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Sample records for yu shizhuo yin

  1. [Gao Jingyi. Han yu yu bei Ou yu yan : Han yu yu Wula'er yu yan ji Yin Ou yu yan tong yuan tan jiu] / Ago Künnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künnap, Ago, 1941-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Gao Jingyi. Han yu yu bei Ou yu yan : Han yu yu Wula'er yu yan ji Yin Ou yu yan tong yuan tan jiu = Chinese language and languages of northern Europe. Beijing : Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she, 2008

  2. Qian Yang Yu Yin Granule-containing serum inhibits angiotensin II-induced proliferation, reactive oxygen species production, and inflammation in human mesangial cells via an NADPH oxidase 4-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kang; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Weimin; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Hongping; Fang, Zhuyuan

    2015-03-25

    Qian Yang Yu Yin Granule (QYYYG), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been indicated for renal damage in hypertension for decades in China, but little remains known regarding its underlying molecular mechanism. Therefore, we performed the current study in order to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of QYYYG in the treatment of hypertensive renal damage. We hypothesize that QYYYG relieves hypertensive renal injury through an angiotensin II (Ang II)-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH)-oxidase (NOX)-reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of QYYYG-containing serum (QYGS) in human mesangial cells (HMCs) against Ang II-induced cell proliferation, ROS production, and inflammation through the seropharmacological method. We found that QYGS could inhibit cell proliferation in Ang II-treated HMCs. In addition, QYGS considerably suppressed production of ROS, decreased mRNA and protein expression of NAPDH-oxidase 4 (NOX4), p22 (phox) , and activated Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (GTP-Rac1); as well as counteracted the up-regulation of inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, and interleukin 6 (IL-6). These effects were further confirmed in HMCs transfected with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NOX4. Taken together, these results suggest that a NOX4-dependent pathway plays an important role in regulating the inhibitory effect of QYGS. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of QYYYG and their role in the treatment of hypertensive nephropathy.

  3. Mengfan Yin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mengfan Yin. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 127 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 1531-1538. Heavy main-group iodometallates hybridized by alkali metal via 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-dione · Mengfan Yin Gengxing Cai Peng Wang Xihui Chao Jibo Liu Haohong Li Zhirong Chen · More Details Abstract ...

  4. aihua yin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. AIHUA YIN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 4 September 2017 pp 687-693 RESEARCH NOTE. The association study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate identified risk variants of the GLI3 gene in a Chinese population · YIRUI WANG YIMIN SUN ...

  5. JIU-REN YIN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. JIU-REN YIN. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 6 October 2017 pp 1255-1261. Molecular dynamics study on the relaxation properties of bilayered graphene with defects · WEI ZHANG JIU-REN YIN PING ZHANG YAN-HUAI DING YONG J IANG.

  6. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored.......The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  7. Yin Ŕ ja tema looming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Lühidalt Bõ Yin Ŕ elust ja loomingust, tema raamatutest : Raamat elavast jumalast. Kuressaare, 2003 ; Raamat õnnest. Kuressaare, 2004 ; Armastuseraamat. Kuressaare, 2003 ; Elu mõte. Kuressaare, 2004

  8. Yin and yang surfaces: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, David

    2014-12-01

    A search of the Chinese medicine literature reveals several conflicting explanations of the division of the body into yin and yang surfaces. This paper attempts to clarify this basic concept and reconcile the differing descriptions of it through an exploration of material from other disciplines. A remarkable similarity exists between the surfaces on the human body that are defined by the pathways of the yin and yang meridians and those that have evolved from the ventral and the dorsal aspects of early vertebrate structure. Many of the evolutionary changes described have parallels in our embryological development and are evident in the underlying anatomy of our limbs. The degree of convergence between the two descriptions strongly supports the definition of the yin and yang surfaces as those traversed by the yin and yang meridians. It also goes a long way towards reconciling the conflicting definitions found in the literature. Finding a solution to this question of yin and yang surfaces that is based on anatomy and evolutionary theories has several advantages. It can throw light on differences in the clinical effects of points on the yin and yang meridians and enable the identification of anomalies in the pathways of the main meridian network. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Two Opposing Effects (Yin and Yang) Determine Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujun; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Xu, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we introduce a new vision of cancer describing opposing effects that control progression. Cancer is a paradigm of opposing of "Yin" and "Yang," with Yin being the effect to promote cancer and Yang that to maintain the normal state. This Yin Yang hypothesis has been used to select Yin and Yang genes to develop multigene signatures for determining prognosis in lung and breast cancer. Most of the Yin genes are involved in cell survival, growth, and proliferation, whereas most Yang genes are involved in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, Yin and Yang pathways have been identified in breast cancer and compounds that can inhibit the Yin pathways or activate the Yang pathways have been examined, suggesting a new promising targeting therapy for cancer. We are building a Yin Yang model to represent the dynamic change of Yin and Yang genes and pathways.

  10. Protective effect of Yin Shen Yin on chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood in dogs induced by γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bingchai; Chen Tiehe; Lu Jiaben; Wang Zongwu; Huang Yinmei

    1992-01-01

    'Yin Shen Yin' preparation used in this studies is made up of Tremella Fcuiformis, Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi and others. The drug was taken orally to dogs before irradiation, and the same time, its anti-radiation effect was compared with those of Tremella Fuciformis and cystamine. The results showed that 'Yin Shen Yin', Tremella and cystamine all have not obvious harmful effects on chromosome, however, they have good protective effects on chromosome damage induced by γ-ray irradiation. Among them, high dose 'Yin Shen Yin' has the best radio-protective effect

  11. Electron–phonon superconductivity in YIn3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, D; Llewellyn-Jones, T M; Maroso, G; Dugdale, S B

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations of the electron–phonon coupling were performed on the cubic intermetallic compound YIn 3 . The electron–phonon coupling constant was found to be λ ep = 0.42. Using the Allen–Dynes formula with a Coulomb pseudopotential of μ* = 0.10, a T c of approximately 0.77 K is obtained which is reasonably consistent with the experimentally observed temperature (between 0.8 and 1.1 K). The results indicate that conventional electron–phonon coupling is capable of producing the superconductivity in this compound. (paper)

  12. Electron-phonon superconductivity in YIn3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, D.; Llewellyn-Jones, T. M.; Maroso, G.; Dugdale, S. B.

    2013-08-01

    First-principles calculations of the electron-phonon coupling were performed on the cubic intermetallic compound YIn3. The electron-phonon coupling constant was found to be λep = 0.42. Using the Allen-Dynes formula with a Coulomb pseudopotential of μ* = 0.10, a Tc of approximately 0.77 K is obtained which is reasonably consistent with the experimentally observed temperature (between 0.8 and 1.1 K). The results indicate that conventional electron-phonon coupling is capable of producing the superconductivity in this compound.

  13. Can Yin-Yang Guide Chinese Indigenous Management Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    : Chinese Yin-Yang philosophy, Hegel's dialectic, and Niels Bohr's complementarity principle, as well as Aristotle's formal (either/or) logic. I show that the four logical systems have differences and similarities and show that Westerners can and do think dialectically. I also argue that Chinese Yin......-Yang philosophy, while useful and powerful in some situations, is not always superior to the other logical systems and philosophies. My purpose is to alert Chinese management scholars to the dangers of overconfidence and to stimulate discussion and debate on the true value of Yin-Yang in particular...

  14. GREECE FACES A YIN-YANG DEVELOPMENT PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Andra SIMIONESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept Yin-Yang represents the unity of opposites and complementarity. In this respect, from the economical point of view a positive Yin phase represents the cash flow, brings nutrition, gentleness and protection, while a negative Yin phase means capital loss, sloth and passive obedience, a positive Yang phase is translated as an action based on funds, emphasising the creation, the construction and the development of infrastructure thanks to an economical action plan, while a negative Yang phase leads to conflicts, to excessive product stocks and to a stock market collapse, causing, in this line, crisis and inflation by increasing prices and decreasing purchasing power. In the European Union, Greece faces a Yang negative phase. When having too much positive Yin monetary stimulus from the EU, the Yin-Yang balance turns in favour of a negative Yang bankrupcy and unemployment. Thus, I explore not only the Greece’s economical dimension, but also its geographic role, the synergy between culture and DNA and the last, but not the least, the human’s ability in creating a new positive Yin-Yang flourishing future.

