Steam reforming of crude glycerol with in situ CO(2) sorption.

    Dou, Binlin; Rickett, Gavin L; Dupont, Valerie; Williams, Paul T; Chen, Haisheng; Ding, Yulong; Ghadiri, Mojtaba


    Steam reforming of the crude glycerol by-product of a biodiesel production plant has been evaluated experimentally at atmospheric pressure, with and without in situ CO(2) sorption, in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor between 400 degrees C and 700 degrees C. The process outputs were compared to those using pure glycerol. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were used to assess the effect on the steam reforming process of the main crude impurities (methanol and four fatty acid methyl esters). The crude glycerol and steam conversions and the H(2) purity reached 100%, 11% and 68%, respectively at 600 degrees C. No CH(4) was found at and above 600 degrees C. Steam reforming of crude glycerol with in situ CO(2) removal is shown to be an effective means of achieving hydrogen purity above 88% in pre-CO(2) breakthrough conditions.

  13. New crude oils from Caspian Depression

    Zhmykhova, N.M.; Krylova, S.M.; Arenbrister, L.P.; Kolevatova, V.P.


    In this article the authors are reporting data on the characteristics of crude oils from new fields of the North Emba oil district (Zhanazhol, Kozhasaya, Karachaganak) and old fields in this same district (Kenkiyak, Kara-Tyube), and also the Tengiz field, which was discovered in the South Emba district. During the last few years, twenty samples of crude oils and condensates from these fields have been investigated at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Petroleum Processing (VNII NP). Characteristics of some of these crudes are listed.

  14. Suriname installing first crude-oil pipeline

    McAllister, E.W. (E.W. McAllister Engineering Services, Houston, TX (US))


    This paper reports that the first cross country crude-oil pipeline in the south American country of Suriname is currently under construction. The State Oil Co. of Suriname (Staatsolie) is building the 34.4-mile, 14-in. pipeline to deliver crude oil from the Catharina Sophia field (Tambaredjo) to the Tout Lui Faut terminal near the capital, Paramaribo. Crude oil from the Jossi Kreek field will be injected at mile point (MP) 3.4. Oil from these two fields is now being moved to tout Lui Faut by Staatsolie-owned motorized ocean barges. Increased production to meet requirements of a planned refinery near Tout Lui Faut prompted the pipeline.

  15. Upgrading of crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water.

    Duan, Peigao; Savage, Phillip E


    We determined the influence of a Pt/C catalyst, high-pressure H2, and pH on the upgrading of a crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water (SCW). The SCW treatment led to a product oil with a higher heating value (∼42 MJ/kg) and lower acid number than the crude bio-oil. The product oil was also lower in O and N and essentially free of sulfur. Including the Pt/C catalyst in the reactor led to a freely flowing liquid product oil with a high abundance of hydrocarbons. Overall, many of the properties of the upgraded oil obtained from catalytic treatment in SCW are similar to those of hydrocarbon fuels derived from fossil fuel resources. Thus, this work shows that the crude bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction of a microalga can be effectively upgraded in supercritical water in the presence of a Pt/C catalyst. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical properties of wax deposits on the walls of crude pipelines

    Huang Qiyu; Wang Jifeng; Zhang Jinjun


    Wax deposits on the wall of a crude oil pipeline are a solid wax network of fine crystals, filled with oil, resin, asphaitene and other impurities. In this paper, a series of experiments on wax deposition in a laboratory flow loop were performed under different conditions (flow rate, temperature differential between crude oil and pipeline wall, and dissolved wax concentration gradient), and the wax deposits were analyzed, so quantitative relationships among wax content, wax appearance temperature (WAT), shear stress, and radial concentration gradient of dissolved wax at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. Finally, a model was established to predict WAT and the wax content of the deposit.

  17. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Konstantinović Sandra S.


    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  18. Improving performance of electrostatic heater-theaters for light crude doped heavy crude; A case study

    Bhattacharya, A.; Ray, S.; Rai, R. [Institute of Oil and Gas Production Technology, New Bombay (India)


    Crude oil treatment systems for heavy oil assume paramount importance due to the difficult nature of emulsions formed and presence of water in the form of small droplets. With the aging of heavy oil fields, operating under active water drive, water content in the emulsion produced increases substantially. This has a direct impact on heater-treater performance and treated crude quality. A typical problem is discussed in this paper where the gradual increase in emulsion production over a period of time in heavy oil belts of ONGC have affected the electrostatic heater-treater performance, treating light crude doped heavy crude, resulting in increased BS&W (basic sediments and water) in the treated crude. Critical levels of water cut in both heavy and light crudes have been identified beyond which the existing emulsion treating system becomes ineffective. Analysis have also been carried out to identify optimum mixing proportion which result in the most effective demulsification.

  19. Extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: new technology overview

    Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)


    Venezuela has reserves of heavy and extra heavy crude oil in the eastern part of the country. There is a need for lower capital cost extraction technologies. At the moment, heavy oil is diluted with light or medium crude oil before it is sold on the market. In order to remove this requirement, PDVSA Research Institute has been working on developing a new technology to convert heavy crude oil into upgraded crude oil. This paper presents the technology, named Aquaconversion, and its applications. The technology consists of a catalytic steam conversion process which converts heavy oil into transportable upgraded crude oil with a higher density and lower viscosity than can be achieved using other technologies. This technology can be used onsite to obtain transportable upgraded crude or to replace visbreaking units in refineries. This paper presents a new technology that makes the extraction of heavy oil in Venezuela economically feasible.

  20. Crude Oil Trading Using Turbo Certificates

    Michal Šoltés


    Full Text Available This paper has two objectives. The first one is to contribute to the debate regarding the validity of the Hubbert Crude Oil Peak Theory. Its acceptance should guide economic policies, especially over time. The other objective is to characterize modern investment tools for short-term investments, or more precisely for trading, which use the leverage effect significantly. They are so called Turbo Certificates and they are used to trade crude oil.

  1. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    Fattouh, Bassam [The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6FA (United Kingdom)


    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  2. Brazauskas : Let's wait and see on Yukos


    Leedu peaminister Algirdas Brazauskas kutsus 5. juunil 2004 leedulasi üles säilitama rahu seoses Leedu suurima ettevõtte Mazheikiu Nafta omaniku Jukos majandusraskuste ja võimaliku pankrotistumisega

  3. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria; Evaluation radiologique de radionucleides naturels dans le sol collectes a l'interieur et autour des stations de compression des gaz dans le delta du Niger, Nigeria

    Ademola, J.A.; Atare, E.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria)


    Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th varied from 30.1 +- 3.0 to 59.0 +- 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 +- 2.3 and 7.9 +- 3.7 to 10.9 +- 1.9, respectively. The {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 muSv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 muSv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

  4. Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era

    Edwards, J.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then be filled by expanding production of coal, heavy oil and oil shales, nuclear and hydroelectric power, and renewable energy sources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Declining oil production forecasts are based on current estimated ultimate recoverable conventional crude oil resources of 329 billion barrels for the United States and close to 3 trillion barrels for the world. Peak world crude oil production is forecast to occur in 2020 at 90 million barrels per day. Conventional crude oil production in the United States is forecast to terminate by about 2090, and world production will be close to exhaustion by 2100.

  5. Pengaruh Penambahan Kosubstrat pada Biodegradasi Crude Oil

    Any Juliani


    Full Text Available Kegiatan penambangan minyak bumi tidak hanya dilakukan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan besar, tetapi juga oleh masyarakat secara tradisional. Potensi pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan penambangan rakyat ini menjadi lebih tinggi karena pengelolaannya yang tradisional. Salah satu jenis pencemaran yang ditimbulkannya misalnya adalah tanah atau perairan yang tercemar oleh minyak bumi (crude oil pada saat berlangsungnya kegiatan penambangan. Salah satu upaya untuk dapat mengatasinya adalah dengan bioremediasi. Bioremediasi merupakan teknologi pengolahan pencemar dengan memanfaatkan aktivitas mikroba, terutama dari golongan bakteri. Bioremediasi tersebut harus melibatkan bakteri yang memiliki kapasitas metabolic untuk melakukan biodegradasi terhadap crude oil tersebut. Crude oil sendiri pada dasarnya merupakan senyawa hidrokarbon yang merupakan sumber karbon yang kaya bagi mikroba. Namun demikian, biodegradasi crude oil relative lebih sulit dilakukan karena karakteristiknya yang merupakan senyawa dengan berat molekul dan ukuran yang besar. Oleh karena itu penambahan kosubstrat yang lebih sederhana dapat dilakukan untuk membantu biodegradasi terutama pada tahap awal proses. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kosubstrat dalam hal ini glukosa terhadap biodegradasi crude oil. Penelitian dilakukan dalam media cair dengan bioaugmentasi melalui penambahan inoculum bakteri yang diisolasi dari tanah yang dikondisikan terhadap crude oil dalam beberapa variasi reactor. Indikasi terjadinya biodegradasi diperiksa melalui pengukuran terhadap parameter Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH dan Total Plate Count (TPC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kosubstrat glukosa memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap penurunan TPH. Penurunan TPH tertinggi setelah 28 hari adalah sebesar 25,3 % yang diberikan oleh reactor dengan penambahan kosubstrat serta konsentrasi crude oil awal sebesar 8.1 %. Sementara itu reactor tanpa

  6. Variation of yield stress of Daqing crude oil with pipelining history

    李立; 侯磊; 孙立新


    The yield stress of waxy crude oil is a fundamental parameter in the calculation of pipelining technique and analysis of flow safety for the heated oil transported through pipeline.Daqing crude oil was studied and the variation of yield stress with shear history was explored through simulation experiment of pipelining.It is found that the effect of throughput variation or shear rate on yield stress is not obvious.With the decrease of final dynamic cooling temperature,the yield stress of waxy crude oil decreases,but there exists a little increase at the beginning.The prediction model of yield stress for waxy crude oil under the condition of shutdown is developed and it can be used to predict the yield stress of Daqing crude oil at certain heating temperature,final dynamic cooling temperature and measurement temperature.For the 139 groups of yield stress data of Daqing crude oil from the simulation experiment of pipelining,the result of prediction with this model shows that the average relative deviation between the yield stress measured and predicted is 30.27%,and the coefficient of correlation is 0.962 3.

  7. Crude Oil Spot Price Forecasting Based on Multiple Crude Oil Markets and Timeframes

    Shangkun Deng


    Full Text Available This study proposes a multiple kernel learning (MKL-based regression model for crude oil spot price forecasting and trading. We used a well-known trend-following technical analysis indicator, the moving average convergence and divergence (MACD indicator, for extracting features from original spot prices. Additionally, we factored in the possibility that movements of target crude oil prices may be related to other important crude oil markets besides the target market for the prediction time horizon since traders may find price movement information within other relevant crude oil markets useful. We also considered multiple timeframes in this study since trends may differ across different timeframes and, in fact, traders may use their own timeframes. Therefore, for forecasting target crude oil prices, this study emphasizes on features pertaining to other important crude oil markets and different timeframes in addition to features of the target crude oil market and target timeframe. Moreover, the MKL framework has been used to fuse information extracted from different sources and timeframes of the same data source. Experimental results show that out-of-sample forecasting using the MKL method is superior to benchmark methods in terms of root mean square error (RMSE and average percentage profit (APP. They also show that the information from multiple timeframes is useful for prediction, but that from another crude oil market is not.

  8. Radiation for crude drugs contaminated with microorganisms

    Satake, Motoyoshi; Sekita, Setsuko; Kamakura, Hiroyuki [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)


    Recently, it became urgent to develop an effective method for repressing the microbials in a crude drug and its preparation. In some countries in Asia and Western countries, radiosterilization for natural drugs has been approved and the dose was within a range. 10-30 kGy. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the safety of such radiosterilization for crude drugs. Concerning bacterial contamination in the original materials for crude drugs, the proportion rates of materials containing less than 10{sup 3}, 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} and more than 10{sup 5} cells were 54, 27 and 19%, respectively. Since the previous study revealed that those microbials were almost diminished by exposure to 10 kGy, various crude drugs were exposed to 5 kGy and the amounts of remaining microbials were determined. The number of microbials remained after radiation at 5 kGy was 1 x 10{sup 3} for plantago seed, rhubarb and cyperus rhizome and less than 10{sup 2} for other samples tested. The effects of radiation on the respective active ingredients of each crude drug underwent using HPLC. (M.N.)

  9. Effects of Iranian crude oil on the Red Sea octocoral Heteroxenia fuscescens

    Cohen, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem); Nissenbaum, A.; Eisler, R.


    Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of Iranian crude oil on colonies of the Red Sea octocoral Heteroxenia fuscescens were studied under static and continuous flow assay conditions. Static toxicity bioassays conducted in 3 litre jars at 41/sup 0///sub 00/ salinity showed that the concentration of crude oil fatal to 50 percent of the test colonies in 96 h was 12 ml/litre. Colonies surviving exposure to high sublethal levels of crude oil were adversely affected both during treatment and afterwards. Tank tests conducted in 1500 litre, deep (2 m) containers and flowing sea water demonstrated that Heteroxenia were more resistant to crude oil than when assayed in jars; no deaths were observed in tanks during exposure for 168 h to initial concentrations of 10 ml/litre (15 litres added at surface). The number of colonies exhibiting signs of stress decreased with increasing distance from the oil film at the surface. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that petroleum derived hydrocarbons were incorporated into tissues. The highest level of pollutant hydrocarbons found in these colonies was about 1 percent of their endogenic hydrocarbon content. It is concluded that while crude oil may not be acutely toxic to Heteroxenia, exposure to high sublethal oil levels may result in long term deleterious effects.

  10. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)


    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  11. Modelling and Simulation of Crude Oil Dispersion

    Abdulfatai JIMOH


    Full Text Available This research work was carried out to develop a model equation for the dispersion of crude oil in water. Seven different crude oils (Bonny Light, Antan Terminal, Bonny Medium, Qua Iboe Light, Brass Light Mbede, Forcados Blend and Heavy H were used as the subject crude oils. The developed model equation in this project which is given as...It was developed starting from the equation for the oil dispersion rate in water which is given as...The developed equation was then simulated with the aid of MathCAD 2000 Professional software. The experimental and model results obtained from the simulation of the model equation were plotted on the same axis against time of dispersion. The model results revealed close fittings between the experimental and the model results because the correlation coefficients and the r-square values calculated using Spreadsheet Program were both found to be unity (1.00.

  12. CNPC's Crude Production Maintained Steady Growth


    @@ Mature oilfields report steady output rises despite reserves decline Ghina's largest oil base Daqing Oilfield has fulfilled its production target by stabilizing its crude oil output above 40 million tons in the past year,although its reserves have been on the decline.Its 2008 crude oil production stood at 40.2 million tons,which was the smallest in three years if compared to the 41.7 million tons in 2007 and 43.41 million tons in 2006.But its 2008 natural gas output hit 2.76 billion cubic meters,up 8.241 percent from the 2.55 billion cubic meters in 2007.

  13. Alba is first heavy North Sea crude


    The development of the Alba oil field will constitute two North Sea firsts: the first Eocene reservoir developed, and the first development to handle heavy crude. The field was discovered in Block 16/26 of the North Sea's U.K. sector in 1984. The Alba field is in the heart of the North Sea, about midway between the northern fields of the East Shetlands basin and the southern Fulmar and Argyll fields. About 250 million bbl of the estimated 1 billion bbl reservoir of 20{degrees} gravity crude is believed recoverable.

  14. 饲粮不同粗蛋白质水平对育肥羔羊小肠氨基酸流量及吸收率的影响%Effects of Different Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Amino Acid Flows and Absorbability in Small Intestine of Growing Lambs

    牛露; 尹华; 郑猛; 甘麦邻; 陈傲东; 刘晨黎; 陈道富; 高巍


    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of different dietary crude protein ( CP) levels on amino acid ( AA) flows and absorbability in small intestine of growing lambs. Three Kazakh male lambs [(30.0±3.7) kg of body weight] fitted with permanent ruminal, duodenal and ileal fistulas were selected. A 3×3 Latin square design was adopted. Dietary CP levels of different treatments were 11. 00%, 12. 00% and 13.00%, respectively; the pretest lasted for 10 days, and the test lasted for 10 days. A dual-phase marker sys-tem with lithium-chromium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate ( LiCr-EDTA ) and ytterbium-actinium ( Yb-Ac ) as liquid-phase and particulate-phase digesta flow makers was adopted to measure small intestinal digesta flows, respectively. The results showed as follows:the intake, apparent digestibility and retention of nitrogen were in-creased with increasing level of dietary CP, and 13% treatment was significantly higher than 11% treatment ( P0.05) . Although intestinal true digesta flows and amino acid absorbability were not signifi-cantly affected by the increasing dietary CP level ( P>0.05) , but the flows of nitrogen and total amino acids, as well as absorption rates of essential amino acids, such as arginine, hisitidine and lysine, were numerically increased. The results indicate that increasing dietary CP level has the potential to improve digestibility, intesti-nal digesta flows and amino acid absorption rate.%本研究旨在比较饲粮不同粗蛋白质( CP)水平对育肥羔羊小肠氨基酸( AA)流量及吸收率的影响。选用体重(30.0±3.7) kg,安装有瘤胃、十二指肠近端和回肠末端瘘管的3只哈萨克羊公羔为试验动物,采用3×3拉丁方试验设计,各处理饲粮CP水平分别为11.00%、12.00%和13.00%;预试期10 d,正试期10 d。采用镱锕( Yb-Ac)、锂铬乙二胺四乙酸( LiCr-EDTA)分别作为消化道固相和液相食糜标记物测定小肠食糜流量。结果表明:提高饲粮CP水平可

  15. Rheology and FTIR studies of model waxy crude oils with relevance to gelled pipeline restart

    Magda, J.J.; Guimeraes, K.; Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Venkatesan, R.; Montesi, A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)


    Gels composed of wax crystals may sometimes form when crude oils are transported in pipelines when ambient temperatures are low. The gels may stop the pipe flow, making it difficult or even impossible to restart the flow without breaking the pipe. Rheology and FTIR techniques were used to study the problem and to characterize transparent model waxy crude oils in pipeline flow experiments. These model oils were formulated without any highly volatile components to enhance the reproducibility of the rheology tests. Results were presented for the time- and temperature-dependent rheology of the model waxy crude oils as obtained in linear oscillatory shear and in creep-recovery experiments. The model oils were shown to exhibit many of the rheological features reported for real crude oils, such as 3 distinct apparent yield stresses, notably static yield stress, dynamic yield stress, and elastic-limit yield stress. It was concluded that of the 3, the static yield stress value, particularly its time dependence, can best be used to predict the restart behaviour observed for the same gel in model pipelines.


    This is a state-of-the-art extended abstract presentation summary of the outputs from the oil spill program over the last 11 years. It summarizes the results of 3 field studies involving intentional releases of crude oil: the Delaware study in 1994 (sandy beach), the St. Lawrence...

  17. Utilization of crude glycerin in nonruminants

    Refined glycerin is a colorless, viscous liquid, containing approximately 99% glycerin; and a metabolizable energy per kilogram of approximately 3,850 and 3,700 kcal for swine and poultry, respectively. The crude glycerin co-product generated from biodiesel production facilities, in contrast, ranges...

  18. China's Crude Oil Imports Rises Steadily


    @@ Chinese imports of crude oil rose 10.8 percent year-on-year over the first four months of this year, due to the country's growing need for resources to fuel its rapidly developing economy, the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced in mid-May.

  19. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)


    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  20. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    was measured by gravimetric and gas chromatographic methods. Around 45-55% of the total fractions of crude oil (containing 50% aliphatics, 31% waxes and bitumin, 14% aromatics and 5% polar compounds) were removed in the presence of these cultures within 10 days...

  1. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)


    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  2. Computational Flow Dynamic Simulation of Micro Flow Field Characteristics Drainage Device Used in the Process of Oil-Water Separation

    Guangya Jin


    Full Text Available Aqueous crude oil often contains large amounts of produced water and heavy sediment, which seriously threats the safety of crude oil storage and transportation. Therefore, the proper design of crude oil tank drainage device is prerequisite for efficient purification of aqueous crude oil. In this work, the composition and physicochemical properties of crude oil samples were tested under the actual conditions encountered. Based on these data, an appropriate crude oil tank drainage device was developed using the principle of floating ball and multiphase flow. In addition, the flow field characteristics in the device were simulated and the contours and streamtraces of velocity magnitude at different nine moments were obtained. Meanwhile, the improvement of flow field characteristics after the addition of grids in crude oil tank drainage device was validated. These findings provide insights into the development of effective selection methods and serve as important references for oil-water separation process.

  3. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil ...

    Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil pollution. ... Community-level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon-source utilization ... impact of crude oil pollution, soil – biota interactions, ecosystem monitoring, ...

  4. Application of Markov Model in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Nuhu Isah


    Full Text Available Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile. The fluctuation of crude oil prices has affected many related sectors and stock market indices. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid the future prices of the non-renewable natural resources to rise. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2 January to 29 May 2015. We used Markov Model (MM approach in forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using EViews and Maple software where the potential of this software in forecasting daily crude oil prices time series data was explored. Based on the study, we concluded that MM model is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  5. Rate and extent of ruminal degradation of crude protein from ...

    of degradation of crude protein was higher for maize meal than for whole or flaked maize. Extent of crude protein ... flaked maize diets. Urea was added to increase ..... isolation of proteolytic bacteria from the sheep rumen. J. Gen. Microbiol.

  6. Non-Linear Unit Root Properties of Crude Oil Production

    Svetlana Maslyuk; Russell Smyth


    While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent stochastic disturbances. The objective of this paper is to test for non-linearities and un...

  7. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands


    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  8. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.


    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  9. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  10. Use programmable controllers on crude trunklines

    Jensen, J. (Square D Co. (US))


    This paper reports on the use of programmable controllers on a 530-mi. 10-in., bidirectional crude oil trunkline linking Midland and Port Arthur, Texas. It has 14 pump stations and one control center. Amdel, constructed in 1926, allows injection/exit points at Port Arthur, Hearne, Bronte, Forsan, big Spring and Midland, Texas. A 6 MHz analog microwave backbone supplies the communications between the remote pump stations and the control center.

  11. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Angela eSherry


    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  12. Crude Documentary to Screen at Fall Meeting

    Viñas, Maria-José


    A documentary on oil might be a bit difficult to pitch, even to your own family and friends. Marine biologist and filmmaker Richard Smith learned that lesson when in late 2005, he started working on Crude: The Incredible Journey of Oil. When Smith told acquaintances about the project, their responses were ``muted, at best,'' joked the Australian filmmaker when he received AGU's 2008 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism.


    罗斌杰; 李新宇


    Crude oils from different basins in China ,Australia and New Zealand were analyzed to character-ize aromatic hydrocarbons produced in different environments by means of GC/MS .The distributions of some common compounds such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene,pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorine,dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran were found to be related to sedimentary environments.Especially the relative contents of fluorenes ,dibenzofurans and dibenzothiophenes can be used to di-vide the oils into three types(1) saline or marine carbonate environment;(2) fresh-brackish water lake;(3) swamp and coal-bearing sequence.A romatic biomarkers (e.g.retene, nor-abietene,derivatives of lupeol and β-amyrin)represent higher plant inpults with respect to the precursors of crude oils. High contents of sulphur-containing compounds like benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene series indicate a reducing sulphur-abundant diagenetic condition .The benzohopane series (C32-C35) was identified both in hypersaline and coal-bearing basins, and it is postulated to be the result of strong bacteria activity.In all the sam-ples, a complete series of alkyl benzenes was analyzed .The similarity of its carbon-number distrbu-tion with that of n-alkanes probably suggests their genetic relationship. The distribution of the methylphenanthrene series reflects the evolution degree of crude oils,MPI holding a positive correlation with C29-sterane 20S/(20S+20R).

  14. Understanding crude oil import demand behaviour in Ghana

    Marbuah, George


    Crude oil importation is a major drain on the economy of Ghana, yet no study has attempted to analyse the determinants of crude oil imports. This paper brings to the fore an understanding of the key drivers of crude oil import demand. Using the autoregressive distributed lag modelling framework (ARDL), we estimate variant short-run and long-run import demand models for crude oil using time series data over the period 1980-2012. The results show that demand for crude oil is price inelastic in ...

  15. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance


    Today’s changeable market and resultant disturbance of crude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In case study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  16. Properties of Tahe crude oil and influence of separation components on crude oil viscosity

    Chaogang, Chen; Hongjun, Deng [Northwest Oilfield Branch Engineering and Technology Institute of Sinopec (China); Jixiang, Guo; Heyi, Wang; Meiqin, Lin [Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Center, China University of Petroleum (China)], email:


    The Tahe oil field in Xinjiang produces oil from depths of 5500m to 7000m whose temperatures range from 128 to 140 Celsius. The formation waters have a high salinity. To determine the major factors that contribute to the viscosity of the oil, such as saturate, aromatic resin, and asphaltene, a variety of techniques were used. Measurements were done using IR, scanning electron microscopy, energy spectrum analysis (EDX), elemental analysis, and ICP techniques. It was found, as predicted, that the viscosity of the crude oil decreased with increase of the temperature. However, different types of crude oil have various levels of temperature-sensitive turning points. The Tahe oil fields have a higher turning point due to the asphaltene and resins. To conduct the experiment the Tahe crude AD11 was separated into oil fractions using toluene as the solvent. It was concluded that the asphaltene has the greatest impact on viscosity.

  17. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)


    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  18. Toxicities of crude oils and oil-dispersant mixtures to juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus

    Eisler, R. (National Marine Water Quality Lab., Narragansett, RI); Kissil, G.W.


    Toxicities were determined for two crude oils, one from the Persian Gulf (Iran) and one from the Sinai Peninsula (Gulf of Suez), to rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus, an economically important species of teleost from the Red Sea. Also tested for toxicity were ST 5, a chemical oil dispersant, and oil-ST 5 mixtures in the ratio 10:1 vol/vol. Static tests conducted in small (3-liter) jars at 41 /sup 0///sub 00/ salinity and 23/sup 0/C produced LC/sub 50/ (168 h) values of 0.74 ml/liter for Iranian crude, 14.5 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and 0.010 ml/liter for ST 5; LC/sub 50/ values for oil-ST 5 mixtures reflected biocidal properties of ST 5 alone. Iranian oil became less toxic with increasing time in seawater over a period of 168 hours; the reverse was observed for Sinai crude. ST 5 exhibited a dramatic reduction in lethality after 2 hours in the assay medium. The most toxic component tested of Iranian crude was the lowest-boiling fraction; with Sinai crude it was the highest-boiling fraction; with ST 5 the volatile surfactant component accounted for almost all deaths. Liver enlargement in rabbitfish was linked with exposure to comparatively high concentrations of crude oil. High sublethal levels of ST 5 caused reductions in blood hematocrit. Rabbitfish survival at a given petrochemical concentration was highest at intermediate salinities of 30-50 /sup 0///sub 00/ in the salinity range tested of 20 to 60 /sup 0///sub 00/. Rabbitfish were more resistant to crudes and oil-dispersant mixtures in continuous flow bioassays conducted in large tanks than in static jar bioassays. Tank tests also suggested that mortalities were higher among toxicant-stressed fish confined 0.2 to 1.0 meters from the surface than among fish held 1.0 to 1.8 m from the surface. (auth)

  19. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    PAN Ming; QIAN Yu; LI Xiu-Xi


    Today's ohangeable market and resultant disturbance of orude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In oase study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  20. Kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils

    Maqbool, T.; Hussein, I.A.; Fogler, H.S. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    The kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils was investigated using n-alkane precipitants. Recent studies have shown that there is a kinetic phenomenon associated with asphaltene precipitation. This study showed that the time needed to precipitate the asphaltenes can vary from a few minutes to several months, depending on the amount of n-alkane precipitant added. As such, the onset of asphaltene precipitation is a function of the concentration of precipitant and time. A technique to quantify the amount of asphaltenes precipitated as a function of time and precipitant concentration was presented. This study also investigated the kinetic effects caused by various precipitants. Optical microscopy was used to monitor the growth of asphaltene aggregates with time. Refractive index measurements provided further insight into the kinetics of asphaltene precipitation. Polarity based fractionation and dielectric constant measurements were used to compare the nature of asphaltenes precipitated early in the precipitation process with the asphaltenes precipitated at later times. It was concluded that asphaltenes precipitating at different times from the same crude oil-precipitant mixture are different from one another. 3 refs.

  1. Ecuador plans expanded crude-oil line

    Boschat, J.; Sabathier, J. (Beicip-Franlab, Rueil-Malmaison (France))


    Ecuador plans to increase throughput of the 309 mile, 20 and 26-in. Trans Ecuadorian pipeline that moves crude oil from the Oriente in the Amazon basin to the Pacific coast for refining in local refineries and export. Increasing crude-oil production is driving the expansion. In investment, it is the largest pipeline project in the country in more than 20 years. In August 1992, Petro-ecuador, the Ecuadorian state company in charge of petroleum, hired the French petroleum consulting firm Beicip-Franlab to carry out the basic engineering and preparation of the technical tender documents for increasing the pipeline's throughput. The revamped Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, together with the Triunfo Nuevo-Condijua pipeline, will form the new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. This means that they will be integrated into a single system controlled and monitored from a main dispatching center in Guajalo near Quito which is now Petroecuador's maintenance center for the existing pipeline. As there is no supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system now on the Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, scada will be built along with a new telecommunication network covering the entire new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. Also, to comply with the most modern requirements in terms of environmental protection, especially in a country subject to seismic activity, a leak-detection system will be implemented on all lines.

  2. Prediction of compatibility of crude oils with condensate (C5+); Previsao de compatibilidade de petroleos e condensado (C5+)

    Zilio, Evaldo Lopez; Santos, Maria de Fatima Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ramos, Antonio Carlos da Silva; Rolemberg, Marlus Pinheiro [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)


    Due to the recent raise of the national natural gas demand and to the need of flowing the condensates (C5+) produced from the NGPP (Natural Gas Processing Plant) by adding them to the streams of the crude oil, there was the need to carry out the compatibility prediction of one condensate with two onshore crude oils from Espirito Santo. The model to predict the compatibility among crude oils and among crude oils and oil products is based on the use of the solubility parameter of the oils. To apply it, the solubility parameter of each crude oil or oil product is measured and the parameter of their blend is calculated. If this value is beneath the asphaltenes flocculation parameter, the blend is incompatible; if it is above, the blend is compatible. In this article, the compatibility predictions were done according to the Solubility Parameter Model to two blends: the condensate C with the crude oil X and with the crude oil Y. The model predictions are that both blends are incompatible at given proportions. To check the predictions, the same two blends were experimentally carried out. It must be emphasized that the compatibility tests were done at atmospheric pressure and at the temperature of 15 deg C. These tests consist in adding the condensate to the crude oil with a titrater and visualizing the asphaltenes precipitation at an optical microscope. The experimental results were equivalent to the values predicted by the model. It is worth mentioning that there were several practical difficulties, as the high volatility of the condensate and the fact that the temperatures to determine the parameters and to carry out the tests were very lower than the operation temperature. Therefore, a security factor was applied on the predictions (less 20%). (author)

  3. Improved simulation design factors for unconventional crude vacuum units : cracked gas make and stripping section performance

    Remesat, D. [Koch-Glitsch Canada LP, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Operating data for unconventional heavy oil vacuum crude units were reviewed in order to optimize the design of vacuum columns. Operational data from heavy crude vacuum units operating with stripping and velocity were used to investigate the application of a proven vacuum distillation tower simulation topology designed for use with heavy oil and bitumen upgrader feeds. Design factors included a characterization of the crude oils or bitumens processed in the facility; the selection of thermodynamic models; and the non-equilibrium simulation topology. Amounts of generated cracked gas were calculated, and entrainment and stripping section performance was evaluated. Heater designs for ensuring the even distribution of heat flux were discussed. Data sets from vacuum units processing crude oils demonstrated that the amount of offgas flow increased as the transfer line temperature increased. The resulting instability caused increased coke generation and light hydrocarbon formation. Results also indicated that overhead vacuum ejector design and size as well as heat transfer capabilities of quench and pumparound zones must be considered when designing vacuum column units. Steam stripping lowered hydrocarbon partial pressure to allow materials to boil at lower temperatures. It was concluded that setting appropriate entrainment values will ensure the accuracy of sensitivity analyses for transfer line designs, inlet feed devices, and wash bed configurations. 9 refs., figs.

  4. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim


    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  5. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Perumal Palanivell


    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  6. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into malic acid.

    West, Thomas P


    Malic acid production from the biodiesel coproduct crude glycerol by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, ATCC 10577 and ATCC 12846 was observed to occur with the highest malic acid level acid being produced by A. niger ATCC 12846. Fungal biomass production from crude glycerol was similar, but ATCC 10577 produced the highest biomass. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into the commercially valuable organic acid malic acid appeared feasible.

  7. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui


    @@ Recently China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has gradually set up its own down stream industry in response to the development of oil fields, the demand of domestic market and the unique characteristics of crude oil resources.The capacity of crude oil processing has reached 21million tons per year approximately and 14 million tons of crude oil was processed in 1994,making up one-tenth of CNPC's total output.

  8. Yemen's light, sweet Alif crude assayed

    Rhodes, A.K.


    Crude oil from Yemen's Alif field has been assayed. The light sweet crude, also known as Marib, is part of the Marib al-Jawf concession in northern Yemen. Alif field was discovered in 1984 by Hunt Oil Co. The field was declared commercial in November 1985. Alif production averaged 118,500 b/d in 1992. Physical and chemical properties are listed for the whole crude and its fractions.

  9. Toxicity assessment of unrefined crude oil fractions in soil ecosystems

    Goudey, J.S.; Wilson, J.J. [HydroQual Lab. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Chu, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)


    The chemical and physical differences amongst crude oils and bioavailability (toxicity) of crude oil constituents are not addressed with existing numerical criteria for remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The constituents of crude oil include short chain hydrocarbons, such as light ends or gasoline, and long chain hydrocarbons (saturates), aromatic and polar compounds and heavier asphaltenes. Natural weathering and biodegradation take care of the lighter compounds. Less biodegradable are the heavier compounds which tend to be immobile. A range of questions concerning these immobile substances need to be answered to determine their effect on the bioavailability, hence toxicity, when solutes become solvents, etc. In this study, different crude oils and crude oil fractions were assessed as to their effect on the bioavailability (as toxicity) to microbes, plants and invertebrates. Five fractions with boiling point distillation were obtained from the separation of each of three base crude oils for a total of fifteen fractions. This practical approach to fractionating hydrocarbon represents the standard method for crude characterization. Ecological relevance, volume requirements, and availability of standard methods formed the basis for the selection of the tests and test species. The relative amounts of the different compounds (aromatics, saturates, polars, and asphaltenes) were different for each crude. Worm survival and lettuce seeding emergence tests were conducted on the spiked soils, and the extracts were tested with bacterial luminescence and lettuce root elongation. The results obtained for the three crude oils were similar. It was found that the heavier fractions were not toxic. Aging decreased the toxicity of aqueous extracts of spiked soils. Methanol extracts showed no loss of toxicity. The toxicity of whole crude was compared to the toxicity recovered in the fractions. The aqueous extracts of the naphthenic crude and the methanol extract of the

  10. Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati


    Full Text Available Crude glycerol that is produced as the by-product from biodiesel, has to be effectively utilized to contribute to the viability of biodiesel. Crude glycerol in large amounts can pose a threat to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to convert this crude glycerol into valued added products using biotechnological processes, which brings new revenue to biodiesel producers. Crude glycerol can serve as a feedstock for biopolymers, poly unsaturated fatty acids, ethanol, hydrogen and n-butanol production and as a raw material for different value added industrial products. Hence, in this review we have presented different bioconversion technologies of glycerol to value added industrial products.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia trilobata crude extracts.

