Abdelmadjid Maireche
2017-01-01
The modified theories of noncommutative quantum mechanics have engrossed much attention in the last decade, especially its application to the fundamental three equations: Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. In this contextual exploration, we further investigate for modified quadratic Yukawa potential plus Mie-type potential (MIQYM) in the framework of modified nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation (MSE) using generalization of Bopp’s shift method and standard perturbation theory ins...
Cosmological model with fermion and tachyon fields interacting via Yukawa-type potential
Ribas, Marlos O.; Devecchi, Fernando P.; Kremer, Gilberto M.
2016-02-01
A model for the universe with tachyonic and fermionic fields interacting through a Yukawa-type potential is investigated. It is shown that the tachyonic field answers for the initial accelerated regime and for the subsequent decelerated regime so that it behaves as an inflaton at early times and as a matter field at intermediate times, while the fermionic field has the role of a dark energy constituent, since it leads to an accelerated regime at later times. The interaction between the fields via a Yukawa-type potential controls the duration of the decelerated era, since a stronger coupling makes a shorter decelerated period.
Cosmological model with fermion and tachyon fields interacting via Yukawa-type potential
Ribas, Marlos O; Kremer, Gilberto M
2016-01-01
A model for the universe with tachyonic and fermionic fields interacting through a Yukawa-type potential is investigated. It is shown that the tachyonic field answers for the initial accelerated regime and for the subsequent decelerated regime so that it behaves as an inflaton at early times and as a matter field at intermediate times, while the fermionic field has the role of a dark energy constituent, since it leads to an accelerated regime at later times. The interaction between the fields via a Yukawa-type potential controls the duration of the decelerated era, since a stronger coupling makes a shorter decelerated period.
Ribas, M. O.; Samojeden, L. L.; Devecchi, F. P.; Kremer, G. M.
2015-10-01
In this work we investigate a model for the early Universe in a Bianchi type-I metric, where the sources of the gravitational field are a fermionic and a bosonic field, interacting through a Yukawa potential, following the standard model of elementary particles. It is shown that the fermionic field has a negative pressure, while the boson has a small positive pressure. The fermionic field is the responsible for an accelerated regime at early times, but since the total pressure tends to zero for large times, a transition to a decelerated regime occurs. Here the Yukawa potential answers for the duration of the accelerated regime, since by decreasing the value of its coupling constant the transition accelerated-decelerated occurs in later times. The isotropization which occurs for late times is due to the presence of the fermionic field as one of the sources of the gravitational field.
Ribas, M O; Devecchi, F P; Kremer, G M
2015-01-01
In this work we investigate a model for the early Universe in a Bianchi type-I metric, where the sources of the gravitational field are a fermionic and a bosonic field, interacting through a Yukawa potential, following the standard model of elementary particles. It is shown that the fermionic field has a negative pressure, while the boson has a small positive pressure. The fermionic field is the responsible for an accelerated regime at early times, but since the total pressure tends to zero for large times, a transition to a decelerated regime occurs. Here the Yukawa potential answers for the duration of the accelerated regime, since by decreasing the value of its coupling constant the transition accelerated-decelerated occurs in later times. The isotropization which occurs for late times is due to the presence of the fermionic field as one of the sources of the gravitational field.
Dirac equation for the Hulthén potential within the Yukawa-type tensor interaction
Oktay Aydo(g)du; Elham Maghsoodi; Hassan Hassanabadi
2013-01-01
Using the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method,pseudospin and spin symmetric solutions of the Dirac equation for the scalar and vector Hulthén potentials with the Yukawa-type tensor potential are obtained for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling quantum number κ.We deduce the energy eigenvalue equations and corresponding upper-and lower-spinor wave functions in both the pseudospin and spin symmetry cases.Numerical results of the energy eigenvalue equations and the upper-and lower-spinor wave functions are presented to show the effects of the external potential and particle mass parameters as well as pseudospin and spin symmetric constants on the bound-state energies and wave functions in the absence and presence of the tensor interaction.
Fermionic cosmologies with Yukawa type interactions
Ribas, Marlos O; Kremer, Gilberto M
2010-01-01
In this work we discuss if fermionic sources could be responsible for accelerated periods in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spatially flat universe, including a usual self-interaction potential of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type together with a fermion-scalar interaction potential of the Yukawa type. The results show that the combination of these potentials could promote an initially accelerated period, going through a middle decelerated era, with a final eternal accelerated period, where the self-interaction contribution dominates.
B. I. Ita
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The solutions of the Schrödinger equation with inversely quadratic Yukawa and Mie-type potential (IQYMP for any angular momentum quantum number, l have been presented using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method. The bound state energy eigenvalues and the corresponding un-normalized eigenfunctions are obtained in terms of the Laguerre polynomials. Special cases of the potential are also considered and their eigen values obtained.
Indeterminacy points for superposed Yukawa and Gauss potentials
Choubey, J.; Sharma, L.K. (Government Engineering Coll., Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Applied Physics)
1981-04-01
Eigenenergy expansion for the superposition of Yukawa and Gauss potentials for calculating the first indeterminacy points is derived. Behaviour of Regge trajectories for the superposed potential is also studied.
Observational evidences of the Yukawa Potential Interacting Dark Matter
Chan, Man Ho
2013-01-01
Recent observations in galaxies and clusters indicate dark matter density profiles exhibit core-like structures which contradict to the numerical simulation results of collisionless cold dark matter. On the other hand, it has been shown that cold dark matter particles interacting through a Yukawa potential could naturally explain the cores in dwarf galaxies. In this article, I use the Yukawa Potential interacting dark matter model to derive two simple scaling relations on the galactic and cluster scales respectively, which give excellent agreements with observations. Also, in our model, the masses of the force carrier and dark matter particle can be constrained by the observational data.
Bound states and critical behavior of the Yukawa potential
LI; Yongyao
2006-01-01
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Global flow of the Higgs potential in a Yukawa model
Borchardt, Julia; Sondenheimer, René
2016-01-01
We study the renormalization flow of the Higgs potential as a function of both field amplitude and energy scale. This overcomes limitations of conventional techniques that rely, e.g., on an identification of field amplitude and RG scale, or on local field expansions. Using a Higgs-Yukawa model with discrete chiral symmetry as an example, our global flows in field space clarify the origin of possible meta-stabilities, the fate of the pseudo-stable phase, and provide new information about the renormalization of the tunnel barrier. Our results confirm the relaxation of the lower bound for the Higgs mass in the presence of more general microscopic interactions (higher-dimensional operators) to a high quantitative accuracy.
Global flow of the Higgs potential in a Yukawa model
Borchardt, Julia [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Center of Photonics, Jena (Germany); Gies, Holger [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Center of Photonics, Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Jena (Germany); Sondenheimer, Rene [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Jena (Germany)
2016-08-15
We study the renormalization flow of the Higgs potential as a function of both field amplitude and energy scale. This overcomes limitations of conventional techniques that rely, e.g., on an identification of field amplitude and RG scale, or on local field expansions. Using a Higgs-Yukawa model with discrete chiral symmetry as an example, our global flows in field space clarify the origin of possible metastabilities, the fate of the pseudo-stable phase, and provide new information as regards the renormalization of the tunnel barrier. Our results confirm the relaxation of the lower bound for the Higgs mass in the presence of more general microscopic interactions (higher-dimensional operators) to a high quantitative accuracy. (orig.)
Y Pathania; P K Ahluwalla
2005-09-01
We have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation of two- and three- dimensional double Yukawa fluids near the triple point. We have compared some of the static and dynamic correlation functions with those of Lennard{Jones, when parameters occurring in double Yukawa potential are chosen to fit Lennard-Jones potential. The results are in good agreement. However, when repulsive and attractive parameters occurring in double Yukawa potential are varied, we found distinct differences in static and dynamic correlation functions. We have also compared the two-dimensional correlation functions with those of three-dimensional to study the effect of dimensionality, near the triple point region.
Evolution of a quantum system of many particles interacting via the generalized Yukawa potential
Bogoliubov, N. N.; Rasulova, M. Yu.; Avazov, U. A.
2016-12-01
We study the evolution of a system of N particles that have identical masses and charges and interact via the generalized Yukawa potential. The system is placed in a bounded region. The evolution of such a system is described by the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) chain of quantum kinetic equations. Using semigroup theory, we prove the existence of a unique solution of the BBGKY chain of quantum kinetic equations with the generalized Yukawa potential.
TESTING YUKAWA-LIKE POTENTIALS FROM f(R)-GRAVITY IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES
Napolitano, N. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16, 80131-Napoli (Italy); Capozziello, S.; Capaccioli, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy); Romanowsky, A. J. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Tortora, C., E-mail: napolita@na.astro.it [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zuerich (Switzerland)
2012-04-01
We present the first analysis of extended stellar kinematics of elliptical galaxies where a Yukawa-like correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential derived from f(R)-gravity is considered as an alternative to dark matter. In this framework, we model long-slit data and planetary nebula data out to 7 R{sub eff} of three galaxies with either decreasing or flat dispersion profiles. We use the corrected Newtonian potential in a dispersion-kurtosis Jeans analysis to account for the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. We find that these modified potentials are able to fit nicely all three elliptical galaxies and the anisotropy distribution is consistent with that estimated if a dark halo is considered. The parameter which measures the 'strength' of the Yukawa-like correction is, on average, smaller than the one found previously in spiral galaxies and correlates both with the scale length of the Yukawa-like term and the orbital anisotropy.
Testing Yukawa-like potentials from f(R)-gravity in elliptical galaxies
Napolitano, N R; Romanowsky, A J; Capaccioli, M; Tortora, C
2012-01-01
We present the first analysis of extended stellar kinematics of elliptical galaxies where a Yukawa--like correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential derived from f(R)-gravity is considered as an alternative to dark matter. In this framework, we model long-slit data and planetary nebulae data out to 7 Re of three galaxies with either decreasing or flat dispersion profiles. We use the corrected Newtonian potential in a dispersion-kurtosis Jeans analysis to account for the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. We find that these modified potentials are able to fit nicely all three elliptical galaxies and the anisotropy distribution is consistent with that estimated if a dark halo is considered. The parameter which measures the "strength" of the Yukawa-like correction is, on average, smaller than the one found previously in spiral galaxies and correlates both with the scale length of the Yukawa-like term and the orbital anisotropy.
Testing Yukawa-like Potentials from f(R)-gravity in Elliptical Galaxies
Napolitano, N. R.; Capozziello, S.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Capaccioli, M.; Tortora, C.
2012-04-01
We present the first analysis of extended stellar kinematics of elliptical galaxies where a Yukawa-like correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential derived from f(R)-gravity is considered as an alternative to dark matter. In this framework, we model long-slit data and planetary nebula data out to 7 R eff of three galaxies with either decreasing or flat dispersion profiles. We use the corrected Newtonian potential in a dispersion-kurtosis Jeans analysis to account for the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. We find that these modified potentials are able to fit nicely all three elliptical galaxies and the anisotropy distribution is consistent with that estimated if a dark halo is considered. The parameter which measures the "strength" of the Yukawa-like correction is, on average, smaller than the one found previously in spiral galaxies and correlates both with the scale length of the Yukawa-like term and the orbital anisotropy.
Spinless particles in the field of unequal scalar-vector Yukawa potentials
M.Hamzavi; S.M.Ikhdair; K.E.Thylwe
2013-01-01
We present analytical bound state solutions of the spin-zero Klein-Gordon (KG) particles in the field of unequal mixture of scalar and vector Yukawa potentials within the framework of the approximation scheme to the centrifugal potential term for any arbitraryl-state.The approximate energy eigenvalues and unnormalized wave functions are obtained in closed forms using a simple shortcut of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method.Further,we solve the KG-Yukawa problem for its exact numerical energy eigenvalues via the amplitude phase (AP) method to test the accuracy of the present solutions found by using the NU method.Our numerical tests using energy calculations demonstrate the existence of inter-dimensional degeneracy amongst the energy states of the KG-Yukawa problem.The dependence of the energy on the dimension D is numerically discussed for spatial dimensions D =2-6.
Spinless particles in the field of unequal Scalar-Vector Yukawa potentials
Hamzavi, Majid; Thylwe, Karl-Erik
2013-01-01
We present analytical bound state solutions of the spin-zero Klein-Gordon (KG) particles in the field of unequal mixture of scalar and vector Yukawa potentials within the framework of the approximation scheme to the centrifugal potential term for any arbitrary -state. The approximate energy eigenvalues and unnormalized wave functions are obtained in closed forms using a simple shortcut of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. Further, we solve the KG-Yukawa problem for its exact numerical energy eigenvalues via amplitude phase (AP) method to test the accuracy of the present solutions found by using the NU method. Our numerical tests using energy calculations demonstrate the existence of inter-dimensional degeneracy amongst energy states of the KG-Yukawa problem. The dependence of the energy on the dimension is numerically discussed for spatial dimensions
Calculation of energy spectrum of $^{12}$C isotope with modified Yukawa potential by cluster models
MOHAMMAD REZA SHOJAE; NAFISEH ROSHAN BAKHT
2016-10-01
In this paper, we have calculated the energy spectrum of 12C isotope in two-cluster models, $3\\alpha$ cluster model and $^8$Be + $\\alpha$ cluster model. We use the modified Yukawa potential for interaction between theclusters and solve the Schrödinger equation using Nikiforov–Uvarov method to calculate the energy spectrum. Then, we increase the accuracy by adding spin-orbit coupling and tensor force and solve them by perturbationtheory in both models. Finally, the calculated results for both models are compared with each other and with the experimental data. The results show that the isotope $^{12}$C should be considered as a three-$\\alpha$ cluster and themodified Yukawa potential is adaptable for cluster interactions.
An Analysis of 178Pb to 238U Isotopes with the Universal and Yukawa Proximity Potentials
Javadimanesh, E.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.
2013-07-01
The alpha particle preformation and the penetration probability by the Yukawa proximity potential in the even-even nuclei from 178Pb to 238U are studied. Using the experimental values of the alpha decay half-lives and the decay energies, we extract the preformation factors and the penetration probabilities. We also calculate the assault frequencies and the decay constants. The obtained results are motivating.
Taylor-Laplace Expansions of the Yukawa and Related Potential Energy Functions.
1981-08-01
thle ’Yukawa po tenilt iaI i tseIf. Inl thle I iiit a,, thle 20 continued e xponei’i t 3 van is hes , t he Yu kawa pot en t i a I trains f’ rms i l the...analyses of nuclear models . The Woods-Saxon potential has a simple form: _-VO 1 l ’Ws 1+ exp[(r-rO)/p]. This function does not easily admit a Fourier
Gazzillo, Domenico
2011-03-28
For fluids of molecules with short-ranged hard-sphere-Yukawa (HSY) interactions, it is proven that the Noro-Frenkel "extended law of corresponding states" cannot be applied down to the vanishing attraction range, since the exact HSY second virial coefficient diverges in such a limit. It is also shown that, besides Baxter's original approach, a fully correct alternative definition of "adhesive hard spheres" can be obtained by taking the vanishing-range-limit (sticky limit) not of a Yukawa tail, as is commonly done, but of a slightly different potential with a logarithmic-Yukawa attraction.
Tareyeva, E. E.; Ryzhov, V. N.
2016-12-01
We propose an approximation of a direct correlation function corresponding to the linearization with respect to - βϕ( r) of a generalized mean spherical approximation for a hard-core multi-Yukawa system of particles. We use the results to study the behavior of maximums of thermodynamic response functions in the supercritical region of a fluid with a two-term Yukawa potential imitating the Lennard-Jones potential.
Taming the Yukawa potential singularity: improved evaluation of bound states and resonance energies
Alhaidari, A D; Abdelmonem, M S
2007-01-01
Using the tools of the J-matrix method, we absorb the 1/r singularity of the Yukawa potential in the reference Hamiltonian, which is handled analytically. The remaining part, which is bound and regular everywhere, is treated by an efficient numerical scheme in a suitable basis using Gauss quadrature approximation. Analysis of resonance energies and bound states spectrum is performed using the complex scaling method, where we show their trajectories in the complex energy plane and demonstrate the remarkable fact that bound states cross over into resonance states by varying the potential parameters.
Three-loop Standard Model effective potential at leading order in strong and top Yukawa couplings
Martin, Stephen P. [Santa Barbara, KITP
2014-01-08
I find the three-loop contribution to the effective potential for the Standard Model Higgs field, in the approximation that the strong and top Yukawa couplings are large compared to all other couplings, using dimensional regularization with modified minimal subtraction. Checks follow from gauge invariance and renormalization group invariance. I also briefly comment on the special problems posed by Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential, and on the numerical impact of the result on the relations between the Higgs vacuum expectation value, mass, and self-interaction coupling.
I.I.Guseinov
2008-01-01
@@ The expansion formulas in terms of complete orthonormal sets of ψα-exponential type orbitals are established for the Slater type orbitals and Coulomb-Yukawa-like correlated interaction potentials of integer and noninteger indices. These relations are used in obtaining their unsymmetrical and symmetrical one-range addition theorems.The final results are especially useful in the calculations of multicentre multielectron integrals occurring when Hartree-Fock-Roothaan and explicitly correlated methods are employed.
Cores in dwarf galaxies from dark matter with a Yukawa potential.
Loeb, Abraham; Weiner, Neal
2011-04-29
We show that cold dark matter particles interacting through a Yukawa potential could naturally explain the recently observed cores in dwarf galaxies without affecting the dynamics of objects with a much larger velocity dispersion, such as clusters of galaxies. The velocity dependence of the associated cross section as well as the possible exothermic nature of the interaction alleviates earlier concerns about strongly interacting dark matter. Dark matter evaporation in low-mass objects might explain the observed deficit of satellite galaxies in the Milky Way halo and have important implications for the first galaxies and reionization.
E.Javadimanesh; H.Hassanabadi; A.A.Rajabi; H.Rahimov; S.Zarrinkamar
2012-01-01
We study the half-lives of some nuclei via the alpha-decay process from ground state to ground state. To go through the problem, we have considered a potential model with Yukawa proximity potential and have thereby calculated the half-lives. The comparison with the existing data is motivating.
Analytical Solution of Relativistic Few-Body Bound Systems with a Generalized Yukawa Potential
Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A. A.
2016-03-01
We have investigated in this paper the few-body bound systems in a simple semi-relativistic scheme. For this aim, we introduced a spin independent relativistic description for a few-identical body system by presenting the analytical solution of few-particle Klein-Gordon equation. Performing calculations in D-dimensional configuration on the basis of the hypercentral approach, we reduced the few-body Klein-Gordon equation to a Schrödinger-like form. This equation is solved by using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method, through which the energy equations and eigenfunctions for a few-body bound system are obtained. We used the spin- and isospin-independent generalized Yukawa potential in our calculations, and the dependence of the few-body binding energies on the potential parameters has been investigated.
Radiative bound-state-formation cross-sections for dark matter interacting via a Yukawa potential
Petraki, Kalliopi; de Vries, Jordy
2016-01-01
We calculate the cross-sections for the radiative formation of bound states by dark matter whose interactions are described in the non-relativistic regime by a Yukawa potential. These cross-sections are important for cosmological and phenomenological studies of dark matter with long-range interactions, residing in a hidden sector, as well as for TeV-scale WIMP dark matter. We provide the leading-order contributions to the cross-sections for the dominant capture processes occurring via emission of a vector or a scalar boson. We offer a detailed inspection of their features, including their velocity dependence within and outside the Coulomb regime, and their resonance structure. For pairs of annihilating particles, we compare bound-state formation with annihilation.
Y Pathania; P K Ahluwalia
2006-12-01
We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in Gibbs ensemble for two-and three-dimensional double Yukawa fluid. We have compared liquid–vapour equilibrium curve with that of Lennard-Jones, when parameters occurring in double Yukawa potential are chosen to fit Lennard-Jones potential. The results are in good agreement. The role of repulsive and attractive contributions for the potential on the liquid–vapour coexistence region as well as on critical temperature and critical density has been studied. The critical temperature is found to be more sensitive than the critical density to the variation in repulsive and attractive parts of the potential. Also, the range of the attractive interaction directly influences range of the liquid–vapour coexistence region. It has been found that smaller the values of the attractive parameter, larger is the coexistence region.
Systematic biases on galaxy haloes parameters from Yukawa-like gravitational potentials
Cardone, V F
2011-01-01
A viable alternative to the dark energy as a solution of the cosmic speed up problem is represented by Extended Theories of Gravity. Should this be indeed the case, there will be an impact not only on cosmological scales, but also at any scale, from the Solar System to extragalactic ones. In particular, the gravitational potential can be different from the Newtonian one commonly adopted when computing the circular velocity fitted to spiral galaxies rotation curves. Phenomenologically modelling the modified point mass potential as the sum of a Newtonian and a Yukawa like correction, we simulate observed rotation curves for a spiral galaxy described as the sum of an exponential disc and a NFW dark matter halo. We then fit these curves assuming parameterized halo models (either with an inner cusp or a core) and using the Newtonian potential to estimate the theoretical rotation curve. Such a study allows us to investigate the bias on the disc and halo model parameters induced by the systematic error induced by fo...
The generalized pseudospectral approach to the bound states of the Hulthén and the Yukawa potentials
Amlan K Roy
2005-07-01
The generalized pseudospectral (GPS) method is employed to calculate the bound states of the Hulthén and the Yukawa potentials in quantum mechanics, with special emphasis on higher excited states and stronger couplings. Accurate energy eigenvalues, expectation values and radial probability densities are obtained through a non-uniform and optimal spatial discretization of the radial Schrödinger equation. Results accurate up to thirteen to fourteen significant figures are reported for all the 55 eigenstates of both these potentials with ≤ 10 for arbitrary values of the screening parameters covering a wide range of interaction. Furthermore, excited states as high as = 17 have been computed with good accuracy for both these potentials. Excellent agreement with the available literature data has been observed in all cases. The > 6 states of the Yukawa potential has been considerably improved over all other existing results currently available, while the same for Hulthén potential are reported here for the first time. Excepting the 1 and 2 states of the Yukawa potential, the present method surpasses the accuracy of all other existing results in the stronger coupling region for all other states of both these systems. This offers a simple and efficient scheme for the accurate calculation of these and other screened Coulomb potentials.
Patel, Smruti J., E-mail: fizix.smriti@gmail.com; Vinodkumar, P. C. [P. G. Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, VallabhVidyanagar - 388120, Gujarat (India)
2016-05-06
We study the mass spectra of hexaquark states as di-hadronic molecules with Yukawa potential in a semi-relativistic scheme. We have solved numerically the relevant equation using mathematica notebook of Range-Kutta method including effective Yukawa like potential between two baryons to model the two-body interaction and have calculated their masses and binding energy. We have been able to assign the J{sup P} values for many of the exotic states according to their compositions. We have predicted some of the di-baryonic exotic states for which experimental as well as theoretical data are not available and we look forward to see the experimental support in favour of our predictions. So in the absence of such results our predictions can be used as guidelines for future experimental and theoretical analysis of exotic states.
FU,Dong(付东); LU,Jiu-Fang(陆九芳); WU,Wei(吴畏); Li,Yi-Gui(李以圭)
2004-01-01
An equation of state (EOS) was established to study the osmotic pressure and liquid-liquid equilibria for micelle,colloid and microemulsion systems. The Carnahan-Starling equation was used for the hard sphere repulsion. The Yukawa potential was used to describe both the attractive dispersion and the double-layer repulsion. By using the established EOS, the osmotic pressures for charged colloid, uncharged micelle, uncharged and weakly charged microemuslion, the phase equilibria for uncharged micelle and charged colloid systems were studied.
M K Bahar; F Yasuk
2013-02-01
Approximate solutions of the Dirac equation with position-dependent mass are presented for the inversely quadratic Yukawa potential and Coulomb-like tensor interaction by using the asymptotic iteration method. The energy eigenvalues and the corresponding normalized eigenfunctions are obtained in the case of position-dependent mass and arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number k state and approximation on the spin-orbit coupling term.
B. I. Ita
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The bound state solutions of the Schrodinger equation have been obtained analytically for the inverse quadratic Yukawa potential. The Nikiforov-Uvarov method was employed to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigen functions expressed in terms of the Jacobi polynomials.We discussed the variation of the energy spectrum as a function of the quantum number n and the atomic number Z.
Solid-liquid phase transitions in 3D systems with the inverse-power and Yukawa potentials
Vaulina, O. S.; Koss, X. G.
2016-03-01
The melting of face-centered cubic (fcc) and body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal lattices was studied analytically and numerically for the systems of particles interacting via the inverse-power-law and Yukawa potentials. New approach is proposed for determination of the solid-liquid phase transitions in these systems. The suggested approach takes into account a nonlinearity (anharmonicity) of pair interaction forces and allows to correctly predict the conditions of melting of the systems with various isotropic pair interaction potentials. The obtained results are compared with the existing theoretical and numerical data.
M. Moradi
2003-06-01
Full Text Available The Helmholtz free energy and equation of the state of an fcc crystal are calculated, where the interaction between the molecules is hard sphere-Yukawa potential. Here the perturbational density functional method is used. This method is introduced by Ebner and co-workers. In this method the density functional Taylor expansion is applied for the crystal configuration up to second order. And for the uniform parts an exact expression is used. The results are compared with those obtained by Monte Carlo computer simulation. The agreement is good.
Cordero-Cid, A; Honorato, C G; Moretti, S; Perez, M A; Rosado, A
2013-01-01
We study the substantial enhancement, with respect to the corresponding Standard Model rates, that can be obtained for the branching ratios of the decay channels $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ and $h\\to \\gamma Z$ within the framework of the 2-Higgs-Doublet Model Type III, assuming a four-zero Yukawa texture and a general Higgs potential. We show that these processes are very sensitive to the flavour pattern entering the Yukawa texture and to the triple coupling structure of the Higgs potential, both of which impact onto the aforementioned decays. We can accommodate the parameters of the model in such a way to obtain the $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ rates reported by the Large Hadron Collider and at the same time get a $h\\to \\gamma Z$ fraction much larger than in the Standard Model, indeed within experimental reach. We present some scenarios where this phenomenology is realised for spectrum configurations that are consistent with current constraints. We also discuss the possibility of obtaining a light charged Higgs boson com...
Lin, Weikang; Chen, Lie-Wen; Wen, De-Hua; Xu, Jun
2013-01-01
A thorough understanding of many astrophysical phenomena and objects requires reliable knowledge about both the equation of state (EOS) of super-dense nuclear matter and the theory of ultra-strong gravity simultaneously because of the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Currently, deviations of the neutron star (NS) mass-radius correlation predicted by various gravity theories are larger than its uncertainties due to the poorly known NS matter content and its EOS. At least two independent observables are required to break the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Using model EOSs for hybrid stars and a Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, we investigate both the mass-radius correlation and pulsating frequencies of NSs. While the maximum mass of NSs increases with increasing strength of the Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, the frequencies of the $f$, $p_1$, $p_2$, and $w_I$ pulsating modes are found to decrease with it, providing a useful reference for future determination simultaneously of both the gravitational theory and the supranu...
Hernández-Sánchez, J; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Rosado, A
2013-01-01
We discuss flavor-violating constraints and consequently possible charged Higgs boson phenomenology emerging from a four-zero Yukawa texture embedded within the Type-III 2-Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM-III). Firstly, we show in detail how we can obtain several kinds of 2HDMs when some parameters in the Yukawa texture are absent. Secondly, we present a comprehensive study of the main $B$-physics constraints on such parameters induced by flavor-changing processes, in particular on the off-diagonal terms of such a texture: i.e., from $\\mu -e$ universality in $\\tau$ decays, several leptonic B-decays ($B \\to \\tau \
Sheridan, T E
2010-01-01
One-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional strongly-coupled dusty plasma rings have been created experimentally. Longitudinal (acoustic) and transverse (optical) dispersion relations for the 1-ring were measured and found to be in very good agreement with the theory for an unbounded straight chain of particles interacting through a Yukawa (i.e., screened Coulomb or Debye-H\\"uckel) potential. These rings provide a new system in which to study one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional physics.
Haranas, Ioannis; Ragos, Omiros
2011-07-01
There has been a renewed interest in the recent years in the possibility of deviations from the predictions of Newton's "inverse-square law" of universal gravitation. One of the reasons for renewing this interest lies in various theoretical attempts to construct a unified elementary particle theory, in which there is a natural prediction of new forces over macroscopic distances. Therefore the existence of such a force would only coexist with gravity, and in principle could only be detected as a deviation from the inverse square law, or in the "universality of free fall" experiments. New experimental techniques such that of Sagnac interferometry can help explore the range of the Yukawa correction λ≥1014 m where such forces might be present. It may be, that future space missions might be operating in this range which has been unexplored for very long time. To study the effect of the Yukawa correction to the gravitational potential and its corresponding signal delay in the vicinity of the Sun, we use a spherically symmetric modified space time metric where the Yukawa correction its added to the gravitational potential. Next, the Yukawa correction contribution to the signal delay is evaluated. In the case where the distance of closest approach is much less than the range λ, it results to a signal time delay that satisfies the relation t( b< λ)≅37.7 t( b= λ).
Yukawa effects on the mean motion of an orbiting body
Haranas, Ioannis; Kotsireas, Ilias; Gómez, Guillem; Fullana, Màrius J.; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis
2016-11-01
In today's gravity research there exist few modified gravitational theories which among other things predict the existence of a Yukawa-type correction to the classical gravitational potential. In this paper we study the Yukawa effect on the mean motion if any in a two-body scenario, assuming the influence of the existence of a possible Yukawa correction in the gravitational force of a primary. For that, we derive an equation in order to approximate the mean motion for secondary time rate of change of the orbiting body and its total variation over one revolution, under the influence of the non-Newtonian radial acceleration. Numerical results for Mercury and the companion star of the pulsar PSR 1913+16 are calculated. For specific values of the parameters α and λ, as given in the bibliography we have found that there is no corresponding Yukawa effect affecting the mean motion of the planet Mercury. On the other hand it appears that there is a periodic Yukawa effect that affects the mean motion of PSR+16 whose maximum numerical value occurs when the eccentric anomaly is equal to 180°.
Chapela, Gustavo A; del Río, Fernando; Alejandre, José
2013-02-07
The liquid-vapor phase diagrams of equal size diameter σ binary mixtures of screened potentials have been reported for several ranges of interaction using Monte Carlo simulation methods [J. B. Caballero, A. M. Puertas, A. Ferńandez-Barbero, F. J. de las Nieves, J. M. Romero-Enrique, and L. F. Rull, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 054909 (2006); A. Fortini, A.-P. Hynninen, and M. Dijkstra, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 094502 (2006)]. Both works report controversial results about the stability of the phase diagram with the inverse Debye screening length κ. Caballero found stability for values of κσ up to 20 while Fortini reported stability for κσ up to 20 while Fortini reported stability for κσ ≤ 4. In this work a spinodal decomposition process where the liquid and vapor phases coexist through an interface in a slab geometry is used to obtain the phase equilibrium and surface properties using a discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations for mixtures of equal size particles carrying opposite charge and interacting with a mixture of attractive and repulsive Yukawa potentials at different values of κσ. An crude estimation of the triple point temperatures is also reported. The isothermal-isobaric method was also used to determine the phase stability using one phase simulations. We found that liquid-vapor coexistence is stable for values of κσ > 20 and that the critical temperatures have a maximum value at around κσ = 10, in agreement with Caballero et al. calculations. There also exists a controversy about the liquid-vapor envelope stability of the pure component attractive Yukawa model which is also discussed in the text. In addition, details about the equivalence between continuous and discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations are given, in the Appendix, for Yukawa and Lennard-Jones potentials.
Chapela, Gustavo A.; del Río, Fernando; Alejandre, José
2013-02-01
The liquid-vapor phase diagrams of equal size diameter σ binary mixtures of screened potentials have been reported for several ranges of interaction using Monte Carlo simulation methods [J. B. Caballero, A. M. Puertas, A. Ferńandez-Barbero, F. J. de las Nieves, J. M. Romero-Enrique, and L. F. Rull, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 054909 (2006), 10.1063/1.2159481; A. Fortini, A.-P. Hynninen, and M. Dijkstra, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 094502 (2006), 10.1063/1.2335453]. Both works report controversial results about the stability of the phase diagram with the inverse Debye screening length κ. Caballero found stability for values of κσ up to 20 while Fortini reported stability for κσ up to 20 while Fortini reported stability for κσ ⩽ 4. In this work a spinodal decomposition process where the liquid and vapor phases coexist through an interface in a slab geometry is used to obtain the phase equilibrium and surface properties using a discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations for mixtures of equal size particles carrying opposite charge and interacting with a mixture of attractive and repulsive Yukawa potentials at different values of κσ. An crude estimation of the triple point temperatures is also reported. The isothermal-isobaric method was also used to determine the phase stability using one phase simulations. We found that liquid-vapor coexistence is stable for values of κσ > 20 and that the critical temperatures have a maximum value at around κσ = 10, in agreement with Caballero et al. calculations. There also exists a controversy about the liquid-vapor envelope stability of the pure component attractive Yukawa model which is also discussed in the text. In addition, details about the equivalence between continuous and discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations are given, in the Appendix, for Yukawa and Lennard-Jones potentials.
The Yukawa Coupling in Three Dimensions
Dilkes, F A; Nguyen, K
1998-01-01
We consider several renormalizable, scale free models in three space-time dimensions which involve scalar and spinor fields. The Yukawa couplings are bilinear in both the spinor and scalar fields and the potential is of sixth order in the scalar field. In a model with a single scalar field and a complex Fermion field in three Euclidean dimensions, the couplings in the theory are both asymptotically free. This property is not retained in 2+1 dimensional Minkowski space, as we illustrate by considering a renormalizable scale-free supersymmetric model. This is on account of the different properties of the Dirac matrices in Euclidean and Minkowski space. We also examine a model in 2+1 dimensional Minkowski space in which two species of Fermions, associated with the two unitarily inequivalent representations of the $2 \\times 2$ Dirac matrices, couple in two different ways to two distinct scalar fields. There are two types of Yukawa couplings in this model, and either one or the other of them can be asymptotically ...
Sato, Humitaka [Yukawa Memorial Foundation, c/o Yukawa Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2008-06-01
Life history of Hideki Yukawa is described, together with that of Sin-itiro Tomonaga. They grew upiin Kyoto city and were classmate. Their independency and collaboration had contributed to the growth of physics research in Japan after the end of WWII.
Indirect handle on the down-quark Yukawa coupling.
Goertz, Florian
2014-12-31
To measure the Yukawa couplings of the up and down quarks, Yu,d, seems to be far beyond the capabilities of current and (near) future experiments in particle physics. By performing a general analysis of the potential misalignment between quark masses and Yukawa couplings, we derive predictions for the magnitude of induced flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNCs), depending on the shift in the physical Yukawa coupling of first-generation quarks. We find that a change of more than 50% in Yd would generically result in ds transitions in conflict with kaon physics. This could already be seen as evidence for a nonvanishing direct coupling of the down quark to the newly discovered Higgs boson. The nonobservation of certain--already well-constrained--processes is thus turned into a powerful indirect measure of otherwise basically unaccessible physical parameters of the effective standard model. Similarly, improvements in limits on FCNCs in the up-type quark sector can lead to valuable information on Yu.
Ground state of a confined Yukawa plasma
Henning, C; Block, D; Bonitz, M; Golubnichiy, V; Ludwig, P; Piel, A
2006-01-01
The ground state of an externally confined one-component Yukawa plasma is derived analytically. In particular, the radial density profile is computed. The results agree very well with computer simulations on three-dimensional spherical Coulomb crystals. We conclude in presenting an exact equation for the density distribution for a confinement potential of arbitrary geometry.
Quark and lepton Yukawa coupling ratios in GUTs
Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Muenchen (Germany); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm (Sweden)
2010-07-01
The down-type quark and charged lepton Yukawa couplings in supersymmetric models depend strongly on the SUSY spectrum for large tan beta due to 1-loop threshold effects. Therefore also the GUT scale Yukawa coupling ratios depend on the SUSY parameters. The observed fermion masses together with common SUSY breaking scenarios and phenomenological constraints give possible ranges for these ratios which can be compared with predictions from SUSY GUTs. We discuss the viable predictions and their possible realisations in GUT model building.
Calogero model with Yukawa like interaction
Kessabi, M; Sebbata, H; Kessabi, Mohammed; Saidi, El Hassan; Sebbata, Hanane
2006-01-01
We study an extension of one dimensional Calogero model involving strongly coupled and electrically charged particles. Besides Calogero term $\\frac{g}{% 2x^{2}}$, there is an extra factor described by a Yukawa like coupling modeling short distance interactions. Mimicking Calogero analysis and using developments in formal series of the wave function $\\Psi (x) $ factorised as $x^{\\epsilon}\\Phi (x) $ with $\\epsilon (\\epsilon -1) =g$, we develop a technique to approach the spectrum of the generalized system and show that information on full spectrum is captured by $\\Phi (x) $ and $\\Phi ^{\\prime \\prime}(x) $ at the singular point $x=0$ of the potential. Convergence of $% \\int dx| \\Psi (x) | ^{2}$ requires $\\epsilon >-{1/2}$ and is shown to be sensitive to the zero mode of $\\Phi (x) $ at $x=0$. \\textbf{Key words}: \\textit{Hamitonian systems, quantum integrability, Calogero model, Yukawa like potential.}
Yukawa correction to top-quark production at the Tevatron
Stange, A; Stange, Alan; Willenbrock, Scott
1993-01-01
We calculate the correction to $\\qbq\\to\\tbt$ of order $\\gmm$. This correction, proportional to the square of the Higgs-boson Yukawa coupling to the top quark, arises from loops of Higgs bosons and the scalar component of virtual vector bosons. The Yukawa correction to the total \\tbt\\ production cross section at the Fermilab Tevatron in the standard Higgs model is found to be much less than the theoretical uncertainty in the cross section. However, in a two-Higgs-doublet model, Yukawa couplings are generally enhanced. The Yukawa correction can increase the total $t\\bar t$ production cross section in this model by as much as $20$-$35\\%$, which is potentially observable at the Tevatron.
The evolution of the mass-transfer functions in liquid Yukawa systems
Vaulina, O. S., E-mail: olga.vaulina@bk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)
2016-09-15
The results of analytic and numerical investigation of mass-transfer processes in nonideal liquid systems are reported. Calculations are performed for extended 2D and 3D systems of particles that interact with a screened Yukawa-type Coulomb potential. The main attention is paid to 2D structures. A new analytic model is proposed for describing the evolution of mass-transfer functions in systems of interacting particles, including the transition between the ballistic and diffusion regimes of their motion.
Yukawa-unified natural supersymmetry
Baer, Howard; Kulkarni, Suchita
2012-01-01
Previous work on t-b-\\tau Yukawa-unified supersymmetry, as expected from SUSY GUT theories based on the gauge group SO(10), tended to have exceedingly large electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT). Here, we examine supersymmetric models where we simultaneously require low EWFT ("natural SUSY") and a high degree of Yukawa coupling unification, along with a light Higgs scalar with m_h\\sim125 GeV. As Yukawa unification requires large tan\\beta\\sim50, while EWFT requires rather light third generation squarks and low \\mu\\sim100-250 GeV, B-physics constraints from BR(B\\to X_s\\gamma) and BR(B_s\\to \\mu+\\mu-) can be severe. We are able to find models with EWFT \\Delta\\lesssim 50-100 (better than 1-2% EWFT) and with Yukawa unification as low as R_yuk\\sim1.3 (30% unification) if B-physics constraints are imposed. This may be improved to R_yuk\\sim1.2 if additional small flavor violating terms conspire to improve accord with B-constraints. We present several Yukawa-unified natural SUSY (YUNS) benchmark points. LHC searches will be a...
Gerhold, P
2007-01-01
We consider a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model based on the Neuberger overlap operator. As a first step towards the eventual determination of Higgs mass bounds we study the phase diagram of the model analytically in the large Nf-limit. We present an expression for the effective potential at tree-level in the regime of small Yukawa and quartic coupling constants and determine the order of the phase transitions. In the case of strong Yukawa couplings the model effectively becomes an O(4)-symmetric non-linear sigma-model for all values of the quartic coupling constant. This leads to the existence of a symmetric phase also in the regime of large values of the Yukawa coupling constant. On finite and small lattices, however, strong finite volume effects prevent the expectation value of the Higgs field from vanishing thus obscuring the existence of the symmetric phase at strong Yukawa couplings.
Yukawa CFTs and Emergent Supersymmetry
Fei, Lin; Klebanov, Igor R; Tarnopolsky, Grigory
2016-01-01
We study conformal field theories with Yukawa interactions in dimensions between 2 and 4; they provide UV completions of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio and Gross-Neveu models which have four-fermion interactions. We compute the sphere free energy and certain operator scaling dimensions using dimensional continuation. In the Gross-Neveu CFT with $N$ fermion degrees of freedom we obtain the first few terms in the $4-\\epsilon$ expansion using the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model, and the first few terms in the $2+\\epsilon$ expansion using the four-fermion interaction. We then apply Pade approximants to produce estimates in $d=3$. For $N=1$, which corresponds to one 2-component Majorana fermion, it has been suggested that the Yukawa theory flows to a ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetric CFT. We provide new evidence that the $4-\\epsilon$ expansion of the $N=1$ Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model respects the supersymmetry. Our extrapolations to $d=3$ appear to be in good agreement with the available results obtained using the numerical conformal boo...
Quark masses without Yukawa hierarchies
Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia-Canal, C. [Plata Univ. Nacional, Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina); Ponce, W.A. [Antioquia Univ., Instituto de Fisica, Colombia La (Argentina)
2005-12-15
A model based on the local gauge group SU(3){sub c}*SU(3){sub L}*U(1){sub X} without particles with exotic electric charges is shown to be able to provide the quark mass spectrum and their mixing, by means of universal see-saw mechanisms, avoiding a hierarchy in the Yukawa coupling constants. (authors)
Yukawa-unified natural supersymmetry
Baer, Howard; Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita
2012-12-01
Previous work on t - b - τ Yukawa-unified supersymmetry, as expected from SUSY GUT theories based on the gauge group SO(10), tended to have exceedingly large electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT). Here, we examine supersymmetric models where we simultaneously require low EWFT ("natural SUSY") and a high degree of Yukawa coupling unification, along with a light Higgs scalar with m h 125 GeV. As Yukawa unification requires large tan β 50, while EWFT requires rather light third generation squarks and low μ ≈ 100 - 250 GeV, B-physics constraints from BR( B → X s γ) and BR( B s → μ + μ -) can be severe. We are able to find models with EWFT Δ ≲ 50 - 100 (better than 1-2% EWFT) and with Yukawa unification as low as R yuk 1.2 (20% unification). The unification is lessened to R yuk 1.3 when B-physics constraints are imposed. We present several Yukawa-unified natural SUSY (YUNS) benchmark points. LHC searches will be able to access gluinos in the lower 1 - 2 TeV portion of their predicted mass range although much of YUNS parameter space may lie beyond LHC14 reach. If heavy Higgs bosons can be accessed at a high rate, then the rare H, A → μ + μ - decay might allow a determination of tan β 50 as predicted by YUNS models. Finally, the predicted light higgsinos should be accessible to a linear e + e - collider with sqrt{s}˜ 0.5 TeV.
Dynamical correlations and collective excitations of Yukawa liquids
Donko, Zoltan; Hartmann, Peter
2008-01-01
In dusty (complex) plasmas, containing mesoscopic charged grains, the grain-grain interaction in many cases can be well described through a Yukawa potential. In this Review we summarize the basics of the computational and theoretical approaches capable of describing many-particle Yukawa systems in the liquid and solid phases and discuss the properties of the dynamical density and current correlation spectra of three- and two-dimensional strongly coupled Yukawa systems, generated by molecular dynamics simulations. We show details of the $\\omega(k)$ dispersion relations for the collective excitations in these systems, as obtained theoretically following the quasilocalized charge approximation, as well as from the fluctuation spectra created by simulations. The theoretical and simulation results are also compared with those obtained in complex plasma experiments.
Conformal Gauge-Yukawa Theories away From Four Dimensions
Codello, Alessandro; Langaeble, Kasper; Litim, Daniel;
2016-01-01
We present the phase diagram and associated fixed points for a wide class of Gauge-Yukawa theories in $d=4+\\epsilon$ dimensions. The theories we investigate involve non-abelian gauge fields, fermions and scalars in the Veneziano-Witten limit. The analysis is performed in steps, we start with QCD...... fixed points. We argue for a very rich phase diagram in three dimensions while in dimensions higher than four certain Gauge-Yukawa theories are ultraviolet complete because of the emergence of an asymptotically safe fixed point.......$_d$ and then we add Yukawa interactions and scalars which we study at next-to- and next-to-next-to-leading order. Interacting infrared fixed points naturally emerge in dimensions lower than four while ultraviolet ones appear above four. We also analyse the stability of the scalar potential for the discovered...
Phenomenological consequences of four zero neutrino Yukawa textures
Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2008-01-01
For type I seesaw and in the basis where the charged lepton and heavy right-handed neutrino mass matrices are real and diagonal, four has been shown to be the maximum number of zeros allowed in the neutrino Yukawa coupling matrix $Y_\
Analytic regularization of the Yukawa model at finite temperature
Malbouisson, A P C; Svaiter, N F
1996-01-01
We analyse the one-loop fermionic contribution for the scalar effective potential in the temperature dependent Yukawa model. In order to regularize the model a mix between dimensional and analytic regularization procedures is used. We find a general expression for the fermionic contribution in arbitrary spacetime dimension. It is found that in D=3 this contribution is finite.
Vacuum stability of asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories
Litim, Daniel F.; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We study the phase diagram and the stability of the ground state for certain four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories whose high-energy behaviour is controlled by an interacting fixed point. We also provide analytical and numerical results for running couplings, their crossover scales, the separatrix......, and the Coleman-Weinberg effective potential. Classical and quantum stability of the vacuum is established....
Vacuum stability of asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories
Litim, Daniel F; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We study the phase diagram and the stability of the ground state for certain four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories whose high-energy behaviour is controlled by an interacting fixed point. We also provide analytical and numerical results for running couplings, their crossover scales, the separatrix, and the Coleman-Weinberg effective potential. Classical and quantum stability of the vacuum is established.
Yukawa Couplings on Quintic Threefolds
Donagi, R; Donagi, Ron; Reinbacher, Rene
2006-01-01
We compute the particle spectrum and some of the Yukawa couplings for a family of heterotic compactifications on quintic threefolds X involving bundles that are deformations of TX+O_X. These are then related to the compactifications with torsion found recently by Li and Yau. We compute the spectrum and the Yukawa couplings for generic bundles on generic quintics, as well as for certain stable non-generic bundles on the special Dwork quintics. In all our computations we keep the dependence on the vector bundle moduli explicit. We also show that on any smooth quintic there exists a deformation of the bundle TX+O_X whose Kodaira-Spencer class obeys the Li-Yau non-degeneracy conditions and admits a non-vanishing triple pairing.
Yukawa's of light stringy states
Anastasopoulos, Pascal; Consoli, Dario
2016-01-01
Light massive string states can appear at D-brane intersections with small angles. We compute tri-linear Yukawa couplings of such open-string states to massless ones and to one another. Due to ambiguities in the normalisation of the vertex operators, that involve twist fields, we proceed via factorization of appropriate scattering amplitudes. Some peculiar features are observed that may lead to interesting signatures at colliders in the future.
Probability of metastable states in Yukawa clusters
Ludwig, Patrick; Kaehlert, Hanno; Baumgartner, Henning; Bonitz, Michael
2008-11-01
Finite strongly coupled systems of charged particles in external traps are of high interest in many fields. Here we analyze the occurrence probabilities of ground- and metastable states of spherical, three-dimensional Yukawa clusters by means of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations and an analytical method. We find that metastable states can occur with a higher probability than the ground state, thus confirming recent dusty plasma experiments with so-called Yukawa balls [1]. The analytical method [2], based on the harmonic approximation of the potential energy, allows for a very intuitive explanation of the probabilities when combined with the simulation results [3].[1] D. Block, S. Käding, A. Melzer, A. Piel, H. Baumgartner, and M. Bonitz, Physics of Plasmas 15, 040701 (2008)[2] F. Baletto and R. Ferrando, Reviews of Modern Physics 77, 371 (2005)[3] H. Kählert, P. Ludwig, H. Baumgartner, M. Bonitz, D. Block, S. Käding, A. Melzer, and A. Piel, submitted for publication (2008)
Yukawa alignment from natural flavor conservation
Cree, Graham
2011-01-01
We study the charged Higgs couplings to fermions in the "democratic" three-Higgs-doublet model, in which one doublet couples to down-type quarks, one to up-type quarks, and one to charged leptons. Flavor-changing neutral Higgs couplings are absent because the Glashow-Weinberg-Paschos condition for natural flavor conservation is in effect. We show that this model reproduces the coupling structure of the charged Higgs boson in the recently-proposed Yukawa-aligned two-Higgs-doublet model, with two subtle constraints that arise from the unitarity of the charged Higgs mixing matrix. Adding a fourth Higgs doublet with no couplings to fermions eliminates these constraints.
Dimensional phase transitions in small Yukawa clusters
Sheridan, T E
2009-01-01
We investigate the one- to two-dimensional zigzag transition in clusters consisting of a small number of particles interacting through a Yukawa (Debye) potential and confined in a two-dimensional biharmonic potential well. Dusty (complex) plasma clusters with $n \\le 19$ monodisperse particles are characterized experimentally for two different confining wells. The well anisotropy is accurately measured, and the Debye shielding parameter is determined from the longitudinal breathing frequency. Debye shielding is shown to be important. A model for this system is used to predict equilibrium particle configurations. The experiment and model exhibit excellent agreement. The critical value of $n$ for the zigzag transition is found to be less than that predicted for an unshielded Coulomb interaction. The zigzag transition is shown to behave as a continuous phase transition from a one-dimensional to a two-dimensional state, where the state variables are the number of particles, the well anisotropy and the Debye shield...