  15. Validity of Yin-Yang temperament in Sasang Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bo Kyung; Yoon, Yeo-Jin; Han, Sang Yun; Lee, Soo Jin; Chae, Han

    2018-03-01

    The Yin-Yang is a pivotal concept of traditional East-Asian medicine, however the stability of Yin-Yang temperament in Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) over time has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest validity of SPQ with a large number of participants. SPQ test was conducted two times with three months interval in 247 Korean university students. The structural validity of first SPQ data was examined with Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha, and the correlation between first and second measure of SPQ was attested with Pearson's correlation. Yang, Uncertain and Yin temperament groups were determined with SPQ total scores, and agreement of temperament group clustering between first and second measures were analyzed with Cohen's Kappa. Three subscales of SPQ explained 55.25% of total variances, and internal consistency of SPQ total score was 0.772. The correlation coefficient between first and second measures of SPQ were 0.851 and 0.888 in male and female, respectively, and the agreement of first and second Yin-Yang temperament group clustering as Cohen's Kappa was 0.536 for male and 0.637 for female. The repeatability of SPQ measuring Yin-Yang temperament at three months of interval was found to be satisfactory. The SPQ would be a reliable clinical measure for the biopsychological studies of traditional East-Asian medicine.

  16. Is Yin-Yang Superior for Paradox Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner; Peihong, Xie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The paper debunks Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang is superior to any other cognitive frames or logical systems for paradox research. The purpose of this paper is to alert the Chinese indigenous management researchers to the danger of Chinese exceptionalism and over-confidence. Design...... of cultural exceptionalism and ethnocentrism can make cross-cultural communication and interaction smoother. Originality/value This paper is a rigorous critique on the “Yin-Yang being superior” assertion of Peter P. Li....

  17. Two new species and new record of Batricavus Yin & Li (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Two new species, Batricavus abdominalis Yin & Li, sp. n. and Batricavus hainanensis Yin & Li, sp. n. are described from Hainan, South China, with male habitus and major diagnostic features illustrated. Batricavus tibialis Yin & Li is newly recorded from Zhejiang, East China. Keys to both sexes of the genus are included.

  18. A taxonomic revision of the genus Sinotrisus Yin & Li (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Nomura, Shûhei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The genus Sinotrisus Yin & Li, comprising four species, is redefined and revised. Members of Sinotrisus are often found with ants of the subfamily Formicinae, or in humid forest habitats. The type speciesand three new species are (re-)described and illustrated: Sinotrisus kishimotoi Yin & Nomura, sp. n. (China: Sichuan), Sinotrisus nomurai Yin, Li & Zhao (type species) (China: Zhejing), Sinotrisus sinensis Yin & Nomura, sp. n. (China: Sichuan) and Sinotrisus vietnamensis Yin & Nomura, sp. n. (Vietnam: Lai Chau). A key is included as an aid to distinguishing these species.

  19. Dynamic Monitoring of Yin Xu Site by Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruixia; Peng, Yanyan

    2014-03-01

    Yin Xu, dates back more than 3,300 years, is the first relic of the capital of the Shang Dynasty literally recorded and confirmed by oracle bone scripts and the archaeological excavation in China. Located in Anyang City of Henan Province(northwestern suburbs of Huanhe banks) it covers an area of around 36 km2. According to the characteristics of Yin Xu, remote sensing has shown its great capabilities to solve many issues in different fields, e.g. visual interpretations of aerial photo were used to identify the feature of Yin Xu site in 1972, 1984, 1998, 2005 and 2010. Using the classification validated by field investigations,the change information such as the monitoring index of settlements, riverway, main roads, factory and green area can be extracted in heritage site. According to the monitoring results of land cover and the surrounding environment, we conclude that the protection planning system is effective, and the rapid expansion of neighboring building area has playing a negative role in Yin Xu protection.

  20. Dynamic Monitoring of Yin Xu Site by Remote Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ruixia; Peng, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Yin Xu, dates back more than 3,300 years, is the first relic of the capital of the Shang Dynasty literally recorded and confirmed by oracle bone scripts and the archaeological excavation in China. Located in Anyang City of Henan Province(northwestern suburbs of Huanhe banks) it covers an area of around 36 km 2 . According to the characteristics of Yin Xu, remote sensing has shown its great capabilities to solve many issues in different fields, e.g. visual interpretations of aerial photo were used to identify the feature of Yin Xu site in 1972, 1984, 1998, 2005 and 2010. Using the classification validated by field investigations,the change information such as the monitoring index of settlements, riverway, main roads, factory and green area can be extracted in heritage site. According to the monitoring results of land cover and the surrounding environment, we conclude that the protection planning system is effective, and the rapid expansion of neighboring building area has playing a negative role in Yin Xu protection

  1. Jing Tong Yu Shu , a traditional Chinese medicine, suppresses IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, Jing Tong Yu Shu (JTYS) on endometriosis in a rat surgical model. Methods: Endometriosis was induced in 40 female rats. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: three JTYS groups given different doses of the drug, and a saline group. After four ...

  2. [Autobiography of modern acupuncturist Yu Shu-zhuang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-jian' i; Guo, Jing; Yu, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Lin-peng

    2014-11-01

    Professor YU Shu-zhuang is a distinguished acupuncturist in China. He has practiced the TCM acupuncture-moxibustion clinical, educational and scientific research for 60 years in his life. In clinic, he summarized the experiences "five-ming first"; in treatment, he insisted "dredging" and "regulating", protecting the function of spleen and stomach, and needles should be less but specific. In the meanwhile, he made a deep study on the function and clinical effects of specific acupoints, and used the research results of propagated sensation along channel to guide clinical treatment, forming his special academic points. Professor YU has educated a great number of acupuncture-moxibustion talents in China and foreign countries, making great contribution to the popularization of acupuncture-moxibustion in the worldwide.

  3. Yin Zhi Huang and other plant-derived preparations: where herbal and molecular medicine meet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, Ronald Oude

    2004-01-01

    Yin Zhi Huang, a decoction of Yin Chin (Artemisia capillaris) and three other herbs, is widely used in Asia to prevent and treat neonatal jaundice. We recently identified the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR113) as a key regulator of bilirubin clearance in the liver. Here we show that

  4. 75 FR 3781 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Projects 92: Yin Xiuzhen”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6884] Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``Projects 92: Yin Xiuzhen'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations... ``Projects 92: Yin Xiuzhen,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, is of...

  5. Geodynamo and mantle convection simulations on the Earth Simulator using the Yin-Yang grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Akira; Yoshida, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We have developed finite difference codes based on the Yin-Yang grid for the geodynamo simulation and the mantle convection simulation. The Yin-Yang grid is a kind of spherical overset grid that is composed of two identical component grids. The intrinsic simplicity of the mesh configuration of the Yin-Yang grid enables us to develop highly optimized simulation codes on massively parallel supercomputers. The Yin-Yang geodynamo code has achieved 15.2 Tflops with 4096 processors on the Earth Simulator. This represents 46% of the theoretical peak performance. The Yin-Yang mantle code has enabled us to carry out mantle convection simulations in realistic regimes with a Rayleigh number of 10 7 including strongly temperature dependent viscosity with spatial contrast up to 10 6

  6. Dynamics analysis of fractional order Yu-Wang system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalekar, Sachin

    2013-10-01

    Fractional order version of a dynamical system introduced by Yu and Wang (Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, 2, (2012) 209-215) is discussed in this article. The basic dynamical properties of the system are studied. Minimum effective dimension 0.942329 for the existence of chaos in the proposed system is obtained using the analytical result. For chaos detection, we have calculated maximum Lyapunov exponents for various values of fractional order. Feedback control method is then used to control chaos in the system. Further, the system is synchronized with itself and with fractional order financial system using active control technique. Modified Adams-Bashforth-Moulton algorithm is used for numerical simulations.

  7. Reduced MLH3 Expression in the Syndrome of Gan-Shen Yin Deficiency in Patients with Different Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Zhong, Maofeng; Liu, Dong; Liang, Shufang; Liu, Xiaolin; Cheng, Binbin; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Zifei; Wang, Yuan; Ling, Changquan

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the characteristic genes of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution in different diseases. Fifty primary liver cancer (PLC) patients, 94 hypertension (HBP) patients, and 100 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were enrolled and classified into gan-shen Yin deficiency group and non-gan-shen Yin deficiency group according to the body constitution questionnaire to assess the clinical manifestation of patients. The mRNA expressions of 17 genes in PLC patients with gan-shen Yin deficiency were different from those without gan-shen Yin deficiency. However, considering all patients with PLC, HBP, and DM, only MLH3 was significantly lower in gan-shen Yin deficiency group than that in non-gen-shen Yin deficiency. By ROC analysis, the relationship between MLH3 and gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution was confirmed. Treatment of MLH3 (-/- and -/+) mice with Liuweidihuang wan, classical prescriptions for Yin deficiency, partly ameliorates the body constitution of Yin deficiency in MLH3 (-/+) mice, but not in MLH3 (-/-) mice. MLH3 might be one of material bases of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution.

  8. Zhong-Yong as Dynamic Balancing Between Yin-Yang Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to comment on Peter Ping Li’s understanding of Zhong-Yong balancing, presented in his article titled “Global implications of the indigenous epistemological system from the East: How to apply Yin-Yang balancing to paradox management.” Seeing his understanding....... Originality/value This commentary contributes to the “West meets East” discourse by debunking Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang balancing is superior as a solution to paradox management and his prescription that balancing between Yin-Yang opposites must be asymmetric. It also contributes to the Chinese...