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J


    A biological screening of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of crude extracts from Wedelia trilobata is reported. The n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive bacteria); along with Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella sonnei (Gram-negative bacteria). The ethyl acetate extract was active only against Salmonella group C; and the aqueous extract was inactive against the tested bacteria. None of the tested extracts showed biological activity against the yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra) or the fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum).

  12. Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater

    YANG Guipeng; ZHANG Li; SUN Xiaojing; JING Weiwen


    Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater is an important issue in marine environmental protection and is studied in this work. Results showed that petroleum hydrocarbons could be effectively degraded by the irradiation of high-pressure mercury light or natural sunlight. Photochemical reaction was controlled by various factors including light source, aquatic medium, heavy metal ion and photo-sensitizer. The rate of photo-degradation was fast at the initial stage of exposure, exhibiting a first-order reaction kinetic behavior. However, after irradiation for a few hours, the concentration of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum hydrocarbons stabilized. For all experimental conditions, the range of the photo-degradation rate is from 0.001 3 to 0.005 7/min.

  13. Sino-Kazakh Crude Pipeline Starts Operation


    @@ The Sino-Kazakh Crude Oil Pipeline financed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and KazMunaiGaz, the state oil company of Kazakhstan,was launched on December 15, 2005, thanks to the commitments and endeavors of governments and constructors of both countries. The pipeline, with diameter of 813 mm, the total length of 962.2 km running from the Kazakhstan Atasu in the west to China's Alashankou in the east, with the phase I designed annual capacity up to 10 million tons. The launch of the pipeline is a milestone of the China-Kazakhstan energy cooperation, having great importance to the countries' economic growths, China's energy security strategy and the diversification of Kazakh oil exports.

  14. Non-Aqueous and Crude Oil Foams

    Blázquez Christian


    Full Text Available Foams produced from non-aqueous media are less common than water-based foams but they play an important role in many industries and engineering processes. The low surface tension of hydrocarbon fluids limits the adsorption of common surface activity substances and different compounds and methods must be considered to generate and stabilize oil-based foam. Likewise, the destruction of unwanted non-aqueous based foam requires specific considerations not found with aqueous systems. Of particular interest are petroleum-based foams, which are highly complex due to the wide variety of compounds and gases that can be found. We provide an overview of the major mechanisms known to be important for non-aqueous foam stability with a spotlight on crude-oil foams.

  15. Calcium Uptake in Crude Tissue Preparation

    Bidwell, Philip A.; Kranias, Evangelia G.


    SUMMARY The various isoforms of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) are responsible for the Ca2+ uptake from the cytosol into the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). In some tissues, the activity of SERCA can be modulated by binding partners, such as phospholamban and sarcolipin. The activity of SERCA can be characterized by its apparent affinity for Ca2+ as well as maximal enzymatic velocity. Both parameters can be effectively determined by the protocol described here. Specifically, we describe the measurement of the rate of oxalate-facilitated 45Ca uptake into the SR of crude mouse ventricular homogenates. This protocol can easily be adapted for different tissues and animal models as well as cultured cells. PMID:26695031

  16. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Derkach S. R.


    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  17. Sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants as demulsifiers for crude oil emulsions: 2-demulsification of different types of crudes

    Abdel-Azim, A.A.A.; Abdel-Raouf, M.E.S.; Abdul-Raheim, A.R.M.; Maysor, N.E.S. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt). Petroleum Application Dept.], e-mail:


    The present work studies demulsification of two types of crude oil emulsions by nine sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants. The effect of pH and salinity of aqueous phase of crude oil on emulsion stability was considered, and the correlation between demulsification rate and the type of crude was studied. Nine sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants were tested as demulsifiers for light and heavy crudes at different aqueous phase conditions. It was found that the light crude was more easily demulsified than the heavy crude. The experimental data showed that changes in pH or salinity of the aqueous phase of the emulsion enhance its stability and decrease the demulsification efficiency of the applied demulsifiers. Also, it has been shown that surfactants based on glucose octyl amine ethoxylates (GO) are the most effective in demulsifying the investigated emulsions. The data reveal that maximum demulsification efficiency is attained at a neutral pH whereas it decreases in both directions for either of the investigated crude oils. Furthermore, the results indicate that the percentage of water separation decreases as the salinity of the emulsion's aqueous phase increases. Light crudes showed better demulsification than heavy crudes under any test condition. The demulsification process for selected emulsions was monitored by optical microscopy. (author)


    Morteza Saadat


    Full Text Available Lowering uncertainty in crude oil volume measurement has been widely considered as one of main purposes in an oil export terminal. It is found that crude oil temperature at metering station has big effects on measured volume and may cause big uncertainty at the metering point. As crude oil flows through an aboveground pipeline, pick up the solar radiation and heat up. This causes the oil temperature at the metering point to rise and higher uncertainty to be created. The amount of temperature rise is depended on exterior surface paint color. In the Kharg Island, there is about 3 km distance between the oil storage tanks and the metering point. The oil flows through the pipeline due to gravity effects as storage tanks are located 60m higher than the metering point. In this study, an analytical model has been conducted for predicting oil temperature at the pipeline exit (the metering point based on climate and geographical conditions of the Kharg Island. The temperature at the metering point has been calculated and the effects of envelope color have been investigated. Further, the uncertainty in the measurement system due to temperature rise has been studied.

  19. The problem in transportation of high waxy crude oils through submarine pipelines at JV Vietsovpetro oil fields, offshore Vietnam

    Thuc, P. D.; Bich, H. V.; Son, T. C.; Hoe, L. D.; Vygovskoy, V. P. [J. V. Vietsovpetro (Viet Nam)


    Problems encountered in transporting crude oil with high wax content in a submarine pipeline, built without thermal insulation, are reviewed. The focus is on crystallization and deposition of the wax on the walls, the resulting reduction in pipeline diameter leading to higher pressure drop, and the formation of gelled interlocking structures of wax crystals in the pipeline which can lead to shutdown. Methods to reduce wax deposition and gelling, and modelling to predict restart pressures and flow characteristics to improve the pumpability of Vietsovpetro's high paraffin crude oil are described. 6 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M


    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption.

  1. Crude biodiesel refining using membrane ultra-filtration process: An environmentally benign process

    I.M. Atadashi


    Full Text Available Ceramic membrane separation system was developed to simultaneously remove free glycerol and soap from crude biodiesel. Crude biodiesel produced was ultra-filtered by multi-channel tubular membrane of the pore size of 0.05 μm. The effects of process parameters: transmembrane pressure (TMP, bar, temperature (°C and flow rate (L/min on the membrane system were evaluated. The process parameters were then optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD coupled with Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The best retention coefficients (%R for free glycerol and soap were 97.5% and 96.6% respectively. Further, the physical properties measured were comparable to those obtained in ASTMD6751-03 and EN14214 standards.

  2. Lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail:; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461 (Saudi Arabia); Meo, Imran M.U. [Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry, Hamdard University, Karachi (Pakistan); Al-Saadi, Muslim M. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Azeem, Muhammad Abdul [Department of Physiology, Ummal Qura University, Mecca (Saudi Arabia)


    A Greek oil-tanker ran aground, resulting in a huge oil spill along the costal areas of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess the lung function and follow up change after one year in subjects exposed to crude oil spill in sea water. It was a cross sectional study with follow up in 20 apparently healthy, non-smoking, male workers, who were exposed to a crude oil spill environment during oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with 31 apparently healthy male control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic Spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air have significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV{sub 1}), forced expiratory flow (FEF{sub 25-75%}) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) compared to their matched controls. This impairment was reversible and lung functions parameters were improved when the subjects were withdrawn from the polluted air environment.

  3. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...



    Dec 17, 2008 ... INTRODUCTION. The environmental impact of petroleum exploration in. Nigeria and other oil producing countries has been on the increase. ... The test organisms were isolated from crude oil sludge environment of Qua Iboe ... was supplemented with 1% Bunny light crude oil (from Exxonmobil. Producing ...

  4. Building a Consensus Forecast for Crude Oil Prices


    recommendations for follow-on research. 4 II. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter begins with a review of the history of crude oil production beginning...import supply curves Domestic crude oil production Domestic natural gas liquids production Domestic gas-to-liquids production Domestic coal-to-liquids

  5. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil (continued)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui


    @@ Strategy of the Comprehensive Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude The further study on the properties and characteristics of the naphthenic base heavy crude shows that the utilization of naphthenic acid, production of low freezing point lube stocks and a series of asphalts are important future trends for comprehensive utilization of these resources.

  6. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field


    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.


    Yang Huaijie; Xu Hui


    @@ Apart from sewage pretreatment and stepped control, the Viscous Crude Processing Plant of Shengli Petrochemical General Works has established a new process of sewage treatment featuring with flexible and advanced technology and strong impact strength, with the crude sewage treatment yield reaching more than 95%.

  8. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  9. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...



    Jul 20, 2009 ... optimum pH and temperature of the crude enzyme were about 6.0 and 60°C respectively. ... Key words: Mango seeds, crude extract, amylase activity. .... from a standard curve of starch (substrate) concentration against.

  10. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge

  11. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge rat



    *Forest Research Institute of Nigeria, FRIN P. M. B. 5054, Ibadan Nigeria ... dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, or ether extracts were higher (P < 0.05) for goats ... A concentrate-based feeding system for livestock production has several ... leaves, stems and roots of tropical trees and shrubs including the sheabutter tree; ...

  13. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J


    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea.


    Emiliana Rose Jusoh,


    Full Text Available Growing public concern about environment and potential risks to health in the polymer and plasticizer industry promises to increase the market for a safer alternative plasticizer such as a vegetable oil-based agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of crude palm oil as a bio-additive in polypropylene blown films. The polypropylene was blended with 1%, 3%, and 5% dosages of CPO using a twin screw extruder. The extruded samples were blown using the blown thin film technique. Mechanical, physical, and morphological properties were characterized. Modifying polypropylene with CPO showed good enhancement in the mechanical properties of the polypropylene. Tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, and tear strength all increased. The scanning electron microscopy photographs of the CPO-modified PP clearly supported the results from the mechanical strength tests. The presence of CPO in the PP matrices decreased the density and increased the melt flow rate. These findings contribute new knowledge to the additives area and give important implications for designing and manufacturing polymer packaging materials.

  15. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil: Price and trade impacts


    This study addresses the issue of the ban on exports of Alaskan crude oil. At present almost all crude oil production from Alaska must be sold in the United States, i.e., it may not be exported. This study examines the impact, mainly on the West Coast, of eliminating this export restraint. The study concentrates on two time periods. These are 1988, the most recent year for which complete data are available, and 1995, a year in which Alaskan production is projected to be substantially less than at present. This is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) second report on this subject. The first was released earlier in 1990. They differ principally in the years for which results are presented and in the models used to generate quantitative results. The first report was limited to 1988. The quantitative results for that year were based on use of a single region model and therefore did not take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. Because of this limitation, quantitative results were limited to Alaskan crude oil prices. All other price and trade flow results were qualitative. In contrast, the present report covers both 1988 and 1995. The quantitative results are generated with use of a more comprehensive model, one which does take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. The model-generated results cover both crude and product prices as well as petroleum trade flows. The quantitative results in the present report therefore supersede those in the first, although both sets are generally consistent.

  16. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums


    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  17. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  18. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)


    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.




    Full Text Available Mechanistic kinetic models were postulated for the catalytic steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on a Ni-based commercial catalyst at atmosphere pressure in the temperature range of 673-863 K, and at different catalyst weight to the crude ethanol molar flow rate ratio (in the range 0.9645-9.6451 kg catalyst h/kg mole crude ethanol in a stainless steel packed bed tubular microreactor. The models were based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW and Eley-Rideal (ER mechanisms. The optimization routine of Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm was used to estimate the inherent kinetic parameters in the proposed models. The selection of the best kinetic model amongst the rival kinetic models was based on physicochemical, statistical and thermodynamic scrutinies. The rate determining step for the steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be surface reaction between chemisorbed CH3O and O when hydrogen and oxygen were adsorbed as monomolecular species on the catalyst surface. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental rate of reaction and conversion of crude ethanol, and the simulated results, with ADD% being ±0.46.

  20. Structural Study of Asphaltenes from Iranian Heavy Crude Oil

    Davarpanah L.


    Full Text Available In the present study, asphaltene precipitation from Iranian heavy crude oil (Persian Gulf off-shore was performed using n-pentane (n-C5 and n-heptane (n-C7 as light alkane precipitants. Several analytical techniques, each following different principles, were then used to structurally characterize the precipitated asphaltenes. The yield of asphaltene obtained using n-pentane precipitant was higher than asphaltene precipitated with the use of n-heptane. The asphaltene removal affected the n-C5 and n-C7 maltene fractions at temperatures below 204°C, as shown by the data obtained through the simulated distillation technique. Viscosity of heavy oil is influenced by the asphaltene content and behavior. The viscosity dependence of the test heavy oil on the shear rate applied was determined and the flow was low at y. above 25 s-1 . The reconstituted heavy oil samples were prepared by adding different amounts of asphaltenes to the maltenes (deasphalted heavy oil and asphaltene effects were more pronounced at the low temperature of 25°C as compared with those at the higher temperatures. According to the power law model used in this study the flowability of the test heavy oil exhibited a pseudoplastic character. Structural results obtained from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of the different functional groups in the precipitated asphaltenes. For instance, the presence of different hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and alicyclic based on their characteristics in the FTIR spectra was confirmed. Resins are effective dispersants, and removal of this fraction from the crude oil is disturbing to the colloidal nature of heavy oil; asphaltene flocculation and precipitation eventually occur. Appearance of pores in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images was used as an indicator of the resin detachment. With the use of 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy, two important structural parameters of the

  1. Waxes and asphaltenes in crude oils

    Thanh, N.X. [Branch of Vietnam Petroleum Institute, Ho Chi Min City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Geochemistry; Hsieh, M.; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics


    High molecular weight (HMW) hydrocarbons (> C{sub 40}) and asphaltenes are important constituents of petroleum, and can cause problems related to crystallization and deposition of paraffin waxes during production and transportation, as well as in the formation of tar mats. However, traditional methods to isolate asphaltene fractions, by adding 40 volumes in excess of low boiling point solvents such as pentane, hexane or heptane, can produce asphaltene fractions which are contaminated with a significant amount of microcrystalline waxes (> C{sub 40}). The presence of these microcrystalline waxes in the asphaltene fractions has the potential to provide misleading and ambiguous results in modeling and treatment programs. The sub-surface phase behaviour of an asphaltene fraction will be quite different from that of a wax-contaminated asphaltene fraction. Similarly accurate modelling of wax drop-out requires information on pure wax fractions and not asphaltene-dominated fractions. Hence the aim of this paper is to describe a novel method for the preparation of wax-free asphaltene fractions. In addition, this method provides a quantitative subdivision of the wax fraction into pentane soluble and insoluble waxes which, when correlated with physical properties of crude oil such as viscosity, pour point, cloud point, etc., may help explain causes of wax deposition during production, transportation and storage of petroleum. (author)

  2. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)


    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  3. Crude glycerin in diets for feedlot Nellore cattle

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco van Cleef


    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on feed intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and total digestibility of Nellore bulls. In experiment 1, cattle (n = 30 were fed a control diet without crude glycerin and diets containing 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin, for 103 d. Animals were harvested and data of carcass characteristics were collected. In experiment 2, a digestibility trial was performed using indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF as internal marker, and five rumen-cannulated steers. Both experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design and data were analyzed using mixed procedures. In experiment 1 no differences were observed among treatments on dry matter intake, and performance variables. Regarding carcass characteristics, no effect was observed, except for carcass fat estimates, which were greater in treatments with crude glycerin. In experiment 2, crude glycerin promoted a decrease in digestibility of fibrous fractions NDF and HEM, and increased digestibility of crude protein by 6%. Although it caused negative effect on digestibility of fibrous fraction of diets, crude glycerin can be a good energy source for Nellore bulls, since no losses are observed on performance and carcass characteristics when animals are fed up to 30% of this by-product.

  4. Improving the Demulsification Process of Heavy Crude Oil Emulsion through Blending with Diluent

    K. K. Salam


    Full Text Available In crude oil production from brown fields or heavy oil, there is production of water in oil emulsions which can either be controlled or avoided. This emulsion resulted in an increase in viscosity which can seriously affect the production of oil from sand phase up to flow line. Failure to separate the oil and water mixture efficiently and effectively could result in problems such as overloading of surface separation equipments, increased cost of pumping wet crude, and corrosion problems. Light hydrocarbon diluent was added in varied proportions to three emulsion samples collected from three different oil fields in Niger delta, Nigeria, to enhance the demulsification of crude oil emulsion. The viscosity, total petroleum hydrocarbon, and quality of water were evaluated. The viscosity of the three emulsions considered reduced by 38, 31, and 18%. It is deduced that the increase in diluent blended with emulsion leads to a corresponding decrease in the value of viscosity. This in turn enhanced the rate of demulsification of the samples. The basic sediment and water (BS&W of the top dry oil reduces the trace value the three samples evaluated, and with optimum value of diluent, TPH values show that the water droplets are safe for disposal and for other field uses.

  5. Large Scale Behavior and Droplet Size Distributions in Crude Oil Jets and Plumes

    Katz, Joseph; Murphy, David; Morra, David


    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout introduced several million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Injected initially as a turbulent jet containing crude oil and gas, the spill caused formation of a subsurface plume stretching for tens of miles. The behavior of such buoyant multiphase plumes depends on several factors, such as the oil droplet and bubble size distributions, current speed, and ambient stratification. While large droplets quickly rise to the surface, fine ones together with entrained seawater form intrusion layers. Many elements of the physics of droplet formation by an immiscible turbulent jet and their resulting size distribution have not been elucidated, but are known to be significantly influenced by the addition of dispersants, which vary the Weber Number by orders of magnitude. We present experimental high speed visualizations of turbulent jets of sweet petroleum crude oil (MC 252) premixed with Corexit 9500A dispersant at various dispersant to oil ratios. Observations were conducted in a 0.9 m × 0.9 m × 2.5 m towing tank, where large-scale behavior of the jet, both stationary and towed at various speeds to simulate cross-flow, have been recorded at high speed. Preliminary data on oil droplet size and spatial distributions were also measured using a videoscope and pulsed light sheet. Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  6. Mitigation of naphthenate related production upsets in high TAN (Total Acid Number) crude oil

    Ostojic, Nik [Maersk Oil, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vijn, Pieter; Reiners, Robert [Champion Technologies Europe BV, Delden (Netherlands)


    This paper describes a strategy for prediction, evaluation and mitigation of calcium naphthenate related production problems. Developing fields with acidic crude in the North Sea, West Africa, Bohai Bay (China) and Brazil is becoming more common in recent years. The high acid crude contains a considerable amount of naphthenic acids, typically having a Total Acid Number (TAN) higher than 0.5 mg KOH/g. Formation of either hard type 'calcium naphthenate precipitates' or soft type 'sodium carboxylate/emulsions' during crude oil production can lead to severe flow assurance and separation problems. In severe cases this may lead to production shutdowns to clean-up the equipment. A number of different naphthenate mitigation approaches have been published but no one particular approach is considered to be the most efficient as it depends significantly on the particular field conditions. Initially, this problem was addressed by deploying large volumes of (usually organic) acid, but more recently high efficiency low dose naphthenate inhibitors have been introduced. For predicting naphthenate scaling potential, methods were developed to determine the concentration of 1230 Dalton naphthenic tetra acid (ARN acids) in either deposit or crude oil and this information can be used to locate and potentially isolate the problem to a certain reservoir. Also, methods were developed to design suitable low dose naphthenate inhibitors. As these inhibitors are field tested, monitoring is required to ensure the product is performing most efficiently. In cases of tight emulsions however, this is less difficult as the oil dehydration and water quality is affected instantly. Methods were developed to allow monitoring of the calcium naphthenate deposition in field trails, thus allow trending and evaluation of the chemicals performance. After detailed analyses and discussions of the developed methods, a North Sea case history is presented reviewing several years of treating

  7. Morpho-anatomical diagnostic of medical plants and medicinal crude

    Ludmila M. Seraya


    The main conclusions of the investigations of macro- and microscopically features of the plants and herbal drug crude of Ukraine are represented in the works of the author and the main publications are quoted.

  8. 300,000-tonnage Crude Oil Dock Put into Operation


    @@ Aproject of Jointly establishing 300,000-tonnage crude oil dock of Tianjin Port has been put into operations, thanks to its outut grid successfully connected with oil pipeline of Sinopec Tanggu reservior.

  9. Relationship between waxy crude viscosities and wax crystal microstructure

    高鹏; 张劲军; 侯磊; 王海峰


    It is important and profound to quantitatively study the relation between rheology and microstructure for development of the microstructural mechanism of crude oil rheology and even for the waxy crude oil pipelining.However,due to the high complexity and irregularity of wax crystal morphology,quantitative characterization is hard to achieve.This has hampered further study on the rheology-microstructure relationship.A new approach combined the fractal geometry and the stereology theory is presented for quantifying the intricate wax crystal morphology and structure.Based on the characterization,the effects of microstructures and oil composition on the waxy crude viscosities are analyzed quantitatively.It further validates the previous qualitative research and enriches understanding into the microstructural mechanism of waxy crude oil rheology.

  10. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...


    that uses the Granger causality test and generalized variance decomposition analysis ... observed between the Nigerian stock market and crude oil prices and the ... changing oil prices on stock prices and exchange rates an important guide to.

  11. Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted ...

    Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) on the cytoarchitecture of the rat kidney and body weight. ... The control group received distilled water throughout the duration of experiment. The administration lasted ...

  12. (maize) to a crude oil polluted agricultural soil



    Jun 4, 2007 ... respectively for maize growing on crude oil polluted soils. These results .... organic carbon and total nitrogen contents were analyzed using methods .... applied facilitated the degradation of the contaminant by aiding the ...

  13. effect of crude oil contamination on the compressive strength of ...


    This revealed clearly that crude oil is a compressive strength inhibitor in the production of concrete. ... the near shore community. ... the resulting emulsified water, affect aquatic life [3]. 2. ... impacts. Large areas of the mangrove ecosystem have.

  14. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)


    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  15. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Siavash Ashoori


    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  16. Modelling conditional correlations for risk diversification in crude oil markets

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)


    textabstractThis paper estimates univariate and multivariate conditional volatility and conditional correlation models of spot, forward and futures returns from three major benchmarks of international crude oil markets, namely Brent, WTI and Dubai, to aid in risk diversification. Conditional

  17. Optimum Temperature and Thermal Stability of Crude Polyphenol ...

    The activity of the crude enzyme from all the fruits used was found to decrease at various degrees after incubation for ... that catalyzes two different reactions, using molecular oxygen: the .... Temperature is one of the factors that affect the rate.

  18. Will Low Crude Oil Prices Cause a Global Recession?

    Mariana Papatulica; Petre Prisecaru


    ...), in January 2016. Several economists are raising the question whether low crude oil prices are a "growth factor or a curse" for the world economy, and whether they could even cause a recession...

  19. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria exposed to ... spills is enhanced by the 'continuous' input of nitrogenous fertilizer (NPK) components. ... The net result is the increased recovery potential of this estuarine ...

  20. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants crude extracts and ...

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants crude extracts and their characterization using UV, XRD, TEM and EDX. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Plant extracts are very cost effective and eco-friendly, thus, can be an economic and ...

  1. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil ...

    sunny t


    May 13, 2015 ... Key words: Species diversity, impact of crude oil pollution, soil – biota ... and inundated soil environment has proven to be a .... These were stored at -80°. ... For PCR AOA (Polymerase Chain Reaction – Ammonia Oxidizing.

  2. Cytotoxicity, phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of crude ...

    Cytotoxicity, phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of crude extracts from ... of both species was studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests (BST) for the first time. ... Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the two medicinal plants ...

  3. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Abdulsalam R. Karim


    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  4. Degradation of Microbes for the Crude Oil Contaminants


    Production and storage-transportation of crude oil can not only give rise to soil pollution but also destroy ecological environment. Degradation of microbes for oily soil was studied with the instnunent, Geofina Hydrocarbon Meter (GHM), by experimental analysis qualitatively and quantitatively in the paper. Analytical result showed that the crude oil could be considerably degraded by eating-oil microbes in oily soil and the number of eating-oil microbes increased while the working hours of oil-well risi...

  5. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.


    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  6. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.


    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.


    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.


    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  8. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Muntini, Melania Suweni; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana


    As the world's oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.


    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda


    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  10. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Muntini, Melania Suweni, E-mail:; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana [Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)


    As the world’s oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  11. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  12. Bubble column reactor fluid dynamic study at pilot plant scale for residue and extra heavy crude oil upgrading technology

    Sardella, R.; Medina, H. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L.; Paiva, M. [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)


    Bubble column reactors are used in several applications because of their simplicity and low cost; a new technology was developed to convert extra heavy crude oil into upgraded crude using a bubble column reactor. To design this kind of reactor, a lot of parameters like flow regime, gas hold up and dispersion coefficient have to be taken into account. This study aimed at determining the fluid dynamic behaviour of a bubble column working under Aquaconversion operating conditions. Experiments were undertaken on air-tap water and air-light oil systems under atmospheric conditions with various gas superficial velocities and liquid flowrates. Results showed that gas hold up increases with superficial gas velocity but is independent of liquid flowrate and that both systems tested work at the same flow regimes. This paper showed that under the experimental conditions used, this reactor tends to be a complete mixing reactor.

  13. Drag Reduction in Oil-water Flows

    Edomwonyi-Otu, L. C.


    Liquid-liquid flows occur in many chemical and process industries including the petroleum industry where crude oil and its derivatives are transported over long distances often in mixtures with water. Depending on flow conditions and pipe geometry different flow patterns can appear ranging from fully separated to dispersed ones. The addition of small amounts of some polymeric materials to one of the phases has been found to change the flow patterns and their boundaries and reduce the friction...

  14. Technology and Development Trends of China's Viscous Crude Surface Production Facilities

    Miao Chengwu


    @@ Main Technical Characteristics Technique of viscous crude gathering, transportation and treatment approaches the international level (1) Diluent oil-blended gathering and transportation process, an original creation of China, plays an important and guarantee role in increasing viscous crude output,especially in the viscous crude fields with dilute crude resources nearby.

  15. Ultrafiltration-based degumming of crude rice bran oil using a polymer membrane

    Sehn, G.A.R.; GonCalves, L.A.G.; Ming, C.C.


    Membrane technology has been gaining momentum in industrial processes, especially in food technology. It is believed to simplify processes, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollutants. The objective was to study the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) polymeric membranes in the degumming of the miscella of crude rice bran oil by using a bench-scale tangential filtration module. In addition, oil miscella filtration techniques using hexane and anhydrous ethyl alcohol solvents were compared. All membranes showed the retention of phospholipids and high flow rates. However, the best performance was observed using the 50-kDa PVDF membrane in miscella hexane solvent, with a 95.5% retention of the phosphorus concentration (by a factor of 1.4), resulting in a permeate with 29 mg·kg−1 of phosphorus and an average flow rate of 48.1 L·m−2·h−1. This technology can be used as a low-pollution, economical alternative for the de-gumming of crude rice bran oil, being effective in the removal of hydratable and non-hydratable phospholipids, resulting in oils with a low phosphorus content. (Author)

  16. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    Zhihua Wang


    Full Text Available Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products. However, the transportation process also faces the challenges of asphaltene-paraffin structural interactions, pipeline pressure losses and energy consumption. In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines with a biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses were carried out. The results indicated that heavy oil transportation in the pipeline is remarkably enhanced by creating stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsion with the surfactant additive. The wax appearance temperature (WAT and pour point were modified, and the formation of a space-filling network of interlocking wax crystals was prevented at low temperature by adding a small concentration of the surfactant additive. A maximum viscosity reduction of 70% and a drag reduction of 40% for light crude oil flows in pipelines were obtained with the surfactant additive at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, a successful field application of the drag-reducing surfactant in a light crude oil pipeline in Daqing Oilfield was demonstrated. Hence, the use of biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses in oil transportation is a potential method to address the current challenges, which could result in a significant energy savings and a considerable reduction of the operating cost.

  17. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  18. [Synthesis of biodiesel from crude oil by immobilized lipase].

    Li, Junkui; Lu, Jike; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Deng, Li


    We used immobilized lipase from Candida sp. 99-125 to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from crude oil and methanol. We studied the effects of phospholipids on activity of immobilized lipase, reaction velocity, stability of immobilized lipase and the stability of immobilized lipase in crude and refined oil. Results showed that the activity of the lipase immersed in petroleum ether with 1% phospholipids dropped more quickly than the lipase in petroleum ether without phospholipids. When soybean oil was used without phospholipids as material, the FAMEs yield of 15 min was 26.2%, whereas the yield decreased to 12.4% when there were 5% phospholipids in the soybean oil. However when the phospholipids content was below 1%, the stability of the lipase did not change obviously. The lipase was stable when used to catalyze crude soybean oil and crude jatropha oil, after 10 cycles the FAMEs yield was still above 70%. This lipase showed great potential for industrial production of biodiesel from crude oil.


    WANG Shouyang; YU Lean; K.K.LAI


    The difficulty in crude oil price forecasting,due to inherent complexity,has attracted much attention of academic researchers and business practitioners.Various methods have been tried to solve the problem of forecasting crude oil prices.However,all of the existing models of prediction can not meet practical needs.Very recently,Wang and Yu proposed a new methodology for handling complex systems-TEI@I methodology by means of a systematic integration of text mining,econometrics and intelligent techniques.Within the framework of TEI@I methodology,econometrical models are used to model the linear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,main trends) while nonlinear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,error terms) are modelled by using artificial neural network (ANN) models.In addition,the impact of irregular and infrequent future events on crude oil price is explored using web-based text mining (WTM) and rule-based expert systems (RES) techniques.Thus,a fully novel nonlinear integrated forecasting approach with error correction and judgmental adjustment is formulated to improve prediction performance within the framework of the TEI@I methodology.The proposed methodology and the novel forecasting approach are illustrated via an example.

  20. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Hao Zhang


    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  1. Dynamic modeling and control of industrial crude terephthalic acid hydropurification process

    Li, Zhi; Zhong, Weimin; Liu, Yang; Luo, Na; Qian, Feng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)


    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is critical to the development of the polyester industry. PTA production consists of p-xylene oxidation reaction and crude terephthalic acid (CTA) hydropurification. The hydropurification process is necessary to eliminate 4-carboxybenzaldehyde (4-CBA), which is a harmful byproduct of the oxidation reaction process. Based on the dynamic model of the hydropurification process, two control systems are studied using Aspen Dynamics. The first system is the ratio control system, in which the mass flows of CTA and deionized water are controlled. The second system is the multivariable predictive control-proportional-integral-derivative cascade control strategy, in which the concentrations of 4-CBA and carbon monoxide are chosen as control variables and the reaction temperature and hydrogen flow are selected as manipulated variables. A detailed dynamic behavior is investigated through simulation. Results show that the developed control strategies exhibit good control performances, thereby providing theoretical guidance for advanced control of industry-scale PTA production.

  2. Poly(met)acrylates as reducers of pour point of Brazilian crude oil; Poli(met)acrilatos como redutores de ponto de fluidez de petroleo cru brasileiro

    Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Ferreira; Zawadzki, Sonia Faria [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos (LABPOL)]. E-mail:;; Tabak, David [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica. Lab. de Polimeros e Catalise (LAPOCAT)]. E-mail:; Lucas, Elizabete Fernandes [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas. Lab. de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo (LMCP)]. E-mail:


    Several types of crude oil have a large amount of wax, which can crystallize, at low temperatures, reducing the oil flow. Polymeric additives are able to prevent the wax deposition and to reduce the pour point of the oil, what improves the oil flow at low temperatures. Some acrylic polymers containing C{sub 12+} pendant groups are found in the literature as efficient additives for crude oils. Nevertheless, this type of polymer has not yet been used in Brazilian crude oils. In this work, octadecyl acrylate (ODA) was synthesized by transe esterification of methyl acrylate (MA). By using these monomers, several copolymers of MA-ODA (containing different compositions and different molecular weights) were obtained by solution copolymerization. The performance of the copolymers as pour point depressants was verified by using a crude oil from Bacia de Campos, RJ, Brazil. Increasing the ODA content in the copolymer, its efficiency increases and the best results were obtained with the copolymer MA:ODA (36:64). The crude oil containing this copolymer as additive presented a pour point reduction of 26 deg C but the lower the copolymer molecular weight the worse the polymeric additive performance. (author)

  3. Characterization of water-in-crude oil emulsions in oil spill response


    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions occurs when crude oils are spilled into sea. The water-in-crude oil emulsionssignificantly change the properties of the spilled crude oils and in turn influence the choices made relating to oil spill countermeasures. Thewater-in-crude oil emulsions were characterized using various techniques in this study. The environmental scanning electron microscopyobservation of water droplets in the emulsions is also presented. It is a powerful tool in emulsion observations.

  4. Study on Mechanism for Pricing of Chinese Crudes and Recommendations on Improvement of Pricing System

    Zhang Jingfang


    @@ Crude oil is the most important basic energy in the world nowadays and is closely connected with the development of national economy, consolidation of national defense and the living standard of the people. Changes in crude price can have a decisive impact on a nation's political and economic situation. Hence the government of every country sticks great importance to control over crude oil resources and adjustment of crude price to assure the stabilization of its domestic crude oil market.

  5. The Role of Shearing Energy and Interfacial Gibbs Free Energy in the Emulsification Mechanism of Waxy Crude Oil

    Zhihua Wang


    Full Text Available Crude oil is generally produced with water, and the water cut produced by oil wells is increasingly common over their lifetime, so it is inevitable to create emulsions during oil production. However, the formation of emulsions presents a costly problem in surface process particularly, both in terms of transportation energy consumption and separation efficiency. To deal with the production and operational problems which are related to crude oil emulsions, especially to ensure the separation and transportation of crude oil-water systems, it is necessary to better understand the emulsification mechanism of crude oil under different conditions from the aspects of bulk and interfacial properties. The concept of shearing energy was introduced in this study to reveal the driving force for emulsification. The relationship between shearing stress in the flow field and interfacial tension (IFT was established, and the correlation between shearing energy and interfacial Gibbs free energy was developed. The potential of the developed correlation model was validated using the experimental and field data on emulsification behavior. It was also shown how droplet deformation could be predicted from a random deformation degree and orientation angle. The results indicated that shearing energy as the energy produced by shearing stress working in the flow field is the driving force activating the emulsification behavior. The deformation degree and orientation angle of dispersed phase droplet are associated with the interfacial properties, rheological properties and the experienced turbulence degree. The correlation between shearing stress and IFT can be quantified if droplet deformation degree vs. droplet orientation angle data is available. When the water cut is close to the inversion point of waxy crude oil emulsion, the interfacial Gibbs free energy change decreased and the shearing energy increased. This feature is also presented in the special regions where

  6. Northwest Australia's Saladin crude assayed

    Rhodes, A.K.