Codimension-3 singularities and Yukawa couplings in F-theory
Hayashi, Hirotaka; Kawano, Teruhiko [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tatar, Radu [Division of Theoretical Physics, Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3BX, England (United Kingdom); Watari, Taizan [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, 277-8592 (Japan)], E-mail: taizan.watari@ipmu.jp
2009-12-11
F-theory is one of the frameworks where all the Yukawa couplings of grand unified theories are generated and their computation is possible. The Yukawa couplings of charged matter multiplets are supposed to be generated around codimension-3 singularity points of a base complex 3-fold, and that has been confirmed for the simplest type of codimension-3 singularities in recent studies. However, the geometry of F-theory compactifications is much more complicated. For a generic F-theory compactification, such issues as flux configuration around the codimension-3 singularities, field-theory formulation of the local geometry and behavior of zero-mode wavefunctions have virtually never been addressed before. We address all these issues in this article, and further discuss nature of Yukawa couplings generated at such singularities. In order to calculate the Yukawa couplings of low-energy effective theory, however, the local descriptions of wavefunctions on complex surfaces and a global characterization of zero-modes over a complex curve have to be combined together. We found the relation between them by re-examining how chiral charged matters are characterized in F-theory compactification. An intrinsic definition of spectral surfaces in F-theory turns out to be the key concept. As a biproduct, we found a new way to understand the Heterotic-F theory duality, which improves the precision of existing duality map associated with codimension-3 singularities.
A Three-Family Standard-like Orientifold Model Yukawa Couplings and Hierarchy
Cvetic, M; Shiu, G; Cvetic, Mirjam; Langacker, Paul; Shiu, Gary
2002-01-01
We discuss the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings in a supersymmetric three family Standard-like string Model. The model is constructed by compactifying Type IIA string theory on a Z_2 x Z_2 orientifold in which the Standard Model matter fields arise from intersecting D6-branes. When lifted to M theory, the model amounts to compactification of M-theory on a G_2 manifold. While the actual fermion masses depend on the vacuum expectation values of the multiple Higgs fields in the model, we calculate the leading worldsheet instanton contributions to the Yukawa couplings and examine the implications of the Yukawa hierarchy.
Leading Log Solution for Inflationary Yukawa
Miao, S P; Miao, Shun-Pei
2006-01-01
We generalize Starobinskii's stochastic technique to the theory of a massless, minimally coupled scalar interacting with a massless fermion in a locally de Sitter geometry. The scalar is an ``active'' field that can engender infrared logarithms. The fermion is a ``passive'' field that cannot cause infrared logarithms but which can carry them, and which can also induce new interactions between the active fields. The procedure for dealing with passive fields is to integrate them out, then stochastically simplify the resulting effective action following Starobinski\\u{\\i}. Because Yukawa theory is quadratic in the fermion this can be done explicitly using the classic solution of Candelas and Raine. We check the resulting stochastic formulation against an explicit two loop computation. We also derive a nonperturbative, leading log result for the stress tensor. Because the scalar effective potential induced by fermions is unbounded below, back-reaction from this model might dynamically cancel an arbitrarily large c...
Holomorphic Yukawa Couplings in Heterotic String Theory
Blesneag, Stefan; Candelas, Philip; Lukas, Andre
2015-01-01
We develop techniques, based on differential geometry, to compute holomorphic Yukawa couplings for heterotic line bundle models on Calabi-Yau manifolds defined as complete intersections in projective spaces. It is shown explicitly how these techniques relate to algebraic methods for computing holomorphic Yukawa couplings. We apply our methods to various examples and evaluate the holomorphic Yukawa couplings explicitly as functions of the complex structure moduli. It is shown that the rank of the Yukawa matrix can decrease at specific loci in complex structure moduli space. In particular, we compute the up Yukawa coupling and the singlet-Higgs-lepton trilinear coupling in the heterotic standard model described in arXiv:1404.2767
Confronting Four Zero Neutrino Yukawa Textures with $N_2^{}$-dominated Leptogenesis
Zhang, Jue
2015-01-01
We consider a restricted Type-I seesaw scenario with four texture zeros in the neutrino Yukawa matrix, in the basis where both the charged-lepton Yukawa matrix and the Majorana mass matrix for right-handed neutrinos are diagonal. Inspired by grand unified theories, we further require the neutrino Yukawa matrix to exhibit a similar hierarchical pattern to that in the up-type quark Yukawa matrix. With such a hierarchy requirement, we find that leptogenesis, which would operate in a $N_2^{}$-dominated scenario with the asymmetry generated by the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino $N_2^{}$, can greatly reduce the number of allowed textures, and disfavors the scenario that three light neutrinos are quasi-degenerate. Such a quasi-degenerate scenario of light neutrinos may soon be tested in upcoming neutrino experiments.
From CP Phases to Yukawa Textures: Maximal Yukawa Hierarchies in Minimal Seesaw Models
Rink, Thomas
2016-01-01
The type-I seesaw mechanism involving only two right-handed neutrinos represents a minimal model to account for the observed masses and mixings in the Standard Model neutrino sector. This model features four real parameters that cannot be fully fixed by the current data: two CP-violating phases, delta and sigma, as well as one complex parameter, z, that is experimentally inaccessible at low energies. We perform a systematic scan of this model over the complex z plane, addressing the following question: Suppose delta and sigma should be measured at particular values in the future---what are then the conceivable maximal hierarchies in the neutrino Yukawa matrix that are still consistent with all observations? In this sense, our analysis generalizes previous studies of the type-I seesaw mechanism with two right-handed neutrinos that assume exact texture zeros in the neutrino Yukawa matrix. As we are able to demonstrate, relaxing the assumption of exact texture zeros, significantly enlarges the range of possible ...
Equation of state and critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids.
Montes, J; Robles, M; López de Haro, M
2016-02-28
A theoretical study on the equation of state and the critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids is presented. Thermodynamic perturbation theory, restricted to first order in the inverse temperature and having the hard-sphere fluid as the reference system, is used to derive a relatively simple analytical equation of state of hard-core multi-Yukawa fluids. Using such an equation of state, the compressibility factor and phase behavior of six representative hard-core double-Yukawa fluids are examined and compared with available simulation results. The effect of varying the parameters of the hard-core double-Yukawa intermolecular potential on the location of the critical point is also analyzed using different perspectives. The relevance of this analysis for fluids whose molecules interact with realistic potentials is also pointed out.
Equation of state and critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids
Montes, J.; Robles, M.; López de Haro, M.
2016-02-01
A theoretical study on the equation of state and the critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids is presented. Thermodynamic perturbation theory, restricted to first order in the inverse temperature and having the hard-sphere fluid as the reference system, is used to derive a relatively simple analytical equation of state of hard-core multi-Yukawa fluids. Using such an equation of state, the compressibility factor and phase behavior of six representative hard-core double-Yukawa fluids are examined and compared with available simulation results. The effect of varying the parameters of the hard-core double-Yukawa intermolecular potential on the location of the critical point is also analyzed using different perspectives. The relevance of this analysis for fluids whose molecules interact with realistic potentials is also pointed out.
THE HIGGS-YUKAWA MODEL IN CURVED SPACETIME
Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S. D.
1995-01-01
The Higgs-Yukawa model in curved spacetime (renormalizable in the usual sense) is considered near the critical point, employing the $1/N$--expansion and renormalization group techniques. By making use of the equivalence of this model with the standard NJL model, the effective potential in the linear curvature approach is calculated and the dynamically generated fermionic mass is found. A numerical study of chiral symmetry breaking by curvature effects is presented.
A principle for the Yukawa couplings
Saldana-Salazar, U J
2016-01-01
Yukawa couplings in the Standard Model are introduced in its most general form, that is, completely arbitrary complex numbers. Here we show that their origin could not be general but dictated by a principle.
SO(10) Yukawa Unification with mu < 0
Gogoladze, Ilia; Un, Cem Salih
2011-01-01
We consider the low energy implications including particle spectroscopy of SO(10) inspired t-b-tau Yukawa coupling unification with mu 0. We find that t-b-tau Yukawa unification with mu 0 and universal gaugino masses in which the gluino is the lightest colored sparticle and the sqaurks of the first two families have masses in the multi-TeV range.
Probes of Yukawa unification in supersymmetric SO(10) models
Westhoff, Susanne
2009-10-23
This work is composed as follows: In Chapter 1, the disposed reader is made familiar with the foundations of flavourphysics and Grand Unification, including group-theoretical aspects of SO(10). In Chapter 2, we introduce a specific supersymmetric GUT model based on SO(10) and designed to probe down-quark-lepton Yukawa unification. Within this framework we explore the effects of large atmospheric neutrino mixing in bottom-strange transitions on the mass difference and CP phase in B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} meson mixing. Chapter 3 is devoted to corrections to Yukawa unification. We derive constraints on Yukawa corrections for light fermions from K- anti K and B{sub d}- anti B {sub d} mixing. As an application we study implications of neutrino mixing effects in CP-violating K and B{sub d} observables on the unitrity triangle. Finally, in Chapter 4, we discuss effects of large tan {beta} in B{yields}(D){tau}{nu} decays with respect to their potential to discover charged Higgs bosons and to discriminate between different GUT models of flavour.
Bcc crystal-fluid interfacial free energy in Yukawa systems.
Heinonen, V; Mijailović, A; Achim, C V; Ala-Nissila, T; Rozas, R E; Horbach, J; Löwen, H
2013-01-28
We determine the orientation-resolved interfacial free energy between a body-centered-cubic (bcc) crystal and the coexisting fluid for a many-particle system interacting via a Yukawa pair potential. For two different screening strengths, we compare results from molecular dynamics computer simulations, density functional theory, and a phase-field-crystal approach. Simulations predict an almost orientationally isotropic interfacial free energy of 0.12k(B)T/a(2) (with k(B)T denoting the thermal energy and a the mean interparticle spacing), which is independent of the screening strength. This value is in reasonable agreement with our Ramakrishnan-Yussouff density functional calculations, while a high-order fitted phase-field-crystal approach gives about 2-3 times higher interfacial free energies for the Yukawa system. Both field theory approaches also give a considerable anisotropy of the interfacial free energy. Our result implies that, in the Yukawa system, bcc crystal-fluid free energies are a factor of about 3 smaller than face-centered-cubic crystal-fluid free energies.
Light quark Yukawa couplings from Higgs kinematics
Soreq, Yotam; Zupan, Jure
2016-01-01
We show that the normalized Higgs production $p_T$ and $y_h$ distributions are sensitive probes of Higgs couplings to light quarks. For up and/or down quark Yukawa couplings comparable to the SM $b$ quark Yukawa the $\\bar u u$ or $\\bar d d$ fusion production of the Higgs could lead to appreciable softer $p_T$ distribution than in the SM. The rapidity distribution, on the other hand, becomes more forward. We find that, owing partially to a downward fluctuation, one can derive competitive bounds on the two couplings using ATLAS measurements of normalized $p_T$ distribution at 8 TeV. With 300 fb${}^{-1}$ at 13 TeV LHC one could establish flavor non-universality of the Yukawa couplings in the down sector.
Mithen, James P; Crowley, Basil J B; Gregori, Gianluca
2011-01-01
Using numerical simulations, we investigate the equilibrium dynamics of a single component fluid with Yukawa interaction potential. We show that, for a wide range of densities and temperatures, the dynamics of the system are in striking agreement with a simple model of generalized hydrodynamics. Since the Yukawa potential can describe the ion-ion interactions in a plasma, the model has significant applicability for both analyzing and interpreting the results of x-ray scattering data from high power lasers and fourth generation light sources.
One-loop Yukawa couplings in local models
Conlon, Joseph P. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Balliol College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Palti, Eran [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)
2010-07-15
We calculate the one-loop Yukawa couplings and threshold corrections for supersymmetric local models of branes at singularities in type IIB string theory. We compute the corrections coming both from wavefunction and vertex renormalisation. The former comes in the IR from conventional field theory running and in the UV from threshold corrections that cause it to run from the winding scale associated to the full Calabi-Yau volume. The vertex correction is naively absent as it appears to correspond to superpotential renormalisation. However, we find that while the Wilsonian superpotential is not renormalised there is a physical vertex correction in the 1PI action associated to light particle loops. (orig.)
Yukawa couplings and seesaw neutrino masses in noncommutative gauge theory
Horvat, Raul [Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Ilakovac, Amon [Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, Zagreb (Croatia); Schupp, Peter [Center for Mathematics, Modeling and Computing, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Trampetic, Josip [Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); You, Jiangyang, E-mail: Jiangyang.You@irb.hr [Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia)
2012-09-10
We consider Yukawa couplings in a {theta}-exact approach to noncommutative gauge field theory and show that both Dirac and singlet Majorana neutrino mass terms can be consistently accommodated. This shows that in fact the whole neutrino-mass extended standard model on noncommutative spacetime can be formulated in the new nonperturbative (in {theta}) approach which eliminates the previous restriction of Seiberg-Witten map based theories to low-energy phenomena. Spacetime noncommutativity induced couplings between neutrinos and photons as well as Z-bosons appear quite naturally in the model. We derive relevant Feynman rules for the type I seesaw mechanism.
Invariants in the Yukawa system’s thermodynamic phase diagram
Veldhorst, Arno; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2015-01-01
phase diagram deriving from the fact that they have curves (isomorphs) along which structure and dynamics in reduced units are invariant to a good approximation. We show that the Yukawa system has strong virial potential-energy correlations and identify its isomorphs by two different methods. One method...... of a known approximate analytical expression for this line in the temperature-density phase diagram. The paper's results give the first demonstration that the isomorph theory can be applied to systems like dense colloidal suspensions and strongly coupled dusty plasmas...
Dynamical Generation of Yukawa Couplings in Intersecting D-brane Models
Kitazawa, N
2004-01-01
We propose a scenario to obtain non-trivial Yukawa coupling matrices for the quark-lepton mass generation in supersymmetric intersecting D-brane models in type IIA T^6/Z_2 x Z_2 orientifold. As an example, an explicit model is constructed in which all the four generations of quarks and leptons and two pairs of massless Higgs fields are composite. In this model non-trivial Yukawa interactions are obtained by the interplay between the string-level higher dimensional interactions among "preons" and the dynamics of the confinement of "preons".
Kai Tsuruta
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We prove the existence of the wave operator for the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system with Yukawa coupling. This non-linearity type is below Strichartz scaling, and therefore classic perturbation methods will fail in any Strichartz space. Instead, we follow the "first iteration method" to handle these critical non-linearities.
Radiative corrections to the Yukawa couplings in two Higgs doublet models
Kikuchi, Mariko
2014-01-01
A pattern of deviations in coupling constants of Standard Model (SM)-like Higgs boson from their SM predictions indicates characteristics of an extended Higgs sector. In particular, Yukawa coupling constants can deviate in different patterns in four types of Two Higgs Doublet Models (THDMs) with a softly-broken Z_2 symmetry. We can discriminate types of THDMs by measuring the pattern of these deviations. We calculate Yukawa coupling constants of the SM-like Higgs boson with radiative corrections in all types of Yukawa interactions in order to compare to future precision data at the International Linear Collider (ILC). We perform numerical computations of scale factors, and evaluate differences between the Yukawa couplings in THDMs and those of the SM at the one-loop level. We find that scale factors in different types of THDMs do not overlap each other even in the case with maximum radiative corrections if gauge couplings are different from the SM predictions large enough to be measured at the ILC. Therefore,...
Application of the Optimized Baxter Model to the hard-core attractive Yukawa system
Prinsen, P.; Pamies, J.C.; Odijk, Th.; Frenkel, D.
2006-01-01
We perform Monte Carlo simulations on the hard-core attractive Yukawa system to test the Optimized Baxter Model that was introduced in [P.Prinsen and T. Odijk, J. Chem. Phys. 121, p.6525 (2004)] to study a fluid phase of spherical particles interacting through a short-range pair potential. We compar
Application of the optimized Baxter model to the hard-core attractive Yukawa system
Prinsen, P.; Pàmies, J.C.; Odijk, T.; Frenkel, D.
2006-01-01
We perform Monte Carlo simulations on the hard-core attractive Yukawa system to test the optimized Baxter model that was introduced by Prinsen and Odijk [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 6525 (2004) ] to study a fluid phase of spherical particles interacting through a short-range pair potential. We compare the c
Collisional and collisionless expansion of Yukawa balls.
Piel, Alexander; Goree, John A
2013-12-01
The expansion of Yukawa balls is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations of collisionless and collisional situations. High computation speed was achieved by using the parallel computing power of graphics processing units. When the radius of the Yukawa ball is large compared to the shielding length, the expansion process starts with the blow-off of the outermost layer. A rarefactive wave subsequently propagates radially inward at the speed of longitudinal phonons. This mechanism is fundamentally different from Coulomb explosions, which employ a self-similar expansion of the entire system. In the collisionless limit, the outer layers carry away most of the available energy. The simulations are compared with analytical estimates. In the collisional case, the expansion process can be described by a nonlinear diffusion equation that is a special case of the porous medium equation.
Nonlinear magnetoplasmons in strongly coupled Yukawa plasmas
Bonitz, M; Ott, T; Kaehlert, H; Hartmann, P
2010-01-01
The existence of plasma oscillations at multiples of the magnetoplasmon frequency in a strongly coupled two-dimensional magnetized Yukawa plasma is reported, based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations. These modes are the analogues of Bernstein modes which are renormalized by strong interparticle correlations. Their properties are theoretically explained by a dielectric function incorporating the combined effect of a magnetic field, strong correlations and finite temperature.
Yukawa Interaction from a SUSY Composite Model
Haba, N
1998-01-01
We present a composite model that is based on non-perturbative effects of N=1 supersymmetric SU(N_C) gauge theory with N_f=N_C+1 flavors. In this model, we consider N_C=7, where all matter fields in the supersymmetric standard model, that is, quarks, leptons and Higgs particles are bound states of preons and anti-preons. When SU(7)_H hyper-color coupling becomes strong, Yukawa couplings of quarks and leptons are generated dynamically. We show one generation model at first, and next we show models of three generations.
The Nuclear Yukawa Model on a Lattice
de Soto, F; Carbonell, J
2011-01-01
We present the results of the quantum field theory approach to nuclear Yukawa model obtained by standard lattice techniques. We have considered the simplest case of two identical fermions interacting via a scalar meson exchange. Calculations have been performed using Wilson fermions in the quenched approximation. We found the existence of a critical coupling constant above which the model cannot be numerically solved. The range of the accessible coupling constants is below the threshold value for producing two-body bound states. Two-body scattering lengths have been obtained and compared to the non relativistic results.
Constraining the Charm Yukawa and Higgs-quark Universality
Perez, Gilad; Stamou, Emmanuel; Tobioka, Kohsaku
2015-01-01
We introduce four different types of data-driven analyses with different level of robustness that constrain the size of the Higgs-charm Yukawa coupling: (i) recasting the vector-boson associated, Vh, analyses that search for bottom-pair final state. We use this mode to directly and model independently constrain the Higgs to charm coupling, y_c/y_c^{SM} J/\\psi\\gamma, y_c/y_c^{SM} < 220; (iv) a global fit to the Higgs signal strengths, y_c/y_c^{SM} < 6.2. A comparison with t\\bar{t}h data allows us to show that current data eliminates the possibility that the Higgs couples to quarks in a universal way, as is consistent with the Standard Model (SM) prediction. Finally, we demonstrate how the experimental collaborations can further improve our direct bound by roughly an order of magnitude by charm-tagging, as already used in new physics searches.
Nonperturbative Yukawa theory at finite density and temperature
Fraga, Eduardo S; Pinto, Marcus Benghi
2009-01-01
In-medium Yukawa theory is part of the thermodynamics of the Standard Model of particle physics and is one of the main building blocks of most effective field theories of fermionic systems. By computing its pressure we investigate the nonperturbative thermodynamics at finite temperature and density using the optimized perturbation theory (OPT) framework. Our calculations are valid for arbitrary fermion and scalar masses, temperature, chemical potential, and not restricted to weak coupling. The model is considered in the presence as well as in the absence of condensates. Comparison with nonperturbative results shows that second order perturbation theory (PT) fails in the first case but performs rather well when condensates are absent, even at high-temperature regimes.
Fluid Modes of a Spherically Confined Yukawa Plasma
Kählert, H
2010-01-01
The normal modes of a three-dimensional Yukawa plasma in an isotropic, harmonic confinement are investigated by solving the linearized cold fluid equations. The eigenmodes are found analytically and expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is found that the mode frequencies solely depend on the dimensionless plasma parameter $\\xi=\\kappa R$, where $R$ is the plasma radius and $\\kappa$ the inverse screening length. The eigenfrequencies increase monotonically with $\\xi$ and saturate in the limit $\\xi\\to\\infty$. Compared with the results in the Coulomb limit~[D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{66}, 2076 (1991)], we find a new class of modes characterized by the number $n$ which determines the number of radial nodes in the perturbed potential. These modes originate from the degenerate bulk modes of the Coulomb system. Analytical formulas for the eigenfrequencies are derived for limiting cases.
Fluid Modes of a Spherically Confined Yukawa Plasma
Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael
2010-11-01
The normal modes of a three-dimensional Yukawa plasma in an isotropic, harmonic confinement are investigated by solving the linearized cold fluid equations. The eigenmodes are found analytically in terms of hypergeometric functions. The mode frequencies solely depend on the dimensionless plasma parameter ξ=κR, where R is the plasma radius and κ the inverse screening length. The eigenfrequencies increase monotonically with ξ and saturate in the limit ξ->∞. Compared with the results in the Coulomb limit [D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2076 (1991)], we find a new class of modes characterized by the number n which determines the number of radial nodes in the perturbed potential. We compare the fluid modes with molecular dynamics simulations and find good agreement for low order modes and weak to moderate screening.
Lepton flavor non-universality in B decays from dynamical Yukawas
Crivellin, Andreas; Fuentes-Martín, Javier; Greljo, Admir; Isidori, Gino
2017-03-01
The basic features of quark and lepton mass matrices can be successfully explained by natural minima of a generic potential with dynamical Yukawa fields invariant under the [ SU (3) ] 5 × O (3) flavor symmetry. If this symmetry is gauged, in order to avoid potentially dangerous Goldstone bosons, and small perturbations are added to exactly fit the observed pattern of fermion masses, the spectrum of massive flavor gauge bosons can naturally explain the hints for new physics in b → sℓ+ℓ- transitions, including RK. In particular, the desired pattern of the Standard Model Yukawa couplings is compatible with a gauged U (1) q in the quark sector, and U (1) μ - τ in the lepton sector spontaneously broken around the TeV scale. In order to explain the aforementioned experimental hints, the corresponding neutral gauge bosons are required to mix, yielding to potentially observable signals in dimuon resonance searches at the LHC.
Power law behavior for the zigzag transition in a Yukawa cluster
Sheridan, T E
2010-01-01
We provide direct experimental evidence that the one-dimensional (1D) to two-dimensional (2D) zigzag transition in a Yukawa cluster exhibits power law behavior. Configurations of a six-particle dusty (complex) plasma confined in a biharmonic potential well are characterized as the well anisotropy is reduced. When the anisotropy is large the particles are in a 1D straight line configuration. As the anisotropy is decreased the cluster undergoes a zigzag transition to a 2D configuration. The measured dependence of cluster width on anisotropy is well described by a power law. A second transition from the zigzag to an elliptical configuration is also observed. The results are in very good agreement with a model for particles interacting through a Yukawa potential.
Modified perturbation theory for the Yukawa model
Poluektov, Yu M
2016-01-01
A new formulation of perturbation theory for a description of the Dirac and scalar fields (the Yukawa model) is suggested. As the main approximation the self-consistent field model is chosen, which allows in a certain degree to account for the effects caused by the interaction of fields. Such choice of the main approximation leads to a normally ordered form of the interaction Hamiltonian. Generation of the fermion mass due to the interaction with exchange of the scalar boson is investigated. It is demonstrated that, for zero bare mass, the fermion can acquire mass only if the coupling constant exceeds the critical value determined by the boson mass. In this connection, the problem of the neutrino mass is discussed.
Blowup results for the KGS system with higher order Yukawa coupling
Shi, Qi-Hong, E-mail: shiqh03@163.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China); Li, Wan-Tong [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Wang, Shu [College of Applied Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)
2015-10-15
In this paper, we investigate the Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger (KGS) system with higher order Yukawa coupling in spatial dimensions N ≥ 3. We establish a perturbed virial type identity and prove blowup results relied on Lyapunov functionals for KGS system with a negative energy level. Additionally, we give a result with respect to the blowup rate in finite time for the radial solution in 3 spatial dimensions.
Constraining Light-Quark Yukawa Couplings from Higgs Distributions
Bishara, Fady
2017-01-01
We propose a novel strategy to constrain the bottom and charm Yukawa couplings by exploiting LHC measurements of transverse momentum distributions in Higgs production. Our method does not rely on the reconstruction of exclusive final states or heavy-flavour tagging. Compared to other proposals it leads to an enhanced sensitivity to the Yukawa couplings due to distortions of the differential Higgs spectra from emissions which either probe quark loops or are associated to quark-initiated production. We derive constraints using data from LHC Run I, and we explore the prospects of our method at future LHC runs. Finally, we comment on the possibility of bounding the strange Yukawa coupling.
Gauge-Yukawa unification in SO(10) SUSY GUTs
Kubo, J. [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Liberal Arts; Mondragon, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Shoda, S. [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Zoupanos, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut
1996-06-10
We study supersymmetric unified models with three fermion generations based on the gauge group SO(10) and require gauge-Yukawa unification, i.e. a renormalization group invariant functional relationship among the gauge and Yukawa couplings of the third generation in the symmetric phase. In the case of the minimal model, we find that the predicted values for the top and bottom quark masses are in agreement with the present experimental data for a wide range of supersymmetry breaking scales. We also find that an experimental accuracy of less than 1% for the top quark mass could test the corresponding prediction of the gauge-Yukawa unified model. (orig.).
Towards a precise measurement of the top quark Yukawa coupling at the ILC
Juste, A.
2005-12-01
A precise measurement of the top quark Yukawa coupling is of great importance, since it may shed light on the mechanism of EWSB. We study the prospects of such measurement during the first phase of the ILC at {radical}s = 500 GeV, focusing in particular on recent theoretical developments as well as the potential benefits of beam polarization. It is shown that both yield improvements that could possibly lead to a measurement competitive with the LHC.
Three different approaches to the same interaction: the Yukawa model in nuclear physics
Carbonell, J; Karmanov, V A
2012-01-01
After a brief discussion of the meaning of the potential in quantum mechanics, we examine the results of the Yukawa model (scalar meson exchange) for the nucleon-nucleon interaction in three different dynamical frameworks: the non-relativistic dynamics of the Schrodinger equation, the relativistic quantum mechanics of the Bethe-Salpeter and Light-Front equations and the lattice solution of the Quantum Field Theory, obtained in the quenched approximation.
An explicit SO(10) x U(1)$_{F}$ model of the Yukawa interactions
Albright, Carl H; Albright, Carl H; Nandi, Satyanarayan
1995-01-01
We construct an explicit SO(10) \\times U(1)_F model of the Yukawa interactions by using as a guide previous phenomenological results obtained from a bottom-up approach to quark and lepton mass matrices. The global U(1)_F family symmetry group sets the textures for the Majorana and generic Dirac mass matrices by restricting the type and number of Higgs diagrams which can contribute to each matrix element, while the SO(10) group relates each particular element of the up, down, neutrino and charged lepton Dirac matrices. The Yukawa couplings and vacuum expectation values associated with pairs of {\\bf 1,~45, 10,} and {\\bf 126} Higgs representations successfully correlate all the quark and lepton masses and mixings in the scenario incorporating the nonadiabatic solar neutrino and atmospheric neutrino depletion effects.
Two body scattering length of Yukawa model on a lattice
De Soto, F; Roiesnel, C; Boucaud, P; Leroy, J P; Pène, O; Boucaud, Ph.
2007-01-01
The extraction of scattering parameters from Euclidean simulations of a Yukawa model in a finite volume with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed both in non relativistic quantum mechanics and in quantum field theory.
Renormalization-group flows and fixed points in Yukawa theories
Mølgaard, Esben; Shrock, R.
2014-01-01
We study renormalization-group flows in Yukawa theories with massless fermions, including determination of fixed points and curves that separate regions of different flow behavior. We assess the reliability of perturbative calculations for various values of Yukawa coupling y and quartic scalar....... In the regime of weak couplings where the perturbative calculations are most reliable, we find that the theories have no nontrivial fixed points, and the flow is toward a free theory in the infrared....
Causality in 1+1-dimensional Yukawa model-II
Asrarul Haque; Satish D Joglekar
2013-10-01
The limits → large, $M →$ large with ($g^{3}/M$) = const. of the 1+1-dimensional Yukawa model are discussed. The conclusion of the results on bound states of the Yukawa model in this limit (obtained in arXiv:0908.4510v3 [hep-th]) is taken into account. It is found that model reduces to an effective non-local 3 theory in this limit. Causality violation also is observed in this limit.
Monte Carlo Simulation for Surface Properties of Two-Yukawa Fluids
刘金晨; 吴畏; 陆九芳; 李以圭
2002-01-01
The two-Yukawa (TY) potential is a newly developed potential function for fluids. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate the potential energy, intermolecular forces, radial distribution function, density profile, surface thickness and surface tension for a TY fluid at different temperatures. The results for a TY fluid are compared to those for a Lennard-Jone fluid, which shows that the surface properties are more sensitive to the intermolecular potential than the bulk properties and the repulsive action with a shore range can also influence the surface properties.
Tracing the Gauge Origin of Yukawa and Higgs Parameters Beyond the Standard Model
Díaz-Cruz, J L
2004-01-01
We discuss possible realizations of the hypothesis that all the fundamental interactions of the elementary particles should be of gauge type, including the Yukawa and Higgs ones. In the minimal SUSY extension of the standard model, where the quartic Higgs couplings are ``gauged'' through the D-terms, it is also possible to generate radiatively the Yukawa matrices for the light generations, thus expressing them as functions of gauge couplings. The program can also be applied to the SUSY LR model, where the possibility to induce radiatively the mixing angles, can help to make viable the parity solution to the strong CP problem. The superpotential of the model still includes some non-gauge couplings, namely, the Yukawa for the third generation and the trilinear terms involving the Higgs bi-doublet and two pairs of doublets. Additional progress to relate these parameters to gauge couplings, can be made by embedding the LR model within a SUSY model SU(4)_WxU(1)_{B-L} in five dimensions, where the Higgs bi-doublet ...
A First-Order Electroweak Phase Transition in the Standard Model from Varying Yukawas
Baldes, Iason; Servant, Geraldine
2016-01-01
We show that the dynamics responsible for the variation of the Yukawa couplings of the Standard Model fermions generically leads to a very strong first-order electroweak phase transition, assuming that the Yukawa couplings are large and of order 1 before the electroweak phase transition and reach their present value afterwards. There are good motivations to consider that the flavour structure could emerge during electroweak symmetry breaking, for example if the Froggatt-Nielsen field dynamics were linked to the Higgs field. In this paper, we do not need to assume any particular theory of flavour and show in a model-independent way how the nature of the electroweak phase transition is completely changed when the Standard Model Yukawas vary at the same time as the Higgs is acquiring its vacuum expectation value. The thermal contribution of the fermions creates a barrier between the symmetric and broken phase minima of the effective potential, leading to a first-order phase transition. This offers new routes for...
Tuning the phase diagram of colloid-polymer mixtures via Yukawa interactions
González García, Álvaro; Tuinier, Remco
2016-12-01
Theory that predicts the phase behavior of interacting Yukawa spheres in a solution containing nonadsorbing polymer is presented. Our approach accounts for multiple overlap of depletion zones. It is found that additional Yukawa interactions beyond hard core interactions strongly affect the location and presence of coexistence regions and phase states. The theoretical phase diagrams are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The agreement between the two approaches supports the validity of the theoretical approximations made and confirms that, by choosing the parameters of the interaction potentials, tuning of the binodals is possible. The critical end point characterizes the phase diagram topology. It is demonstrated how an additional Yukawa interaction shifts this point with respect to the hard sphere case. Provided a certain depletant-to-colloid size ratio for which a stable colloidal gas-liquid phase coexistence takes place for hard spheres, added direct interactions turn this into a metastable gas-liquid equilibrium. The opposite case, the induction of a stable gas-liquid coexistence where only fluid-solid was present for hard spheres, is also reported.
Six-Parameter Exponential-Type Potential and the Identity for the Exponential-Type Potentials
JIA Chun-Sheng; ZENG Xiang-Lin; LI Shu-Chuan; SUN Liang-Tian; YANG Qiu-Bo
2002-01-01
We propose a six-parameter exponential-type potential (SPEP), which has been shown to be a shape-invariant potential with a translation of parameters. For this reducible potential, the exact energy levels are obtained byusing the supersymmetric shape invariance technique. Choosing appropriate parameters, four classes of exponential-typepotentials and their exact energy spectra are reduced from the SPEP and a general energy level formula, respectively.Each class shows the identity except for the different definitions of parameters.
Phenomenological consequences of four zero neutrino Yukawa textures
Choubey, Sandhya [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India)], E-mail: sandhya@mri.ernet.in; Rodejohann, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Roy, Probir [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block AF, Sector 1, Kolkata 700 064 (India)
2009-02-11
For type I seesaw and in the basis where the charged lepton and heavy right-handed neutrino mass matrices are real and diagonal, four has been shown to be the maximum number of zeros allowed in the neutrino Yukawa coupling matrix Y{sub {nu}}. These four zero textures have been classified into two distinct categories. We investigate certain phenomenological consequences of these textures within a supersymmetric framework. This is done by using conditions implied on elements of the neutrino Majorana mass matrix for textures of each category in Y{sub {nu}}. These conditions turn out to be stable under radiative corrections. Including the effective mass, which appears in neutrinoless double beta decay, along with the usual neutrino masses, mixing angles and phases, it is shown analytically and through scatter plots how restricted regions in the seesaw parameter space are selected by these conditions. We also make consequential statements on the yet unobserved radiative lepton flavor violating decays such as {mu}{yields}e{gamma}. All these decay amplitudes are proportional to the moduli of entries of the neutrino Majorana mass matrix. We also show under which conditions the low energy CP violation, showing up in neutrino oscillations, is directly linked to the CP violation required for producing successful flavor dependent and flavor independent lepton asymmetries during leptogenesis.
Time-dependent correlation buildup in spherical Yukawa balls
Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael
2009-11-01
In recent years it has become possible to create 3D dust crystals in experiments [1], where the particles arrange on concentric spherical shells. Compared to confined ions the interaction between the dust particles is screened, which has been shown to affect the shell occupation of the ground state [2], and the probability of metastable states [3,4]. Here we study dynamical processes in a trapped Yukawa plasma by means of Langevin dynamics simulations, which fully include the Coulomb correlations, the confinement and friction with the neutral gas. By cooling a weakly correlated initial state towards the strong coupling regime, the formation of concentric shells is observed. While in systems with Coulomb interaction the shells clearly emerge at the cluster boundary, they appear almost simultaneously for sufficiently large screening. Monte Carlo simulations are used to show that the sequence, in which radial order is established, is determined by the confinement potential.[4pt] [1] O. Arp, D. Block, A. Piel, and A. Melzer, PRL 93, 165004 (2004)[0pt] [2] H. Baumgartner et al., New J. Phys. 10, 093019 (2008)[0pt] [3] D. Block et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 040701 (2008)[0pt] [4] H. K"ahlert et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036408 (2008)
Ganesh, Rajaraman; Charan, Harish
2016-07-01
Understanding vortical flows under external forcing in two dimensional (2D) fluids is a fundamental paradigm for structure formation in driven, dissipative systems. Considering Yukawa liquid as a prototype for strongly correlated or strongly coupled plasmas characterized by coupling strength (Γ, the ratio of average potential to kinetic energy per particle) and screening parameter (κ, ratio of mean inter-particle distance to shielding length), we address two important problems: 1. Onset of Rayleigh Benard convection cell (RBCC) in 2D Yukawa liquids subject to gravity and external temperature gradient 2. Onset of von Karman vortices in 2D Yukawa liquid under external pressure head, using large scale, first principles molecular dynamics simulations. For typical values of (Γ,κ), existence of a critical external temperature difference is demonstrated, beyond which RBCC are seen to set in. Beyond this critical external temperature difference, the strength of the maximum convective flow velocity is shown to exhibit a new, hitherto unsuspected linear relationship with external temperature difference and with a slope independent of (Γ,κ). The time taken for the transients to settle down to a steady state RBCC τ_s, is found to be maximum close to the above said critical external temperature difference and is seen to reduce with increasing external temperature difference. For the range of values of (Γ, κ) considered here, τ_s ≃ 10 000-20 000;ω^{-1}_{pd}, where ω_{pd} is dust plasma frequency. As Γ is increased to very high values, due to strong coupling effects, RBC cells are seen to be in a transient state without attaining a steady state for as long as 100 000;ω^{-1}_{pd}, even for a very high external temperature difference. In the second part, we address the existence of universal relation between Strouhal (St) and Rayleigh (Ry) numbers for Yukawa liquid using first principles based classical molecular dynamics. The flow past an obstacle is seen to indeed
Constraining Light-Quark Yukawa Couplings from Higgs Distributions.
Bishara, Fady; Haisch, Ulrich; Monni, Pier Francesco; Re, Emanuele
2017-03-24
We propose a novel strategy to constrain the bottom and charm Yukawa couplings by exploiting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) measurements of transverse momentum distributions in Higgs production. Our method does not rely on the reconstruction of exclusive final states or heavy-flavor tagging. Compared to other proposals, it leads to an enhanced sensitivity to the Yukawa couplings due to distortions of the differential Higgs spectra from emissions which either probe quark loops or are associated with quark-initiated production. We derive constraints using data from LHC run I, and we explore the prospects of our method at future LHC runs. Finally, we comment on the possibility of bounding the strange Yukawa coupling.
Flavor Cosmology: Dynamical Yukawas in the Froggatt-Nielsen Mechanism
Baldes, Iason; Servant, Geraldine
2016-01-01
Can the cosmological dynamics responsible for settling down the present values of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix be related to electroweak symmetry breaking? If the Standard Model Yukawa couplings varied in the early universe and started with order one values before electroweak symmetry breaking, the CP violation associated with the CKM matrix could be the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The large effective Yukawa couplings which lead to the enhanced CP violation can also help in achieving a strong first-order electroweak phase transition. We study in detail the feasibility of this idea by implementing dynamical Yukawa couplings in the context of the Froggatt--Nielsen mechanism. We discuss two main realizations of such a mechanism, related phenomenology, cosmological and collider bounds, and provide an estimate of the baryonic yield. A generic prediction is that this scenario always features a new scalar field below the electroweak scale.
SU(5) orientifolds, Yukawa couplings, Stringy Instantons and Proton Decay
Kiritsis, Elias; Schellekens, Bert; 10.1016
2009-01-01
We construct a large class of SU(5) orientifold vacua with tadpole cancellation both for the standard and the flipped case. We give a general analysis of superpotential couplings up to quartic order in orientifold vacua and identify the properties of needed Yukawa couplings as well as the baryon number violating couplings. We point out that successful generation of the perturbatively forbidden Yukawa couplings entails a generically disastrous rate for proton decay from an associated quartic term in the superpotential, generated from the same instanton effects. This problem seems generic and may appear in F-theory vacua as well. We search for the appropriate instanton effects that generate the missing Yukawa couplings in the SU(5) vacua we constructed and find them in a small subset of them.
Four-Fermion Limit of Gauge-Yukawa Theories
Krog, Jens; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco
2015-01-01
perturbative gauge-Yukawa theories can have a strongly coupled limit at high-energy, that can be mapped into a four-fermion theory. Interestingly, we are able to precisely carve out a region of the perturbative parameter space supporting such a composite limit. This has interesting implications on our current......We elucidate and extend the conditions that map gauge-Yukawa theories at low energies into time-honoured gauged four-fermion interactions at high energies. These compositeness conditions permit to investigate theories of composite dynamics through gauge-Yukawa theories. Here we investigate whether...... view on models of particle physics. As a template model we use an $SU(N_C)$ gauge theory with $N_F$ Dirac fermions transforming according to the fundamental representation of the gauge group. The fermions further interact with a gauge singlet complex $N_F\\times N_F$ Higgs that ceases to be a physical...
Electroweak symmetry breaking and bottom-top Yukawa unification
Carena, M S; Olechowski, M; Wagner, C E M
1994-01-01
The condition of unification of gauge couplings in the minimal supersymmetric standard model provides successful predictions for the weak mixing angle as a function of the strong gauge coupling and the supersymmetric threshold scale. In addition, in some scenarios, e.g.\\ in the minimal SO(10) model, the tau lepton and the bottom and top quark Yukawa couplings unify at the grand unification scale. The condition of Yukawa unification leads naturally to large values of $\\tan\\beta$, implying a proper top quark--bottom quark mass hierarchy. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of unification of the Yukawa couplings, in the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with (assumed) universal mass parameters at the unification scale and with radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry. We show that strong correlations between the parameters $\\mu_0$ and $M_{1/2}$ appear within this scheme. These correlations have relevant implications for the sparticle spectrum, which presents several characteri...
Flavor cosmology: dynamical yukawas in the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism
Baldes, Iason; Konstandin, Thomas [DESY,Notkestraße 85, Hamburg, D-22607 (Germany); Servant, Géraldine [DESY,Notkestraße 85, Hamburg, D-22607 (Germany); II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, Hamburg, D-22761 (Germany)
2016-12-15
Can the cosmological dynamics responsible for settling down the present values of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix be related to electroweak symmetry breaking? If the Standard Model Yukawa couplings varied in the early universe and started with order one values before electroweak symmetry breaking, the CP violation associated with the CKM matrix could be the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The large effective Yukawa couplings which lead to the enhanced CP violation can also help in achieving a strong first-order electroweak phase transition. We study in detail the feasibility of this idea by implementing dynamical Yukawa couplings in the context of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss two main realizations of such a mechanism, related phenomenology, cosmological and collider bounds, and provide an estimate of the baryonic yield. A generic prediction is that this scenario always features a new scalar field below the electroweak scale. We point out ways to get around this conclusion.
Unification beyond GUT`s: Gauge-Yukawa unification
Kubo, J. [College of Liberal Arts, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Mondragon, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Mexico (Mexico); Zoupanos, G. [Physics Department, Nat. Technical University, Athens (Greece)
1996-12-01
Gauge-Yukawa Unification (GYU) is a renormalization group invariant functional relation among gauge and Yukawa couplings which holds beyond the unification point in Grand Unified Theories (GUTs). We present here various models where GYU is obtained by requiring the principles of finiteness and reduction of couplings. We examine the consequences of these requirements for the low energy parameters, especially for the top quark mass. The predictions are such that they clearly distinguish already GYU from ordinary GUTs. It is expected that it will be possible to discriminate among the various GYUs when more accurate measurements of the top quark mass are available. (author) 63 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs
Small Violation of Universal Yukawa Coupling and Neutrino Large Mixing
Teshima, T
2001-01-01
We assume the universal Yukawa coupling (democratic mass matrix) with small violations for quarks, charged leptons and neutrinos masses. We could reproduce the mass hierarchy for quark masses and V_{CKM} matrix elements precisely. We adopt the see-saw mechanism for the explanation of smallness of neutrino masses and introduce the right-handed Majorana neutrinos and Dirac neutrinos. We assume the universal Yukawa coupling with small violations for Majorana and Dirac neutrinos. We can get the hierarchy of charged lepton masses and effective neutrino masses and the large mixing of neutrinos expressed in V_{NMS}.
Ground state of a confined Yukawa plasma including correlation effects
Henning, C; Filinov, A; Piel, A; Bonitz, M
2007-01-01
The ground state of an externally confined one-component Yukawa plasma is derived analytically using the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, the radial density profile is computed. The results are compared with the recently obtained mean-field (MF) density profile \\cite{henning.pre06}. While the MF results are more accurate for weak screening, LDA with correlations included yields the proper description for large screening. By comparison with first-principle simulations for three-dimensional spherical Yukawa crystals we demonstrate that both approximations complement each other. Together they accurately describe the density profile in the full range of screening parameters.
Nonperturbative Solution of Yukawa Theory and Gauge Theories
Hiller, John R.
2004-11-01
Recent progress in the nonperturbative solution of (3+1)-dimensional Yukawa theory and quantum electrodynamics (QED) and (1+1)-dimensional super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory will be summarized. The work on Yukawa theory has been extended to include two-boson contributions to the dressed fermion state and has inspired similar work on QED, where Feynman gauge has been found surprisingly convenient. In both cases, the theories are regulated in the ultraviolet by the inclusion of Pauli-Villars particles. For SYM theory, new high-resolution calculations of spectra have been used to obtain thermodynamic functions and improved results for a stress-energy correlator.
Quantum-gravity effects on a Higgs-Yukawa model
Eichhorn, Astrid; Held, Aaron; Pawlowski, Jan M.
2016-11-01
A phenomenologically viable theory of quantum gravity must accommodate all observed matter degrees of freedom and their properties. Here, we explore whether a toy model of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the Standard Model is compatible with asymptotically safe quantum gravity. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our result in the context of the Standard Model. We analyze the quantum scaling dimension of the system and find an irrelevant Yukawa coupling at a joint gravity-matter fixed point. Further, we explore the impact of gravity-induced couplings between scalars and fermions, which are nonvanishing in asymptotically safe gravity.
Barnaföldi, G. G.; Jakovác, A.; Pósfay, P.
2017-01-01
In this paper we propose a method to study the functional renormalization group (FRG) at finite chemical potential. The method consists of mapping the FRG equations within the Fermi surface into a differential equation defined on a rectangle with zero boundary conditions. To solve this equation we use an expansion of the potential in a harmonic basis. With this method we determined the phase diagram of a simple Yukawa-type model; as expected, the bosonic fluctuations decrease the strength of the transition.
Falcon, N.
2017-07-01
At cosmic scales the dynamics of the Universe are almost exclusively prescribed by the force of gravity; however the assumption of the law of gravitation, depending on the inverse of the distance, leads to the known problems of the rotation curves of galaxies and missing mass (dark matter). The problem of the coupling of gravity to changes in scale and deviations from the law of the inverse square is an old problem (Laplace, 1805; Seeliger 1898), which has motivated alternatives to Newtonian dynamics compatible with observations. The present paper postulates a modified Newtonian dynamics by adding an inverse Yukawa potential: U(r)≡U0(M)(r-r0)e-α/r is the the potential per unit mass (in N/kg) as a function of the barionic mass that causes the field, r0 is of the order of 50h-1 Mpc and alpha is a coupling constant of the order of 2.5 h-1 Mpc. This potential is zero within the solar system, slightly attractive at interstellar distances, very attractive in galactic range and repulsive at cosmic scales. Its origin is the barionic matter, it allows to include the Milgrow MoND theory to explain the rotation curves, it is compatible with the experiments Eovos type, and allows to deduce the law of Hubble to cosmic scales, in the form H0=100h km/s Mpc≍U0(M)/c, where U0(M)≍ 4pi×6.67 10-11m/s2, is obtained from the Laplace's equation, assuming that the gravitational force is the law of the inverse of the square plus a non-linear term type Yukawa inverse. It is concluded that the modification of the law of gravity with nonlinear terms, allows to model the dynamics of the Universe on a large scale and include non-locality without dark matter. (See Falcon et al. 2014, International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 4, 551-559).
POLYMER MEAN SPHERICAL APPROXIMATION FOR THE FLUID OF FLEXIBLE HARD-SPHERE YUKAWA STAR MOLECULES
Yu.V.Kalyuzhnyi
2002-01-01
Full Text Available An extension of the product-reactant Ornstein-Zernike approach (PROZA for the fluid of flexible star molecules is proposed and the corresponding version of the mean spherical approximation (MSA, the so-called polymer MSA (PMSA, is formulated. Using Baxter-Wertheim factorization technique, an analytical solution of the PMSA for the fluid of star molecules with Yukawa hard-sphere interaction between the molecular segments is derived and closed form analytical expressions for the Helmholtz free energy, chemical potential and equation of state are presented. The structure properties of several different versions of the star fluid model are studied.
Linear and quadratic static response functions and structure functions in Yukawa liquids.
Magyar, Péter; Donkó, Zoltán; Kalman, Gabor J; Golden, Kenneth I
2014-08-01
We compute linear and quadratic static density response functions of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids by applying an external perturbation potential in molecular dynamics simulations. The response functions are also obtained from the equilibrium fluctuations (static structure factors) in the system via the fluctuation-dissipation theorems. The good agreement of the quadratic response functions, obtained in the two different ways, confirms the quadratic fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We also find that the three-point structure function may be factorizable into two-point structure functions, leading to a cluster representation of the equilibrium triplet correlation function.
Scalar mass stability bound in a simple Yukawa-theory from renormalization group equations
Jakovác, A.; Kaposvári, I.; Patkós, A.
2017-01-01
Functional renormalization group (FRG) equations are constructed for a simple Yukawa-model with discrete chiral symmetry, including also the effect of a nonzero composite fermion background beyond the conventional scalar condensate. The evolution of the effective potential of the model, generically depending on two invariants, is explored with the help of power series expansions. Systematic investigation of the effect of a class of irrelevant operators on the lower (stability) bound allows a non-perturbative extension of the maximal cutoff value consistent with any given mass of the scalar field.
Quark Yukawa pattern from spontaneous breaking of flavour $SU(3)^3$
Nardi, Enrico
2015-01-01
A $SU(3)_Q \\times SU(3)_u \\times SU(3)_d$ invariant scalar potential breaking spontaneously the quark flavour symmetry can explain the standard model flavour puzzle. The approximate alignment in flavour space of the vacuum expectation values of the up and down `Yukawa fields' results as a dynamical effect. The observed quark mixing angles, the weak CP violating phase, and hierarchical quark masses can be all reproduced at the cost of introducing additional (auxiliary) scalar multiplets, but without the need of introducing hierarchical parameters.