  9. [Primary investigation on fumigation and moxibustion in treatment ulcer and sore of yin syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chao-Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Jing; Li, Pin-Chuan; Liu, Xian-Zhou; Yin, Yue; Tian, Ying

    2011-09-01

    To explore the fumigation and moxibustion therapy in treatment of ulcer and sore of yin syndrome. The fumigation and moxibustion therapy is the combination of fumigation and moxibustion, in which, smoking fumigation is provided with warming effect and the actions as moxibustion. This therapy works on the efficacy of both fumigation and moxibustion. In treatment, different herbal medicines can be selected flexibly, acting on dispersing yin and rescuing yang. The fumigation and moxibustion therapy can drain toxin and remove ulcer and sore. It contributes to the treatment of boils and chronic sores of yin syndrome and promotes wound healing.

  10. Yu.S. Osipov's work in mathematical control theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryazhimskiy, Arkady A

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of Yu.S. Osipov's work in mathematical control theory, including development of the theory of positional differential games for control systems with time delay; analysis of the phenomenon of infinite dimensionality of the state space of a dynamical system in the context of differential games; development of the theory of dynamical inversion (dynamical regularization) for finite- and infinite-dimensional control systems; applications of methods of the theory of positional differential games beyond the scope of the theory itself; work on new differential-game methods and on methods of control under incomplete information. The author of this overview is the first student of Osipov, and also his longstanding colleague.

  11. [The historical materials of stomatology in the oracle bone inscriptions of the Yin-Shang Dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Zhu, Lang

    2015-07-01

    Some oracle bone inscriptions of the Yin-Shang Dynasties were related to the stomatology, including special terms of diseases of the mouth, tongue and teeth which were classified, and proper nouns of some special diseases. Moreover, witch doctors' exploration for the causes of oral diseases, the observation on different stages of oral diseases, and the records of oral disease treatment were also involved. All of these reflected the sprouting stage of stomatology in the Yin-Shang Dynasties in ancient China.

  12. Dr. Yu Wang, Director, Natural Science Division, National Science Council, Taiwan

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: L. to r.: Dr. Philippe Bloch, CERN CMS ECAL Deputy Project Manager, Dr. Yu Wang, Dr. Etiennette Auffray, CERN, responsible of the CERN ECAL Regional Centre. Photo 02: L. to r.: Dr. Yu Wang, Dr. Philippe Bloch, Dr. Apollo GO, National Central University, Taiwan, Dr. Etiennette Auffray.

  13. Comments on Yu N Parkhomenko's paper 'Role of aberration effects in dispersive cavities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhov, S P

    1999-01-01

    The legitimacy of the approach, proposed by Yu N Parkhomenko for dealing with the operation of solid-state lasers with dispersive cavities, is discussed. Additional information is provided on the neodymium glass laser, used in the present author's experiment. Comment on A Yu N Parkhomenko 1998 Quantum Electron. 28 1102. (discussion)

  14. Stress and Systemic Inflammation: Yin-Yang Dynamics in Health and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Studies in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) would provide better insights into the "whole mind-body system." Systems biology models of the complex adaptive systems (CASs), such as a conceptual framework of "Yin-Yang dynamics," may be helpful for identifying systems-based biomarkers and targets for more effective prevention and treatment. The disturbances in the Yin-Yang dynamical balance may result in stress, inflammation, and various disorders including insomnia, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, skin disorders, and cancer. At the molecular and cellular levels, the imbalances in the cytokine pathways, mitochondria networks, redox systems, and various signaling pathways may contribute to systemic inflammation. In the nervous system, Yin and Yang may represent the dynamical associations between the progressive and regressive processes in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In response to the damages to the heart, the Yin-Yang dynamical balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine networks is crucial. The studies of cancer have revealed the importance of the Yin-Yang dynamics in the tumoricidal and tumorigenic activities of the immune system. Stress-induced neuroimmune imbalances are also essential in chronic skin disorders including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. With the integrative framework, the restoration of the Yin-Yang dynamics can become the objective of dynamical systems medicine.

  15. Design of PDC Controllers by Matrix Reversibility for Synchronization of Yin and Yang Chaotic Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Henon Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yen Ho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the synchronization of Yin and Yang chaotic T-S fuzzy Henon maps via PDC controllers. Based on the Chinese philosophy, Yin is the decreasing, negative, historical, or feminine principle in nature, while Yang is the increasing, positive, contemporary, or masculine principle in nature. Yin and Yang are two fundamental opposites in Chinese philosophy. The Henon map is an invertible map; so the Henon maps with increasing and decreasing argument can be called the Yang and Yin Henon maps, respectively. Chaos synchronization of Yin and Yang T-S fuzzy Henon maps is achieved by PDC controllers. The design of PDC controllers is based on the linear invertible matrix theory. The T-S fuzzy model of Yin and Yang Henon maps and the design of PDC controllers are novel, and the simulation results show that the approach is effective.

  16. THE YIN AND YANG OF CSR ETHICAL BRANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellisha Nasruddin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the current discourse and the often overly-commercialized hyperbole of branding and positioning, there is a particular area that has not been given due attention. Yet, with the rapid changes and the multiple crises of present-day realities, a frequently neglected area, emerges as vitally imperative. The troubles can be seen in both large as well as small businesses within Malaysia. This article, thus, aims to bring back ethics, one of the management blind-spots, into the center stage of branding and organizational transformation. The objectives of this article are two-fold: (1 to build a discussion on the value and importance of ethical branding through CSR initiatives and (2 to present a CSR ethical branding (CSR-EB framework which delineates the content (yin and context (yang, comprising seven pillars: pillar of ethical core, pillar of inner stakeholders, pillar of products and services, pillar of outer stakeholders, pillar of cultural context, pillar of spatial context, and pillar of temporal context.

  17. Tonifying Shen-Yin and -Yang Principles in Treating Osteoporosis: All Roads Lead to Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tonifying Shen strategy works as an important alternative and complementary method that is widely used to treat osteoporosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM based on the proper identification of Zheng. Shen deficiency Zheng is one of the main types of osteoporosis while Shen-Yin and -Yang deficiencies represent two basic principles/types of Shen deficiency. Currently, Tonifying Shen strategy, in particular, the Tonifying Shen-Yin and -Yang principles, has been demonstrated to exert osteoprotective effects. However, the mechanisms by which Tonifying Shen strategy and/or Tonifying Shen-Yin and -Yang principles function in treating osteoporosis are still not clearly understood. Here we first briefly explore current understanding of Tonifying Shen strategy, such as Tonifying Shen prescriptions, herbs, and effective components, in treating osteoporosis. Furthermore, the mechanism of Tonifying Shen-Yang principle in treating osteoporosis is reviewed from the clinic experience, animal, and mechanistic investigation. Moreover, the mechanisms by which Tonifying Shen-Yin principle in treating osteoporosis are established. Finally, we compare the similarity and difference between Tonifying Shen-Yang and -Yin principles in treating osteoporosis. Our findings indicate that both principles exert bone-protective effects in treating osteoporosis by simultaneously stimulating the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs into osteoblast and the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs into osteoclast. However, Tonifying Shen-Yin principle is in favor of increasing bone mineral density (BMD while Tonifying Shen-Yang principle is in favor of osteoporosis-related syndromes. Our findings indicate that Tonifying Shen-Yin and -Yang principles not only share some similarity but also obtain some difference in treating osteoporosis.

  18. Orbital Picture of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov Multiplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Benjamin W.; Ruby, Michael; Franke, Katharina J.; Peng, Yang; von Oppen, Felix

    Magnetic impurities on an s-wave superconductor induce Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) bound states within the excitation gap of the superconductor. Here, we investigate single manganese (Mn) atoms adsorbed on different surface orientations of superconducting lead (Pb) and the nature of their YSR states. Depending on the adsorption site and surface, we detect a distinct number and characteristic patterns of YSR states around the Mn atoms. We show that the YSR states inherit their properties from the Mn d levels, which are split by the surrounding crystal field. The periodicity of the long-range YSR oscillations allows us to identify a dominant coupling of the d states to the outer Fermi sheet of the two-band superconductor Pb. The long-range and directional nature of the states are promising for the design of coupled adatom structures, which could bear topological phases. We acknowledge funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through Grant No. FR2726/4 and through collaborative research Grants No. Sfb 658, No. CRC 183, and No. SPP 1666, as well as by the European Research Council through Consolidator Grant NanoSpin.