    High-quality Saladin crude oil from offshore Western Australia has been assayed. The 48.2[degree] API, 0.02 wt % sulfur crude's characteristics--determined in 1990--are presented here for the first time. The estimated 30--40 million bbl field, south of Barrow Island, is produced from two platforms in 58 ft of water in block TP 3. Production began in late 1989 from three platforms with three wells each and from two wells drilled directionally from Thevenard Island. The paper lists data on the following properties: API gravity, density, sulfur content, pour point, flash point, viscosity, salinity, heat of combustion, ash content, asphaltene content, wax content, and metal content for the whole crude and various fractions.

  7. Colombian coal liquefaction and its coprocessing with Venezuelan crude oil

    Yoshida, R.; Nagaishi, H. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Ishiguro, H. [Nippon Kokan K.K. Kawasaki (JP)] (and others)


    Titiribi coal from Colombia shows an excellent reactivity to liquefaction and coprocessing. Anthracene oil was excellent as a vehicle oil to facilitate the liquefaction reaction during the initial stage at 400{sup o}C. In the case of coprocessing with Morichal crude oil and red-mud/sulfur catalyst, the maximum conversion of Titiribi coal was ca. 79 wt% daf at 400{sup o}C and ca. 93 wt% daf at 450{sup o}C. The hydrogen consumption in the presence of Morichal crude oil is lower than that in the presence of anthracene oil. It is considered to be the effect of hydrogen sulfide and the hydrogen donor ability of Morichal crude oil. (author)

  8. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;


    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...... on the bare surfaces, surfaces with an adsorbed oil layer, and surfaces after being exposed to aqueous salt solutions. This showed that the silica surface became more hydrophobic after oil adsorption, while the wettability of the calcium carbonate surface was not significantly changed by adsorption of an oil...... layer. A surface energy component analysis based on the acid base theory showed that oil adsorption on the surfaces depends upon apolar, acidic, and basic oil components of the crude oil and that the adsorbed oil components differ for adsorption to silica and calcium carbonate. Desorption of the crude...

  9. Bacterial Biodegradation of Crude Oil Using Local Isolates

    Raed S. Al-Wasify


    Full Text Available An experimental study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Acinetobacter lwoffi isolated from petroleum contaminated water and soil samples to degrade crude oil, separately and in a mixed bacterial consortium. Capillary gas chromatography was used for testing the effect of those bacterial species on the biodegradation of crude oil. Individual bacterial cultures showed less growth and degradation than did the mixed bacterial consortium. At temperature 22°C, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 88.5% of Egyptian crude oil after 28 days of incubation. This was followed by 77.8% by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 76.7% by Bacillus subtilis, and 74.3% by Acinetobacter lwoffi. The results demonstrated that the selected bacterial isolates could be effective in biodegradation of oil spills individually and showed better biodegradation abilities when they are used together in mixed consortium.

  10. Biodiesel production in crude oil contaminated environment using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Mohammadi Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad; Movafeghi, Ali


    Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was improved in wastewater and the maximum amount of dry mass and oil was produced at the highest concentration of crude oil (0.41g and 0.15g/l, respectively). In addition, dry mass and oil yield of the microalga were significantly enhanced by increasing the experiment duration.

  11. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    I.M. Atadashi


    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.


    Andre Assis de Salles


    Full Text Available This paper examines the performance of bivariate volatility models for the crude oil spot and future returns of the WTI type barrel prices. Besides the volatility of spot and future crude oil barrel returns time series, the hedge ratio strategy is examined through the hedge effectiveness. Thus this study shows hedge strategies built using methodologies applied in the variance modelling of returns of crude oil prices in the spot and future markets, and covariance between these two market returns, which correspond to the inputs of the hedge strategy shown in this work. From the studied models the bivariate GARCH in a Diagonal VECH and BEKK representations was chosen, using three different models for the mean: a bivariate autoregressive, a vector autoregressive and a vector error correction. The methodologies used here take into consideration the denial of assumptions of homoscedasticity and normality for the return distributions making them more realistic.

  13. Simultaneous optimization of heat-integrated crude oil distillation systems☆

    Yiqing Luo; Liwen Wang; He Wang; Xigang Yuan


    Crude oil distil ation is important in refining industry. Operating variables of distil ation process have a critical ef-fect on product output value and energy consumption. However, the objectives of minimum energy consumption and maximum product output value do not coordinate with each other and do not lead to the maximum eco-nomic benefit of a refinery. In this paper, a systematic optimization approach is proposed for the maximum an-nual economic benefit of an existing crude oil distil ation system, considering product output value and energy consumption simultaneously. A shortcut model in Aspen Plus is used to describe the crude oil distillation and the pinch analysis is adopted to identify the target of energy recovery. The optimization is a nonlinear program-ming problem and solved by stochastic algorithm of particle warm optimization.

  14. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves


    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Influence of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery in formation microflora and properties of crude oil

    Shcherbakova, A. G.; Altunina, L. K.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Chuikina, D. I.


    The results of the analyzes of crude oil and produced water from wells in the areas of pilot testing of new flow deflection and oil-displacing Compounds developed in the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry SB RAS. It was found that changes in the properties and Compound of the oil and water mainly occur in the redistribution of filtration flows and integration in the development of the previously unwashed areas, as well as in washing off the residual heavy oil from the reservoir rock, and in some wells - due to formation biocenosis, contributing to desorption of oil from the rock.

  16. Optimization of the Algerian crude and condensate network; Optimisation du reseau algerien de transport de brut et de condensat

    Smati, A.; Zeraibi, N. [Universite de Boumerdes, Institut des hydrocarbures et de la Chimie, Dept. Energetique, Boumerdes (Algeria); Touabti, M.C. [Universite de Setif, Lab. de Genie du Gaz, Setif (Algeria)


    The diagnosis and the optimal extension of the Algerian crude and condensate network, as a result of the escalation of production rhythms, necessitate the development of systemic procedures of modeling. In this context, the batching is represented by a two-commodity network flow. The theory of graphs and the maximal flow problem, associated with a model of reliability, are then put to contribution. The global model can then be used as an experimentation stand where the impact of any decision or event is released by simulation. However, because of the nonlinearity of costs, the optimal extension of the network is submitted to the resolution of a nonlinear programming model. (authors)

  17. Assessment of crude oil biodegradation in arctic seashore sediments: effects of temperature, salinity, and crude oil concentration.

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Schiewer, Silke


    The expected increase in offshore oil exploration and production in the Arctic may lead to crude oil spills along arctic shorelines. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of bioremediation to treat such spills, oil spill bioremediation in arctic sediments was simulated in laboratory microcosms containing beach sediments from Barrow (Alaska), spiked with North Slope Crude, and incubated at varying temperatures and salinities. Biodegradation was measured via respiration rates (CO2 production); volatilization was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) analysis of hydrocarbons sorbed to activated carbon, and hydrocarbons remaining in the sediment were quantified by GC/flame ionization detector (FID). Higher temperature leads to increased biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, while the release of volatile organic compounds was similar at both temperatures. Increased salinity had a small positive impact on crude oil removal. At higher crude oil dosages, volatilization increased, however CO2 production did not. While only a small percentage of crude oil was completely biodegraded, a larger percentage was volatilized within 6-9 weeks.




    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  19. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Niere, H. M.


    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  20. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia


    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  1. Effects of Biodegradation on Crude Oils from Karamay Oilfield

    杨斌; 杨坚强; 等


    Studies of biological marker compou nds in five oil samples from a profile wherenormal crude oil,low condensate oil and heavy oil are produced in the Karamay Oilfield have been carried out with great empha-sis on the biodegradation-resisting capability of 13,17 secosteranes,8,14 secohopanes,gammacerane and carotenes.Based on these studies,a sequence of biodegradation-resisting intensities has been established for saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers in crude oils from the Karamay Oilfield.

  2. Analysis of OPEC's Monopoly in Crude Oil Market


    This article briefly and historically reviews the polices of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) and analyzes the factors that facilitate or hinder OPEC's monopoly in the crude oil market. The industrial concentration ratio is chosen to measure OPEC's monopoly power based on the data from 1986 to 2004. It is concluded that OPEC possesses a long-standing cartel foundation and a rather strong monopoly in the world crude oil market. At the same time, there are unstable factors that influence and even weaken OPEC's monopoly.

  3. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar


    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield...... stress measurement and compared with the original crude oil. A complex asphaltene−wax interaction as a function of asphaltene concentration and degree of asphaltene dispersion under dynamic and static condition was observed. The crystallization and the wax network strength was strongly dependent...... influence the wax crystallization at static condition more significantly than the more flocculated....

  4. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar


    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield...... stress measurement and compared with the original crude oil. A complex asphaltene−wax interaction as a function of asphaltene concentration and degree of asphaltene dispersion under dynamic and static condition was observed. The crystallization and the wax network strength was strongly dependent...... influence the wax crystallization at static condition more significantly than the more flocculated....

  5. Bioconversion of heavy crude oils: A basis for new technology

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.


    Systematic studies of chemical mechanisms by which selected microorganisms react with crude oils have led to the identification of biochemical markers characteristic of the interactions of microbes with oils. These biomarkers belong to several groups of natural products ranging from saturate and polyaromatic hydrocarbons containing heterocyclics to organometallic compounds. The biochemical conversions of oils can be monitored by these chemical markers, which are particularly useful in the optimization of biochemical processing, cost efficiency, and engineering studies. Recent results from these studies will be discussed in terms of biochemical technology for the processing of crude oils.

  6. Estimation of Dense Image Flow Fields in Fluids

    Larsen, Rasmus; Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    The estimation of flow fields from time sequences of satellite imagery has a number of important applications. For visualisation of cloud or sea ice movements in sequences of crude temporal sampling a satisfactory non-blurred temporal interpolation can be performed only when the flow field...... images. The estimated flow fields are used in a temporal interpolation scheme....

  7. Mazeikiu refinery to stay in Yukos' control / Steven Paulikas

    Paulikas, Steven


    Vene peaprokuratuur andis välja rahvusvahelise vahistamisorderi Mazheikiu Nafta juhatuse esimehe ja Jukose aktsionäri Mihhail Brudno suhtes. Leedu valitsus kaalub võimalikke samme, sealhulgas Mazheikiu Nafta aktsiate tagasiostmist

  8. Mazeikiu refinery to stay in Yukos' control / Steven Paulikas

    Paulikas, Steven


    Vene peaprokuratuur andis välja rahvusvahelise vahistamisorderi Mazheikiu Nafta juhatuse esimehe ja Jukose aktsionäri Mihhail Brudno suhtes. Leedu valitsus kaalub võimalikke samme, sealhulgas Mazheikiu Nafta aktsiate tagasiostmist

  9. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))


    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  10. Evaluation of biosurfactants for crude oil contaminated soil washing.

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay


    An evaluation of the ability of aqueous biosurfactant solutions (aescin, lecithin, rhamnolipid, saponin and tannin) for possible applications in washing crude oil contaminated soil was carried out. The biosurfactants behaviour in soil-water, water-oil and oil-soil systems (such as foaming, solubilization, sorption to soil, emulsification, surface and interfacial tension) was measured and compared with a well-known chemical surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) at varying concentrations. Results showed that the biosurfactants were able to remove significant amount of crude oil from the contaminated soil at different solution concentrations for instance rhamnolipid and SDS removed up to 80% oil and lecithin about 42%. The performance of water alone in crude oil removal was equally as good as those of the other biosurfactants. Oil removal was due to mobilization, caused by the reduction of surface and interfacial tensions. Solubilization and emulsification effects in oil removal were negligible due to the low crude oil solubilization of 0.11%. Therefore, these studies suggest that knowledge of surfactants' behaviour across different systems is paramount before their use in the practical application of oil removal.

  11. The stability of potassium iodate in crude table salt.



    An experiment carried out by the authors confirms that the addition, under commercial conditions, of potassium iodate to crude sea salt is a reliable method for the iodization of salt, a fact of particular significance to countries in which iodization by potassium iodide is unsatisfactory owing to adverse environmental conditions.

  12. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    Chavalparit, O.


    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  13. Upgrading of maatjes herring byproducts: production of crude fish oil

    Aidos, I.; Padt, van der A.; Boom, R.M.; Luten, J.B.


    Fish oil has been extracted from byproducts of the maatjes (salted) herring production using a pilot plant consisting of a mincer, heat exchanger, and three-phase decanter. The crude herring oil obtained had an initial peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV) and free fatty acids (FFA) level of onl

  14. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  15. Will Low Crude Oil Prices Cause a Global Recession?



    Full Text Available International crude oil market faces almost 2 years of sharp fall in benchmark crude oil prices (mainly Brent from $ 105.7 / barrel in June 2014 to $ 36 / barrel in December 2015 and a minimum of $ 27-28 / barrel (for the last 13 years, in January 2016. Several economists are raising the question whether low crude oil prices are a “growth factor or a curse” for the world economy, and whether they could even cause a recession. Opinions about the effects of the sharp decline, in world oil prices are divided. Some analysts say that such evolution is good for consumers, while others consider it is bad for the global economy. Low oil prices could create disadvantages by causing deflation. The risk is that deflationary expectations determine consumers to refrain from additional purchases in anticipation of even lower prices. This would lead to an excess of production capacity and to ample inventories that will force down the prices even further. When buyers’ suspicions are confirmed, they delay further consumption resulting in a vicious circle. Historically, plummeting crude oil prices have been perceived as a growth factor, especially in the net importing countries. But this has not yet been translated into tangible positive economic effects worldwide.

  16. Crude glycerol combustion: particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and ...

  17. Crude oil metabolites in groundwater at two spill sites

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Steenson, Ross; Thorn, Kevin A.


    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  18. Modelling conditional correlations for risk diversification in crude oil markets

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)


    textabstractThis paper estimates univariate and multivariate conditional volatility and conditional correlation models of spot, forward and futures returns from three major benchmarks of international crude oil markets, namely Brent, WTI and Dubai, to aid in risk diversification. Conditional correla

  19. Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Aqueous Extract of Pistia Stratiotes Leaves ...

    Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Aqueous Extract of Pistia Stratiotes Leaves (water lettuce) ... Pistia stratiotes is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat a various ... There were significant differences (based on T-test and p-values 141.32±0.82g and ...

  20. China Shows Concerns Over Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline


    @@ Russia's news media reported on September 3 that the Russian Natural Resources would finally give up the plan raised by Yugos,Russia's private oil producer, to construct the crude oil pipeline from Russia's Angarsk to China's Daqing. The Russian segment of the pipeline is about 1450 kilometers while the Chinese segment is 795 kilometers.

  1. Cracking conditions of crude oil under different geological environments


    There are mainly 3 kinds of existing states of oil generating from source rocks,that is,dispersive liquid hydrocarbon inside of source rock,dispersive liquid hydrocarbon outside of source rock and concentrated liquid hydrocarbon outside of source rock.Because of the differences in thermal history and medium conditions around,and the interaction of organic and inorganic matter,the liquid hydrocarbon with 3 kinds of existing state has different cracking conditions.The gas generation dynamics experiments of crude oil matching different mediums indicate that the distribution of activation energy of methane changes a lot according to medium difference.The carbonate has a main influence on oil cracking conditions and can largely reduce its activation energy,which reflects the lower cracking temperature of crude oil.The mudstone takes a second place and the sandstone is the smallest.The catalytic cracking function to the oil of the carbonate,of the mudstone and of the sandstone changes weaken in turn.The corresponding Ro values of main gas generation period in different mediums are as follows:1.5%―3.8%with pure crude oil,1.2%―3.2%with dispersive crude oil in carbonate,1.3%~3.4% with dispersive crude oil in mudstone and 1.4%―3.6%with dispersive crude oil in sandstone.The influence of pressure to crude oil cracking is relatively complicated.In the low heating speed condition, pressure restrains the oil cracking and gas generation,but in the high heating speed condition,pressure has an indistinctive influence to the oil cracking and gas generation.Pressure also makes a different effort in different evolvement stage.Taking the middle and lower Cambrian source rocks in the Tarim Basin as an example,primary oil generating quantity is 2232.24×10 8 t,residual oil and oil cracking gas quantity is 806.21×10 8 t and 106.95×10 12 m 3 respectively.

  2. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias


    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry.

  3. Effects of Shear Rate and Inhibitors on Wax Deposition of Malaysian Crude Oil

    N. Ridzuan


    Full Text Available Wax deposition can cause a serious problem in crude oil flow assurance, especially in deep water operation due to the long chain of n-paraffin. This paper examines the effects of two factors on the deposition process, which are shear rate and different types of inhibitors. 10 mL of four different types of wax inhibitors (cocamide diethanolamine (C-DEA, diethanolamine (DEA, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA and poly (maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene (MEA were injected into a crude oil vessel where the temperature of cold finger and water bath were set at 5°C and 50°C, respectively. The rotation speed was operated at different ranges between 0 and 600 rpm. From the result, it was found that the amount of total wax deposit decreased when shear rate increased. EVA showed a strong effect to inhibit wax formation with 33.33% reduction of wax deposit at 400 rpm as compared to other inhibitors.

  4. Production of biohydrogen from crude glycerol in an upflow column bioreactor.

    Dounavis, Athanasios S; Ntaikou, Ioanna; Lyberatos, Gerasimos


    A continuous attached growth process for the production of biohydrogen from crude glycerol was developed. The process consisted of an anaerobic up-flow column bioreactor (UFCB), packed with cylindrical ceramic beads, which constituted the support matrix for the attachment of bacterial cells. The effect of crude glycerol concentration, pH and hydraulic retention time on glycerol conversion, hydrogen yield and metabolite distribution was investigated. It was shown that the most critical parameter for the efficient bioconversion was the pH of the influent, whereas the hydrogen yield increased with an increase in feed glycerol concentration and a decrease in the hydraulic retention time. The main soluble metabolite detected was 1,3-propanediol in all cases, followed by butyric and hexanoic acids. The latter is reported to be produced from glycerol for the first time. Acidification of the waste reached 38.5%, and the maximum H2 productivity was 107.3 ± 0.7 L/kg waste glycerol at optimal conditions.

  5. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.


    of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open...

  6. Determination of diamondoids in crude oils using gas purge microsyringe extraction with comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Zhang, Wanfeng; Zhu, Shukui; Pang, Liling; Gao, Xuanbo; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Li, Donghao


    Based on a homemade device, gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) of crude oil samples was developed for the first time. As a simple, fast, low-cost, sensitive and solvent-saving technique, GP-MSE provides some outstanding advantages over the widely used sample preparation methods for crude oils such as column chromatography (ASTM D2549). Several parameters affecting extraction efficiency were optimized, including extraction temperature, extraction time, extraction solvent, condensing temperature and purge gas flow rate. With the optimized GP-MSE conditions, several real crude oil samples were extracted, and trace diamondoids were determined using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). In total, more than 100 diamondoids were detected and 27 marker compounds were identified and quantified accurately. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were less than 0.08μg/L for all diamondoids. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 8%, ranging from 1.1 to 7.6%. The linearity of the developed method was in the range of 0.5-100.0μg/L with correlation coefficients (R(2)) more than 0.996. The recoveries obtained at spiking 50μg/L were between 81 and 108% for diamondoids in crude oil samples. The developed method can also be extended to the analysis of other components in crude oils and other complex matrices.

  7. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    Du, Enpeng

    data that contains information on the properties of a sample. We can analyze the data acquisition from the detectors and get the information on size, shape, etc. This is why we choose SANS as our research tool. The world's top energy problems are security concerns, climate concerns and environmental concerns. So far, oil (37%) is still the No.1 fuel in world energy consumption (Oil 37%, Coal 25%, Bio-fuels 0.2%, Gas 23%, Nuclear 6%, Biomass 4%, Hydro 3%, Solar heat 0.5%, Wind 0.3%, Geothermal 0.2% and Solar photovoltaic 0.04%). Even more and more alternative energy: bio-fuels, nuclear and solar energy will be used in the future, but nuclear energy has a major safety issue after the Japanese Fukushima I nuclear accidents, and other energies contribute only a small percent. Thus, it is very important to improve the efficiency and reduce the population of petroleum products. There is probably one thing that we can all agree on: the world's energy reserves are not unlimited. Even though it is limited, only 30% of the oil reserves is conventional oil, so in order to produce, transport, and refine of heavy crude oil without wasting huge amounts of energy, we need to reduce the viscosity without using high temperature stream heating or diluent; As more and more off-shore oil is exploited at that we need reduce the viscosity without increasing temperature. The whole petroleum consumed in U.S. in 2009 was 18.7 million barrels per day and 35% of all the energy we consumed. Diesel is one of the very important fossil fuel which is about 20% of petroleum consumed. Most of the world's oils are non-conventional, 15 % of heavy oil, 25 % of extra heavy oil, 30 % of the oil sands and bitumen, and the conventional oil reserves is only 30%. The oil sand is closely related to the heavy crude oil, the main difference being that oil sands generally do not flow at all. For efficient energy production and conservation, how to lower the liquated fuel and crude oil viscosity is a very important

  8. Chronic Toxicity Study of 'I'he Effect of Crude Petroleum (Bonny ...

    Chronic Toxicity Study of 'I'he Effect of Crude Petroleum (Bonny Light), Kerosine and ... Blood Cell Counts (WBC) were used to assess the etlect of crude oil (bony light) .... some Aquatic Organism Chemical and Institution of ... communities.

  9. 75 FR 11841 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil)


    ... Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... petroleum (crude oil) and is used by licensing officers to determine the exporter's compliance with the five...

  10. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono


    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  11. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman; Sairah Hafeez Kamran; Mobasher Ahmad; Usman Akhtar


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum) in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg) showed significant (p


    fakhrus radifan


    Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Crude Palm Oil merupakan salah satu komoditas perkebunan ekspor unggulan yang mampu memberikan kontribusi dan sebagai salah...

  13. Process Considerations in the Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil

    Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.


    Biodesulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional hydrodesulfurization due to the mild operating conditions and reaction specificity afforded by the biocatalyst. The enzymatic pathway existing in Rhodococcus has been demonstrated to oxidatively desulfhrize the organic sulfbr occurring in dibenzothiophene while leaving the hydrocarbon intact. In order for biodesulfiization to realize commercial success, a variety of process considerations must be addressed including reaction rate, emulsion formation and breakage, biocatalyst recovery, and both gas and liquid mass transport. This study compares batch stirred to electro-spray bioreactors in the biodesulfurization of both model organics and actual crudes in terms of their operating costs, ability to make and break emulsions, ability to effect efficient reaction rates and enhance mass transport. Further, sulfim speciation in crude oil is assessed and compared to the sulfur specificity of currently available biocatalyst.

  14. Factors influencing crude oil biodegradation by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Tatiana Felix Ferreira


    Full Text Available Yarrowia lipolytica is unique strictly aerobic yeast with the ability to efficiently degrade hydrophobic substrates such as n-alkenes, fatty acids, glycerol and oils. In the present work, a 2(4 full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of the independent variables of temperature, agitation, initial cell concentration and initial petroleum concentration on crude oil biodegradation. The results showed that all variables studied had significant effects on the biodegradation process. Temperature, agitation speed and initial cell concentration had positive effects, and initial petroleum concentration had a negative effect. Among the crude oil removal conditions studied, the best temperature and agitation conditions were 28ºC and 250 rpm, respectively.

  15. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana


    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  16. Occurrence of phenylalkanes in some Australian Crude Oils and Sediments.

    Ellis, L.; Langworthy, T. A.; Winans, R.; Anderson, K. B.; Winans, R. E.; Chemistry; Curtin Univ. of Tech.; Univ. of South Dakota


    Evidence is presented to support the proposition that phenylalkanes in some Australian crude oils and sediments are of geochemical origin as opposed to resulting from contamination from byproducts of the petrochemical manufacture of surfactants. Evidence presented shows that: (1) an unexposed sediment core was found to contain phenylalkanes; (2) the molecular weight range of phenylalkanes in sediments and crude oils is usually wider than that found in surfactants, extending in some cases beyond C35; (3) abundant phenylalkanes were generated by pyrolysis of extracted sediments, and (4) phenylalkanes were found in the neutral lipid extract of extant Thermoplasma bacteria. Also, the presence of phenylalkanes and possibly phenylalkenes in the pyrolyzates of torbanites suggests that these compounds may also be formed from fossil algae.

  17. Wavelet regression model in forecasting crude oil price

    Hamid, Mohd Helmie; Shabri, Ani


    This study presents the performance of wavelet multiple linear regression (WMLR) technique in daily crude oil forecasting. WMLR model was developed by integrating the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The original time series was decomposed to sub-time series with different scales by wavelet theory. Correlation analysis was conducted to assist in the selection of optimal decomposed components as inputs for the WMLR model. The daily WTI crude oil price series has been used in this study to test the prediction capability of the proposed model. The forecasting performance of WMLR model were also compared with regular multiple linear regression (MLR), Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) using root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute errors (MAE). Based on the experimental results, it appears that the WMLR model performs better than the other forecasting technique tested in this study.


    Adam Przybyłowski


    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  19. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.


    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  20. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  1. Light scattering in Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion

    Adam Stelmaszewski


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the scattering of radiation by a Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion. The scattering spectrum calculated using the Mie solution in the spectral range from 380 nm to 730 nm is compared with the measured spectrum of light scattered through a right angle. Spectra in the wavelength range from 210 nm to 730 nm were measured using a spectrofluorimeter for fresh and stored samples of the Baltic crude oil emulsion. Scattering increases with wavelength in the UV range and then decreases slightly with the wavelength of visible light. The result of the calculation is similar to the measured spectra. Both the calculated and measured spectra display numerous relative extremes throughout the spectral area. Light scattering in the emulsion decreases during storage as the oil concentration in the medium diminishes. The results also demonstrate that the single scattering model describes the phenomenon correctly.

  2. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi


    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5% (v/v) crude...... glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive bioethanol...

  3. Cracking of crude oil in the molten metals

    Marat A. Glikin


    Full Text Available In this paper is investigated the process of crude oil and its individual fractions cracking in the molten metals medium to produce light petroleum products. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the possibility of using lead and tin including alloys thereof as the melt. The cracking of West Siberian crude oil is studied at temperatures 400-600 °C. It is detected that as the temperature increases there is increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins content in gasoline while naphthenes, n- and i-paraffins content reduces. Optimal temperature for cracking in molten metals is ~500 °C. The use of a submerged nozzle increases the yield of light petroleum products by ~2%. The research octane number of gasoline produced is 82-87 points. It is determined that the yield of light petroleum products depending on the experimental conditions is increased from 46.9 to 55.1-61.3% wt.   

  4. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  5. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike


    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  6. A new method for petroleum fractions and crude oil characterization

    Castells, F. (Univ. of Barcelono (ES)); Miquel, J. (Politechnic Univ. of Catalunya (ES)); Hernandez, J. (Repsol S.A. Co. (ES))


    In this paper a new procedure for petroleum fraction and crude oil characterization is proposed that is based on pseudocomponent breakdown by the integral method. The method requires only the atmospheric true-boiling-point (TBP) distillation curve and whole-fraction density. The pseudocomponents are obtained by sequentially applying an optimization procedure in which the mass balance is accomplished exactly and the molar-balance error is minimized.

  7. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;


    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  8. Suitability of Sour Crude Processing and Resid Hydrotreating Technologies

    Sun Lili


    This article has analyzed the environment and tasks confronting China's petroleum refining industry, and has referred to principles for selecting the resid processing technologies and viability of various combination technologies for resid processing. Taking into account the actual commercial practice of resid hydrogenation units, this article has also discussed methods for processing high-sulfur inferior crudes as well as the suitability of resid hydrogenation technology.

  9. Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    Steinmetz, Scott


    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic

  10. China Brings in More Crude Oil in 2006

    Wu Yan


    @@ Venezuela to increase oil export to China Venezuela plans to increase its oil sales to China by 50,000 barrels a day by the end of the year, the country's oil minister Rafael Ramirez said in mid-August. Venezuela's state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela SA, will increase sales to China to 200,000 barrels a day from the current 150,000 barrels per day. The shipments include crude and other products, such as fuel oil.

  11. Price dynamics of crude oil and the regional ethylene markets

    Masih, Mansur [Department of Finance and Economics, Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Algahtani, Ibrahim [Department of Finance and Economics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); De Mello, Lurion [Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia)


    This paper is the first attempt to investigate: (1) is the crude oil (WTI) price significantly related to the regional ethylene prices in the Naphtha intensive ethylene markets of the Far East, North West Europe, and the Mediterranean? (2) What drives the regional ethylene prices? The paper is motivated by the recent and growing debate on the lead-lag relationship between crude oil and ethylene prices. Our findings, based on the long-run structural modelling approach of Pesaran and Shin, and subject to the limitations of the study, tend to suggest: (1) crude oil (WTI) price is cointegrated with the regional ethylene prices (2) our within-sample error-correction model results tend to indicate that although the ethylene prices in North West Europe and the Mediterranean were weakly endogenous, the Far East ethylene price was weakly exogenous both in the short and long term. These results are consistent, during most of the period under review (2000.1-2006.4) with the surge in demand for ethylene throughout the Far East, particularly in China and South Korea. However, during the post-sample forecast period as evidenced in our variance decompositions analysis, the emergence of WTI as a leading player as well, is consistent with the recent surge in WTI price (fuelled mainly, among others, by the strong hedging activities in the WTI futures/options and refining tightness) reflecting the growing importance of input cost in determining the dynamic interactions of input and product prices. (author)

  12. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah


    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  13. Hydrogen isotope type-curves of very hot crude oils.

    Fekete, József; Sajgó, Csanád; Demény, Attila


    Several crude oil accumulations in the Pannonian Basin are trapped in uncommonly hot (>170°C) reservoirs. Their maturities range from mature to very mature on the basis of cracking parameters of their biological marker homologous series (ratio of products to reactants). A stable carbon isotopic study of these oils, poor in biological markers commonly used for correlation purposes, did not provide a reliable oil-to-oil correlation. As an alternative tool, the hydrogen isotope compositions of oil fractions separated on the basis of different polarities were measured, and hydrogen isotope type-curves were generated for a set of mature to very mature crude oil samples. This method of presenting hydrogen isotope composition of fractions as type-curves is novel. Nineteen samples (17 crude oils from SE-Hungary, 1 oil condensate and 1 artificial oil) were chosen for the present study. The aim was to examine the applicability of hydrogen isotope type-curves in oil-to-oil correlation and to test the simultaneous application of carbon and hydrogen isotope type-curves in the field of petroleum geochemistry. We have shown that, although the conventionally used co-variation plots proved to be inadequate for the correlation of these hot and mature oils, the simultaneous use of carbon and the newly introduced hydrogen isotope type-curves allows us to group and distinguish oils of different origins.

  14. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)


    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I


    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period.

  16. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    Hoffman, D.J.


    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  17. Experimental study of Iranian heavy crude oil viscosity reduction by diluting with heptane, methanol, toluene, gas condensate and naphtha

    Amir Hossein Saeedi Dehaghani


    Full Text Available Due to the high viscosity of heavy crude oils, production from these reservoirs is a demanding task. To tackle this problem, reducing oil viscosity is a promising approach. There are various methods to reduce viscosity of heavy oil: heating, diluting, emulsification, and core annular flow. In this study, dilution approach was employed, using industrial solvents and gas condensate. The viscosity of two Iranian heavy crude oils was measured by mixing with solvents at different temperatures. Dilution of both oil samples with toluene and heptane, resulted in viscosity reduction. However, their effect became less significant at higher concentrations of diluent. Because of forming hydrogen bonds, adding methanol to heavy crude oil resulted in higher viscosity. By adding condensate, viscosity of each sample reduced. Gas condensate had a greater impact on heavier oil; however, at higher temperatures its effect was reduced. Diluting with naphtha decreased heavy oil viscosity in the same way as n-heptane and toluene. Besides experimental investigation, different viscosity models were evaluated for prediction of heavy oil/solvent viscosity. It was recognized that Lederer' model is the best one.

  18. Vacuum distillation refining of crude lithium (Ⅱ)──Kinetics on vacuum distillation of crude lithium

    陈为亮; 柴立元; 闵小波; 杨斌; 戴永年; 于霞; 张传福


    Kinetics on vacuum refining process of crude lithium was studied by using maximum evaporation rate, critical pressure and mean free path of elements in the crude lithium at different temperatures. Behaviors of impurities in the vacuum distillation process have been examined in detail. The results show that fractional vacuum distillation should be taken to obtain lithium with high purity; if the mass loss amount of lithium is 3%~5%, metal K, Na, Mg and Ca can be eliminated at lower temperature of 673~873K at pressure of less than 1.30Pa; the maximum rate of lithium distillation reaches 1.492×10-1~8.244×10-1 g*cm-2*min-1 at higher temperature of 973~1073K at the pressure of 3.0~3.2Pa, which ensure complete separation of lithium from Al, Si, Fe and Ni.

  19. Value-added uses for crude glycerol--a byproduct of biodiesel production

    Yang Fangxia


    Full Text Available Abstract Biodiesel is a promising alternative, and renewable, fuel. As its production increases, so does production of the principle co-product, crude glycerol. The effective utilization of crude glycerol will contribute to the viability of biodiesel. In this review, composition and quality factors of crude glycerol are discussed. The value-added utilization opportunities of crude glycerol are reviewed. The majority of crude glycerol is used as feedstock for production of other value-added chemicals, followed by animal feeds.

  20. The Biodiversity Changes in the Microbial Population of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi


    Crude oil spills resulting from excavation, transportation and downstream processes can cause intensive damage to living organisms and result in changes in the microbial population of that environment. In this study, we used a pyrosequencing analysis to investigate changes in the microbial population of soils contaminated with crude oil. Crude oil contamination in soil resulted in the creation of a more homogenous population of microorganisms dominated by members of the Actinomycetales, Clostridiales and Bacillales (all belonging to Gram-positive bacteria) as well as Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales (all belonging to Gram-negative bacteria). These changes in the biodiversity decreased the ratios of chemoheterotrophic bacteria at higher concentrations of crude oil contamination, with these being replaced by photoheterotrophic bacteria, mainly Rhodospirillales. Several of the dominant microbial orders in the crude oil contaminated soils are able to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons and therefore are potentially useful for remediation of crude oil in contaminated sites.

  1. Daily Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using Hybridizing Wavelet and Artificial Neural Network Model

    Ani Shabri


    Full Text Available A new method based on integrating discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (WANN model for daily crude oil price forecasting is proposed. The discrete Mallat wavelet transform is used to decompose the crude price series into one approximation series and some details series (DS. The new series obtained by adding the effective one approximation series and DS component is then used as input into the ANN model to forecast crude oil price. The relative performance of WANN model was compared to regular ANN model for crude oil forecasting at lead times of 1 day for two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI and Brent crude oil spot prices. In both cases, WANN model was found to provide more accurate crude oil prices forecasts than individual ANN model.