Practical thermodynamics of Yukawa systems at strong coupling
Khrapak, Sergey A. [Forschungsgruppe Komplexe Plasmen, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Aix-Marseille-Université, CNRS, Laboratoire PIIM, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaya St. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Thomas, Hubertus M. [Forschungsgruppe Komplexe Plasmen, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)
2015-05-21
Simple practical approach to estimate thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled Yukawa systems, in both fluid and solid phases, is presented. The accuracy of the approach is tested by extensive comparison with direct computer simulation results (for fluids and solids) and the recently proposed shortest-graph method (for solids). Possible applications to other systems of softly repulsive particles are briefly discussed.
The magic of four zero neutrino Yukawa textures
Roy, Probir
2010-01-01
Four is the maximum number of texture zeros allowed in the Yukawa coupling matrix of three massive neutrinos. These completely fix the high scale CP violation needed for leptogenesis in terms of that accessible at laboratory energies. $\\mu\\tau$ symmetry drastically reduces such allowed textures. Only one form of the light neutrinos mass matrix survives comfortably while another is marginally allowed.
Yukawa model on a lattice: two body states
De Soto, F; Roiesnel, C; Boucaud, P; Leroy, J P; Pène, O; Boucaud, Ph.
2007-01-01
We present first results of the solutions of the Yukawa model as a Quantum Field Theory (QFT) solved non perturbatively with the help of lattice calculations. In particular we will focus on the possibility of binding two nucleons in the QFT, compared to the non relativistic result.
Melting line of Yukawa system by computer simulation
Meijer, E.J.; Frenkel, D.
1991-01-01
We located the melting line of the Yukawa system by determining the free energy of both fluid and solid phases by computer simulations. At the high densities the fluid freezes into a body-centered-cubic (bcc) solid, whereas for low densities it freezes into a face-centered-cubic (fcc) solid. For bot
Conformal Gauge-Yukawa Theories away From Four Dimensions
Codello, Alessandro; Langaeble, Kasper; Litim, Daniel
2016-01-01
We present the phase diagram and associated fixed points for a wide class of Gauge-Yukawa theories in $d=4+\\epsilon$ dimensions. The theories we investigate involve non-abelian gauge fields, fermions and scalars in the Veneziano-Witten limit. The analysis is performed in steps, we start with QCD...
Vacuum stability of asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories
Litim, Daniel F.; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We study the phase diagram and the stability of the ground state for certain four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories whose high-energy behaviour is controlled by an interacting fixed point. We also provide analytical and numerical results for running couplings, their crossover scales, the separatrix...
On the phase structure of a chiral invariant Higgs-Yukawa model
Gerhold, P; Gerhold, Philipp; Jansen, Karl
2006-01-01
In the past the construction of Higgs-Yukawa models on the lattice was blocked by the lack of a consistent definition of a chiral invariant Yukawa coupling term. Here, we consider a chiral invariant Higgs-Yukawa model based on the overlap operator, realized by the Neuberger-Dirac operator. As a first step towards a numerical examination of this model we study its phase diagram by means of an analytic 1/N-expansion, which is possible for small and for large values of the Yukawa coupling constant. In the case of strong Yukawa couplings the model effectively becomes an O(4)-symmetric non-linear sigma-model.
Enterprise Potential: Essence, Classification and Types
Turylo Anatolii M.
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The article considers existing approaches to classification of the enterprise potential as an economic notion. It offers own vision of classification of enterprise potential, which meets modern tendencies of enterprise development. Classification ensures a possibility of a wider description and assessment of enterprise potential and also allows identification of its most significant characteristics. Classification of the enterprise potential is developed by different criteria: by functions, by resource support, by ability to adapt, by the level of detection, by the spectrum of taking into account possibilities, by the period of coverage of possibilities and by the level of use. Analysis of components of the enterprise potential allows obtaining a complete and trustworthy assessment of the state of an enterprise. Adaptation potential of an enterprise is based on principles systemacy and dynamism, it characterises possibilities of adjustment of an enterprise to external and internal economic conditions.
Structure of multi-component/multi-Yukawa mixtures
Blum, L.; Arias, M.
2006-09-01
Recent small angle scattering experiments reveal new peaks in the structure function S(k) of colloidal systems (Liu et al 2005 J. Chem. Phys. 122 044507), in a region that was inaccessible with older instruments. It has been increasingly evident that a single (or double) Yukawa MSA-closure cannot account for these observations, and three or more terms are needed. On the other hand the MSA is not sufficiently accurate (Broccio et al 2005 Preprint); more accurate theories such as the HNC have been tried. But while the MSA is asymptotically exact at high densities (Rosenfield and Blum 1986 J. Chem. Phys. 85 1556), it does not satisfy the low density asymptotics. This has been corrected in the soft MSA (Blum et al 1972 J. Chem. Phys. 56 5197, Narten et al 1974 J. Chem. Phys. 60 3378) by adding exponential type terms. The results compared to experiment and simulation for liquid sodium by Rahman and Paskin (as shown in Blum et al 1972 J. Chem. Phys. 56 5197) are remarkably good. We use here a general closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equation, which is not necessarily the MSA closure (Blum and Hernando 2001 Condensed Matter Theories vol 16 ed Hernandez and Clark (New York: Nova) p 411). \\begin{equation} \\fl c_{ij}(r)=\\sum_{n=1}^{M}{\\cal{K}}_{ij}^{(n)}\\rme^{-z_{n}r}/r\\tqs {\\cal{K}}_{ij}^{(n)}=K^{(n)}\\delta_{i}^{(n)}\\delta_{j}^{(n)}\\tqs r\\geq \\sigma_{ij} \\label{eq1} \\end{equation} with the boundary condition for gij(r) = 0 for r<=σij. This general closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equation will go well beyond the MSA since it has been tested by Monte Carlo simulation for tetrahedral water (Blum et al 1999 Physica A 265 396), toroidal ion channels (Enriquez and Blum 2005 Mol. Phys. 103 3201) and polyelectrolytes (Blum and Bernard 2004 Proc. Int. School of Physics Enrico Fermi, Course CLV vol 155, ed Mallamace and Stanley (Amsterdam: IOS Press) p 335). For this closure we get for the Laplace transform of the pair correlation function an explicitly symmetric result
Viable and testable SUSY GUTs with Yukawa unification the case of split trilinears
Guadagnoli, Diego; Straub, David M
2009-01-01
We explore general SUSY GUT models with exact third-generation Yukawa unification, but where the requirement of universal soft terms at the GUT scale is relaxed. We consider the scenario in which the breaking of universality inherits from the Yukawa couplings, i.e. is of minimal flavor violating (MFV) type. In particular, the MFV principle allows for a splitting between the up-type and the down-type soft trilinear couplings. We explore the viability of this trilinear splitting scenario by means of a fitting procedure to electroweak observables, quark masses as well as flavor-changing neutral current processes. Phenomenological viability singles out one main scenario. This scenario is characterized by a sizable splitting between the trilinear soft terms and a large mu term. Remarkably, this scenario does not invoke a partial decoupling of the sparticle spectrum, as in the case of universal soft terms, but instead it requires part of the spectrum, notably the lightest stop, the gluino and the lightest charginos...
Lepton Flavor Non-Universality in B decays from Dynamical Yukawas
Crivellin, Andreas; Greljo, Admir; Isidori, Gino
2016-01-01
The basic features of quark and lepton mass matrices can be successfully explained by natural minima of a generic potential with dynamical Yukawa fields invariant under the $[\\mathrm{SU(3)}]^5\\times \\mathcal{O}(3)$ flavor symmetry. If this symmetry is gauged, in order to avoid potentially dangerous Goldstone bosons, and small perturbations are added to exactly fit the observed pattern of fermion masses, the spectrum of massive flavor gauge bosons can naturally explain the hints for new physics in $b\\to s \\ell^+\\ell^-$ transitions, including $R_K$. In particular, the desired pattern of the Standard Model Yukawa couplings is compatible with a gauged $\\mathrm{U(1)}_q$ in the quark sector, and $\\mathrm{U(1)}_{\\mu-\\tau}$ in the lepton sector spontaneously broken around the TeV scale. In order to explain the aforementioned experimental hints, the corresponding neutral gauge bosons are required to mix, yielding to potentially observable signals in dimuon resonance searches at the LHC.
Sohrabi Mahboub, Mahdi; Farrokhpour, Hossein
2016-06-01
In this paper, we present the results of an extensive study on a novel approach to the molecular modeling of pure ionic liquids (ILs) that incorporates the perturbed thermodynamic linear Yukawa isotherm regularity (LYIR), which is derived based on an effective nearest neighboring pair attractive interaction of the Yukawa potential. The LYIR was used to model the densities of ILs up to high pressures (35 MPa) and in the temperature range 293.15 to 393.15 K. To use the LYIR for ILs, a simple molecular model was proposed to describe their molecular structure, in which they were considered as a liquid consisting of the ion pairs moving together in the fluid, and each ion pair was assumed to be a one-center spherical united atom. The ILs under consideration contained one of the IL cations [C2mim]+, [C4mim]+, [C7mim]+, [C8mim]+, [C3mpy]+, [C3mpip]+, [C3mpyr]+ or [C4mpyr]+, and one of the IL anions [BF4]-, [C(CN)3]-, [CF3SO4]- or [NTf2]-. The reliability and physical significance of the parameters as well as the proposed molecular model were tested by calculating the densities of pure imidazolium-, pyridinium-, piperidinium- and pyrrolidimium-based ILs. The results showed that the LYIR can be used to predict and reproduce the density of ILs in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the LYIR enabled us to determine the physical quantities, such as an effective Yukawa screening length, λ eff, the product of the effective energy well depth and the effective coordination number, (ɛ eff/k)z eff, the contribution of the non-reference thermal pressure and also the influence of the anionic and cationic structure on the λ eff parameter. The standard deviation of the IL densities predicted in this work is lower than those calculated by the one other important equation of state reported in the literature.
An equation for pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid
Feng, Yan; Li, Wei; Wang, Qiaoling; Lin, Wei; Goree, John; Liu, Bin
2016-10-01
Thermodynamic behavior of two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasmas has been studied experimentally and theoretically recently. As a crucial parameter in thermodynamics, the pressure of dusty plasmas arises from frequent collisions of individual dust particles. Here, equilibrium molecular dynamical simulations were performed to study the pressure of 2D Yukawa liquids. A simple analytical expression for the pressure of a 2D Yukawa liquid is found by fitting the obtained pressure data over a wide range of temperatures, from the coldest close to the melting point, to the hottest about 70 times higher than the melting points. The obtained expression verifies that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of Wigner-Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytical expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochors, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to 2D dusty plasmas. Work in China supported by by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11505124, the 1000 Youth Talents Plan, and startup funds from Soochow University. Work in the US supported by DOE & NSF.
Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking due to strong Yukawa interactions
Beneš, Petr; Brauner, Tomáš; Smetana, Adam
2009-11-01
We present a new mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) based on a strong Yukawa dynamics. We consider an SU(2)L × U(1)Y gauge invariant model endowed with the usual Standard Model fermion multiplets and with two massive scalar doublets. We show that, unlike in the Standard Model, EWSB is possible even with vanishing vacuum expectation values of the scalars. Such EWSB is achieved dynamically by means of the (presumably strong) Yukawa couplings and manifests itself by the emergence of fermion and gauge boson masses and scalar mass splittings, which are expressed in a closed form in terms of the fermion and scalar proper self-energies. The 'would-be' Nambu-Goldstone bosons are shown to be composites of both the fermions and the scalars. We demonstrate that the simplest version of the model is compatible with basic experimental constraints.
Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa systems across coupling regimes
Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Khrapak, Sergey A.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.
2017-04-01
Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa (screened Coulomb or Debye-Hückel) systems is studied systematically using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Simulations cover very broad parameter range spanning from weakly coupled gaseous states to strongly coupled fluid and crystalline states. Important thermodynamic quantities, such as internal energy and pressure, are obtained and accurate physically motivated fits are proposed. This allows us to put forward simple practical expressions to describe thermodynamic properties of two-dimensional Yukawa systems. For crystals, in addition to numerical simulations, the recently developed shortest-graph interpolation method is applied to describe pair correlations and hence thermodynamic properties. It is shown that the finite-temperature effects can be accounted for by using simple correction of peaks in the pair correlation function. The corresponding correction coefficients are evaluated using MD simulation. The relevance of the obtained results in the context of colloidal systems, complex (dusty) plasmas, and ions absorbed to interfaces in electrolytes is pointed out.
Yukawa Unification and Sparticle Spectroscopy in Gauge Mediation Models
Gogoladze, Ilia; Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih
2015-01-01
We explore the implications of t-b-tau (and b-tau) Yukawa coupling unification condition on the fundamental parameter space and sparticle spectroscopy in the minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (mGMSB) model. We find that this scenario prefers values of the CP-odd Higgs mass m_A > 1 TeV, with all colored sparticle masses above 3 TeV. These predictions will be hard to test at LHC13 but they may be testable at HE-LHC 33 TeV or a 100 TeV collider. Both t-b-tau and b-tau Yukawa coupling unifications prefer a relatively light gravitino with mass < 30 eV, which makes it a candidate hot dark matter particle. However, it cannot account for more than 15 % of the observed dark matter density.
Yukawa Hierarchies From Extra Dimensions With Small FCNC
Lillie, Benjamin Huntington
2003-01-01
We investigate a class of extra dimensional models where all of the Standard Model fermions are localized to a single fixed point in an $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold, and each species is localized with an exponential wavefunction with a different width. We show that this naturally generates Yukawa hierarchies of the size present in the Standard Model, and we find a set of model parameters that reproduces the observed masses and mixings to experimental accuracy. In addition, the dominant constraints, arising from flavor changing neutral currents, are shown to restrict the compactification scale to be $1/R \\ge 2-5 \\tev$, which is a much less stringent constraint than in similar extra dimensional models of the Yukawa hierarchy.
Fermion Wavefunctions in Magnetized branes Theta identities and Yukawa couplings
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Panda, Binata
2009-01-01
Computation of Yukawa couplings, determining superpotentials as well as the Kähler metric, with oblique (non-commuting) fluxes in magnetized brane constructions is an interesting unresolved issue, in view of the importance of such fluxes for obtaining phenomenologically viable models. In order to perform this task, fermion (scalar) wavefunctions on toroidally compactified spaces are presented for general fluxes, parameterized by Hermitian matrices with eigenvalues of arbitrary signatures. We also give explicit mappings among fermion wavefunctions, of different internal chiralities on the tori, which interchange the role of the flux components with the complex structure of the torus. By evaluating the overlap integral of the wavefunctions, we give the expressions for Yukawa couplings among chiral multiplets arising from an arbitrary set of branes (or their orientifold images). The method is based on constructing certain mathematical identities for general Riemann theta functions with matrix valued modular par...
Revision of FMM-Yukawa: An adaptive fast multipole method for screened Coulomb interactions
Zhang, Bo; Huang, Jingfang; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Sun, Xiaobai
2010-12-01
FMM-YUKAWA is a mathematical software package primarily for rapid evaluation of the screened Coulomb interactions of N particles in three dimensional space. Since its release, we have revised and re-organized the data structure, software architecture, and user interface, for the purpose of enabling more flexible, broader and easier use of the package. The package and its documentation are available at http://www.fastmultipole.org/, along with a few other closely related mathematical software packages. New version program summaryProgram title: FMM-Yukawa Catalogue identifier: AEEQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 78 704 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 854 265 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 90, and C. Requires gcc and gfortran version 4.4.3 or later Computer: All Operating system: Any Classification: 4.8, 4.12 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2331 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: To evaluate the screened Coulomb potential and force field of N charged particles, and to evaluate a convolution type integral where the Green's function is the fundamental solution of the modified Helmholtz equation. Solution method: The new version of fast multipole method (FMM) that diagonalizes the multipole-to-local translation operator is applied with the tree structure adaptive to sample particle locations. Reasons for new version: To handle much larger particle ensembles, to enable the iterative use of the subroutines in a solver, and to remove potential contention in assignments for parallelization. Summary of revisions: The software package FMM-Yukawa has been
A better large $N$ expansion for chiral Yukawa models
Bathas, G; Bathas, George; Neuberger, Herbert
1992-01-01
We consider the most general renormalizable chiral Yukawa model with $SU(3)_{\\rm color}$ replaced by $SU(N_c)$, $SU(2)_{\\rm L}$ replaced by $SU(N_w )$ and $U(1)_{Y}$ replaced by $U(1)^{N_w -1}$ in the limit $N_c \\rightarrow\\infty$, $N_w \\rightarrow\\infty$ with the ratio $\\rho=\\sqrt{{N_w}\\over{N_c}} \
Cosmological evolution of Yukawa couplings. The 5D perspective
Harling, Benedict von [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Servant, Geraldine [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2017-02-15
The cosmological evolution of standard model Yukawa couplings may have major implications for baryogenesis. In particular, as highlighted recently, the CKM matrix alone could be the source of CP-violation during electroweak baryogenesis provided that the Yukawa couplings were large and varied during the electroweak phase transition. We provide a natural realisation of this idea in the context of Randall-Sundrum models and show that the geometrical warped approach to the fermion mass hierarchy may naturally display the desired cosmological dynamics. The key ingredient is the coupling of the Goldberger-Wise scalar, responsible for the IR brane stabilisation, to the bulk fermions, which modifies the fermionic profiles. This also helps alleviating the usually tight constraints from CP-violation in Randall-Sundrum scenarios. We study how the Yukawa couplings vary during the stabilisation of the Randall-Sundrum geometry and can thus induce large CP-violation during the electroweak phase transition. Using holography, we discuss the 4D interpretation of this dynamical interplay between flavour and electroweak symmetry breaking.
Yukawa matrix unification in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
Iskrzyński, Mateusz
2015-01-01
In this dissertation, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is studied as a low-energy theory stemming from the $SU(5)$ Grand Unified Theory (GUT). We investigate the possibility of satisfying the minimal $SU(5)$ boundary condition $\\mathbf{Y}^d=\\mathbf{Y}^{e\\,T}$ for the full $3\\!\\times\\!3$ down-quark and lepton Yukawa matrices at the GUT scale within the $R$-parity conserving MSSM. We give numerical evidence in favour of the statement: There exist regions in the parameter space of the R-parity conserving MSSM for which the unification of the down-quark and lepton Yukawa matrices takes place, while the predicted values of flavour, electroweak and other collider observables are consistent with experimental constraints. Furthermore, we find evidence that the bottom-tau and strange-muon Yukawa unification is possible with a stable MSSM vacuum in the standard form. We investigate two separate scenarios of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms at the GUT scale. In the first one, it is assumed that the ...
Langin, T. K.; Strickler, T.; Maksimovic, N.; McQuillen, P.; Pohl, T.; Vrinceanu, D.; Killian, T. C.
2016-02-01
The Yukawa one-component plasma (OCP) model is a paradigm for describing plasmas that contain one component of interest and one or more other components that can be treated as a neutralizing, screening background. In appropriately scaled units, interactions are characterized entirely by a screening parameter, κ . As a result, systems of similar κ show the same dynamics, regardless of the underlying parameters (e.g., density and temperature). We demonstrate this behavior using ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs) created by photoionizing a cold (T ≤10 mK) gas. The ions in UNP systems are well described by the Yukawa model, with the electrons providing the screening. Creation of the plasma through photoionization can be thought of as a rapid quench of the interaction potential from κ =∞ to a final κ value set by the electron density and temperature. We demonstrate experimentally that the postquench dynamics are universal in κ over a factor of 30 in density and an order of magnitude in temperature. Results are compared with molecular-dynamics simulations. We also demonstrate that features of the postquench kinetic energy evolution, such as disorder-induced heating and kinetic-energy oscillations, can be used to determine the plasma density and the electron temperature.
Beam-Plasma Interaction and Instabilities in a 2D Yukawa Plasma
Kyrkos, S.; Kalman, G.; Rosenberg, M.
2008-11-01
In a complex plasma, penetrating charged particle beams may lead to beam-plasma instabilities. When either the plasma, the beam, or both, are strongly interacting [1], the features of the instability are different from those in a weakly coupled plasma. We consider the case when a 2D dusty plasma forms a lattice, and the beam is moving in the lattice plane. Both the grains and the beam particles interact through a Yukawa potential; the beam particles are weakly coupled to each other and to the lattice. The system develops both a longitudinal and a transverse instability. Based on the phonon spectrum of a 2D hexagonal Yukawa lattice [2], we determine and compare the transverse and longitudinal growth rates. As a function of the wavenumber, the growth rates exhibit remarkable gaps, where no instability is excited. The gap locations are governed by the ratio of the lattice and the beam plasma frequencies. The behavior of the growth rates also depends on the direction of the beam and on the relationship between the beam speed and the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds. [1] GJ Kalman, M Rosenberg, JPA 36, 5963 (2003). [2] T Sullivan, GJ Kalman, S Kyrkos, P Bakshi, M Rosenberg, Z Donko, JPA 39, 4607 (2006).
Three-loop SM beta-functions for matrix Yukawa couplings
A.V. Bednyakov
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We present the extension of our previous results for three-loop Yukawa coupling beta-functions to the case of complex Yukawa matrices describing the flavour structure of the SM. The calculation is carried out in the context of unbroken phase of the SM with the help of the MINCER program in a general linear gauge and cross-checked by means of MATAD/BAMBA codes. In addition, ambiguities in Yukawa matrix beta-functions are studied.
Lindner, Manfred
2007-01-01
Boltzmann equations are often used to describe the non-equilibrium time-evolution of many-body systems in particle physics. Prominent examples are the computation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe and the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma after a relativistic heavy ion collision. However, Boltzmann equations are only a classical approximation of the quantum thermalization process, which is described by so-called Kadanoff-Baym equations. This raises the question how reliable Boltzmann equations are as approximations to the complete Kadanoff-Baym equations. Therefore, we present in this article a detailed comparison of Boltzmann and Kadanoff-Baym equations in the framework of a chirally invariant Yukawa-type quantum field theory including fermions and scalars. The obtained numerical results reveal significant differences between both types of equations. Apart from quantitative differences, on a qualitative level the late-time universality respected by Kadanoff-Baym equations is severely restricted in th...
Yukawa's of light stringy states
Anastasopoulos, Pascal [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Bianchi, Massimo; Consoli, Dario [Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; I.N.F.N., Sezione di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' (Italy)
2017-01-15
Light massive string states can appear at D-brane intersections with small angles. We compute tri-linear Yukawa couplings of such open-string states to massless ones and to one another. Due to ambiguities in the normalisation of the vertex operators, that involve twist fields, we proceed via factorization of appropriate scattering amplitudes. Some peculiar features are observed that may lead to interesting signatures at colliders in the future. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
b-tau Yukawa (Non-)Unification in the CMSSM
Monaco, Maurizio
2011-01-01
Supersymmetric Grand Unification usually provides unification of the bottom quark and the tau lepton Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale. In the CMSSM this can be realised only for a very particular choice of parameters. In this letter we study the GUT scale ratio y_tau/y_b for less peculiar parameters in the large tan beta regime and identify one parameter region preferred by current experimental data. In this region, which is well within the reach of the LHC, the ratio is very close to the recently proposed value of 3/2.
Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids
Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)
2013-11-15
The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.
Tuning the phase diagram of colloid-polymer mixtures via Yukawa interactions
González García, Álvaro; Tuinier, Remco
2016-01-01
Theory that predicts the phase behavior of interacting Yukawa spheres in a solution containing nonadsorbing polymer is presented. Our approach accounts for multiple overlap of depletion zones. It is found that additional Yukawa interactions beyond hard core interactions strongly affect the location
Testing the supersymmetric QCD Yukawa coupling in a combined LHC/ILC analysis
A Freitas; P Z Skands
2007-11-01
In order to establish supersymmetry (SUSY) at future colliders, the identity of gauge couplings and the corresponding Yukawa couplings between gauginos, sfermions and fermions needs to be verified. A first phenomenological study for determining the Yukawa coupling of the SUSY-QCD sector is presented here, using a method which combines information from LHC and ILC.
Dynamical Generation of mu-terms and Yukawa Couplings in Intersecting D-brane Models
Kitazawa, N
2004-01-01
We construct a supersymmetric composite model from type IIA T^6/(Z_2 x Z_2) orientifolds with intersecting D6-branes. All the three generations of quarks and leptons are naturally emerged as composite fields at low energies. Two pairs of light electroweak Higgs doublets can be obtained with realistic values of mu-terms. The hierarchical Yukawa couplings for the quark-lepton mass can be generated by the interplay between the string-level higher dimensional interactions among "preons" and the dynamics of the confinement of "preons". The model is not perfectly realistic in some points: some exotic particles, one additional U(1) gauge symmetry, no explicit mechanism for supersymmetry breaking, and so on.
Yukawa Textures and Charged Higgs Boson Phenomenology in the 2HDM-III
Díaz-Cruz, J L; Moretti, S; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Rosado, A
2009-01-01
We discuss the implications of assuming a four-zero Yukawa texture for the properties of the charged Higgs boson within the context of the general 2-Higgs Doublet Model of Type III. We begin by presenting a detailed analysis of the charged Higgs boson couplings with heavy quarks and the resulting pattern for its decays. The production of charged Higgs bosons is also sensitive to the modifications of its couplings, so that we also evaluate the resulting effects on the top decay $t \\to b H^{+}$ as well as on `direct' $c\\bar{b}\\to H^++c. c.$ and `indirect' $q\\bar q,gg\\to \\bar t b H^++c. c.$ production. Significant scope exists at the Large Hadron Collider for several $H^\\pm$ production and decay channels combined to enable one to distinguish between such a model and alternative 2-Higgs doublet scenarios.
Critical fluctuations and anomalous transport in soft Yukawa-Langevin systems.
Ratynskaia, S; Regnoli, G; Rypdal, K; Klumov, B; Morfill, G
2009-10-01
Simulation of a Langevin-dynamics model demonstrates emergence of critical fluctuations and anomalous grain transport which have been observed in experiments on "soft" quasi-two-dimensional dusty plasma clusters. Our model does not contain external drive or plasma interactions that serve to drive the system away from thermodynamic equilibrium. The grains are confined by an external potential, interact via static Yukawa forces, and are subject to stochastic heating and dissipation from neutrals. One remarkable feature is emergence of leptokurtic probability distributions of grain displacements xi(tau) on time scales tau tau(Delta). The latter is a signature of intermittency, here interpreted as a transition from bursty transport associated with hopping on intermediate time scales to vortical flows on longer time scales. These intermittency features are quantitatively modeled by a single-particle Itô-Langevin stochastic equation with a nonlinear drift term.
Viscosity of confined two-dimensional Yukawa liquids: A nonequilibrium method
Landmann, S. [Universität Leipzig, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Kählert, H.; Thomsen, H.; Bonitz, M. [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Leibnizstr. 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany)
2015-09-15
We present a nonequilibrium method that allows one to determine the viscosity of two-dimensional dust clusters in an isotropic confinement. By applying a tangential external force to the outer parts of the cluster (e.g., with lasers), a sheared velocity profile is created. The decay of the angular velocity towards the center of the confinement potential is determined by a balance between internal (viscosity) and external friction (neutral gas damping). The viscosity can then be calculated from a fit of the measured velocity profile to a solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. Langevin dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. We find good agreement of the measured viscosity with previous results for macroscopic Yukawa plasmas.
A thermodynamic self-consistent theory of asymmetric hard-core Yukawa mixtures
Pellicane, Giuseppe; Caccamo, Carlo
2016-10-01
We perform structural and thermodynamic calculations in the framework of the modified hypernetted chain (MHNC) integral equation closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equation for binary mixtures of size-different particles interacting with hard-core Yukawa pair potentials. We use the Percus-Yevick (PY) bridge functions of a binary mixture of hard-sphere (HSM) particles. The hard-sphere diameters of the PY bridge functions of the HSM system are adjusted so to achieve thermodynamic consistency between the virial and compressibility equations of state. We show the benefit of thermodynamic consistency by comparing the MHNC results with the available computer simulation data reported in the literature, and we demonstrate that the self-consistent thermodynamic theory provides a better reproduction of the simulation data over other microscopic theories.
The erosive potential of jawbreakers, a type of hard candy
Brand, H.S.; Gambon, D.L.; van Dop, L.F.; van Liere, L.E.; Veerman, E.C.I.
2010-01-01
Objectives: To explore the consumption pattern of a specific type of acidic solid candy, the so-called jawbreakers, by primary school children and determine the erosive potential of this type of candy in vivo. Methods: A questionnaire about jawbreaker consumption was distributed among 10-12 year-o
Split Sfermion Families, Yukawa Unification and Muon g-2
Ajaib, M Adeel; Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih
2014-01-01
We consider two distinct classes of Yukawa unified supersymmetric SO(10) models with non-universal and universal soft supersymmetry breaking (SSB) gaugino masses at M_{\\rm GUT}. In both cases, we assume that the third family SSB sfermion masses at M_{\\rm GUT} are different from the corresponding sfermion masses of the first two families (which are equal). For the SO(10) model with essentially arbitrary (non-universal) gaugino masses at M_{\\rm GUT}, it is shown that t-b-\\tau Yukawa coupling unification is compatible, among other things, with the 125 GeV Higgs boson mass, the WMAP relic dark matter density, and with the resolution of the apparent muon g-2 anomaly. The colored sparticles in this case all turn out to be quite heavy, of order 5 TeV or more, but the sleptons (smuon and stau) can be very light, of order 200 GeV or so. For the SO(10) model with universal gaugino masses and NUHM2 boundary conditions, the muon g-2 anomaly cannot be resolved. However, the gluino in this class of models is not too heavy,...
Higgs Boson Mass from t-b-tau Yukawa Unification
Gogoladze, Ilia; Un, Cem Salih
2011-01-01
We employ the Yukawa coupling unification condition, y_t= y_b= y_tau at M_GUT, inspired by supersymmetric SO(10) models, to estimate the lightest Higgs boson mass as well as masses of the associated squarks and gluino. We employ non-universal soft masses, dictated by SO(10) symmetry, for the gauginos. Furthermore, the soft masses for the two scalar Higgs doublets are set equal at M_GUT, and in some examples these are equal to the soft masses for scalars in the matter multiplets. For mu > 0, essentially perfect t-b-tau Yukawa unification is possible, and it predicts a Higgs mass of 122 - 124 GeV with a theoretical uncertainty of about 3 GeV. Similarly, for mu < 0, the best unification solutions predict a Higgs mass close to 123 GeV (3 GeV). The corresponding gluino and the first two family squarks have masses 3 TeV. We present some LHC testable benchmark points which also show the presence of neutralino-stau coannihilation in this scenario. The well-known MSSM parameter tan beta~47.
SHAPING OF ACTION POTENTIALS BY TYPE I AND TYPE II BK CHANNELS
Jaffe, David B.; Wang, Bin; Brenner, Robert
2011-01-01
The BK channel is a Ca2+ and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These ...
The unified minimal supersymmetric model with large Yukawa couplings
Rattazzi, Riccardo
1996-01-01
The consequences of assuming the third-generation Yukawa couplings are all large and comparable are studied in the context of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. General aspects of the RG evolution of the parameters, theoretical constraints needed to ensure proper electroweak symmetry breaking, and experimental and cosmological bounds on low-energy parameters are presented. We also present complete and exact semi-analytic solutions to the 1-loop RG equations. Focusing on SU(5) or SO(10) unification, we analyze the relationship between the top and bottom masses and the superspectrum, and the phenomenological implications of the GUT conditions on scalar masses. Future experimental measurements of the superspectrum and of the strong coupling will distinguish between various GUT-scale scenarios. And if present experimental knowledge is to be accounted for most naturally, a particular set of predictions is singled out.
Large top and bottom Yukawa couplings in minimal supersymmetry
Floratos, Emmanuel G
1994-01-01
ABSTRACT We present analytic expressions for the top and bottom Yukawa couplings in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model when both couplings h_{t,0},h_{b,0} are large at the unification scale. For sufficiently large h_{t,0},h_{b,0}, using as input the central value of the bottom mass m_b(m_b)=4.25GeV, we find that the top mass lies in the range m_t \\approx (174-178)GeV, while tan\\beta \\approx (55-58). Implications on the evolution of the scalar masses and the radiative symmetry breaking scenario are discussed.
Collective Modes in Two Dimensional Binary Yukawa Systems
Kalman, Gabor J; Donko, Zoltan; Golden, Kenneth I; Kyrkos, Stamatios
2013-01-01
We analyze via theoretical approaches and molecular dynamics simulations the collective mode structure of strongly coupled two-dimensional binary Yukawa systems, for selected density, mass and charge ratios, both in the liquid and crystalline solid phases. Theoretically, the liquid phase is described through the Quasi-Localized Charge Approximation (QLCA) approach, while in the crystalline phase we study the centered honeycomb and the staggered rectangular crystal structures through the standard harmonic phonon approximation. We identify "longitudinal" and "transverse" acoustic and optic modes and find that the longitudinal acoustic mode evolves from its weakly coupled counterpart in a discontinuous non-perturbative fashion. The low frequency acoustic excitations are governed by the oscillation frequency of the average atom, while the high frequency optic excitation frequencies are related to the Einstein frequencies of the systems.
Aspect of Fermion Mass Hierarchy within Flavor Democracy for Yukawa Couplings
Higuchi, Katsuichi; Yamamoto, Katsuji
We discuss the fermion mass hierarchy by including vector-like fermions which are accommodated in E6 GUTs within flavor democracy for Yukawa couplings. In this framework, all Yukawa couplings for the standard Higgs doublet have the same strength, and all Yukawa couplings for the singlet Higgs have the same strength (New ansatz). In addition, singlet Higgs and right-handed neutrinos exist. Under this condition, the mass hierarchy mt ≫ mb ˜ mτ as well as mt ≫ mc, mu can be naturally explained.
Wegner Estimate for Sparse and other Generalized Alloy Type Potentials
Werner Kirsch; Ivan Veselić
2002-02-01
We prove a Wegner estimate for generalized alloy type models at negative energies (Theorems 8 and 13). The single site potential is assumed to be non-positive. The random potential does not need to be stationary with respect to translations from a lattice. Actually, the set of points to which the individual single site potentials are attached, needs only to satisfy a certain density condition. The distribution of the coupling constants is assumed to have a bounded density only in the energy region where we prove the Wegner estimate.
Slowly decaying Wigner--von Neumann type potentials
Lukic, Milivoje
2012-01-01
We consider Schr\\"odinger operators with potentials satisfying a generalized bounded variation condition at infinity and an $L^p$ decay condition. This class of potentials includes slowly decaying Wigner--von Neumann type potentials $\\sin(ax)/x^b$ with $b>0$. We prove absence of singular continuous spectrum and show that embedded eigenvalues in the continuous spectrum can only take values from an explicit finite set. Conversely, we construct examples where such embedded eigenvalues are present, with exact asymptotics for the corresponding eigensolutions.
A CAHN-HILLIARD TYPE EQUATION WITH GRADIENT DEPENDENT POTENTIAL
Yin Jingxue; Huang Rui
2008-01-01
We investigate a Cahn-Hilliard type equation with gradient dependent potential. After establishing the existence and uniqueness, we pay our attention mainly to the regularity of weak solutions by means of the energy estimates and the theory of Campanato Spaces.
García-Ravelo, J., E-mail: g.ravelo@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Menéndez, A.; García-Martínez, J. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Schulze-Halberg, A. [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN 46408 (United States)
2014-06-13
We show that the effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials can be obtained by taking particular limits of a multiparameter exponential potential that was studied recently. Moreover, we demonstrate that the bound state solutions of the exponential potential reduce correctly to their well-known counterparts associated with the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. As a byproduct, we obtain a new limit relation for the hypergeometric function. - Highlights: • Kratzer and Coulomb potentials are limit cases of an exponential-type potential. • From exact s-waves, approximate solutions for l-waves are obtained. • l-waves of the potential tend to the solutions of the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. • A non-evident identity between hypergeometric functions is demonstrated.
Two-weight weak-type inequalities for potential type operators
LI Wen-ming; QI Jin-yun; ZHANG Ya-jing
2008-01-01
For the potential type operatorTΦf(x):∫Rn(x-y)f(y)dy,where Φis a non-negative locally integrable function Oil Rn and satisfies weak growth condition，a two-weight weak-type(p,q)inequality for T Φis obtained.
Type I interferon: potential therapeutic target for psoriasis?
Yihong Yao
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterized by aberrant epidermal differentiation, surface scale formation, and marked cutaneous inflammation. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify potential mediators, we used whole genome array analysis to profile paired lesional and nonlesional psoriatic skin and skin from healthy donors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed robust overexpression of type I interferon (IFN-inducible genes and genomic signatures that indicate T cell and dendritic cell infiltration in lesional skin. Up-regulation of mRNAs for IFN-alpha subtypes was observed in lesional skin compared with nonlesional skin. Enrichment of mature dendritic cells and 2 type I IFN-inducible proteins, STAT1 and ISG15, were observed in the majority of lesional skin biopsies. Concordant overexpression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha-inducible gene signatures occurred at the same disease sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Up-regulation of TNF-alpha and elevation of the TNF-alpha-inducible gene signature in lesional skin underscore the importance of this cytokine in psoriasis; these data describe a molecular basis for the therapeutic activity of anti-TNF-alpha agents. Furthermore, these findings implicate type I IFNs in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Consistent and significant up-regulation of type I IFNs and their associated gene signatures in psoriatic skin suggest that type I IFNs may be potential therapeutic targets in psoriasis treatment.
Exploiting the Biosynthetic Potential of Type III Polyketide Synthases
Yan Ping Lim
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Polyketides are structurally and functionally diverse secondary metabolites that are biosynthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs using acyl-CoA precursors. Recent studies in the engineering and structural characterization of PKSs have facilitated the use of target enzymes as biocatalysts to produce novel functionally optimized polyketides. These compounds may serve as potential drug leads. This review summarizes the insights gained from research on type III PKSs, from the discovery of chalcone synthase in plants to novel PKSs in bacteria and fungi. To date, at least 15 families of type III PKSs have been characterized, highlighting the utility of PKSs in the development of natural product libraries for therapeutic development.
Higgs-Yukawa model in chirally-invariant lattice field theory
Bulava, John [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Department; Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim; Nagy, Attila [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Knippschild, Bastian [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Physics; Lin, C.J. David [National Chiao-Tung Univ., Hsinchu (China). Inst. of Physics; National Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu (China). Div. of Physics; Nagai, Kei-Ichi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan). Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute; Ogawa, Kenji [Chung-Yuan Christian Univ., Chung-Li (China). Dept. of Physics
2012-10-15
Non-perturbative numerical lattice studies of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the standard model with exact chiral symmetry are reviewed. In particular, we discuss bounds on the Higgs boson mass at the standard model top quark mass, and in the presence of heavy fermions. We present a comprehensive study of the phase structure of the theory at weak and very strong values of the Yukawa coupling as well as at non-zero temperature.
Neutralino Dark Matter and Other LHC Predictions from Quasi Yukawa Unification
Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih
2015-01-01
We explore the dark matter and LHC implications of t-b-tau quasi Yukawa unification in the framework of supersymmetric models based on the gauge symmetry G=SU(4)_{c}\\times SU(2)_{L}\\times SU(2)_{R}. The deviation from exact Yukawa unification is quantified by a dimensionless parameter C (|C| ~ 2 TeV, while the first two family squarks and sleptons are of order 4-5 TeV and 3 TeV respectively.
DBI-type tachyons for inverse cosh potential
Dimitrijević Dragoljub D.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider classical and quantum dynamics of a tachyonic system described by a DBI type Lagrangian and inverse cosh potential. This investigation is partially motivated by the string theory and D-brane dynamics, but mostly by their application in cosmological inflation. A formalism for describing dynamics of spatially homogenous tachyon scalar field with this kind of potentials is developed. Classical actions and corresponding quantum propagators in the Feynman path integral approach, both on real and nonarchimedean spaces, are calculated. Possibilities for a quantum adelic generalization of these models are noticed. Cosmological applications are pointed out and discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021, br. 174020 i br. 43011
Instanton induced Yukawa couplings from distant E3 and E(-1) instantons
Goodsell, Mark D. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); Witkowski, Lukas T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-01-07
We calculate non-perturbative contributions to Yukawa couplings on D3-branes at orbifold singularities due to E3 and fractional E(-1) instantons which do not intersect the visible sector branes. While distant E3 instantons on bulk cycles typically contribute to Yukawa couplings, we find that distant fractional E(-1) can also give rise to new Yukawa couplings. However, fractional E(-1) instantons only induce Yukawa couplings if they are located at a singularity which shares a collapsed homologous two-cycle with the singularity supporting the visible sector. The non-perturbative contributions to Yukawa couplings exhibit a different flavour structure than the tree-level Yukawa couplings and, as a result, they can be sources of flavour violation. This is particularly relevant for schemes of moduli stabilisation which rely on superpotential contributions from E3 instantons, such as KKLT or the Large Volume Scenario. As a byproduct of our analysis, we shed some new light on the properties of annulus diagrams with matter field insertions in stringy instanton calculus.
Yukawa textures or dark doublets from Two Higgs Doublet Models with $Z_3$ symmetry
Aranda, Alfredo; Noriega-Papaqui, Roberto; Vaquera-Araujo, Carlos A
2014-01-01
The effect of $Z_3$ symmetry on the general Two Higgs Doublet Model is explored. Of particular interest is the question of what can a $Z_3$ symmetry do beyond the usual case with $Z_2$. There are two independent scenarios that give some interesting results: first, by giving non-trivial charges to the Standard Model fermions, it is possible to use the $Z_3$ symmetry of the scalar potential to generate potentially useful Yukawa textures. This is not possible with $Z_2$. A series of possibilities is presented where their viability is addressed and a specific example in the quark sector is given for concreteness. The second venue of interest is in the area of inert doublets. It is shown that by considering the Standard Model plus two additional inert doublet scalars, i.e. a Dark Two Higgs Doublet Model, together with $Z_3$, a scenario can be obtained that differs from the $Z_2$ case. Some general comments are presented on the potentially interesting phenomenology of such model.
Probing Yukawa unification with K and B mixing
Trine, Stéphanie; Westhoff, Susanne; Wiesenfeldt, Sören
2009-08-01
We consider corrections to the unification of down-quark and charged-lepton Yukawa couplings in supersymmetric GUTs, which links the large ντ-νμ mixing angle to b → s transitions. These corrections generically occur in simple grand-unified models with small Higgs representations and affect s → d and b → d transitions via the mixing of the corresponding right-handed superpartners. On the basis of a specific SUSY-SO(10) model, we analyze the constraints from K-bar K and Bd-bar Bd mixing on the additional tilde dR-tilde sR rotation angle θ. We find that epsilonK already sets a stringent bound on θ, θmax ~ Script O(1°), indicating a very specific flavor structure of the correction operators. The impact of the large neutrino mixings on the unitarity triangle analysis is also briefly discussed, as well as their ability to account for the sizeable CP-violating phase observed recently in Bs → J/ψphi decays.
Probing Yukawa Unification with K and B Mixing
Trine, Stephanie; Wiesenfeldt, Soren
2009-01-01
We consider corrections to the unification of down-quark and charged-lepton Yukawa couplings in supersymmetric GUTs, which links the large nu_tau-nu_mu mixing angle to b -> s transitions. These corrections generically occur in simple grand-unified models with small Higgs representations and affect s -> d and b -> d transitions via the mixing of the corresponding right-handed superpartners. On the basis of a specific SUSY-SO(10) model, we analyze the constraints from K-Kbar and B-Bbar mixing on the additional \\tilde{d}_R-\\tilde{s}_R rotation angle theta. We find that epsilon_K already sets a stringent bound on theta, theta^{max}=O(1 degree), indicating a very specific flavor structure of the correction operators. The impact of the large neutrino mixings on the unitarity triangle analysis is also briefly discussed, as well as their ability to account for the sizeable CP-violating phase observed recently in B_s -> psi phi decays.
Combining Slater-type orbitals and effective core potentials
Lesiuk, Michał; Tucholska, Aleksandra M.; Moszynski, Robert
2017-05-01
We present a general methodology to evaluate matrix elements of the effective core potentials (ECPs) within a one-electron basis set of Slater-type orbitals (STOs). The scheme is based on translation of individual STO distributions in the framework of the Barnett-Coulson method. We discuss different types of integrals which naturally appear and reduce them to a few basic quantities which can be calculated recursively or purely numerically. Additionally, we consider evaluation of the STOs matrix elements involving the core polarization potentials and effective spin-orbit potentials. Construction of the STOs basis sets designed specifically for use with ECPs is discussed and differences in comparison with all-electron basis sets are briefly summarized. We verify the validity of the present approach by calculating excitation energies, static dipole polarizabilities, and valence orbital energies for the alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba). Finally, we evaluate interaction energies, permanent dipole moments, and ionization energies for barium and strontium hydrides, and compare them with the best available experimental and theoretical data.
STUDY ON EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS
陈薇; 陈慎仁; 陈璇; 吴静珊; 刘兴材
2003-01-01
The aim of this study is to explore the changes of visual evoked potentiaK VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), Somatosensory e-voked potential (SEP), event-related potential(ERP) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM).Methods VEP, BAEP, SEP, ERP were measured in 30 cases with type 2 DM (DM group) and in 30 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (Control group) by using Nicolet Viking Ⅳ EMG/EP instrument. The numerical values of VEP, BAEP, SEP and ERP were recorded and analyzed by SPSS.Results Abnormalities were found as follows: VEP in 20(66.7%), BAEP in 18(60%), MNSEP in 20(66.7%),PTNSEP in 22(73.3%), and ERP in 11 (36.67%) diabetic patients, including the disappearance of wave, prolonged wave latency and decreased wave amplitude. Compared with control group, the P100 latency of VEP, the latencies of wave Ⅰ and Ⅴ, amplitude of wave Ⅴ, the interpeak latencies (IPL) of each wave in BAEP, the latencies and wave amplitudes in N9 to P20 of MNSEP and in N9 to P38 of PTNSEP, as well a
Mkanya, Anele; Pellicane, Giuseppe; Pini, Davide; Caccamo, Carlo
2017-09-01
We report extensive calculations, based on the modified hypernetted chain (MHNC) theory, on the hierarchical reference theory (HRT), and on Monte Carlo simulations, of thermodynamical, structural and phase coexistence properties of symmetric binary hard-core Yukawa mixtures (HCYM) with attractive interactions at equal species concentration. The obtained results are throughout compared with those available in the literature for the same systems. It turns out that the MHNC predictions for thermodynamic and structural quantities are quite accurate in comparison with the MC data. The HRT is equally accurate for thermodynamics, and slightly less accurate for structure. Liquid-vapor (LV) and liquid-liquid (LL) consolute coexistence conditions as emerging from simulations, are also highly satisfactorily reproduced by both the MHNC and HRT for relatively long ranged potentials. When the potential range reduces, the MHNC faces problems in determining the LV binodal line; however, the LL consolute line and the critical end point (CEP) temperature and density turn out to be still satisfactorily predicted within this theory. The HRT also predicts with good accuracy the CEP position. The possibility of employing liquid state theories HCYM for the purpose of reliably determining phase equilibria in multicomponent colloidal fluids of current technological interest, is discussed.
The structural properties of a two-Yukawa fluid: Simulation and analytical results
Broccio, Matteo; Costa, Dino; Liu, Yun; Chen, Sow-Hsin
2006-02-01
Standard Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to assess the accuracy of theoretical predictions for the structural properties of a model fluid interacting through a hard-core two-Yukawa potential composed of a short-range attractive well next to a hard repulsive core, followed by a smooth, long-range repulsive tail. Theoretical calculations are performed in the framework provided by the Ornstein-Zernike equation, solved either analytically with the mean spherical approximation (MSA) or iteratively with the hypernetted-chain (HNC) closure. Our analysis shows that both theories are generally accurate in a thermodynamic region corresponding to a dense vapor phase around the critical point. For a suitable choice of potential parameters, namely, when the attractive well is deep and/or large enough, the static structure factor displays a secondary low-Q peak. In this case HNC predictions closely follow the simulation results, whereas MSA results progressively worsen the more pronounced this low-Q peak is. We discuss the appearance of such a peak, also experimentally observed in colloidal suspensions and protein solutions, in terms of the formation of equilibrium clusters in the homogeneous fluid.
The structural properties of a two-Yukawa fluid: Simulation and analytical results.
Broccio, Matteo; Costa, Dino; Liu, Yun; Chen, Sow-Hsin
2006-02-28
Standard Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to assess the accuracy of theoretical predictions for the structural properties of a model fluid interacting through a hard-core two-Yukawa potential composed of a short-range attractive well next to a hard repulsive core, followed by a smooth, long-range repulsive tail. Theoretical calculations are performed in the framework provided by the Ornstein-Zernike equation, solved either analytically with the mean spherical approximation (MSA) or iteratively with the hypernetted-chain (HNC) closure. Our analysis shows that both theories are generally accurate in a thermodynamic region corresponding to a dense vapor phase around the critical point. For a suitable choice of potential parameters, namely, when the attractive well is deep and/or large enough, the static structure factor displays a secondary low-Q peak. In this case HNC predictions closely follow the simulation results, whereas MSA results progressively worsen the more pronounced this low-Q peak is. We discuss the appearance of such a peak, also experimentally observed in colloidal suspensions and protein solutions, in terms of the formation of equilibrium clusters in the homogeneous fluid.
Potential risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus type 2
Živanović Dušica
2010-01-01
of diabetes. Also they were significantly less exposed to physical agents (p=0,004. Discussion In our study, like in many others, age, place of residence, education, occupation, obesity, physical inactivity, positive family history of diabetes type 2 and exposure to physical agents were identified as potential risk factors for diabetes type 2. Conclusion Different risk factors are probably responsible for developing type 2 diabetes among individuals with and without positive family history of type 2 diabetes.