  19. [Application of Bayes Probability Model in Differentiation of Yin and Yang Jaundice Syndromes in Neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chun-sun; Zhang, Ping; Kong, Chun-yan; Li, Yang-ning

    2015-09-01

    To study the application of Bayes probability model in differentiating yin and yang jaundice syndromes in neonates. Totally 107 jaundice neonates who admitted to hospital within 10 days after birth were assigned to two groups according to syndrome differentiation, 68 in the yang jaundice syndrome group and 39 in the yin jaundice syndrome group. Data collected for neonates were factors related to jaundice before, during and after birth. Blood routines, liver and renal functions, and myocardial enzymes were tested on the admission day or the next day. Logistic regression model and Bayes discriminating analysis were used to screen factors important for yin and yang jaundice syndrome differentiation. Finally, Bayes probability model for yin and yang jaundice syndromes was established and assessed. Factors important for yin and yang jaundice syndrome differentiation screened by Logistic regression model and Bayes discriminating analysis included mothers' age, mother with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational age, asphyxia, or ABO hemolytic diseases, red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD), platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR), serum direct bilirubin (DBIL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholinesterase (CHE). Bayes discriminating analysis was performed by SPSS to obtain Bayes discriminant function coefficient. Bayes discriminant function was established according to discriminant function coefficients. Yang jaundice syndrome: y1= -21. 701 +2. 589 x mother's age + 1. 037 x GDM-17. 175 x asphyxia + 13. 876 x gestational age + 6. 303 x ABO hemolytic disease + 2.116 x RDW-SD + 0. 831 x DBIL + 0. 012 x ALP + 1. 697 x LCR + 0. 001 x CHE; Yin jaundice syndrome: y2= -33. 511 + 2.991 x mother's age + 3.960 x GDM-12. 877 x asphyxia + 11. 848 x gestational age + 1. 820 x ABO hemolytic disease +2. 231 x RDW-SD +0. 999 x DBIL +0. 023 x ALP +1. 916 x LCR +0. 002 x CHE. Bayes discriminant function was hypothesis tested and got Wilks' λ =0. 393 (P =0. 000). So Bayes

  20. Origin of the mysterious Yin-Shang bronzes in China indicated by lead isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-dong; Zhang, Li-peng; Guo, Jia; Li, Cong-ying; Jiang, Yu-hang; Zartman, Robert E; Zhang, Zhao-feng

    2016-03-18

    Fine Yin-Shang bronzes containing lead with puzzlingly highly radiogenic isotopic compositions appeared suddenly in the alluvial plain of the Yellow River around 1400 BC. The Tongkuangyu copper deposit in central China is known to have lead isotopic compositions even more radiogenic and scattered than those of the Yin-Shang bronzes. Most of the Yin-Shang bronzes are tin-copper alloys with high lead contents. The low lead and tin concentrations, together with the less radiogenic lead isotopes of bronzes in an ancient smelting site nearby, however, exclude Tongkuangyu as the sole supplier of the Yin-Shang bronzes. Interestingly, tin ingots/prills and bronzes found in Africa also have highly radiogenic lead isotopes, but it remains mysterious as to how such African bronzes may have been transported to China. Nevertheless, these African bronzes are the only bronzes outside China so far reported that have lead isotopes similar to those of the Yin-Shang bronzes. All these radiogenic lead isotopes plot along ~2.0-2.5 Ga isochron lines, implying that deposits around Archean cratons are the most likely candidates for the sources. African cratons along the Nile and even micro-cratons in the Sahara desert may have similar lead signatures. These places were probably accessible by ancient civilizations, and thus are the most favorable suppliers of the bronzes.

  1. [Effect of Shouwu Shudi Yin on dopaminegic neurons in MPTP induced Parkinson's disease mouse model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunje, Reginachizi; Ye, Yang-Lie; Sonauddin, Ahmed; Hansraj, Bhugun; Ngawang, Sangye; Shivani, Sharma; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Rong-Pei

    2016-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of Shouwu Shudi Yin on dopaminegic neurons in MPTP induced Parkinson's disease mouse model and the possible mechamism, the experimental mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, Shouwu Shudi Yin, MPTP and the treatment (MPTP+Shouwu Shudi Yin) groups. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells in the substantia nigra was measured by immunohistochemistry, and mRNA expression of TH and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were detected by PCR. The results showed that the number of TH positive cells and mRNA expression of TH were significantly reduced in MPTP group compared with the control (PYin didn't show protective effect. Compared to MPTP group, the mRNA expression of four subtypes of GPX were increased in various degrees in the treatment group pretreated with Shouwu Shudi Yin, although the difference was not statistically significant. These indicated that the preventive medication of Shouwu Shudi Yin don't have protective effect on the mice with Parkinson' s disease induced by MPTP, but it may enhance the antioxidant capacity through increasing the expression of GPX. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Efficacy of integrative medicine in deficiency of both qi and yin in the rat model of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: A rat model of T2DM with both qi and yin deficiency was successfully replicated. CHF appeared to be more efficacious than IM and PIO in the rat model of qi and yin deficiency pattern of T2DM, though IM and PIO were each found to have their merits and drawbacks in attenuating T2DM indicators in the rat model.

  3. [Experimental study on the effect of nourishing yin and tranquilizing of yangyin anshen koufuye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, J; Wang, X; Cui, Y; Zhu, G; Meng, Y; Zhang, L; Yuang, X

    1999-10-01

    Yangyin Anshen Koufuye could obviously decrease the spontaneous activity of rats, effectively shorten the process of falling into sleep of normal rats which were injected pentobarbital sodium and prolong the sleeping time. The effect of sedation and hypnotism were the same as Zhaoren Anshen Koufuye. Yangyin Anshen Koufuye also could markedly reduce the serum tensity of T3, T4 of hyperthyroid rats, which equaled to TCM's deficiency of yin. It also could prevent the glycogen content of liver from decreasing, decrease heart rate, resist weight losing, thus to show the effect of nourishing Yin and tranquilizing.

  4. Review of MFTF yin-yang magnet displacement and magnetic field measurements and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, C.L.; Myall, J.O.; Wohlwend, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    During the recent testing of the MFTF yin-yang magnet, measurements of coil position, structural case strain, and magnetic field were made to verify calculated values. Measurements to detect magnet movement were taken throughout cooldown and during the operation of the magnet. The magnetic field at the mirror points was measured by Hall-effect probes. The magnet position, structural case strain, and magnetic field measurements indicated a reasonably close correlation with calculated values. Information obtained from the yin-yang test has been very useful in setting realistic mechanical alignment values for the new MFTF-B magnet system

  5. Review of MFTF yin-yang magnet displacement and magnetic field measurements and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, C.L.; Myall, J.O.; Wohlwend, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    During the recent testing of the MFTF yin-yang magnet, measurements of coil position, structural case strain, and magnetic field were made to verify calculated values. Measurements to detect magnet movement were taken throughout cooldown and during the operation of the magnet. The magnetic field at the mirror points was measured by Hall-effect probes. The magnet position, structural case strain, and magntic field measurements indicated a reasonably close correlation with calculated values. Information obtained from the yin-yang test has been very useful in setting realistic mechanical alignment values for the new MFTF-B magnet system

  6. New insights into the tonifying kidney-yin herbs and formulas for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Bo; Chen, Mei-Hui; Lin, Ding-Kun

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an increasing osseous fragility and fracture resulting from the low mass and deteriorated microarchitecture in the bone tissue. The hormone replacement therapy and alendronate were frequently used to treat osteoporosis as the primary therapeutic strategy, but their adverse effects have severely limited their extensive clinical application, therefore, it is urgent to develop alternative or complementary therapeutic agents for anti-osteoporosis. Interestingly, with more people focusing on the complementary and alternative medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and formulas are being gradually recognized as safe and effective agents in the treatment of osteoporosis. In particular, a notable trend is that increasing studies are making efforts to clarify the anti-osteoporotic effects and mechanism of the tonifying kidney-yin herbs and formulas, a category of agents identified as effective therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to comprehensively review the tonifying kidney-yin herbs and formulas that have been reported in the treatment of osteoporosis as well as how the agents play their roles in detail. This current study not only will advance our understanding of the actions of tonifying kidney-yin herbs and formulas, but also provide new evidence for the clinic use of the tonifying kidney-yin herbs and formulas in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  7. Yin et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(5):345-351 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i5.21. 345. A STUDY ON ANTI-TUMOUR EFFECT OF SOLANUM LYRATUM THUNB. EXTRACT IN. S180 TUMOUR-BEARING MICE. Yin Guan1, Hong Zhao1*, Xiang Yan1, Jing Meng1,Weilan Wang2. 1Medical ...

  8. 76 FR 52952 - Student Services Contract EP-11-D-000403 Yin Gu; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... will enable Student Services Contract EP-11-D-000403 Yin Gu to fulfill the obligations of the contract... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0038; FRL-8884-1] Student Services Contract EP-11... Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to Student Services Contract EP- 11-D...