  2. Hidden Markov Model and Forward-Backward Algorithm in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Talib Bon, Abdul; Isah, Nuhu


    In light of the importance of crude oil to the world's economy, it is not surprising that economists have devoted great efforts towards developing methods to forecast price and volatility levels. Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile such as economic, political and social. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid unforeseen circumstances towards economic activity. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2nd January to 29th May 2015. We used Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Forward-Backward Algorithm to forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using Maple software. Based on the study, we concluded that model (0 3 0) is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  3. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond


    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).


    Tobi Olasojiand


    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to investigate the short-term influence of U.S. crude oil inventories on WTI crude oil prices from 1993 to 2013. This study is important for policy makers who wish to reduce the persistent and growing price volatility of crude oil and its related products as well as businesses such as airline companies who wish to make annual budgetary sales decisions. Using OLS multiple regression, cointegration, VECM and Ex-post forecast techniques; we provide evidence of an inelastic relationship in which a 1% increase in U.S. crude oil inventories is associated with 0.46% decrease in WTI crude oil prices; however this was only valid for 22% of WTI crude oil price variation. We also find that past data on U.S. crude oil inventories could be used to predict future WTI crude oil prices movement. Contrary to literature, the results of the VECM analysis indicate there is no short-run relationship between both variables over the trajectory.

  5. Estimation of Dense Image Flow Fields in Fluids

    Larsen, Rasmus; Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    The estimation of flow fields from time sequences of satellite imagery has a number of important applications. For visualization of cloud or sea ice movements in sequences of crude temporal sampling a satisfactory non blurred temporal interpolation can be performed only when the flow field...... interpolation scheme....

  6. Electrochemical removal of metals from crude oil samples

    Welter, K.; Salazar, E.; Balladores, Y.; Marquez, O.P.; Marquez, J.; Martinez, Y. (Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101-Venezuela)


    Removal of vanadium from vanadyl (IV) meso-tetra-phenylporphyrin (VO-MTPP) and vanadyl (IV) octa-ethylporphyrin (VO-OEP) and metals removal from Ayacucho Venezuelan crude oil samples were performed using electrochemical techniques. According to cyclic voltammograms, a potential of - 2.3 V vs. Ag/AgNO{sub 3} (0.1 M), LiClO{sub 4} (0.1 M) in acetonitrile, was chosen for running electrolysis at platinum (Pt), graphite (G) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Qualitative analysis was done by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) while quantification was performed by AAS and inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Three stages (best results) of the study are reported: (a) when using commercial porphyrins; the best conditions for electrolysis were: tetrahydrofuran (THF)/20% methanol (MeOH)/1% perchloric acid (HClO{sub 4}) on GC, producing 84% hydro-demetalation (HDM) for VO-MTPP, and 78% HDM for VO-OEP; (b) when using extracts of crude oil; demetalation percentages, after 90 min of electrolysis, on graphite, and after 120 min of electrolysis on platinum, were 66.44% and 64.10% HDM respectively, no discrimination of metals under these conditions (c) from electrolysis in whole crude oil, quantitative analysis gave: vanadium (V) 31.2 mg/kg, iron (Fe) 65, 0 mg/kg and nickel (Ni) 6, 3 mg/kg, with charge efficiencies of V (7.5%), Fe (79.6%) and Ni (8.2%). (author)

  7. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.


    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  8. Hydrous pyrolysis of crude oil in gold-plated reactors

    Curiale, J.A.; Lundegard, P.D.; Kharaka, Y.K.


    Crude oils from Iraq and California have been pyrolyzed under hydrous conditions at 200 and 300??C for time periods up to 210 days, in gold-plated reactors. Elemental (vanadium, nickel), stable isotopic (carbon), and molecular (n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steranes, terpanes and aromatic steroid hydrocarbons) analyses were made on the original and pyrolyzed oils. Various conventional crude oil maturity parameters, including 20S/(20S + 20R)-24-ethylcholestane ratios and the side-chain-length distribution of aliphatic and aromatic steroidal hydrocarbons, were measured in an effort to assess the modification of molecular maturity parameters in clay-free settings, similar to those encountered in "clean" reservoirs. Concentrations of vanadium and nickel in the Iraq oil decrease significantly and the V/(V + Ni) ratio decreases slightly, with increasing pyrolysis time/temperature. Whole oil carbon isotope ratios remain fairly constant during pyrolysis, as do hopane/sterane ratios and carbon number distribution of 5??(H),14??(H),17??(H),20R steranes. These latter three parameters are considered maturity-invariant. The ratios of short side-chain components to long side-chain components of the regular steranes [C21/(C21 + C29R)] and the triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons [C21/(C21 + C28)] vary systematically with increasing pyrolysis time, indicating that these parameters may be useful as molecular maturity parameters for crude oils in clay-free reservoir rocks. In addition, decreases in bisnorhopane/hopane ratio with increasing pyrolysis time, in a clay-free and kerogen-free environment, suggest that the distribution of these compounds is controlled by either differential thermal stabilities or preferential release from a higher-molecular weight portion of the oil. ?? 1992.

  9. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas


    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values......-at-Risk are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting out-of-sample forecasts based on the simulations suggests that the GARCH method with implied volatility as explanatory variable captures the risk structure well....



    The direct upgrading process from heavy crude oil to sweet and light oil (IKC process) has been deve-loped for about 10 years in Idemitsu Kosan. Compared with conventional refinery scheme consisting of YR-HDS, VGOHYC and so on, the new refinery scheme combined with IKC process and Topper was always economically feasible with lower cost and smaller energy consumption. In the existing refinery of no middle distillate HDS and residue HDS of HYC plants to supplement IKC process is expected to be one of the efficient methods to cope with the environmental regulations.

  11. A Heuristic Approach for International Crude Oil Transportation Scheduling Problems

    Yin, Sisi; Nishi, Tatsushi; Izuno, Tsukasa

    In this paper, we propose a heuristic algorithm to solve a practical ship scheduling problem for international crude oil transportation. The problem is considered as a vehicle routing problem with split deliveries. The objective of this paper is to find an optimal assignment of tankers, a sequence of visiting and loading volume simultaneously in order to minimize the total distance satisfying the capacity of tankers. A savings-based meta-heuristic algorithm with lot sizing parameters and volume assignment heuristic is developed. The proposed method is applied to solve a case study with real data. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm compared with that of human operators.

  12. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V


    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  13. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas


    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values......-at-Risk are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting out-of-sample forecasts based on the simulations suggests that the GARCH method with implied volatility as explanatory variable captures the risk structure well....

  14. Process for Separation of Petroleum Acids from Crude Oil


    A new technique for separation of petroleum acids from crude oil was proposed. The method relates to processes for treating acidic oils or fractions thereof to reduce or eliminate their acidity by addition of effective amounts of crosslinked polymeric amines such as polypropylene amine and anionic exchange resins having amino-groups. Petroleum acids contained in the mixture can be extracted by a complex solvent. The results indicate that more than 80 % of the petroleum acids are removed and the process does not cause environmental pollution because all the solvents are recovered and reused in the test.

  15. Crude oil price analysis and forecasting based on variational mode decomposition and independent component analysis

    E, Jianwei; Bao, Yanling; Ye, Jimin


    As one of the most vital energy resources in the world, crude oil plays a significant role in international economic market. The fluctuation of crude oil price has attracted academic and commercial attention. There exist many methods in forecasting the trend of crude oil price. However, traditional models failed in predicting accurately. Based on this, a hybrid method will be proposed in this paper, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), independent component analysis (ICA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), called VMD-ICA-ARIMA. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence factors of crude oil price and predict the future crude oil price. Major steps can be concluded as follows: Firstly, applying the VMD model on the original signal (crude oil price), the modes function can be decomposed adaptively. Secondly, independent components are separated by the ICA, and how the independent components affect the crude oil price is analyzed. Finally, forecasting the price of crude oil price by the ARIMA model, the forecasting trend demonstrates that crude oil price declines periodically. Comparing with benchmark ARIMA and EEMD-ICA-ARIMA, VMD-ICA-ARIMA can forecast the crude oil price more accurately.

  16. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of crude extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Jawad; Ullah,Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad


    Background We investigated Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) for phenolic contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to rationalize its use in neurological disorders. Methods Plant crude extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions: n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq) and saponins (Ph.Sp) were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)...

  17. Dispersion Properties of NMR Relaxation for Crude Oil

    Xie Ranhong; Xiao Lizhi


    Special requirements for design of tools used for wireline NMR logging and NMR logging while drilling and for interpretation model are demanded due to the dispersion properties of NMR relaxation for crude oil.NMR longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and transverse relaxation time (T2) of the dead oil samples with different viscosities were measured by NMR spectrometers with a Larmor frequency of 2 MHz and 23 MHz at five different temperatures respectively.The results showed that T1 was obviously dependent on the Larmor frequency of NMR spectrometer.The degree of T1 dispersion became stronger with the increasing crude oil viscosity,Larmor frequency and the viscosity/temperature ratio.T2 was independent of NMR spectrometer measuring frequency.It is suggested that the resonance frequency should be selected lower than 2 MHz when measuring T1 in logging while-drilling and that T1 dispersion should be corrected when Larmor frequency is higher than 2 MHz.

  18. Protocol for testing bioremediation products against weathered Alaskan crude oil

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Nisamaneepong, W.; Govind, R.; Pradhan, S.


    In the summer of 1989, EPA and Exxon Corp. conducted a joint field study to determine if natural biodegradation of the Prudoe Bay crude oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez could be accelerated by application of oleophilic and water soluble fertilizers. Numerous private firms have since submitted proposals to have their microbial products tested for bioremediation enhancement. EPA commissioned the National Environmental Technology Applications Corporation (NETAC) to coordinate an effort to select and test commercial products for efficacy against Alaskan crude oil. A panel of experts was assembled to review the proposals, and nine products were selected for the first tier of testing. The experiments were conducted at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati. Three lines of evidence were used to select the final products for further testing: cumalative oxygen uptake via electrolytic respirometry, microbial growth, and compositional analysis of treated oil by GC and GC/MS. The commercial products were compared against oleophilic and inorganic fertilizers in a comprehensive protocol incorporating sterile and non-sterile controls. Respirometric vessels and shaker flask microcosms were set up for the comparative testing using weathered oil and natural seawater from Prince William Sound. The paper presents the protocol, the test results, and conclusions derived from the study.

  19. Laboratory experiment on bioremediation of crude oil by microbial consortium

    Bao, M.; Wang, L. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Cao, L.; Sun, P. [State Ocean Administration, Qingdao, Shandong (China). North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center


    Bioremediation has been touted as a promising method to remove oil from seawater. Studies have shown that 4 bacteria N1, N2, N3 and N4, isolated from seawater and oil-polluted coastal sediments in Qingdao Port, have a strong ability to degrade crude oil. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted based on the microbial remediation functions of the bacterium flora. This paper reported on a study in which shake flask experiments were used to investigate the degradation conditions of the 4 strains. The flask tests were followed by small model basin tests where 4 strains were applied to the simulated marine environment. In the model basin test, the biodegradation rate reached 86.22 per cent. In the simulation experiment, the crude oil was analyzed by gas chromatography before and after biodegradation. The study showed that shake flask experiments provided better biodegradation conditions for the bacteria, resulting in high degradation rates. The 3 stages of laboratory-scale studies produced very similar biodegradation trends, although the degradation rate decreased slightly. It was concluded that the predominant flora chosen for this study may be feasible in treating contaminated sea water. 19 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  20. Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity

    Changhyun Roh


    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  1. Effect of biodegradation on steranes and terpanes in crude oils

    Seifert, W.K.; Moldowan, J.M.


    Steranes and terpanes biodegrade at a slower rate than isoprenoids and survive moderate biodegradation. Heavy biodegradation results in destruction of regular steranes, survival of diasteranes (20R better than 20S) and tricyclic terpanes and transformation of hopanes to Ring A/B demethylated hopanes. These survivors can be used as source fingerprints in biodegraded crudes. The structure of predominant steranes in undegraded to moderately degraded fossil fuels was proven to be 14..beta..,17..beta..(H) (20R + S) by molecular spectroscopy. These compounds plus the 20S epimers of regular 5..cap alpha..-steranes (20R) were identified as major constituents and their 5..beta..-counterparts as minor components in a cholestane isomerizate (300/sup 0/C, Pt on C), allowing assessment of relative thermodynamic stabilities. An observed increase of optical activity in heavily degraded crudes from three different basins is interpreted to be the result of bacterial transformation of terpanes and steranes to new optically active species plus enrichment of the latter by n + isoparaffin depletion rather than total bacterial synthesis. Diagnostic ion profiling by GC-MS-C is a convenient tool for surveying the relative abundance of individual diasteranes and regular steranes plus distinguishing epimeric and ring skeletal isomeric series in complex fossil fuel mixtures. A new practical method of determining the absolute quantities of individual steranes by spiking with 5..beta..-cholane and integration of mass chromatograms is described. 6 tables; 6 figures.

  2. Accurate quantification of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract spectrophotometrically

    Li, Yeguang; Miao, Fengping; Geng, Yahong; Lu, Dayan; Zhang, Chengwu; Zeng, Mingtao


    The influence of alkali on astaxanthin and the optimal working wave length for measurement of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract were investigated, and a spectrophotometric method for precise quantification of the astaxanthin based on the method of Boussiba et al. was established. According to Boussiba's method, alkali treatment destroys chlorophyll. However, we found that: 1) carotenoid content declined for about 25% in Haematococcus fresh cysts and up to 30% in dry powder of Haematococcus broken cysts after alkali treatment; and 2) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-extracted chlorophyll of green Haematococcus bares little absorption at 520-550 nm. Interestingly, a good linear relationship existed between absorbance at 530 nm and astaxanthin content, while an unknown interference at 540-550 nm was detected in our study. Therefore, with 530 nm as working wavelength, the alkali treatment to destroy chlorophyll was not necessary and the influence of chlorophyll, other carotenoids, and the unknown interference could be avoided. The astaxanthin contents of two samples were measured at 492 nm and 530 nm; the measured values at 530 nm were 2.617 g/100 g and 1.811 g/100 g. When compared with the measured values at 492 nm, the measured values at 530 nm decreased by 6.93% and 11.96%, respectively. The measured values at 530 nm are closer to the true astaxanthin contents in the samples. The data show that 530 nm is the most suitable wave length for spectrophotometric determination to the astaxanthin in Haematococcus crude extract.

  3. Forecasting Crude Oil Price with Multiscale Denoising Ensemble Model

    Xia Li


    Full Text Available Crude oil price becomes more volatile and sensitive to increasingly diversified influencing factors with higher level of deregulations worldwide. Current methodologies are being challenged as they have been constrained by traditional approaches assuming homogeneous time horizons and investment strategies. Approximations they provided over the long term time horizon no longer satisfy the accuracy requirement at shorter term and more microlevels. This paper proposes a novel crude oil price forecasting model based on the wavelet denoising ARMA models ensemble by least square support vector regression with the reduced forecasting matrix dimensions by independent component analysis. The proposed methodology combines the multi resolution analysis and nonlinear ensemble framework. The wavelet denoising based algorithm is introduced to separate and extract the underlying data components with distinct features, corresponding to investors with different investment scales, which are modeled with time series models of different specifications and parameters. Then least square support vector regression is introduced to nonlinearly ensemble results based on different wavelet families to further reduce the estimation biases and improve the forecasting generalizability. Empirical studies show the significant performance improvement when the proposed model is tested against the bench-mark models.

  4. Distribution and evolution of isoprenoid in crude oil

    Shanfa, F.; Shanchun, J.; Fenfang, X.


    By means of chromatography-mass spectrography and gas chromatography, isoprenoids (i15-i20) have been identified in 49 crude oil samples and 3 rock samples from oil fields in Shengli, Huabei, Subei, Dagang, Liaohe and Daqing and also from Sichuan, Gueizhou etc. The relative contents, in percentage of phytane (Ph), pristane (Pr), norpristane (i18), 2.6.10-trimethyl-tridecane (i16) and farnesane (i15) are determined, as well as the ratios of Pr/Ph, Pr/nC/sub 17/, Ph/nC/sub 18/ and i18 + i16 + i15/Ph + Pr. The curves of the relative contents of Ph, Pr, i18, i16 and i15 may show the character of different oils, useful for correlation purposes. The evolution of isoprenoids in crude oils is divided into sub-mature stage (Pr/Ph < 0.8, i18 + i16 + i15/Ph + Pr = 0.2 - 0.5); mature stage (Pr/Ph > 0.8, i18 + i16 + i15/Ph + Pr = 0.3 - 0.6) and highly mature stage (Pr/Ph > 1.0, i18 + i16 + i15/Ph + Pr > 0.6). 4 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    Lee, Yen-Hsien [Department of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University (China); Hu, Hsu-Ning [Department of Money, Banking and Finance, TamKang University (China); Chiou, Jer-Shiou [Department of Finance and Banking, Shih Chien University, 70 Ta-Chih Street, Taipei 104 (China)


    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  6. Determination of impurities in crude light pyridine bases

    Novikov, E.G.; Tsaur, A.G.; Lisina, L.A.; Dybkin, P.A.


    Hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and phenols are always products of coal pyrolysis. In addition the coke oven gas contains carbon disulfide. The simultaneous presence of ammonia and carbon disulfide leads inevitably to the formation of thiocyanates in the entire recovery system before the saturator, and particularly in the ammonia liquor. All these compounds may be expected to be present in the crude light pyridine bases (CLPB). This causes corrosion of the equipment and reduces the photostability of the final process products. The ability of the phenols to form high boiling point azeotropes with the bases reduces the ..beta..-picoline fraction yield. For these reasons the presence of the stated impurities in the CLPB is undesirable. In the present work an estimate has been made of the average annual concentration of phenols, cyanides, thiocyanates and chlorides in the crude light pyridine bases of all the plants supplying this material in the Eastern USSR. The table shows only the mean values of the concentrations for each component in the samples of the individual plants, and also those for water.

  7. Fatty acid fragmentation of triacylglycerol isolated from crude nyamplung oil

    Aparamarta, Hakun Wirawasista; Anggraini, Desy; Istianingsih, Della; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu; Gunawan, Setiyo


    Nyamplung (Calophylluminophyllum) has many benefits ranging from roots, stems, leaves, until seeds. In this seed, C. inophyllum contained significantly high amount of crude oil (70.4%). C. inophyllum oil is known as non edible. Therefore Indonesian people generally only know that seeds can produce oil that can be used for biodiesel. In this work, the fragmentation of fatty acid in triacylglycerols (TAG) was studied. The isolation process was started with separation of non polar lipid fraction (NPLF) from crude C. inophyllum oil via batchwise multistage liquid extraction. TAG was obtained in high purity (99%) and was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). It was found that fatty acids of TAG are palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1c), linoleic acid (C18:2c), and linolenic acid (C18:3c). Moreover, TAG isolated from C. inophyllum oil was promising as edible oil.

  8. Pollution-reduced Kjeldahl method for crude protein.

    Rexroad, P R; Cathey, R D


    Pollution from the Kjeldahl method for crude protein has been reduced by substituting a low level of copper (0.04 g CuSO4) for the mercury (0.7 g HgO) specified in the AOAC official method, 2.049. Adjustments were made in the salt-acid ratio so the new system could handle hard-to-digest samples in a reasonable time. The new method was rugged for lysine. HCl. It is designed to be used for crude protein in feeds or similar Kjeldahl work. Precision and accuracy were equal to or better than that for the official method in a study of 17 samples analyzed in duplicate on 3 different days. The following samples were used in the study: lysine. HCl, tryptophan, NBS standards, urea, meals, mixed feeds, grains, and forage. The average per cent nitrogen found was 9.52 by the official method and 9.53 by the copper method. The average standard deviation was 0.038 by the official method and 0.033 by the copper method, giving the corresponding relative standard deviations of 0.40 and 0.35%.

  9. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato


    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

  10. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.ed [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Yu, Cindy L., E-mail: cindyyu@iastate.ed [Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, IA (United States); Hayes, Dermot J., E-mail: dhayes@iastate.ed [Department of Economics and Department of Finance, Iowa State University, IA (United States)


    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  11. Modeling the global market for crude oil and forecasting the price: a comprehensive study

    Behmiri, Niaz Badhiri


    Crude oil prices before 1970 were under control by multinational monopolist oil companies; from 1970 to 1986 OPEC administered pricing system determined crude oil prices; and from 1986 to the present, crude oil prices are determined by a market-linked pricing mechanism or demand-to-supply ratio, taking in account a set of many other factors, such as economic, political, financial, technological, meteorological and oil reserves. As in a market-linked pricing mechanism, the main determinant fac...

  12. Diagnostic Flow Metering using Ultrasound Tomography

    Chun, Sejong; Yoon, Byung-Ro; Lee, Kwang-Bock; Paik, Jong-Seung


    Flow meters, which are used for transferring water or crude oil through pipelines, require well-defined flow conditions for accurate flow rate monitoring. Even though all the installation conditions for the flow meters are satisfied, there could be unexpected flow disturbances, such as abrupt increase of upstream pressure, affecting on the performance of flow meters. To investigate any differences between measured and actual flow rates, flow velocity profiles inside the pipeline must be known. Ultrasound tomography is a means of reconstructing flow profiles from line-averaged velocities by Radon transformation. Diagnostic parameters are then extracted from the reconstructed flow profiles to give information whether the flow conditions are appropriate for accurate flow metering. In the present study, flow profiles downstream of a mass flow meter and a butterfly valve are reconstructed. Flow diagnostic parameters are defined using statistical moments such as mean value, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. The measured diagnostic parameters in the above-mentioned flow conditions are compared with those of fully-developed laminar and turbulent flow profiles to validate their usefulness.

  13. Comparative Toxicity of Different Crude Oils on the Cardiac Function of Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma Embryo

    Zhendong Zhang


    Full Text Available The acute toxic effect of different crude oils (heavy crude oil and bonny light crude oil on embryos of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma was measured and evaluated by exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF in the present study. The cardiac function of medaka embryos was used as target organ of ecotoxicological effect induced by oil exposure. Results showed that the developing marine medaka heart was a sensitive target organ to crude oil exposure the heavy crude oil WAF was more toxic to cardiac function of medaka embryos than bonny light cured oil one. Cardiac function of medaka embryos was clearly affected by exposure to heavy crude oil WAF after 24 hours exposure and showed a dose-dependent slowing of heart rate. Furthermore, swelled and enlarged heart morphology, lowered blood circulation and accumulation of blood cells around the heart area were found. However, the toxic effect of bonny light crude oil on cardiac function of medaka embryos was comparatively low. Statistical results showed that the cardiac function was only affected by highest bonny light crude oil WAF (9.8 mg/L exposure treatment. These findings indicated that cardiac function of marine medaka embryo was a good toxicity model for oil pollution and could be used to compare and evaluate the toxicity of different crude oils. The heart rate was an appropriate endpoint in the acute toxicity test.

  14. What does the convenience yield curve tell us about the crude oil market?

    Alquist, Ron; Gregory H. Bauer; Díez de los Ríos, Antonio


    Using the prices of crude oil futures contracts, we construct the term structure of crude oil convenience yields out to one-year maturity. The crude oil convenience yield can be interpreted as the interest rate, denominated in barrels of oil, for borrowing a single barrel of oil, and it measures the value of storing crude oil over the borrowing period. We show that the convenience yield curve is well explained by a level and a slope factor. Consistent with the theory of storage, convenience y...

  15. Market structure and exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas and crude oil in California

    Czastkiewicz, Carolina

    Using a dataset of natural gas and crude oil production in the state of California, evidence shows overextraction incentives among market participants that shared a common pool. Due to these incentives the supply of gas and crude oil extraction tends to become more inelastic as the number of firms in the pool increases. Using an instrumental variables estimation of the supply function, the results show that the common pool externality caused an average overproduction rate of 11% and 4% over the 1977--2001 period, in natural gas and crude oil, respectively. These figures imply 1 year and 4 years of additional production for natural gas and crude oil, respectively.

  16. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan


    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Optimization of China Crude Oil Transportation Network with Genetic Ant Colony Algorithm

    Yao Wang


    Full Text Available Taking into consideration both shipping and pipeline transport, this paper first analysed the risk factors for different modes of crude oil import transportation. Then, based on the minimum of both transportation cost and overall risk, a multi-objective programming model was established to optimize the transportation network of crude oil import, and the genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were employed to solve the problem. The optimized result shows that VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier is superior in long distance sea transportation, whereas pipeline transport is more secure than sea transport. Finally, this paper provides related safeguard suggestions on crude oil import transportation.

  18. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas


    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... of the biodegradable commercial kinetic inhibitor (Luvicap-Bio) on natural gas hydrate formation with and without crude oil (30%) was investigated. The strength of kinetic inhibitor was not affected by salts, but decreased significantly in the presence of crude oil. Data for hydrate formation at practical conditions...... can contribute to the safe operation of sub sea pipelines in the oil and gas industry....

  19. Benzene exposure on a crude oil production vessel

    Kirkeleit, J; Riise, T.; Bratveit, M.; Moen, B.E. [University of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Public Health and Primary Health Care


    Objectives: The aim was to describe the personal exposure to benzene on a typical crude oil production vessel and to identify factors influencing the exposure level. Methods: The study population included process operators, deck workers, mechanics and contractors on a production vessel in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The personal exposure to benzene during ordinary activity, during a short shutdown and during tank work was monitored using organic vapour passive dosimeter badges (3MTM3500). Information on the tasks performed on the day of sampling was recorded. Exposure was assessed by grouping the measurements according to job category, mode of operation and the tasks performed on the sampling day. Univariate analysis of variance was used to test the differences between the groups. Results: Forty-two workers participated in the exposure assessment, comprising a total of 139 measurements. The arithmetic and geometric mean of benzene exposure for all measurements was 0.43 and 0.02 p.p.m., respectively. Twenty-five measurements (18%) were below the limit of detection (0.001 p.p.m.), while ten samples (7%) exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 0.6 p.p.m. The geometric mean exposure was 0.004 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.003-0.006) during ordinary activity, 0.01 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.005-0.02) during shutdown and 0.28 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.16-0.49) during tank work. Workers performing annual cleaning and maintenance of tanks containing crude oil or residues of crude oil had higher levels of exposure than workers performing other tasks, including work near open hydrocarbon-transport systems (all P < 0.001). However, because of the mandatory use of respirators, the actual personal benzene exposure was lower. The job categories explained only 5% of the variance in exposure, whereas grouping by mode of operation explained 54% of the variance and grouping by task 68%. Conclusion: The results show that, although benzene exposure during ordinary and high activity seems to be low in

  20. Crude oil biodegradation by a mixed bacterial culture

    Van Hamme, J.D.


    Mixed cultures with broad substrate specificity usually form the basis for biological methods used for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated wastes. Bow River crude oil was used as a model substrate for the study of microbe-microbe and microbe-substrate interactions in batch fermentation systems. Substrate availability limited the mixed-bacterial culture due to hydrocarbon insolubility. A method of improving biodegradation through the use of chemical surfactants was tested. A hydrophile-lipophile balance of 13 led to optimum enhancement at supra-critical micellization concentrations not exceeding a critical level, as indicated by the results of a detailed study with nonylphenol ethoxylates. A broad variety of trypticase soy agar-culturable bacteria was contained in the culture. Initially, Pseudomonas Flavimonas and Stenotrophomonas spp. dominated in the fermentations with different hydrocarbon mixtures. The lag time of Stenotrophomonas sp. and exposure to Bow River saturates selected for an Acinetobacter calcoacetius strain were increased by a chemical surfactant. Following prolonged incubation, a greater variety of mainly non-hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated in each case. Low molecular weight volatile hydrocarbons were degraded in closed systems and the greatest activity from the culture occurred against the saturate and aromatic fractions. To monitor volatile hydrocarbon degradation in live cultures at 30 degrees Celsius, a rapid and sensitive solid phase microextraction methodology was developed. Only the cultures grown on crude oil in sealed flasks, or in open flasks amended with yeast extract retained their volatile hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities. Correlated with reduced proportions of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in biodegradation flasks, metabolic capacity decreased with inoculum age. The degradation hierarchy and chemical surfactant effects were confirmed by pure and co-culture studies. The presence of a chemical surfactant

  1. Seasonal variations of some physicochemical parameters of groundwater in crude oil flow stations

    Inengite A.K.


    Full Text Available Groundwater quality monitoring of some oil locations in the Niger Delta were investigated in order to establish the influence of oil production and storage activities on the groundwater quality of these areas. Water samples were collected from groundwater monitoring boreholes, monthly for twenty four months, during the operational phase of the facilities and evaluated. Analytical techniques employed were those specified by the Department of Petroleum Resources and American Public Health Association. The physicochemical parameters analysed were temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, chloride, total hardness, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and dissolved oxygen. Results obtained indicated that temperature, showed no significant difference for both seasons at P<0.05 using the students t- test, while conductivity, chloride and total hardness showed significantly higher values in the dry than in the rainy season. While pH, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen (DO and turbidity showed higher values in the rainy than in the dry season. The mean values ranged from 24.0 to 27.90C for temperature which showed no significant difference between rainy and dry season at P<0.05 confidence limit. pH values for the groundwater ranged from 4.83 to 7.99, indicating that some locations were more acidic than the FMENV and WHO standards of 6.5 to 8.5. Conductivity ranged from 38.22 to 241.776µS/cm, chloride 7.14 to 39.17mg/l, DO 1.98 to 6.23mg/l, turbidity 0.11 to 5.45NTU and total hardness 9.06 to 64.75mg/l. The nutrient values of the samples ranged from 0.75 to 33.64mg/l for sulphate, 0.22 to 3.84mg/l for phosphate and 0.11 to 3.54mg/l for nitrate. All these were within permissible limits for domestic water acceptability. Although, the concentration of some parameters fell within the acceptable limits, these sources of water may be unacceptable for potable and industrial uses without treatment.

  2. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj


    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  3. Effects of crude oil ingestion on avian intestinal function

    Eastin, W.C.; Murray, H.C.


    Intestinal function in mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) on a freshwater regime was studied after a 7-day dietary ingestion of 0.25% and 2.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) or a 2.5% paraffin mixture with an in vivo luminal perfusion technique. Dietary ingestion of 2.5% PBCO may have an effect on the integrity of the duckling intestine. There were no significant effects of PBCO on the absorption of Na, Cl, K, or H2O compared with control animals. The ducklings fed 2.5% paraffin had a significant depression in Na and H2O absorption compared with controls. However, this depression dose not seem to be related to an effect on intestinal mucosa Na-K-ATPase activity.

  4. Tidal interactions - crude body model in dynamical investigations

    Gabryszewski, Ryszard


    The paper presents results of investigations of small bodies dynamics in a vicinity of giant planets. We used the most simple body model: gravitationally bounded, rotating contact binary affected by the tidal force acting from a planet. Spin variations of such binaries were extensively studied during planetary close encounters. Two main types of dynamical behaviour were observed: (i) huge but interim fluctuations of the angular velocity and (ii) permanent changes of a rotation during a close approach. The first type is observed mainly for fast rotators, while the second one was encountered in a population of slowly spinning objects with periods longer than 12 hours. Conclusions on usability of such crude physical body models in dynamical investigations and a comparison to previous results were attached. The results allow us to formulate a thesis explaining the phenomenon of creation of the extremely slow rotators and an observational excess of such type of objects.

  5. Extreme-volatility dynamics in crude oil markets

    Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zheng, Bo; Qiu, Tian; Ren, Fei


    Based on concepts and methods from statistical physics, we investigate extreme-volatility dynamics in the crude oil markets, using the high-frequency data from 2006 to 2010 and the daily data from 1986 to 2016. The dynamic relaxation of extreme volatilities is described by a power law, whose exponents usually depend on the magnitude of extreme volatilities. In particular, the relaxation before and after extreme volatilities is time-reversal symmetric at the high-frequency time scale, but time-reversal asymmetric at the daily time scale. This time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by exogenous events. However, the dynamic relaxation after exogenous events exhibits the same characteristics as that after endogenous events. An interacting herding model both with and without exogenous driving forces could qualitatively describe the extreme-volatility dynamics.

  6. Geochemical characteristics of crude oils from the Cuyo Basin, Argentina

    Villar, H.J. (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Puettmann, W. (RWTH, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle)


    Crude oils from the Triassic Cuyo Basin are thought to be derived from a fresh-water lacustrine source rock, mainly the Upper Triassic organic-rich shales of Cacheuta Fm. By means of GC and GC-MS methods, the oils were analysed for characteristics compounds which may reflect biological input to the source sediments and maturity variations. Pristane/phytane ratios, distributions of n-alkanes, and the presence of significant amounts of bacteriohopanoid-derived compounds (hopanes, 8,14-secohopanes, 8,14-monoaromatic secohopanoids, benzohopanes) together with bicyclic sesquiterpanes in all the samples studied, are taken as an indication of possible reworking of algal organic matter by bacteria. Sterane distributions were consistent with a lacustrine origin of the oils. (author)

  7. Formation of chocolate mousse from Statfjord crude oil and seawater

    Thingstad, T.; Pengerud, B.


    Physical factors affecting the formation of water-in-oil emulsions ('chocolate mousse') from crude Statfjord oil was investigated in the laboratory. Irradiation by visible light and mechanical agitation are shown to be essential. It is suggested that photochemical oxidation of oil components leads to the formation of surface-active, oil-soluble compounds. When these reach a sufficient concentration in the oil, water will be retained within the oil during physical mixing. The plausibility of such a mechanism is investigated further using additions of tetradecanal as an oil-soluble, surface-active agent and ..beta..-carotene as an inhibitor of photooxidation. The use of additives to stop 'mousse' formation is suggested.

  8. Waxes in asphaltenes of crude oils and wax deposits

    Yulia M. Ganeeva


    Full Text Available Abstract Composition and molecular mass distribution of n-alkanes in asphaltenes of crude oils of different ages and in wax deposits formed in the borehole equipment were studied. In asphaltenes, n-alkanes from C12 to C60 were detected. The high molecular weight paraffins in asphaltenes would form a crystalline phase with a melting point of 80–90 °C. The peculiarities of the redistribution of high molecular paraffin hydrocarbons between oil and the corresponding wax deposit were detected. In the oils, the high molecular weight paraffinic hydrocarbons C50–C60 were found, which were not practically detected in the corresponding wax deposits.

  9. Processing emulsions from desalting of crude oil using centrifuges

    Steiger, W.; Westenthanner, F.; Reichl, J. [Flottweg GmbH und Co. KGaA, Vilsbiburg (Germany)


    Crude oil directly from the well contains brine. This brine is separated using static settling in tanks. Thereby a layer of emulsion is built up in the interface between oil and the brine, which reduces the available tank volume and makes the separation process difficult. In order to break the emulsion there are several approaches, e.g., use of emulsion breaker, treatment using electrical field, ultra sonic, microwave, etc., This article describes a successful commissioning of a centrifuge, a FLOTTWEG, TRICANTER {sup registered}, in the ural-central region. The FLOTTWEG TRICANTER {sup registered} enables a continuous 3-phase-separation, i. e., separation of the emulsion into oil, water and solids without chemical additives. (orig.)