The Higgs boson resonance from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Kallarackal, Jim
2011-04-28
upper and lower Higgs boson mass bound is studied. All numerical results presented in this work involve extensive finite volume analysis. In particular the Higgs boson mass significantly depends on the lattice volume and thus an extrapolation to infinite volume is inevitable. Both mass bounds are revised in the presence of a quark doublet with a mass around 700 GeV. The upper bound of the Higgs boson mass is only slightly enhanced by about 200 GeV with respect to the standard model. The lower bound however, is altered significantly by a factor of about five to ten. The strong dependence of the lower mass bound on the quark mass motivated to explore the Higgs boson mass bounds at a fixed cut off of 1500 GeV and varying quark masses. Preliminary data for the upper Higgs boson mass are presented. A detailed analysis at strong Yukawa couplings of both, the lower and the upper, mass bounds in a non perturbative fashion is certainly needed and may provide a reliable basis in favour or disfavour of a potential fourth generation of heavy quarks. (orig.)
Macroscopic Quantum-Type Potentials in Theoretical Systems Biology
Laurent Nottale
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We review in this paper the use of the theory of scale relativity and fractal space-time as a tool particularly well adapted to the possible development of a future genuine systems theoretical biology. We emphasize in particular the concept of quantum-type potentials, since, in many situations, the effect of the fractality of space—or of the underlying medium—can be reduced to the addition of such a potential energy to the classical equations of motion. Various equivalent representations—geodesic, quantum-like, fluid mechanical, stochastic—of these equations are given, as well as several forms of generalized quantum potentials. Examples of their possible intervention in high critical temperature superconductivity and in turbulence are also described, since some biological processes may be similar in some aspects to these physical phenomena. These potential extra energy contributions could have emerged in biology from the very fractal nature of the medium, or from an evolutive advantage, since they involve spontaneous properties of self-organization, morphogenesis, structuration and multi-scale integration. Finally, some examples of applications of the theory to actual biological-like processes and functions are also provided.
Erosive potential of different types of grape juices
Ginna Kércia Matos Gonçalves
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different types (concentrated and powdered and commercial brands of industrialised grape juices. The pH of all five fruit drinks was measured at two time points: immediately after preparation and 24 hours later. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly allocated and immersed in different types of grape juice (n = 10 for 10 minutes four times a day for fifteen days. The enamel alteration was analysed using surface Knoop microhardness (KHN and surface roughness (Ra tests at baseline and on the 5th, 10th and 15th days of the experiment. Two way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%. The grape juices presented pH values ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. All of the tested juices promoted significant enamel mineral loss (p < 0.05 on the first evaluation (5th day of immersion and produced a significant increase in the mean roughness from the 10th day on when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. By the 15th day, all of the beverages had produced surface roughnesses that were significantly higher than that of the control group. The results suggest that all grape juices, regardless of their commercial presentation, present erosive potential.
Implications of Yukawa texture in the charged Higgs boson phenomenology within 2HDM-III
Cordero-Cid, A; Hernandez-Sanchez, Jaime; Noriega-Papaqui, R
2011-01-01
We discuss the implications of assuming a four-zero Yukawa texture for the properties of the charged Higgs boson within the context of the general 2-Higgs Doublet Model of Type III. We present the charged Higgs boson couplings with heavy quarks and the resulting pattern for its decays, including the decay $H^+ \\to W^+ \\gamma$ at 1-loop level. The parameters chosen can still avoid the $B \\to X_s \\gamma$ constraint, the perturbativity and $\\rho_0$ bound. Also, we present the constraints of $ B0-\\bar{B}0$ mixing and of the radiative corrections to the $Z b \\bar{b}$ vertex in the regime small $ \\tan \\beta$. The production of charged Higgs bosons is also sensitive to the modifications of its couplings, so that we also evaluate the resulting effects on `direct' $c\\bar{b}\\to H^++c. c.$ and `indirect' $q\\bar q,gg\\to \\bar t b H^++c. c.$ production. Significant scope exists at the Large Hadron Collider for several $H^\\pm$ production and decay channels combined to enable one to distinguish between such a model and alter...
Markov-Yukawa Transversality Principle And 3D-4D Interlinkage Of Bethe-Salpeter Amplitudes
Mitra, A N
2000-01-01
This article is designed to focus attention on the Markov-Yukawa Transversality Principle (MYTP) as a novel paradigm for an exact 3D-4D interlinkage between the corresponding BSE amplitudes, with a closely parallel treatment of $q{\\bar q}$ and $qqq$ systems, stemming from a common 4-fermion Lagrangian mediated by gluon (vector)-like exchange. This unique feature of MYTP owes its origin to a Lorentz- covariant 3D support to the BS kernel, which acts as a sort of `gauge principle' and distinguishes it from most other 3D approaches to strong interaction dynamics. Some of the principal approaches in the latter category are briefly reviewed so as to set the (less familiar) MYTP in their context. Two specific types of MYTP which provide 3D support to the BSE kernel, are considered: a) Covariant Instantaneity Ansatz (CIA); b) Covariant LF/NP ansatz (Cov.LF). Both lead to formaly identical 3D BSE reductions but produce sharply different 4D structures: Under CIA, the 4D loop integrals suffer from Lorentz mismatch of t...
Brainstem auditory evoked potential abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Sharat Gupta
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus represents a syndrome complex in which multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system, are affected. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 126 diabetic males, aged 35-50 years, and 106 age-matched, healthy male volunteers. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded and the results were analyzed statistically using student′s unpaired t-test. The data consisted of wave latencies I, II, III, IV, V and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V, separately for both ears. Results: The latency of wave IV was significantly delayed only in the right ear, while the latency of waves III, V and interpeak latencies III-V, I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally in diabetic males. However, no significant difference was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latency of wave IV unilaterally in the left ear and the latencies of waves I, II and interpeak latency I-III bilaterally. Conclusion: Diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected with fair accuracy with auditory evoked potential studies.
Stabilizing the electroweak vacuum by higher dimensional operators in a Higgs-Yukawa model
Hegde, Prasad [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Lin, C.J. David [National Chaio Tung Univ., Hsinchu (China); Nagy, Attila [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)
2013-11-15
The Higgs boson discovery at the LHC with a mass of approximately 126 GeV suggests, that the electroweak vacuum of the standard model may be metastable at very high energies. However, any new physics beyond the standard model can change this picture. We want to address this important question within a lattice Higgs-Yukawa model as the limit of the standard model (SM). In this framework we will probe the effect of a higher dimensional operator for which we take a ({phi}{sup {dagger}}{phi}){sup 3}-term. Such a term could easily originate as a remnant of physics beyond the SM at very large scales. As a first step we investigate the phase diagram of the model including such a ({phi}{sup {dagger}}{phi}){sup 3} operator. Exploratory results suggest the existence of regions in parameter space where first order transitions turn to second order ones, indicating the existence of a tri-critical line. We will explore the phase structure and the consequences for the stability of the SM, both analytically by investigating the constraint effective potential in lattice perturbation theory, and by studying the system non-perturbatively using lattice simulations.
Factorization of 3-point static structure functions in 3D Yukawa liquids
Magyar, Peter; Kalman, Gabor J; Golden, Kenneth I; Donko, Zoltan
2016-01-01
In many-body systems the convolution approximation states that the 3-point static structure function, $S^{(3)}(\\textbf{k}_{1},\\textbf{k}_{2})$, can approximately be "factorized" in terms of the 2-point counterpart, $S^{(2)}(\\textbf{k}_{1})$. We investigate the validity of this approximation in 3-dimensional strongly-coupled Yukawa liquids: the factorization is tested for specific arrangements of the wave vectors $\\textbf{k}_{1}$ and $\\textbf{k}_{2}$, with molecular dynamics simulations. With the increase of the coupling parameter we find a breakdown of factorization, of which a notable example is the appearance of negative values of $S^{(3)}(\\textbf{k}_{1},\\textbf{k}_{2})$, whereas the approximate factorized form is restricted to positive values. These negative values -- based on the quadratic Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem -- imply that the quadratic part of the density response of the system changes sign with wave number. Our simulations that incorporate an external potential energy perturbation clearly co...
Implications of Yukawa unification for the Higgs sector in supersymmetric grand-unified models
Langacker, P G; Paul Langacker; Nir Polonsky
1994-01-01
The SU(5) unification-scale relation h_b=h_tau between the b and tau Yukawa couplings severely constrains tan beta and m_t (even more so if h_t=h_b= h_tau holds) in supersymmetric models. We examine the implications of these constraints for the Higgs sector assuming universal soft breaking terms, and emphasize that both of these relations impose unique characteristics in terms of symmetries and of the spectrum. We further study the tan beta near 1 scenario, which is suggested by h_b=h_tau, and, in particular, the loop- induced mass of the light Higgs boson. We compare the effective potential and renormalization group methods and stress the two-loop ambiguities in the calculation of the mass. These and a large enhancement to the loop correction due to t-scalar left-right mixing considerably weaken the upper bound. Nevertheless, we find that for this scenario the Higgs boson is probably lighter than 110 GeV, and typically lighter than 100 GeV. Thus, it is in the mass range that may be relevant for LEPII. Our nu...
A gateway to new physics: direct measurement of the top Yukawa coupling to the Higgs boson
Bruscino, Nello; Wermes, Norbert
The top quark has the largest Yukawa coupling in the Standard Model, is the main contribution to the Higgs mass $m_H$ corrections and defines the evolution of the Higgs effective potential with the energy, together with $m_H$. It can be directly measured through the associated production process $pp \\to t\\bar{t}H$. Two searches for this process are described in this thesis, using data collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The fully hadronic analysis is performed with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $20.3\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$ at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8\\,\\text{TeV}$ and uses a boosted decision tree algorithm to discriminate between signal and background: the dominant multijet background is estimated using a data-driven method. An upper limit of $6.4$ ($5.4$) times the Standard Model cross section is observed (expected) at 95% confidence level and a best-fit value of $1.6 \\pm 2.6$ for the signal strength $\\mu_{t\\bar{t}H}=\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}H}^\\text{obs}/\\sigma...
Yukawa coupling thresholds application to the MSSM and the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) GUT
Wright, B D
1994-01-01
We consider a particular class of threshold corrections to Yukawa couplings and mass relations in the MSSM and supersymmetric grand unified models. We give a complete treatment of Yukawa coupling thresholds at the unification scale \\Mx and the effective supersymmetry scale \\Ms and apply them to corrections to the tree-level prediction y.sub(b)(\\Mx) = y.sub(.tau.)(\\Mx) in minimal supersymmetric SU(5). We apply both gauge and Yukawa coupling thresholds to gauge unification and the above Yukawa unification condition to find predictions for the top quark mass, M_t, the superheavy vector boson mass \\Mv and the colored Higgs triplet mass \\Mhs. We discuss the dependencies of \\Mx and \\Mhs on .alpha.sub(s)(M.sub(Z)), M.sub(t) and the sparticle spectrum as well as those of M.sub(t) on tan.beta., .alpha.sub(s)(M.sub(Z)) and the bottom quark mass, M.sub(b). The effect of the Yukawa coupling thresholds on M.sub(t) are given for representative sparticle spectra. We describe the quantitative differences between these effect...
ZHOU Shi-Qi
2005-01-01
The accuracy of hard core attractive Yukawa (HCAY) potential and adhesive hard sphere (AH) potential in representing the structure factor of short range square well potential and Asakura and Oosawa (AO) depletion potential is examined by comparing theoretical predictions with the existing simulation data and the present numerical results from the non-linear optimized random phase approximation closure for Ornstein-Zernike equation. For the case of square-well (SW) potential, it is shown that the structure factor of HCAY potential based on a recently proposed semi-analytical expression for the radial distribution function can describe the structure factor of SW potential with reduced well width λ≤ 2 only if the reduced contact potential βesw ≤ 0.25, while the analytical expression for the structure factor of AH potential under Percus-Yevick (PY) approximation completely fails for the case of λ＞ 1.2. For the case of AO depletion potential, the domain of validity of both HCAY potential and AH potential is complementary. With the above analysis and considering the solid-liquid transition of the AH potential with an adhesive parameter τ below 1.31 cannot be predicted by modified weighted density approximation, the role played by the HCAY potential about the mapping manipulation should not be ignored.
Finite Size Scaling of the Higgs-Yukawa Model near the Gaussian Fixed Point
Chu, David Y -J; Knippschild, Bastian; Lin, C -J David; Nagy, Attila
2016-01-01
We study the scaling properties of Higgs-Yukawa models. Using the technique of Finite-Size Scaling, we are able to derive scaling functions that describe the observables of the model in the vicinity of a Gaussian fixed point. A feasibility study of our strategy is performed for the pure scalar theory in the weak-coupling regime. Choosing the on-shell renormalisation scheme gives us an advantage to fit the scaling functions against lattice data with only a small number of fit parameters. These formulae can be used to determine the universality of the observed phase transitions, and thus play an essential role in future investigations of Higgs-Yukawa models, in particular in the strong Yukawa coupling region.
Exact Finite and Gauge-Yukawa Unified Theories and Their Predictions
Kobayashi, T. [Department of Physics, High Energy Physics Division, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)]|[Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Kubo, J. [Department of Physics, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Mondragon, M. [Inst. de Fisica, UNAM, Apdo. Mexico (Mexico); Zoupanos, G. [Physics Dept., Nat. Technical Univ., Athens (Greece)
1999-06-01
The recent developments in the soft supersymmetry breaking (SSB) sector of Gauge-Yukawa and Finite Unified Theories permit the derivation of exact renormalization group invariant results also in this sector of the theory. Of particular interest is a RGI sum rule for the soft scalar masses holding to all-orders in perturbation theory. In the case of Finite Unified Theories the sum rule ensures the all-loop finiteness also in their SSB sector and in this way are promoted to completely finite ones. Using the sum rule we investigate the minimal supersymmetric Gauge-Yukawa and two Finite-Gauge-Yukawa SU(5) models. The characteristic features of these models are: a) the old agreement of the top quark mass prediction remains unchanged, b) the lightest Higgs boson is predicted to be around 120 GeV, c) the s-spectrum starts above several hundreds of GeV. (author) 31 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs
Lattice study of the Higgs-Yukawa model in and beyond the standard model
Chu, David Y.J.; Lin, C.J. David [National Chiao-Tung Univ., Hsinchu (China); Jansen, Karl [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Knippschild, Bastian [HISKP, Bonn (Germany); Nagai, Kei-Ichi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi-Maskawa Inst.; Nagy, Attila [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany); DESY Zeuthen (Germany). NIC
2015-11-15
We derive finite-size scaling formulae for four-dimensional Higgs-Yukawa models near the Gaussian fixed point. These formulae will play an essential role in future, detailed investigation of such models. In particular, they can be used to determine the nature of the observed phase transitions, and confirm or rule out the possibility of having non-trivial fixed points in the Higgs-Yukawa models. Our scaling formula for Binder's cumulant is tested against lattice simulations carried out at weak couplings, and good agreement is found. As a separate project, we also present preliminary results from our study of a chirally-invariant Higgs-Yukawa model including a dimension-six operator at finite temperature. Our work provides first indications of first-order temperature-induced phase transitions near the infinite cutoff limit in this model.
Higgs and Sparticle Masses from Yukawa Unified SO(10): A Snowmass White Paper
Ajaib, M Adeel; Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih
2013-01-01
We discuss ways to probe t-b-tau Yukawa coupling unification condition at the Energy and Intensity frontiers. We consider non-universal soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms for gauginos related by the SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT). We have previously shown that t-b-tau Yukawa coupling unification prefers a mass of around 125 GeV for the Standard Model-like Higgs boson with all colored sparticle masses above 3 TeV. The well-known MSSM parameter tan(beta) is about 47-48 and neutralino-stau coannihilation yields the desired relic dark matter density.
SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2
Rekha
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder affecting majority of population. It is estimated that over 400 million people throughout the world have diabetes. It has progressed to be a pandemic from an epidemic causing morbidity and mortality in the population. Among the many complications of diabetes, diabetic neuropathies contribute majorly to the morbidity associated with the disease. Axonal conduction is affected by elevated levels of protein kinase c causing neuronal ischemia; decreased ce llular myoinositol affecting sodium potassium ATPase pump leads to decreased nerve conduction; Somatosensory E voked P otentials (SSEPs reflect the activity of somatosensory pathways mediated through the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and the specific so matosensory cortex. Recording of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in diabetics is done to assess the sensory involvement of spinal cord. Presence of SEPs provides clear evidence for axonal continuity and by using different stimulation sites, the rate of reg eneration can be determined. Both onset and peak latencies of all SEP components are prolonged in patients with diabetes. Present study is done to compare somatosensory evoked potentials in diabetics and normal subjects. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study was undertaken at the Upgraded Department of Physiology, Osmania Medical College, Koti, Hyderabad. The study was conducted on subjects, both male and female in the age group of 45 to 55 years, suffering from type II diabetes excluding other neurologi cal disorders. Non - invasive method of estimation of nerve conduction studies using SFEMG/EP — Electromyography or evoked potential system (Nicolet systems — USA using surface electrodes with automated computerized monitor attached with printer is used. RESUL TS : ANOVA showed statistically significant N9 latency (right & left sides. Latencies of all the components of SSEPs were more significant than amplitudes in Diabetic
Oxidative Stress and Redox Modulation Potential in Type 1 Diabetes
Meghan M. Delmastro
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Redox reactions are imperative to preserving cellular metabolism yet must be strictly regulated. Imbalances between reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidants can initiate oxidative stress, which without proper resolve, can manifest into disease. In type 1 diabetes (T1D, T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells is secondary to the primary invasion of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs into the islets. Macrophages/DCs, however, are activated by intercellular ROS from resident pancreatic phagocytes and intracellular ROS formed after receptor-ligand interactions via redox-dependent transcription factors such as NF-κB. Activated macrophages/DCs ferry β-cell antigens specifically to pancreatic lymph nodes, where they trigger reactive T cells through synapse formation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and more ROS. ROS generation, therefore, is pivotal in formulating both innate and adaptive immune responses accountable for islet cell autoimmunity. The importance of ROS/oxidative stress as well as potential for redox modulation in the context of T1D will be discussed.
Zhao, Ya
2016-01-01
Assuming a diagonal Majorana neutrino mass matrix, we investigate the neutrino Yukawa textures which lead to a non-zero reactor mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. The neutrino effective coupling matrix $\\kappa^{eff}$ is pre-diagonalized by a constant mixing pattern $V_{\
Phenomenology of Enhanced Light Quark Yukawa Couplings and the $W^\\pm h$ Charge Asymmetry
Yu, Felix
2016-01-01
I propose the measurement of the $W^\\pm h$ charge asymmetry as a consistency test for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs, which is sensitive to enhanced Yukawa couplings of the first and second generation quarks. I present a collider analysis for the charge asymmetry in the same-sign lepton final state, $p p \\to W^\\pm h \\to (\\ell^\\pm \
Quasi-localized wavefunctions on magnetized tori and tiny neutrino Yukawa couplings
Sumita, Keigo
2015-01-01
This paper shows that, a quasi-localization of wavefunctions in toroidal compactifications with magnetic fluxes can lead to a strong suppression for relevant Yukawa couplings, and it is applicable to obtain tiny neutrino masses. Although it is known that magnetic fluxes lead to a Gaussian profile of zero-modes on a torus and that can yield a suppressed coupling in higher-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theories, the largest (diagonal) entry of Yukawa matrices is always of $\\mathcal O(1)$. In this paper, we propose a way to induce an absolutely tiny global factor of Yukawa matrices. In two SYM theories defined in different dimensional spacetime, their bifundamental representations must be localized as a point in some directions. Overlaps of such point-like localized wavefunctions and Gaussian zero-modes give a global factor of Yukawa matrices, and it can be a strong suppression factor or a usual $\\mathcal O(1)$ factor, corresponding to their distance. Our numerical analysis shows that it is possibl...
Negative Dispersion of Lattice Waves in a Two-Dimensional Yukawa System
刘艳红; 刘斌; 杨思泽; 王龙
2002-01-01
Collective motion modes existing in a two-dimensional Yukawa system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The dispersion relations of transverse and longitudinal lattice waves obtained for hexagonal lattice are in agreement with the theoretical results. The negative dispersion of the parallel longitudinal wave is demonstrated by the simulation, and is explained by a physical model.
Yukawa couplings and fermion mass structure in F-theory GUTs
Leontaris, G K
2011-01-01
The calculation of Yukawa couplings in F-theory GUTs is developed. The method is applied to the top and bottom Yukawa couplings in an SU(5) model of fermion masses based on family symmetries coming from the SU(5)_\\perp factor in the underlying E(8) theory. The remaining Yukawa couplings involving the light quark generations are determined by the Froggatt Nielsen non-renormalisable terms generated by heavy messenger states. We extend the calculation of Yukawa couplings to include massive states and estimate the full up and down quark mass matrices in the SU(5) model. We discuss the new features of the resulting structure compared to what is usually assumed for Abelian family symmetry models and show how the model can give a realistic quark mass matrix structure. We extend the analysis to the neutrino sector masses and mixing where we find that tri-bi-maximal mixing is readily accommodated. Finally we discuss mechanisms for splitting the degeneracy between the charged leptons and the down quarks and the doublet...
WEIGHTED ESTIMATES FOR COMMUTATORS OF POTENTIAL OPERATORS ON SPACES OF HOMOGENEOUS TYPE
Wenming Li; Xiaowu Yu; Xuefang Yan
2009-01-01
We derive some strong type and weak type weighted norm estimates which relate the commutators of potential integral operators to the corresponding maximal operators in the context of spaces of homogeneous type.
Molecular epidemiology and pathogenic potential of underdiagnosed human papillomavirus types
Sisti Stefano
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV tests are crucial diagnostic tools for the prevention of neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. However most commercial methods are designed to detect high-risk (HR HPV types and a limited selection of low-risk ones, thus missing a fair number of intermediate/low-risk types. As a result, many HPV infections remain undiagnosed, generating distrust in virological diagnosis among gynaecologists, who continue to rely preferentially on cytological and colposcopic findings. Results In this study, we tested 6,335 consecutive clinical samples, most of them from Italian patients with cytological abnormalities. The samples, collected in 2000–2007, were analyzed using PCR amplification of a 173–206 bp (depending on HPV type conserved region in the L1 open reading frame, restriction endonuclease analysis and, where required, sequence analysis for type determination. Analysis of a smaller male sample and long term follow-up of a few female subjects was also performed. A total of 2,161 samples tested positive for HPV DNA (32.1%; 21.3% of them were mixed infections. Overall, 59 known and 2 unknown HPV types were detected. Their relative prevalence was calculated; notably, types not clearly identifiable using the most common commercial method accounted for 36% of infections. Clinical findings associated with the underdiagnosed types ranged from H-SIL to low-grade abnormalities, although none of these infections resulted in invasive cancer. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of some underdiagnosed HPV types in the population (principally HPV53, HPV66, HPV84, and HPV87 and their frequent association with cytological abnormalities, techniques capable of detecting and typing them would prove extremely useful.
Herz-type Sobolev and Bessel potential spaces and their applications
陆善镇; 杨大春
1997-01-01
The Herz-type Sobolev spaces are introduced and the Sobolev theorem is established. The Herz-type Bessel potential spaces and the relation between the Herz-type Sobolev spaces and Bessel potential spaces are discussed. As applications of these theories, some regularity results of nonlinear quantities appearing in the compensated compactness theory on Herz-type Hardy spaces are given.
Konuma, Michiji; Gotoh, Haruyoshi; Hayakawa, Hisao; Hirata, Kohji; Ito, Kazuyuki; Ito, Kenji; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Konagaya, Daisuke; Kugo, Taichiro; Namba, Chusei; Nishitani, Tadashi; Takaiwa, Yoshinobu; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Tanaka, Kio; Tanaka, Sho; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Yoshikawa, Tadashi
2013-01-01
Hideki Yukawa, Sin-itiro Tomonaga and Shoichi Sakata pioneered nuclear and particle physics and left enduring legacies. Their friendly collaboration and severe competition laid the foundation to bring up the active postwar generation of nuclear and particle physicists in Japan. In this presentation we illustrate milestones of nuclear and particle physics in Japan from 1930's to mid-1940's which have been clarified in Yukawa Hall Archival Library, Tomonaga Memorial Room and Sakata Memorial Archival Library.
Prevention of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Potential of pharmacological agents.
Samson, Susan L; Garber, Alan J
2016-06-01
People with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, or "pre-diabetes", are at high risk for progression to type 2 diabetes, as are those with metabolic syndrome or a history of gestational diabetes. Both glucose-lowering and anti-obesity pharmacotherapies have been studied to determine if the onset of type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented. Here we review the available data in the field. The most common theme is the reduction in insulin resistance, such as with weight loss, decreasing demands on the beta cell to improve insulin secretion and prolong its function. Overall, therapies which decrease diabetes incidence in high-risk populations delay the onset of diabetes but do not correct the underlying beta cell defect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Gerhold, Philipp; Jansen, Karl; Kallarackal, Jim
2012-04-01
The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non-perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self-coupling.
The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Gerhold, Philipp [NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl, E-mail: Karl.Jansen@desy.de [NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Kallarackal, Jim [NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)
2012-04-20
The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non-perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self-coupling.
The phase structure of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model
Gerhold, P
2007-01-01
We consider a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model based on the Neuberger overlap operator. As a first step towards the eventual determination of Higgs mass bounds we present the phase structure of the model analytically in the large Nf-limit in the physically interesting region of the Yukawa coupling constant. We confront the analytically obtained phase diagram with corresponding HMC-simulations and find an excellent agreement at large values of Nf. In the opposite case the large Nf computation still gives a good qualitative description of the phase diagram. We also present first and very preliminary results on the Higgs upper bound at one selected cut-off of the theory.
The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2011-11-15
The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self coupling. (orig.)
The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim
2011-01-01
The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self coupling.
Molecular shear heating and vortex dynamics in thermostatted two-dimensional Yukawa liquids
Gupta, Akanksha; Joy, Ashwin
2016-01-01
It is well known that two-dimensional macroscale shear flows are susceptible to instabilities leading to macroscale vortical structures. The linear and nonlinear fate of such a macroscale flow in a strongly coupled medium is a fundamental problem. A popular example of a strongly coupled medium is a dusty plasma, often modelled as a Yukawa liquid. Recently, laboratory experiments and MD studies of shear flows in strongly coupled Yukawa liquids, indicated occurrence of strong molecular shear heating, which is found to reduce the coupling strength exponentially leading to destruction of macroscale vorticity. To understand the vortex dynamics of strongly coupled molecular fluids undergoing macroscale shear flows and molecular shear heating, MD simulation has been performed, which allows the macroscopic vortex dynamics to evolve while at the same time, "removes" the microscopically generated heat without using the velocity degrees of freedom. We demonstrate that by using a configurational thermostat in a novel way...
Two-loop electroweak threshold corrections to the bottom and top Yukawa couplings
Kniehl, Bernd A
2014-01-01
We study the relationship between the MS-bar Yukawa coupling and the pole mass for the bottom and top quarks at the two-loop electroweak order O(alpha^2) in the gaugeless limit of the standard model. We also consider the MS-bar to pole mass relationships at this order, which include tadpole contributions to ensure the gauge independence of the MS-bar masses. In order to avoid the presence of tadpoles, we propose a redefinition of the running heavy-quark mass in terms of the MS-bar Yukawa coupling. We also present Delta r in the MS-bar scheme at O(alpha^2) in the gaugeless limit. As an aside, we also present the exact two-loop expression for the heavy-quark mass counterterm at two loops.
Probability of metastable configurations in spherical three-dimensional Yukawa crystals
Kählert, H; Baumgartner, H; Bonitz, M; Piel, A; Block, D; Melzer, A
2008-01-01
Recently the occurrence probabilities of ground- and metastable states of three-dimensional Yukawa clusters with 27 and 31 particles have been analyzed in dusty plasma experiments [Block et al., Physics of Plasmas 15, 040701 (2008)]. There it was found that, in many cases, the ground state appeared substantially less frequently than excited states. Here we analyze this question theoretically by means of molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo simulations and an analytical method based on the canonical partition function. We confirm that metastable states can occur with a significantly higher probability than the ground state. The results strongly depend on the screening parameter of the Yukawa interaction and the damping coefficient used in the MD simulations. The analytical method allows one to gain insight into the mechanisms being responsible for the occurrence probabilities of metastable states in strongly correlated finite systems.
LHC Accesible t-b-tau Yukawa Unification with mu<0
Gogoladze, Ilia; Raza, Shabbar; Shafi, Qaisar
2010-01-01
We show compatibility with all known experimental constraints of t-b-tau Yukawa coupling unification in supersymmetric SU(4)_c X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R which has non-universal gaugino masses and the MSSM parameter mu < 0. In particular, the relic neutralino abundance satisfies the WMAP bounds and Delta(g-2)_mu is in good agreement with the observations. We identify benchmark points for the sparticle spectra which can be tested at the LHC, including those associated with gluino and stau coannihilation channels, mixed bino-Higgsino state and the A-funnel region. We also briefly discuss prospects for testing Yukawa unification with the ongoing and planned direct detection experiments.
Evolution of Yukawa couplings and quark flavour mixings in 2UED models
Abdalgabar, Ammar; Deandrea, Aldo; Tarhini, Ahmad
2013-01-01
The evolution equations of the Yukawa couplings and quark mixings are derived for the one-loop renormalization group equations in the two Universal Extra Dimension Models (UED), that is six-dimensional models, compactified in different possible ways to yield standard four space-time dimension. Different possibilities for the matter fields are discussed, such as the case of bulk propagating or localised brane fields. We discuss in both cases the evolution of the Yukawa couplings, the Jarlskog parameter and the CKM matrix elements, and we find that, for both scenarios, as we run up to the unification scale, significant renormalization group corrections are present. We also discuss the results of different observables of the five-dimensional UED model in comparison with these six-dimensional models and the model dependence of the results.
Bottom-Tau Yukawa Unification in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
Allanach, Benjamin C
1994-01-01
We discuss the unification of the bottom quark and tau lepton Yukawa couplings within the framework of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. We compare the allowed regions of the $m_t$-$\\tan \\beta$ plane to those in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and find that over much of the parameter space the deviation between the predictions of two models is small, and nearly always much less than the effect of current theoretical and experimental uncertainties in the bottom quark mass and the strong coupling constant. However over some regions of parameter space top-bottom Yukawa unification cannot be achieved. We also discuss the scaling of the light fermion masses and mixing angles, and show that to within current uncertainties the results of recent texture analyses performed for the minimal model also apply to the next-to-minimal model.
Potential plasma markers of type 1 and type 2 leprosy reactions: a preliminary report
Oliveira Maria
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical management of leprosy Type 1 (T1R and Type 2 (T2R reactions pose challenges mainly because they can cause severe nerve injury and disability. No laboratory test or marker is available for the diagnosis or prognosis of leprosy reactions. This study simultaneously screened plasma factors to identify circulating biomarkers associated with leprosy T1R and T2R among patients recruited in Goiania, Central Brazil. Methods A nested case-control study evaluated T1R (n = 10 and TR2 (n = 10 compared to leprosy patients without reactions (n = 29, matched by sex and age-group (+/- 5 years and histopathological classification. Multiplex bead based technique provided profiles of 27 plasma factors including 16 pro inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL- IL12p70, IL2, IL17, IL1 β, IL6, IL15, IL5, IL8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1 alpha (MIP1α, 1 beta (MIP1β, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, monocyte chemoattractrant protein 1 (MCP1, CC-chemokine 11 (CCL11/Eotaxin, CXC-chemokine 10 (CXCL10/IP10; 4 anti inflammatory interleukins: IL4, IL10, IL13, IL1Rα and 7 growth factors: IL7, IL9, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF BB, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Results Elevations of plasma CXCL10 (P = 0.004 and IL6 (p = 0.013 were observed in T1R patients compared to controls without reaction. IL6 (p = 0.05, IL7 (p = 0.039, and PDGF-BB (p = 0.041 were elevated in T2R. RANTES and GMCSF were excluded due to values above and below detection limit respectively in all samples. Conclusion Potential biomarkers of T1R identified were CXCL10 and IL6 whereas IL7, PDGF-BB and IL6, may be laboratory markers of TR2. Additional studies on these biomarkers may help understand the
Testing gauge-Yukawa-unified models by M{sub t}
Kubo, J. [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Liberal Arts; Mondragon, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Olechowski, M. [INFN Sezione di Torino and Dipartamento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Zoupanos, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, D-80805 Munich (Germany)
1996-11-11
Gauge-Yukawa unification (GYU) relates the gauge and Yukawa couplings, thereby going beyond the usual GUTs, and it is assumed that the GYU in the third fermion generation implies that its Yukawa couplings are of the same order as the unified gauge coupling at the GUT scale. We re-examine carefully the recent observation that the top-bottom mass hierarchy can be explained to a certain extent in supersymmetric GYU models. It is found that there are equiv-top-mass lines in the boundary conditions of the Yukawa couplings so that two different GYU models on the same line can not be distinguished by the top mass M{sub t} alone. If they are on different lines, they could be distinguished by M{sub t} in principle, provided that the predicted M{sub t}`s are well below the infrared value M{sub t}(IR). We find that the ratio M{sub t} (IR)/sin {beta} depends on tan {beta} for large tan {beta} and the lowest value of M{sub t}(IR) is {proportional_to}188 GeV. We focus our attention on the existing SU(5) GYU models, which are obtained by requiring finiteness and reduction of couplings. They, respectively, predict M{sub t}= (183+{delta}{sup MSSM} M{sub t}{+-}5) GeV and (181+{delta}{sup MSSM} M{sub t}{+-}3) GeV, where {delta}{sup MSSM} M{sub t} stands for the MSSM threshold correction and is {proportional_to}-2 GeV for the case that all the MSSM superpartners have the same mass M{sub SUSY} with {mu}{sub H}/M{sub SUSY} <<1. (orig.).
Fcc-bcc transition for Yukawa interactions determined by applied strain deformation
Hoy, Robert S.; Robbins, Mark O.
2004-01-01
Calculations of the work required to transform between bcc and fcc phases yield a high-precision bcc-fcc transition line for monodisperse point Yukawa (screened-Couloumb) systems. Our results agree qualitatively but not quantitatively with previously published simulations and phenomenological criteria for the bcc-fcc transition. In particular, the bcc-fcc-fluid triple point lies at a higher inverse screening length than previously reported.
Nonperturbative solution of scalar Yukawa model in two- and three-body Fock space truncations
Karmanov, Vladimir A; Smirnov, Alexander V; Vary, James P
2016-01-01
The Light-Front Tamm-Dancoff method of finding the nonperturbative solutions in field theory is based on the Fock decomposition of the state vector, complemented with the sector-dependent nonperturbative renormalization scheme. We show in detail how to implement the renormalization procedure and to solve the simplest nontrivial example of the scalar Yukawa model in the two- and three-body Fock space truncations incorporating scalar "nucleon" and one or two scalar "pions".
The a theorem for Gauge-Yukawa theories beyond Banks-Zaks
Antipin, Oleg; Gillioz, Marc; Mølgaard, Esben;
2013-01-01
We investigate the a theorem for nonsupersymmetric gauge-Yukawa theories beyond the leading order in perturbation theory. The exploration is first performed in a model-independent manner and then applied to a specific relevant example. Here, a rich fixed point structure appears including...... the presence of a merging phenomenon between non-trivial fixed points for which the a theorem has not been tested so far....
Velocity potential formulations of highly accurate Boussinesq-type models
Bingham, Harry B.; Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2009-01-01
processes on the weather side of reflective structures. Coast. Eng. 53, 929-945). An exact infinite series solution for the potential is obtained via a Taylor expansion about an arbitrary vertical position z=(z) over cap. For practical implementation however, the solution is expanded based on a slow...... variation of (z) over cap and terms are retained to first-order. With shoaling enhancement, the new models obtain a comparable accuracy in linear shoaling to the original velocity formulation. General consistency relations are also derived which are convenient for verifying that the differential operators...
Relativistic Modeling of Quark Stars with Tolman IV Type Potential
Malaver, Manuel
2015-01-01
In this paper, we studied the behavior of relativistic objects with anisotropic matter distribution considering Tolman IV form for the gravitational potential Z. The equation of state presents a quadratic relation between the energy density and the radial pressure. New exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell system are generated. A physical analysis of electromagnetic field indicates that is regular in the origin and well behaved. We show as the presence of an electrical field modifies the energy density, the radial pressure and the mass of the stellar object and generates a singular charge density.
Numerical experiment of thermal conductivity in two-dimensional Yukawa liquids
Shahzad, Aamir, E-mail: aamirshahzad-8@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Physics, Government College University Faisalabad (GCUF), Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); He, Mao-Gang, E-mail: mghe@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2015-12-15
A newly improved homogenous nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation (HNEMDS) method, proposed by the Evans, has been used to compute the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma liquids (SCCDPLs), for the first time. The effects of equilibrium external field strength along with different system sizes and plasma states (Γ, κ) on the thermal conductivity of SCCDPLs have been calculated using an enhanced HNEMDS method. A simple analytical temperature representation of Yukawa 2D thermal conductivity with appropriate normalized frequencies (plasma and Einstein) has also been calculated. The new HNEMDS algorithm shows that the present method provides more accurate results with fast convergence and small size effects over a wide range of plasma states. The presented thermal conductivity obtained from HNEMDS method is found to be in very good agreement with that obtained through the previously known numerical simulations and experimental results for 2D Yukawa liquids (SCCDPLs) and with the three-dimensional nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) and equilibrium MDS calculations. It is shown that the HNEMDS algorithm is a powerful tool, making the calculations very efficient and can be used to predict the thermal conductivity in 2D Yukawa liquid systems.
Radiative Yukawa Couplings in the Simplest Left-Right Symmetric Model
Gabrielli, Emidio; Raidal, Martti
2016-01-01
We revisit a recent solution to the flavor hierarchy problem based on the paradigm that Yukawa couplings are, rather than fundamental constants, effective low energy couplings radiatively generated by interactions in a hidden sector of the theory. In the present paper we show that the setup required by this scenario can be set by gauge invariance alone, provided that the Standard Model gauge group be extended to the left-right symmetric group of $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_Y$. The simplest scheme in which Yukawa couplings are forbidden at the tree-level organises the right-handed fermions into doublets and presents an additional Higgs $SU(2)_R$ doublet, responsible for the spontaneous breaking of the $SU(2)_R$ gauge sector. The flavor and chiral symmetry breaking induced by the $SU(2)_R$ breaking is transferred at the one-loop level to the Standard Model via the dynamics of the hidden sector, which effectively regulates the spread of the effective Yukawa couplings. The emerging left-right symmetric fram...
Yukawa hierarchies at the point of $E_8$ in F-theory
Marchesano, Fernando; Zoccarato, Gianluca
2015-01-01
We analyse the structure of Yukawa couplings in local SU(5) F-theory models with $E_8$ enhancement. In this setting the $E_8$ symmetry is broken down to SU(5) by a 7-brane configuration described by T-branes, all the Yukawa couplings are generated in the vicinity of a point and only one family of quarks and leptons is massive at tree-level. The other two families obtain their masses when non-perturbative effects are taken into account, being hierarchically lighter than the third family. However, and contrary to previous results, we find that this hierarchy of fermion masses is not always appropriate to reproduce measured data. We find instead that different T-brane configurations breaking $E_8$ to SU(5) give rise to distinct hierarchical patterns for the holomorphic Yukawa couplings. Only some of these patterns allow to fit the observed fermion masses with reasonable local model parameter values, adding further constraints to the construction of F-theory GUTs. We consider an $E_8$ model where such appropriate...
A Predictive Yukawa Unified SO(10) Model: Higgs and Sparticle Masses
Ajaib, M Adeel; Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih
2013-01-01
We revisit a class of supersymmetric SO(10) models with t-b-tau Yukawa coupling unification condition, with emphasis on the prediction of the Higgs mass. We discuss qualitative features in this model that lead to a Higgs mass prediction close to 125 GeV. We show this with two distinct computing packages, Isajet and SuSpect, and also show that they yield similar global features in the parameter space of this model. We find that t-b-tau Yukawa coupling unification prefers values of the CP-odd Higgs mass m_{A} to be around 600 GeV, with all colored sparticle masses above 3 TeV. We also briefly discuss prospects for testing this scenario with the ongoing and planned direct dark matter detection experiments. In this class of models with t-b-tau Yukawa unification, the neutralino dark matter particle is heavy (m_{\\tilde{\\chi}_1^{0}} \\gtrsim 400 \\rm \\ GeV), which coannihilates with a stau to yield the correct relic abundance.
NLSP Gluino and NLSP Stop Scenarios from b-tau Yukawa Unification
Raza, Shabbar; Ün, Cem Salih
2014-01-01
We present a study of b-tau Yukawa unified supersymmetric SU(4)_c x SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R model (with mu > 0), which predicts the existence of gluino - neutralino and stop - neutralino coannihilation scenarios compatible with the desired relic LSP neutralino dark matter abundance and other collider constraints. The NLSP gluino or NLSP stop masses vary between 400 GeV to ~ 1 TeV. The NLSP gluinos will be accessible at the 14 TeV LHC, while we hope that the NSLP stop solutions will be probed in future LHC searches. We also identify regions of the parameter space in which the gluino and the lighter stop are closely degenerate in mass, interchangeably playing the role of NLSP and NNLSP. We also update a previous study of t-b-tau Yukawa unification and show that NLSP gluino of mass ~ 1 TeV, with a mass difference between the gluino and neutralino of less than 80 GeV, can be realized consistent with the current collider and astrophysical constraints. We present benchmark points for b-tau and t-b-tau Yukawa unification ...
Prospects for Yukawa Unified SO(10) SUSY GUTs at the CERN LHC
Baer, Howard; Sekmen, Sezen; Summy, Heaya
2008-01-01
The requirement of t-b-\\tau Yukawa coupling unification is common in simple grand unified models based on the gauge group SO(10), and it also places a severe constraint on the expected spectrum of superpartners. For Yukawa-unified models with \\mu >0, the spectrum is characterized by three mass scales: {\\it i}). first and second generation scalars in the multi-TeV range, {\\it ii}). third generation scalars, \\mu and m_A in the few-TeV range and {\\it iii}). gluinos in the \\sim 350-500 GeV range with chargino masses around 100-160 GeV. In such a scenario, gluino pair production should occur at large rates at the CERN LHC, followed by gluino three-body decays into neutralinos or charginos. Discovery of Yukawa-unified SUSY at the LHC should hence be possible with only 1 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity, by tagging multi-jet events with 2--3 isolated leptons, without relying on missing E_T. A characteristic dilepton mass edge should easily be apparent above Standard Model background. Combining dileptons with b-jets,...
Oncogenic potential diverge among human papillomavirus type 16 natural variants
Sichero, Laura, E-mail: lsichero@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Simao Sobrinho, Joao [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Lina Villa, Luisa [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2012-10-10
We compared E6/E7 protein properties of three different HPV-16 variants: AA, E-P and E-350G. Primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFK) were transduced with HPV-16 E6 and E7 and evaluated for proliferation and ability to grow in soft agar. E-P infected keratinocytes presented the lowest efficiency in colony formation. AA and E-350G keratinocytes attained higher capacity for in vitro transformation. We observed similar degradation of TP53 among HPV-16 variants. Furthermore, we accessed the expression profile in early (p5) and late passage (p30) transduced cells of 84 genes commonly involved in carcinogenesis. Most differences could be attributed to HPV-16 E6/E7 expression. In particular, we detected different expression of ITGA2 and CHEK2 in keratinocytes infected with AA and AA/E-350G late passage cells, respectively, and higher expression of MAP2K1 in E-350G transduced keratinocytes. Our results indicate differences among HPV-16 variants that could explain, at least in part, differences in oncogenic potential attributed to these variants.
Shaping of action potentials by type I and type II large-conductance Ca²+-activated K+ channels.
Jaffe, D B; Wang, B; Brenner, R
2011-09-29
The BK channel is a Ca(2+) and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These data were then used to study how BK channels alone (type I) and with the accessory β4 subunit (type II) modulate action potential properties in biophysical neuron models. Overall, the models support the hypothesis that it is the slower kinetics provided by the β4 subunit that endows the BK channel with type II properties, which leads to broadening of action potentials and, secondarily, to greater recruitment of SK channels reducing neuronal excitability. Two regions of parameter space distinguished type II and type I effects; one where the range of BK-activating Ca(2+) was high (>20 μM) and the other where BK-activating Ca(2+) was low (∼0.4-1.2 μM). The latter required an elevated BK channel density, possibly beyond a likely physiological range. BK-mediated sharpening of the spike waveform associated with the lack of the β4 subunit was sensitive to the properties of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels due to electrogenic effects on spike duration. We also found that depending on Ca(2+) dynamics, type II BK channels may have the ability to contribute to the medium AHP, a property not generally ascribed to BK channels, influencing the frequency-current relationship. Finally, we show how the broadening of action potentials conferred by type II BK channels can also indirectly increase the recruitment of SK-type channels decreasing the excitability of the neuron.
Wolfgang Gregor Hollik
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Testing the stability of the electroweak vacuum in any extension of the Standard Model Higgs sector is of great importance to verify the consistency of the theory. Multi-scalar extensions as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model generically lead to unstable configurations in certain regions of parameter space. An exact minimization of the scalar potential is rather an impossible analytic task. To give handy analytic constraints, a specific direction in field space has to be considered which is a simplification that tends to miss excluded regions, however good to quickly check parameter points. We describe a yet undescribed class of charge and color breaking minima as they appear in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, exemplarily for the case of non-vanishing bottom squark vacuum expectation values constraining the combination μYb in a non-trivial way. Contrary to famous A-parameter bounds, we relate the bottom Yukawa coupling with the supersymmetry breaking masses. Another bound can be found relating soft breaking masses and μ only. The exclusions follow from the tree-level minimization and can change dramatically using the one-loop potential. Estimates of the lifetime of unstable configurations show that they are either extremely short- or long-lived.
Kim, Jung Min; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón; Liu, Yun; Wagner, Norman J.
2011-02-01
Understanding the mechanisms of clustering in colloids, nanoparticles, and proteins is of significant interest in material science and both chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, using an integral equation theory formalism, Bomont et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 184508 (2010)] studied theoretically the temperature dependence, at a fixed density, of the cluster formation in systems where particles interact with a hard-core double Yukawa potential composed of a short-range attraction and a long-range repulsion. In this paper, we provide evidence that the low-q peak in the static structure factor, frequently associated with the formation of clusters, is a common behavior in systems with competing interactions. In particular, we demonstrate that, based on a thermodynamic self-consistency criterion, accurate structural functions are obtained for different choices of closure relations. Moreover, we explore the dependence of the low-q peak on the particle number density, temperature, and potential parameters. Our findings indicate that enforcing thermodynamic self-consistency is the key factor to calculate both thermodynamic properties and static structure factors, including the low-q behavior, for colloidal dispersions with both attractive and repulsive interactions. Additionally, a simple analysis of the mean number of neighboring particles provides a qualitative description of some of the cluster features.
Soto, F. de [Laboratoire Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France)]|[Dpto. Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, U. Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Carbonell, J. [Laboratoire Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France)
2007-04-15
The numerical solutions of the non-relativistic Yukawa model on a 3-dimensional size lattice with periodic boundary conditions are obtained. The possibility to extract the corresponding - infinite space - low energy parameters and bound state binding energies from eigenstates computed at finite lattice size is discussed. The results have been obtained with a non relativistic model, which is justified by the small energies involved in the calculations. Despite its simplicity, the model considered contains an essential ingredient of the hadron-hadron interaction - its finite range - which plays a relevant role in view of extracting the low energy parameters from the finite volume spectra. It offers a wieldy and physically sound tool to test the validity of the different approaches discussed in the literature to study the low energy scattering of baryon-baryon or meson-baryon systems from a lattice simulations in QCD. The results presented in this work have been essentially limited to the ground state of central attractive interactions, depending only on one parameter. The method can be easily applied to more involved interactions, like hard core repulsive terms or non central potentials leading to coupled channel equations. (authors)
On the Klein-Gordon oscillator subject to a Coulomb-type potential
Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.
2015-04-01
By introducing the scalar potential as modification in the mass term of the Klein-Gordon equation, the influence of a Coulomb-type potential on the Klein-Gordon oscillator is investigated. Relativistic bound states solutions are achieved to both attractive and repulsive Coulomb-type potentials and the arising of a quantum effect characterized by the dependence of angular frequency of the Klein-Gordon oscillator on the quantum numbers of the system is shown.
Method of renormalization potential for one model of Hartree-Fock-Slater type
Zasorin, Y V
2002-01-01
A new method of the potential renormalization for the quasiclassical model of the Hartree-Fock-Slater real potential is proposed. The method makes it possible to easily construct the wave functions and contrary to the majority od similar methods it does not require the knowledge of the real-type potential
Mass spectrum and bounds on the couplings in Yukawa models with mirror-fermions
Lin, L.; Muenster, G.; Plagge, M. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Montvay, I.; Wittig, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frick, C.; Trappenberg, T. [HLRZ, Juelich (Germany)
1992-12-01
The SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R} symmetric Yukawa model with mirror-fermions in the limit where the mirror-fermion is decoupled is studied both analytically and numerically. The bare scalar self-coupling {lambda} is fixed at zero and infinity. The phase structure is explored and the relevant phase transition is found to be consistent with a second order one. The fermionic mass spectrum close to that transition is discussed and a first non-perturbative estimate of the influence of fermions on the upper and lower bounds on the renormalized scalar self-coupling is given. Numerical results are confronted with perturbative predictions. (orig.).