  9. Yu Kilchun’s Concept of Reform of the Tax System in the Korean Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinah Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yu Kilchun in “Semubu (Tax Department” criticizes the trend of the tax system, in which the authority to impose and collect taxes had been taken away from the local magistrates and the isŏ class (composed of hyangni, local functionaries, and sŏri, petty clerks during the Kabo Reform was once again returned to them. Yu Kilchun devised a concept of tax system reform on the premise of the reorganization of the administrative districts into the chu-kun-hyang-ri (state-county-district-village system. Yu’s idea was to make myŏn (hyang, district a governing administrative unit, placed under direct government control. To fund the operation of local governments, Yu proposed to create local taxes, chu taxes and hyang. Tax amounts were to be determined by local assemblies, chuhoe and hyanghoe, which were given the authority to deliberate on budget. The authority to review tax sources, levy and collect taxes was given to hyang, a small unit of administrative division. By imbuing this authority to hyang, Yu Kilchun planned to exclude local magistrates and the isŏ class in the tax collection process. Since “Semubu” discusses the reorganization of administrative divisions and local tax administration, as well as local tax system reform, the discovery of this text is significant, as it expands the range of the reform ideas proposed by Yu Kilchun, and furthermore the Enlightenment Party.

  10. [Effect of extracts from Dendrobii ifficinalis flos on hyperthyroidism Yin deficiency mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shan-shan; Lv, Gui-yuan; Jin, Ze-wu; Li, Bo; Yang, Zheng-biao; Chen, Su-hong

    2015-05-01

    Some unhealthy life habits, such as long-term smoking, heavy drinking, sexual overstrain and frequent stay-up could induce the Yin deficiency symptoms of zygomatic red and dysphoria. Stems of Dendrobii officinalis flos (DOF) showed the efficacy of nourishing Yin. In this study, the hyperthyroidism Yin deficiency model was set up to study the yin nourishing effect and action mechanism of DOF, in order to provide the pharmacological basis for developing DOF resources and decreasing resource wastes. ICR mice were divided into five groups: the normal control group, the model control group, the positive control group and DOF extract groups (6.4 g · kg(-1)). Except for the normal group, the other groups were administrated with thyroxine for 30 d to set up the hyperthyroidism yin deficiency model. At the same time, the other groups were administrated with the corresponding drugs for 30 d. After administration for 4 weeks, the signs (facial temperature, pain domain, heart rate and autonomic activity) in mice were measured, and the facial and ear micro-circulation blood flow were detected by laser Doppler technology. After the last administration, all mice were fasted for 12 hours, blood were collected from their orbits, and serum were separated to detect AST, ALT, TG and TP by the automatic biochemistry analyzer and test T3, T4 and TSH levels by ELISA. (1) Compared with the normal control group, the model control group showed significant increases in facial and ear micro-circulation blood flow, facial temperature and heart rate (P effects by impacting thyroxin substance metabolism, improving micro-circulation and reducing heart rate.

  11. YU Ren-cun(郁仁存)——A Famous Oncologist in Integrative Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ YU Ren-cun was born on August 1,1934.After graduating from Jiangxi Medical College in 1955,he took part in the very first Western Doctors' Class for Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) held in Beijing from March 1959 to December 1961.Prof.YU systematically learned TCM while taking this class.Since 1962,he has been working in the Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine,eventually being promoted to a Chief Physician by the Beijing Municipal Government in May of 1981.In 1997,Prof.YU was selected as a well-known veteran for the National TCM Doctor Inheritance Work by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (SATCM).The State Council of China has awarded him a special subsidy every month for his excellent work.

  12. Validation of the qi blood yin yang deficiency questionnaire on chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Keun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue (CF) reflects an imbalance of inter-organ functions or of the four essential physiological components qi, blood (xue), yin, and yang. CF can be subdivided into different patterns. However, there are no diagnostic methods for CF. This study aimed to clinically validate a pattern identification method by identifying correlations between CF and responses to the qi blood yin yang deficiency questionnaire (QBYY-Q). Participants were recruited between May and June 2014 through the Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine hospital website and via posters and comprised 129 CF patients diagnosed with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1994) criteria. Participants who had organic diseases that explained the CF were excluded. A total of 159 participants were asked to complete the QBYY-Q, the fatigue severity scale, and the Chalder fatigue scale. The latter two questionnaires were used to assess convergent validity with the QBYY-Q. Among the 129 CF participants, 70 and 59 had chronic fatigue syndrome and idiopathic chronic fatigue, respectively. Two Korean medical doctors independently assessed participants' qi, blood, yin, and yang deficiency patterns using QBYY deficiency pattern identification guidelines. Based on the results of a preliminary study of the QBYY-Q, we selected 32 reliable items for symptoms corresponding to each deficiency pattern. The items were used to estimate internal consistency and construct validity. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed for scores on each deficiency pattern. The data were means and standard deviations or numbers of participants and proportions for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. A statistical significance level of P yin, and yang deficiency were 45.1, 58.0, 52.2, and 63.4 %, respectively. Each QBYY-Q deficiency score was positively associated with each corresponding deficiency pattern. Qi deficiency was used as a reference category. Odds ratios of blood, yin

  13. [The Yin and Yang movement in the cosmology of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Bernardo Diniz; Dulcetti, Pérola Goretti Sichero

    2015-01-01

    After being developed in the East, based on Taoist cosmology, Chinese medicine has been practiced in the West based on scientific foundations and biomedical paradigms. Some traditional elements of this philosophy were abandoned, such as the theory of Yin and Yang, knowledge that is essential for understanding the health-disease process resulting from the circulation of the body's energy flow. This article studies the movement of the dual elements of Yin and Yang in Chinese medical teaching, seeking to understand how this line of thought developed and how it has contributed towards establishing a system of diagnosis and therapy. The methodology employed was to analyze literature on the subject, based on theoretical references to Taoist thought and traditional Chinese medicine.

  14. Korean Herbal Medicine for Treating Henoch-Schonlein Purpura with Yin Deficiency: Five Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kyung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report the clinical effect of Korean medicine (KM treatment for Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP. Methods: Five HSP patients who demonstrated a Yin deficiency and who had a history of a previous upper respiratory tract infection were included in this study. Four patients had arthritis and three had severe stomachache. One of them appeared to have proteinuria and hematuria before starting KM treatment. Results: All patients were improved with only herbal medicine, Jarotang (JRT. Purpura in the lower extremities and abdominal pain, which were not treated by using a corticosteroid, disappeared and had not recurred after 6 months. Conclusion: These cases indicate that JRT may be effective in treating HSP in patients who demonstrate Yin deficiency, even though the number of cases was limited to five.

  15. [Yin Care--a natural product for prophylactics and treatment of vaginal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhova, M; Batashki, I; Ivanov, St

    2007-01-01

    A prospective study, including 60 patients with vaginal discharge has been made at Maternity hospital "Majchin dom"--Sofia for the period November 2006- February 2007. In 32 patients no causative agent has been revealed. They have been counseled to use Yin Care--vaginal lotion for 3 months in prophylactic concentration. 88.4% reported for diminished discharge. No adverse effects have been observed. In 11 patients suffering from bacterial vaginitis, caused by S. Epidermidis, S. Aureus, Enterococcus and E. Coli cure was achieved in 72.7% of cases. 17 women with Candida vaginitis have been included in the study. After standard antifungal treatment, 8 of them continued therapy with Yin Care. Recurrence of disease has been observed in only one case, while in the group treated with antifungal medication only recurrence has been observed in 2 cases.

  16. Structural support of a yin-yang magnet for a tandem mirror reactor with thermal barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, J.L.; Ojalvo, I.U.; Myall, J.O.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains a comprehensive summary covering work performed by Grumman Aerospace Corporation, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, on the TMP yin-yang coils. The yin-yang coil pair used for our analysis has a major arc radius of 2.7 m and a minor arc radius of 1.18 m, compared with 2.5 m and 0.75 m for the MFTF. The maximum field on the present conductor is 9.05 Tesla. This magnetic field is created by, and interacts with, a conductor current which produces a 360 million Newton total force, tending to separate the parallel lobes of the major arcs

  17. Orbital Mechanics near a Rotating Asteroid Yu Jiang1,2,∗ & Hexi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Hamilton function can then be written as (Yu & Baoyin 2012a). H = 1. 2 .... The symplectic structure is a differential exterior 2-form defined on a ..... The disadvantage of Poisson-bracket, Poisson and cohomology forms is unavailable for ...

  18. Jing Tong Yu Shu, a traditional Chinese medicine, suppresses IL-1β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zhang et al. 2953. Tropical ... Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, Jing Tong Yu Shu (JTYS) on endometriosis in a ..... Flower A, Liu JP, Chen S, Lewith G, Little P. Chinese ... Mol Hum Reprod 2000; 6: 269-275. 18.