  10. Crude-oil biodegradation via methanogenesis in subsurface petroleum reservoirs.

    Jones, D M; Head, I M; Gray, N D; Adams, J J; Rowan, A K; Aitken, C M; Bennett, B; Huang, H; Brown, A; Bowler, B F J; Oldenburg, T; Erdmann, M; Larter, S R


    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely affected the majority of the world's oil, making recovery and refining of that oil more costly. The prevalent occurrence of biodegradation in shallow subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been attributed to aerobic bacterial hydrocarbon degradation stimulated by surface recharge of oxygen-bearing meteoric waters. This hypothesis is empirically supported by the likelihood of encountering biodegraded oils at higher levels of degradation in reservoirs near the surface. More recent findings, however, suggest that anaerobic degradation processes dominate subsurface sedimentary environments, despite slow reaction kinetics and uncertainty as to the actual degradation pathways occurring in oil reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments in microcosms monitoring the hydrocarbon composition of degraded oils and generated gases, together with the carbon isotopic compositions of gas and oil samples taken at wellheads and a Rayleigh isotope fractionation box model, to elucidate the probable mechanisms of hydrocarbon degradation in reservoirs. We find that crude-oil hydrocarbon degradation under methanogenic conditions in the laboratory mimics the characteristic sequential removal of compound classes seen in reservoir-degraded petroleum. The initial preferential removal of n-alkanes generates close to stoichiometric amounts of methane, principally by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Our data imply a common methanogenic biodegradation mechanism in subsurface degraded oil reservoirs, resulting in consistent patterns of hydrocarbon alteration, and the common association of dry gas with severely degraded oils observed worldwide. Energy recovery from oilfields in the form of methane, based on accelerating natural methanogenic biodegradation, may offer a route to economic production of difficult-to-recover energy from oilfields.

  11. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    Iyerusalimskiy, A.; Noble, P. [ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX (United States)


    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  12. Accurate quantification of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract spectrophotometrically

    LI Yeguang; MIAO Fengping; GENG Yahong; LU Dayan; ZHANG Chengwu; ZENG Mingtao


    The influence of alkali on astaxanthin and the optimal working wave length for measurement of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract were investigated,and a spectrophotometric method for precise quantification of the astaxanthin based on the method of Boussiba et al.was established.According to Boussiba's method,alkali treatment destroys chlorophyll.However,we found that:1) carotenoid content declined for about 25% in Haematococcus fresh cysts and up to 30% in dry powder of Haematococcus broken cysts after alkali treatment; and 2) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-extracted chlorophyll of green Haematococcus bares little absorption at 520-550 nm.Interestingly,a good linear relationship existed between absorbance at 530 nm and astaxanthin content,while an unknown interference at 540-550 nm was detected in our study.Therefore,with 530 nm as working wavelength,the alkali treatment to destroy chlorophyll was not necessary and the influence of chlorophyll,other carotenoids,and the unknown interference could be avoided.The astaxanthin contents of two samples were measured at 492 nm and 530 nm; the measured values at 530 nm were 2.617 g/100 g and 1.811 g/100 g.When compared with the measured values at 492 nm,the measured values at 530 nm decreased by 6.93% and 11.96%,respectively.The measured values at 530 nm are closer to the true astaxanthin contents in the samples.The data show that 530 nm is the most suitable wave length for spectrophotometric determination to the astaxanthin in Haematococcus crude extract.

  13. [Characterization of compounds in crude oils by gas purge micro-syringe extraction coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography].

    Tong, Ting; Zhang, Wanfeng; Li, Donghao; Zhao, Jinhua; Chang, Zhenyang; Gao, Xuanbo; Dai, Wei; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui


    A novel sample pretreatment method, gas purge micro-syringe extraction (GP- MSE), coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOFMS) has been developed for the characterization of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in crude oils. In the sample pretreatment process, the analytes were carried to the microsyringe barrel by inert gas, and at the same time, trapped by an organic solvent. The whole process of extraction takes less than 10 min, and only 20 μL of organic solvent was needed. Using two custom standard solutions containing alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the influences of the extraction conditions were investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: 5 mg crude oil, 20 μL hexane (extraction solvent), extraction for 3 min at 300 °C, condensation temperature set at -2 °C, gas flow rate set at 2 mL/min. Under the optimized conditions, a real crude oil sample was extracted and then analyzed in detail. It showed that the proposed method was very effective in simultaneously analyzing the normal and branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and biomarkers of crude oil such as steranes and terpanes. The recoveries obtained ranged from 82.0% to 107.3% and the detection limits ranged from 34 to 93 μg/L. The correlation coefficients (R2) were more than 0.99. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) for all the analytes were below 10%. The results indicate that the proposed method is suitable for the characterization of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in crude oils with easy operation, high sensitivity and efficiency.

  14. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B


    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance.

  15. Embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Finch, Bryson E; Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N


    Weathered crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico can result from oil spills such as the Deepwater Horizon incident that occurred on April 20, 2010 or from natural seeps. Adult waterbirds of the Gulf Coast region may become exposed to weathered crude oil while foraging, wading, or resting, and residues can then be transferred to nests, eggs, and hatchlings. Although the toxicity of many types of crude oil to avian embryos has been thoroughly studied, the effects of weathered crude oil on developing avian embryos are not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to examine embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico in June 2010 using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) as a model species. Weathered crude oil was applied to fertilized mallard duck eggs by paintbrush in masses ranging from 0.1 to 99.9 mg on day 3 of incubation. Mortality occurred as early as day 7 and the conservatively derived median lethal application of weathered crude oil was 30.8 mg/egg (0.5 mg/g egg) or 30.7 µl/egg (0.5 µl/g egg). Body mass, liver and spleen mass, crown-rump and bill lengths, and frequency of deformities were not significantly different among hatchlings from oiled and control eggs. In comparison to published reports of fresh crude oil embryotoxicity, weathered crude oil was considerably less toxic. We conclude that avian toxicity varies according to the degree of crude oil weathering and the stage of embryonic development at the time of exposure. Results indicate bird eggs exposed to weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico during summer 2010 may have had reduced hatching success.

  16. Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThis paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE,

  17. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.


    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price variabi

  18. Effect of Bonny Light Crude Oil Pollution of Soil on the Growth of ...


    ABSTRACT: The effect of Bonny Light Crude oil pollution of soil and ... In the Control treatments, a declining trend in plant growth was observed from .... needed to accommodate 2 oil levels replicated 5 times. Fresh unweathered Bonny Light Crude (BLC) ... Mean * Plant Height (cm) at Different Successive Plantings.

  19. Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content of Crude Glycerin Originating from Different Sources in Growing Pigs

    Apparent digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) of various crude glycerins from different biodiesel production facilities were empirically determined in nursery pigs (10.4 kg initial body weight) in order to predict the DE and ME based on crude glycerin composition. Dietary treatments consisted of a...

  20. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.


    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price

  1. Chemical composition of asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Klyavina, O.A.; Kolyabina, N.A. [L.N. Tolstoi Tula State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)


    Asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba have been studied by physical and physicochemical methods. Dynamics of distribution of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen and also various functional groups in asphaltenes has been described. These data can be used for the proper deasphalting of crude oil and further treatment of asphaltenes.

  2. From the Lab Bench: Why depend on a crude measure of protein?

    An article was written to discuss what the crude protein value of a feed or forage represents, and justify the relevance of this crude measure of protein. Rumen bacteria digest plant protein and convert the building blocks of protein, amino acids, to those amino acids that meet their needs. Theref...

  3. Maximising profitability through the use of simulation for new market crudes evaluation

    Mendez, Maryro P. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)


    There is nothing that contributes more to the cost of production for a refinery than the cost of crude oil and other feedstocks. The efficient and effective evaluation and selection of crude oil to a refinery will have a very significant impact on its profitability. The crude oil selected will impact the utilization and output from different process units, has the potential to impact maintenance and energy costs, and will impact product properties from the refinery. The tools and knowledge necessary for a good new crude evaluation program are addressed as part of this paper. The work process is outlined in detail. Finally, we address some of the risk management issues inherent in processing high margin crudes. Innovative simulation tools like Petro-SIM offer the platform to evaluate opportunities to capture the value that the sour/sweet crude differential and that the new crudes coming in to the market have to offer for a given refinery configuration. The paper provides comments on how KBC's methodology has helped refiners to check their ability to run new challenging crudes. (author)

  4. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.


    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price variabi

  5. Process for desalting and dehydration of crude oil including hot water washing and gas stripping

    Popp, V.V.; Suditu, I.; Neagu, P.; Fotescu, L.; Mihalache, I.; Tirboiu, D.


    Process and apparatus for the desalting and dehydration of crude oil is described, in which the crude oil is washed in one or several stages using fresh or recirculated hot water containing a demulsifier. The crude oil is also passed through a coalescence stage, and a settling stage aimed at obtaining a salt content to meet crude oil specifications. Subsequently the crude oil is led into a lower stripping compartment of a column, in which dehydration is carried out to the desired level by using fuel or combustion gas. The stripping temperature is reached by heating the crude or the gas or both. The gas-vapor mixture is cooled in the upper compartment of the column by a cooling fluid such as the untreated crude oil or recirculated or fresh water, depending upon the nature and salt content of the crude. The cooled gas is recirculated within the column or led to a pipeline for consumption, while the cooling fluid, in the case of water, is recirculated in the unit.

  6. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari


    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  7. Quality of Crude Oil Extracted from Aging Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Byproducts

    Quality of crude oil extracted from pollock byproducts aged at 6 and 15 'C for up to 4 and 10 days was examined. Longer storage of byproducts resulted in higher free fatty acid (FFA) and an increase in retinol levels in the extracted crude oils. Primary and secondary oxidative assays consisting of p...

  8. growth development in pre-pubertal female rabbits fed crude oil


    ... was conducted to examine the effects of crude oil (Bonny Light Grade) on the ... that growth was significantly depressed (P≤0.05) in the crude oil treated diets ... However, few works ... The results in this study revealed a severe depression in.

  9. Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThis paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE,

  10. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B


    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  11. Effect of dispersants on the growth of indigenous bacterial population and biodegradation of crude oil

    Bhosle, N.B.; Row, A.

    of the dispersants were toxic, except IB 2/80, to the bacterial population. All of the dispersants, when used alone, or in combination with the crude oil, supported good growth of bacteria. The Saudi Arabian crude oil by itself was toxic to the bacteria, and when...

  12. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)


    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  13. [Comparative study on decoction and dissolution of crude and processed corni fructus].

    Zhou, Han-Yu; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cong, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Cheng-Rong; Cai, Bao-Chang


    To compare and study the decoction and dissolution of active constituents in crude and processed Corni Fructus. HPLC, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction method and the dissolution methods were adopted to compare and study the decoction yield and dissolution rate of loganin and morroniside, active constituents in crude and processed Corni Fructus. The results showed that the content of active constituents loganin and morroniside in crude and processed Corni Fructus did not change significantly; compared with crude Corni Fructus, processed Corni Fructus (decoction) contained much higher loganin, with no obvious change in morroniside; compared with crude Corni Fructus, processed Corni Fructus (extracts) showed no significant difference in loganin dissolution, but notable increase in morroniside dissolution in intestinal fluid; in gastric fluid, processed Corni Fructus showed significant increase in loganin and morroniside dissolutions. However, in comprehensive consideration of the decoction dose in clinical administration, and calculated on the basis of the formula of the decoction yield x dissolution rate = decoction-dissolution product, it showed increase in the decoction-dissolution products of both of the active constituents loganin and morroniside, with significant difference. This suggested that processed Corni Fructus is superior to crude Corni Fructus in clinical application. In this article, we proposed to compare the changes in decoction and dissolution of active constituents in crude and processed Corni Fructus, study the decoction-dissolution product, and then apply it in the quality evaluation of crude and processed Corni Fructus.

  14. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with crude parasite antigens reduce worm recovery in Opisthorchis viverrini infected hamsters.

    Kaewraemruaen, Chamraj; Sermswan, Rasana W; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi


    Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg). Further investigation using the flow cytometer found that CD4(+)T cells and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+)T cells (Th1-like cells) in the hamster blood were significantly increased. The role of these cells in the protective responses in hamsters was evaluated by challenging with 25 metacercaria and observation for 3 months. The number of worms recovered was significantly reduced in the hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg, but not in CpG ODN 1826 alone groups when compared to PBS control. The percent of reduction in hamsters against this parasite were 32.95% and 21.49% in the CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg and CpG ODN 1826 alone. This study indicates that CpG ODN 1826 plus parasite antigens elicit a Th1-like response that leads to the enhancement of worm reduction.

  15. [Microwave thermal remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil enhanced by granular activated carbon].

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Yao-Bin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Ya-Zhi


    The advantage of rapid, selective and simultaneous heating of microwave heating technology was taken to remediate the crude oil-contaminated soil rapidly and to recover the oil contaminant efficiently. The contaminated soil was processed in the microwave field with addition of granular activated carbon (GAC), which was used as strong microwave absorber to enhance microwave heating of the soil mixture to remove the oil contaminant and recover it by a condensation system. The influences of some process parameters on the removal of the oil contaminant and the oil recovery in the remediation process were investigated. The results revealed that, under the condition of 10.0% GAC, 800 W microwave power, 0.08 MPa absolute pressure and 150 mL x min(-1) carrier gas (N2) flow-rate, more than 99% oil removal could be obtained within 15 min using this microwave thermal remediation enhanced by GAC; at the same time, about 91% of the oil contaminant could be recovered without significant changes in chemical composition. In addition, the experiment results showed that GAC can be reused in enhancing microwave heating of soil without changing its enhancement efficiency obviously.


    Qing Quan

    Full Text Available Abstract Wax deposition behavior was investigated in a set of one-inch experiment flow loops, using a local crude oil with high wax content. The temperature of the oil phase is chosen as a variable parameter while the temperature of the coolant media is maintained constant. Detailed composition of the deposit is characterized using High Temperature Gas Chromatography. It was found that the magnitude of the diffusion of the heavier waxy components (C35-C50 decreases when the oil temperature decreases, but the magnitude of the diffusion of the lighter waxy components increases. This result means that the diffusion of wax molecules shifts towards lower carbon number, which further proves the concept of molecular diffusion. Meanwhile, a meaningful phenomenon is that the mass of the deposit increases with the oil temperature decrease, which definitely proves the influence of wax solubility on deposition, while the formation of an incipient gel layer reflects the fact that an increase in the mass of the deposit does not mean a larger wax percentage fraction at lower oil temperature.

  17. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.


    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites.

  18. Non Dispersive Chemical Deacidification of Crude Palm Oil in Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor

    Mubiar Purwasasmita


    Full Text Available Performance of chemical deacidification of crude palm oil (CPO using aqueous NaOH solution in a polysulfone hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane was investigated. The effects of operating temperature, NaOH concentration and flow rates on percentage of free fatty acids (FFA removal, oil loss, soap entrainment and overall mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. Overall mass transfer coefficients, soap content in oil and neutral oil loss all increased when the temperature was increased from 60 to 70°C due to an increase of the FFA distribution value. A minimum 0.25 N of NaOH or a NaOH to FFA molar ratio of about 7.62 was required to facilitate the expected extraction efficiency. The increased oil flowrate slightly enhanced the solute transport kinetics, while the aqueous phase flowrate did not significantly influence deacidification efficiency or mass transfer coefficient. About 97% of FFA removal was achieved within 4 hours. The maximum oil loss observed was 11% and the highest soap content in the oil without separation step was 3150 ppm. The values of the overall mass transfer coefficient varied from 2.97×10-7 to 7.71×10-7 m/s. These results show the potential of using the non dispersive membrane contacting process for chemical deacidification of CPO as well as other vegetable oils.

  19. Response of the Polish Wheat Prices to the Worlds Crude Oil Prices



    Full Text Available Agricultural commodities prices play crucial role both in farmers income determination and in price relationship establishment for the whole economy. Among the factors influencing the wheat prices, crude oil prices are considered as one of the most important. The aim of this paper was to assess the character of linkage between world crude oil prices and Polish wheat prices. Results of the research confirm the existence of such linkage although the nature and the strength of this relationship changes over time. However, the long-run relationships between the crude oil and Polish wheat prices were not proven. Moreover, growing impact of crude oil prices on Polish wheat prices over time was not detected. The results suggest that exchange rates may strongly influence wheat prices. This in turn may weaken response of Polish wheat prices in relation to world crude oil prices.


    Xun ZHANG; Kin Keung LAI; Shouyang WANG


    By applying two nonlinear Granger causality testing methods and rolling window strategy to explore the relationship between speculative activities and crude oil prices, the unidirectional Granger causality from speculative activities to returns of crude oil prices during the high price phase is discovered. It is proved that speculative activities did contribute to high crude oil prices after the Asian financial crisis and OPEC's output cut in 1998. The unidirectional Granger causality from returns of crude oil prices to speculative activities is significant in general. But after 2000, with the sharp rise in crude oil prices, this unidirectional Granger causality became a complex nonlinear relationship, which cannot be detected by any linear Granger causality test.

  1. Stable distribution and long-range correlation of Brent crude oil market

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Jin, Xiu; Huang, Wei-qiang


    An empirical study of stable distribution and long-range correlation in Brent crude oil market was presented. First, it is found that the empirical distribution of Brent crude oil returns can be fitted well by a stable distribution, which is significantly different from a normal distribution. Second, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that there are long-range correlation in returns. It implies that there are patterns or trends in returns that persist over time. Third, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that after the financial crisis 2008, the Brent crude oil market becomes more persistence. It implies that the financial crisis 2008 could increase the frequency and strength of the interdependence and correlations between the financial time series. All of these findings may be used to improve the current fractal theories.

  2. Rheological Investigation on the Effect of Shear and Time Dependent Behavior of Waxy Crude Oil

    Japper-Jaafar A.


    Full Text Available Rheological measurements are essential in transporting crude oil, especially for waxy crude oil. Several rheological measurements have been conducted to determine various rheological properties of waxy crude oil including the viscosity, yield strength, wax appearance temperature (WAT, wax disappearance temperature (WDT, storage modulus and loss modulus, amongst others, by using controlled stress rheometers. However, a procedure to determine the correct parameters for rheological measurements is still unavailable in the literature. The paper aims to investigate the effect of shear and time dependent behaviours of waxy crude oil during rheological measurements. It is expected that the preliminary work could lead toward a proper rheological measurement guideline for reliable rheological measurement of waxy crude oil.

  3. Comparative Study on Schizontocidal Activity of Recrystallized or Crude Daphnetin Against Malaria Parasites



    To compare the schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin against malaria parasites in vivo. Methods Schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin at various dosages was assessed in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA using a "4-day suppress assay". Results The comparison of the reduction rate of parasitemia caused by either recrystallized or crude dephnetin showed that ED50 of crude daphnetin was 18.36 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 5.96-56.54 mg/kg while ED50 of recrystallized daphnetin was 11.46 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 8.63-15.22 mg/kg. Conclution The results indicate that the efficacy of recrystallized daphnetin is 37.6% higher than that of crude daphnetin.

  4. Crude glycerol-based production of amino acids and putrescine by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Rittmann, Doris; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F


    Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses genes for glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that were shown to support slow growth with glycerol only when overexpressed from a plasmid. Pure glycerol and crude glycerol from biodiesel factories were tested for growth of recombinant strains expressing glpF, glpK and glpD from Escherichia coli. Some, but not all crude glycerol lots served as good carbon sources. Although the inhibitory compound(s) present in these crude glycerol lots remained unknown, the addition of substoichiometric glucose concentrations (below 10% by weight) enabled the utilization of some of the inhibitory crude glycerol lots. Besides growth, production of the amino acids L-glutamate, L-lysine, L-ornithine and L-arginine as well as of the diamine putrescine based on crude glycerol qualities from biodiesel factories was demonstrated.

  5. Exploring the WTI crude oil price bubble process using the Markov regime switching model

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wang, Jing


    The sharp volatility of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price in the past decade triggers us to investigate the price bubbles and their evolving process. Empirical results indicate that the fundamental price of WTI crude oil appears relatively more stable than that of the market-trading price, which verifies the existence of oil price bubbles during the sample period. Besides, by allowing the WTI crude oil price bubble process to switch between two states (regimes) according to a first-order Markov chain, we are able to statistically discriminate upheaval from stable states in the crude oil price bubble process; and in most of time, the stable state dominates the WTI crude oil price bubbles while the upheaval state usually proves short-lived and accompanies unexpected market events.

  6. Mixed Multifractal Analysis of Crude Oil, Gold and Exchange Rate Series

    Dai, Meifeng; Shao, Shuxiang; Gao, Jianyu; Sun, Yu; Su, Weiyi


    The multifractal analysis of one time series, e.g. crude oil, gold and exchange rate series, is often referred. In this paper, we apply the classical multifractal and mixed multifractal spectrum to study multifractal properties of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series and their inner relationships. The obtained results show that in general, the fractal dimension of gold and crude oil is larger than that of exchange rate (RMB against the US dollar), reflecting a fact that the price series in gold and crude oil are more heterogeneous. Their mixed multifractal spectra have a drift and the plot is not symmetric, so there is a low level of mixed multifractal between each pair of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series.

  7. Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between crude oil market and Chinese ten sector stock markets

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Yiqi


    Based on the daily price data of spot prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and ten CSI300 sector indices in China, we apply multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlations between crude oil and Chinese sector stock markets. We find that the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and energy sector stock market is the highest, followed by the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and financial sector market, which reflects a close connection between energy and financial market. Then we do vector autoregression (VAR) analysis to capture the interdependencies among the multiple time series. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data and residual errors of VAR model, we get a conclusion that vector auto-regression (VAR) model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the cross-correlations between WTI crude oil and the ten sector stock markets.

  8. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Jude C. Dike


    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  9. Analysis of the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying; Huang, Wei-qiang


    As one of the fundamental energy sources and important chemical raw materials, crude oil is crucially important to every country. Especially, the price shock of crude oil will bring about hidden dangers in energy security and economic security. Therefore, investigating the dynamics of frequent price shocks of crude oil markets seems to be crucial and necessary. In order to make the conclusions more reliable and valid, we use two different representations of the price shocks (inter-event times and series of counts) to study the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets, such as coefficient of variation, Allan Factor, Fano Factors, Rescaled Range analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We find evidence that the time dynamics of the price shock sequences can be considered as a fractal process with a high degree of time-clusterization of the events. It could give us some useful information to better understand the nature and dynamics of crude oil markets.

  10. Bohai crude oil identification by gas chromatogram fingerprinting quantitative analysis coupled with cluster analysis

    SUN Peiyan; BAO Mutai; GAO Zhenhui; LI Mei; ZHAO Yuhui; WANG Xinping; ZHOU Qing; WANG Xiulin


    By gas chromatogram, six crude oils fingerprinting distributed in four oilfields and four oil platforms were analyzed and the corresponding normal paraffin hydrocarbon (including pristane and phytane) concentration was obtained by the internal standard method. The normal paraffin hydrocarbon distribution patterns of six crude oils were built and compared. The cluster analysis on the normal paraffin hydrocarbon concentration was conducted for classification and some ratios of oils were used for oils comparison. The results indicated: there was a clear difference within different crude oils in different oil fields and a small difference between the crude oils in the same oil platform. The normal paraffin hydrocarbon distribution pattern and ratios, as well as the cluster analysis on the normal paraffin hydrocarbon concentration can have a better differentiation result for the crude oils with small difference than the original gas chromatogram.

  11. How to increase crude oil pipelines transfer capacity; Como aumentar a capacidade de transferencia de petroleos em oleodutos

    Oliveira, Roberto Carlos Goncalves de; Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Monteiro de; Oliveira, Marcia Cristina Khalil de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail:;;


    Flow problems associated to increased of the crude oil viscosity are well known by the oil companies. Part of these problems are related to the pour point; while others have to do with the presence of water in oil emulsions. In some cases these problems may also be associated with organic deposition in the transfer lines. Identifying the problem is therefore the key to find a solution for the problem. This paper describes a practical case where proper identification of the problem led to its solution means of adding chemical additives. The problem in question consisted of the need to increase the capacity to transfer crude oil from a certain export pipeline located on the Brazilian continental platform. Increasing the transferring capacity of this pipeline was complicated by construction limitations and the rheological characteristics of the fluid to be transferred. The experimental philosophy adopted in this paper can be put to use in other scenarios. It can be useful in many production systems specially in those which operate in high bathymetric levels. (author)

  12. Simultaneous chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae from different locations in China by HPLC.

    Zhang, Yun; Cao, Gang; Ji, Jinyu; Cong, Xiaodong; Wang, Shengbo; Cai, Baochang


    A validated liquid chromatography method was first developed to evaluate the quality of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae extracts through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of five bioactive compounds, namely 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), acteoside, angroside C, harpagoside and cinnamic acid. The chromatographic were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and detected by diode array detector (DAD). Mobile phase was composed of (A) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.03%, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30 °C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 280 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2) ≥0.9996) within the tested ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 98.12-103.38%, with RSD values ranging from 0.6 to 2.8%. In addition, the contents of those five bioactive compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae prepared by different locations of China were determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results demonstrate that the developed method is accurate and reproducible and could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for the quantification of Radix Scrophulariae.

  13. Development and validation of a HPLC method for the quantification of three flavonoids in a crude extract of Dimorphandra gardneriana

    Leonardo P. Landim


    Full Text Available A method for separation and quantification of three flavonoids by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed and validated. Flavonoids present in a crude methanolic extract of the inner bark of Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul., Fabaceae, were analyzed. Rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin were used as calibration standards. The analysis was performed using a Thermo Scientific Hypersil C18 column (250 x 4.0 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size, as stationary phase, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and detection at a wavelength of 356 nm. The proposed method was validated by resolution RE No. 899/2003 of the National Health Surveillance Agency. In this study, an excellent linearity was obtained with r higher than 0.99. Besides, the chromatographic peaks showed good resolution. With other validation data, including precision, specificity, accuracy and robustness, this method demonstrated good reliability and sensitivity, and can be conveniently used for the quantification of rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin in crude methanolic extract of D. gardneriana pods. Furthermore, there are the advantages of easy sample preparation and short time between each injection.

  14. Modelling demand for crude oil products in Spain

    Pedregal, D.J. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la Ingenieria (IMACI), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Dejuan, O.; Gomez, N.; Tobarra, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) (Spain)


    This paper develops an econometric model for the five most important crude oil products demand in Spain. The aim is the estimation of a range of elasticities of such demands that would serve as the basis for an applied general equilibrium model used for forecasting energy demand in a broader framework. The main distinctive features of the system with respect to previous literature are (1) it takes advantage of monthly information coming from very different information sources and (2) multivariate unobserved components (UC) models are implemented allowing for a separate analysis of long- and short-run relations. UC models decompose time series into a number of unobserved though economic meaningful components mainly trend, seasonal and irregular. A module is added to such structure to take into account the influence of exogenous variables necessary to compute price, cross and income elasticities. Since all models implemented are multivariate in nature, the demand components are allowed to interact among them through the system noises (similar to a seemingly unrelated equations model). The results show unambiguously that the main factor driving demand is real income with prices having little impact on energy consumption. (author)

  15. Crude subcellular fractionation of cultured mammalian cell lines

    Holden Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression and study of recombinant proteins in mammalian culture systems can be complicated during the cell lysis procedure by contaminating proteins from cellular compartments distinct from those within which the protein of interest resides and also by solubility issues that may arise from the use of a single lysis buffer. Partial subcellular fractionation using buffers of increasing stringency, rather than whole cell lysis is one way in which to avoid or reduce this contamination and ensure complete recovery of the target protein. Currently published protocols involve time consuming centrifugation steps which may require expensive equipment and commercially available kits can be prohibitively expensive when handling large or multiple samples. Findings We have established a protocol to sequentially extract proteins from cultured mammalian cells in fractions enriched for cytosolic, membrane bound organellar, nuclear and insoluble proteins. All of the buffers used can be made inexpensively and easily and the protocol requires no costly equipment. While the method was optimized for a specific cell type, we demonstrate that the protocol can be applied to a variety of commonly used cell lines and anticipate that it can be applied to any cell line via simple optimization of the primary extraction step. Conclusion We describe a protocol for the crude subcellular fractionation of cultured mammalian cells that is both straightforward and cost effective and may facilitate the more accurate study of recombinant proteins and the generation of purer preparations of said proteins from cell extracts.

  16. Analysis of the Behavior of Volatility in Crude Oil Price

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube


    Full Text Available This article analyzes volatility in the spot price of crude oil. In recent years the price has also increased reaching more than US$ 140/barrel in the last decade. Moreover, the negotiated trading volume in the futures market in recent years higher than the trading volume of the earlier years. How these changes have affected the volatility in the oil prices? Does the presence of huge players, which leads to an increase in the volume under negotiation, increase volatility? Has the persistence been affected? To answer these questions, we first estimated spot prices using the two-factor model of Schwartz and Smith. With this filtering process we can capture the entire information from the future term-structure. We then analyzed the estimated spot-price series to identify the stylized facts and then adjusted conditional volatility models of GARCH family. Our findings show that the volatility in the high prices period is not different from that of low prices. The shocks behaved as transitory and the persistence in the high prices period decreased. This fact has pricing and hedging implications for short-term derivatives.

  17. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins


    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production from crude glycerol by newly isolated Pandoraea sp.

    Fabrício Coutinho de Paula


    Full Text Available A new bacterial strain was isolated from Atlantic rainforest in Brazil for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA production utilizing crude glycerol from biodiesel industry (CG and it was identified as Pandoraea sp. MA03. Shake flask experiments were performed at 10–50 g L−1 carbon source and showed the best values of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB production from CG cultivations compared to pure glycerol, with a polymer accumulation ranging from 49.0% to 63.6% cell dry weight (CDW. The results obtained from this study showed a positive effect of contaminant NaCl on P3HB synthesis up to 30 g L−1 CG. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate [P(3HB-co-3HV] production was obtained from CG plus propionic acid with up to 25.9 mol% 3HV. Since it is interesting the utilization of CG for obtaining added-value products along with biodiesel, this study reported a novel and promising PHA-producing bacterial strain as an additional effort to enhance the viability of a sustainable industry based on biofuels and biopolymers.

  19. Crude oil geochemistry of the southern Songliao Basin

    Li Taiming; Rullkoetter, J.; Radke, M.; Schaefer, R.G.; Welte, D.H.


    Twenty-three crude oils from the southern Songliao Basin, Heilongjiang Province (People's Republic of China), were characterized by various organic geochemical techniques to have a very uniform bulk and molecular composition in terms of source characteristics (type I kerogen) but to vary significantly in thermal maturity. Two middle Cretaceous source rocks, i.e. the Members 1 of the Qingshankou (Qn/sub 1/) and Nenjiang (Nen/sub 1/) Formations, were considered to be the most likely origin of the oils investigated, but a Jurassic source cannot be fully excluded for the Nang'An oils. Molecular maturation indicators including carbon preference indices, sterane isomerisation, conversion of mono- into triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons, relative concentration of diasteranes and the 18..cap alpha..(H)-22,29,30-trisnorneohopane/17..cap alpha..(H)-22,29,30-trisnorhopane ratio showed that there is a positive correlation between thermal maturity of the oils and the age of their reservoirs. This was interpreted as an indication of limited cross-stratigraphic migration and further evidence for the generation in the Qn/sub 1/ and Nen/sub 1/ source rocks.

  20. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Reynolds, J.G.


    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Thermodynamic Properties for the Simulation of Crude Oil Primary Refining

    Juan Pablo Gutierrez


    Full Text Available Commonly, the use of simulators in the industry is performed without having a proper theoretical support. Sometimes this situation is a consequence of both, lack of time and the dairy dynamism required in the refinery industries. Particularly, the application of thermodynamic models is often not properly considered for the specific process under analysis. An undesirable fact can appear, for example, when a wrong properties package is chosen or even more when this selection step is completely ignored. The aim of this article is to prove that the habitual selection of the thermodynamic models is appropriate or not for the primary refining process. For the purpose, two available simulation softwares and thermodynamic models have been analyzed. The research paper focuses on establishing a guide for plant operators with information that has been previously proven, with theoretical support. In particular, for the oil crude atmospheric distillation (Topping, engineers use almost by default the Peng– Robinson thermodynamic package in Aspen Hysys simulator and Chao–Seader in Aspen Plus. Although the use of the thermodynamic property packages involves a whole theoretical support, this is not considered at the time of their election.

  2. Crystallization of proteins from crude bovine rod outer segments.

    Baker, Bo Y; Gulati, Sahil; Shi, Wuxian; Wang, Benlian; Stewart, Phoebe L; Palczewski, Krzysztof


    Obtaining protein crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies comprises the greatest challenge in the determination of protein crystal structures, especially for membrane proteins and protein complexes. Although high purity has been broadly accepted as one of the most significant requirements for protein crystallization, a recent study of the Escherichia coli proteome showed that many proteins have an inherent propensity to crystallize and do not require a highly homogeneous sample (Totir et al., 2012). As exemplified by RPE65 (Kiser, Golczak, Lodowski, Chance, & Palczewski, 2009), there also are cases of mammalian proteins crystallized from less purified samples. To test whether this phenomenon can be applied more broadly to the study of proteins from higher organisms, we investigated the protein crystallization profile of bovine rod outer segment (ROS) crude extracts. Interestingly, multiple protein crystals readily formed from such extracts, some of them diffracting to high resolution that allowed structural determination. A total of seven proteins were crystallized, one of which was a membrane protein. Successful crystallization of proteins from heterogeneous ROS extracts demonstrates that many mammalian proteins also have an intrinsic propensity to crystallize from complex biological mixtures. By providing an alternative approach to heterologous expression to achieve crystallization, this strategy could be useful for proteins and complexes that are difficult to purify or obtain by recombinant techniques.

  3. A process and assembly for desalinating and dehydrating crude oils

    Popp, V.V.; Fotescu, L.; Mihalache, I.; Neagu, R.; Suditu, I.N.; Tirboiu, D.


    A process is patented for desalinating and dehydrating crude oils by washing them with hot water (the assembly contains a demulsifier) for several stages depending on the salt content and a free water separating stage, after which an optimum dose of demulsifier is injected into the oil; the oil is heated up and injected into a settling tank where a coalescent layer if formed (depending on the type of oil). Coalescence can be conducted in the heat exchanger which is located before the settling tank and from which the hot water recirculates for washing. The treated oil, which may contain water and volatile components, can be injected into the stripper in a heated or unheated state. In the stripper, the oil makes contact with heated gas in a counterflow, which extracts the steam and the volatile hydrocarbons. The dehydrated oil is removed from the bottom of the stripper; steam and hydrocarbons move to the top of the stripper where they condense. The hydrocarbons are passed on for further use. The corresponding device which operates in the described manner is also patented.

  4. Biodegradation of crude oil saturated fraction supported on clays.

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Jones, Martin D; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I


    The role of clay minerals in crude oil saturated hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/saturated hydrocarbon microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clay minerals used for this study were montmorillonite, palygorskite, saponite and kaolinite. The clay mineral samples were treated with hydrochloric acid and didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce acid activated- and organoclays respectively which were used in this study. The production of organoclay was restricted to only montmorillonite and saponite because of their relative high CEC. The study indicated that acid activated clays, organoclays and unmodified kaolinite, were inhibitory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. Unmodified saponite was neutral to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. However, unmodified palygorskite and montmorillonite were stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturated fraction and appears to do so as a result of the clays' ability to provide high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients such that the nutrients were within the 'vicinity' of the microbes. Adsorption of the saturated hydrocarbons was not significant during biodegradation.