Mass Spectrum and Bounds on the Couplings in Yukawa Models With Mirror-Fermions
Lin, L; Plagge, M; Montvay, István; Wittig, H; Frick, C; Trappenberg, T
1993-01-01
The $\\rm SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R$ symmetric Yukawa model with mirror-fermions in the limit where the mirror-fermion is decoupled is studied both analytically and numerically. The bare scalar self-coupling $\\lambda$ is fixed at zero and infinity. The phase structure is explored and the relevant phase transition is found to be consistent with a second order one. The fermionic mass spectrum close to that transition is discussed and a first non-perturbative estimate of the influence of fermions on the upper and lower bounds on the renormalized scalar self-coupling is given. Numerical results are confronted with perturbative predictions.
Mass spectrum and bounds on the couplings in Yukawa models with mirror-fermions
Lin, L. (Inst. f. Theor. Physik I, Univ. Muenster (Germany)); Muenster, G. (Inst. f. Theor. Physik I, Univ. Muenster (Germany)); Plagge, M. (Inst. f. Theor. Physik I, Univ. Muenster (Germany)); Montvay, I. (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)); Wittig, H. (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)); Frick, C. (HLRZ, Juelich (Germany)); Trappenberg, T. (HLRZ, Juelich (Germany))
1993-03-01
The SU(2)[sub L] x SU(2)[sub R] symmetric Yukawa model with mirror-fermions in the limit where the mirror-fermion is decoupled is studied both analytically and numerically. The bare scalar self-coupling [lambda] is fixed at zero and infinity. The phase structure is explored and the relevant phase transition is found to be consistent with a second order one. The fermionic mass spectrum close to that transition is discussed and a first non-perturbative estimate of the influence of fermions on the upper and lower bounds on the renormalized scalar self-coupling is given. Numerical results are confronted with perturbative predictions. (orig.)
Quark mixings as a test of a new symmetry of quark Yukawa couplings
González, H; Kielanowski, Piotr; López-Castro, G
1998-01-01
Based on the hierarchy exhibited by quarks masses at low energies, we assume that Yukawa couplings of up and down quarks are related by $Y_u\\propto Y_d^2$ at grand unification scales. This ansatz gives rise to a symmetrical CKM matrix at the grand unification (GU) scale. Using three specific models as illustrative examples for the evolution down to low energies, we obtain the entries and asymmetries of the CKM matrix which are in very good agreement with their measured values. This indicates that the small asymmetry of the CKM matrix at low energies may be the effect of the renormalization group evolution only.
Wave spectra of 2D Yukawa solids and liquids in the presence of a magnetic field
Hou, L J; Piel, A; Miskovic, Z L
2009-01-01
Thermally excited phonon spectra of 2D Yukawa solids and liquids in the presence of an external magnetic field are studied using computer simulations. Special attention is paid to the variation of wave spectra in terms of several key parameters, such as the strength of coupling, the screening parameter, and the intensity of the magnetic field. In addition, comparisons are made with several analytical theories, including random-phase approximation, quasi-localized charge approximation, and harmonic approximation, and the validity of those theories is discussed in the present context.
Gninenko, S N
2016-01-01
We consider the SM extension with additional light real singlet scalar, right-handed neutrino and nonrenormalizable Yukawa interaction for the first two generations. We show that the proposed model can explain the observed $(g - 2)$ muon anomaly. Phenomenological consequences as flavour violating decays $\\tau \\rightarrow \\mu\\mu\\mu, \\mu \\mu e, \\mu e e $ are briefly discussed. We also propose the $U_R(1)$ gauge generalization of the SM with complex scalar singlet and nonzero right-handed charges for the first two generations.
Non-Perturbative Calculation of the Scalar Yukawa Theory in Four-Body Truncation
Li, Yang; Maris, P; Vary, James P
2014-01-01
The scalar Yukawa theory is solved in the light-front Tamm-Dancoff approach including up to four constituents (one scalar nucleon, three scalar pions). The Fock sector dependent renormalization is implemented. By studying the Fock sector norms, we find that the lowest two Fock sectors dominate the state even in the large-coupling region. The one-body sector shows convergence with respect to the Fock sector truncation. However, the four-body norm exceeds the three-body norm at the coupling $\\alpha \\approx 1.7$.
Three-dimensional noncommutative Yukawa theory: Induced effective action and propagating modes
Bufalo, R
2016-01-01
In this paper, we establish the analysis of noncommutative Yukawa theory, encompassing neutral and charged scalar fields. We approach the analysis by considering carefully the derivation of the respective effective actions. Hence, based on the obtained results, we compute the one-loop contributions to the neutral and charged scalar field self-energy, as well as to the Chern-Simons polarization tensor. In order to properly define the behaviour of the quantum fields, the known UV/IR mixing due to radiative corrections is analysed in the one-loop physical dispersion relation of the scalar and gauge fields.
Neutrino Mass Matrices from Two Zero 3x2 Yukawa Textures and Minimal d=5 Entries
Achelashvili, Avtandil
2016-01-01
Aiming to relate leptonic CP violating phase $\\delta$ to the cosmological CP asymmetry, we study the extension of MSSM by two quasi-degenerate (strictly degenerate at tree level) right- handed neutrinos and consider all possible two texture zero 3x2 Yukawa matrices plus one $\\Delta L=2$ dimension five (d=5) operator contributing to the light neutrino mass matrix. We classify all experimentally viable mass matrices, leading to several predictions, and analytically derive predictive relations. We also relate the CP violating $\\delta $ phase to the CP phase of the thermal leptogenesis.
Sparticle Spectroscopy with Neutralino Dark matter from t-b-tau Quasi-Yukawa Unification
Dar, Shahida; Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih
2011-01-01
We consider two classes of t-b-tau quasi-Yukawa unification scenarios which can arise from realistic supersymmetric SO(10) and SU(4)_C X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R models. We show that these scenarios can be successfully implemented in the CMSSM and NUHM1 frameworks, and yields a variety of sparticle spectra with WMAP compatible neutralino dark matter. In NUHM1 we find bino-higgsino dark matter as well as the stau coannihilation and A-funnel solutions. The CMSSM case yields the stau coannihilation and A-funnel solutions. The gluino and squark masses are found to lie in the TeV range.
One loop radiative corrections to the translation-invariant noncommutative Yukawa Theory
Bouchachia, Karim; Hachemane, Mahmoud; Schweda, Manfred
2015-01-01
We elaborate in this paper a translation-invariant model for fermions in 4-dimensional noncommutative Euclidean space. The construction is done on the basis of the renormalizable noncommutative translation-invariant Phi4 theory introduced by R. Gurau et al. We combine our model with the scalar model, in order to study the noncommutative pseudo-scalar Yukawa theory. After we derive the Feynman rules of the theory, we perform an explicit calculation of the quantum corrections at one loop level to the propagators and vertices.
Hernandez-Sanchez, J; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Rosado, A
2013-01-01
We update the flavor-violating constraints on the charged Higgs sector of the 2-Higgs Doublet Model Type-III (2HDM-III), using a four-zero texture in the Yukawa matrices. We give a generic Lagrangian of the 2HDM-III. In order to show the relevance of the off-diagonal terms of such a texture, we utilize the main constraints from $B$-physics, $\\mu -e$ universality in $\\tau$ decays and the radiative decay $Z\\to b \\bar{b}$ presented recently in arXiv:1212.6818 [hep-ph]. In particular, we show that the $H^- c \\bar{b}$ coupling can be very large and very different with respect to 2HDMs with a flavor discrete symmetry (i.e., ${\\mathcal{Z}}_2$). We also discuss the possible enhancements of the vertices $H^\\pm W^\\mp V$ ($V=Z, \\gamma$) that arise at one-loop level.
Zhou, Peijie; Li, Tiejun
2016-03-01
Motivated by the famous Waddington's epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang's potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.
Numerical simulation of heavy fermions in an SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R} symmetric Yukawa model
Frick, C.; Trappenberg, T. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik E; Lin, L.; Muenster, G.; Plagge, M. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Montvay, I.; Wittig, H.
1992-07-01
An exploratory numerical study of the influence of heavy fermion doublets on the mass of the Higgs boson is performed in the decoupling limit of a chiral SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} symmetric Yukawa model with mirror fermions. The behaviour of fermion and boson masses is investigated at infinite bare quartic coupling on 4{sup 3} x 8, 6{sup 3} x 12 and 8{sup 3} x 16 lattices. A first estimate of the upper bound on the renormalized quartic coupling as a function of the renormalized Yukawa-coupling is given. (orig.).
Numerical simulation of heavy fermions in an SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R symmetric Yukawa model
Frick, C; Montvay, István; Münster, G; Plagge, M; Trappenberg, T; Wittig, H
1993-01-01
An exploratory numerical study of the influence of heavy fermion doublets on the mass of the Higgs boson is performed in the decoupling limit of a chiral $\\rm SU(2)_L \\otimes SU(2)_R$ symmetric Yukawa model with mirror fermions. The behaviour of fermion and boson masses is investigated at infinite bare quartic coupling on $4^3 \\cdot 8$, $6^3 \\cdot 12$ and $8^3 \\cdot 16$ lattices. A first estimate of the upper bound on the renormalized quartic coupling as a function of the renormalized Yukawa-coupling is given.
Coeficientes de difusión de fluidos de Yukawa y aplicación a fullerenos
A. Onofre-Hernández; M. González-Melchor; J.F. Rivas-Silva
2010-01-01
Se usa dinámica molecular para estudiar propiedades dinámicas de fluidos de Yukawa. Las ecuaciones de movimiento se integran usando el algoritmo de velocidades de Verlet para obtener el desplazamiento cuadrático medio, la función de autocorrelación de velocidades y a partir de estas cantidades, el coeficiente de difusión. Aplicamos la metodología al caso de fullerenos C60 and C70, para los cuáles la interacción de Yukawa atractiva ha mostrado ser de utilidad en el estudio de la curva de coexi...
Perturbativity Limits for Minimal Dark Matter with Yukawa Interactions: Real Scalar Septuplet
Cai, Chengfeng; Kang, Zhaofeng; Yu, Zhao-Huan; Zhang, Hong-Hao
2015-01-01
The candidate of minimal dark matter (MDM) is limited if one demands perturbativity up to a very high scale, and it was believed that the MDM model with a real scalar septuplet could keep perturbative up to the Planck or GUT scale. In this work we point out that it is not true after taking into account the running of the quartic self-couplings of the scalar septuplet. For the septuplet mass around $10$~TeV, which is suggested by the observed dark matter relic abundance, these couplings would hit the Landau pole at a scale $\\sim 10^8-10^9$~GeV, much lower than the Planck scale. We attempt to push up the Landau pole scale as high as possible by proposing an extension with extra Yukawa interactions of the septuplet. We find that in principle the Landau pole could be deferred to a scale of $\\sim 10^{14}$~GeV if one could tolerate a serious fine-tuning of the initial condition of the Yukawa coupling. Moreover, if the MDM particle mass could be relaxed to $\\sim10^8$~GeV, which would need some nonthermal production ...
Construction of an SO(10) x U(1)-F model of the Yukawa interactions
Albright, Carl H.; Nandi, Satyanarayan
1995-07-01
We construct a supersymmetric SO(10) \\times U(1)_F model of the Yukawa interactions at the grand unification scale from knowledge of a phenomenological set of mass matrices obtained by a previous bottom-up approach. The U(1)_F family symmetry determines the textures for the Majorana and generic Dirac mass matrices, while the SO(10) symmetry relates each particular element of the up, down, neutrino and charged lepton Dirac matrices. The dominant second and third family contributions in the Dirac sector are renormalizable, while the remaining contributions to the Dirac mass matrices are of higher order, restricted by the U(1)_F family symmetry to a small set of tree diagrams, and mainly complex-symmetric. The tree diagrams for the Majorana mass matrix are all non-renormalizable and of progressively higher-order, leading to a nearly geometrical structure. Pairs of {\\bf 1, 45, 10} and {\\bf 126} Higgs representations enter with those having large vacuum expectation values breaking the symmetry down to SU(3)_c \\times SU(2)_L \\times U(1)_Y near the grand unification scale. In terms of 12 parameters expressed as the Yukawa couplings times vacuum expectation values for the Higgs representations employed, a realistic set of 15 quark and lepton masses (including those for the 3 heavy righthanded Majorana neutrinos) and 8 mixing parameters emerges for the neutrino scenario involving the non-adiabatic conversion of solar neutrinos and the depletion of atmospheric muon-neutrinos through oscillations into tau-neutrinos.
Upper and lower Higgs boson mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model
Gerhold, P
2010-01-01
Motivated by the advent of the Large Hadron Collider the aim of the present work is the non-perturbative determination of the cutoff-dependent upper and lower mass bounds of the Standard Model Higgs boson based on first principle calculations, in particular not relying on additional information such as the triviality property of the Higgs-Yukawa sector or indirect arguments like vacuum stability considerations. For that purpose the lattice approach is employed to allow for a non-perturbative investigation of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model, serving here as a reasonable simplification of the full Standard Model, containing only those fields and interactions which are most essential for the intended Higgs boson mass determination. These are the complex Higgs doublet as well as the top and bottom quark fields and their mutual interactions. To maintain the chiral character of the Standard Model Higgs-fermion coupling also on the lattice, the latter model is constructed on the basis of the Neuberge...
Large-N_f behavior of the Yukawa model: analytic results
Caracciolo, S; Pelissetto, A; Caracciolo, Sergio; Mognetti, Bortolo Matteo; Pelissetto, Andrea
2005-01-01
We investigate the Yukawa model in which $N_f$ fermions are coupled with a scalar field $\\phi$ through a Yukawa interaction. The phase diagram is rather well understood. If the fermions are massless, there is a chiral transition at $T_c$: for $T < T_c$ chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. At $N_f=\\infty$ the transition is mean-field like, while, for any finite $N_f$, standard arguments predict Ising behavior. This apparent contradiction has been explained by Kogut et al., who showed by scaling arguments and Monte Carlo simulations that in the large-$N_f$ limit the width of the Ising critical region scales as a power of $1/N_f$, so that only mean-field behavior is observed for $N_f$ strictly equal to infinity. We will show how the results of Kogut et al. can be recovered analytically in the framework of a generalized $1/N_f$ expansion. The method we use is a simple generalization of the method we have recently applied to a two-dimensional generalized Heisenberg model.
Demonstrating Universal Scaling in Quench Dynamics of a Yukawa One-Component Plasma
Langin, T K; Maksimovic, N; McQuillen, P; Pohl, T; Vrinceanu, D; Killian, T C
2015-01-01
The Yukawa one-component plasma (OCP) is a paradigm model for describing plasmas that contain one component of interest and one or more other components that can be treated as a neutralizing, screening background. In appropriately scaled units, interactions are characterized entirely by a screening parameter, $\\kappa$. As a result, systems of similar $\\kappa$ show the same dynamics, regardless of the underlying parameters (e.g., density and temperature). We demonstrate this behavior using ultracold neutral plasmas (UNP) created by photoionizing a cold ($T\\le10$ mK) gas. The ions in UNP systems are well described by the Yukawa model, with the electrons providing the screening. Creation of the plasma through photoionization can be thought of as a rapid quench from $\\kappa_{0}=\\infty$ to a final $\\kappa$ value set by the electron density and temperature. We demonstrate experimentally that the post-quench dynamics are universal in $\\kappa$ over a factor of 30 in density and an order of magnitude in temperature. R...
SOSpin, a C++ library for Yukawa decomposition in $\\mathsf{SO}(2N)$ models
Cardoso, Nuno; Gonçalves, Nuno; Simoes, C
2015-01-01
We present in this paper the SOSpin library, which calculates an analytic decomposition of the Yukawa interactions invariant under any $\\mathsf{SO}(2N)$ group in terms of an $\\mathsf{SU}(N)$ basis. We make use of the oscillator expansion formalism, where the $\\mathsf{SO}(2N)$ spinor representations are expressed in terms of creation and annihilation operators of a Grassmann algebra. These noncommutative operators and their products are simulated in SOSpin through the implementation of doubly-linked-list data structures. These data structures were determinant to achieve a higher performance in the simplification of large products of creation and annihilation operators. We illustrate the use of our library with complete examples of how to decompose Yukawa terms invariant under $\\mathsf{SO}(2N)$ in terms of $\\mathsf{SU}(N)$ degrees of freedom for $N=2$ and $5$. We further demonstrate, with an example for $\\mathsf{SO}(4)$, that higher dimensional field-operator terms can also be processed with our library. Finall...
Quasi Yukawa Unification and Fine-Tuning in U(1) Extended SSM
Hicyilmaz, Yasar; Altas, Asli; Solmaz, Levent; Un, Cem Salih
2016-01-01
We consider the low scale implications in the U(1)' extended MSSM (UMSSM). We restrict the parameter space such that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is always the lightest neutralino. In addition, we impose quasi Yukawa unification (QYU) at the grand unification scale (M_GUT). QYU strictly requires the ratios among the yukawa couplings as y_t/y_b ~ 1.2, y_tau/y_b ~ 1.4, and y_t/y_tau ~ 0.8. We find that the need of fine-tuning over the fundamental parameter space of QYU is in the acceptable range (Delta_EW ~ 2.5 TeV), gluinos (m_gluino >~ 2 TeV), and squarks from the first two families (m_squarks >~ 4 TeV). Similarly the stau mass is bounded from below at about 1.5 TeV. Despite this heavy spectrum, we find Delta_EW >~ 300, which is much lower than that needed for the minimal supersymmetric models. In addition, UMSSM yield relatively small mu-term, and the LSP neutralio is mostly form by the Higgsinos of mass >~ 700 GeV. We obtain also bino-like dark matter (DM) of mass about 400 GeV. Wino is usuall...
Probing extra Yukawa couplings by precision measurements of Higgs boson properties
Hou, Wei-Shu; Kikuchi, Mariko
2017-07-01
If one removes any ad hoc symmetry assumptions, the general two-Higgs-doublet model should have additional Yukawa interactions independent from fermion mass generation, in general involving flavor-changing neutral Higgs couplings. These extra couplings can affect the discovered Higgs boson h through fermion loop contributions. We calculate the renormalized h Z Z coupling at the one-loop level and evaluate the dependence on heavy Higgs boson mass and extra Yukawa coupling ρt t. Precision measurements at future colliders can explore the parameter space, and can give stronger bounds on ρt t than the current bound from flavor experiments. As a side result, we find that if ρt tcos γ <0 , where cos γ is the exotic Higgs component of h , the ρt t-induced top loop contribution cancels against bosonic loop contributions, and one may have alignment without decoupling, namely sin (-γ )≃1 , but exotic scalar bosons could have masses of several hundred GeV.
Unification, KK-thresholds and the top Yukawa coupling in F-theory GUTs
Leontaris, G. K.; Tracas, N. D.; Tsamis, G.
2011-10-01
In a class of F-theory SU(5) GUTs the low energy chiral mass spectrum is obtained from rank one fermion mass textures with a hierarchical structure organized by U(1) symmetries embedded in the exceptional E 8 group. In these theories chiral fields reside on matter `curves' and the tree-level masses are computed from integrals of overlapping wave functions of the particles at the triple intersection points. This calculation requires knowledge of the exact form of the wave functions. In this work we propose a way to obtain a reliable estimate of the various quantities which determine the strength of the Yukawa couplings. We use previous analysis of KK-threshold effects to determine the (ratios of) heavy mass scales of the theory which are involved in the normalization of the wave functions. We consider similar effects from the chiral spectrum of these models and discuss possible constraints on the emerging matter content. In this approach, we find that the Yukawa couplings can be determined solely from the U(1) charges of the states in the `intersection' and the torsion which is a topological invariant quantity. We apply the results to a viable SU(5) model with minimal spectrum which satisfies all the constraints imposed by our analysis. We use renormalization group analysis to estimate the top and bottom masses and find that they are in agreement with the experimental values.
Unification, KK-thresholds and the top Yukawa coupling in F-theory GUTs
Leontaris, G K; Tsamis, G
2011-01-01
In a class of F-theory SU(5) GUTs the low energy chiral mass spectrum is obtained from rank one fermion mass textures with a hierarchical structure organised by U(1) symmetries embedded in the exceptional E_8 group. In these theories chiral fields reside on matter `curves' and the tree level masses are computed from integrals of overlapping wavefuctions of the particles at the triple intersection points. This calculation requires knowledge of the exact form of the wavefuctions. In this work we propose a way to obtain a reliable estimate of the various quantities which determine the strength of the Yukawa couplings. We use previous analysis of KK threshold effects to determine the (ratios of) heavy mass scales of the theory which are involved in the normalization of the wave functions. We consider similar effects from the chiral spectrum of these models and discuss possible constraints on the emerging matter content. In this approach, we find that the Yukawa couplings can be determined solely from the U(1) cha...
Point Canonical Transformation for Solving Five-Parameter Exponential-Type Potential
YANGJin; XIANGAn-Ping; YUWan-Lun
2003-01-01
Using the approach of mapping of shape invariant potentials under point canonical transformations, the energy spectra and wave functions are most easily determined for the bound states of the five-parameter exponential-type potential with a little extra effort.
Analytical solution of the Klein Gordon equation for a quadratic exponential-type potential
Ezzatpour, Somayyeh; Akbarieh, Amin Rezaei
2016-07-01
In this research study, analytical solutions of the Klein Gordon equation by considering the potential as a quadratic exponential will be presented. However, the potential is assumed to be within the framework of an approximation for the centrifugal potential in any state. The Nikiforov-Uvarov method is used to calculate the wave function, as well as corresponding exact energy equation, in bound states. We finally concluded that the quadratic exponential-type potential under which the results were deduced, led to outcomes that were comparable to the results obtained from the well-known potentials in some special cases.
Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality
mahin soheili
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results showed that rejecting/neglecting parenting style and emotional warmth were positively and negatively correlated with addiction potential, respectively. Conclusion: The child-parent relationship and also the relationship between stress and type D personality can be considered as predictive factors in addiction potential.
On the Klein–Gordon oscillator subject to a Coulomb-type potential
Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br; Furtado, C., E-mail: furtado@fisica.ufpb.br
2015-04-15
By introducing the scalar potential as modification in the mass term of the Klein–Gordon equation, the influence of a Coulomb-type potential on the Klein–Gordon oscillator is investigated. Relativistic bound states solutions are achieved to both attractive and repulsive Coulomb-type potentials and the arising of a quantum effect characterized by the dependence of angular frequency of the Klein–Gordon oscillator on the quantum numbers of the system is shown. - Highlights: • Interaction between the Klein–Gordon oscillator and a modified mass term. • Relativistic bound states for both attractive and repulsive Coulomb-type potentials. • Dependence of the Klein–Gordon oscillator frequency on the quantum numbers. • Relativistic analogue of a position-dependent mass system.
Bulava, John; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Gerhold, Philip; Kallarackal, Jim; Nagy, Attila [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humbolt-Univ. Berlin (Germany)
2011-12-15
We study a chirally invariant Higgs-Yukawa model regulated on a space-time lattice. We calculate Higgs boson resonance parameters and mass bounds for various values of the mass of the degenerate fermion doublet. Also, first results on the phase transition temperature are presented. In general, this model may be relevant for BSM scenarios with a heavy fourth generation of quarks. (orig.)
Solitonic lattice and Yukawa forces in the rare-earth orthoferrite TbFeO_{3}
Artyukhin, Sergey; Mostovoy, Maxim; Jensen, Niels Paduraru
2012-01-01
The random fluctuations of spins give rise to many interesting physical phenomena, such as the 'order-from-disorder' arising in frustrated magnets and unconventional Cooper pairing in magnetic superconductors. Here we show that the exchange of spin waves between extended topological defects...... to the pion-mediated Yukawa interaction between protons and neutrons in nuclei. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved....
De Soto, F
2006-01-01
The numerical solutions of the non-relativistic Yukawa model on a 3-dimensional size lattice with periodic boundary conditions are obtained. The possibility to extract the corresponding -- infinite space -- low energy parameters and bound state binding energies from eigensates computed at finite lattice size is discussed.
Identity for the Exponential-Type Molecule Potentials and the Supersymmetry Shape Invariance
JIA Chun-Sheng; ZHANG Ying; ZENG Xiang-Lin; SUN Liang-Tian
2001-01-01
The identity and the supersymmetry shape invariance for a class of exponential-type molecule potentials are studied by introducing a deformed five-parameter exponential-type potential (DFPEP) and via the multi-parameter deformations. It has been shown that the DFPEP is a shape-invariant potential with a translation of parameters. By making use of the shape invariance approach, the exact energy levels are determined for the bound states with zero angular momentum. A class of molecule potentials and their exact energy spectra for the zero angular momentum states are reduced from the DFPEP and a general energy spectrum formula, respectively. The interrelations for some molecule potentials are also discussed.
Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types
Mitkovic-Voncina Marija
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.
Thermodynamic properties and approximate solutions of the ℓ-state Pöschl–Teller-type potential
W.A. Yahya
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, the solutions of the ℓ-state Pöschl–Teller-type potential for the Schrödinger and Klein–Gordon equations are obtained using the parametric Nikiforov–Uvarov method. Solving the Schrödinger and Klein–Gordon wave equations, the energy eigenvalues and wave functions are obtained. For the case ℓ=0, we made comparison with previous results where the solutions of Schrödinger equation for the Pöschl–Teller-type potential were obtained for s-wave (ℓ=0 state. We also obtain the thermodynamic properties such as vibrational mean energy, vibrational specific heat, vibrational mean free energy and vibrational entropy for the Pöschl–Teller-type potential in the classical limit.
Comprehensive Analysis of Yukawa Hierarchies on $T^2/Z_N$ with Magnetic Fluxes
Fujimoto, Yukihiro; Nishiwaki, Kenji; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki
2016-01-01
Based on the result of classification in our previous work, we exhaustively investigate Yukawa sector of $U(8)$ model on magnetized orbifolds $T^{2}/Z_{2}$, $T^{2}/Z_{3}$, $T^{2}/Z_{4}$ and $T^{2}/Z_{6}$ by evaluating ratios of the mass eigenvalues of the three states in all the possible configurations with one and two Higgs pairs where three generations are realized in fermions. Because of smearing effect via kinetic mixing, one can realize a hierarchy such as $10^{-2}$-$10^{-3}$, but it is very difficult to achieve the mass ratio between the up and top quarks ($m_{\\text{up}}/m_{\\text{top}} \\sim 10^{-5}$) on the complicated magnetized orbifolds $T^{2}/Z_{N}\\,(N=3,4,6)$.
A Dream of Yukawa — Non-Local Fields out of Non-Commutative Spacetime —
Naka, Shigefumi; Toyoda, Haruki; Takanashi, Takahiro; Umezawa, Eizo
The coordinates of κ-Minkowski spacetime form Lie algebraic elements, in which time and space coordinates do not commute in spite of that space coordinates commute each other. The non-commutativity is realized by a Planck-length-scale constant κ - 1( ne 0), which is a universal constant other than the light velocity under the κ-Poincare transformation. Such a non-commutative structure can be realized by SO(1,4) generators in dS4 spacetime. In this work, we try to construct a κ-Minkowski like spacetime with commutative 4-dimensional spacetime based on Adsn+1 spacetime. Another aim of this work is to study invariant wave equations in this spacetime from the viewpoint of non-local field theory by H. Yukawa, who expected to realize elementary particle theories without divergence according to this viewpoint.
Higgs characterisation at NLO in QCD: CP properties of the top-quark Yukawa interaction.
Demartin, Federico; Maltoni, Fabio; Mawatari, Kentarou; Page, Ben; Zaro, Marco
At the LHC the CP properties of the top-quark Yukawa interaction can be probed through Higgs production in gluon fusion or in association with top quarks. We consider the possibility for both CP-even and CP-odd couplings to the top quark to be present, and study CP-sensitive observables at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD, including parton-shower effects. We show that the inclusion of NLO corrections sizeably reduces the theoretical uncertainties, and confirm that di-jet correlations in [Formula: see text] jet production through gluon fusion and correlations of the top-quark decay products in [Formula: see text] production can provide sensitive probes of the CP nature of the Higgs interactions.
Two-Yukawa fluid at a hard wall: Field theory treatment
Kravtsiv, I.; Patsahan, T.; Holovko, M. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences, 1 Svientsitskii St., 79011 Lviv (Ukraine); Caprio, D. di [Institute of Research of Chimie Paris, CNRS-Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)
2015-05-21
We apply a field-theoretical approach to study the structure and thermodynamics of a two-Yukawa fluid confined by a hard wall. We derive mean field equations allowing for numerical evaluation of the density profile which is compared to analytical estimations. Beyond the mean field approximation, analytical expressions for the free energy, the pressure, and the correlation function are derived. Subsequently, contributions to the density profile and the adsorption coefficient due to Gaussian fluctuations are found. Both the mean field and the fluctuation terms of the density profile are shown to satisfy the contact theorem. We further use the contact theorem to improve the Gaussian approximation for the density profile based on a better approximation for the bulk pressure. The results obtained are compared to computer simulation data.
Ab Initio Approach to the Non-Perturbative Scalar Yukawa Model
Li, Yang; Maris, P; Vary, J P
2015-01-01
We report on the first non-perturbative calculation of the quenched scalar Yukawa model in the four-body Fock sector truncation. The light-front Hamiltonian approach with a Fock sector dependent renormalization is applied. We study the Fock sector contribution and the electromagnetic form factor in the non-perturbative region. We find that the one- and two-body contributions dominate the Fock space up to coupling $\\alpha\\approx 1.7$. By comparing with lower Fock sector truncations, we show that the form factor converges with respect to the Fock sector expansion. As we approach the coupling $\\alpha \\approx 2.2$, we discover that the four-body contribution rises rapidly and overtakes the two- and three-body contributions.
Ab initio approach to the non-perturbative scalar Yukawa model
Yang Li
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We report on the first non-perturbative calculation of the scalar Yukawa model in the single-nucleon sector up to four-body Fock sector truncation (one “scalar nucleon” and three “scalar pions”. The light-front Hamiltonian approach with a systematic non-perturbative renormalization is applied. We study the n-body norms and the electromagnetic form factor. We find that the one- and two-body contributions dominate up to coupling α≈1.7. As we approach the coupling α≈2.2, we discover that the four-body contribution rises rapidly and overtakes the two- and three-body contributions. By comparing with lower sector truncations, we show that the form factor converges with respect to the Fock sector expansion.
Absence of Rapid Proton Decay and Origin of Low-Energy Particlesand Yukawa Couplings
Tatar, Radu; Watari, Taizan
2006-01-01
In string theory, massless particles often originate from a symmetry breaking of a large gauge symmetry G to its subgroup H. The absence of dimension-4 proton decay in supersymmetric theories suggests that ({bar D},L) are different from {bar H}({bar 5}) in their origins. In this article, we consider a possibility that they come from different irreducible components in g/h. Requiring that all the Yukawa coupling constants of quarks and leptons be generated from the super Yang-Mills interactions of G, we found in the context of Georgi-Glashow H = SU(5) unification that the minimal choice of G is E{sub 7} and E{sub 8} is the only alternative. This idea is systematically implemented in Heterotic String, M theory and F theory, confirming the absence of dimension 4 proton decay operators. Not only H = SU(5) but also G constrain operators of effective field theories, providing non-trivial information.
Fluid approach to evaluate sound velocity in Yukawa systems (complex plasmas)
Khrapak, Sergey
2015-01-01
The conventional fluid description of multi-component plasma, supplemented by an appropriate equation of state for the macroparticle component, is used to evaluate the longitudinal sound velocity of Yukawa fluids. The obtained results are in very good agreement with those obtained earlier employing the quasi-localized charge approximation and molecular dynamics simulations in a rather broad parameter regime. Thus, a simple yet accurate tool to estimate the sound velocity across coupling regimes is proposed, which can be particularly helpful in estimating the dust-acoustic velocity in strongly coupled dusty (complex) plasmas. It is shown that, within the present approach, the sound velocity is completely determined by particle-particle correlations and the neutralizing medium (plasma), apart from providing screening of the Coulomb interaction, has no other effect on the sound propagation. The ratio of the actual sound velocity to its "ideal gas" (weak coupling) scale only weakly depends on the coupling strengt...
Ultraheavy Yukawa-bound states of fourth-generation at Large Hadron Collider
Ts Enkhbat
2012-10-01
A study of bound states of the fourth-generation quarks in the range of 500–700 GeV is presented, where the binding energies are expected to be mainly of Yukawa origin, with QCD subdominant. Near degeneracy of their masses exhibits a new `isospin'. The production of a colour- octet, isosinglet vector meson via $q\\bar{q} → g$ is the most interesting. Its leading decay modes are $_{8}^{±} W^{\\mp}$, $_{8}^{0} Z^{0}$, and constituent quark decay, with $q\\bar{q}$ and $t\\bar{t'}$ and $b\\bar{b'}$ subdominant. The colour octet, isovector pseudoscalar 8 meson decays via constituent quark decay, or to $W g$. This work calls for more detailed study of fourth-generation phenomena at LHC.
125 GeV Higgs Boson from t-b-tau Yukawa Unification
Gogoladze, Ilia; Ün, Cem Salih
2012-01-01
We identify a class of supersymmetric SU(4)_c x SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R models in which imposing essentially perfect t-b-tau Yukawa coupling unification at M_GUT yields a mass close to 122-126 GeV for the lightest CP-even (SM-like) Higgs boson. The squark and gluino masses in these models exceed 3 TeV, but the stau and charginos in some cases can be considerably lighter. We display some benchmark points corresponding to neutralino-stau and bino-wino coannihilations as well as A-resonance. The well-known MSSM parameter tan beta is around 46-52.
Exploring the Yukawa unified minimal supergravity model at the Tevatron, LEP II, and the LHC
Gunion, J F
1994-01-01
We explore the prospects for detection of sparticles and Higgs bosons at the Tevatron, LEP-200 and the LHC in the allowed parameter space of a "Yukawa unified" ($\\lambda_b(M_U)=\\lambda_{\\ tau}(M_U)$) minimal supergravity (YUMS) model, where the only non-zero unification scale soft-SUSY-breaking terms are a universal gaugino mass and a Higgs mixing term. In a bottom-up approach, just two weak scale parameters, $\\tanb$ and $\\mha$ (along with the sign of the Higgs mixing parameter $\\mu$) completely parameterize the model. Many interesting "special" situations regarding sparticle and Higgs discovery arise, such as the importance of the invisible $\\hl\\rta\\cnone\\cnone,\\snu\\ snubar$ decay modes.
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Properties of Shocks in Two-Dimensional Yukawa Systems
Marciante, M.; Murillo, M. S.
2017-01-01
Particle-level simulations of shocked plasmas are carried out to examine kinetic properties not captured by hydrodynamic models. In particular, molecular dynamics simulations of 2D Yukawa plasmas with variable couplings and screening lengths are used to examine shock features unique to plasmas, including the presence of dispersive shock structures for weak shocks. A phase-space analysis reveals several kinetic properties, including anisotropic velocity distributions, non-Maxwellian tails, and the presence of fast particles ahead of the shock, even for moderately low Mach numbers. We also examine the thermodynamics (Rankine-Hugoniot relations) of recent experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 015002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.015002] and find no anomalies in their equations of state.
The Contribution from Neutrino Yukawa Couplings to Lepton Electric Dipole Moments
Farzan, Y
2004-05-24
To explain the observed neutrino masses through the seesaw mechanism, a supersymmetric generalization of the Standard Model should include heavy right-handed neutrino supermultiplets. Then the neutrino Yukawa couplings can induce CP violation in the lepton sector. In this paper, we compute the contribution of these CP violating terms to lepton electric dipole moments. We introduce a new formalism that makes use of supersymmetry to expose the GIM cancellations. In the region of small tan {beta}, we find a different result from that given previously by Ellis, Hisano, Raidal, and Shimizu. We confirm the structure found by this group, but with a much smaller overall coefficient. In the region of large tan {beta}, we recompute the leading term that has been identified by Masina and confirm her result up to minor factors. We discuss the implications of these results for constraints on the Y{sub v}.
Upper bound on hot dark matter density from SO(10) Yukawa unification
Brignole, A; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Andrea Brignole; Hitoshi Murayama; Riccardo Rattazzi
1994-01-01
We study low-energy consequences of supersymmetric SO(10) models with Yukawa unification h_t = h_N and h_b = h_\\tau. We find that it is difficult to reproduce the observed m_b/m_\\tau ratio when the third-generation right-handed neutrino is at an intermediate scale, especially for small \\tan \\beta. We obtain a conservative lower bound on the mass of the right-handed neutrino M_N > 6 \\times 10^{13}~GeV for \\tan \\beta < 10. This bound translates into an upper bound on the \\tau-neutrino mass, and therefore on its contribution to the hot dark matter density of the present universe, \\Omega_\
Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina;
2012-01-01
The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed that patie......The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed...... to control conditions. We therefore hypothesize that cysteine residues increase TRPC6 channel protein expression in humans....
Trewby, Hannah; Wright, David M; Skuce, Robin A; McCormick, Carl; Mallon, Thomas R; Presho, Eleanor L; Kao, Rowland R; Haydon, Daniel T; Biek, Roman
2017-08-22
The patterns of relative species abundance are commonly studied in ecology and epidemiology to provide insights into underlying dynamical processes. Molecular types (MVLA-types) of Mycobacterium bovis, the causal agent of bovine tuberculosis, are now routinely recorded in culture-confirmed bovine tuberculosis cases in Northern Ireland. In this study, we use ecological approaches and simulation modelling to investigate the distribution of relative abundances of MVLA-types and its potential drivers. We explore four biologically plausible hypotheses regarding the processes driving molecular type relative abundances: sampling and speciation; structuring of the pathogen population; historical changes in population size; and transmission heterogeneity (superspreading). Northern Irish herd-level MVLA-type surveillance shows a right-skewed distribution of MVLA-types, with a small number of types present at very high frequencies and the majority of types very rare. We demonstrate that this skew is too extreme to be accounted for by simple neutral ecological processes. Simulation results indicate that the process of MVLA-type speciation and the manner in which the MVLA-typing loci were chosen in Northern Ireland cannot account for the observed skew. Similarly, we find that pathogen population structure, assuming for example a reservoir of infection in a separate host, would drive the relative abundance distribution in the opposite direction to that observed, generating more even abundances of molecular types. However, we find that historical increases in bovine tuberculosis prevalence and/or transmission heterogeneity (superspreading) are both capable of generating the skewed MVLA-type distribution, consistent with findings of previous work examining the distribution of molecular types in human tuberculosis. Although the distribution of MVLA-type abundances does not fit classical neutral predictions, our simulations show that increases in pathogen population size and
Kutev, N.; Kolkovska, N.; Dimova, M.
2013-10-01
The Cauchy problem to the generalized Boussinesq equation with Bernoulli type nonlinearities is studied. Global solvability of the solutions with sub-critical initial energy is proved by means of different techniques - nonstandard potential well method and method of the conservation low of the energy. In the framework of the nonstandard potential well method a new critical energy constant is introduced and estimated. The performed numerical experiments support the theoretical results.
De Petrocellis, Luciano; Vellani, Vittorio; Schiano-Moriello, Aniello; Marini, Pietro; Magherini, Pier Cosimo; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo
2008-06-01
The plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), cannabidiol (CBD), and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were previously shown to activate transient receptor potential channels of both vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1), respectively. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid anandamide is known to activate TRPV1 and was recently found to antagonize the menthol- and icilin-sensitive transient receptor potential channels of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8). In this study, we investigated the effects of six phytocannabinoids [i.e., CBD, THC, CBD acid, THC acid, cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG)] on TRPA1- and TRPM8-mediated increase in intracellular Ca2+ in either HEK-293 cells overexpressing the two channels or rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. All of the compounds tested induced TRPA1-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells with efficacy comparable with that of mustard oil isothiocyanates (MO), the most potent being CBC (EC(50) = 60 nM) and the least potent being CBG and CBD acid (EC(50) = 3.4-12.0 microM). CBC also activated MO-sensitive DRG neurons, although with lower potency (EC(50) = 34.3 microM). Furthermore, although none of the compounds tested activated TRPM8-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells, they all, with the exception of CBC, antagonized this response when it was induced by either menthol or icilin. CBD, CBG, THC, and THC acid were equipotent (IC(50) = 70-160 nM), whereas CBD acid was the least potent compound (IC(50) = 0.9-1.6 microM). CBG inhibited Ca2+ elevation also in icilin-sensitive DRG neurons with potency (IC(50) = 4.5 microM) similar to that of anandamide (IC(50) = 10 microM). Our findings suggest that phytocannabinoids and cannabis extracts exert some of their pharmacological actions also by interacting with TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels, with potential implications for the treatment of pain and cancer.
Construction of the Barut-Girardello type of coherent states for Pöschl-Teller potential
Zhang, Hong-Biao, E-mail: zhanghb017@nenu.edu.cn; Guo, San-Xing [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Jiang, Guang-Yuan [School of Physics, Changchun Normal University, Changchun 130000 (China)
2014-12-15
The Pöschl-Teller (PT) potential occupies a privileged place among the anharmonic oscillator potentials due to its applications from quantum mechanics to diatomic molecules. For this potential, a polynomial su(1, 1) algebra has been constructed previously. So far, the coherent states (CSs) associated with this algebra have never appeared. In this paper, we construct the coherent states of the Barut-Girardello coherent states (BG-CSs) type for the PT potentials, which have received less attention in the scientific literature. We obtain these CSs and demonstrate that they fulfil all conditions required by the coherent state. The Mandel parameter for the pure BG-CSs and Husimi’s and P-quasi distributions (for the mixed-thermal states) is also presented. Finally, the exponential form of the BG-CSs for the PT potential has been presented and enabled us to build Perelomov type CSs for the PT potential. We point out that the BG-CSs and the Perelomov type coherent states (PCSs) are related via Laplace transform.
The potential roles of T-type Ca2+ channels in motor coordination
Young-Gyun ePark
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Specific behavioral patterns are expressed by complex combinations of muscle coordination. Tremors are simple behavioral patterns and are the focus of studies investigating motor coordination mechanisms in the brain. T-type Ca2+ channels mediate intrinsic neuronal oscillations and rhythmic burst spiking, and facilitate the generation of tremor rhythms in motor circuits. Despite substantial evidence that T-type Ca2+ channels mediate pathological tremors, their roles in physiological motor coordination and behavior remain unknown. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the roles that T-type Ca2+ channels play under pathological conditions, and discuss the potential relevance of these channels in mediating physiological motor coordination.
Weighted Norm Inequalities for Potential Type Operators%位势型算子的加权不等式
李文明; 齐金云; 闫雪芳
2009-01-01
Let Ф be a non-negative locally integrable function on Rn and satisfy some weak growth conditions,define the potential type operator TФ by TФf(x)=frnФ(x-y)f(y)dy.The aim of this paper is to give several strong type and weak type weighted norm inequalities for the potential type operator TФ.
GEOMETRIC OPTICS FOR 3D-HARTREE-TYPE EQUATION WITH COULOMB POTENTIAL
无
2006-01-01
This article considers a family of 3D-Hartree-type equation with Coulomb potential |x|-1, whose initial data oscillates so that a caustic appears. In the linear geometric optics case, by using the Lagrangian integrals, a uniform description of the solution outside the caustic, and near the caustic are obtained.
Transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels and blood pressure in humans
Thilo, Florian; Baumunk, Daniel; Krause, Hans;
2009-01-01
There is evidence that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) cation channels are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, but this has not been studied using human renal tissue. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of TRPC3 in human renal tissue is associated with blood...
Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El husseny
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM, insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity.
陈贵华; 陈名佐; 等
1999-01-01
The superlarge continental volcanic rock-type uranium deposits,which were discovered abroad long ago,have not ye been reported up to now in China.This is an important problem that needs to be urgently solved by uranium geologists at present.In this paper,on the basis of analyzing the metallogenic settings and geological conditions of the superlarge continental volcanic rock-type uranium deposits discovered in the world along with the metallogenic characteristics of those of the same type in China,the space-time distribution patterns of continental volcanics and the metallogenic potential of main tectono-volcanic belts in China are discussed,and a synthetic conclusion has been drawn that there is a possibility to discover the superlarge continental volcanic rock-type uranium deposits in China.Moreover,it is evidenced that the Ganhang,Nanling,Yanliao,Da Hinggan Ling and other tectono-volcanic belts possess favorable geological conditions for the formation of ssuperlarge ore deposits of the continental volcanic rock type.The intersecting and overlapping locations of the aforementioned main belts with other tectono-volcanic(-intrusive)belts are the most potential areas where the superlarge continental volcanic rock-type uranium deposits would be found.
Characterization of hydroxyl radical modified GAD65: a potential autoantigen in type 1 diabetes.
Khan, Mohd Wajid A; Sherwani, Subuhi; Khan, Wahid A; Ali, Rashid
2009-02-01
Glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD(65)) is an immunological marker of type 1 autoimmune diabetes. High titre of autoantibodies against GAD(65) (GAD(65)Abs) have also been detected in some other autoimmune diseases. In search of a potential immunological marker of type 1 diabetes, in vitro GAD(65) was modified by hydroxyl radical followed by the study of structural and conformational perturbed protein by different spectroscopic techniques (UV, fluorescence and CD) and thermal denaturation profile. Binding studies of circulating autoantibodies from diabetic groups (type 1 and type 2) with native and reactive oxygen species (ROS) modified GAD(65), exhibited high recognition of type 1 diabetic serum autoantibodies with modified antigen (p group and control group (n = 10) was checked by inhibition enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative precipitin titration assay. Relative affinity of ROS-GAD(65)Abs for modified and native GAD(65) was in the order of 1.56 x 10(- 6) and 2.72 x 10(- 7) M, as calculated by Langmuir plot. In coherence, ROS oxidation of GAD(65) causes conformational perturbation, generating highly immunogenic unique neoepitopes that may be one of the factors in antigen-driven induction of type 1 diabetes autoantibodies that can serve as a potential marker in early diagnosis/prognosis of the disease.
Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell
2006-03-01
Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a number of skeletal muscle pathologies, most notably aging-induced atrophy and loss of type II myofibers. Although oxygen-derived free radicals are thought to be a primary cause of mitochondrial dysfunction, the underlying factors governing mitochondrial superoxide production in different skeletal myofiber types is unknown. Using a novel in situ approach to measure H(2)O(2) production (indicator of superoxide formation) in permeabilized rat skeletal muscle fiber bundles, we found that mitochondrial free radical leak (H(2)O(2) produced/O(2) consumed) is two- to threefold higher (P < 0.05) in white (WG, primarily type IIB fibers) than in red (RG, type IIA) gastrocnemius or soleus (type I) myofibers during basal respiration supported by complex I (pyruvate + malate) or complex II (succinate) substrates. In the presence of respiratory inhibitors, maximal rates of superoxide produced at both complex I and complex III are markedly higher in RG and WG than in soleus muscle despite approximately 50% less mitochondrial content in WG myofibers. Duplicate experiments conducted with +/-exogenous superoxide dismutase revealed striking differences in the topology and/or dismutation of superoxide in WG vs. soleus and RG muscle. When normalized for mitochondrial content, overall H(2)O(2) scavenging capacity is lower in RG and WG fibers, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity, which is largely responsible for H(2)O(2) removal in mitochondria, is similar in all three muscle types. These findings suggest that type II myofibers, particularly type IIB, possess unique properties that potentiate mitochondrial superoxide production and/or release, providing a potential mechanism for the heterogeneous development of mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.
Witt, Anke; Fürst, Christine; Frank, Susanne; Koschke, Lars; Makeschin, Franz
2013-09-01
This paper describes how to use sectoral planning information from forestry to predict and up-scale information on Climate Change sensitive forest development types for potential afforestation areas. The method was developed and applied in the frame of the project RegioPower with focus on the case study region 'Oberes Elbtal-Osterzgebirge'. The data for our study was taken from forest management planning at level of the Federal State of Saxony, Germany. Here, a silvicultural system is implemented, which describes best practices to develop our actual forests into Climate Change adapted forest development types. That includes the selection of drought resistant tree species, a broad range of tree species mixtures per eligible forest development type and the tending, harvesting and regeneration strategies to be applied. This information however, exists only for forest areas and not for areas which could be potentially afforested. The eligibility of the forest development types within the actual forest areas depends on site information, such as nutrient potential, exposition and hydrological soil parameters. The regionalisation of the forest development types to landscape scale had to be based on topographical parameters from the digital elevation model and hydrological soil parameters from soil mapping. In result, we could provide maps for regional planning and decision making with spatially explicit information on the eligible forest development types based on forest management planning information. These maps form a valuable input for testing and optimising afforestation areas with regard to improving the ability of our case study region to mitigate Climate Change effects such as water erosion or drought.
Numerical simulation of heavy fermions in an SU(2)[sub L]xSU(2)[sub R] symmetric Yukawa model
Frick, C. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik E HLRZ, Juelich (Germany)); Lin, L. (HLRZ, Juelich (Germany)); Montvay, I. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Muenster, G. (HLRZ, Juelich (Germany)); Plagge, M. (HLRZ, Juelich (Germany)); Trappenberg, T. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik E HLRZ, Juelich (Germany)); Wittig, H. (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany))
1993-05-24
An exploratory numerical study of the influence of heavy fermion doublets on the mass of the Higgs boson is performed in the decoupling limit of a chiral SU(2)[sub L]xSU(2)[sub R] symmetric Yukawa model with mirror fermions. The behaviour of fermion and boson masses is investigated at infinite bare quartic coupling on 4[sup 3]x8, 6[sup 3]x12 and 8[sup 3]x16 lattices. A first estimate of the upper bound on the renormalized quartic coupling as a function of the renormalized Yukawa coupling is given. On the algorithmic side, several standard fermion matrix inversion methods were tried and tuned for better performance. (orig.)