  19. Interpersonal Harmony and Conflict for Chinese People: A Yin-Yang Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview on a series of original studies conducted by the author. The aim here is to present the ideas that the author reconstructed, based on the dialectics of harmonization, regarding harmony and conflict embodied in traditional Chinese thought, and to describe how a formal psychological theory/model on interpersonal harmony and conflict was developed based on the Yin-Yang perspective. The paper also details how essential theories on interpersonal harmony and conflict were constructed under this formal model by conducting a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 30 adults. Psychological research in Western society has, intriguingly, long been focused more on interpersonal conflict than on interpersonal harmony. By contrast, the author's work started from the viewpoint of a materialist conception of history and dialectics of harmonization in order to reinterpret traditional Chinese thought. Next, a "dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict" was developed, as a formal psychological theory, based on the real-virtual notions in the Yin-Yang perspective. Under this model, interpersonal harmony and conflict can be classified into genuine versus superficial harmony and authentic versus virtual focus conflict, and implicit/hidden conflict is regarded as superficial harmony. Subsequently, the author conducted a series of quantitative studies on interpersonal harmony and conflict within parent-child, supervisor-subordinate, and friend-friend relationships in order to verify the construct validity and the predictive validity of the dynamic model of interpersonal harmony and conflict. The claim presented herein is that Chinese traditional thought and the psychological theory/model based on the Yin-Yang perspective can be combined. Accordingly, by combining qualitative and quantitative empirical research, the relative substantial theory can be developed and the concepts can be validated. Thus, this work represents the

  20. Initial validation of the Yin-Yang Assessment Questionnaire for persons with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yee Chi Peggy; Pang, Mei Che Samantha

    2015-09-10

    To initially test for the content validity, comprehensibility, test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability of the Yin-Yang Assessment Questionnaire (YY-AQ). The process of initial validity and reliability test covered: (1) content validation from the findings of 18 multiple-case studies, validated Yin- and Yang-deficiency assessment questionnaires, relevant literatures and registered Chinese medicine practitioners; (2) comprehension with the levels of comprehensibility for each item categorized on a 3-point scale (not comprehensible; moderately comprehensible; highly comprehensible). A minimum of three respondents selecting for each item of moderately or highly comprehensible were regarded as comprehensive; (3) test-retest reliability conducted with a 2-wk interval. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and their 95%CIs were calculated using a two-way random effects model. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test for related samples was adopted to compare the medians of test-retest scores. An ICC value of 0.85 or higher together with P > 0.05, was considered acceptable; and (4) internal consistency of the total items was measured and evaluated by Cronbach's coefficient alpha (α). A Cronbach's α of 0.7 or higher was considered to represent good internal consistency. Eighteen Yin-deficiency and 14 Yang-deficiency presentation items were finalized from content validation. Five participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) performed the comprehensibility and test-retest reliability tests. Comprehensibility score level of each presentation item was found to be moderate or high in three out of the five participants. Test-retest reliability showed that the single measure ICC of the total Yin-deficiency presentation items was 0.99 (95%CI: 0.89-0.99) and the median scores on the first and 14(th) days were 17 (IQR 6.5-27) and 21 (IQR 6-29) (P = 0.144) respectively. The single measure ICC of the total Yang-deficiency presentation items was 0.88 (95%CI: 0

  1. Comparative Analysis of Tongue Indices between Patients with and without a Self-Reported Yin Deficiency: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Ryun; Choi, Woojin; Yeo, Inkwon; Nam, Dong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that Yin-deficient patients have a reddened tongue with less coating. We screened 189 participants aged 20 to 49 years, complaining of headache. To classify patients in terms of Yin deficiency, we used two self-reporting Yin-deficiency questionnaires (Yin-Deficiency Questionnaire and Yin-Deficiency Scale) and diagnosis by a doctor. Based on the tests, a total of 33 subjects were assigned to a Yin-deficient group and 33 subjects were assigned to a nondeficient control group. Tongue images were acquired using a computerized tongue diagnostic system, for evaluating tongue indices. The tongue coating percentage and tongue redness were calculated as the mean a ⁎ value of both the whole tongue area (WT a ⁎ ) and the tongue body area (TB a ⁎ ). The tongue coating percentage of the Yin-deficient group (34.79 ± 10.76) was lower than that of the nondeficient group (44.13 ± 14.08). The WT a ⁎ value of the Yin-deficient group (19.39 ± 1.52) was significantly higher than that of the nondeficient group (18.21 ± 2.06). However, the difference in the TB a ⁎ value between the two groups was not significant. In conclusion, we verified that Yin-deficient patients had less tongue coating and tended to have a more reddish tongue than nondeficient patients.

  2. [Effects of the Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin on the residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Tang, Zhao-you; Ren, Zheng-gang; Huang, Xiu-yan; Jia, Qing-an; Xie, Xiao-ying; Shen, Hu-jia

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin on residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy in nude mice and the relevant mechanisms. Orthotopic nude mouse models bearing residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy was established using human liver carcinoma MHCC97L cells. Three different doses of Songyon Yin (2.1 g/kg, 4.2 g/kg and 8.4 g/kg) were administered to the mice in the trial groups by intragastric gavage, respectively. The mice in the control group were administered physiological saline. The tumor growth, metastasis and survival in the mice of each group were recorded. The corresponding mechanisms were studied. The pulmonary metastasis rates of the control group and 2.1g/kg, 4.2g/kg, 8.4g/kg Songyou Yin treatment group were 86.7%, 73.3%, 40.0%, and 20.0%, respectively, and the survivals of these groups were 53.83 ± 4.71, 56.50 ± 6.09, 66.67 ± 5.61, 81.17 ± 7.36 days, respectively. Compared with the mice in the control group, mice in the 4.2 g/kg, 8.4 g/kg Songyou Yin treatment groups had a lower pulmonary metastasis rate (P = 0.021 and P = 0.001, respectively) and longer survival (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). A restoration of E-cadherin expression and a concomitant reduction of N-cadherin expression were detected in the tumors of the 4.2 g/kg and 8.4 g/kg Songyou Yin treatment groups. Songyou Yin effectively inhibits the invasion and metastasis of the residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy in nude mice through attenuating the epithelia-mesenchymal transition and prolongs the survival. Songyon Yin may have potential to promote the efficacy of chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. Comprehensive geological report on Yu Hsien mining area, Yu Hsien coalfield, Hopeh Province in the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This is a detailed geological survey report on Yu Hsien coalfield for the period beginning in 1987 and ending in March, 2001. The survey elucidated the structures, beds, coal seams, coal property, hydro-geological features, and other mining technological conditions in Beiyang Zhuang mining area. In addition, as a result of coal reserves calculation, the total of A, B and C class coal reserves was 328.34 million tons, of which No.1 and No.5 coal seams were 259.79 million tons, taking 79.1% of the entire reserves. The average coal seam thickness of the No.1 and No.5 coal seams, which are the principal minable coal seams, are each 3.10 m and 2.66 m, with the existing depth usually 300-711 m; the coal properties are classified into low-medium ash, low sulfur, low phosphorus, and medium heating value. The coal category is long flame coal, with the use applicable to cement, electric power, gasification, etc. As the infrastructure, Beiyang Zhuang mining area is one of the three mines for which development has been decided in Yu Hsien coalfield. with the planned coal output scheduled for 1.8 million tons, and with a road or a dedicated railroad for coal maintained leading to large and medium cities such as Changkiakow, Suanhwa and Beijing. Further, railway construction is in progress, so that transportation conditions are extremely favorable. Preliminary investigation of industries and construction of coal pits should be considered. (NEDO)

  4. [Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in patients with acute ischemic stroke of yin or yang syndrome: a multicenter trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jin-song; Huang, Yan; Cai, Ye-feng; Guo, Jian-wen; Liang, Wei-xiong; Huang, Pei-xin; Liu, Mao-cai

    2008-04-01

    To explore the composition characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes in patients with acute ischemic stroke of yin or yang syndrome by investigating the characteristics of TCM syndromes at different periods after onset. One thousand two hundred and forty-six patients with acute ischemic stroke were admitted in twenty hospitals. According to the "diagnostic criteria of syndrome differentiation of stroke", the characteristics of syndromes in the patients were investigated at the periods of 1-3 days, 4-10 days and 11-30 days after they had ischemic stroke. General distribution of six basic syndromes was compared between the patients with yin syndrome and the patients with yang syndrome at the three periods. The six basic syndromes were wind syndrome, pathogenic fire syndrome, phlegm syndrome, blood stasis syndrome, qi deficiency syndrome, and syndrome of yin deficiency and yang hyperactivity. The percentages of wind, pathogenic fire, and phlegm syndromes in the patients were decreased at the period of 11-30 days as compared with the period of 1-3 days (87.1% vs 79.3%, 52.1% vs 38.7% and 67.1% vs 57.4% respectively, P0.05). There were no differences in the distribution of yin and yang syndromes among the three periods (P>0.05). The percentages of syndromes of wind, pathogenic fire, phlegm, and yin deficiency and yang hyperactivity were higher (Pfour or five syndromes were higher, and the percentages of single-syndromes and complex syndromes of two syndromes were lower in patients with yang syndrome than in patients with yin syndrome (P<0.05, P<0.01). The most frequent complex syndromes in patients with yin syndrome were complex syndrome of wind, phlegm, blood stasis and qi deficiency, and complex syndrome of wind, phlegm and qi deficiency; while the most frequent complex syndromes in patients with yang syndrome were complex syndrome of wind, pathogenic fire, phlegm and qi deficiency, and complex syndrome of wind, pathogenic fire and phlegm. The