  5. Optimization of squalene produced from crude palm oil waste

    Wandira, Irda; Legowo, Evita H.; Widiputri, Diah I.


    Squalene is a hydrocarbon originally and still mostly extracted from shark liver oil. Due to environmental issues over shark hunting, there have been efforts to extract squalene from alternative sources, such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), one of crude palm oil (CPO) wastes. Previous researches have shown that squalene can be extracted from PFAD using saponification process followed with liquid-liquid extraction process although the method had yet to be optimized in order to optimize the amount of squalene extracted from PFAD. The optimization was done by optimizing both processes of squalene extraction method: saponification and liquid-liquid extraction. The factors utilized in the saponification process optimization were KOH concentration and saponification duration while during the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process optimization, the factors used were the volumes of distilled water and dichloromethane. The optimum percentage of squalene content in the extract (24.08%) was achieved by saponifying the PFAD with 50%w/v KOH for 60 minutes and subjecting the saponified PFAD to LLE, utilizing 100 ml of distilled water along with 3 times addition of fresh dichloromethane, 75 ml each; those factors would be utilized in the optimum squalene extraction method.

  6. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0...

  7. The cardiotonic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander in the isolated guinea pig hearts.

    Adome, R O; Gachihi, J W; Onegi, B; Tamale, J; Apio, S O


    Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly becoming one of the leading diseases causing morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Ethnographic evidence suggests that these diseases are often first managed by indigenous and related herbs before patients are referred for allopathic forms of management. One such herb of interest is Nerium oleander. Therefore the crude ethanolic extracts of the dried leaves of this herb were tested against the following parameters in the isolated guinea pig hearts: force of contraction, heart rate and cardiac flow. The extracts brought about dose-dependent increases in all these parameters from their baseline readings. Compared with graded doses of digoxin the effects closely mirrored the activities in a dose dependent manner. At the mechanism of action level, it would appear the extract works in the same as digoxin since their dose-contraction-response curves are parallel. This finding would tend to provide a strong rationale for the herb's traditional use in cardiovascular illness.

  8. Element and chemical compounds transfer in bio-crude from hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae.

    Tang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zeyu; Yang, Xiaoyi


    In this study, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) experiments of Nannochloropsis and Spirulina were carried out at different temperatures (220-300 °C) to explore the effects of temperature on bio-crude yield and properties. The optimal temperature for bio-crude yield was around 260-280 °C. Transfers of element and chemical compounds in bio-crude were discussed in detail to deduce the reaction mechanism. The hydrogen and carbon recoveries were consistent with the results of bio-crude yields at every temperature point. The relative percentage of fatty acid in bio-crude decreased and the amine and amide increased for both microalgae with temperature rising. The N-heterocyclic compounds in bio-crude increased with temperature rising for Nannochloropsis, while decreased when temperature increased from 220 °C to 280 °C for Spirulina. Bio-crude gained at higher temperature or from microalgae with high protein content may contain high heteroatom compounds.

  9. Fat, meat quality and sensory attributes of Large White × Landrace barrows fed with crude glycerine

    M. Belen Linares


    Full Text Available The use of alternative raw materials like crude glycerine in animal feed to reduce final costs could be of interest as the sector seeks to increase its competitiveness. The aims of the present work were to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine on back-fat thickness and the proximate composition of pork and to examine the effect on pork quality of using growing-finishing feeds with different percentages of crude glycerine added. For this purpose 60 crossbreed (Large White × Landrace barrows were subdivided into three groups according to the crude glycerine concentration administered in feed: C, control diet, no crude glycerine; and G2.5 and G5 with 2.5% and 5% added crude glycerine, respectively. This study evaluated proximate composition, pH, cooking losses, texture, colour coordinates, fatty acid profile, and sensorial analysis. No differences were found in any of the three groups studied (C, G2.5, G5 for measurements performed both before (with ultrasound equipment and after slaughter (millimetre ruler. The proximate composition and the physical-chemical parameters of longissimus dorsi were similar between groups. There were no differences detected (p>0.05 between the three groups as regards the CIELab coordinates, textural profile and sensory attributes. Therefore, 5% crude glycerine to replace corn could be used as an ingredient in pig feed without appreciably affecting the back-fat and meat quality characteristics.

  10. Meat quality of suckling lambs supplemented with contents of crude glycerin in creep feeding

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from suckling lambs kept in pasture ryegrass. Thirty two suckling lambs, sixteen male and sixteen female, were distributed into 4 diets with different concentrations of crude glycerin: 0, 10, 20 and 30% crude glycerin, in the replacement of corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP provided daily in amounts equivalent to 2% of body weight. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with each variable data submitted to analysis of variance at 5% significance and the significant results subjected to regression analysis. There was no effect (P>0,05 of contents of crude glycerin on the chemical composition and cholesterol content of lamb meat. On the other hand, there was increased linearly (P>0,05 pH and cooking losses by the use of crude glycerin. No influence (P>0,05 of crude glycerin concentration on the texture profile analysis (TPA, sensorial analysis by triangular test and even when was evaluated attributes color, tenderness and juiciness of lamb meat. Up to 30% of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding for suckling lambs grazing ryegrass do not compromise the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of the lamb meat.

  11. Toxicity of crude and detoxified Tityus serrulatus venom in anti-venom-producing sheep

    Ferreira, Marina G.; Duarte, Clara G.; Oliveira, Maira S.; Castro, Karen L. P.; Teixeira, Maílson S.; Reis, Lílian P. G.; Zambrano, José A.; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Michel, Ana Flávia R. M.; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos


    Specific anti-venom used to treat scorpion envenomation is usually obtained from horses after hyperimmunization with crude scorpion venom. However, immunized animals often become ill because of the toxic effects of the immunogens used. This study was conducted to evaluate the toxic and immunogenic activities of crude and detoxified Tityus serrulatus (Ts) venom in sheep during the production of anti-scorpionic anti-venom. Sheep were categorized into three groups: G1, control, immunized with buffer only; G2, immunized with crude Ts venom; and G3, immunized with glutaraldehyde-detoxified Ts venom. All animals were subjected to clinical exams and supplementary tests. G2 sheep showed mild clinical changes, but the other groups tolerated the immunization program well. Specific antibodies generated in animals immunized with either Ts crude venom or glutaraldehyde-detoxified Ts venom recognized the crude Ts venom in both assays. To evaluate the lethality neutralization potential of the produced sera, individual serum samples were pre-incubated with Ts crude venom, then subcutaneously injected into mice. Efficient immune protection of 56.3% and 43.8% against Ts crude venom was observed in G2 and G3, respectively. Overall, the results of this study support the use of sheep and glutaraldehyde-detoxified Ts venom for alternative production of specific anti-venom. PMID:27297422

  12. Inhibition of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Crude Oil- and Creosote-Contaminated Groundwater

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.


    The inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater was studied. The crude oil and water-soluble components of creosote contributed to the inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was much more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At a crude oil-contaminated site, numbers of acetoclastic methanogens found close to crude oil were 100 times fewer than those of hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens. In laboratory toxicity assays, crude oil collected from the site inhibited methane production from acetate but not from formate or hydrogen. Toxicity assays with aqueous creosote extract completely inhibited acetate utilization over the range of tested dilutions but only mildly affected formate and hydrogen utilization. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity would result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  13. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    Hughes, Larry [Energy Research Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)


    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  14. Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa Crude Venom Injection Elicits Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Rats

    Giuseppe Bruschetta


    Full Text Available Cnidarian toxins represent a rich source of biologically active compounds. Since they may act via oxidative stress events, the aim of the present study was to verify whether crude venom, extracted from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, elicits inflammation and oxidative stress processes, known to be mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production, in rats. In a first set of experiments, the animals were injected with crude venom (at three different doses 6, 30 and 60 µg/kg, suspended in saline solution, i.v. to test the mortality and possible blood pressure changes. In a second set of experiments, to confirm that Pelagia noctiluca crude venom enhances ROS formation and may contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammation, crude venom-injected animals (30 µg/kg were also treated with tempol, a powerful antioxidant (100 mg/kg i.p., 30 and 60 min after crude venom. Administration of tempol after crude venom challenge, caused a significant reduction of each parameter related to inflammation. The potential effect of Pelagia noctiluca crude venom in the systemic inflammation process has been here demonstrated, adding novel information about its biological activity.

  15. Pre-commissioning of 120 kt/a Unit for Hydrotreating Crude Coke Oven Benzene Implemented at Baoyuan Chemical Company


    @@ The Baoyuan Chemical Company, Ltd. in Taiyuan has per-formed the precommissioning of a 120 kt/a unit for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene. This unit is the phase II construction of the 300 kt/a crude benzene hydrotreating project, which adopts the process technology for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene developed indepen-dently by our own efforts.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain N002, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from Geleky, Assam, India

    Roy, Abhjit Sarma; Baruah, Reshita; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Maina


    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of crude oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain N002, isolated from a crude oil-polluted soil sample from Geleky, Assam, India. Multiple genes potentially involved in crude oil degradation were identified. PMID:23405324

  17. Impact of the economic and financial crisis on the evolving trend of crude steel consumption

    L. Paliu-Popa


    Full Text Available Given that the modern world cannot be conceived without the existence of the steel and its use, the crude steel consumption may be considered as an indicator characterizing the economic development of a country. The purpose of this paper is to establish the evolution of the world, regional and state consumption of crude steel, both per total, as well as per inhabitant, but also the impact of the economic and financial crisis it had on the evolving evolution of using the crude steel. Data subject to the study are related to the period 2004 – 2014 and concern nine regions of development and ten countries.

  18. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.;


    height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... above 75% for the crude oils, showing that it only has a limited effect on the burning efficiency as higher burning efficiencies have been reported for larger scales. Furthermore, the results showed that the burning mechanisms differ for pure and crude oil, indicating that the hydrocarbon mixture...

  19. Dynamic Jump Intensities and Risk Premiums in Crude Oil Futures and Options Markets

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Li, Bingxin


    and dynamic jump intensities in these markets. Allowing for jumps is crucial for modeling crude oil futures and futures options, and we find evidence in favor of time-varying jump intensities. During crisis periods, jumps occur more frequently. The properties of the jump processes implied by the option data......Options on crude oil futures are the most actively traded commodity options. We develop a class of computationally efficient discrete-time jump models that allow for closed-form option valuation, and we use crude oil futures and options data to investigate the economic importance of jumps...

  20. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Voelker, Teresa


    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  1. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in blood glucose as compared to control. Liver function test also showed significant changes (p<0.001 as compared to alloxan-treated group. The results of this study showed that crude P. lentiscus gum have considerable efficacy in curing diabetes and have hepatoprotective effect.

  2. Identification of water-soluble heavy crude oil organic-acids, bases, and neutrals by electrospray ionization and field desorption ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Stanford, Lateefah A; Kim, Sunghwan; Klein, Geoffrey C; Smith, Donald F; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G


    We identify water-soluble (23 degrees C) crude oil NSO nonvolatile acidic, basic, and neutral crude oil hydrocarbons by negative-ion ESI and continuous flow FD FT-ICR MS at an average mass resolving power, m/deltam50% = 550,000. Of the 7000+ singly charged acidic species identified in South American crude oil, surprisingly, many are water-soluble, and much more so in pure water than in seawater. The truncated m/z distributions for water-soluble components exhibit preferential molecular weight, size, and heteroatom class influences on hydrocarbon solubility. Acidic water-soluble heteroatomic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include O, O2, O3, O4, OS, O2S, O3S, O4S, NO2, NO3, and NO4. Parent oil class abundance does not directly relate to abundance in the water-soluble fraction. Acidic oxygen-containing classes are most prevalent in the water-solubles, whereas acidic nitrogen-containing species are least soluble. In contrast to acidic nitrogen-containing heteroatomic classes, basic nitrogen classes are water-soluble. Water-soluble heteroatomic basic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include N, NO, NO2, NS, NS2, NOS, NO2S, N2, N2O, N2O2, OS, O2S, and O2S2.

  3. Radiotracer method for residence time distribution study in multiphase flow system

    Sugiharto, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl Lebak Bulus No. 49, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia)], E-mail:; Su' ud, Z. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)], E-mail:; Kurniadi, R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Wibisono, W.; Abidin, Z. [Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl Lebak Bulus No. 49, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia)


    [{sup 131}I] isotope in different chemical compounds have been injected into 24 in hydrocarbon transmission pipeline containing approximately 95% water, 3% crude oil, 2% gas and negligible solid material, respectively. The system is operated at the temperature around 70 deg. C enabling fluids flow is easier in the pipeline. The segment of measurement was chosen far from the junction point of the pipeline, therefore, it was reasonably to assume that the fluids in such multiphase system were separated distinctively. Expandable tubing of injector was used to ensure that the isotopes were injected at the proper place in the sense that [{sup 131}I]Na isotope was injected into water layer and iodo-benzene, {sup [131]}IC{sub 6}H{sub 5,} was injected into crude oil regime. The radiotracer selection was based on the compatibility of radiotracer with each of fluids under investigation. [{sup 131}I]Na was used for measuring flow of water while iodo-benzene, {sup [131]}IC{sub 6}H{sub 5,} was used for measuring flow of crude oil. Two scintillation detectors were used and they are put at the distances 80 and 100 m, respectively, from injection point. The residence time distribution data were utilized for calculation water and crude oil flows. Several injections were conducted in the experiments. Although the crude oil density is lighter than the density of water, the result of measurement shows that the water flow is faster than the crude oil flow. As the system is water-dominated, water may act as carrier and the movement of crude oil is slowed due to friction between crude oil with water and crude oil with gas at top layer. Above of all, this result was able to give answer on the question why crude oil always arrives behind water as it is checked at gathering station. In addition, the flow patterns of the water in the pipeline calculated by Reynolds number and predicted by simple tank-in-series model is turbulence in character.

  4. Pore-Scale Investigation of Crude Oil/CO2 Compositional Effects on Oil Recovery by Carbonated Water Injection

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran


    where the oil has significant dissolved gases. In such studies, oil swelling and oil viscosity reduction had been introduced as the main mechanisms of additional oil recovery by CWI. However, in our direct flow visualization (micro model) studies reported here, we have used live crude oil, and we have......, for a fixed period of CWI, was higher than its final saturation in tertiary CWI. We also show that the nucleation and growth of the new gaseous phase is directly proportional to the amount of hydrocarbon gas dissolved in the oil which is a function of oil properties and saturation pressure and temperature....

  5. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries – Part 1: Fractional distillation and characterization

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup


    -crude assays, adapted from conventional crude oil assays, have been obtained, including fractionation of the bio-crude through 15:5 vacuum distillation. The bio-crude and its fractions have been analyzed with respect to heating value, elemental composition, density and oxygen-containing functional groups....... Results show a highly promising bio-crude quality, with a higher heating value of 40.4 MJ/kg, elemental oxygen content of 5.3 wt.%, a specific gravity of 0.97 and a distillation recovery of ∼53.4 wt.% at an atmospheric equivalent temperature (AET) of 375 °C, . Results show that only minor upgrading...

  6. Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats

    O. O. Udemezue


    Full Text Available The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg, and a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05 in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

  7. Factors Affecting the Stability of Crude and Transmission Oil Emulsion Swith Surfactant Solutions

    Erich Martínez Martín


    Full Text Available Crude oil emulsions with surfactant solutions are used to transport this for piping systems. The applicationof this technique requires that the emulsions remain stable during the pumping period and haveseparated after transporting the crude. In this paper, experimental assays were performed using differentconcentrations of surfactant, and mixing types settling conditions. They were employed as the continuousphase two substances: oil transmission and Cuban crude oil. The strong infl uence of the concentrationand type of mixing on the stability of the emulsions was observed. The results demonstrate the similaritiesin thermalhydraulic fl uid parameters objects of study. Allowing infer the approximate behavior of theCuban crude oil from experimental work with transmission oil.

  8. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    Natanelov, Valeri, E-mail: [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Alam, Mohammad J. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Agribusiness and Marketing, Bangladesh Agricultural University (Bangladesh); McKenzie, Andrew M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas, AR (United States); Van Huylenbroeck, Guido [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)


    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: > We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. > A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. > Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  9. 33 CFR 157.138 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.


    ... stripping suction device. (iv) Number and location of COW machines operating simultaneously in each cargo... crude oil. (13) The procedure for draining and stripping the pumps and piping of the COW system,...

  10. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng


    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  11. Systematically structural identification of nitric compounds in crude oil with chemometric resolution

    HUANG Yi; ZHANG Tai-ming; LIANG Yi-zeng; CUI Hui


    Aimed at the problem of classification of non-hydrocarbons of crude oil, the theoretical standpoint that the polarity of a compound depends on the whole structure and composition of molecule instead of a kind of heteroatom or its functional group was presented. A method was established for the systematically structural identification of nitric compounds in crude oil. The pre-fractionation of a crude oil sample into 7 fractions was performed by djadsorption column chromatography with neutral aluminum oxide and silica gel. Subsequently, the individual components were obtained by using capillary column gas chromatography, and the types of compounds were detected by a mass spectrometer. In combination with a chemometric resolution, the compounds of fraction were further identified. This method can relieve the difficulty of classical analysis in identifying those species with very low contents or without being completely separated. The structures of 168 nitric compounds in a crude oil sample were determined by this method.

  12. Progress and Outlook on Technologies for Processing Inferior Crude Oil in China

    Yuan Qingtang


    The recent growth of the global petroleum refining industry and the main technologies and measures for China to process inferior crude oil were introduced. The main technologies and measures include the control over equipment corrosion induced by sour and acidic crude, in particular the corrosion of atmospheric and vacuum distillation units, the development of technology for processing inferior residue,and the development of desulfurization technology and sulfur recovery technology in the course of processing of petroleum products. In order to meet the needs for national economic development, China's refining enterprises will uninterruptedly develop and prefect technologies for processing inferior crude,enhance the process and equipment management, sum up the experience for better processing of inferior crude, so as to provide high-quality oil products and petrochemical feedstocks to public with better economic return.

  13. Bacterial diversity in a tropical crude oil-polluted soil undergoing ...



    Jun 3, 2009 ... received each 4 L of Bonny light crude oil while three treatment plots received 3 kg of NPK, urea ..... level decreased by 97, 96 and 95% respectively, by day .... the removal of fuel contaminants: perspective for monitoring.

  14. A method to refine crude cottonseed oil using non-toxic polyamine-based cationic polymers☆

    Hailin Lin; Tom C Wedegaertner; Xiaoyun Mao; Xudong Jing; Aicardo Roa-Espinosa


    The traditional method to refine crude cottonseed oil is time-consuming and expensive. This study evaluates the effectiveness of coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process using quaternary polyamine-based polymers in refining crude cottonseed oil. Flocculated by four commercial polyamine-based cationic polymers (SL2700, SL3000, SL4500 and SL5000) with varied molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) and followed by co-agulation with sodium hydroxide, crude cottonseed oil can be effectively purified. Free fatty acids, gossypol, pig-ments and trace elements are all effectively and sufficiently removed by the four polymers in a MW-and CD-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the use of polyamine-based cationic polymers may offer an effective and feasible alternative to the traditional method for crude cottonseed oil refining.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal speciation in soils impacted with crude oil in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M.A


    Chemical fractionation of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn and Mn in soils that had received a significant impact of crude oil spillage in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was studied using a sequential chemical extraction method...

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bio-crudes from induction-heating pyrolysis of biomass wastes.

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan; Chang, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Shyh-Yu; Chang, Jeng-Hung


    The aim of this work was to prepare the bio-crudes from agricultural wastes (i.e., rice straw, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell) by using induction-heating pyrolysis at specified conditions. The quantitative analysis of 21 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bio-crudes examined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that the PAHs in bio-crudes were primarily dominant in the low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, including naphthalene (1.10-2.45 mg/L) and acenaphthene (0.72-7.61 mg/L). However, by considering carcinogenic potency, the bio-crudes from rice husk and sugarcane bagasse contained higher contents of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.52 and 0.92 mg/L, respectively) as compared to those from rice straw and coconut shell.


    Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...


    Hajivand, P; Vaziri, A


    Abstract In this study, various water-soluble and oil-soluble demulsifiers were selected for separation of water from crude oil emulsions and their productivity measured using the Bottle-test method at 70...

  19. Effect of Crude Oil Price on Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria (1981 ...


    ... 131-139, 2013 International Journal of Applied Agricultural and Apicultural Research ... rate, crude oil price, capital stock, labour, land and fertilizer. ... gross domestic product and accounting for ... the international oil market (Aigbedion and.

  20. Level shift two-components autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity modelling for WTI crude oil market

    Sin, Kuek Jia; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow


    This study aims to investigate the crude oil volatility using a two components autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH) model with the inclusion of abrupt jump feature. The model is able to capture abrupt jumps, news impact, clustering volatility, long persistence volatility and heavy-tailed distributed error which are commonly observed in the crude oil time series. For the empirical study, we have selected the WTI crude oil index from year 2000 to 2016. The results found that by including the multiple-abrupt jumps in ARCH model, there are significant improvements of estimation evaluations as compared with the standard ARCH models. The outcomes of this study can provide useful information for risk management and portfolio analysis in the crude oil markets.

  1. Measuring salinity in crude oils: Evaluation of methods and an improved procedure

    Montserrat Fortuny; Elisangela B. Silva; Agnaldo C. Filho; Rosana L.F.V. Melo; Marcio Nele; Raquel C.C. Coutinho; Alexandre F. Santos [Programa de Engenharia de Processos/Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju (Brazil)


    In this work, a novel procedure is developed to determine the amount of salt for crude oils in which the available laboratory techniques are unable to provide accurate salt content values. The technique is based on measuring the salinity of the wash water that is vigorously mixed with the crude oil (forming an emulsion) and then separating it from the water-in-oil emulsion by irradiating microwave energy during few minutes. This three step process involves the emulsification of the wash water exempt of salt in crude oil, followed by the recovery of the water by microwave heating and, finally, the analysis of the salt content using the classical Mohr's method titration procedure. The novel technique presented here was able to provide reliable information about the salt content on Brazilian crude oils, in a rapid manner, without need of unsafe time-consuming solvent extraction procedures. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish ...

    Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish Heterobranchus ... carried out in the Institute of Oceanography Fish Farm, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Petroleum hydrocarbon was extracted from the two oils in separate 30litre ...

  3. The geochemical characteristics and origin of crude oils in the Kekeya Oilfield, Xinjiang, China

    TANG Youjun; ZAN Ling; HOU Dujie; XIAO Zhongyao


    GC/MS and GC/MS/MS techniques were employed to describe the characteristics of biomarker assemblages in two sets of hydrocarbon source rocks, Jurassic and Permian, in southwestern Tarim, and the parameters for the classification of the two sets of hydrocarbon source rocks have been established. It is found that diahopane and C30-unknown terpane are abundant in Permian samples, the contents of diahopane in Jurassic samples are relatively low, and terpenoids have been detected in Jurassic samples but not in Permian source rock samples. Kekeya crude oils are abundant in diahopane and C30-unknown terpane. The results of fine oil-rock correlation indicated that Kekeya crude oils were derived mainly from the Permian hydrocarbon source rocks. However, a small amount of diterpenoid was detected in the crude oils, indicating that the Jurassic hydrocarbon source rocks also made a certain contribution to Kekeya crude oils.

  4. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  5. Ultrafiltration-based degumming of crude rice bran oil using a polymer membrane

    Sehn, G. A.R.


    Full Text Available Membrane technology has been gaining momentum in industrial processes, especially in food technology. It is believed to simplify processes, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollutants. The objective was to study the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF and polyethersulfone (PES polymeric membranes in the degumming of the miscella of crude rice bran oil by using a bench-scale tangential filtration module. In addition, oil miscella filtration techniques using hexane and anhydrous ethyl alcohol solvents were compared. All membranes showed the retention of phospholipids and high flow rates. However, the best performance was observed using the 50-kDa PVDF membrane in miscella hexane solvent, with a 95.5% retention of the phosphorus concentration (by a factor of 1.4, resulting in a permeate with 29 mg·kg−1 of phosphorus and an average flow rate of 48.1 L·m−2·h−1. This technology can be used as a low-pollution, economical alternative for the de-gumming of crude rice bran oil, being effective in the removal of hydratable and non-hydratable phospholipids, resulting in oils with a low phosphorus content.La tecnología de membrana ha ido ganando impulso en los procesos industriales, especialmente en tecnología de los alimentos. Se piensa que simplifica los procesos, reduce el consumo de energía, y elimina contaminantes. El objetivo fué estudiar el rendimiento de las membranas poliméricas de fluoruro de polivinilo (PVDF y poliétersulfona (PES en el desgomado de miscelas de aceite de salvado de arroz crudo, mediante el uso de un módulo de filtración de escalado tangencial. Además, se compararon las técnicas de filtración de miscelas de aceite, utilizando como disolventes hexano y alcohol etílico anhidro. Todas las membranas mostraron retención de los fosfolípidos y altas tasas de flujo. Sin embargo, se observó un mejor rendimiento usando la membrana de PVDF de 50-kDa con hexano como disolvente, con una retención del 95

  6. Study on Process for Manufacturing Heavy Traffic Asphalt from Gudong Crude

    Wang Zijun; Long Jun; She Yucheng


    The Gudong crude from Gudao oil-bearing region in the Shengli oilfield was used as the target for studying the process of manufacturing heavy traffic road asphalt. The heavy traffic road asphalt products can be made from Gudong crude through blending residuum from mild thermal conversion of vacuum resid with extract, blending the deoiled asphalt from VR propane deasphalting with vacuum resid and the extract, and blending of oxidizedhard asphalt originated from VR with the extract.

  7. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam


    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P  0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples.

  8. Reduced hydrogen sulfide from crude oil using metal nanoparticles produced by electrochemical deposition

    Sahar Safarkhani; Ali Akbar MiranBeigi; Amir Vahi; Abolghasem Mirhoseini


    Hydrogen sulfide is one of the most dangerous contaminants in crude oil and natural gas that must be removed before transport and refining. It has multiple effects on the environment and the industry is bad that these effects include acid rain, cancer, corrosion of pipelines, poison catalytic converters in car exhaust. In this study, to eliminate H2S crude oil Nano emulsion used ionic liquid. Ionic liquids also with metal nanoparticles (MNPs) have been modified. Improve and reform the electro...

  9. Modernization or Conservation: The Role of Export Duty on Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Georgy Idrisov; Sergey Sinelnikov-Murylev


    This paper deals with the analysis of the consequences of the abolition of export duties on crude oil and petroleum products as a necessary measure to create incentives to improve energy efficiency of the Russian economy and the elimination of underdevelopment caused by the unprecedented long-term subsidies to inefficient Russian oil refining. The authors consider three possible scenarios for the abolition of export duties on crude oil and domestic market and the conservation of tax revenues ...

  10. A study on chaos in crude oil markets before and after 2008 international financial crisis

    Lahmiri, Salim


    The purpose of this study is to investigate existence of chaos in crude oil markets (Brent and WTI) before and after recent 2008 international financial crisis. Largest Lyapunov exponent is estimated for prices, returns, and volatilities. The empirical results show strong evidence that chaos does not exist in prices and returns in both crude oil markets before and after international crisis. However, we find strong evidence of chaotic dynamics in both Brent and WTI volatilities after international financial crisis.

  11. Experimental model of swine pneumonic pasteurellosis using crude Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin and Pasteurella multocida given endobronchially.

    Chung, W. B.; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T


    This study was designed to develop and characterize a swine pneumonic pasteurellosis model by concurrent introduction of Pasteurella multocida type A and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin. After a series of preliminary experiments, a combination of 4 x 10(9) P. multocida and 4,000 toxic units of A. pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin was determined to produce optimal results. A total of 48 pigs were divided into four groups of 12 pigs each. The control group received buffered salin...

  12. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean


    Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon). The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass prov...

  13. The Effect of Dietary Crude Protein Level on Intestinal and Cecal Coccidiosis in Chicken

    Sharma, V. D.; Fernando, M. A.; Summers, J. D.


    The effect of interaction of crude protein level in the diet and coccidiosis of the cecum and small intestine of chicks was investigated. A total of 390 day-old chicks were divided in 36 groups of ten and six groups of five chicks each. Twelve groups of ten and two groups of six chicks each were fed one of the three diets based on dietary crude protein level (16%, 20% and 24%). All diets contained an equal energy concentration. The chicks were on the appropriate diet for 15 days prior to infection. Each group was then subjected to one of the three treatments (a) control, (b) a single dose infection with 100,000 oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and (c) a single dose infection with 10,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella. On the eighth day post infection all surviving E. tenella infected chicks and two replicates per dietary treatment of control and E. acervulina infected chicks were killed. An increase in dietary crude protein led to a linear (PCoccidiosis caused a reduction in daily gain, feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization, the effect being more severe in E. tenella infection. The effect of dietary crude protein was protective against weight reduction. Chicks infected with E. tenella fed 24% crude protein had a higher (P<0.01) mortality rate than those fed on 16% or 20% crude protein level. The oocyst production by E. acervulina infected chicks was also higher (P<0.01) at the 24% crude protein level. The E. acervulina infected chicks exhibited compensatory growth during the eight to 14 days post infection. The compensatory growth was superior at the higher crude protein levels. The mechanism of compensatory growth is discussed. PMID:4266700

  14. Study on Catalytic Cracking of VGO Derived from Kazakhstan-Russian Mixed Crude

    Duan Yongsheng; Dong Yuancheng; Wei Gangling; Wang Jian


    The study on options for catalytic cracking of VGO derived from the Kazakhstan-Russian mixed crude was carried out in a small-scale riser FCC unit. The influence of several catalysts and the LCC-A additive for increasing propylene yield on the distribution and quality of FCC products was analyzed. This article sets forth the possible issues arising from processing the Kazakhstan-Russian mixed crude in FCC unit and the response measures to be adopted.

  15. Aqueous-phase reforming of crude glycerol : effect of impurities on hydrogen production

    Boga, Dilek A.; Liu, Fang; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.


    The aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of a crude glycerol that originates from an industrial process and the effect of the individual components of crude glycerol on APR activity have been studied over 1 wt% Pt/Mg-Al) O, 1 wt% Pt/Al2O3, 5 wt% Pt/Al2O3 and 5 wt% Pt/C catalysts at 29 bar and 225 degrees C

  16. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1 the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mesozooplankton communities, (2 the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3 the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4 the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20, dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1 and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1 to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  17. [The crude drugs of special location of Sichuan as viewed from the tribute drugs in the Tang dynasty].

    Yan, Qi-Yan


    As an important location for drug production in history, the tribute drugs from Sichuan in the Tang dynasty occupied a very large quotas. Hence, the study on Sichuan tribute drugs is conducive to the understanding of the distribution of crude drugs of special location and its rules of evolution in different historical periods, with rather significance for the exploration and utilization of crude drugs. There is a rich resource of crude drugs in Sichuan, exhibiting a conspicuous and zone distribution. According to historical documents of the Tang dynasty, the characteristics of the Sichuan tribute drugs include rich species, extensive distribution, rich special and valuable drugs, and processed drugs. There are over 40 kinds of crude drugs of special location produced in Sichuan. The tribute drugs of the Tang dynasty reveal the evolution of crude drugs of special location. Occupying an important position of crude drugs in the whole country, the crude drugs produced in Sichuan are not necessarily to be all tribute drugs.

  18. Crude oil as a stranding cause among loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998-2011).

    Camacho, María; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge


    We report the number of strandings caused by crude oil among loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands between 1998 and 2011 and analyze the impact of the designation of the Canary Islands as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) in 2005. Among 1,679 stranded loggerhead turtles, 52 turtles stranded due to crude oil (3.1%). The survival rate of the turtles stranded by crude oil was 88%. All turtles that died because of crude oil stranding had signs of ingestion of crude oil and lesions, included esophageal impaction, necrotizing gastroenteritis, necrotizing hepatitis, and tubulonephrosis. The number of strandings caused by crude oil after 2005 was significantly lower than it was before 2006. We show that the designation of the Canary Islands as a PSSA in 2005 by the International Maritime Organization was associated with a reduction of sea turtle strandings caused by crude oil.

  19. Treatment of waters polluted with crude oil and heavy metals by means of a natural wetland.

    Groudeva, V I; Groudev, S N; Doycheva, A S


    In the Dolni Dubnik oil deposit, Northern Bulgaria, waters polluted with crude oil and heavy metals (iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium, lead, copper) were treated by means of a natural wetland located in the deposit. The waters had a pH in the range of about 4.5-6.5 and contained about 1-5 mg/l oil. The concentrations of heavy metals usually were about 2-4 times higher than the relevant permissible levels for waters intended for use in the agriculture and industry. The watercourse through the wetland covered a distance of about 100 m and the water flow rate varied in the range of about 0.2-0.8 l/s. The wetland was characterized by an abundant water and emergent vegetation and a diverse microflora, including different oil-degrading bacteria and fungi. The treatment of the polluted waters by means of the above-mentioned wetland markedly depended on the temperature but was efficient during the different climatic seasons, even during the cold winter months at temperatures close to 0 degrees C. The oil content in the wetland effluents in most cases was decreased to less than 0.2 mg/l, and the concentrations of heavy metals were decreased below the relevant permissible levels. The removal of oil was connected with its microbial degradation. The removal of heavy metals was due to different processes but the microbial dissimilatory sulphate reduction and the sorption of metals on the organic matter and clay minerals present in the wetland played the main role.

  20. The Antiproliferative Effect of Moringa oleifera Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract on Human Esophageal Cancer Cells.

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A


    Esophageal cancer (EC) is commonly diagnosed in South Africa (SA), with high incidences occurring in SA's black population. Moringa oleifera (MO), a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of ailments, including cancer. We investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO crude aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on a cancerous esophageal cell line (SNO). SNO cells were exposed to a range of MOE dilutions to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay). Oxidative stress was determined using the TBARS assay. The comet assay was used to assess DNA damage. We then determined cell death mechanisms by measuring phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels (luminometry). Protein expression of Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by western blotting. SNO cells were treated with a range of MOE dilutions to obtain an IC50 value of 389.2 μg/mL MOE (24 h), which was used in all subsequent assays. MOE significantly increased lipid peroxidation (P < .05) and DNA fragmentation (P < .0001) in SNO cells. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the increase in PS externalization (P < .0001), caspase-9 (P < .05) and caspase-3/7 (P = .22) activities, and decreased ATP levels (P < .0001). MOE significantly increased both the expression of Smac/DIABLO protein and cleavage of PARP-1, resulting in an increase in the 24-kDa fragment (P < .001). MOE possesses antiproliferative effects on SNO EC cells by increasing lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and induction of apoptosis.