When the C in C P does not matter: Anatomy of order-4 C P eigenstates and their Yukawa interactions
Aranda, Alfredo; Ivanov, Igor P.; Jiménez, Enrique
2017-03-01
We explore the origin and Yukawa interactions of the scalars with peculiar C P properties which were recently found in a multi-Higgs model based on an order-4 C P symmetry. We relate the existence of such scalars to the enhanced freedom of defining C P , even beyond the well-known generalized C P symmetries, which arises in models with several zero-charge scalar fields. We also show that despite possessing exotic C P quantum numbers, these scalars do not have to be inert: they can have C P -conserving Yukawa interactions provided the C P acts on fermions by also mixing generations. This paper focuses on formal aspects—exposed in a pedagogical manner—and includes a brief discussion of possible phenomenological consequences.
When the C in CP does not matter: anatomy of CP-half-odd scalars and their Yukawa interactions
Aranda, Alfredo; Jiménez, Enrique
2016-01-01
We explore the origin and Yukawa interactions of the peculiar CP-half-odd scalars that were recently found in a multi-Higgs model based on an order-4 CP symmetry. We relate the existence of such scalars to the enhanced freedom of defining CP, even beyond the well-known generalized CP symmetries, that arises in models with several gauge-blind scalar fields. We also find that CP-half-odd scalars do not have to be inert: they can have CP-conserving Yukawa interactions provided the CP acts on fermions by also mixing generations. This paper focuses on formal aspects --- exposed in a pedagogical manner --- and includes a brief discussion of possible phenomenological consequences.
Dependence of the cross polar cap potential saturation on the type of solar wind streams
Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Lodkina, I. G.
2013-01-01
We compare of the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation during magnetic storms induced by various types of the solar wind drivers. By using the model of Siscoe-Hill \\citep{Hilletal1976,Siscoeetal2002a,Siscoeetal2002b,Siscoeetal2004,Siscoe2011} we evaluate criteria of the CPCP saturation during the main phases of 257 magnetic storms ($Dst_{min} \\le -50$ nT) induced by the following types of the solar wind streams: magnetic clouds (MC), Ejecta, the compress region Sheath before MC ($Sh_{M...
T.V. Hvozd; Y.V. Kalyuzhnyi
2016-01-01
Phase behavior of the Yukawa hard-sphere polydisperse mixture with high degree of polydispersity is studied using high temperature approximation (HTA) and mean spherical approximation (MSA). We have extended and applied the scheme developed to calculate the phase diagrams of polydisperse mixtures described by the truncatable free energy models, i.e., the models with Helmholtz free energy defined by the finite number of the moments of the species distribution function. At high degree of polydi...
V.Yu. Shakhmanov
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate that in non-Abelian N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories the NSVZ relation is valid for terms quartic in the Yukawa couplings independently of the subtraction scheme if the renormalization group functions are defined in terms of the bare couplings and the theory is regularized by higher covariant derivatives. The terms quartic in the Yukawa couplings appear in the three-loop β-function and in the two-loop anomalous dimension of the matter superfields. We have obtained that the three-loop contribution to the β-function quartic in the Yukawa couplings is given by an integral of double total derivatives. Consequently, one of the loop integrals can be taken and the three-loop contribution to the β-function is reduced to the two-loop contribution to the anomalous dimension. The remaining loop integrals have been calculated for the simplest form of the higher derivative regularizing term. Then we construct the renormalization group functions defined in terms of the renormalized couplings. In the considered approximation they do not satisfy the NSVZ relation for a general renormalization prescription. However, we verify that the recently proposed boundary conditions defining the NSVZ scheme in the non-Abelian case really lead to the NSVZ relation between the terms of the considered structure.
Shakhmanov, V. Yu.; Stepanyantz, K. V.
2017-07-01
We demonstrate that in non-Abelian N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories the NSVZ relation is valid for terms quartic in the Yukawa couplings independently of the subtraction scheme if the renormalization group functions are defined in terms of the bare couplings and the theory is regularized by higher covariant derivatives. The terms quartic in the Yukawa couplings appear in the three-loop β-function and in the two-loop anomalous dimension of the matter superfields. We have obtained that the three-loop contribution to the β-function quartic in the Yukawa couplings is given by an integral of double total derivatives. Consequently, one of the loop integrals can be taken and the three-loop contribution to the β-function is reduced to the two-loop contribution to the anomalous dimension. The remaining loop integrals have been calculated for the simplest form of the higher derivative regularizing term. Then we construct the renormalization group functions defined in terms of the renormalized couplings. In the considered approximation they do not satisfy the NSVZ relation for a general renormalization prescription. However, we verify that the recently proposed boundary conditions defining the NSVZ scheme in the non-Abelian case really lead to the NSVZ relation between the terms of the considered structure.
The Relativistic Boltzmann Equation on Bianchi Type I Space Time for Hard Potentials
Noutchegueme, Norbert; Takou, Etienne; Tchuengue, E. Kamdem
2017-08-01
In this paper, we consider the Cauchy problem for the spatially homogeneous relativistic Boltzmann equation with small initial data. The collision kernel considered here is for a hard potentials case. The background space-time in which the study is done is the Bianchi type I space-time. Under certain conditions made on the scattering kernel and on the metric, a uniqueness global (in time) solution is obtained in a suitable weighted functional space.
LUCCHESE, A.; GUIDA, A.; CAPONE, G.; DONNARUMMA, G.; LAINO, L.; PETRUZZI, M.; SERPICO, R.; SILVESTRE, F.; GARGARI, M.
2016-01-01
SUMMARY Purpose To identify potential antigenic targets for Porphyromonas gingivalis vaccine development. Materials and methods In the present study, we analyzed the Porphyromonas gingivalis, fimA type II primary amino acid sequence and characterized the similarity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level. Results We found that exact peptide-peptide profiling of the fimbrial antigen versus the human proteome shows that only 19 out of 344 fimA type II pentapeptides are uniquely owned by the bacterial protein. Conclusions The concept that protein immunogenicity is allocated in rare peptide sequences and the search the Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA type II sequence for peptides unique to the bacterial protein and absent in the human host, might be used in new therapeutical approaches as a significant adjunct to current periodontal therapies. PMID:28042435
Dessy, E; Braidotti, P; Del Curto, B; Falleni, M; Coggi, G; Santa Cruz, G; Carai, A; Versace, R; Pietra, G G
2000-03-01
Peripheral papillary adenomas of the lung are uncommon neoplasms (only ten cases have been described so far in the English literature) composed predominantly of type-II pneumocytes and generally considered benign. We describe here two additional cases of this lung tumor. In both cases histological examination revealed an encapsulated papillary neoplasm with invasion of the capsule and, in one case, invasion of the adjacent alveoli and visceral pleura too. The proliferative index (Ki67) was less than 2% and the epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratins, surfactant apoproteins (SP), and nuclear thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF- 1). Ultrastructurally, the epithelial cells showed the characteristic surface microvilli and cytoplasmic lamellar inclusions of type-II cells. Review of the literature has revealed two other cases of peripheral papillary adenoma of type-II pneumocytes with infiltrative features. Thus, we propose replacing the term peripheral papillary adenoma with peripheral papillary tumor of undetermined malignant potential.
Diagnostic accuracy of a point-of-care blood typing kit conducted by potential end users.
Bienek, Diane R; Perez, Nora M
2013-05-01
The usability of a rapid point-of-care ABO-Rh blood typing kit was determined by comparing the performance of individuals with extensive medical training/experience to those with a lesser extent. Subjects were asked to use the blood typing kit with their own blood. These outcomes were compared to that listed in the subject's medical record, stamped on their dog tag, and the result interpreted by a laboratorian. For all participants, there was ∼80% consistency between the result interpreted by the subject and that stated in their medical record. The participant's level of formal education (P ≤ 0.05) affected the accuracy of the blood typing kit. When comparing the subject's outcome to that stated in their medical record, the performance of individuals in the Medical Corps was approximately 10% and 25% higher (P < 0.05) than that observed with Hospital Corpsman or Medical Service Corps members, respectively. To remove bias that can occur when interpreting the blood type of oneself, the subjects also interpreted the result from cards prepared by the investigator. Taken together, a discrepancy between the potential diagnostic accuracy of the kit and that observed with potential end users was identified.
Mads Jochumsen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Detection of single-trial movement intentions from EEG is paramount for brain-computer interfacing in neurorehabilitation. These movement intentions contain task-related information and if this is decoded, the neurorehabilitation could potentially be optimized. The aim of this study was to classify single-trial movement intentions associated with two levels of force and speed and three different grasp types using EEG rhythms and components of the movement-related cortical potential (MRCP as features. The feature importance was used to estimate encoding of discriminative information. Two data sets were used. 29 healthy subjects executed and imagined different hand movements, while EEG was recorded over the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. The following features were extracted: delta, theta, mu/alpha, beta, and gamma rhythms, readiness potential, negative slope, and motor potential of the MRCP. Sequential forward selection was performed, and classification was performed using linear discriminant analysis and support vector machines. Limited classification accuracies were obtained from the EEG rhythms and MRCP-components: 0.48±0.05 (grasp types, 0.41±0.07 (kinetic profiles, motor execution, and 0.39±0.08 (kinetic profiles, motor imagination. Delta activity contributed the most but all features provided discriminative information. These findings suggest that information from the entire EEG spectrum is needed to discriminate between task-related parameters from single-trial movement intentions.
Separable Representation of Phenomenological Optical Potentials of Woods-Saxon Type
Hlophe, L; Johnson, R C; Upadhyay, N J; Nunes, F M; Arbanas, G; Eremenko, V; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J
2013-01-01
Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used.} Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. While there exist several separable representations for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the optical potential between a neutron (proton) and a nucleus is not readily available in separable form. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable representation for complex phenomenological optical potentials of Woods-Saxon type. Results: Starting from a global optical potential, a separable representation thereof is introduced based...
Yukawa sector for LFV in $h\\to \\mu\\tau$ and CP violation in $h\\to \\tau\\tau$
Hayreter, Alper; Valencia, German
2016-01-01
The Higgs boson discovered at the LHC opened a new chapter for particle physics. Its properties need to be studied in detail to distinguish a purely standard model (SM) Higgs boson from one of many scalars in an enlarged Higgs sector. The CMS collaboration has reported a possible lepton flavor violating (LFV) signal $h\\to\\mu\\tau$, which if confirmed, implies that the Higgs sector is larger than in the SM. New physics responsible for this type of decay may, in general, also introduce other observable effects such as charge-parity (CP) violation in $h\\to \\tau\\tau$. We study two types of models that single out the third generation and can induce large $h \\to \\mu\\tau$ rates with different consequences for CP violation in $h \\to \\tau \\tau$. Predictions for the size of the CP violating couplings require knowledge of the lepton Yukawa matrices and we discuss this in the context of two different textures considering all existing constraints.
Yukawa Unified Supersymmetric SO(10) Model Cosmology, Rare Decays and Collider Searches
Baer, Howard W; Díaz, M A; Ferrandis, J; Mercadante, P G; Quintana, P; Tata, Xerxes; Baer, Howard; Brhlik, Michal; Diaz, Marco A.; Ferrandis, Javier; Mercadante, Pedro; Quintana, Pam; Tata, Xerxes
2001-01-01
It has recently been pointed out that viable sparticle mass spectra can be generated in Yukawa unified SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified models consistent with radiative breaking of electroweak symmetry. Model solutions are obtained only if $\\tan\\beta \\sim 50$, $\\mu <0$ and positive $D$-term contributions to scalar masses from SO(10) gauge symmetry breaking are used. In this paper, we attempt to systematize the parameter space regions where solutions are obtained. We go on to calculate the relic density of neutralinos as a function of parameter space. No regions of the parameter space explored were actually cosmologically excluded, and very reasonable relic densities were found in much of parameter space. Direct neutralino detection rates could exceed 1 event/kg/day for a $^{73}$Ge detector, for low values of GUT scale gaugino mass $m_{1/2}$. We also calculate the branching fraction for $b\\to s \\gamma$ decays, and find that it is beyond the 95% CL experimental limits in much, but not all, of the paramete...
Markov-Yukawa Transversality On Covariant Null-Plane Baryon Form Factor And Magnetic Moments
Mitra, A N
2001-01-01
The baryon-$qqq$ vertex function governed by the Markov-Yukawa Transversality Principle ($MYTP$), is formulated via the Covariant Null-Plane Ansatz ($CNPA$) as a 3-body generalization of the corresponding $q{\\bar q}$ problem, and employed to calculate the proton e.m. form factor and baryon octet magnetic moments.The e.m. coupling scheme is specified by letting the e.m. field interact by turn with the `spectator' while the two interacting quarks fold back into the baryon. The $S_3$ symmetry of the matrix element is preserved in all d.o.f.'s together. The $CNPA$ formulation ensures, as in the $q{\\bar q}$ case, that the loop integral is free from the Lorentz mismatch disease of covariant instantaneity ($CIA$), while the simple trick of `Lorentz completion'ensures a Lorentz invariant structure. The $k^{-4}$ scaling behaviour at large $k^2$ is reproduced. And with the infrared structure of the gluonic propagator attuned to spectroscopy, the charge radius of the proton comes out at $0.96 fm$. The magnetic moments o...
Higgs tau-lepton Yukawa coupling measurement and the tau embedding method for background estimation.
Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
To measure the H->tautau yukawa coupling the full dataset of the LHC Run-1 period recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC during 2011 and 2012 has been analysed. The data correspond to integrated luminosities of 4.5 fb−1 and 20.3 fb−1 at centre-of-mass energies of \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV and \\sqrt{s} = 8 TeV, respectively. Evidence for the coupling of the Higgs boson to tau leptons at 4.5 (3.4) sigma significance was observed (expected). Recently the combination of the CMS and ATLAS datasets has been published, raising the observed significance to discovery level at 5.5 sigma. One crucial ingredient in the search for the H->tautau decay is the embedding method, which is a data-driven technique to estimate the large and irreducible background from Z→ττ decays that cannot be obtained directly from data control samples. In this presentation the ATLAS search for the Higgs boson decaying to tau leptons is discussed and a detailed explanation of the embedding method is given. Other use cases of the embedding m...
Masses of Third Family Vector-like Quarks and Leptons in Yukawa-Unified $E_6$
Hebbar, Aditya; Shafi, Qaisar
2016-01-01
In supersymmetric $E_6$ the masses of the third family quarks and charged lepton, $t-b-\\tau$, as well as the masses of the vector-like quarks and leptons, $D-\\bar{D}$ and $ L-\\bar{L}$, may arise from the coupling $27_3$ x $27_3$ x $27_H$, where $27_3$ and $27_H$ denote the third family matter and Higgs multiplets respectively. We assume that the SO(10) singlet component in $27_H$ acquires a TeV scale VEV which spontaneously breaks U(1)$_\\psi$ and provides masses to the vector-like particles in $27_3$, while the MSSM doublets in $27_H$ provide masses to $ t, b$ and $\\tau$. Imposing Yukawa coupling unification $h_t=h_b=h_{\\tau}=h_D=h_L$ at $M_{GUT}$ and employing the ATLAS and CMS constraints on the $Z'_\\psi$ boson mass, we estimate the lower bounds on the third family vector-like particles $D-\\bar{D}$ and $L-\\bar{L}$ masses to be around 5.85 TeV and 2.9 TeV respectively. These bounds apply in the supersymmetric limit.
Higgs τ −lepton Yukawa coupling measurement and the τ embedding method for background estimation
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00431470; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
To measure the H->tautau yukawa coupling the full dataset of the LHC Run-1 period recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC during 2011 and 2012 has been analysed. The data correspond to integrated luminosities of 4.5 fb−1 and 20.3 fb−1 at centre-of-mass energies of \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV and \\sqrt{s} = 8 TeV, respectively. Evidence for the coupling of the Higgs boson to tau leptons at 4.5 (3.4) sigma significance was observed (expected). Recently the combination of the CMS and ATLAS datasets has been published, raising the observed significance to discovery level at 5.5 sigma. One crucial ingredient in the search for the H->tautau decay is the embedding method, which is a data-driven technique to estimate the large and irreducible background from Z→ττ decays that cannot be obtained directly from data control samples. In this paper the ATLAS search for the Higgs boson decaying to tau leptons is discussed and a detailed explanation of the embedding method is given. Other use cases of the embedding method a...
Measurement of the top-Yukawa coupling and the search for ttH production
Vasquez, Jared; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
To test whether the observed Higgs boson follows the predictions of the SM, careful study and measurement of its properties are necessary. Due to the top quark's large mass, a measurement of the top-Yukawa coupling (Y_t) is paramount to an understanding of EWSB and could provide a viable probe for new physics. While most production processes provide only an indirect measurement of Y_t via loop effects, the ttH and tH production allow for a direct tree-level measurement of the coupling strength (which could differ due to new physics contamination). The ttH process is probed through various Higgs decay channels with several advantages. The H->bb channel allows for a coupling measurement of both 3rd generation quarks while profiting from the largest Higgs branching ratio. The h->γγ channel has a much smaller branching ratio but benefits from a fine diphoton mass resolution. The process is also probed in the multilepton channel, which is targeted at the off-shell Higgs coupling of H->WW* and H->ZZ* as well as t...
Bridge density functional approximation for non-uniform hard core repulsive Yukawa fluid
Zhou Shi-Qi
2008-01-01
In this work,a bridge density functional approximation(BDFA)(J.Chem.Phys.112,8079(2000))for a non-uniform hard-sphere fluid is extended to a non-uniform hard-core repulsive Yukawa(HCRY)fluid.It is found that the choice of a bulk bridge functional approximation is crucial for both a uniform HCRY fluid and a non-uniform HCRY fluid.A new bridge functional approximation is proposed,which can accurately predict the radial distribution function of the bulk HCRY fluid.With the new bridge functional approximation and its associated bulk second order direct correlation function as input,the BDFA can be used to well calculate the density profile of the HCRY fluid subjected to the influence of varying external fields,and the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the corresponding simulation data.The calculated results indicate that the present BDFA captures quantitatively the phenomena such as the coexistence of solid-like high density phase and low density gas phase,and the adsorption properties of the HCRY fluid,which qualitatively differ from those of the fluids combining both hard-core repulsion and an attractive tail.
Off-diagonal Yukawa Couplings in the s-channel Charged Higgs Production at LHC
Hashemi, Majid
2015-01-01
The search for the heavy charged Higgs (mH+ > mtop) has been mainly based on the o?ff-shell top pair production process. However, resonance production in s-channel single top events is an important channel to search for this particle. In a previous work, it was shown that this process, i.e., qq' -> H+ -> tb + h.c., can lead to comparable results to what is already obtained from LHC searches through gb -> tH- process. What was obtained was, however, based on diagonal Yukawa couplings between incoming quarks assuming cs as the main incoming pair due to the CKM matrix element being close to unity. The aim of this paper is to show that off-diagonal couplings, like cb, may lead to substantial contributions to the cross section, even if the corresponding CKM matrix element is two orders of magnitude smaller. For this reason, the cross section is calculated for each initial state including all diagonal and off-diagonal terms, and all is finally added together to get the total cross section which is observed to be ~ ...
Construction of an SO(10) x U(1)$_{F}$ model of the Yukawa interactions
Albright, Carl H; Albright, Carl H; Nandi, Satyanarayan
1996-01-01
We construct a supersymmetric SO(10) \\times U(1)_F model of the Yukawa interactions at the grand unification scale from knowledge of a phenomenological set of mass matrices obtained by a previous bottom-up approach. The U(1)_F family symmetry determines the textures for the Majorana and generic Dirac mass matrices, while the SO(10) symmetry relates each particular element of the up, down, neutrino and charged lepton Dirac matrices. The dominant second and third family contributions in the Dirac sector are renormalizable, while the remaining contributions to the Dirac mass matrices are of higher order, restricted by the U(1)_F family symmetry to a small set of tree diagrams, and mainly complex-symmetric. The tree diagrams for the Majorana mass matrix are all non-renormalizable and of progressively higher-order, leading to a nearly geometrical structure. Pairs of {\\bf 1, 45, 10} and {\\bf 126} Higgs representations enter with those having large vacuum expectation values breaking the symmetry down to SU(3)_c \\tim...
Structure and thermodynamics of hard-core Yukawa fluids: thermodynamic perturbation approaches.
Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Soon-Chul; Seong, Baek-Seok
2011-07-21
The thermodynamic perturbation theories, which are based on the power series of a coupling constant (λ-expansion), have been proposed for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of a hard-core Yukawa (HCY) fluid: one (A1-approximation) is the perturbation theory based on the hard-sphere repulsion as a reference system. The other (A2-approximation) is the perturbation theory based on the reference system which incorporates both the repulsive and short-range attractive interactions. The first-order mean-spherical approximation (FMSA) provided by Tang and Lu [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9828 (1993)] has been employed for investigating the thermodynamic properties of a HCY fluid using the alternative method via the direct correlation function. The calculated results show that (i) the A1 and A2 approximations are in excellent agreements with previous computer simulation results in the literature and compare with the semi-empirical works of Shukla including the higher-order free energy terms, (ii) the A1 and A2 approximations are better than the FMSA and the mean-spherical approximation, (iii) the A2-approximation compares with the A1-approximation, even though the perturbation effect of an A2-approximation is much smaller than that of an A1-approximation, and that (iv) the FMSA study is particularly of advantage in providing the structure and thermodynamics in a simple and analytic manner.
Risk and potential risk reduction in diabetes type 2 patients in Germany.
Häussler, Bertram; Berger, Ursula; Mast, Oliver; Thefeld, Wolfgang
2005-06-01
Avoiding serious complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and amputations in diabetes patients is the main interest of long-term treatment. Given the considerable prevalence of diabetes type 2 in industrialized countries this is a major public health concern as well as a burden to health care systems. The present study estimated the current risk of major complications occurring in the German diabetes type 2 population and explored the potential for further risk reduction. Risk reduction can be achieved when physiological and behavioral parameters (HbAlc, blood pressure, cholesterol level, body mass index, smoking) are set to target values recommended in guidelines. To estimate individual risk and potential risk reduction the multifactor disease model Mellibase was employed. Data were obtained from the German Health Survey of 1998, which includes a sample of 7,124 individuals representative of the German population. The survey shows a prevalence rate of 6.3% for diabetes type 2 in persons older than 35 years. The analyses reveal that the overall potential for risk reduction is moderate (e.g., the average reduction potential of the 10-year risk of stroke is 5.7%). A majority of parameter ranges found in the patient population are either already close to the recommended values (HbA1c), are not alarmingly higher than in the general population (blood pressure) or have little impact on risk reduction. In addition nonmodifiable risk factors such as duration of the illness and advanced age constrain possible improvements. However, there is a wide variation in the actual risk between individuals (e.g., the 10-year risk of stroke varies between 2.2% and 79.8%), and thus a wide variation in potential risk reduction (the risk reduction potential for stroke varies between 0% and 53.4%). Intensified treatment should therefore (a) focus on relevant subgroups of patients taking their risk reduction potential into account and (b) aim at improvement in the overall
Type 1 collagen as a potential niche component for CD133-positive glioblastoma cells.
Motegi, Hiroaki; Kamoshima, Yuuta; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Houkin, Kiyohiro
2014-08-01
Cancer stem cells are thought to be closely related to tumor progression and recurrence, making them attractive therapeutic targets. Stem cells of various tissues exist within niches maintaining their stemness. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are located at tumor capillaries and the perivascular niche, which are considered to have an important role in maintaining GSCs. There were some extracellular matrices (ECM) on the perivascular connective tissue, including type 1 collagen. We here evaluated whether type 1 collagen has a potential niche for GSCs. Imunohistochemical staining of type 1 collagen and CD133, one of the GSCs markers, on glioblastoma (GBM) tissues showed CD133-positive cells were located in immediate proximity to type 1 collagen around tumor vessels. We cultured human GBM cell lines, U87MG and GBM cells obtained from fresh surgical tissues, T472 and T555, with serum-containing medium (SCM) or serum-free medium with some growth factors (SFM) and in non-coated (Non-coat) or type 1 collagen-coated plates (Col). The RNA expression levels of CD133 and Nestin as stem cell markers in each condition were examined. The Col condition not only with SFM but SCM made GBM cells more enhanced in RNA expression of CD133, compared to Non-coat/SCM. Semi-quantitative measurement of CD133-positive cells by immunocytochemistry showed a statistically significant increase of CD133-positive cells in Col/SFM. In addition, T472 cell line cultured in the Col/SFM had capabilities of sphere formation and tumorigenesis. Type 1 collagen was found in the perivascular area and showed a possibility to maintain GSCs. These findings suggest that type 1 collagen could be one important niche component for CD133-positive GSCs and maintain GSCs in adherent culture.
T-type calcium channels consolidate tonic action potential output of thalamic neurons to neocortex.
Deleuze, Charlotte; David, François; Béhuret, Sébastien; Sadoc, Gérard; Shin, Hee-Sup; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Lambert, Régis C; Leresche, Nathalie; Bal, Thierry
2012-08-29
The thalamic output during different behavioral states is strictly controlled by the firing modes of thalamocortical neurons. During sleep, their hyperpolarized membrane potential allows activation of the T-type calcium channels, promoting rhythmic high-frequency burst firing that reduces sensory information transfer. In contrast, in the waking state thalamic neurons mostly exhibit action potentials at low frequency (i.e., tonic firing), enabling the reliable transfer of incoming sensory inputs to cortex. Because of their nearly complete inactivation at the depolarized potentials that are experienced during the wake state, T-channels are not believed to modulate tonic action potential discharges. Here, we demonstrate using mice brain slices that activation of T-channels in thalamocortical neurons maintained in the depolarized/wake-like state is critical for the reliable expression of tonic firing, securing their excitability over changes in membrane potential that occur in the depolarized state. Our results establish a novel mechanism for the integration of sensory information by thalamocortical neurons and point to an unexpected role for T-channels in the early stage of information processing.
Type 1 copper site synthetic model complexes with increased redox potentials.
Yang, Lei; Tolman, William B
2012-02-01
Reactions of NaSCPh(3) with (R(3)tacn)Cu(OTf)(2) (R is Me, iPr; tacn is 1,4,7-triazacyclononane; OTf is CF(3)SO(3)(-)) yield blue complexes identified as ((R(3)tacn)CuSCPh(3))(OTf) on the basis of UV-vis, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These complexes exhibit spectroscopic properties typical of type 1 copper sites in proteins, including diagnostic Sπ → Cu(d(x(2)-y(2))) ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions at approximately 610-630 nm and small A(||) values in EPR spectra of less than 100 × 10(-4) cm(-1). Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed redox potentials for the complexes similar to those of several low-potential type 1 copper proteins (e.g., azurin, stellacyanin) and approximately 0.5 V higher than those of previously reported model compounds. Thus, the new complexes mimic key aspects of both the structure and the function of type 1 copper sites.
Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands
Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.
2012-04-01
Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using
The Prediction Methods for Potential Suspended Solids Clogging Types during Managed Aquifer Recharge
Xinqiang Du
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The implementation and development of managed aquifer recharge (MAR have been limited by the clogging attributed to physical, chemical, and biological reactions. In application field of MAR, physical clogging is usually the dominant type. Although numerous studies on the physical clogging mechanism during MAR are available, studies on the more detailed suspended clogging types and its prediction methods still remain few. In this study, a series of column experiments were inducted to show the process of suspended solids clogging process. The suspended solids clogging was divided into three types of surface clogging, inner clogging and mixed clogging based on the different clogging characteristics. Surface clogging indicates that the suspended solids are intercepted by the medium surface when suspended solids grain diameter is larger than pore diameter of infiltration medium. Inner clogging indicates that the suspended solids particles could transport through the infiltration medium. Mixed clogging refers to the comprehensive performance of surface clogging and inner clogging. Each suspended solids clogging type has the different clogging position, different changing laws of hydraulic conductivity and different deposition profile of suspended solids. Based on the experiment data, the ratio of effective medium pore diameter (Dp and median grain size of suspended solids (d50 was proposed as the judgment index for suspended solids clogging types. Surface clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was less than 5.5, inner clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was greater than 180, and mixed clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was between 5.5 and 180. In order to improve the judgment accuracy and applicability, Bayesian method, which considered more ratios of medium pore diameter (Dp and different level of grain diameter of suspended solids (di, were developed to predict the potential suspended solids types.
Lee, Eun-Seo; Kim, Seung Hyun L; Lee, Hwajin; Hwang, Nathaniel S
2016-05-01
Acquiring adequate number of cells is one of the crucial factors to apply tissue engineering strategies in order to recover critical-sized defects. While the reprogramming technology used for inducing pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened up a direct path for generating pluripotent stem cells, a direct conversion strategy may provide another possibility to obtain desired cells for tissue engineering. In order to convert a somatic cell into any other cell type, diverse approaches have been investigated. Conspicuously, in contrast to traditional viral transduction method, non-viral delivery of conversion factors has the merit of lowering immune responses and provides safer genetic manipulation, thus revolutionizing the generation of directly converted cells and its application in therapeutics. In addition, applying various microenvironmental modulations have potential to ameliorate the conversion of somatic cells into different lineages. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in direct conversion technologies, specifically focusing on generating mesenchymal cell types. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Li Li; Yan Liu, Dao; Ma, Li Qun
2007-01-01
in visceral adipose tissue from obese humans was accompanied by reduced capsaicin-induced calcium influx. The oral administration of capsaicin for 120 days prevented obesity in male wild type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice assigned to high fat diet. We conclude that the activation of TRPV1 channels......We tested the hypothesis that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans were detected by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The effect...... of TRPV1 on cytosolic calcium was determined fluorometrically in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and in human visceral fat tissue. Adipogenesis in stimulated 3T3-L1-preadipocytes was determined by oil red O-staining of intracellular lipid droplets, triglyceride levels, expression of peroxisome proliferator...
Sanjeev Kumar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available 20 diabetic (Type 1 patients have been studied in order to investigate the possible effects of the type 1 diabetes mellitus on the central nervous system by means of pattern shift visual evoked potentials. Patients with diabetic retinopathy , glaucoma and cataract were excluded from the study. To evaluate central optic pathways involvement in diabetics , visual evoked po tentials (VEP , in particular the latency of positive peak (P100 , were studied in 20 patients and 20 normal controls using reversal pattern VEP. P100 latency was significantly increased in diabetics. A positive co - relation was also found between latencies of VEP and duration of disease. Relationship between blood sugar level and P 100 wave latencies and amplitudes in diabetic patients was not significant . VEP measurement seems a simple and sensitive method for detecting early involvement and changes in opti c pathways in diabetics
Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Harrath, Abdul Halim; Alokail, Majed S; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H; Ghodesawar, Mukhtar Ahmed G; Alwasel, Saleh
2013-08-01
Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii, known as Arabian incense, diffuses smoke, contaminating the air, which adversely affects human health. Therefore, this study was designed to ascertain the effect of these plants on histopathological and ultrastructure changes in cauda epididymis of Albino rats. Animals were exposed to 4 g/kg body weight of B. papyrifera and B. carterii daily for 120 days along with suitable controls. Our study indicates a significant reduction in epithelial heights. Cells showed signs of degeneration. The ultrastructural study revealed that the cauda epididymis was affected, including its cell types. Furthermore, a decrease in the size of mitochondria, Golgi complex, and both ERs was observed. In all treated groups, plasma fructose decreased considerably, indicating the sign of reduced energy, vital for motility and other sperm functions. The results of this study suggest that these plants systematically affect cauda epididymal cell types and its lumen through its potential toxicity.
Siyuan Ding
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Type III interferon (IFN-λ exhibits potent antiviral activity similar to IFN-α/β, but in contrast to the ubiquitous expression of the IFN-α/β receptor, the IFN-λ receptor is restricted to cells of epithelial origin. Despite the importance of IFN-λ in tissue-specific antiviral immunity, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this confined receptor expression remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the histone deacetylase (HDAC repression machinery mediates transcriptional silencing of the unique IFN-λ receptor subunit (IFNLR1 in a cell-type-specific manner. Importantly, HDAC inhibitors elevate receptor expression and restore sensitivity to IFN-λ in previously nonresponsive cells, thereby enhancing protection against viral pathogens. In addition, blocking HDAC activity renders nonresponsive cell types susceptible to the pro-apoptotic activity of IFN-λ, revealing the combination of HDAC inhibitors and IFN-λ to be a potential antitumor strategy. These results demonstrate that the type III IFN response may be therapeutically harnessed by epigenetic rewiring of the IFN-λ receptor expression program.
Ling-ling CHEN; Jia LI; Jing-ya LI; Qun-li LUO; Wei-feng MAO; Qiang SHEN; Fa-jun NAN; Qi-zhuang YE
2004-01-01
AIM: To screen antifungal drug candidates using in vitro and in vivo assays based on type I methionine aminopeptidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScMetAP1). METHODS: A colorimetric assay suitable for high throughput screening (HTS) using recombinant ScMetAP1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli was established for antifungal lead discovery. A series of pyridine-2-carboxylic acid derivatives were characterized and a chemical library of 12 800 pure organic compounds was screened with the in vitro ScMetAP1 assay. Active compounds from the in vitro assay were further evaluated by a growth inhibition assay on yeast strain with deletion of ScMetAP1 gene mapl in comparison with the wild-type yeast strain and the yeast strain with deletion of type II enzyme (ScMetAP2)gene map2. RESULTS: Active ScMetAP1 inhibitors were identified from HTS. Some of the pyridine-2-carboxylic acid derivatives (compound 2 and 3) had selective inhibition of the growth of map2 deletion yeast and weak inhibition on wild-type yeast growth, while no inhibition on mapl deletion yeast. CONCLUSION: ScMetAP1 is a novel potential target for developing antifungal drugs. The in vitro and in vivo ScMetAP1 assays can serve as tools in discovering antifungal drug candidates.
Wang, Peijian; Liu, Daoyan; Tepel, Martin
2013-01-01
, and cerebrovascular events. In this review, we summarize the role of TRPC3 channels in the cardiovascular system, we focus on their pathophysiogical role in hypertension and related target organ damages. We provide new insight into the involvement of TRPC3 channels in the development of hypertension and its related......ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels contribute to the regulation of blood pressure, vascular and renal function. Several studies show that TRPC3 dysfunction is associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy...
Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Jerez, Sonia; Mendes, Manuel; Trigo, Ricardo
2016-06-01
Coastal zones are under increasing development and experience air pollution episodes regularly. These episodes are often related to peaks in local emissions from industry or transportation, but can also be associated with regional transport from neighbour urban areas influenced by land-sea breeze recirculation. This study intends to analyze the relation between circulation weather patterns, air mass recirculation and pollution levels in three coastal airsheds of Portugal (Lisbon, Porto and Sines) based on the application of an objective quantitative measure of potential recirculation. Although ventilation events have a dominant presence throughout the studied 9-yrs period on all the three airsheds, recirculation and stagnation conditions occur frequently. The association between NO2, SO2 and O3 levels and recirculation potential is evident during summer months. Under high average recirculation potential and high variability, NO2 and SO2 levels are higher for the three airsheds, whilst for O3 each airshed responds differently. This indicates a high heterogeneity among the three airsheds in (1) the type of emission - traffic or industry - prevailing for each contaminant, and (2) the response to the various circulation weather patterns and recirculation situations. Irrespectively of that, the proposed methodology, based on iterative K-means clustering, allows to identify which prevailing patterns are associated with high recirculation potential, having the advantage of being applicable to any geographical location.
Potential change in forest types and stand heights in central Siberia in a warming climate
Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Korets, M. A.; Conard, S. G.
2016-03-01
Previous regional studies in Siberia have demonstrated climate warming and associated changes in distribution of vegetation and forest types, starting at the end of the 20th century. In this study we used two regional bioclimatic envelope models to simulate potential changes in forest types distribution and developed new regression models to simulate changes in stand height in tablelands and southern mountains of central Siberia under warming 21st century climate. Stand height models were based on forest inventory data (2850 plots). The forest type and stand height maps were superimposed to identify how heights would change in different forest types in future climates. Climate projections from the general circulation model Hadley HadCM3 for emission scenarios B1 and A2 for 2080s were paired with the regional bioclimatic models. Under the harsh A2 scenario, simulated changes included: a 80%-90% decrease in forest-tundra and tundra, a 30% decrease in forest area, a ˜400% increase in forest-steppe, and a 2200% increase in steppe, forest-steppe and steppe would cover 55% of central Siberia. Under sufficiently moist conditions, the southern and middle taiga were simulated to benefit from 21st century climate warming. Habitats suitable for highly-productive forests (≥30-40 m stand height) were simulated to increase at the expense of less productive forests (10-20 m). In response to the more extreme A2 climate the area of these highly-productive forests would increase 10%-25%. Stand height increases of 10 m were simulated over 35%-50% of the current forest area in central Siberia. In the extremely warm A2 climate scenario, the tall trees (25-30 m) would occur over 8%-12% of area in all forest types except forest-tundra by the end of the century. In forest-steppe, trees of 30-40 m may cover some 15% of the area under sufficient moisture.
Establishment of human cell type-specific iPS cells with enhanced chondrogenic potential.
Guzzo, Rosa M; Scanlon, Vanessa; Sanjay, Archana; Xu, Ren-He; Drissi, Hicham
2014-12-01
The propensity of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to differentiate into specific lineages may be influenced by a number of factors, including the selection of the somatic cell type used for reprogramming. Herein we report the generation of new iPS cells, which we derived from human articular chondrocytes and from cord blood mononucleocytes via lentiviral-mediated delivery of Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and cMyc. Molecular, cytochemical, and cytogenic analyses confirmed the acquisition of hallmark features of pluripotency, as well as the retention of normal karyotypes following reprogramming of both the human articular chondrocytes (AC) and the cord blood (CB) cells. In vitro and in vivo functional analyses formally established the pluripotent differentiation capacity of all cell lines. Chondrogenic differentiation assays comparing iPS cells derived from AC, CB, and a well established dermal fibroblast cell line (HDFa-Yk26) identified enhanced proteoglycan-rich matrix formation and cartilage-associated gene expression from AC-derived iPS cells. These findings suggest that the tissue of origin may impact the fate potential of iPS cells for differentiating into specialized cell types, such as chondrocytes. Thus, we generated new cellular tools for the identification of inherent features driving high chondrogenic potential of reprogrammed cells.
Spectral gap for Glauber type dynamics for a special class of potentials
Kondratiev, Yuri; Ohlerich, Nataliya
2011-01-01
We consider an equilibrium birth and death type process for a particle system in infinite volume, the latter is described by the space of all locally finite point configurations on $\\R^d$. These Glauber type dynamics are Markov processes constructed for pre-given reversible measures. A representation for the "carr\\'e du champ" and "second carr\\'e du champ" for the associate infinitesimal generators $L$ are calculated in infinite volume and a corresponding coercivity identity is derived. The latter is used to give explicit sufficient conditions for the appearance and bounds for the size of the spectral gap of $L$. These techniques are applied to Glauber dynamics associated to Gibbs measure and conditions are derived extending all previous known results. In the high temperature regime now potentials also with a non-trivial negative part can be treated. Furthermore, a special class of potentials is defined for which the size of the spectral gap is as least as large as for the free system and, surprisingly, is in...
Haven, Emmanuel E
2015-01-01
In this paper we consider how two types of potential functions, the real and quantum potential can be shown to be of use in a social science context. The real potential function is a key ingredient in the Hamiltonian framework used in both classical and quantum mechanics. The quantum potential however emerges in a different way in quantum mechanics. In this paper we consider both potentials and we attempt to give them a social science interpretation within the setting of two applications.
Potential contribution of Type I lung epithelial cells to chronic neonatal lung disease
Henry J. Rozycki
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The alveolar surface is covered by large flat Type I cells (alveolar epithelial cells 1, AEC1. The normal physiological function of AEC1s involves gas exchange, based on their location in approximation to the capillary endothelium and their thinness, and in ion and water flux, as shown by the presence of solute active transport proteins, water channels, and impermeable tight junctions between cells. With the recent ability to produce relatively pure cultures of AEC1 cells, new functions have been described. These may be relevant to lung injury, repair and the abnormal development that characterizes bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To hypothesize a potential role for AEC1 in the development of lung injury and abnormal repair/development in premature lungs, evidence is presented for their presence in the developing lung, how their source may not be the Type II cell (AEC2 as has been assumed for forty years, and how the cell can be damaged by same type of stressors as those which lead to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Recent work shows that the cells are part of the innate immune response, capable of producing pro-inflammatory mediators, which could contribute to the increase in inflammation seen in early bronchopulmonary dysplasia. One of the receptors found exclusively on AEC1 cells in the lung, called RAGE, may also have a role in increased inflammation, and to alveolar simplification. While the current evidence for AEC1 involvement in BPD is circumstantial and limited at present, the accumulating data supports several hypotheses and questions regarding potential differences in the behavior of AEC1 cells from newborn and premature lung compared with the adult lung.
Potential effects of tree-to-shrub type conversion on streamflow in California's Sierra Nevada
Baguskas, S. A.; Bart, R.; Molinari, N.; Tague, C.; Moritz, M.
2014-12-01
There is widespread concern that changes in climate and fire regime may lead to vegetation change across California, which in turn may influence watershed hydrology. Although plant cover is known to affect numerous hydrological processes, sensitivities to vegetation type and spatial arrangement of species within watersheds are not well understood. The primary objective of our research was to generate mechanistically-based projections of how potential type conversion from forested to shrub dominated systems may affect streamflow. During the 2014 growing season, we measured ecophysiological responses (plant water status and leaf gas exchange rates) of two dominant tree and shrub species to changes in seasonal water availability at two sites within the southern Sierra Nevada Critical Zone Observatory. Plant physiological observations were used to parameterize a process-based eco-hydrological model, RHESSys. This model was used to evaluate the impact of changes in seasonal water availability and vegetation type-conversion on streamflow. Based on our field observations, shrubs and trees had similar access to water through the early part of the growing season (April-early June); however, by late July, available water to shrubs was twice that of trees (shrubs, -0.55 ± 0.08 MPa; trees, -1.07 ± 0.08 MPa, pchanges in streamflow following simulated vegetation conversion were found to affect both the timing and amount of discharge. Controls on pre vs. post-conversion streamflow included changes in interception, rooting depth, energy balance, and plant response to changes in seasonal water availability. Our research demonstrates how linking strategic field data collection and mechanistic ecohydrologic models can be used as a robust tool for assessing the potential impact of vegetation change on the water balance of an ecosystem. This is an increasingly valuable approach to inform management decisions focused on adapting strategies based on projected changes in climate.
Dependence of the cross polar cap potential saturation on the type of solar wind streams
Nikolaeva, N S; Lodkina, I G
2013-01-01
We compare of the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation during magnetic storms induced by various types of the solar wind drivers. By using the model of Siscoe-Hill \\citep{Hilletal1976,Siscoeetal2002a,Siscoeetal2002b,Siscoeetal2004,Siscoe2011} we evaluate criteria of the CPCP saturation during the main phases of 257 magnetic storms ($Dst_{min} \\le -50$ nT) induced by the following types of the solar wind streams: magnetic clouds (MC), Ejecta, the compress region Sheath before MC ($Sh_{MC}$) and before Ejecta ($Sh_{E}$), corotating interaction regions (CIR) and indeterminate type (IND). Our analysis shows that occurrence rate of the CPCP saturation is higher for storms induced by ICME ($13.2%$) than for storms driven by CIR ($3.5%$) or by IND ($3.5%$).The CPCP saturation was obtained more often for storms initiated by MC ($25%$) than by Ejecta ($2.9%$); it was obtained for $8.6%$ of magnetic storms induced by sum of MC and Ejecta, and for $21.5%$ magnetic storms induced by Sheath before them (sum of $Sh_...
Remote inflation: hybrid-like inflation without hybrid-type potential
Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)
2009-07-01
A new scenario of hybrid-like inflation is considered without using hybrid-type potential. Radiation raised continuously by a dissipating inflaton field keeps symmetry restoration in a remote sector, and the false-vacuum energy of the remote sector dominates the energy density during inflation. Remote inflation is terminated when the temperature reaches the critical temperature, or when the slow-roll condition is violated. Without introducing a complex form of couplings, inflaton field may either roll-in (like a standard hybrid inflation) or roll-out (like an inverted-hybrid model or quintessential inflation) on arbitrary inflaton potential. Significant signatures of remote inflation can be observed in the spectrum caused by 1. the inhomogeneous phase transition in the remote sector, or; 2. a successive phase transition in the remote sector. Remote inflation can predict strong amplification or suppression of small-scale perturbations without introducing multiple inflation. Since the inflaton may have a run-away potential, it is also possible to identify the inflaton with quintessence, without introducing additional mechanisms. Even if the false-vacuum energy is not dominated by the remote sector, the phase transition in the remote sector is possible during warm inflation, which may cause significant amplification/suppression of the curvature perturbations.
Maruyama, Kazunori; NIKAIDO, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie
2012-01-01
Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.
Maruyama, Kazunori; NIKAIDO, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie
2012-01-01
Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.
Palhares, Letícia F
2008-01-01
Yukawa theory at vanishing temperature provides (one of the ingredients for) an effective description of the thermodynamics of a variety of cold and dense fermionic systems. We study the role of masses and the renormalization group flow in the calculation of the equation of state up to two loops within the MSbar scheme. Two-loop integrals are computed analytically for arbitrary fermion and scalar masses, and expressed in terms of well-known special functions. The dependence of the renormalization group flow on the number of fermion flavors is also discussed.
Couplings of quarks in the Partially Aligned 2HDM with a four-zero texture Yukawa matrix
Hernández-Sánchez, J; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Rosado, A
2011-01-01
The Two Higgs Doublets Model (2HDM) has provided a very useful way to describe a minimal extension of the scalar sector of the Standard Model. In this work, it is shown a scheme that we call Partial Aligned Two Higgs Doublet Model (PA-2HDM) which allows a description of the distinct versions of the 2HDM in a simple way, including those with flavor symmetries. In addition, it is shown a method to diagonalize Yukawa matrices of four-zero texture coming from the 2HDM-III.
Full simulation study of the top Yukawa coupling at the ILC at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1 TeV
Price, Tony; Strube, Jan; Tanabe, Tomohiko
2015-01-01
We present a study of the expected precision for measurement of the top Yukawa coupling, yt, in e+e- collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1 TeV and assuming a beam polarization of P (e-, e+) = (-0.8,+0.2). Independent analyses of ttH final states containing at least six hadronic jets are performed, based on detailed simulations of SiD and ILD, the two candidate detector concepts for the ILC. We estimate that a statistical precision of yt of 4% can be obtained with an integrated luminosity of 1 $\\mathrm{ab}^{-1}$.
Two-loop top-Yukawa-coupling corrections to the charged Higgs-boson mass in the MSSM
Hollik, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Passehr, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)
2015-07-15
The top-Yukawa-coupling enhanced two-loop corrections to the charged Higgs-boson mass in the real MSSM are presented. The contributing two-loop self-energies are calculated in the Feynman-diagrammatic approach in the gaugeless limit with vanishing external momentum and bottom mass, within a renormalization scheme comprising on-shell and DR conditions. Numerical results illustrate the effect of the O(α{sub t}{sup 2}) contributions and the importance of the two-loop corrections to the mass of the charged Higgs bosons. (orig.)
Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression
Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States)
2011-06-15
L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [{sup 18F}]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([{sup 18F}]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [{sup 18F}]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [{sup 18F}]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging.
Clinical potential of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes
Kim Y
2012-08-01
insulin, and as a monotherapy for metformin-intolerant patients. Clinical research also remains to be carried out on the long-term effects of glucosuria and other potential effects of SGLT2 inhibitors, especially in view of the observed increase in the incidence of bladder and breast cancer. SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising approach for the treatment of diabetes, and could potentially be an addition to existing therapies.Keywords: sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2, SGLT2, inhibitors, kidney, glucosuria, oral diabetes agent, weight loss
Mucin-type O-glycosylation and its potential use in drug and vaccine development
Tarp, Mads Agervig; Clausen, Henrik
2007-01-01
Mucin-type O-glycans are found on mucins as well as many other glycoproteins. The initiation step in synthesis is catalyzed by a large family of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases attaching the first carbohydrate residue, GalNAc, to selected serine and threonine residues in proteins. During the last...... decade an increasing number of GalNAc-transferase isoforms have been cloned and their substrate-specificities partly characterized. These differences in substrate specificities have been exploited for in vitro site-directed O-glycosylation. In GlycoPEGylation, polyehylene glycol (PEG) is transferred...... animals expressing the human MUC1 protein as a self-antigen providing important clues for an improved MUC1 vaccine design. The present review will highlight some of the potential applications of site-directed O-glycosylation....
Hughes, Enrique A.; Flores, Andrea P.; Ramos, Laura M.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, B1613GSX Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Richard Glass, C. [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York Y041 1LZ (United Kingdom); Montserrat, Javier M. [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, B1613GSX Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar
2008-02-25
A comparison of the Potential Dermal Exposure (PDE) of workers to the insecticide deltamethrin was made as a function of crop type, in small agricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were done with two different crops (maize and broccoli, treated area between 600 and 1000 m{sup 2}) with three different operators under typical field conditions using a lever operated knapsack. The methodology is based on the whole body dosimetry technique, presenting separately the data for mixing/loading and application activities. These results indicate a higher concentration of pesticide in lower body sections for broccoli and a wider distribution for maize. The risk inherent in these agricultural procedures is estimated through Margin of Safety (MOS) values and was found to be generally safe. Preliminary results of a mass balance distribution of the pesticide between crop, soil and operator are also presented.
Glucagon antagonism as a potential therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes
Bagger, J I; Knop, F K; Holst, Jens Juul
2011-01-01
Glucagon is a hormone secreted from the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. Through its effect on hepatic glucose production (HGP), glucagon plays a central role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), abnormal regulation of glucagon secretion....... This review focuses on the mechanism of action, safety and efficacy of glucagon antagonists in the treatment of T2DM and discusses the challenges associated with this new potential antidiabetic treatment modality....... has been implicated in the development of fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia. Therefore, new therapeutic agents based on antagonizing glucagon action, and hence blockade of glucagon-induced HGP, could be effective in lowering both fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia in patients with T2DM...