  5. [Analysis of Medication Laws for Chinese Medicine Treating Hypertension Patients with Yin Defi- ciency Yang Hyperactivity Syndrome Based on Literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Hou, Ya-zhu; Wang, Xian-liang; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2016-04-01

    To analyze medication laws of Chinese medicine (CM) treatment in hypertension patients with yin deficiency yang hyperactivity syndrome. China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Jan. 1979-Dec 2014), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP, Jan 1989-Dec2014), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Jan.1978-Dec.2014), Wanfang Database (Jan 1990-Dec 2014) were retrieved by using "hypertension", "CM", "Chinese herbs", "syndrome" as keywords. Totally 149 literatures concerning CM treatment for hypertension patients with yin deficiency yanghyperactivity syndrome were included in this study. The herbs database was established by SPSS20.0,and correlation laws were analyzed by SAS9.3. With the Pajek3.1, results were presented visually withcomplex networks. There were 149 literatures including 131 kinds of herbs with 1,598 frequencies. The conventional compatibility program of herbs for asthenic yin and predominant yang syndrome of hypertension were two toothed achyranthes root, tall gastrodia rhizome, Cassia obtusifolia L., eucommiabark, baikal skullcap root, and so on, about 29 kinds. Of them, core herbs were two toothed achyranthes root, tall gastrodia rhizome, Cassia obtusifolia L., poria, prepared rhizome of rehmannia, oriental water-plantain tuber, asiatic cornelian cherry fruit, Uncariae Rhynchophylla, common yam rhizome, the rootbark of the peony tree, and so on. Medication laws of CM treatment in hypertension patientswith yin deficiency yang hyperactivity syndrome obtained by analysis of complex networks reflected thetherapeutics of nourishing yin to suppress yang, which could further provide reference for clinical studies.

  6. Protocol for the evaluation and validation of Qi Blood Yin Yang deficiency pattern questionnaire: prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Kim, Keun Ho

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the pattern identification standard of qi, blood, yin, and yang deficiency patterns diagnosis. The current study will investigate the usefulness of the Qi Blood Yin Yang deficiency pattern questionnaire as a diagnostic tool for qi, blood, yin, and yang deficiencies by assessing the agreement between the scores and a gold standard established by assessors. This protocol is for a single center, prospective, observational study. A total of 248 eligible patients with unexplained chronic fatigue will be assigned to four groups in a 1:1:1:1 ratio as the qi deficiency group, blood deficiency group, yin deficiency group, and yang deficiency group. The primary outcome will be measured using the score of the Qi Blood Yin Yang deficiency pattern questionnaire and the secondary outcomes will be measured using the fatigue severity scale, Korean-translated chalder fatigue scale, computerized tongue image analysis system, and three types of pattern identification questionnaires (cold-heat, food accumulation, and seven emotions patterns). The safety of the clinical study will be assessed after measurements at every visit. All statistical analysis will be performed using the R Statistics program. Statistics experts will analyze the relationship between clinical data using the Pearson's Chi-squared test and independent t -test. This study will provide reference data and good evidence that are applicable to future studies. Furthermore, the results of the present study are useful to improve the care of patients with unexplained chronic fatigue and unexplained chronic fatigue-related disorders.

  7. A Chinese Decoction, Kuan-Sin-Yin, Improves Autonomic Function and Cancer-Related Symptoms of Metastatic Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsai-Ju; Liu, Chia-Yu; Ko, Pin-Hao; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Kuan-Sin-Yin (KSY) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction, which has been shown to have cytostatic effects on cancer cells and involved in the TCM theory of promoting yin-yang balance.Sonce many cancer patients suffer from autonomic dysfunction (AD), which correspond to yin-yang imbalance in TCM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible effect of KSY in metastatic colon cancer (mCRC) patients with AD. We conducted a single-group experiment. Total 52 qualified patients were enrolled. Participants took the KSY daily for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was KSY efficacy as reflected in the heart rate variability (HRV) and electrical conductivity (µA) over 12 meridian points. Autonomic function was examined before and after the KSY intervention. The vagal and sympathetic tone were recorded by HRV; 12 meridian energies were measured using a meridian energy analysis device. Secondary outcomes were cancer-related symptoms and patient quality of life (QoL). The results showed that the KSY intervention improved AD via increasing the vagal tone (HF: P = .041), but not the sympathetic tone (LF: P = .154); total autonomic activity was significantly enhanced (HRV activity: P = .013). Intriguingly, energy increased more over the yin meridian (P = .010) than over the yang meridian (P = .015). Cancer-related symptoms and QoL were significantly improved (P yin-yang concept of energy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Development of the SONIX software for the YuMO instrument at the IBR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilov, A.S.; Litvinenko, E.I.; Astakhova, N.V.; Murashevich, S.M.; Petukhova, T.B.; Yudin, V.E.; Gordelij, V.I.; Islamov, A.Kh.; Kuklin, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    The main results of the modernization of the software complex of the YuMO spectrometer are described. The comparison of the previous MS-DOS based software and new OS-9 based one is carried out. The advantages and disadvantages of each program are described. The main features of the new software complex and the results of its long-term operation are presented. It is shown that the software upgrade essentially improved the spectrometer control. (author)

  9. A YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive TOPSIS method to bipolar disorder diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lu, Zhenyu; Du, Zhenguang; Luo, Qi; Chen, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is often mis-diagnosed as unipolar depression in the clinical diagnosis. The main reason is that, different from other diseases, bipolarity is the norm rather than exception in bipolar disorder diagnosis. YinYang bipolar fuzzy set captures bipolarity and has been successfully used to construct a unified inference mathematical modeling method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, symptoms and their interrelationships are not considered in the existing method, circumventing its ability to describe complexity of bipolar disorder. Thus, in this paper, a YinYang bipolar fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis is developed. Comparing with the existing method, the new one is more comprehensive. The merits of the new method are listed as follows: First of all, multi-criteria group decision making method is introduced into bipolar disorder diagnosis for considering different symptoms and multiple doctors' opinions. Secondly, the discreet diagnosis principle is adopted by the revised TOPSIS method. Last but not the least, YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive map is provided for the understanding of interrelations among symptoms. The illustrated case demonstrates the feasibility, validity, and necessity of the theoretical results obtained. Moreover, the comparison analysis demonstrates that the diagnosis result is more accurate, when interrelations about symptoms are considered in the proposed method. In a conclusion, the main contribution of this paper is to provide a comprehensive mathematical approach to improve the accuracy of bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis, in which both bipolarity and complexity are considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of Yin, Yang and Qi in the Skin on Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James David

    2016-01-29

    The most effective and safe treatment site for pain is in the skin. This chapter discusses the reasons to treat pain in the skin. Pain is sensed in the skin through transient receptor potential cation channels and other receptors. These receptors have endogenous agonists (yang) and antagonists (yin) that help the body control pain. Acupuncture works through modulation of these receptor activities (qi) in the skin; as do moxibustion and liniments. The treatment of pain in the skin has the potential to save many lives and improve pain therapy in most patients.

  11. The Effects of Yin, Yang and Qi in the Skin on Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James David Adams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective and safe treatment site for pain is in the skin. This chapter discusses the reasons to treat pain in the skin. Pain is sensed in the skin through transient receptor potential cation channels and other receptors. These receptors have endogenous agonists (yang and antagonists (yin that help the body control pain. Acupuncture works through modulation of these receptor activities (qi in the skin; as do moxibustion and liniments. The treatment of pain in the skin has the potential to save many lives and improve pain therapy in most patients.

  12. Shugan Jieyu Yin for Treatment of Senile Depression--A Clinical Report of 84 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ TCM holds that depression is, in most cases,resulted from injuries of the seven emotions and/or from stagnation of qi. The principle of treatment should be mainly to relieve the depressed liver and to regulate the flow of qi, supplemented by nourishing the blood and the liver, eliminating heat and irritability, promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis, tranquilizing the mind, and dredging the collaterals to stop pain. Since 1995, we have treated 84 cases of senile depression with the prescription of Shugan Jieyu Yin (舒肝解郁饮Decoction for Relieving the Depressed Liver), and obtained satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows.