  1. Thermophilic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol: process performance and digestate stability.

    Astals, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J


    Anaerobic co-digestion has been widely used to enhance biogas production of digesters and, therefore, to improve the anaerobic plants economic feasibility. In the present study, glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, was used as a co-substrate for pig manure. The results showed that the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure supplemented with 3% of glycerol, on weight basis, was satisfactory. The specific biogas production of the co-digester was 180% higher than the one obtained by the reference digester, which was only fed with pig manure. The improvement was related to the double of the organic loading rate, the high biodegradability of the crude glycerol, the slight reduction of the free ammonia concentration and the optimisation of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the organic matter (protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers) of the influent and the effluent of both digesters together with their biogas flow rates indicated that the microorganisms in the co-digester obtained large amounts of nutrients from the glycerol, whereas the microorganisms of the reference digester mainly produced biogas from the particulate matter. However, the digestate obtained from the co-digester cannot be directly applied as soil fertiliser or conditioner due to the presence of high levels of biodegradable matter, which may exert negative impacts on the plant-soil system. Thus, a longer hydraulic retention time, a reduction of the glycerol concentration and/or a post-treatment is required if the digestate is to be used as soil fertiliser or conditioner. In contrast, pig manure digestate can be directly applied on land.

  2. High-fiber diets with reduced crude protein for commercial layers

    MFFM Praes


    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating diets containing different fiber sources and two crude protein levels on the performance, egg quality, and nitrogen metabolism of commercial layers. In total, 392 48-wk-old Isa Brown layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x2+1 (control factorial arrangement, resulting in seven treatments with seven replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of three fiber feedstuffs (cottonseed hulls, soybean hulls, and rice hulls and two dietary crude protein levels (12% and 16%. Cottonseed hulls associated with the high crude protein level (16% resulted in the worst feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs. Diets with 16% crude protein resulted in the highest feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass values, and improved feed conversion ratio (kg eggs/kg feed. The dietary inclusion of soybean hulls determined low yolk pigmentation, and of rice hulls, low egg specific gravity. The 16% crude protein diet with rice hulls promoted the best feed conversion ratio. Hens fed the reference diet presented higher egg mass and better feed conversion ratio per kg eggs and per dozen eggs. Hens fed the diets with low crude protein level (12% had reduced nitrogen excretion, but presented worse egg production.

  3. Biodegradation of crude oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of rhamnolipids

    ZHANG Guo-liang; WU Yue-ting; QIAN Xin-ping; MENG Qin


    The potential biodegradation of crude oil was assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain ofPseudomonas aeruginosa which produced 15.4 g/L rhamnolipids when cultured in a basal mineral medium using glycerol as a sole carbon source. However, neither cell growth nor rhamnolipid production was observed in the comparative culture system using crude oil as the sole carbon source instead. As rhamnolipid, an effective biosurfactant, has been reported to stimulate the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, 1 g/L glycerol or 0.22 g/L rhamnolipid was initially added into the medium to facilitate the biodegradation of crude oil. In both situations, more than 58% of crude oil was degraded and further converted into accumulated cell biomass and rhamnolipids. These results suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa could degrade most of crude oil with direct or indirect addition of rhamnolipid. And this conclusion was further supported by another adsorption experiment, where the adsorption capacity of crude oil by killed cell biomass was negligible in comparison with the biologic activities of live cell biomass.

  4. Characteristics of Newly Isolated Geobacillus sp. ZY-10 Degrading Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil.

    Sun, Yumei; Ning, Zhanguo; Yang, Fan; Li, Xianzhen


    An obligately thermophilic strain ZY-10 was isolated from the crude oil in a high-temperature oilfield, which was capable of degrading heavy crude oil. Phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolate should be grouped in the genus Geobacillus, which shared thd highest similarity (99%) of the 16S rDNA sequence to Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, the major cellular fatty acid iso-15:0 (28.55%), iso-16:0 (24.93%), iso-17:0 (23.53%) and the characteristics including indole production, tolerance to NaN3 and carbohydrate fermentation showed some difference from the recognized species in the genus Geobacillus. The isolate could use tridecane, hexadecane, octacosane and hexatridecane as sole carbon source for cell growth, and the digesting rate of long-chain alkane was lower than that of short-chain alkane. When the isolate was cultured in the heavy crude oil supplement with inorganic salts and trace yeast extract, the concentration of short-chain alkane was significantly increased and the content of long-chain alkane was decreased, suggesting that the larger hydrocarbon components in crude oil were degraded into shorter-chain alkane. Strain ZY-10 would be useful for improving the mobility of crude oil and upgrading heavy crude oil in situ.

  5. Contents of four active components in different commercial crude drugs and preparations of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza)

    ZHANG Hui; YU Chen; JIA Jing-Ying; Susan Wai Sum LEUNG; Yaw Loong SIOW; Ricky Ying Keung MAN; ZHU Da-Yuan


    AIM: To detect the contents of four active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in various commercially available danshen crude drugs and preparations. METHODS: Commercially available danshen crude drugs from different sources, as well as danshen pills and intravenous injection preparations containing danshen alone or in combination with other herbs were collected. The composition of these danshen samples was analyzed using HPLC. Specifically,the amounts of magnesium tanshinoate B (MTB), danshensu, isotanshinone ⅡA, and cryptotanshinone were determined.In some of these samples, the content of MTB was further confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS)/MS method. RESULTS: There were great variations in the amount of the four active ingredients in the commercially available danshen crude drugs and drug preparations in this study. The amount of MTB was the highest among the four components measured in the crude drugs. However, the amounts of MTB in all danshen preparations were much lower than those in crude drugs. The 2 lipophilic components, isotanshinone ⅡA and cryptotanshinone, were very low or not detectable in both injection and oral preparations. CONCLUSION:MTB can be used to standardize the various forms of danshen crude drugs and drug preparations from different sources. In view of the variation in the amounts of MTB and other components, improvement in the production methods of danshen preparations is essential to ensure consistent amount of its active ingredients and reproducible pharmacological actions.

  6. Dispersion of T1 and T2 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in crude oils.

    Chen, Joseph J; Hürlimann, Martin; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Freed, Denise; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao


    Crude oils, which are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, can be characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion and relaxation methods to yield physical properties and chemical compositions. In particular, the field dependence, or dispersion, of T1 relaxation can be used to investigate the presence and dynamics of asphaltenes, the large molecules primarily responsible for the high viscosity in heavy crudes. However, the T2 relaxation dispersion of crude oils, which provides additional insight when measured alongside T1, has yet to be investigated systematically. Here we present the field dependence of T1-T2 correlations of several crude oils with disparate densities. While asphaltene and resin-containing crude oils exhibit significant T1 dispersion, minimal T2 dispersion is seen in all oils. This contrasting behavior between T1 and T2 cannot result from random molecular motions, and thus, we attribute our dispersion results to highly correlated molecular dynamics in asphaltene-containing crude oils. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza


    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time.

  8. Naphthenic acid characterization and distribution in crude oils; Caracterizacao e distribuicao de acidos naftenicos em petroleos

    Guimaraes, Regina C.L.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Naphthenic acid corrosion was observed for the first time during the distillation process of some kind of crude oils in 1920. Recent reports about naphthenic acid corrosion have been found in China, India, Venezuela, Eastern Europe, Russia and the USA. In Brazil, heavy and acid crude oil processing is rising. Some brazilian crude oils have TAN around 3,0 mg KOH/g. The presence of relatively high levels of naphthenic acids in crude oils is a bane of petroleum refiners; and more recently, of producers as well, who have reported problems during production with calcium and sodium naphthenate . Essentially, these acids which are found to greater or lesser extent in virtually all crude oils are corrosive and tend to cause equipment failures, lead to high maintenance costs and may pose environmental disposal problems. In order to give these information to PETROBRAS, The Research and Development Center of PETROBRAS (CENPES) has been working in house and with brazilian universities developing analytical technicians to know better molecular structures and distribution of these acids compounds in crude oils. This work presents the actual methods and some results from these developments. (author)

  9. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei


    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  10. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wocken, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlasner, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aulich, Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  11. Forecasting Crude Oil Price Using EEMD and RVM with Adaptive PSO-Based Kernels

    Taiyong Li


    Full Text Available Crude oil, as one of the most important energy sources in the world, plays a crucial role in global economic events. An accurate prediction for crude oil price is an interesting and challenging task for enterprises, governments, investors, and researchers. To cope with this issue, in this paper, we proposed a method integrating ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO, and relevance vector machine (RVM—namely, EEMD-APSO-RVM—to predict crude oil price based on the “decomposition and ensemble” framework. Specifically, the raw time series of crude oil price were firstly decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs and one residue by EEMD. Then, RVM with combined kernels was applied to predict target value for the residue and each IMF individually. To improve the prediction performance of each component, an extended particle swarm optimization (PSO was utilized to simultaneously optimize the weights and parameters of single kernels for the combined kernel of RVM. Finally, simple addition was used to aggregate all the predicted results of components into an ensemble result as the final result. Extensive experiments were conducted on the crude oil spot price of the West Texas Intermediate (WTI to illustrate and evaluate the proposed method. The experimental results are superior to those by several state-of-the-art benchmark methods in terms of root mean squared error (RMSE, mean absolute percent error (MAPE, and directional statistic (Dstat, showing that the proposed EEMD-APSO-RVM is promising for forecasting crude oil price.

  12. Performance and carcass traits of finishing heifers fed crude glycerin.

    Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Drouillard, J S


    Crossbred heifers (n = 373; 421.6 kg +/- 28.9) were fed finishing diets containing 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 16% crude glycerin (DM basis). Diets consisted of steam-flaked corn with 6% alfalfa hay and 1.2% urea and provided 300 mg of monensin, 90 mg of tylosin, and 0.5 mg of melengestrol acetate per animal daily. Cattle were stratified by BW and allocated randomly, within strata, to concrete-surfaced feedlot pens each containing 6 to 7 heifers, with 9 pens per dietary treatment. Cattle were transitioned from the control diet to diets containing increasing proportions of glycerin over a period of 10 d. Cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and diets were delivered once daily throughout the 85-d trial period. As the concentration of glycerin increased, DMI decreased linearly (P glycerin had ADG of 1.19, 1.34, 1.29, 1.25, 1.17, and 1.03 kg, respectively (linear, P = 0.013; quadratic, P = 0.010). Feeding glycerin had a quadratic effect on G:F, and G:F was optimal when glycerin was fed at 2% of the diet (quadratic, P = 0.046). Glycerin increased the final BW by 12.7, 8.1, and 5.3 kg when fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but reduced the final BW by 1.9 and 14.3 kg when included at 12 and 16% of the diet (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Similarly, HCW increased by 8.1, 5.1, and 3.3 kg when glycerin was fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but were 1.2 and 9.1 kg less than controls when glycerin was fed at 12 and 16%, respectively (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Longissimus muscle area decreased linearly as glycerin concentrations increased (P glycerin resulted in linear decreases in subcutaneous fat over the 12th rib and marbling scores (P = 0.045). Glycerin tended to decrease the percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice (P = 0.084) and increase the percentage of cattle grading USDA Select. Adding glycerin to cattle-finishing diets improved BW gain and feed efficiency, particularly when added at concentrations of 8% or less on a DM

  13. Molecular characterization of organically bound sulphur in crude oils. A feasibility study for the application of Raney Ni desulphurization as a new method to characterize crude oils

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Lijmbach, G.W.M.


    Five crude oils with varying sulfur contents (0.1 – 4.7%) were characterized on a molecular level for organically-bound sulfur. Aromatic fractions were analyzed by GC-(MS) and asphaltene and polar fractions were analyzed by flash pyrolysis-GC-(MS). The polar fractions were also desulfurized with Ran

  14. Effect of active species in crude oil on the interfacial tension behavior of alkali/synthetic surfactants/crude oil systems

    Liu Liwei; Hou Jirui; Yue Xiang'an; Zhao Ji


    The effect of active species present in crude oil on the interfacial tension (IFT) behavior of alkali/synthetic surfactants/crude oil systems was studied. The system consisted of heavy alkyl benzene sulfonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydrate and Daqing crude oil. Experimental results indicated that active species would diffuse from oil/aqueous interface to aqueous phase and finally an equilibrium could be reached in the system with increasing contact time. Moreover, the minimum IFT and equilibrium IFT values increased with increasing contact time and a linear relationship existed between dynamic IFT and t-1/2 when IFT value approaching the minimum and after the minimum IFT was reached. This indicated that the dynamic IFT-time behavior was diffusion controlled. The oil and aqueous phases were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. IR spectra of oil and aqueous phases illustrated that the content of active species in the oil phase decreased, but the content of active species in the aqueous phase increased after alkali reacted with crude oil. This indicated that the active species present in oil played an important role in reducing IFT.

  15. Unidimensional transient flow of liquid with a variable gradient of initial flow

    Molokovich, Yu.M.; Skvortsov, E.V.


    Both field and laboratory experience have shown that certain crude oils, containing polar components and solid hydrocarbons, possess structural-mechanical properties and therefore are visco-plastic liquids. A characteristic property of such liquids is that they do not flow until a threshold pressure gradient is reached. It is known that structural-mechanical properties of a visco-plastic liquid vary from one area of the field to another. Also, when water is injected into a reservoir, the temperature distribution is changed and this changes the resistance of liquid to flow. There is a theoretical and practical interest to study the problem of variable threshold flow pressure in a reservoir. This is done for linear- parallel flow and for planar radial flow. Analytically, the threshold flow pressure is expressed as a function of spatial coordinates. Equations are derived which express pressure as a function of time and coordinates in reservoir containing a visco-plastic liquid. (13 refs.)

  16. Wettability Behavior of Crude Oil-Silica Nanofluids-Sandstone Systems

    Bai, Lingyun; Li, Chunyan; Pales, Ashley; Huibers, Britta; Ladner, David; Daigle, Hugh; Darnault, Christophe


    Mobilizing and recovering crude oils from geological formations is critical for the management and exploitation of petroleum reservoirs. Nanoparticles, with their unique physico-chemical properties can increase the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by decreasing interfacial tension (IFT) between the oil and aqueous phase systems, and altering rock wettability. Our research examines the potential use of nanoparticles as a means of EOR by studying the influence of silicon oxide (SIO2) nanoparticles on the wettability and interfacial tension of different crude oil-silica nanofluids-sandstone systems. We designed nanofluid treatments to manipulate changes in wettability of Berea and Boise sandstones simulating petroleum reservoir. Experiments were performed to measure the IFT and wettability involving different concentrations of nanoparticles with and without the addition of surfactant to determine which nanofluids produced the most favorable wettability changes for optimal EOR with light crude oil (e.g., West Texas, API: 40), medium crude oil (Prudhoe Bay, API: 28), and heavy crude oil (e.g., Lloydminster, API: 20). We investigated the addition of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant to the nanoparticle dispersions - made from SiO2 nanoparticles - that allows the optimum mobility in porous media through optimization of interfacial tension (IFT) and contact angle, and conducted tests. Batch studies were conducted to measure the IFT and wettability of the nanofluids of different range of nanoparticle concentrations (0-0.1 wt. %) in different reservoir conditions, i.e. brine and brine-surfactant systems made with 5% brine and 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactants. The dynamic behavior of IFT was monitored using a pendant drop method. Five percent brine-nanoparticle systems containing 0.001 and 0.01 wt.% of nanoparticles resulted in a significant decrease of IFT for light and medium crude oils, while the highest decrease of IFT for heavy crude oil was observed with 0.1 wt

  17. Hydrobiogeochemical controls on a low-carbon emitting energy extraction mechanism: exploring methanogenic crude oil biodegradation

    Shelton, Jenna; McIntosh, Jennifer; Akob, Denise; Spear, John; Warwick, Peter; McCray, John


    Exploiting naturally-occurring microbial communities in the deep subsurface could help mitigate the effects of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. These microbial communities, a combination of methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, can perform methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, namely the conversion of crude oil to natural gas, and have also been detected in biodegraded, methanogenic reservoirs. These microbes could target residual crude oil, a high-carbon, hard-to-obtain fossil fuel source, and convert it to natural gas, effectively "producing" a lower CO2 per BTU fuel source. Yet, little is known about what geochemical parameters are driving microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs, and how the presence of specific microbial communities may impact methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. To investigate methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, 22 wells along a subsurface hydrogeochemical gradient in the southeastern USA were sampled for DNA analysis of the microbial community, and geochemical analysis of produced water and crude oil. A statistical comparison of microbial community structure to formation fluid geochemical parameters, amount of crude oil biodegradation, and relative extent of methanogenesis revealed that relative degree of biodegradation (high, medium, or low), chloride concentration (550 mM to 2100 mM), well depth (393 m to 1588 m), and spatial location within the reservoir (i.e., oil field location) are the major drivers of microbial diversity. There was no statistical evidence for correlation between extent of methanogenesis and the subsurface community composition. Despite the dominance of methanogens in these sampled wells, methanogenic activity was not predicted solely based on the microbial community composition. Crude oil biodegradation, however, correlates with both community composition and produced water geochemistry, suggesting a co-linear system and implying that microbial communities associated with degree

  18. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  19. The role of the seven crude drug components in the sleep-promoting effect of Yokukansan.

    Ogawa, Yuko; Fujii, Yuuko; Sugiyama, Reina; Konishi, Tenji


    Yokukansan is a traditional Japanese "Kampo" medicine derived from Yi-Gan San in traditional Chinese medicine. Many studies have been published on its effects and mechanisms. In this study, we focused on the sleep-promoting effects of Yokukansan. Yokukansan composes of seven crude drugs: Uncaria Hook, Bupleurm Root, Cnidium Rhizome, Japanese Angelica Root, Poria Sclerotium, Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome, and Glycyrrhiza. Although each has distinctive effects in isolation, they combine to work as a sleep aid in the Yokukansan formula. We examined the roles of the seven crude drug components in the sleep-promoting effect of Yokukansan. In this study, we used an easy in vivo assay method which we developed previously to screen sleeping substances using thermography. This assay method focuses on the decrease in skin temperature of mice during sleep inducement. By administering the crude drug components of Yokukansan one at a time, it was possible to separate them into two groups: those that caused a decrease in body temperature (Uncaria Hook, Bupleurm Root, Cnidium rhizome, and Japanese Angelica root) and those that did not (Poria Sclerotium, Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome, and Glycyrrhiza). Accordingly, it was thought that the crude drugs causing a drop in body temperature were responsible for promoting sleep, while those in the other group would have no such effect in isolation. To investigate whether the crude drugs that did not cause a decrease in body temperature might be unnecessary for the sleep-promoting effect of Yokukansan, a number of decoctions were prepared using only six of the seven crude drug components, excluding a different crude drug in each case. Results showed that when any of the three components (Poria Sclerotium, Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome, or Glycyrrhiza) of Yokukansan that had no effect on body temperature in isolation were removed from Yokukansan, the resulting extract no longer had any of Yokukansan's sleep-promoting effects. This result

  20. Characterization of crude and purified pumpkin seed oil.

    Tsaknis, John


    Full Text Available Oil from hulled pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita Maxima was extracted with hot petroleum ether, and then it was degummed, neutralized and bleached, consecutively Physical and chemical characteristics of crude and purified oils were determined. Density, refractive index, viscosity and peroxide value were not affected by purification, while decreases in acidity, colour, unsaponifiable, E1%1cm 232, and oxidative stability, and increases in smoke point and E1%1cm 270 were observed. Purification did not affect the fatty acid and sterol profiles. GLC analysis for the fatty acid composition of the seed oil showed that the predominant unsaturates were linoleic (42% and oleic (38%, while the major saturates were palmitic (12,7% and stearic (6%. Only α-tocopherol was detected at a level of 126 mg/kg, which reduced to 78 mg/kg after purification. The main sterols of pumpkin seed oil unsaponifiable were Δ7.22,25 -stigmastatrien-3β-ol, α-spinasterol, Δ7,25_stigmastadienol and Δ7-avenasterol, followed by stigmasterol, 24-methylcholest-7-enol and Δ7-stigmastenol, and also trace to minor amounts of cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, sitostanol, Δ5-avenasterol, erythrodiol and uvaol were found.

    Aceite de semillas de calabaza descascarada (Cucurbita pepo YCucurbita maxima fue extraído con éter de petróleo caliente, y luego desgomado, neutralizado y decolorado consecutivamente. Las características físicas y químicas de aceites crudo y purificado fueron determinadas. La densidad, el índice de refracción, la viscosidad y el índice de peróxido no se afectaron por la purificación, mientras que se observó una disminución en la acidez, color, insaponificable, E1%1cm 232, y estabilidad oxidativa, y un aumento en el punto de humo y de E1%1cm270. La purificaci

  1. Catalytic effect of ultrananocrystalline Fe₃O₄ on algal bio-crude production via HTL process.

    Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Frias-Flores, Cecilia B; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Das, K C; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M


    We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions.

  2. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan


    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  3. Distribution and Recovery of Crude Oil in Various Types of Porous Media and Heterogeneity Configurations

    Tick, G. R.; Ghosh, J.; Greenberg, R. R.; Akyol, N. H.


    A series of pore-scale experiments were conducted to understand the interfacial processes contributing to the removal of crude oil from various porous media during surfactant-induced remediation. Effects of physical heterogeneity (i.e. media uniformity) and carbonate soil content on oil recovery and distribution were evaluated through pore scale quantification techniques. Additionally, experiments were conducted to evaluate impacts of tetrachloroethene (PCE) content on crude oil distribution and recovery under these same conditions. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SXM) was used to obtain high-resolution images of the two-fluid-phase oil/water system, and quantify temporal changes in oil blob distribution, blob morphology, and blob surface area before and after sequential surfactant flooding events. The reduction of interfacial tension in conjunction with the sufficient increase in viscous forces as a result of surfactant flushing was likely responsible for mobilization and recovery of lighter fractions of crude oil. Corresponding increases in viscous forces were insufficient to initiate and maintain the displacement of the heavy crude oil in more homogeneous porous media systems during surfactant flushing. Interestingly, higher relative recoveries of heavy oil fractions were observed within more heterogeneous porous media indicating that wettability may be responsible for controlling mobilization in these systems. Compared to the "pure" crude oil experiments, preliminary results show that crude oil with PCE produced variability in oil distribution and recovery before and after each surfactant-flooding event. Such effects were likely influenced by viscosity and interfacial tension modifications associated with the crude-oil/solvent mixed systems.

  4. Fatty Amide Determination in Neutral Molecular Fractions of Green Crude Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oils From Algal Biomass

    Palardy, Oliver [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Behnke, Craig [Sapphire Energy, 10996 Torreyana; Laurens, Lieve M. L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States


    Even though hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising route to produce crude oils (referred to as 'green crude'), the molecular composition of the nitrogen fraction of such green crude oils is not fully understood. The goal of this work was to identify and quantify the fraction of fatty amides in green crude oils obtained from five different samples derived from Desmodesmus armatus, Tetraselmis sp., and Chlorella sp. biomass treated under different HTL conditions (260 or 340 degrees C as batch or continuous processes). The goal of this work was to elucidate the nature of the high nitrogen content of the green crude oils. We identified at least 19 distinct fatty amides present in green crude oils and quantified them based on relevant standards in purified fractions after functional group-based separation and enrichment. It was not known how much these compounds contributed to the oils or which molecular fraction they are associated with. We found that fatty amides exclusively partitioned with the neutral fraction of the oils and belonged mainly to one of five categories, based on their functional group substitution, i.e., fatty amides, monomethyl, dimethyl, monoethanolamide, and diethanolamide. The quantification of fatty amides in the neutral oil fraction was based on respective fatty amide standards, after verification of consistency in response factors between molecules with different substitutions of the amide group. We found that the amount of fatty amides found in each of the five samples varied considerably and ranged between 1.4 and 3.0% of the green crude oils, with the highest levels detected in the sample with the highest oil content, after HTL of biomass derived from a nutrient deprived Chlorella sp. culture.

  5. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L


    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  6. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh


    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  7. Three essays in corporate finance: Examining the influence of government ownership and evaluating crude oil arbitrage

    Holland, Kateryna

    The aim of this dissertation is twofold: first, to evaluate how governments influence firms in which they invest (chapters one and two), and second, to examine arbitrage in the crude oil market by investigating the relationship between crude oil inventories, physical prices, and financial prices (chapter three). In the first chapter (The Wealth Effects of Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I study how government share ownership affects shareholder wealth. I find that government investments with higher likelihood of political interference have a negative influence on shareholder wealth, while the opposite is true for government investments with economic objectives. In the second chapter (Government Ownership and the Cost of Debt: Evidence form Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I investigate how government share ownership affects the cost of debt of publicly traded firms. I find that government ownership generally leads to a higher cost of debt, except for times of economic and firm distress, when the value of the implicit government guarantee is associated with a reduction in the cost of debt. In the third chapter (Financial Trading, Spot Oil Prices, and Inventory: Evidence from the U.S. Crude Oil Market), I confirm the existence of an active cash and carry market in crude oil in Cushing, OK, the main U.S. crude oil futures settlement location. In other words, crude oil inventories in Cushing, but not in any other U.S. crude oil storage locations, are explained by the spread between the financial and the physical price of oil in addition to operational factors.

  8. Formulation of best-fit hydrophile/lipophile balance-dielectric permittivity demulsifiers for treatment of crude oil emulsions

    C.M. Ojinnaka


    Full Text Available The commerce of crude oil depends heavily on its water and salt contents usually referred to as Basic Sediments and Water (BS&W, which is co-produced with the crude oil in the form of emulsion. The lower the BS&W, the higher the market value of the crude. The presence of water in crude oil causes corrosion, lowers capacity utilization of production and processing plant parts and pipelines, reduces oil recovery and increases the oil content of the effluent water. The stabilizing factors of crude oil emulsions vary from one oil field to the other and with time in the same well as co-produced water increases, or after a well treatment and Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations (EOR. Periodical assessment and possible change of demulsifiers employed is therefore necessary at certain stages of crude oil productions, but this is not encouraged due to lack of general formulation procedures and the rigorous nature of bottle test method that is currently being used for assessment and selection. In this paper, the factors that affect the stability of crude oil emulsions are presented. Efforts of researchers in formulating demulsifiers based on these factors and their screening methods were reviewed. The context sets the stage for further exploration of possible relationship(s between the physical parameters of the crude oil and the demulsifiers, and exploiting same in the formulation of new demulsifiers capable of resolving crude oil emulsions using chemicals with improved surface activity and crude extracts of indigenous plants.

  9. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL of biomass for bio-crude production using Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts

    Shouyun Cheng


    Full Text Available Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL is an effective method that can convert biomass into bio-crude, but direct use of bio-crude derived from biomass HTL remains a challenge due to the lower quality. In this study, bifunctional Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts and zinc hydrolysis were combined to produce upgraded bio-crude in an in-situ HTL process. The K2CO3 and HZSM-5 catalysts with different Ni loading ratios were tested. The effects of different catalysts on the yield and quality of bio-crude and gas were investigated. The results indicated that the catalysts improved bio-crude and gas yields, compared to pine sawdust liquefaction without catalyst. The catalysts reduced the contents of undesirable oxygenated compounds such as acids, ketones, phenols, alcohols and esters in bio-crude products while increased desirable hydrocarbons content. K2CO3 produced highest bio-crude yield and lowest solid residue yield among all catalysts. Compared to parent HZSM-5 catalyst, bifunctional Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts exhibited higher catalyst activity to improve quality of upgraded bio-crude due to its integration of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation reactions. 6%Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst produced the bio-crude with the highest hydrocarbons content at 11.02%. This catalyst can be a candidate for bio-crude production from biomass HTL.

  10. Separation of Lead from Crude Antimony by Pyro-Refining Process with NaPO3 Addition

    Ye, Longgang; Hu, Yuejie; Xia, Zhimei; Chen, Yongming


    The main purpose of this study was to separate lead from crude antimony through an oxidation pyro-refining process and by using sodium metaphosphate as a lead elimination reagent. The process parameters that will affect the refining results were optimized experimentally under controlled conditions, such as the sodium metaphosphate charging dosage, the refining temperature and duration, and the air flow rate, to determine their effect on the lead content in refined antimony and the lead removal rate. A minimum lead content of 0.0522 wt.% and a 98.6% lead removal rate were obtained under the following optimal conditions: W_{{{NaPO}_{{3}} }} = 15% W Sb (where W represents weight), a refining temperature of 800°C, a refining time of 30 min, and an air flow rate of 3 L/min. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy showed that high-purity antimony was obtained. The smelting operation is free from smoke or ammonia pollution when using monobasic sodium phosphate or ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as the lead elimination reagent. However, this refining process can also remove a certain amount of sulfur, cobalt, and silicon simultaneously, and smelting results also suggest that sodium metaphosphate can be used as a potential lead elimination reagent for bismuth and copper refining.

  11. Chelidonium majus crude extract inhibits migration and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell lines.

    Deljanin, Milena; Nikolic, Mladen; Baskic, Dejan; Todorovic, Danijela; Djurdjevic, Predrag; Zaric, Milan; Stankovic, Milan; Todorovic, Milos; Avramovic, Dusko; Popovic, Suzana


    Chelidonium majus L (Papaveraceae) is widely used in alternative medicine for treatment of various disorders. Antitumor activities of alkaloids isolated from this plant have been reviewed, while there are only a few studies that examine properties of the whole extract. The aim of the present study was to investigate direct cytotoxic effects, as well as indirect antitumor effects of Chelidonium majus ethanolic extract against different tumor cell lines,. MTT and SRB assays were performed to estimate cytotoxic effects of Chelidonium majus extract against human tumor cell lines A549, H460, HCT 116, SW480, MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Type of cell death induced by extract was determined by flow cytometry and cell morphology assessment. Inhibitory effect on migration of cancer cells was assessed by wound healing assay. Chelidonium majus extract showed selective time- and dose-dependent increase of cytotoxicity in all six cell lines, with individual cell line sensitivities. Extract promoted cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis. Cotreatment with doxorubicin enhanced cytotoxicity of the drug. Also, inhibitory effect on migration was shown with non-toxic extract concentration. These results indicate possible usefulness of Chelidonium majus crude extract in antitumor therapy, whether through its direct cytotoxic effect, by prevention of metastasis, or as adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rheological Properties of Nanoparticle Silica-Surfactant Stabilized Crude Oil Emulsions: Influence of Temperature, Nanoparticle Concentration and Water Volume Fraction"

    Kinsey, Erin; Pales, Ashley; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe


    Oil in water emulsions occur during oil extraction due to the presence of water, naturally-occurring surface-active agents and mechanical mixing in pipelines or from oil spillage. Emulsions present difficulties for use of oil in fuel and their rheological properties are important to treat environmental impacts of spills. The objective of this study is to assess the rheological characteristics of oil in water emulsions stabilized by 5% NaCl brine, Tween 20 surfactant and silica nanoparticles to gain knowledge about the behavior of oil flow in pipelines and characterize them for environmental applications. Rheological behaviors such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil emulsions were analyzed with varying percent of water volume fractions (12.5, 25 and 50%), varying weight percent of silica nanoparticles (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 weight %), with and without 2 CMC Tween 20 nonionic surfactant. Emulsions with varying water volume fractions were analyzed at 20, 40 and 60 degrees Celsius. Flow curve analysis of the emulsions was performed using an Anton-Paar rheometer. Preliminary findings indicate that increased temperature and increasing the concentration of nanoparticles both produced lower shear stress and that the addition of surfactant decreased the viscosity and shear stress of the emulsions.

  13. Evaluation of the crude oil viscosity variation in function of the demulsifiers addition; Avaliacao da variacao da viscosidade de oleo cru em funcao da adicao de desemulsificante

    Lopes, Jansen M.; Lucas, Elisabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail:; Neves, Guilherme B.M. [COMAB Especialidades Quimicas Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    One way of improving well production is the addition of demulsifier already in the gas lift. This is due to the apparent viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions being higher than apparent viscosity of crude oil, which in turn is higher than the apparent viscosity of an water-in-oil dual phase admixture and is also higher than the apparent viscosity of an oil-in-water emulsion. However, there are some situations where, in order to obtain separate flows of oil and water phases, demulsifier should be added in specific amounts in order to promote the desired phase separation. In heavy oils water and oil phase separation may be hard to obtain, however, the right demulsifier amount may imply in a considerable decrease in petroleum viscosity even without the appearance of two phases, making the flow easier. This work has evaluated the viscosity of a heavy crude having API degree 14 and BSW 52%, as a function of the addition of different amounts of DEMTROL BR 67, manufactured by Dow Quimica/Comab, Brazil, as demulsifier. (author)

  14. Antimicrobial activity of crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis against some pathogens

    Yibeltal Merawie; Samuel Sahile; Feleke Moges; Azamal Husen


    Objective: To investigate in vitro antimicrobial activities of leaves and heartwood crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae) (W. ugandensis) on some pathogens.Methods:were prepared. Six bacteria [Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Escherichia coli (E. coli),Pseudomonas aeruginosa Crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood of W. ugandensis (P. aeruginosa), Shigella boydii (S. boydii), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pneumonia] and one fungus (Candida albicans) were tested by agar well diffusion and broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results: S. boydii and S. aureus were found to be the most susceptible bacterial isolated in agar well diffusion and broth dilution method of both the crude and petroleum ether extracts, while K. pneumoniae was the most resistant bacterium isolated under the same condition except in chloroform fraction. K. pneumoniae had shown MIC value of 10 mg/mL in the leaves and heartwood in both the crude and petroleum ether extract. S. boydii and S. aureus had shown the MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL in the crude extract for the both leaves and heartwood; Whereas the petroleum ether semi-purified fraction had shown 0.5 mg/mL in the heartwood. In the crude extract, E. coli and P. aeruginosa exhibits similar MIC value of 1.75 mg/mL. In semi purified petroleum ether extract, E. coli had MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL; Whereas P. aeruginosa had shown no change in crude extract. Candida albicans revealed equal MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL for the both crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood.Conclusions:The crude and semi-purified fractions of W. ugandensis have considerable effect on pathogens. Semi-purified petroleum ether fraction has better antimicrobial activity in both agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. This study further shows the potential of W.ugandensis for further study in order to be use as a modern drug.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis against some pathogens

    Yibeltal Merawie


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate in vitro antimicrobial activities of leaves and heartwood crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae (W. ugandensis on some pathogens. Methods: Crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood of W. ugandensis were prepared. Six bacteria [Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa, Shigella boydii (S. boydii, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia] and one fungus (Candida albicans were tested by agar well diffusion and broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Results: S. boydii and S. aureus were found to be the most susceptible bacterial isolated in agar well diffusion and broth dilution method of both the crude and petroleum ether extracts, while K. pneumoniae was the most resistant bacterium isolated under the same condition except in chloroform fraction. K. pneumoniae had shown MIC value of 10 mg/mL in the leaves and heartwood in both the crude and petroleum ether extract. S. boydii and S. aureus had shown the MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL in the crude extract for the both leaves and heartwood; Whereas the petroleum ether semi-purified fraction had shown 0.5 mg/mL in the heartwood. In the crude extract, E. coli and P. aeruginosa exhibits similar MIC value of 1.75 mg/mL. In semi purified petroleum ether extract, E. coli had MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL; Whereas P. aeruginosa had shown no change in crude extract. Candida albicans revealed equal MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL for the both crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood. Conclusions: The crude and semi-purified fractions of W. ugandensis have considerable effect on pathogens. Semi-purified petroleum ether fraction has better antimicrobial activity in both agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. This study further shows the potential of W. ugandensis for further study in order to be use as a modern

  16. Systematic Engineering of Escherichia coli for d-Lactate Production from Crude Glycerol.

    Wang, Zei Wen; Saini, Mukesh; Lin, Li-Jen; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng


    Crude glycerol resulting from biodiesel production is an abundant and renewable resource. However, the impurities in crude glycerol usually make microbial fermentation problematic. This issue was addressed by systematic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of d-lactate from crude glycerol. First, mgsA and the synthetic pathways of undesired products were eliminated in E. coli, rendering the strain capable of homofermentative production of optically pure d-lactate. To direct carbon flux toward d-lactate, the resulting strain was endowed with an enhanced expression of glpD-glpK in the glycerol catabolism and of a heterologous gene encoding d-lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, the strain was evolved to improve its utilization of cruder glycerol and subsequently equipped with the FocA channel to export intracellular d-lactate. Finally, the fed-batch fermentation with two-phase culturing was carried out with a bioreactor. As a result, the engineered strain enabled production of 105 g/L d-lactate (99.9% optical purity) from 121 g/L crude glycerol at 40 h. The result indicates the feasibility of our approach to engineering E. coli for the crude glycerol-based fermentation.