The potential impact of groove modes on Type II planetary migration
Meschiari, Stefano
2008-01-01
In this letter, we briefly describe the evolution of a variety of self-gravitating protoplanetary disk models that contain annular grooves (e.g. gaps) in their surface density. These grooves are inspired by the density gaps that are presumed to open in response to the formation of a giant planet. Our work provides an extension of the previously studied groove modes that are known in the context of stellar disks. The emergence of spiral gravitational instabilities (GI) is predicted via a generalized eigenvalue code that performs a linear analysis, and confirmed with hydrodynamical simulations. We find the presence of a groove drives a fast-growing two-armed mode in moderately massive disks, and extends the importance of self-gravitating instabilities down to lower disk masses than for which they would otherwise occur. We discuss the potential importance of this instability in the context of planet formation, e.g. the modification of the torques driving Type II migration.
Clinical potential of lixisenatide once daily treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus
Petersen, Andreas Brønden; Christensen, Mikkel
2013-01-01
The glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide (Lyxumia(®)) was approved for marketing by the European Medicines Agency in February 2013 and has been evaluated in a clinical study program called GetGoal. Lixisenatide activates the GLP-1 receptor and thereby exercises the range of...... of lixisenatide seems to be in combination with basal insulin. A large multicenter study will determine the future potential of lixisenatide in preventing cardiovascular events and mortality, in patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndrome.......The glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide (Lyxumia(®)) was approved for marketing by the European Medicines Agency in February 2013 and has been evaluated in a clinical study program called GetGoal. Lixisenatide activates the GLP-1 receptor and thereby exercises the range...
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2001-01-01
The experiments were carried out in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors with molasses used as sub strate to study the effects of pH and redox potential on fermentation types. The conditions for each fermentation type were investigated at different experimental stages of start-up, pH-regulating and redox potential-regulating.The experiments confirmed that butyric acid-type fermentation would occur at pH ＞ 6, the propionic acid-type fermentation at pH about 5.5 with Eh ＞ - 278 mV, and the ethanol-type fermentation at pH ＜ 4.5. A higher redox potential will lead to propionic acid-type fermentation because propionogens are facultative anaerobic bacteria.
The pathogenic potential of Helicobacter pullorum: possible role for the type VI secretion system.
Sirianni, Andrea; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Raftery, Mark J; Mitchell, Hazel M
2013-04-01
Helicobacter pullorum is a putative enterohepatic pathogen that has been associated with hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal diseases in chickens and in humans. The pathogenic potential of H. pullorum NCTC 12826 was investigated. Adherence and gentamicin protection assays and scanning electron microscopy were performed to quantitate and visualise H. pullorum adherence and invasion. Proteomics coupled with mass spectrometry was employed to characterise the secretome of H. pullorum. Helicobacter pullorum was able to adhere to the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line with a mean attachment value of 1.98 ± 0.16% and invade Caco-2 cells with a mean invasion value of 0.25 ± 0.02%. The in vitro adherence and invasion assays were confirmed with scanning electron microscopy, which showed that H. pullorum can adhere to host cells through flagellum-microvillus interaction and invade causing a membrane-ruffling effect. One hundred and thirty-seven proteins were identified, of which 33 were bioinformatically predicted to be secreted. Further functional classifications revealed six putative virulence and colonisation factors, which included cell-binding factor 2, flagellin, secreted protein Hcp, valine-glycine repeat protein G, a type VI secretion protein, and a protease. Protein threading of H. pullorum Hcp and subsequent 3D-Blast searches revealed structural similarities between Hcp and endocytic vesicle coat proteins, suggesting the type VI secretion system of H. pullorum may interact with endocytic vesicles. This study has shown that H. pullorum has the ability to adhere to and invade human cells and secrete factors that may contribute to the pathogenic potential of H. pullorum. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Potential antidiabetic effect of the Semecarpus anacardium in a type 2 diabetic rat model.
Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Renny, Chris Maria; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam
2013-02-01
Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) was evaluated for its antidiabetic role in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by feeding high-fat diet for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 35 mg/kg body weight. Diabetic rats were treated with SA orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. SA significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the blood glucose levels and decreased the levels of HbA1c and the glucose intolerance. SA treatment significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the increase in lipid profile. The levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were restored to near normal levels when compared with control diabetic rats. The histopathological abnormalities were also found to be normalized after treatment with SA nut milk extract. The potential antihyperglycemic action of SA is plausibly due to its underlying antioxidant role.
Therapeutic potential of umbilical cord blood cells for type 1 diabetes mellitus.
He, Binbin; Li, Xia; Yu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiguang
2015-11-01
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disorder that results from autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells. However, to date, no conventional intervention has successfully treated the disease. The optimal therapeutic method for T1DM should effectively control the autoimmunity, restore immune homeostasis, preserve residual β-cells, reverse β-cell destruction, and protect the regenerated insulin-producing cells against re-attack. Umbilical cord blood is rich in regulatory T (T(reg)) cells and multiple types of stem cells that exhibit immunomodulating potential and hold promise in their ability to restore peripheral tolerance towards pancreatic islet β-cells through remodeling of immune responses and suppression of autoreactive T cells. Recently, reinfusion of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood has been proposed as a novel therapy for T1DM, with the advantages of no risk to the donors, minimal ethical concerns, a low incidence of graft-versus-host disease and easy accessibility. In this review, we revisit the role of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood-based applications for the treatment of T1DM.
Chicken Embryos as a Potential New Model for Early Onset Type I Diabetes
Liheng Shi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness among the American working population. The purpose of this study is to establish a new diabetic animal model using a cone-dominant avian species to address the distorted color vision and altered cone pathway responses in prediabetic and early diabetic patients. Chicken embryos were injected with either streptozotocin (STZ, high concentration of glucose (high-glucose, or vehicle at embryonic day 11. Cataracts occurred in varying degrees in both STZ- and high glucose-induced diabetic chick embryos at E18. Streptozotocin-diabetic chicken embryos had decreased levels of blood insulin, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4, and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT. In STZ-injected E20 embryos, the ERG amplitudes of both a- and b-waves were significantly decreased, the implicit time of the a-wave was delayed, while that of the b-wave was significantly increased. Photoreceptors cultured from STZ-injected E18 embryos had a significant decrease in L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC currents, which was reflected in the decreased level of L-VGCCα1D subunit in the STZ-diabetic retinas. Through these independent lines of evidence, STZ-injection was able to induce pathological conditions in the chicken embryonic retina, and it is promising to use chickens as a potential new animal model for type I diabetes.
Teriparatide anabolic therapy as potential treatment of type II dens non-union fractures
Pola, Enrico; Pambianco, Virginia; Colangelo, Debora; Formica, Virginia M; Autore, Giovanni; Nasto, Luigi A
2017-01-01
Odontoid fractures account for 5% to 15% of all cervical spine injuries and 1% to 2% of all spine fractures. Type II fractures are the most common fracture pattern in elderly patients. Treatment (rigid and non-rigid immobilization, anterior screw fixation of the odontoid and posterior C1-C2 fusion) remains controversial and represents a unique challenge for the treating surgeon. The aims of treatment in the elderly is to quickly restore pre-injury function while decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with inactivity, immobilization with rigid collar and prolonged hospitalization. Conservative treatment of type II odontoid fractures is associated with relatively high rates of non-union and in a few cases delayed instability. Options for treatment of symptomatic non-unions include surgical fixation or prolonged rigid immobilization. In this report we present the case of a 73-year-old woman with post-traumatic odontoid non-union successfully treated with Teriparatide systemic anabolic therapy. Complete fusion and resolution of the symptoms was achieved 12 wk after the onset of the treatment. Several animal and clinical studies have confirmed the potential role of Teriparatide in enhancing fracture healing. Our case suggests that Teriparatide may have a role in improving fusion rates of C2 fractures in elderly patients. PMID:28144584
Bradykinin-potentiating peptides and C-type natriuretic peptides from snake venom.
Higuchi, S; Murayama, N; Saguchi, K; Ohi, H; Fujita, Y; Camargo, A C; Ogawa, T; Deshimaru, M; Ohno, M
1999-10-15
Cloning of cDNAs encoding bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs)-C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) precursor or its homologue was performed for cDNA libraries of Bothrops jararaca (South American snake), Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Trimeresurus gramineus and Agkistrodon halys blomhoffi (Asian snakes), all belonging to Crotalinae subfamily. Each cDNA library was constructed from the venom glands of a single snake to preclude ambiguity by intraspecies variation in venom components. Thirteen positive clones derived from B. jararaca were divided into two types depending on restriction sites. Differences in the nucleotide sequence arise at three locations and two of them accompanied amino acid conversions. Despite the differences, both types of cDNA clones encode the BPP-CNP precursor of 256 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis demonstrated that cDNA clones from three Asian snakes encode homologues of the BPP-CNP precursor from B. jararaca. In a precursor polypeptide, a signal sequence (approximately 25 aa) at the N-terminus is followed by sequences of BPP or the analogue (5-13 aa) with flanking spacer sequences (indefinite number of aa), an intervening linker sequence (approximately 144 aa) with unidentified function, and a CNP sequence (22 aa) with a preceding processing signal sequence (10 aa). cDNA clones from A. halys blomhoffi encode two distinct peptides in place of BPP, and T. flavoviridis and T. gramineus were shown to have considerably different sequences in the BPP domain from those known as BPP sequences. The present results provide evidence for a wide distribution of the orthologous gene expressing a series of bioactive peptides among Crotalinae subfamily.
Lixisenatide: evidence for its potential use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Barnett AH
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Anthony H BarnettUniversity of Birmingham and BioMedical Research Centre, Heart of England National Health Service Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UKAbstract: Lixisenatide is a once-daily glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist mimicking several favorable actions of endogenous GLP-1 that result in improved glycemic control with little or no hypoglycemia and weight loss. Phase II trials have shown that lixisenatide 20 µg once daily restores first-phase insulin release in patients with type 2 diabetes and improves the second-phase insulin response. Administered once or twice daily for 4 weeks, it significantly reduced postprandial and fasting blood glucose levels, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. The efficacy and safety of lixisenatide once daily is being assessed in the GETGOAL Phase III clinical trial program. Results have shown beneficial effects on HbA1c compared with placebo in combination with commonly used antidiabetes agents, with no increased risk of hypoglycemia and with beneficial weight reduction. Adverse effects were similar to those observed for available GLP-1 receptor agonists, the most frequent being gastrointestinal. Both GLP-1 receptor agonists and long-acting insulin analogs have demonstrated protective effects on beta cells in preclinical studies. This, along with the pronounced effect of lixisenatide on postprandial plasma glucose, provides a rationale for combining it with long-acting basal insulin analogs, in the hope that the additive effects on glycemic control combined with a potential benefit on islet cells may lead to a new treatment approach to control blood glucose better and prevent long-term complications in patients with type 2 diabetes.Keywords: GLP-1 receptor agonist, combination therapy, GETGOAL program, insulin, lixisenatide, postprandial plasma glucose, type 2 diabetes
SHI De-hai; CAI Dao-zhang; ZHOU Chang-ren; RONG Li-min; WANG Kun; XU Yi-chun
2005-01-01
Background Damaged articular cartilage has very limited capacity for spontaneous healing. Tissue engineering provides a new hope for functional cartilage repair. Creation of an appropriate cell carrier is one of the critical steps for successful tissue engineering. With the supposition that a biomimetic construct might promise to generate better effects, we developed a novel composite scaffold and investigated its potential for cartilage tissue engineering. Methods Chitosan of 88% deacetylation was prepared via a modified base reaction procedure. A freeze-drying process was employed to fabricate a three-dimensional composite scaffold consisting of chitosan and type Ⅱcollagen. The scaffold was treated with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide. Ultrastructure and tensile strength of the matrix were carried out to assess its physico-chemical properties. After subcutaneous implantation in rabbits, its in vivo biocompatibility and degradability of the scaffold were determined. Its capacity to sustain chondrocyte growth and biosynthesis was evaluated through cell-scaffold co-culture in vitro. Results The fabricated composite matrix was porous and sponge-like with interconnected pores measuring from 100-250 μm in diameter. After cross-linking, the scaffold displayed enhanced tensile strength. Subcutaneous implantation results indicated the composite matrix was biocompatible and biodegradable. In intro cell-scaffold culture showed the scaffold sustained chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, and maintained the spheric chondrocytic phenotype. As indicated by immunohistochemical staining, the chondrocytes synthesized type Ⅱ collagen. Conclusions Chitosan and type Ⅱ collagen can be well blended and developed into a porous 3-D biomimetic matrix. Results of physico-chemical and biological tests suggest the composite matrix satisfies the constraints specified for a tissue-engineered construct and may be used as a chondrocyte
Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity and lethality in type 2 diabetic rats.
Sawant, Sharmilee P; Dnyanmote, Ankur V; Shankar, Kartik; Limaye, Pallavi B; Latendresse, John R; Mehendale, Harihara M
2004-02-01
There is a need for well characterized and economical type 2 diabetic model that mimics the human disease. We have developed a type 2 diabetes rat model that closely resembles the diabetic patients and takes only 24 days to develop robust diabetes. Nonlethal doses of allyl alcohol (35 mg/kg i.p.), CCl(4) (2 ml/kg i.p.), or thioacetamide (300 mg/kg i.p.) yielded 80 to 100% mortality in diabetic rats. The objective of the present study was to investigate two hypotheses: higher CCl(4) bioactivation and/or inhibited compensatory tissue repair were the underlying mechanisms for increased CCl(4) hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding high fat diet followed by a single dose of streptozotocin on day 14 (45 mg/kg i.p.) and was confirmed on day 24 by hyperglycemia, normoinsulinemia, and oral glucose intolerance. Time course studies (0-96 h) of CCl(4) (2 ml/kg i.p.) indicated that although initial liver injury was the same in nondiabetic and diabetic rats, it progressed only in the latter, culminating in hepatic failure, and death. Hepatomicrosomal CYP2E1 protein and activity, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, and (14)CCl(4) covalent binding to liver tissue were the same in both groups, suggesting that higher bioactivation-based injury is not the mechanism. Inhibited tissue repair resulted in progression of injury and death in diabetic rats, whereas in the nondiabetic rats robust tissue repair resulted in regression of injury and survival after CCl(4) administration. These studies show high sensitivity of type 2 diabetes to model hepatotoxicants and suggest that CCl(4) hepatotoxicity is potentiated due to inhibited tissue repair.
Horikoshi, Momoko; Pasquali, Lorenzo; Wiltshire, Steven; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Mahajan, Anubha; Asimit, Jennifer L.; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E.; Robertson, Neil R.; Wang, Xu; Sim, Xueling; Fujita, Hayato; Hara, Kazuo; Young, Robin; Zhang, Weihua; Choi, Sungkyoung; Chen, Han; Kaur, Ismeet; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Fontanillas, Pierre; Thuillier, Dorothée; Yengo, Loic; Below, Jennifer E.; Tam, Claudia H.T.; Wu, Ying; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Altshuler, David; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Burtt, Noél P.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Florez, Jose C.; Hanis, Craig L.; Seielstad, Mark; Atzmon, Gil; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Ma, Ronald C.W.; Froguel, Philippe; Wilson, James G.; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan; Dupuis, Josee; Meigs, James B.; Cho, Yoon Shin; Park, Taesung; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Chambers, John C.; Saleheen, Danish; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tai, E. Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L.; Cox, Nancy J.; Ferrer, Jorge; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Kato, Norihiro; Teo, Yik Ying; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Morris, Andrew P.
2016-01-01
To gain insight into potential regulatory mechanisms through which the effects of variants at four established type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility loci (CDKAL1, CDKN2A-B, IGF2BP2 and KCNQ1) are mediated, we undertook transancestral fine-mapping in 22 086 cases and 42 539 controls of East Asian, European, South Asian, African American and Mexican American descent. Through high-density imputation and conditional analyses, we identified seven distinct association signals at these four loci, each with allelic effects on T2D susceptibility that were homogenous across ancestry groups. By leveraging differences in the structure of linkage disequilibrium between diverse populations, and increased sample size, we localised the variants most likely to drive each distinct association signal. We demonstrated that integration of these genetic fine-mapping data with genomic annotation can highlight potential causal regulatory elements in T2D-relevant tissues. These analyses provide insight into the mechanisms through which T2D association signals are mediated, and suggest future routes to understanding the biology of specific disease susceptibility loci. PMID:26911676
High thermoelectric potential of n-type Pb1-xTixTe alloys
Komisarchik, Genady; Fuks, David; Gelbstein, Yaniv
2016-08-01
In an attempt to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels, associated with severe environmental effects, the current research is focused on the identification of the thermoelectric potential of n-type Pb1-xTixTe alloys, with x values of up to 3%. A solubility limit of 0.5 at. % Ti in PbTe was identified, while beyond this composition, a precipitation of a TiTe2 phase was occurred. An impressive maximal dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of ˜1.2 was obtained upon 0.1% Ti doping at 500 °C, indicating a ˜9% efficiency enhancement compared to an undoped PbTe. It is shown that generating a functionally graded material based on undoped PbTe as a low temperature segment and a 0.1% Ti doped PbTe as a high temperature segment has a potential to enhance the efficiency by ˜14% compared to the undoped sample.
Seppo Junnila
2012-07-01
Full Text Available As the effects of global warming have become more evident, ambitious short-term greenhouse gas emission reduction targets have been set in recent years. Many cities worldwide have adopted an active approach to climate change mitigation, but policy makers are not always knowledgeable of the true effects of their planned mitigation action. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of different mitigation strategies in achieving low-carbon urban communities. The assessment is conducted via means of consumption based hybrid life-cycle assessment, which allows the reduction potential to be analyzed from the perspective of an individual resident of the urban community. The assessed actions represent strategies that are both adopted by the case cities and possible to implement with current best practices in Finland. The four assessed actions comprise: (1 dense urban structure with less private driving; (2 the use of energy production based on renewable sources; (3 new low-energy residential construction; and (4 improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings. The findings show that the effectiveness depends greatly on the type of city, although in absolute terms the most significant reduction potential lies with lowering the fossil fuel dependence of the local energy production.
Katarzyna eBozek
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.
Clinical potential of eliglustat tartrate in the treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease
Kaplan P
2014-05-01
counts, and bone density, as well as decreases in biomarkers of Gaucher disease activity. Few adverse events, none of which was serious, have been reported. Eliglustat tartrate has the clinical potential to enable a larger number of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease to be treated successfully.Keywords: type 1 Gaucher disease, substrate reduction therapy, eliglustat tartrate
Borstnik, Norma Susana Mankoc
2013-01-01
The so far observed three families of quarks and leptons, the vector gauge fields of the fermions charges and the scalar Higgs responsible for masses of fermions and weak bosons, all these confirming the standard model, make most of physicists to declare that the Higgs was the last missing particle to be confirmed. But can this at all be true? Is it not self evident that there must be additional scalar fields which manifest effectively the appearance of the Yukawa couplings and that the Yukawa couplings can only be understood if we understand the origin of families? The spin-charge-family theory is offering a possible explanation for the origin of families and also for several scalar fields, which are responsible for masses of fermions and weak vector boson fields. The theory is offering the explanation also for other assumptions of the standard model. The theory predicts at the observable regime two decoupled groups of four families. The fourth family, coupled to the measured three, will be observed at the L...
Sparticle masses from transverse-mass kinks at the LHC: the case of Yukawa-unified SUSY GUTs
Choi, Kiwoon; Im, Sang Hui; Park, Chan Beom
2010-01-01
We explore, in a concrete example, to which extent new particle mass determinations are practicable with LHC data. Our chosen example is that of Yukawa-unified SUSY GUTs, whose viability has been recently studied for two general patterns of soft SUSY-breaking terms. We note that both patterns of SUSY spectra do not admit long decay chains, which would make it possible to determine the masses of the SUSY particles involved using endpoints or mass relations. We thus take the so-called mT2-kink method as our key strategy, since it does not rely on the presence of long decay chains. We then discuss a procedure allowing to determine the masses of the gluino, of the lightest chargino as well as of the first two neutralinos and, for the scenario where a stop is lighter than the gluino, the mass of the light stop too. Our worked example of Yukawa-unified SUSY GUTs may offer a useful playground for dealing with other theories which predict similar patterns of SUSY spectra.
Multimodal evoked potentials in spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, and 3
Vijay Chandran
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Aims: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by ataxia and an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The aim of our study was to describe the findings of evoked potentials (EPs among genetically proven SCA types 1, 2, and 3 and to additionally evaluate if EPs can be used to differentiate between them. Materials and Methods: Forty-three cases of genetically proven SCA (SCA1 = 19, SCA2 = 13, and SCA3 = 11 were evaluated with median somatosensory-EP (mSSEP, visual-EP (VEP, and brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER by standard procedures and compared with normative laboratory data. An EP was considered abnormal if latency was prolonged (>mean + 3 standard deviation (SD of laboratory control data or the waveform was absent or poorly defined. The waves studied were as follows: mSSEP - N20, VEP - P100 and BAER - interpeak latency 1-3 and 3-5. Results: EPs were abnormal in at least one modality in 90.9% of patients. The most common abnormality was of BAER (86.1% followed by VEP (34.9% and mSSEP (30.2%. The degree of abnormality in VEP, mSSEP, and BAER among patients with SCA1 was 42.1, 41.2, and 73.3%, respectively; among patients with SCA2 was 38.5, 27.3, and 100%, respectively; and among patients with SCA3 was 18.2, 37.5, and 88.9%, respectively. The differences between the subgroups of SCAs were not statistically significant. Conclusions: BAER was the most frequent abnormality in SCA types 1, 2, and 3; abnormalities of mSSEP were comparable in the three SCAs; whereas, abnormality of VEP was less often noted in SCA3.
Patai, Zoltán; Guttman, András; Mikus, Endre G
2016-12-01
Drotaverine is considered an inhibitor of cyclic-3',5'-nucleotide-phophodiesterase (PDE) enzymes; however, published receptor binding data also support the potential L-type voltage- operated calcium channel (L-VOCC) blocking effect of drotaverine. Hence, in this work, we focus on the potential L-VOCC blocking effect of drotaverine by using L-VOCC-associated functional in vitro models. Accordingly, drotaverine and reference agents were tested on KCl-induced guinea pig tracheal contraction. Drotaverine, like the L-VOCC blockers nifedipine or diltiazem, inhibited the KCl-induced inward Ca(2+)- induced contraction in a concentration- dependent fashion. The PDE inhibitor theophylline had no effect on the KCl-evoked contractions, indicating its lack of inhibition on inward Ca(2+) flow. Drotaverine was also tested on the L-VOCC-mediated resting Ca(2+) refill model. In this model, the extracellular Ca(2+) enters the cells to replenish the emptied intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Drotaverine and L-VOCC blocker reference molecules inhibited Ca(2+) replenishment of Ca(2+)-depleted preparations detected by agonist-induced contractions in post-Ca(2+) replenishment Ca(2+)-free medium. Theophylline did not modify the Ca(2+) store replenishment after contraction. It seems that drotaverine, but not theophylline, inhibits inward Ca(2+) flux. The addition of CaCl2 to Ca(2+)-free medium containing the agonist induced inward Ca(2+) flow and subsequent contraction of Ca(2+)-depleted tracheal preparations. Drotaverine, similar to the L-VOCC blockers, inhibited inward Ca(2+) flow and blunted the slope of CaCl2-induced contraction in agonist containing Ca(2+)-free medium with Ca(2+)-depleted tracheal preparations. These results show that drotaverine behaves like L-VOCC blockers but, unlike PDE inhibitors using L-VOCC associated in vitro experimental models.
Identification of potential probiotic starter cultures for Scandinavian-type fermented sausages.
Klingberg, Trine Danø; Axelsson, Lars; Naterstad, Kristine; Elsser, Dieter; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn
2005-12-15
Potential probiotic cultures suitable as starter cultures for the Scandinavian-type fermented sausages were identified among strains well-adapted to fermented meats as well as strains originating from a culture collection. From 15 different fermented meat products, 22 strains were isolated as dominant non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). The isolates were identified by RAPD, API and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and showed to be five strains of Lactobacillus sakei, five strains of Lactobacillus farciminis, five strains belonging to the group of Lactobacillus plantarum/pentosus, four strains of Lactobacillus alimentarius, two strains of Lactobacillus brevis and one strain of Lactobacillus versmoldensis. Heterofermentative strains as well as strains not growing at 37 degrees C and not lowering pH below 5.1 in a meat model were excluded leaving 9 strains for further studies. These strains together with 19 strains from a culture collection were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival upon exposure to pH 2.5 or 0.3% oxgall and adhesion to the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 as well as antimicrobial activity against potential pathogens. Strains that fulfilled all the probiotic criteria and showed to be fast acid producers in a meat model included three strains belonging to the group of Lb. plantarum/pentosus (MF1291, MF1298, MF1300) which originated from the dominant NSLAB of fermented meat products. MF1291 and MF 1298 were further identified as Lb. plantarum and MF1300 as Lb. pentosus. The three strains were all successfully applied as starter cultures for the production of fermented sausage. The viable count at the end of the processing period reached high cell numbers (4.7x10(7)-2.9x10(8) cfu/g) and pH of the sausages decreased to pH 4.8-4.9 without any flavour deviation compared to sausage fermented by a commercial meat starter culture.
Stabilizing the Higgs potential with a Z′
Di Chiara, Stefano; Keus, Venus, E-mail: venus.keus@helsinki.fi; Lebedev, Oleg
2015-05-11
Current data point toward metastability of the electroweak vacuum within the Standard Model. We study the possibility of stabilizing the Higgs potential in U(1) extensions thereof. A generic Z′ boson improves stability of the scalar potential in two ways: it increases the Higgs self-coupling, due to a positive contribution to the beta-function of the latter, and it decreases the top quark Yukawa coupling, which again has a stabilizing effect. We determine the range of U(1) charges which leads to a stable electroweak vacuum. In certain classes of models, such stabilization is possible even if the Z′ does not couple to the Higgs and is due entirely to the reduction of the top Yukawa coupling. We also study the effect of the kinetic mixing between the extra U(1) and hypercharge gauge fields.
Baiyu Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a class of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger systems with potential terms and combined power-type nonlinearities. We establish the existence of ground states, by using a variational method. As an application, some symmetry results for ground states of Schrödinger systems with harmonic potential terms are obtained.
Orexin-A potentiates L-type calcium/barium currents in rat retinal ganglion cells.
Liu, F; Weng, S-J; Yang, X-L; Zhong, Y-M
2015-10-01
Two neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B (also called hypocretin-1 and -2), have been implicated in sleep/wake regulation, feeding behaviors via the activation of two subtypes of G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R). While the expression of orexins and orexin receptors is immunohistochemically revealed in retinal neurons, the function of these peptides in the retina is largely unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in rat retinal slices, we demonstrated that orexin-A increased L-type-like barium currents (IBa,L) in ganglion cells (GCs), and the effect was blocked by the selective OX1R antagonist SB334867, but not by the OX2R antagonist TCS OX2 29. The orexin-A effect was abolished by intracellular dialysis of GDP-β-S/GPAnt-2A, a Gq protein inhibitor, suggesting the mediation of Gq. Additionally, during internal dialysis of the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, orexin-A did not change the IBa,L of GCs, whereas the orexin-A effect persisted in the presence of the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-PLC inhibitor D609. The orexin-A-induced potentiation was not seen with internal infusion of Ca(2+)-free solution or when inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was blocked by heparin/xestospongins-C. Moreover, the orexin-A effect was mimicked by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but was eliminated when PKC was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide IV (Bis-IV)/Gö6976. Neither adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) nor guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway was likely involved, as orexin-A persisted to potentiate the IBa,L of GCs no matter these two pathways were activated or inhibited. These results suggest that, by activating OX1R, orexin-A potentiates the IBa,L of rat GCs through a distinct Gq/PI-PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/PKC signaling pathway.
Emmanuel E Haven
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider how two types of potential functions, the real and quantum potential can be shown to be of use in a social science context. The real potential function is a key ingredient in the Hamiltonian framework used in both classical and quantum mechanics. The quantum potential however emerges in a different way in quantum mechanics. In this paper we consider both potentials and we attempt to give them a social science interpretation within the setting of two applications.
Flavaglines Stimulate Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Type 6 (TRPM6) Channel Activity.
Blanchard, Maxime G; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Verkaart, Sjoerd A J; Lameris, Anke L; Basmadjian, Christine; Zhao, Qian; Désaubry, Laurent; Bindels, René J M; Hoenderop, Joost G J
2015-01-01
Magnesium (Mg2+) is essential for enzymatic activity, brain function and muscle contraction. Blood Mg2+ concentrations are tightly regulated between 0.7 and 1.1 mM by Mg2+ (re)absorption in kidney and intestine. The apical entry of Mg2+ in (re)absorbing epithelial cells is mediated by the transient receptor potential melastatin type 6 (TRPM6) ion channel. Here, flavaglines are described as a novel class of stimulatory compounds for TRPM6 activity. Flavaglines are a group of natural and synthetic compounds that target the ubiquitously expressed prohibitins and thereby affect cellular signaling. By whole-cell patch clamp analyses, it was demonstrated that nanomolar concentrations of flavaglines increases TRPM6 activity by ∼2 fold. The stimulatory effects were dependent on the presence of the alpha-kinase domain of TRPM6, but did not require its phosphotransferase activity. Interestingly, it was observed that two natural occurring TRPM6 mutants with impaired insulin-sensitivity, TRPM6-p.Val1393Ile and TRPM6-p.Lys1584Glu, are not sensitive to flavagline stimulation. In conclusion, we have identified flavaglines as potent activators of TRPM6 activity. Our results suggest that flavaglines stimulate TRPM6 via the insulin receptor signaling pathway.
Flavaglines Stimulate Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Type 6 (TRPM6 Channel Activity.
Maxime G Blanchard
Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg2+ is essential for enzymatic activity, brain function and muscle contraction. Blood Mg2+ concentrations are tightly regulated between 0.7 and 1.1 mM by Mg2+ (reabsorption in kidney and intestine. The apical entry of Mg2+ in (reabsorbing epithelial cells is mediated by the transient receptor potential melastatin type 6 (TRPM6 ion channel. Here, flavaglines are described as a novel class of stimulatory compounds for TRPM6 activity. Flavaglines are a group of natural and synthetic compounds that target the ubiquitously expressed prohibitins and thereby affect cellular signaling. By whole-cell patch clamp analyses, it was demonstrated that nanomolar concentrations of flavaglines increases TRPM6 activity by ∼2 fold. The stimulatory effects were dependent on the presence of the alpha-kinase domain of TRPM6, but did not require its phosphotransferase activity. Interestingly, it was observed that two natural occurring TRPM6 mutants with impaired insulin-sensitivity, TRPM6-p.Val1393Ile and TRPM6-p.Lys1584Glu, are not sensitive to flavagline stimulation. In conclusion, we have identified flavaglines as potent activators of TRPM6 activity. Our results suggest that flavaglines stimulate TRPM6 via the insulin receptor signaling pathway.
Flavaglines Stimulate Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Type 6 (TRPM6) Channel Activity
Verkaart, Sjoerd A. J.; Lameris, Anke L.; Basmadjian, Christine; Zhao, Qian; Désaubry, Laurent; Bindels, René J. M.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.
2015-01-01
Magnesium (Mg2+) is essential for enzymatic activity, brain function and muscle contraction. Blood Mg2+ concentrations are tightly regulated between 0.7 and 1.1 mM by Mg2+ (re)absorption in kidney and intestine. The apical entry of Mg2+ in (re)absorbing epithelial cells is mediated by the transient receptor potential melastatin type 6 (TRPM6) ion channel. Here, flavaglines are described as a novel class of stimulatory compounds for TRPM6 activity. Flavaglines are a group of natural and synthetic compounds that target the ubiquitously expressed prohibitins and thereby affect cellular signaling. By whole-cell patch clamp analyses, it was demonstrated that nanomolar concentrations of flavaglines increases TRPM6 activity by ∼2 fold. The stimulatory effects were dependent on the presence of the alpha-kinase domain of TRPM6, but did not require its phosphotransferase activity. Interestingly, it was observed that two natural occurring TRPM6 mutants with impaired insulin-sensitivity, TRPM6-p.Val1393Ile and TRPM6-p.Lys1584Glu, are not sensitive to flavagline stimulation. In conclusion, we have identified flavaglines as potent activators of TRPM6 activity. Our results suggest that flavaglines stimulate TRPM6 via the insulin receptor signaling pathway. PMID:25774985
Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description
Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.
Gpnmb Is a Potential Marker for the Visceral Pathology in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.
André R A Marques
Full Text Available Impaired function of NPC1 or NPC2 lysosomal proteins leads to the intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol, the primary defect underlying Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease. In addition, glycosphingolipids (GSLs accumulate in lysosomes as well. Intralysosomal lipid accumulation triggers the activation of a set of genes, including potential biomarkers. Transcript levels of Gpnmb have been shown to be elevated in various tissues of an NPC mouse model. We speculated that Gpnmb could serve as a marker for visceral lipid accumulation in NPC disease. We report that Gpnmb expression is increased at protein level in macrophages in the viscera of Npc1nih/nih mice. Interestingly, soluble Gpnmb was also found to be increased in murine and NPC patient plasma. Exposure of RAW264.7 macrophages to the NPC-phenotype-inducing drug U18666A also upregulated Gpnmb expression. Inhibition of GSL synthesis with the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS inhibitor N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin prevented U18666A-induced Gpnmb induction and secretion. In summary, we show that Gpnmb is upregulated in NPC mice and patients, most likely due to GSL accumulation.
A. Hunyadi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other’s important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated.
Novel and potential physiological roles of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase in marine organisms.
Tresguerres, Martin
2016-07-15
The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (VHA) is a multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport H(+) across biological membranes. VHA plays a universal role in essential cellular functions, such as the acidification of lysosomes and endosomes. In addition, the VHA-generated H(+)-motive force can drive the transport of diverse molecules across cell membranes and epithelia for specialized physiological functions. Here, I discuss diverse physiological functions of VHA in marine animals, focusing on recent discoveries about base secretion in shark gills, potential bone dissolution by Osedax bone-eating worms and its participation in a carbon-concentrating mechanism that promotes coral photosynthesis. Because VHA is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes, it is likely to play many other essential physiological roles in diverse marine organisms. Elucidating and characterizing basic VHA-dependent mechanisms could help to determine species responses to environmental stress, including (but not limited to) that resulting from climate change. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Ongena, Marc; Jacques, Philippe; Touré, Yacine; Destain, Jacqueline; Jabrane, Abdelhamid; Thonart, Philippe
2005-11-01
In this work, the potential of Bacillus subtilis strain M4 at protecting plants against fungal diseases was demonstrated in different pathosystems. We provide evidence for the role of secreted lipopeptides, and more particularly of fengycins, in the protective effect afforded by the strain against damping-off of bean seedlings caused by Pythium ultimum and against gray mold of apple in post-harvest disease. This role was demonstrated by the strong biocontrol activity of lipopeptide-enriched extracts and through the detection of inhibitory quantities of fengycins in infected tissues. Beside such a direct antagonism of the pathogen, we show that root pre-inoculation with M4 enabled the host plant to react more efficiently to subsequent pathogen infection on leaves. Fengycins could also be involved in this systemic resistance-eliciting effect of strain M4, as these molecules may induce the synthesis of plant phenolics involved in or derived from the defense-related phenylpropanoid metabolism. Much remains to be discovered about the mechanisms by which Bacillus spp suppress disease. Through this study on strain M4, we reinforce the interest in B. subtilis as a pathogen antagonist and plant defense-inducing agent. The secretion of cyclic fengycin-type lipopeptides may be tightly related to the expression of these two biocontrol traits.
Chang, Jung; Lee, Jae Sik; Lu, Chih-Ting
2016-01-01
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations observed the excess in the associated Higgs production with a top-quark pair ($t\\bar t h$) and reported the signal strengths of $ \\mu_{tth}^{\\rm ATLAS}=1.81\\pm 0.80$ and $\\mu_{tth}^{\\rm CMS}=2.75\\pm 0.99 $ based on the data collected at $\\sqrt{s}$= 7 and 8 TeV. In this work, we attempt to interpret the excess by exploiting the strong entanglement between the associated Higgs production with a single top quark ($thX$) and $t\\bar t h$ production in the presence of anomalous top-Yukawa coupling. As well known, $t\\bar t h$ production only depends on the absolute value of the top-Yukawa coupling. Meanwhile, in $thX$ production, this degeneracy is lifted through the strong interference between the two main contributions which are proportional to the top-Yukawa and the gauge-Higgs couplings, respectively. Especially, when the relative sign of the top-Yukawa coupling with respect to the gauge-Higgs coupling is reversed, the $thX$ cross section can be enhanced by more than one order of...
Heterotic and type II orientifold compactifications on SU(3) structure manifolds
Benmachiche, I.
2006-07-15
We study the four-dimensional N=1 effective theories of generic SU(3) structure compactifications in the presence of background fluxes. For heterotic and type IIA/B orientifold theories, the N=1 characteristic data are determined by a Kaluza-Klein reduction of the fermionic actions. The Kaehler potentials, superpotentials and the D-terms are entirely encoded by geometrical data of the internal manifold. The background flux and the intrinsic torsion of the SU(3) structure manifold, gives rise to contributions to the four-dimensional F-terms. The corresponding superpotentials generalize the Gukov-Vafa-Witten superpotential. For the heterotic compactification, the four-dimensional fermionic supersymmetry variations, as well as the conditions on supersymmetric vacua, are determined. The Yukawa couplings of the theory turn out to be similar to their Calabi-Yau counterparts. (Orig.)
Dulaglutide: an evidence-based review of its potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Edwards KL
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Krystal L Edwards,1 Molly G Minze2 1Ambulatory Care Division, Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Ambulatory Care Division, Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Abilene, TX, USA Introduction: As the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is anticipated to continue to rise worldwide, so too are the treatment options also continuing to expand. Current guidelines recommend individualized treatment plans which allow for provider choice and diversity of pharmacotherapeutic regimens. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA class is rapidly expanding, with dulaglutide (Trulicity™ as a once-weekly agent recently approved. Aims: This article examines the evidence currently available on the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide for use in T2DM. Evidence review: Dulaglutide has been shown to have similar efficacy and safety to other newer GLP-1 RAs, and better glycemic control than placebo. It lowers glycated hemoglobin (A1c, fasting and postprandial glucose levels, and promotes weight loss when used as first-, second-, or third-line therapy. It has also been shown to improve β-cell function and provide cardiovascular benefits, such as lower blood pressure and improved lipid levels. Dulaglutide also has a low risk for hypoglycemia and a similar adverse effect profile to other GLP-1 RAs in the class, with transient gastrointestinal problems and potential risk for pancreatitis. Place in therapy: While long-term data on safety and efficacy are forthcoming, dulaglutide is positioned to be placed at the same level as other GLP-1 RAs in the class: as second-line therapy in addition to diet and exercise in those patients who cannot achieve glycemic control on monotherapy metformin. It may also be useful as first-line therapy instead of metformin. Conclusion: Dulaglutide is a once-weekly GLP-1 RA
Mitochondrial GSH replenishment as a potential therapeutic approach for Niemann Pick type C disease
Sandra Torres
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Niemann Pick type C (NPC disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding NPC1/NPC2 proteins, characterized by neurological defects, hepatosplenomegaly and premature death. While the primary biochemical feature of NPC disease is the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and gangliosides, predominantly in endolysosomes, mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation has also been reported. As accumulation of cholesterol in mitochondria is known to impair the transport of GSH into mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial GSH (mGSH depletion, we investigated the impact of mGSH recovery in NPC disease. We show that GSH ethyl ester (GSH-EE, but not N-acetylcysteine (NAC, restored the mGSH pool in liver and brain of Npc1-/- mice and in fibroblasts from NPC patients, while both GSH-EE and NAC increased total GSH levels. GSH-EE but not NAC increased the median survival and maximal life span of Npc1-/- mice. Moreover, intraperitoneal therapy with GSH-EE protected against oxidative stress and oxidant-induced cell death, restored calbindin levels in cerebellar Purkinje cells and reversed locomotor impairment in Npc1-/- mice. High-resolution respirometry analyses revealed that GSH-EE improved oxidative phosphorylation, coupled respiration and maximal electron transfer in cerebellum of Npc1-/- mice. Lipidomic analyses showed that GSH-EE treatment had not effect in the profile of most sphingolipids in liver and brain, except for some particular species in brain of Npc1-/- mice. These findings indicate that the specific replenishment of mGSH may be a potential promising therapy for NPC disease, worth exploring alone or in combination with other options.
Mitochondrial GSH replenishment as a potential therapeutic approach for Niemann Pick type C disease.
Torres, Sandra; Matías, Nuria; Baulies, Anna; Nuñez, Susana; Alarcon-Vila, Cristina; Martinez, Laura; Nuño, Natalia; Fernandez, Anna; Caballeria, Joan; Levade, Thierry; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Rovés, Pablo; Balboa, Elisa; Zanlungo, Silvana; Fabrías, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Enrich, Carlos; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C
2017-04-01
Niemann Pick type C (NPC) disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding NPC1/NPC2 proteins, characterized by neurological defects, hepatosplenomegaly and premature death. While the primary biochemical feature of NPC disease is the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and gangliosides, predominantly in endolysosomes, mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation has also been reported. As accumulation of cholesterol in mitochondria is known to impair the transport of GSH into mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) depletion, we investigated the impact of mGSH recovery in NPC disease. We show that GSH ethyl ester (GSH-EE), but not N-acetylcysteine (NAC), restored the mGSH pool in liver and brain of Npc1(-/-) mice and in fibroblasts from NPC patients, while both GSH-EE and NAC increased total GSH levels. GSH-EE but not NAC increased the median survival and maximal life span of Npc1(-/-) mice. Moreover, intraperitoneal therapy with GSH-EE protected against oxidative stress and oxidant-induced cell death, restored calbindin levels in cerebellar Purkinje cells and reversed locomotor impairment in Npc1(-/-) mice. High-resolution respirometry analyses revealed that GSH-EE improved oxidative phosphorylation, coupled respiration and maximal electron transfer in cerebellum of Npc1(-/-) mice. Lipidomic analyses showed that GSH-EE treatment had not effect in the profile of most sphingolipids in liver and brain, except for some particular species in brain of Npc1(-/-) mice. These findings indicate that the specific replenishment of mGSH may be a potential promising therapy for NPC disease, worth exploring alone or in combination with other options.
Effect of different types of conditioning contraction on upper body postactivation potentiation.
Esformes, Joseph I; Keenan, Matthew; Moody, Jeremy; Bampouras, Theodoros M
2011-01-01
Muscle contractions preceding an activity can result in increased force generation (postactivation potentiation [PAP]). Although the type of muscular contractions could affect subsequent strength and power performance, little information exists on their effects. The purpose of this study was to examine PAP effects produced by isometric (ISO), concentric (CON), eccentric (ECC), or concentric-eccentric (DYN) conditioning contractions on upper body force and power performance. Ten male, competitive rugby players (mean ± SD: age 20.4 ± 0.8 years, height 177.0 ± 8.1 cm, body mass 90.2 ± 13.8 kg) performed a ballistic bench press throw (BBPT) followed by a 10-minute rest and one of the conditioning contractions. After a 12-minute rest, the subjects performed another BBPT (post-BBPT). The conditioning contractions, applied on separate days and in counterbalanced randomized order, were a 7-second isometric barbell bench press for ISO and 1 set of 3 bench press repetitions at 3 repetition maximum for CON, ECC, and DYN (each repetition lasting 2 seconds for CON and ECC, overall execution time transducer. Electromyography (EMG) of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii was also recorded. The ISO produced significantly higher Ppeak (587 ± 116 and 605 ± 126 W for pre- and post-BBPT, respectively; p 0.05), and no significant differences existed in Fpeak, Dmax, and RFD for ISO, CON, ECC, and DYN (p > 0.05). Finally, EMG was not significantly different between pre- and post-BBPT for any of the conditioning contractions (p > 0.05). Isometric contractions appear to be the only conditioning contractions increasing upper body power output after long resting periods.
Are evoked potentials clinically useful in the study of patients with Chiari malformation Type 1?
Moncho, Dulce; Poca, Maria A; Minoves, Teresa; Ferré, Alejandro; Cañas, Victoria; Sahuquillo, Juan
2017-02-01
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors describe the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) alterations found in a large cohort of patients with Chiari malformation Type 1 (CM-1), the relationship between the BAEPs/SSEPs and the clinical findings, the abnormalities in patients with associated syringomyelia, and the clinical and neuroradiological risk factors that are associated with abnormal evoked potentials (EPs). METHODS A prospectively collected database containing 545 patients with CM-1 was queried to search for patients satisfying the following criteria: 1) an age of at least 14 years, 2) neuroradiological criteria of CM-1, 3) no prior Chiari-related surgeries, and 4) preoperative EP studies conducted at the authors' institution. The 200 patients included in this cohort were classified into CM-0, CM-1, and CM-1.5 subtypes. Linear, planimetric, and angular measurements of the posterior fossa were conducted, as well as syringomyelia measurements. Two separate multiple logistic regression models were used, one to predict the covariates associated with abnormal BAEPs, and a second model to explore the variables associated with an abnormal SSEP. In these models, the BAEPs and SSEPs were dichotomized as being normal or abnormal. RESULTS Headaches were the main symptom in 70.5% of the patients, and Valsalva-induced headaches were most frequent in patients with CM-1 and CM-1.5 compared with patients with CM-0 (p = 0.031). BAEPs were abnormal in 38.5% of patients, and abnormal SSEPs were found in 43.5% of the entire cohort. Syringomyelia was most frequent in patients with CM-0 (64.3%) and CM-1 (51.1%) compared with those with CM-1.5 (34.7%; p = 0.03). Age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06), the degree of tonsillar herniation (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16), and lower cranial nerve dysfunction (OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.29-14.01) had a statistically significant correlation with abnormal BAEPs. Only age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10) and the degree
Li, C S; Yang, J M; Li, Chong Sheng; Oakes, Robert J.; Yang, Jin Min
1997-01-01
We calculate Yukawa corrections of order $\\alpha_{ew} M_t^2/M_W^2$ to s= ingle top quark production via $q \\bar q'\\rightarrow t \\bar b$ at the Fermilab Tevatron in the two-Higgs-doublet models. In our calculation we also keep= the terms proportional to $ M_b^2 \\tan^2 \\beta$ since their effects may becom= e rather important for large $\\tan\\beta$. The corrections can amount to mor= e than a 15\\% reduction in the production cross section relative to the tree lev= el result in the general two-Higgs-doublet model, and a 10\\% enhancement in = the minimal supersymmetric model, which might be observable at a high-luminos= ity Tevatron.
Full simulation study of the top Yukawa coupling at the ILC at √(s) = 1 TeV
Price, T. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Roloff, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Strube, J. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Tanabe, T. [ICEPP, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
2015-07-15
We present a study of the expected precision for the measurement of the top Yukawa coupling, y{sub t} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1 TeV. Independent analyses of t anti tH final states containing at least six hadronic jets are performed, based on detailed simulations of SiD and ILD, the two candidate detector concepts for the ILC. We estimate that a statistical precision on y{sub t} of 4.5 % can be obtained with an integrated luminosity of 1 ab{sup -1} that is split equally between two configurations for the beam polarization P(e{sup -},e{sup +}), (-80 %, +20 %) and (+80 %, -20 %). This estimate improves to 4 % if the 1 ab{sup -1} sample is assumed to be fully in the P(e{sup -},e{sup +}) = (-80 %, +20 %) configuration. (orig.)
Potential Involvement of Type I Interferon Signaling in Immunotherapy in Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis
Lina Mattson; Antonio Lentini; Gawel, Danuta R.; Tejaswi V. S. Badam; Mikael Benson; Torbjorn Ledin; Nestor, Colm E; Mika Gustafsson; Jordi Serra-Musach; Janne Bjorkander; Zou Xiang; Huan Zhang
2016-01-01
Specific immunotherapy (SIT) reverses the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in most patients. Recent studies report type I interferons shifting the balance between type I T helper cell (Th1) and type II T helper cells (Th2) towards Th2 dominance by inhibiting the differentiation of naive T cells into Th1 cells. As SIT is thought to cause a shift towards Th1 dominance, we hypothesized that SIT would alter interferon type I signaling. To test this, allergen and diluent challenged CD4...
Clinical potential of lixisenatide once daily treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus
Petersen AB
2013-06-01
product with insulin glargine (Lantus®. At present the main place in therapy of lixisenatide seems to be in combination with basal insulin. A large multicenter study will determine the future potential of lixisenatide in preventing cardiovascular events and mortality, in patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndrome.Keywords: GLP-1, incretin, pharmacology, GetGoal, T2DM
Wong, Brett J; Fieger, Sarah M
2010-11-01
The initial, rapid increase in skin blood flow in response to direct application of heat is thought to be mediated by an axon reflex, which is dependent on intact cutaneous sensory nerves. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV-1) channels, which are putative channels located on sensory nerves, would attenuate the skin blood flow response to local heating in humans. Ten subjects were equipped with four microdialysis fibres which were randomly assigned one of four treatments: (1) vehicle control (90% propylene glycol + 10% lactated Ringer solution); (2) 20 mm capsazepine to inhibit TRPV-1 channels; (3) 10 mm l-NAME to inhibit NO synthase; and (4) combined 20 mm capsazepine + 10 mm l-NAME. Following baseline measurements, the temperature of skin heaters was increased from 33°C to 42°C at a rate of 1.0°C every 10 s and local temperature was held at 42°C for 20-30 min until a stable plateau in skin blood flow was achieved. An index of skin blood flow was measured directly over each microdialysis site via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Beat-by-beat blood pressure was measured via photoplethysmography and verified via automated brachial auscultation. At the end of the local heating protocol, temperature of the heaters was increased to 43°C and 28 mm nitroprusside was infused to achieve maximal vasodilatation. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF/mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximal values (%CVCmax). Initial peak in capsazepine (44 ± 4%CVCmax), l-NAME (56 ± 4%CVCmax) and capsazepine + l-NAME (32 ± 6%CVCmax) sites was significantly attenuated compared to control (87 ± 5%CVCmax; P thermal hyperaemia was significantly attenuated in capsazepine (73 ± 6%CVCmax), l-NAME (47 ± 5%CVCmax) and capsazepine + l-NAME (31 ± 7%CVCmax) sites compared to control (92 ± 5%CVCmax; P thermal hyperaemia. These data further suggest a portion of the NO component of thermal hyperaemia may be
Longuet, M; Beaudenon, S; Orth, G
1996-01-01
The genomes of two novel human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, were cloned from a low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and a vulvar papilloma, respectively, and partially sequenced. Both types are related to HPV39, a potentially oncogenic virus. HPV68 and HPV70 were also detected in genital intraepithelial neoplasia from three patients and one patient, respectively. Comparison with sequence data in the literature indicates that the subgenomic ME180-HPV DNA fragment, clone...
Rekling, J C; Champagnat, J; Denavit-Saubié, M
1996-01-01
. The relationship between the membrane potential and the amplitude of square current pulses (Vm-I) showed a small upward rectification below -70 mV, and spike adaptation throughout a 1-s pulse had a largely linear time course. 5. Type-1 neurons depolarized and started to fire spikes 398 +/- 102 ms (n = 20) before...... neurons expressing an Ih. The Vm-I relationship was linear at depolarized potentials and showed a marked upward rectification below -60 mV. Spike trains elicited by 1-s long pulses showed a pronounced early and late adaptation. 7. Type-2 neurons depolarized and started to fire spikes 171 +/- 87 ms (n = 23...
Bakke, K
2015-01-01
The behaviour of a relativistic scalar particle in a possible scenario that arises from the violation of the Lorentz symmetry is investigated. The background of the Lorentz symmetry violation is defined by a tensor field that governs the Lorentz symmetry violation out of the Standard Model Extension. Thereby, we show that a Coulomb-type potential can be induced by Lorentz symmetry breaking effects and bound states solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation can be obtained. Further, we discuss the effects of this Coulomb-type potential on the confinement of the relativistic scalar particle to a linear confining potential by showing that bound states solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation can also be achieved, and obtain a quantum effect characterized by the dependence of a parameter of the linear confining potential on the quantum numbers $\\left\\{n,l\\right\\}$ of the system.
Letícia Khater
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The secretion of bacterial virulence factors and flagellar components requires the assistance of specific type III and flagellar chaperones. Standard computational annotation of the genome of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, a plant pathogen that causes citrus canker, initially did not identify any genes belonging to these chaperone categories since the primary sequence homology between them was very low. However, in a search for hypothetical proteins with characteristics similar to these chaperones, we have now identified 30 chromosomal and 10 plasmidial potential genes encoding chaperones belonging to types III/IV, and flagellar secretion systems in this organism. The significance of these findings is discussed.
Holst, Jens Juul; McGill, Maria A
2012-01-01
) stimulate glucose-induced insulin secretion; however, in patients with type 2 diabetes, the incretin system is impaired by loss of the insulinotropic effects of GIP as well as a possible reduction in secretion of GLP-1. Agents that modify GLP-1 secretion may have a role in the management of type 2 diabetes....... The currently available incretin-based therapies, GLP-1 receptor agonists (incretin mimetics) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (CD26 antigen inhibitors) [incretin enhancers], are safe and effective in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, they may be unable to halt the progression of type 2...... to modifying intestinal GLP-1 secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes include G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, a-glucosidase inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, metformin, bile acid mimetics and bile acid sequestrants. Both the GPCR agonist AR231453...
Abdelmadjid Maireche
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel theoretical analytical perform further investigation for the exact solvability of relativistic quantum spectrum systems for modified Mie-type potential (m.m.t.) potential is discussed for spin-1/2 particles by means Boopp’s shift method instead to solving deformed Dirac equation with star product, in the framework of noncommutativity three dimensional real space (NC: 3D-RS). The exact corrections for excited states are found straightforwardly for interactions...
ZHENHUI XU; HANLIN CHEN; ZHENGDE DAI
2016-08-01
In this paper, we obtained the exact breather-type kink soliton and breather-type periodic soliton solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev--Petviashvili (BKP) equation using the extended homoclinic test technique. Some new nonlinear phenomena, such as kink and periodic degeneracies, are investigated. Using the homoclinic breather limit method, some new rational breather solutions are found as well. Meanwhile, we also obtained the rational potential solution which is found to be just a rogue wave. These results enrich thevariety of the dynamics of higher-dimensional nonlinear wave field.
Resolution of multiple sheet-type structures in self-potential measurement
Arkoprovo Biswas; Shashi Prakash Sharma
2014-06-01
The resolution of self-potential anomalies due to closely spaced multiple sheet-like bodies by the potential difference and potential gradient is studied in this paper. Self-potential anomalies due to several synthetic models were inverted through a very fast simulated annealing (VFSA) global optimization. Increase in depth to the top, polarization constant and depth extent of the body decreases resolution at a particular target separation. It has been observed that depth to the top and separation between two targets play an important role in the resolution. Vertical sheets at equal depth can be resolved in the potential difference measurement only if they are separated by at least four times their depth, while they can be resolved in the gradient method, if they are separated by twice the depth. Resolution using potential difference becomes more difficult for dipping sheets, although the potential gradient method can resolve them efficiently. Efficacy of potential gradient data in the inversion is demonstrated in the study using synthetic data as well as field measurement from South Purulia Shear Zone related with uranium investigation.
Gurson-type elastic-plastic damage model based on strain-rate plastic potential
Balan, Tudor; Cazacu, Oana
2013-12-01
Ductile damage is generally described by stress-space analytical potentials. In this contribution, it is shown that strain rate potentials, which are exact conjugate of the stress-based potentials, can be equally used to describe the dilatational response of porous metals. This framework is particularly appropriate for porous materials with matrix described by complex yield criteria for which a closed-form expression of the stress-based potential is not available. Illustration of the new approach is done for porous metals containing randomly distributed spherical voids in a von Mises elasto-plastic matrix. Furthermore, a general time integration algorithm for simulation of the mechanical response using this new formulation is developed and implemented in Abaqus/Standard. The proposed model and algorithm are validated with respect to the Abaqus built-in GTN model, which is based on a stress potential, through the simulation of a tensile test on a round bar.
S. C. Saxena
1967-04-01
Full Text Available The discussion on second virial and zero pressure Joule-Thomson coefficients of non polar gases and gas mixtures is given on the Lennard Jones Type Potentials with the choice of the repulsive index as 12 and 18. These studies are also extended to polar gases and gas mixtures by including the electric dipole-dipole moment term in the two potentials. The tabulations are given for the (18-6-3 potential to enable computations of second virial and Joule-Thomson coefficients.
Propagation of singularities for Schr\\"odinger equations with modestly long range type potentials
2013-01-01
In a previous paper by the second author, we discussed a characterization of the microlocal singularities for solutions to Schr\\"odinger equations with long range type perturbations, using solutions to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation. In this paper we show that we may use Dollard type approximate solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation if the perturbation satisfies somewhat stronger conditions. As applications, we describe the propagation of microlocal singularities for $e^{itH_0}e^{-itH}$ when ...
Fernandez, J. J.; Alvarellos, J. E.; Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Filatov, M.
2012-01-01
The exchange-only optimized-effective-potential method is implemented with the use of Slater-type basis functions, seeking an alternative to the standard methods of solution with some computational advantages. This procedure has been tested in a small group of closed-shell atoms and diatomic molecul
Thilo, Florian; Lee, Marlene; Xia, Shengqiang
2014-01-01
Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels type 6 play an important role in the function of human podocytes. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by altered TRPC6 expression and functions of podocytes. Thus, we hypothesized that high glucose modifies TRPC6 channels via increased oxid...
Approximate Solution of D-Dimensional Klein-Gordon Equation with Hulthen-Type Potential via SUSYQM
H. Hassanabadi; S. Zarrinkamar; H. Rahimov
2011-01-01
Approximate analytical solutions of the D-dimensional Klein-Gordon equation are obtained for the scalar and vector general Hulthen-type potential and position-dependent mass with any l by using the concept of supersymmetric quantum mechanics （SUSYQM）. The problem is numerically discussed for some cases of parameters.
Aviles, Christopher B.
The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) can be helpful in personal, career, and marriage counseling; conflict and stress management; team building; and understanding managerial and learning styles. It has great potential to be utilized in human services organizations for training purposes because it offers a way to conceptualize employee…
Predicted channel types - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...
Pre-potential in the $AdS_{5}\\,\\times\\,S^{5}$ Type IIB superspace
Poláček, Martin
2016-01-01
We found the pre-potential in the superspace with $AdS_{5}\\,\\times\\,S^{5}$ background. The pre-potential appears as part of the vielbeins, without derivatives. The space-cone gauge destroys the bulk Lorentz covariance, but still preserves boundary Lorentz covariance (projective superspace) $SO\\,(\\,3,\\,1\\,)\\,\\otimes\\,SO\\,(\\,4\\,)$, i.e. symmetries of boundary CFT are manifest.
Spectral analysis of polynomial potentials and its relation with ABJ/M-type theories
Garcia del Moral, M.P., E-mail: garciamormaria@uniovi.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Martin, I., E-mail: isbeliam@usb.v [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Navarro, L., E-mail: lnavarro@ma.usb.v [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perez, A.J., E-mail: ajperez@ma.usb.v [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Restuccia, A., E-mail: arestu@usb.v [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
2010-11-01
We obtain a general class of polynomial potentials for which the Schroedinger operator has a discrete spectrum. This class includes all the scalar potentials in membrane, 5-brane, p-branes, multiple M2 branes, BLG and ABJM theories. We provide a proof of the discreteness of the spectrum of the associated Schroedinger operators. This is the first step in order to analyze BLG and ABJM supersymmetric theories from a non-perturbative point of view.
T-Duality in Type II String Theory via Noncommutative Geometry and Beyond
Mathai, V.
This brief survey on how nocommutative and nonassociative geometry appears naturally in the study of T-duality in type II string theory, is essentially a transcript of my talks given at the 21st Nishinomiya-Yukawa Memorial Symposium on Theoretical Physics: Noncommutative Geometry and Quantum Spacetime in Physics, Japan, 11--15 November 2006.
Pinto, Tatiana C. A.; Costa, Natalia S.; Castro, Luciana F. S.; Ribeiro, Rachel L.; Botelho, Ana Caroline N.; Neves, Felipe P. G.; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Teixeira, Lucia M.
2017-01-01
Streptococcus pneumoniae can be classified in more than 90 capsular types, as traditionally determined by serological methods and more recently by PCR-based techniques. Such methods, however, can be expensive, laborious or unable to accurately discriminate among certain serotypes. Therefore, determination of capsular types, although extremely important for epidemiological purposes and for estimating the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, is mainly restricted to research laboratories, being rarely performed in the clinical setting. In the present study, MALDI-TOF MS was evaluated as an alternative tool to characterize 416 pneumococcal isolates belonging to serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, 9N, 9V or 14. For MALDI-TOF MS analysis, each isolate was submitted to an extraction protocol using formic acid and acetonitrile. Measurements were performed with a Bruker Microflex LT mass spectrometer using default parameters and generating spectra in the range of 2,000–20,000 m/z. Spectra were analyzed with the BioNumerics software v7.6. Isolates were mainly distributed according to the capsular type in a Neighbor Joining tree and serotypes investigated were successfully discriminated by the presence/absence of 14 selected biomarkers. The results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is a promising alternative for typing pneumococcal strains, highlighting its usefulness for rapid and cost-effective routine application in clinical laboratories. PMID:28349999
Potentials of incretin-based therapies in dementia and stroke in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Groeneveld, Onno N.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan
2016-01-01
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at risk for accelerated cognitive decline and dementia. Furthermore, their risk of stroke is increased and their outcome after stroke is worse than in those without diabetes. Incretin-based therapies are a class of antidiabetic agents that are of interest i
Pieper, J.S.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Kamp, J.; Buma, P.; Susante, J.L.C. van; Berg, W.B. van den; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van
2002-01-01
The limited intrinsic repair capacity of articular cartilage has stimulated continuing efforts to develop tissue engineered analogues. Matrices composed of type II collagen and chondroitin sulfate (CS), the major constituents of hyaline cartilage, may create an appropriate environment for the genera
The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus
Kootte, R.S.; Vrieze, A.; Holleman, F.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.; Groen, A.K.; Hoekstra, J.B.; Nieuwdorp, M.
2012-01-01
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important
The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus
Kootte, R. S.; Vrieze, A.; Holleman, F.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Zoetendal, E. G.; de Vos, W. M.; Groen, A. K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Stroes, E. S.; Nieuwdorp, M.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important
Moore, Bartlett D.
2009-01-01
Neurofibromatosis, type 1 (NF-1) is a common genetic disorder affecting 1 in 3,500-4,000 individuals in the world. Mutations of the NF-1 gene produce a myriad of physical, medical, and psychological manifestations. Although there is a very high degree of variability in the manifestations between individuals with NF-1, the majority of children and…
Potentials of incretin-based therapies in dementia and stroke in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Groeneveld, Onno N.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan
2016-01-01
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at risk for accelerated cognitive decline and dementia. Furthermore, their risk of stroke is increased and their outcome after stroke is worse than in those without diabetes. Incretin-based therapies are a class of antidiabetic agents that are of interest
The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus
Kootte, R. S.; Vrieze, A.; Holleman, F.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Zoetendal, E. G.; de Vos, W. M.; Groen, A. K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Stroes, E. S.; Nieuwdorp, M.
2012-01-01
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important contributo
Potential of liraglutide in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes
Deacon, Carolyn F
2009-01-01
Liraglutide is a long-acting analog of GLP-1, being developed by Novo Nordisk and currently undergoing regulatory review for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Upon injection, liraglutide binds non-covalently to albumin, giving it a pharmacokinetic profile suitable for once-daily administration...
Relationships and their potential for change developed in difficult type 1 diabetes
Zoffmann, Vibeke; Kirkevold, Marit
2007-01-01
Few researchers have explored how relationships between patients and providers might change problem solving in clinical practice. The authors used grounded theory to study dyads of 11 people with diabetes and poor glycemic control, and 8 nurses interacting in diabetes teams. Relational Potential...
An Evaluation of the Cutting Potential of Different Types of High Power Lasers
Olsen, Flemming Ove
2006-01-01
Laser cutting is a widespread industrial process. The boundaries for the performance of the lasers in terms of cutting capabilities is steadily moving towards higher cutting rates and thicker section cutting. In this paper the potential of different high power laser sources in cutting is evaluate...
Thilo, Florian; Scholze, Alexandra; Liu, Dao Yan;
2008-01-01
We investigated whether expression of non-selective cation channels of the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel family are associated with proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes. Using quantitative RT-PCR we studied the expression of TRPC3, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and tumor...
Johnston, Kevin A.; Andersen, Barry K.; Davidge-Pitts, Jennifer; Ostensen-Saunders, Mark
2009-01-01
Literature relating to personality and entrepreneurship has focused primarily on personality characteristics of traditional entrepreneurs. The focus of this study was on personality characteristics and temperaments of potential Information and Communication Technology (ICT) entrepreneurs. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the…
Johnston, Kevin A.; Andersen, Barry K.; Davidge-Pitts, Jennifer; Ostensen-Saunders, Mark
2009-01-01
Literature relating to personality and entrepreneurship has focused primarily on personality characteristics of traditional entrepreneurs. The focus of this study was on personality characteristics and temperaments of potential Information and Communication Technology (ICT) entrepreneurs. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the…
Bilican, Doga; Fornell, Jordina; Sort, Jordi; Pellicer, Eva
2017-01-06
Bismuth (Bi) electrodeposition was studied on Si/Ti/Au, FTO-, and ITO-coated glasses from acidic nitrate solutions with and without gluconate within a narrow potential window (ΔE = 80 mV). This potential range was sufficient to observe a change in particle shape, from polyhedrons (including hexagons) to dendrites, the trend being slightly different depending on substrate activity. In all cases, though, the formation of dendrites was favoured as the applied potential was made more negative. Bi particles were more uniformly distributed over the substrate when sodium gluconate was added to the electrolyte. X-ray diffraction analyses of dendrites grown at -0.28 V indicated that they exhibit the rhombohedral phase of Bi and are predominantly oriented along the (003) plane. This orientation is exacerbated at the lowest applied potential (-0.20 V vs. Ag|AgCl) on glass/ITO substrate, for which completed and truncated hexagons are observed from the top view scanning electron microscopy images.
Antunez, E.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62210 (Mexico); Estevez, J.O. [Instituto de Física, B. Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, A.P. J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Campos, J. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos, CP 62580 (Mexico); Basurto-Pensado, M.A. [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62210 (Mexico); Agarwal, V., E-mail: vagarwal@uaem.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62210 (Mexico)
2014-11-15
Metal electrode-free electrochemical etching of low doped n-type silicon substrates, under the combined effect of magnetic and lateral electric field, is used to fabricate photoluminescent n-type porous silicon structures in dark conditions. A lateral gradient in terms of structural characteristics (i.e. thickness and pore dimensions) along the electric field direction is formed. Enhancement of electric and magnetic field resulted in the increase of pore density and a change in the shape of the macropore structure, from circular to square morphology. Broad photoluminescence (PL) emission from 500 to 800 nm, with a PL peak wavelength ranging from 571 to 642 nm, is attributed to the wide range of microporous features present on the porous silicon layer.
Pengcheng Niu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Let {X1,X2,…,Xm} be the basis of space of horizontal vector fields in a Carnot group G=(Rn;∘ (m
Gazeau-Klauder coherent states for the partner potentials of the trigonometric symmetric scarf type
Fakhri, H.; Kianfar, A.; Sayyah-Fard, M.
2016-02-01
The supersymmetric partner Schrödinger equations for the superpotential -Atanθ with A as non-negative integers are solved by using the Darboux factorization method on the associated Romanovski differential equation. The bound states correspond to a particle which is trapped on the bounded interval -π/2≤θ≤ +π/2 and their number is infinite. Its partner Hamiltonians are iso-spectral except for the ground state which, in turn, leads us to associate different Gazeau-Klauder coherent states for each of the partner potentials with different positive definite measures to realize the resolution of identity condition. It is shown that the time evolution does not change the form of the Gazeau-Klauder coherent states. Furthermore, it is discussed that the weight distribution functions of each of the coherent states obey the sub-Poissonian statistics. Finally, Gazeau-Klauder cat states are introduced for one of the partner potentials.
Yuguang Zhang
Full Text Available Soil microbial metabolic potential and ecosystem function have received little attention owing to difficulties in methodology. In this study, we selected natural mature forest and natural secondary forest and analyzed the soil microbial community and metabolic potential combing the high-throughput sequencing and GeoChip technologies. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that one known archaeal phylum and 15 known bacterial phyla as well as unclassified phylotypes were presented in these forest soils, and Acidobacteria, Protecobacteria, and Actinobacteria were three of most abundant phyla. The detected microbial functional gene groups were related to different biogeochemical processes, including carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane metabolism, nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization, sulfur cycling, etc. The Shannon index for detected functional gene probes was significantly higher (P<0.05 at natural secondary forest site. The regression analysis showed that a strong positive (P<0.05 correlation was existed between the soil microbial functional gene diversity and phylogenetic diversity. Mantel test showed that soil oxidizable organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and cellulose, glucanase, and amylase activities were significantly linked (P<0.05 to the relative abundance of corresponded functional gene groups. Variance partitioning analysis showed that a total of 81.58% of the variation in community structure was explained by soil chemical factors, soil temperature, and plant diversity. Therefore, the positive link of soil microbial structure and composition to functional activity related to ecosystem functioning was existed, and the natural secondary forest soil may occur the high microbial metabolic potential. Although the results can't directly reflect the actual microbial populations and functional activities, this study provides insight into the potential activity of the microbial community and associated feedback
Cannabidiol as a potential new type of an antipsychotic. A critical review of the evidence
Cathrin Rohleder
2016-11-01
Full Text Available There is urgent need for the development of mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compounds. The endocannabinoid system has been suggested to represent a potential new target in this indication. While the chronic use of cannabis itself has been considered a risk factor contributing to the development of schizophrenia, triggered by the phytocannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 THC, cannabidiol, the second most important phytocannabinoid, appears to have no psychotomimetic potential. Although results from animal studies are inconsistent to a certain extent and seem to depend on behavioral paradigms, treatment duration and experimental conditions applied, cannabidiol has shown antipsychotic properties in rodents and rhesus monkeys. After some individual treatment attempts, the first randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial had been conducted and demonstrated that cannabidiol exerts antipsychotic properties in acute schizophrenia comparable to the antipsychotic drug amisulpride accompanied by a superior, placebo-like side effect profile. As the clinical improvement by cannabidiol was significantly associated with elevated anandamide levels, it appears likely that its antipsychotic action is based on mechanisms associated with increased anandamide concentrations. However, a plethora of mechanisms of action has been suggested, but their potential relevance for the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol needs still to be investigated. The clarification of these mechanisms as well as the establishment of cannabidiol’s antipsychotic efficacy and its hopefully benign side-effect profile remains the subject of a number of previously started clinical trials.
Cannabidiol as a Potential New Type of an Antipsychotic. A Critical Review of the Evidence
Rohleder, Cathrin; Müller, Juliane K.; Lange, Bettina; Leweke, F. M.
2016-01-01
There is urgent need for the development of mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compounds. The endocannabinoid system has been suggested to represent a potential new target in this indication. While the chronic use of cannabis itself has been considered a risk factor contributing to the development of schizophrenia, triggered by the phytocannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol, the second most important phytocannabinoid, appears to have no psychotomimetic potential. Although, results from animal studies are inconsistent to a certain extent and seem to depend on behavioral paradigms, treatment duration and experimental conditions applied, cannabidiol has shown antipsychotic properties in both rodents and rhesus monkeys. After some individual treatment attempts, the first randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial demonstrated that in acute schizophrenia cannabidiol exerts antipsychotic properties comparable to the antipsychotic drug amisulpride while being accompanied by a superior, placebo-like side effect profile. As the clinical improvement by cannabidiol was significantly associated with elevated anandamide levels, it appears likely that its antipsychotic action is based on mechanisms associated with increased anandamide concentrations. Although, a plethora of mechanisms of action has been suggested, their potential relevance for the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol still needs to be investigated. The clarification of these mechanisms as well as the establishment of cannabidiol’s antipsychotic efficacy and its hopefully benign side-effect profile remains the subject of a number of previously started clinical trials. PMID:27877130
Ikot, A. N.; Lutfuoglu, B. C.; Ngwueke, M. I.; Udoh, M. E.; Zare, S.; Hassanabadi, H.
2016-12-01
In this paper we use the Nikiforov-Uvarov method to obtain the approximate solutions for the Klein-Gordon equation with the deformed five-parameter exponential-type potential (DFPEP) model. We also obtain solutions for the Schrödinger equation in the presence of DFPEP in non-relativistic limits. In addition, we calculate in the non-relativistic limits thermodynamics properties, such as vibrational mean energy U, free energy F and the specific heat capacity C. Special cases of the potential are also discussed.
Leonidas, Demetres D; Hayes, Joseph M; Kato, Atsushi; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Kyriakis, Efthimios; Chetter, Ben A; Stravodimos, George A
2017-01-01
Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a validated pharmaceutical target for the development of antihyperglycaemic agents. Phytogenic polyphenols, mainly flavonoids and pentacyclic triterpenes, have been found to be potent inhibitors of GP. These compounds have both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential for glycemic control in diabetes type 2. This review focuses mainly on the most successful (potent) of these compounds discovered to date. The protein-ligand interactions that form the structural basis of their potencies are discussed, highlighting the potential for exploitation of their scaffolds in the future design of new GP inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.
Potential association of paraoxonase-1, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and periodontitis.
Noack, Barbara; Aslanhan, Zeynep; Boué, Julia; Petig, Christin; Teige, Madlen; Schaper, Frank; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hannig, Christian
2013-05-01
The association between periodontitis and systemic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus (DM), has been recognized repeatedly. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is involved in the prevention of atherosclerosis, and decreased enzyme activity in patients with DM has been shown. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible correlation between decreased PON-1 activity and the association between impaired glucose metabolism or DM and periodontitis. PON-1 phenotype distribution and enzyme activities were characterized by measuring the hydrolysis of phenylacetate and paraoxon in serum samples of 87 patients with type 2 DM and 46 patients with pre-DM showing impaired fasting plasma glucose and/or impaired oral glucose tolerance. The control group comprised 64 individuals with normal fasting plasma glucose and normal glucose tolerance. Altogether, 154 study participants were available for complete clinical periodontal examination. No difference in periodontitis prevalence existed between the study groups. However, patients with DM had an increased risk of suffering from generalized periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio = 4.05; 95% confidence interval = 1.24 to 13.18; P = 0.02), and their PON-1 activity was reduced compared to controls. In contrast, patients with pre-DM showed neither an increased periodontitis risk nor an impaired paraoxonase status. PON-1 was not associated directly with periodontitis. Nevertheless, concerning patients with DM, poor oral hygiene, male sex, and PON-1 phenotype were found to be significant predictors for periodontitis extent. Type 2 DM, but not a prediabetic state, increases the risk of generalized periodontitis. PON-1 status in patients with type 2 DM may contribute to this association.
Treatment potential of the GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Østergaard, L; Frandsen, Christian S.; Madsbad, S
2016-01-01
Over the last decade, the discovery of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) has increased the treatment options for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1 RAs mimic the effects of native GLP-1, which increases insulin secretion, inhibits glucagon secretion, increases...... gastrointestinal discomfort, while hypoglycaemia is rarely reported when GLP-1 RAs not are combined with sulfonylurea or insulin. Treatment options in the near future will include co-formulations of basal insulin and a GLP-1 RA....
Rani, M Priya; Padmakumari, K P; Sankarikutty, B; Cherian, O Lijo; Nisha, V M; Raghu, K G
2011-03-01
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) continues to be used as an important cooking spice and herbal medicine around the world. Gingerols, the major pungent components of ginger, are known to improve diabetes, including the effect of enhancement against insulin sensitivity. In the current study, ginger sequentially extracted with different solvents-namely, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, 70% methanol-water and water-were screened to determine the variations in phenolic-linked active constituents. The potential of these extracts to inhibit key enzymes relevant to type 2 diabetes and inflammation was studied. Phenolic compounds-namely, gingerols and shoagols-were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ethyl acetate extract showed higher activity compared with other extracts. These studies indicate that ginger has very good potential for α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition relevant for type 2 diabetes management and cyclooxygenase inhibition for inflammation.
Jamal, Sameerah
In this paper, we study the geometric properties of generators for the Klein-Gordon equation on classes of space-time homogeneous Gödel-type metrics. Our analysis complements the study involving the “Symmetries of geodesic motion in Gödel-type spacetimes” by U. Camci (J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys., doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2014/07/002). These symmetries or Killing vectors (KVs) are used to construct potential functions admitted by the Klein-Gordon equation. The criteria for the potential function originates from three primary sources, viz. through generators that are identically the Killing algebra, or with the KV fields that are recast into linear combinations and third, real subalgebras within the Killing algebra. This leads to a classification of the (1 + 3) Klein-Gordon equation according to the catalogue of infinitesimal Lie and Noether point symmetries admitted. A comprehensive list of group invariant functions is provided and their application to analytic solutions is discussed.
Slanina, Zdeněk
1991-01-01
Harmonic vibrational analysis of the water dimer is reported for four BJH- and four MCYL-type flexible water-water potentials. The calculated monomer/dimer frequency shifts correspond reasonably well to the available observed terms, the BJH-type flexible potentials (with the gas-phase intramolecular potential) yielding a slightly better agreement.
Potential of liraglutide in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes
Carolyn F Deacon
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Carolyn F DeaconDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, Panum Institute, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, DenmarkAbstract: Liraglutide is a long-acting analog of GLP-1, being developed by Novo Nordisk and currently undergoing regulatory review for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Upon injection, liraglutide binds non-covalently to albumin, giving it a pharmacokinetic profile suitable for once-daily administration. In clinical trials of up to 1 year duration, liraglutide has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on islet cell function, leading to improvements in glycemic control. Both fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations are lowered, and are associated with lasting reductions in HbA1c levels. Liraglutide is effective as monotherapy and in combination therapy with oral antidiabetic drugs, and reduces HbA1c by up to ∼1.5% from baseline (8.2%–8.4%. Because of the glucose-dependency of its action, there is a low incidence of hypoglycemia. Liraglutide is associated with body weight loss, and reductions in systolic blood pressure have been observed throughout the clinical trials. The most common adverse events reported with liraglutide are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. These tend to be most pronounced during the initial period of therapy and decline with time. Further clinical experience with liraglutide will reveal its long-term durability, safety and efficacy.Keywords: liraglutide, GLP-1, incretin mimetic, type 2 diabetes
Evaluating the Age-Dependent Potential for Protein Deposition in Naked Neck Meat Type Chicken
Daulat R. Khan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The introduction of the naked neck gene (Na into modern meat type chicken is known to be helpful in increasing the tolerance for a high ambient temperature (AT by reducing the feather coverage which allows for a higher level of heat dissipation compared to normally feathered (na/na birds. In addition, reduced feather coverage could affect requirements for sulfur containing amino acids. As a prerequisite for further modeling of individual amino acid requirements, the daily N maintenance requirement (NMR and the threshold value of daily N retention (NRmaxT were determined. This was carried out using graded dietary protein supply and exponential modeling between N intake (NI and N excretion (NEX or N deposition (ND, respectively. Studies with homozygous (Na/Na and heterozygous (Na/na naked neck meat type chicken utilized 144 birds of average weight (50% of each genotype and sex within two N balance experiments during both the starter (days 10–20 and the grower period (days 25–35. Birds were randomly allotted to five diets with graded dietary protein supply but constant protein quality. The observed estimates depending on genotype, sex and age varied for NMR and NRmaxT from 224 to 395 and 2881 to 4049 mg N/BWkg0.67/day, respectively.
Jiangang Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for increasing wheat production and exploring the limiting factors to yield gap in the high-yielding farming region of North China Plain. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT model was used to identify methods to increase the grain yield and decrease the gap. In order to explore the impact of N and cultivars on wheat yield in the different drought types, the climate conditions during 1981 to 2011 growing seasons was categorized into low, moderate, and severe water deficit classes according to the anomaly percentage of the water deficit rate during the entire wheat growing season. There are differences (P < 0.0001 in the variations of the potential yields among three cultivars over 30 yr. For all three water deficit types, the more recent cultivars Jimai22 and Shijiazhuang8 had higher yields compared to the older 'Jinan17'. As the N fertilizer rate increased, the yield gap decreased more substantially during the low water deficit years because of the significant increase in attainable yield. Overall, the yield gaps were smaller with less water stress. Replacement of cultivars and appropriate N fertilizer application based on the forecasted drought types can narrow the yield gap effectively.
Type I IL-1 Receptor (IL-1RI as Potential New Therapeutic Target for Bronchial Asthma
Jyh-Hong Lee
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The IL-1R/TLR family has been receiving considerable attention as potential regulators of inflammation through their ability to act as either activators or suppressors of inflammation. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic inflammation, elevated serum total, allergen-specific IgE levels, and increased Th2 cytokine production. The discovery that the IL-1RI–IL-1 and ST2–IL-33 pathways are crucial for allergic inflammation has raised interest in these receptors as potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategies for bronchial asthma. This paper discusses the current use of neutralizing mAb or soluble receptor constructs to deplete cytokines, the use of neutralizing mAb or recombinant receptor antagonists to block cytokine receptors, and gene therapy from experimental studies in asthma. Targeting IL-1RI–IL-1 as well as ST2–IL-33 pathways may promise a disease-modifying approach in the future.
Ilieva, T.; Iliev, I.; Pashov, A.
2016-12-01
In the traditional description of electronic states of diatomic molecules by means of molecular constants or Dunham coefficients, one of the important fitting parameters is the value of the zero point energy - the minimum of the potential curve or the energy of the lowest vibrational-rotational level - E00 . Their values are almost always the result of an extrapolation and it may be difficult to estimate their uncertainties, because they are connected not only with the uncertainty of the experimental data, but also with the distribution of experimentally observed energy levels and the particular realization of set of Dunham coefficients. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis based on Monte Carlo simulations, which aims to demonstrate the influence of all these factors on the uncertainty of the extrapolated minimum of the potential energy curve U (Re) and the value of E00 . The very good extrapolation properties of the Dunham coefficients are quantitatively confirmed and it is shown that for a proper estimate of the uncertainties, the ambiguity in the composition of the Dunham coefficients should be taken into account.
Chun, Myung-Suk; Shim, Min Suk; Choi, Nak Won
2006-02-01
To elaborate on the applicability of the electrokinetic micro power generation, we designed and fabricated the silicon-glass as well as the PDMS-glass microfluidic chips with the unique features of a multi-channel. Besides miniaturizing the device, the key advantage of our microfluidic chip utilization lies in the reduction in water flow rate. Both a distributor and a collector taking the tapered duct geometry are positioned aiming the uniform distribution of water flow into all individual channels of the chip, in which several hundreds of single microchannels are assembled in parallel. A proper methodology is developed accompanying the deep reactive ion etching as well as the anodic bonding, and optimum process conditions necessary for hard and soft micromachining are presented. It has been shown experimentally and theoretically that the silicon-based microchannel leads to increasing streaming potential and higher external current compared to those of the PDMS-based one. A proper comparison between experimental results and theoretical computations allows justification of the validity of our novel devices. It is useful to recognize that a material inducing a higher magnitude of zeta potential has an advantage for obtaining higher power density under the same external resistance.
Imaging Membrane Potential with Two Types of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensors.
Lee, Sungmoo; Piao, Hong Hua; Sepheri-Rad, Masoud; Jung, Arong; Sung, Uhna; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Baker, Bradley J
2016-02-04
Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) have improved to the point where they are beginning to be useful for in vivo recordings. While the ultimate goal is to image neuronal activity in vivo, one must be able to image activity of a single cell to ensure successful in vivo preparations. This procedure will describe how to image membrane potential in a single cell to provide a foundation to eventually image in vivo. Here we describe methods for imaging GEVIs consisting of a voltage-sensing domain fused to either a single fluorescent protein (FP) or two fluorescent proteins capable of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in vitro. Using an image splitter enables the projection of images created by two different wavelengths onto the same charge-coupled device (CCD) camera simultaneously. The image splitter positions a second filter cube in the light path. This second filter cube consists of a dichroic and two emission filters to separate the donor and acceptor fluorescent wavelengths depending on the FPs of the GEVI. This setup enables the simultaneous recording of both the acceptor and donor fluorescent partners while the membrane potential is manipulated via whole cell patch clamp configuration. When using a GEVI consisting of a single FP, the second filter cube can be removed allowing the mirrors in the image splitter to project a single image onto the CCD camera.
Treatment potential of the GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review.
Østergaard, L; Frandsen, Christian S; Madsbad, S
2016-01-01
Over the last decade, the discovery of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) has increased the treatment options for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1 RAs mimic the effects of native GLP-1, which increases insulin secretion, inhibits glucagon secretion, increases satiety and slows gastric emptying. This review evaluates the phase III trials for all approved GLP-1 RAs and reports that all GLP-1 RAs decrease HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and lead to a reduction in body weight in the majority of trials. The most common adverse events are nausea and other gastrointestinal discomfort, while hypoglycaemia is rarely reported when GLP-1 RAs not are combined with sulfonylurea or insulin. Treatment options in the near future will include co-formulations of basal insulin and a GLP-1 RA.
Aija Kyttälä
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Reports on the retention of somatic cell memory in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have complicated the selection of the optimal cell type for the generation of iPSC biobanks. To address this issue we compared transcriptomic, epigenetic, and differentiation propensities of genetically matched human iPSCs derived from fibroblasts and blood, two tissues of the most practical relevance for biobanking. Our results show that iPSC lines derived from the same donor are highly similar to each other. However, genetic variation imparts a donor-specific expression and methylation profile in reprogrammed cells that leads to variable functional capacities of iPSC lines. Our results suggest that integration-free, bona fide iPSC lines from fibroblasts and blood can be combined in repositories to form biobanks. Due to the impact of genetic variation on iPSC differentiation, biobanks should contain cells from large numbers of donors.
The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Kootte, R S; Vrieze, A; Holleman, F; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Zoetendal, E G; de Vos, W M; Groen, A K; Hoekstra, J B L; Stroes, E S; Nieuwdorp, M
2012-02-01
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important contributor to the obesity--and T2DM--epidemic proposed to act by increasing energy harvest from the diet. Although obesity is associated with substantial changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota, the pathophysiological processes remain only partly understood. In this review we will describe the development of the adult human microbiome and discuss how the composition of the gut microbiota changes in response to modulating factors. The influence of short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and microbial transplantation is discussed from studies using animal and human models. Ultimately, we aim to translate these findings into therapeutic pathways for obesity and T2DM in humans.
Lue, June-Horng; Day, An-Shiou; Cheng, Po-Wen; Young, Yi-Ho
2009-01-01
This study applied the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test to guinea pigs coupled with electronic microscopic examination to determine whether VEMPs are dependent on type I or II hair cell activity of the saccular macula. An amount of 0.05 ml of gentamicin (40 mg/ml) was injected directly overlaying, but not through, the round window membrane of the left ear in guinea pigs.One week after surgery, auditory brainstem response test revealed normal responses in 12 animals (80%), and elevated thresholds in 3 animals (20%). The VEMP test using click stimulation showed absent responses in all 15 animals (100%). Another 6 gentamicin-treated animals underwent the VEMP test using galvanic stimulation and all 6 also displayed absent responses. Ultrathin sections of the saccular macula in the gentamicin-treated ears displayed morphologic alterations in type I or II hair cells, including shrinkage and/or vacuolization in the cytoplasm, increased electron density of the cytoplasm and nuclear chromatin, and cellular lucency. However, extrusion degeneration was rare and only present in type II hair cells. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the histological density of intact type I hair cells was 1.1 +/- 1.2/4000 microm(2) in the gentamicin-treated ears, showing significantly less than that in control ears (4.5 +/- 1.8/4000 microm(2)). However, no significant difference was observed in the densities of intact type II hair cells and supporting cells between treated and control ears. Furthermore, the calyx terminals surrounding the damaged type I hair cells were swollen and disrupted, while the button afferents contacting the damaged type II hair cells were not obviously deformed. Based on the above results, we therefore conclude that VEMPs are heavily dependent on type I hair cell activity of the saccular macula in guinea pigs.
Basic problems and new potentials in monitoring sediment transport using Japanese pipe type geophone
Sakajo, Saiichi
2016-04-01
The authors have conducted a lot of series of monitoring of sediment transport by pipe type geophone in a model hydrological channel with various gradients and water discharge, using the various size of particles from 2 to 21 mm in the diameter. In the case of casting soils particle by particle into the water channel, 1,000 test cases were conducted. In the case of casting all soils at a breath into the water channel, 100 test cases were conducted. The all test results were totally analyzed by the conventional method, with visible judgement by video pictures. Then several important basic problems were found in estimating the volume and particle distributions by the conventional method, which was not found in the past similar studies. It was because the past studies did not consider the types of collisions between sediment particle and pipe. Based on these experiments, the authors have firstly implemented this idea into the old formula to estimate the amount of sediment transport. In the formula, two factors of 1) the rate of sensing in a single collision and 2) the rate of collided particles to a cast all soil particles were concretely considered. The parameters of these factors could be determined from the experimental results and it was found that the obtained formula could estimate grain size distribution. In this paper, they explain the prototype formula to estimate a set of volume and distribution of sediment transport. Another finding in this study is to propose a single collision as a river index to recognize its characteristics of sediment transport. This result could characterize the risk ranking of sediment transport in the rivers and mudflow in the mountainous rivers. Furthermore, in this paper the authors explain how the preciseness of the pipe geophone to sense the smaller sediment particles shall be improved, which has never been able to be sensed.
Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin
2017-04-01
We provide a formulation of determining the Earth's gravitational potential distribution over a geocentric quasi-sphere (QS) that is constructed by a GRACE-type satellite (GTS), based on frequency signal transmission between the GTS and a cluster of GNSS satellites (CGS). By emitting and receiving frequency signals between the GTS and a GNSS satellite, we can determine the gravitational potential at the GTS orbit. For a near-polar GTS with height about 350 km above the geoid, we choose sufficient GNSS satellites to determine the gravitational potential at the GTS position. Simulation results show that the accuracy of the determined gravitational potential distribution over the QS can achieve centimeter level if (1) the accuracy of the given potentials at GDSs is about 1 cm level, and (2) optical atomic clocks with instability of 1*10E-18 are available. Our final purpose is to determine the Earth's external gravity field based on the potential distribution on the QS. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant No. 2013CB733301 and 2013CB733305) and NSFCs (grant Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061)
Mitra, A N
1999-01-01
The Markov-Yukawa Transversality Principle (TP) on a 2-body Bethe-Salpeter kernel is formulated on a covariant Null Plane (NP) to reconstruct the 4D BS wave function for 2 fermion quarks in terms of 3D entities that satisfy a 3D BSE. This result is a null-plane counterpart of a similar interconnection for the 2-body BS wave functions found earlier by imposing the TP covariantly in the instantaneous rest frame (termed CIA) of the composite. This ``TP-NP'' formulation yields a 3D BSE which is formally identical in structure to its 3D CIA form, thus fully preserving the spectral results of CIA. More importantly, 4D quark-loop integrals are now free from time-like momentum anomalies caused by the product of gaussian wave functions in their integrands, while a simple prescription of `Lorentz completion' yields a manifestly L-invariant amplitude. This is illustrated for the pion form factor which is worked out with full QED gauge-invariance and shows a $k^{-2}$ behaviour at large $k^2$. This method is also compared...
Polonsky, N
1994-01-01
Only small regions in the m_{t} - \\tan\\beta plane are allowed when considering simultaneously (assuming the MSSM) coupling constant unification and (minimal) GUT relations among Yukawa couplings (i.e., h_{b} = h_{\\tau} at the unification point). In particular, if m_{t} \\simle 175 GeV we find that only 1 \\simle \\tan\\beta \\simle 1.5 or \\tan\\beta \\simgr 40 \\pm 10 is allowed. The former implies that the light Higgs boson is \\simle 110 GeV and, in principle, visible to LEPII. The prediction for the Higgs boson mass in the \\tan\\beta \\approx 1 scenario is discussed and uncertainties related to (i) vacuum stability constraints, (ii) different methods for calculating the Higgs boson mass, (iii) two-loop calculations and (iv) GUT corrections are briefly reviewed. It is shown that large left-right mixing between the t-scalars can significantly enhance the Higgs boson mass. That and an ambiguity in the size of the two-loop correction lead to our conservative upper bound of 110 GeV. Vacuum stability considerations constra...
Caulerpin as a potential antiviral drug against herpes simplex virus type 1
Nathália Regina Porto Vieira Macedo
2012-08-01
Full Text Available About 80% of the human adult population is infected with HSV-1. Although there are many anti-HSV-1 drugs available (acyclovir, ganciclovir, valaciclovir, foscarnet, their continuous use promotes the selection of resistant strains, mainly in ACV patients. In addition to resistance, the drugs also have toxicity, particularly when administration is prolonged. The study of new molecules isolated from green algae with potential antiviral activity represents a good opportunity for the development of antiviral drugs. Caulerpin, the major product from the marine algae Caulerpa Lamouroux (Caulerpales, is known for its biological activities such as antioxidant, antifungal, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChE and antibacterial activity. In this work, we show that caulerpin could be an alternative to acyclovir as an anti-HSV-1 drug that inhibits the alpha and beta phases of the replication cycle.
Inhibitory potential of fatty acids on key enzymes related to type 2 diabetes.
Su, Chun-Han; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Ng, Lean-Teik
2013-01-01
This study aimed to examine the inhibitory mechanisms of fatty acids on key enzymes related to type 2 diabetes, and their effects on starch digestion rate. Among the 10 fatty acids analyzed, oleic acid showed the strongest anti-α-glucosidase activity, followed by linoleic acid, and their activities were more potent than acarbose, but they possessed a weaker anti-α-amylase activity. Kinetic assays demonstrated that oleic acid and linoleic acid were competitive inhibitors, and their interactions with α-glucosidase exhibited a character of static quenching, which indicates that they would bind to α-glucosidase to form a complex. However, they had little effects on the secondary structures of α-glucosidase. In vitro study showed that oleic acid and linoleic acid were more potent than acarbose in inhibiting starch digestion. Taken together, these results conclude that oleic acid and linoleic acid possess potent inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase activity. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Raskin, Philip
2013-07-01
Results from randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that the risk of microvascular complications can be reduced by intensive glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, only about half of patients with diagnosed diabetes achieve recommended glycaemic goals. New therapies with complementary mechanisms of action that are independent of insulin secretion or action may provide additional therapeutic options to enable patients to achieve glycaemic control. The kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, primarily by the reabsorption of filtered glucose. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), located in the proximal convoluted tubule, is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption by the kidney. SGLT2 inhibitors offer a novel approach to treat T2DM and reduce hyperglycaemia by increasing urinary excretion of glucose. Dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor recently approved in Europe for the treatment of T2DM, improves glycaemic control in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or when added to other diabetes medications, such as metformin, sulfonylureas, pioglitazone, and insulin. As a class, SGLT2 inhibitors are well tolerated and have a low propensity to cause hypoglycaemia. An increase in signs, symptoms, and other events suggestive of genital and, in some studies, urinary tract infections has been reported with SGLT2 inhibitors. Results from ongoing and future clinical trials will help define the role for this new class of investigational compounds, with its unique mechanism of action, as a treatment option for reducing hyperglycaemia in patients with T2DM.
Energy eigenvalues of spherical symmetric potentials with relativistic corrections: analytic results
Dineykhan, M; Zhaugasheva, S A [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Toinbaeva, N Sh [al-Farabi Kazak National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)
2010-01-14
Based on the investigation of the asymptotic behaviour of the polarization loop function for charged n scalar particles in an external gauge field, we determine the interaction Hamiltonian including the relativistic corrections. The energy eigenvalues of spherical symmetric potentials for two-particle bound state systems with relativistic corrections are analytically derived. The energy spectra of linear and funnel potentials with orbital and radial excitations are determined. The energy spectrum of a superposition of Coulomb and Yukawa potentials is also determined. Our result shows that the energy spectrum with the relativistic corrections for the linear, harmonic oscillator and funnel potentials is smaller than the upper boundaries for the energy spectrum established in the framework of the spinless Salpeter equation for the orbital and radial excited states. The relativistic corrections to the energy spectrum of a superposition of the attractive Coulomb potential and the Yukawa (exponentially screened Coulomb) potentials are very small.
Van Hooydonk, G
2011-01-01
We review harmonic oscillator theory for closed, stable quantum systems. The H2 potential energy curve (PEC) of Mexican hat-type, calculated with a confined Kratzer oscillator, is better than the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) H2 PEC. Compared with QM, the theory of chemical bonding is simplified, since a confined Kratzer oscillator gives the long sought for universal function, once called the Holy Grail of Molecular Spectroscopy. This is validated with HF, I2, N2 and O2 PECs. We quantify the entanglement of spatially separated H2 quantum states, which gives a braid view. The equal probability for H2, originating either from HA+HB or HB+HA, is quantified with a Gauss probability density function. At the Bohr scale, confined harmonic oscillators behave properly at all extremes of bound two-nucleon quantum systems and are likely to be useful also at the nuclear scale.
Action potential energy efficiency varies among neuron types in vertebrates and invertebrates.
Biswa Sengupta
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs places high demands on the energetic resources of neural tissue. Each AP forces ATP-driven ion pumps to work harder to restore the ionic concentration gradients, thus consuming more energy. Here, we ask whether the ionic currents underlying the AP can be predicted theoretically from the principle of minimum energy consumption. A long-held supposition that APs are energetically wasteful, based on theoretical analysis of the squid giant axon AP, has recently been overturned by studies that measured the currents contributing to the AP in several mammalian neurons. In the single compartment models studied here, AP energy consumption varies greatly among vertebrate and invertebrate neurons, with several mammalian neuron models using close to the capacitive minimum of energy needed. Strikingly, energy consumption can increase by more than ten-fold simply by changing the overlap of the Na(+ and K(+ currents during the AP without changing the APs shape. As a consequence, the height and width of the AP are poor predictors of energy consumption. In the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the squid axon, optimizing the kinetics or number of Na(+ and K(+ channels can whittle down the number of ATP molecules needed for each AP by a factor of four. In contrast to the squid AP, the temporal profile of the currents underlying APs of some mammalian neurons are nearly perfectly matched to the optimized properties of ionic conductances so as to minimize the ATP cost.
A potential and novel type transgenic corn plant for control of the Corn Borer
Yue, Zhen; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Enyan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Zhangwu
2017-01-01
The corn borer is a world-wide agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide F (npf) gene in Ostrinia furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from a cDNA library, in which the npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants - npf1 and npf2 (with a 120 bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence to generate npf2). A spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that the highest expression level of npf was in the midgut of 5th instar larvae (the gluttony period), and their npf expression and food consumption were significantly promoted after food deprivation for 6 h. When npf was knocked down by double-stranded RNA for NPF, larval food intake, weight and body size were effectively inhibited through changes of a biosynthesis and metabolism pathway; i.e. gene silencing of NPF causes decreases of total lipid and glycogen and increases of trehalose production. Moreover, we produced transgenic corn plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that O. furnacalis larvae fed on these transgenic leaves had lower food consumption and smaller body size compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the feeding control of O. furnacalis and valuable for production of potential transgenic corn. PMID:28290513