  17. Mathematical Model of Sorption Kinetics of Crude Oil by Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres

    Felix A. AISIEN


    Full Text Available This paper present an insight into how rubber particles from scrap tyres can be utilized to clean up oil spillages as well as how the process of sorption of crude oil by rubber particles can be stimulated based on sorption kinetics. Crude oil sorption tests using recycled rubber particles (a model absorbent were designed for investigating crude oil concentration profiles. The model based on a linear driving force (LDF was developed using a set of experimental data and multiple regression analysis. The crude oil sorption performance tests were conducted under various operating conditions by varying parameters such as rubber particle size and absorption temperature. The predictive capacity of the kinetic model was evaluated under conditions significantly different from those that have already been measured. The experimental results obtained previously were correlated with the first order sorption kinetics model developed. The results showed that the first order kinetics model accurately correlate the experimental data generated. Also, satisfactory results were obtained from simulation of other operating conditions; hence the crude oil sorption kinetics is first order.

  18. Determining Optimal Crude Oil Price Benchmark in Nigeria: An Empirical Approach

    Saibu Olufemi Muibi


    Full Text Available This paper contributes to on-going empirical search for an appropriate crude oil price benchmark that ensures greater financial stability and efficient fiscal management in Nigeria. It adopted the seasonally adjusted ARIMA forecasting models using monthly data series from 2000m01 to 2012m12 to predict future movement in Nigeria crude oil prices. The paper derived a more robust and dynamic framework that accommodates fluctuation in crude oil price and also in government spending. The result shows that if the incessant withdrawal from the ECA fund and the increasing debt profile of government in recent times are factored into the benchmark, the real crude oil numerical fiscal rule is (US$82.3 for 2013 which is higher than the official benchmark of $75 used for 2013 and 2014 budget proposal. The paper argues that the current long run price rule based on 5-10 year moving average approach adopted by government is rigid and inflexible as a rule for managing Nigerian oil funds. The unrealistic assumption of the extant benchmark accounted for excessive depletion and lack of accountability of the excess crude oil account. The paper concludes that except the federal government can curtail its spending profligacy and adopts a more stringent fiscal discipline rules, the current benchmark is unrealistic and unsuitable for fiscal management of oil revenue in the context of Nigerian economic spending profile.

  19. Microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation; from microbial consortia to heavy oil

    Head, Ian M.; Maguire, Michael J.; Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell; Gray, Neil D.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Martin Jones, D.; Oldenburg, Thomas B.P.; Larter, Stephen R. [Petroleum Research Group, Geosciences, University of Calgary (Canada)


    This paper presents the microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. Biodegraded petroleum reservoirs are one of the most dramatic indications of the deep biosphere. It is estimated that heavy oil and oil sands will account for a considerable amount of energy production in the future. Carbon, a major resource for deep subsurface microorganisms, and energy are contained in large quantities in petroleum reservoirs. The aerobic to anaerobic paradigm shift is explained. A key process for in-situ oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs is methanogenesis. New paradigms for in-reservoir crude oil biodegradation are discussed. Variations in anaerobic degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons are also discussed. A graph shows the different patterns of crude oil biodegradation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Alternative anaerobic alkane activation mechanisms are also shown. From the study, it can be concluded that methanogenic crude oil degradation is of global importance and led to the establishment of the world's enormous heavy oil deposits.

  20. Energy balance of biofuel production from biological conversion of crude glycerol.

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valéro, Jose R


    Crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, has gained significant attention as a carbon source for biofuel production. This study evaluated the energy balance of biodiesel, hydrogen, biogas, and ethanol production from 3.48 million L of crude glycerol (80% w/v). The conversion efficiency (energy output divided by energy invested) was 1.16, 0.22, 0.27, and 0.40 for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, biogas, and ethanol respectively. It was found that the use of crude glycerol for biodiesel production was an energy gain process, with a positive energy balance and conversion efficiency of greater than 1. The energy balance revealed a net energy gain of 5226 GJ per 1 million kg biodiesel produced. Production of hydrogen, biogas and ethanol from crude glycerol were energy loss processes. Therefore, the conversion of crude glycerol to lipids and subsequently to biodiesel is suggested to be a better option compared to hydrogen, biogas, or ethanol production with respect to energy balance.

  1. Biological and Enzymatic Characterization of Proteases from Crude Venom of the Ant Odontomachus bauri

    Mariana Ferreira Silva


    Full Text Available Hymenoptera venoms constitute an interesting source of natural toxins that may lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents. The present study investigated the enzymatic and biological characteristics of the crude venom of the ant Odontomachus bauri. Its crude venom presents several protein bands, with higher staining for six proteins with gelatinolytic activity (17, 20, 26, 29, 43 and 48 kDa. The crude venom showed high proteolytic activity on azocasein at optimal pH 8.0 and 37 °C. In the presence of protease inhibitors as aprotinin, leupeptin and EDTA, the azocaseinolytic activity was reduced by 45%, 29% and 9%, respectively, suggesting that the enzymes present in the crude venom belong to the three classes of proteases, with the serine proteases in greater intensity. The crude venom degraded the fibrinogen α-chain faster than the β-chain, while the fibrinogen γ-chain remained unchanged. In biological assays, O. bauri venom showed hemolytic and coagulant activity in vitro, and defibrinating activity in vivo. In addition, the venom showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as well as antiparasitic activity on Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro. In that sense, this study sheds perspectives for pharmacological applications of O. bauri venom enzymes.

  2. Biological and Enzymatic Characterization of Proteases from Crude Venom of the Ant Odontomachus bauri.

    Silva, Mariana Ferreira; Mota, Caroline Martins; Miranda, Vanessa dos Santos; Cunha, Amanda de Oliveira; Silva, Maraísa Cristina; Naves, Karinne Spirandelli Carvalho; de Oliveira, Fábio; Silva, Deise Aparecida de Oliveira; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Santiago, Fernanda Maria


    Hymenoptera venoms constitute an interesting source of natural toxins that may lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents. The present study investigated the enzymatic and biological characteristics of the crude venom of the ant Odontomachus bauri. Its crude venom presents several protein bands, with higher staining for six proteins with gelatinolytic activity (17, 20, 26, 29, 43 and 48 kDa). The crude venom showed high proteolytic activity on azocasein at optimal pH 8.0 and 37 °C. In the presence of protease inhibitors as aprotinin, leupeptin and EDTA, the azocaseinolytic activity was reduced by 45%, 29% and 9%, respectively, suggesting that the enzymes present in the crude venom belong to the three classes of proteases, with the serine proteases in greater intensity. The crude venom degraded the fibrinogen α-chain faster than the β-chain, while the fibrinogen γ-chain remained unchanged. In biological assays, O. bauri venom showed hemolytic and coagulant activity in vitro, and defibrinating activity in vivo. In addition, the venom showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as well as antiparasitic activity on Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro. In that sense, this study sheds perspectives for pharmacological applications of O. bauri venom enzymes.

  3. Protective effect of crude Curcuma longa and its methanolic extract in alloxanized rabbits.

    Ahmad, Mobasher; Kamran, Sairah Hafeez; Mobasher, Afroze


    Curcuma longa (C. longa) is commonly found in different areas of Pakistan. It has been locally utilized as a traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and total antioxidant effect of the crude drug and its methanolic extract in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with alloxan (180mg/kg). Two major groups were designed, curative and protective groups. In curative group the crude drug and its methanolic extract was orally administered to the diabetic animals and acute study was performed. On the other hand in protective group the crude drug and its methanolic extract were administered for eight days prior to the diabetes induction. Results indicated that in Curative group the crude and methanolic extract of C. longa significantly improved the levels of serum glucose, serum transaminases and antioxidant activity (AOA). In protective group, serum glucose, serum transaminases were not significantly increased by alloxan, in both crude as well as methanolic extract group. This study shows that C. longa acts as antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant in diabetes especially type 1 diabetes.

  4. Tracking Catalytic Esterification of Naphthenic Acids in Crude Oil by ESI FT-ICR MS

    Li Xiaohui; Wu Bencheng; Zhu Jianhua; Tao Xiujuan


    The catalytic esterification reaction was used to decrease total acid number (TAN) of crude oil by converting naphthenic acids to naphthenic acid esters in the presence of Zn-Al hydrotalcite used as the catalyst and glycol used as the reactant. The crude oil and its corresponding esterified oil were characterized by the negative-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Six acidic class species, O2, O1, N1, N2, N1O1 and N1O2 were assigned in the negative-ion spectrum both in the crude oil and its esterified oil. Among the identified acidic compounds, the O2 class was dominant. The relative abundance of O2 class species was much higher than other acidic class species in crude oil, while it was significantly decreased after esterification. The most abundant O2 class species had a car-bon number of 30-34 and a double-bond equivalence (DBE) value of 5 before and after esterification. It could be concluded that the naphthenic acids in crude oil can be esterified to lower its TAN value, and each of them seems to exhibit identical esterification efficiency approximately due to the similar DBE versus the -carbon number distribution before and after es-terification.

  5. Rapid ABO genotyping by high-speed droplet allele-specific PCR using crude samples.

    Taira, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Takeichi, Naoya; Furukawa, Satomi; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Uehara, Takeshi; Okumura, Nobuo; Honda, Takayuki


    ABO genotyping has common tools for personal identification of forensic and transplantation field. We developed a new method based on a droplet allele-specific PCR (droplet-AS-PCR) that enabled rapid PCR amplification. We attempted rapid ABO genotyping using crude DNA isolated from dried blood and buccal cells. We designed allele-specific primers for three SNPs (at nucleotides 261, 526, and 803) in exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene. We pretreated dried blood and buccal cells with proteinase K, and obtained crude DNAs without DNA purification. Droplet-AS-PCR allowed specific amplification of the SNPs at the three loci using crude DNA, with results similar to those for DNA extracted from fresh peripheral blood. The sensitivity of the methods was 5%-10%. The genotyping of extracted DNA and crude DNA were completed within 8 and 9 minutes, respectively. The genotypes determined by the droplet-AS-PCR method were always consistent with those obtained by direct sequencing. The droplet-AS-PCR method enabled rapid and specific amplification of three SNPs of the ABO gene from crude DNA treated with proteinase K. ABO genotyping by the droplet-AS-PCR has the potential to be applied to various fields including a forensic medicine and transplantation medical care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of Alkali on Daqing Crude Oil/Water Interfacial Properties

    Guo Jixiang; Li Mingyuan; Lin Meiqin; Wu Zhaoliang


    Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding using sodium hydroxide as the alkali component to enhance oil recovery in Daqing Oilfield,northeast China has been successful,but there are new problems in the treatment of produced crude. The alkali added forms stable water-in-crude oil emulsion,hence de-emulsification process is necessary to separate oil and water. The problems in enhanced oil recovery with ASP flooding were investigated in laboratory by using fractions of Daqing crude oil. The oil was separated into aliphatics,aromatics,resin and asphaltene fractions. These fractions were then mixed with an additive-free jet fuel to form model oils. The interfacial properties,such as interfacial tension and interfacial pressure of the systems were also measured,which together with the molecular parameters of the fractions were all used to investigate the problems in the enhanced oil recovery. In our work,it was found that sodium hydroxide solution reacts with the acidic hydrogen in the fractions of crude oil and forms soap-like interfacially active components,which accumulate at the crude oil-water interface.

  7. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich


    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7-7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish.

  8. Consolidating biofuel platforms through the fermentative bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

    Johnson, Erin; Sarchami, Tahereh; Kießlich, Sascha; Munch, Garret; Rehmann, Lars


    Economic realities for the rising industrial biofuel production have changed substantially during the low oil price period starting in the mid 2010's. Increased competition requires the sector to increase productivity through the reduction of low-value by-products and full utilization of all value and energy stored in their respective feedstock. Biodiesel is produced commercially from substrates such as animal fat and vegetable oil, generating approximately 10 wt% crude glycerol as its main, currently underutilized, by-product. This crude glycerol is contaminated with catalyst, soap, free fatty acids, glycerides and methyl esters; hence only a small fraction enters the existing glycerol markets, while the purification costs for the majority of crude glycerol are simply too high. However, this presents a unique opportunity to generate additional value. One technical possibility is to use crude glycerol as a carbon source for butanol production, a compound of higher value and energy, a potential additive for gasoline and diesel fuels and bulk chemical commodity. Conversion facilities could be co-located with biodiesel plants, utilizing established infrastructure and adding significant value and productivity to the existing biodiesel industry. This review focuses on the current activities geared towards the bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

  9. Detection of salivary antibodies to crude antigens of Opisthorchis viverrini in opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma patients.

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Thuwajit, Chanitra; Yongvanit, Puangrat


    Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini; known as human liver fluke) is a major health problem in the northeastern region of Thailand. Infection with O. viverrini is the cause of hepatobiliary disease and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Previous studies demonstrated specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens in serum from O. viverrini-infected patients. However, no studies have measured specific antibodies to O. viverrini antigens in saliva from patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA. The objective of the study was to detect specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens in saliva from patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA, and to evaluate their use for diagnosis of O. viverrini infection. Saliva samples from 23 control subjects, 30 opisthorchiasis patients, and 38 CCA patients were collected. ELISA was established for detection of salivary IgA and IgG to crude O. viverrini antigens. ANOVA was used to compare salivary IgA and IgG levels among groups. Salivary IgA to crude O. viverrini antigens in CCA patients was significantly higher than controls (p = 0.007). Salivary IgG in CCA patients was significantly higher than opisthorchiasis patients and controls (p = 0.010 and p viverrini infection than salivary IgA. In conclusion, specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens were detected in saliva of patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA. Salivary antibodies reflect serum immune response to O. viverrini infection, and salivary IgG tends to be a good candidate for diagnosis of O. viverrini infection.

  10. The Effects of Biodiesel and Crude Oil on the Foraging Behavior of Rusty Crayfish, Orconectes rusticus.

    Jurcak, Ana M; Gauthier, Steven J; Moore, Paul A


    Environmental pollutants, such as crude oil and other petroleum-based fuels, inhibit and limit an organism's ability to perceive a chemical stimulus. Despite the increased use of alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, there have been few studies investigating the impact of these chemicals on the behavior of aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the sublethal effects of biodiesel and crude oil exposure on chemically mediated behaviors in a freshwater keystone species. Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) were tested on their ability to respond appropriately to a positive chemical stimulus within a Y-maze choice paradigm. Behavior was quantified by measuring time spent finding an odor source, duration of time spent at the odor source, percentage of crayfish that found the odor source, and percentage of crayfish that chose the correct arm of the arena. Results indicated negative impacts of both biodiesel and crude oil on the ability of crayfish to locate the food source. However, there were no significant differences between behavioral performances when crayfish were exposed to crude oil compared with biodiesel. Thus, biodiesel and crude oil have equally negative effects on the chemosensory behavior of crayfish. These findings indicate that biodiesel has the potential to have similar negative ecological impacts as other fuel source toxins.

  11. Multiwall carbon nanotubes increase the microbial community in crude oil contaminated fresh water sediments.

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi


    Since crude oil contamination is one of the biggest environmental concerns, its removal from contaminated sites is of interest for both researchers and industries. In situ bioremediation is a promising technique for decreasing or even eliminating crude oil and hydrocarbon contamination. However, since these compounds are potentially toxic for many microorganisms, high loads of contamination can inhibit the microbial community and therefore reduce the removal rate. Therefore, any strategy with the ability to increase the microbial population in such circumstances can be of promise in improving the remediation process. In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes were employed to support microbial growth in sediments contaminated with crude oil. Following spiking of fresh water sediments with different concentrations of crude oil alone and in a mixture with carbon nanotubes for 30days, the microbial profiles in these sediments were obtained using FLX-pyrosequencing. Next, the ratios of each member of the microbial population in these sediments were compared with those values in the untreated control sediment. This study showed that combination of crude oil and carbon nanotubes can increase the diversity of the total microbial population. Furthermore, these treatments could increase the ratios of several microorganisms that are known to be effective in the degradation of hydrocarbons.

  12. The Reasons and the Impacts of Crude Oil Prices on World Economy

    Jitka Heydová


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how crude oil prices affect the world economy. It discusses crude oil and its everyday usage and necessity in today‘s world. This paper also discusses the historical supply and demand of oil and gives the numbers for the world proven reserves. Furthermore, it explains the history of crude oil prices, maps factors that influenced price and highlights impacts on the world economy. It characterizes the main factors influencing the impact of crude oil price changes to a country’s economy in OECD countries. It contains detailed information about each country of OECD and calculates the results of the main macroeconomic figures and influencing factors. It analyzes and compares country’s differences and point out the danger of dependency on imported sources of oil. Crude oil price is influencing of our everyday life and understanding the problem can improve our awareness of energy sources and perhaps prevent another oil crisis. ThepaperwasprocessedwithintheframeworkoftheResearch Project of MSM 6046070906 "Theeconomicsof Czech agriculturalresources and theireffective use withintheframeworkofmultifunctionalagri-food systems".

  13. γ-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica and Lindnera saturnus in crude glycerol.

    Soares, Géssyca P A; Souza, Karla S T; Vilela, Leonardo F; Schwan, Rosane F; Dias, Disney R


    Flavor compounds are commonly obtained from chemical synthesis or extracted from plants. These sources have disadvantages, such as racemic mixture generation, more steps to yield the final product, low yield, and high cost, making the microbial fermentation an alternative and potential way to obtain flavor compounds. The most important lactone for flavor application is γ-decalactone, which has an aroma of peach and can be obtained by ricinoleic acid biotransformation through yeast peroxisomal β-oxidation. The aim of this work was to use crude glycerol, a residual biodiesel industry, for the production of bioaroma from two different yeasts. Yarrowia lipolytica CCMA 0357 and Lindnera saturnus CCMA 0243 were grown at different concentrations (10, 20, and 30% w/v) of substrates (castor oil and crude glycerol) for γ-decalactone production. L. saturnus CCMA 0243 produced higher concentration of y-decalactone (5.8 g/L) in crude glycerol, whereas Y. lipolytica CCMA 0357 showed a maximum production in castor oil (3.5 g/L). Crude glycerol showed better results for γ-decalactone production when compared to castor oil. L. saturnus CCMA 0243 has been shown to have a high potential for γ-decalactone production from crude glycerol.

  14. Regulatory volume decrease in isolated nematocytes is affected by crude venom from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca

    Rossana Morabito


    Full Text Available Crude venom from nematocysts of the Scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca possesses hemolytic and cytotoxic power on cultured cells and elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions in vivo. The ability of regulating their volume after exposure to an anisosmotic solution is a fundamental feature common to cells from vertebrates and invertebrates, including Cnidarians. The aim of the present work i s to assay whether crude venom from Pelagia noctiluca may affect the regulatory volume decrease (RVD of nematocytes isolated from the Anthozoan Aiptasia mutabilis, here employed as a cell model. For this purpose, nematocytes were isolated by 605 mM NaSCN plus 0.01 mM Ca2+ application on acontia of Aiptasia mutabilis, while crude venom was obtained by sonication of a population of, respectively, 10, 25 and 50 nematocysts/µL (n/µL. Isolated nematocytes were pre-treated for 30 min with crude venom, submitted to hypotonic stress and their osmotic response and RVD were measured optically. Our results show that, after exposure to crude venom, nematocytes were morphologically intact, as shown by the Trypan blue exclusion test, but did not exhibit RVD. This effect was dose-dependent and reversed by the ionopho re gramicidin. The last observation suggests an inhibitory effect of venom on cell membrane ion transport mechanisms involved in RVD. Further studies are needed to verify this hypothesis and ascertain if a similar effect could be observed in human cells.

  15. Performance of juvenile mojarra supplied with feed containing varying levels of crude protein

    Ricardo Henrique Bastos de Souza


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growth of the Brazilian aquaculture has stimulated the development of the productive chain of native species, including marine environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of juvenile mojarra fish (Diapterus rhombeus fed diets containing different concentrations of crude protein (32, 36, 40 and 44 g 100 g-1. The 80 juvenile mojarra (7.2±1.5 g were kept in 16 circular tanks (150 L. The study design used was completely randomized with four treatments and four repetitions. The fish were fed four times a day. At the end of the experiment (60 days the final weight, feed intake, weight gain (WG, feed:gain ratio (FGR, protein efficiency rate (PER, energy efficiency rate, specific growth, survival rate and, body composition were evaluated. It was verified significant effect of protein level on the WG, with the best value at the level of 38.20 g 100 g-1 of crude protein. For FGR, the best estimated value occurred with 38.06 g 100 g-1 of crude protein, similar to that reported for the PER (38.91 g 100 g-1. The other performance parameters and body composition were not influenced by crude protein levels. Diet crude protein concentrations between 38.06 and 38.91 g 100 g-1 provide the best performance indices for juvenile mojarra.

  16. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

    Raylon Pereira Maciel


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.


    Mariana Marinescu


    Full Text Available Pollution caused by crude oil is the most prevalent problem in the environment. The release of crude oil into theenvironment by oil spills is receiving worldwide attention. The effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties wasinvestigated by achieving a case study in Perisoru, Braila County. It has been achieved a profile until 120 cm and soilsamples were collected according to the methodology and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. In caseof physical analysis, the values obtained for granulometric fractions were not influenced by the presence of crude oil.Results obtained showed variation in chemical properties of soil. Organic carbon increased from 2.23% for anunpolluted soil to 5.51% in polluted soil. C/N ratios increased from 13.01 for an unpolluted soil to 20.54 in pollutedsoil. Mobile phosphorous and potassium registered in polluted soil similar values with the one characteristic forunpolluted soil. Crude oil at high pollution levels inhibited the growth of crops.

  18. Co-digestion of swine excreta associated with increasing levels of crude glycerin

    Marco Antonio Previdelli Orrico Junior


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of anaerobic co-digestion of swine excreta associated with increasing doses of crude glycerin and different hydraulic retention times (HRT. A completely randomized design was adopted in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement composed of three HRT (10, 17, and 24 days and four crude glycerin doses (0, 5, 10, and 15 g/100 g of total solids [TS], with four replications per treatment. The assessed parameters were: biogas production potential, reductions of volatile solids (VS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and most probable number of total and thermotolerant coliforms. The biogas production per added VS presented quadratic effect at 17 and 24 days of HRT, with ideal doses of 5.5 and 5.9 g of crude glycerin/100 g TS, respectively. There was no difference among glycerin doses at 10-day HRT for VS reductions; however, at HRT of 17 and 24 days, there were differences, with greater reduction of 61.1% for 5 g of crude glycerin/100 g TS at 24-day HRT. The COD reduction values showed an effect among retention times, in which the 24-day HRT provided the best results. Reductions in coliforms were greater than 99%, with no difference among treatments. Addition of 5 to 6 g of crude glycerin/100 g TS with a 24-day HRT is more effective in biogas production and reduction of VS, COD, and coliforms from co-digestion of swine excreta.

  19. Production of fumaric acid from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Rhizopus arrhizus.

    Zhou, Yuqing; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shihong; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei


    This work investigated the capability of Rhizopus arrhizus to assimilate biodiesel-derived crude glycerol and convert it into fumaric acid. After optimizing the initial glycerol concentration, spore inoculum and yeast extract concentration, smaller pellets (0.7 mm) and higher biomass (3.11 g/L) were obtained when R. arrhizus grew on crude glycerol. It was found that crude glycerol was more suitable than glucose for smaller R. arrhizus pellet forming. When 80 g/L crude glycerol was used as carbon source, the fumaric acid production of 4.37 g/L was obtained at 192 h. With a highest concentration of 22.81 g/L achieved in the co-fermentation of crude glycerol (40 g/L) and glucose (40 g/L) at 144 h, the fumaric acid production was enhanced by 553.6%, compared to the fermentation using glycerol (80 g/L) as sole carbon source. Moreover, the production cost of fumaric acid in co-fermentation was reduced by approximately 14% compared to glucose fermentation.

  20. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)


    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  1. The application of event-tree based approach in long-term crude oil scheduling


    This paper addresses the problem of optimal operation in long-term crude oil scheduling,which involves unloading crude oil from vessels,transferring it to charging tanks and feeding it to the distillation units.The application of a new approach for modeling and optimization of long-term crude oil scheduling is presented and the event-tree based modeling method that is very different from mathematical programming is employed.This approach is developed on the basis of natural language modeling and continuous time representation.Event triggered rules,decomposition strategy,depth-first search algorithm and pruning strategy are adopted to improve the efficiency of searching the optimum solution.This approach is successfully applied to an industrial-size problem over a horizon of 4 weeks,involving 7 vessels,6 storage tanks,6 charging tanks,2 crude oil distillation units,and 6 crude oil types.The CPU (AMD 3000+,2.0GHz) solving time is less than 70 seconds.

  2. Projections of Demand for Waterborne Transportation, Ohio River Basin, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2020, 2040. Volume 5. Group III. Crude Petroleum.


    Petroleum Administration for Defense District II (PADD II), which includes major crude oil production areas in the Ohio fiver Basin, reported an excess of...the total disappearance of local movements. This occurred partly because of the decrease in crude oil production in the PSAs, but mostly because of...Production, on the other hand, decreased rapidly and steadily throughout the period. In 1976, crude oil production in the study area was estimated at only 48

  3. BPO crude oil analysis data base user`s guide: Methods, publications, computer access correlations, uses, availability

    Sellers, C.; Fox, B.; Paulz, J.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  4. Biodegradation of Bonnylight crude oil by locally isolated fungi from oil contaminated soils in Akure, Ondo state

    Ekundayo, F. O.; Olukunle, O.F.; Ekundayo, E.A.


    Aim: This present investigation was conducted to determine the capability of fungi isolated from soil samples collected from two automobile workshopsto bioremediate Bonnylight crude oil.Methodology and Results: The fungi present on the soil samples collected from two automobile workshops in Akure, Nigeria were investigated using standard microbiological techniques. These fungal isolates were screened for the ability to degrade Bonnylight crude oil. The bioremediation of Bonnylight crude oil w...

  5. Characterization of crude oils and petroleum products: (I Elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products

    E.O. Odebunmi


    Full Text Available Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and elution liquid chromatography. The fractions obtained from elution liquid chromatography were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC. The GC fractions were identified by comparing the retention time of peaks in the unknown samples with those of components of calibration standard mixtures. The importance of the physico-chemical properties and the significance of the fractional distillation and chromatographic separation methods to industrial process operations have been discussed.

  6. Flow visualization

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang


    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  7. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.


    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of lipid composition in crude palm oil using multiple lipidomic approaches.

    Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Shui, Guanghou


    Palm oil is currently the leading edible oil consumed worldwide. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are the dominant lipid classes in palm oil. Other lipid classes present in crude palm oil, such as phospholipids and galactolipids, are very low in abundance. These low-abundance lipids constitute key intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we applied multiple lipidomic approaches, including high-sensitivity and high-specificity multiple reaction monitoring, to comprehensively quantify individual lipid species in crude palm oil. We also established a new liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry method that allows direct quantification of low-abundance galactolipids in palm oil without the need for sample pretreatment. As crude palm oil contains large amounts of neutral lipids, our direct-detection method circumvents many of the challenges encountered with conventional lipid quantification methods. This approach allows direct measurement of lipids with no hassle during sample preparation and is more accurate and precise compared with other methods.

  9. Effects of surfactants on bacteria and the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil

    Bruheim, Per


    This thesis investigates the effects of surfactants on the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil. Several alkane oxidising Gram positive and Gram negative were tested for their abilities to oxidise alkanes in crude oil emulsified with surfactants. The surfactants used to make the oil in water emulsions were either of microbial or chemical origin. Oxidation rates of resting bacteria oxidising various crude oil in water emulsions were measured by Warburg respirometry. The emulsions were compared with non-emulsified oil to see which was the preferred substrate. The bacteria were pregrown to both the exponential and stationary phase of growth before harvesting and preparation for the Warburg experiments. 123 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses


    Full Text Available Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding time and rumination and on decrease of idle time with the inclusion of crude glycerin levels (p 0.05. Crude glycerin did not drastically affect the feeding behavior of dairy cows.

  11. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report


    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  12. Compositional heterogeneity of crude oil and its origin in the Linnan subsag, Linyi County, Shandong Province

    CHANG Xiangchun; DUAN Yunge; CHEN Qingchun; MA Lixin


    The Linnan subsag is the main oil producer of the Linpan oil zone. Based on the oil group composition, gas chromatography data and biomarker analysis, it was indicated that crude oils from different oilfields varied greatly in group composition and showed obvious heterogeneities in the aspects of precursor type, crude oil maturity and hydrocarbon depositional environment. According to the characteristics of source rocks, three oil populations can be distinguished, i.e., the southern, northern and transitional oil populations. Furthermore, on the basis of post-reservoir reworking processes, the medium conditions of hydrocarbon-generating environment and differences in maturity, six oil families and twelve sub-families were distinquished. An integrated study suggested that the factors leading to such heterogeneities in crude oil composition mainly include different source rocks, multi-stage oil/gas charging, geo-chromatographic effects during oil/gas migration, reservoir heterogeneities and various post-reservoir secondary alterations.

  13. Molecular characterization of vanadyl and nickel non-porphyrin compounds in heavy crude petroleums and residua

    Reynolds, J.G.; Biggs, W.R.; Fetzer, J.C.; Gallegos, E.J.; Fish, R.H.; Komlenic, J.J.; Wines, B.K.


    The molecular characterization of vanadium and nickel compounds in heavy crude petroleums has been the subject of current research. Arabian Heavy, Maya, Boscan, Cerro Negro, Prudhoe Bay, Wilmington Beta, Kern River, and Morichal crude petroleums have been examined. Fractions from D 2007 separations, porphyrin extractions, and solvent selective extraction with reversed phase column separations of these petroleums have been studied thoroughly by EPR. Important structural aspects are emerging from the presented data: (1) There are non-porphyrin metal complexes in the crude petroleums. (2) They appear to be smaller molecules with MW < 400 which are liberated when the tertiary structure of the large asphaltics is denatured. (3) The first coordination spheres of this class of compounds are possibly 4N, N O 2S, and 4S. 10 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  14. Crude oil price shocks and stock returns. Evidence from Turkish stock market under global liquidity conditions

    Berk, Istemi [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Aydogan, Berna [Izmir Univ. of Economics (Turkey). Dept. of International Trade and Finance


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of crude oil price variations on the Turkish stock market returns. We have employed vector autoregression (V AR) model using daily observations of Brent crude oil prices and Istanbul Stock Exchange National Index (ISE- 1 00) returns for the period between January 2, 1990 and November 1, 2011. We have also tested the relationship between oil prices and stock market returns under global liquidity conditions by incorporating a liquidity proxy variable, Chicago Board of Exchange's (CBOE) S and P 500 market volatility index (VIX), into the model. Variance decomposition test results suggest little empirical evidence that crude oil price shocks have been rationally evaluated in the Turkish stock market. Rather, it was global liquidity conditions that were found to account for the greatest amount of variation in stock market returns.

  15. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.;


    Mountains fault block in central Belize which separates the Corozal Basin in northern Belize from the Belize Basin to the south. Numerous petroleum seeps have been reported in both of these basins. Small-scale oil production takes place in the Corozal Basin and the North and South Petén Basins....... For this study, samples of crude oil, seepage oil and potential source rocks were collected from both countries and were investigated by organic geochemical analyses and microscopy. The oil samples consisted of non-biodegraded crude oils and slightly to severely biodegraded seepage oils, both of which were...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  16. Sterane and terpane in the crude oil and source rock of the Beijing and Tianjin region

    Zhang, Z.; Chen, X.; Zeng, X.


    Based on the study of the chromatogram of terpane m/e 191 fragment, the 5 types of crude oil from the Beijing and Tianjin region are divided into two groups, one with abundant terpane and the other with only a small amount of terpane. It is believed that the oil in the third member of Shahejie Formation (Es/sub 3/) comes primarily from the Es/sub 3/ source rock, and the crude oil in the fourth member of Shahejie (Es/sub 4/)-Kongdian Formation and the buried hill comes from Es/sub 4/-Kongdian source rock. By using the parameters of sterane isomers, 4 sources are determined for the crude oil of the region, among which 4 are of a single origin and 1 of mixed origin.

  17. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    Maksim Belenkiy


    Full Text Available This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United States declined by over $700 million. This implies that the relatively less fuel-efficient U.S.-model vehicles will tend to suffer a competitive disadvantage worldwide when crude oil prices are high. We discuss the potential role of the proposed CAFÉ standards in improving fuel-efficiency and growing exports of the U.S. vehicle fleet.

  18. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn. and Gmelina arborea (Roxb. for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi


    Full Text Available A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlings planted in the uncontaminated soils. T. grandis and G. arborea as shown in this study could be good species for phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated habitats due to oil exploration and exploitation especially at low concentrations.

  19. Biodegradation of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209 by Crude Enzyme Extract from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Yu Liu


    Full Text Available The biodegradation effect and mechanism of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209 by crude enzyme extract from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The results demonstrated that crude enzyme extract exhibited obviously higher degradation efficiency and shorter biodegradation time than Pseudomonas aeruginosa itself. Under the optimum conditions of pH 9.0, 35 °C and protein content of 2000 mg/L, 92.77% of the initial BDE-209 (20 mg/L was degraded after 5 h. A BDE-209 biodegradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the biodegradation products identified by GC-MS analysis. The biodegradation mechanism showed that crude enzyme extract degraded BDE-209 into lower brominated PBDEs and OH-PBDEs through debromination and hydroxylation of the aromatic rings.

  20. Parasitosis gastrointestinal and hematocrit value in ewe fed with different levels of crude protein

    Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo


    Full Text Available We evaluated the parasitological behavior of sheep females fed with different levels of crude protein, by the value of hematocrit and egg counts per gram of feces (EPG in identifying severely infected animals. Were used 47 female sheep of Santa Ines, Texel and Ile de France, aged between eight and 12 months, wormed 30 days before the first data of crops, which were held every two weeks. Within each race, the animals were divided into two treatments, deferred by 12% or 16%, crude protein in the diet. It is obtained, laboratory, the value of hematocrit of each animal and the amount of EPG. The value of hematocrit showed a variation (28.5 a 34.0 throughout the experimental period, arising from changes (800 a 5400 of EPG values. No differences were identified for EPG and hematocrit levels between 12 and 16% of PB. Diet recommendation with 12% crude protein, by inferring lower commercial cost in feed.