  13. Estimating the yin-yang nature of Western herbs: a potential tool based on antioxidation-oxidation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Marilena; Gaman, Laura; Lixandru, Daniela; Stoian, Irina

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to progress in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) development in Western countries is the difficulty of applying the traditional concepts to the Western medicinal plants, which are not traditionally described in ancient literature. During recent years, new advances in the field of understanding Yin/Yang aspects from a modern bioscientific point of view have led to the conclusion that antioxidationoxidation concepts might mirror a Yin-Yang relationship. This study was intended to integrate the Yin-Yang theory of the traditional Chinese medicine with modern antioxidation-oxidation theory, and to propose a biochemical tool based on redox parameters (e.g. antioxidant capacity, chemiluminescence-CL signal inducing capacity), usable for the classification of Western medicinal plants from Yin/Yang perspective. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of six vegetal aqueous extracts (Symphitum officinalae (radix)-SYM, Inula helenium (radix)-INU, Calendula officinalis (flores)-CAL, Angelica arhanghelica (folium)ANG(F), Angelica arhanghelica (radix)-ANG(R), Ecbalium Elaterium (fruits)-ECB) and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of PMNL on addition of these vegetal extracts were measured. Percentages from the maximal or minimal values obtained were calculated for each extract (TEAC%, PMNL stimulation%, PMNL inhibition%, relative speed of action% (RSA%%)), specific Yin-Yang significance was assigned to each relative parameter. In the end, an integration of all the relative values was done, in order to find a global "Yin" or a "Yang" trait of each vegetal extract. TEAC decreased in the following order: SYM > INU > CAL >ANG(F) > ANG(R > ECB. Three vegetal extracts (SYM > INU > ECB) decreased the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of PMNL, two (ANG(R) > ANG(F)) increased it, while one (CAL) had a dual effect. After the integration of the percentages, CAL was found to have a global "Yang" trait, while the rest of the plants had a global "Yin

  14. [Professor WANG Yin's academic thoughts and clinical application of acupuncture for spleen-sto-mach care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hua; Cao, Haibo; Wang, Yin

    Professor WANG Yin 's academic thoughts and clinical application for difficult and miscellaneous di-seases, especially acupuncture for spleen-stomach care, are introduced. Based on TCM basic theory and "ten needles for elderly" by WANG Yueting , Professor WANG Yin proposes the acupuncture for spleen-stomach care. In this method, three-element acupoint selection is applied; the conception vessel, spleen meridian of foot taiyin and stomach meridian of foot yangming were selected. The deep and penetration acupuncture with 0.4 mm×100 mm elongated needles is used at Zhongwan (CV 12), Qihai (CV 6) and Zigong (EX-CA 1), and the mild reinforcing-reducing method is used at remaining acupoints. According to the severity of diseases, fire acupuncture combined with blood-letting cupping is applied at Tianshu (ST 25), Xuehai (SP 10) and Yinlingquan (SP 9); gene-rally, two acupoints are selected and 1 to 3 mL blood-letting is appropriate. The modification based on this me-thod can be applied for various difficult and miscellaneous diseases, leading to superior efficacy.

  15. First results with the yin-yang type electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, P.; Ropponen, T.; Koivisto, H.

    2007-01-01

    Highly charged heavy-ion beams are often produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). The so-called conventional minimum-B ECRIS design includes two solenoid magnets and a multipole magnet (usually a hexapole). A minimum-B configuration can also be formed with 'yin-yang' ('baseball') type coils. Such a magnetic field configuration has been extensively tested in magnetic fusion experiments but not for the production of highly charged heavy ions. The application of the afore-mentioned coil structure to the production of multiply charged ion beams was studied. In this paper we present a design of a yin-yang type ion source known as the ARC-ECRIS and some preliminary experimental results. As a result of this work it was found that the ARC-ECRIS plasma is stable and capable of producing multiply charged ions. Many compromises were made in order to keep the costs of the prototype low. As a consequence, significant improvement can be expected in performance if the plasma size is increased and magnetic confinement is improved. At the end of this article an evolution model of the ARC-ECRIS and some future prospects are presented

  16. Life style prevention of cancer recurrence: the yin and the yang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrino, Franco

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that lifestyle after the diagnosis of cancer may affect prognosis. Several studies have shown that a Western dietary pattern, obesity, weight gain, a sedentary lifestyle, metabolic syndrome, high serum levels of insulin, growth factors, and inflammatory cytokines after the diagnosis of cancer are associated with an increased incidence of recurrences. Most studies have been on breast and colon cancer. However, in the clinical management of cancer, little attention is presently paid to improving lifestyle and controlling body weight. Lifestyle intervention trials are needed to corroborate or confute the observational results on cancer recurrences, but, even now, there is no contraindication to promoting moderate physical exercise, moderate calorie restriction (CR), and a Mediterranean dietary pattern. In fact, the AICR/WCRF 2007 systematic literature review recommends cancer patients to adopt the lifestyle recommended for the prevention of cancer. Interestingly, the evidence-based AICR/WCRF recommendations coincide with traditional rules, based on far Eastern philosophy, of avoiding extremely yin food, such as sugared beverages and calorie-dense foods, and extremely yang food, such as processed meat, and relying on the equilibrium of slightly yang food, such as whole-grain unprocessed cereals, eaten with slightly yin food, such as legumes and vegetables.

  17. Characterization of corroded bronze Ding from the Yin Ruins of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, He; Qingrong, Zhao; Min, Gao

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the result of scientific examinations carried out on the soil-buried archaeological bronzes Ding from Yin Ruins of China. Eight of typical fragments from different bronze Ding were selected as researched samples according to their deterioration characteristics. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy (SEM-EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to understand the corrosive morphological characteristics, to clear the nature of patina and to analyze the elementary composition of bronze Ding. The results indicated that it is not possible to distinguish the original lustrous metallic surface in most samples because of the corrosive crust. The substrate of bronze Ding contains74-86% Cu, 1.1-4.6% Pb, and 10-18% Sn, which is in agreement with the historical investigation in the ritual vessels of Shang time. Copper-containing compounds were the main constituents of natural patina: Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl existed as corrosion product in all the powdery or crack surface; Cu 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 was the main corrosive product in a compact and hard corrosive surface. This study provides useful information for the restoration and protection of bronze Ding in Yin Ruins

  18. The Near-Earth Encounter of Asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55): Thermal IR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, J. P.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Busch, M. W.; Yang, B.; Granvik, M.

    2012-10-01

    The near-Earth approach (0.00217 AU, or 0.845 lunar distances) of the C-type asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55) in November 2011 presented a rare opportunity for detailed observations of a low-albedo NEA in this size range. As part of a multi-telescope campaign to measure visible and infrared spectra and photometry, we obtained mid-infrared ( 8 to 22 micron) photometry and spectroscopy of 2005 YU55 using Michelle [1] on the Gemini North telescope on UT November 9 and 10, 2011. An extensive radar campaign [2] together with optical lightcurves [3,4] established the rotation state of YU55. In addition, the radar imaging resulted in a shape model for the asteroid, detection of numerous boulders on its surface, and a preliminary estimate of its equatorial diameter at 380 +/- 20 m. In a preliminary analysis, applying the radar and lightcurve-derived parameters to a rough-surface thermophysical model fit to the Gemini/Michelle thermal emission photometry results in a thermal inertia range of approximately 500 to 1500 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, with the low-thermal-inertia solution corresponding to the small end of the radar size range and vice versa. Updates to these results will be presented and modeling of the thermal contribution to the measured near-infrared spectra from Palomar/Triplespec and IRTF/SpeX will also be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of observatory staff and the support of the NASA NEOO program (LFL and JPE), the Carnegie fellowship (NAM), and NASA AES, NSF, and the NRAO Jansky Fellowship (MWB). [1] De Buizer, J. and R. Fisher, Proc. Hris (2005), pp. 84-87. [2] Busch, M.W. et al., ACM (2012), abstract #6179. [3] Warner, B., MPBull 39 (2), 84 [4] Pravec, P.

  19. S.Yu. Witte's Customs Policy and Regulation of State Import of Industrial Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антон Юрьевич Петров

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers state import of industrial equipment in the context of the customs regulation of Russia’s foreign trade under S.Yu. Witte as the Minister of Finance (1892–1903. The analysis of archival data reveals the motives which drove various ministries of the Russian empire when they gave preference to foreign producers rather than domestic ones. In the 1890s the Ministry of Finance, on the one hand, and other ministries, on the other hand, were debating the necessity of orders for foreign industrial equipment made by the Russian governmental bodies. The article studies the course and results of this interdepartmental struggle.

  20. Zhong-Yong as Dynamic Balancing Between Yin-Yang Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    of Zhong-Yong balancing being incorrect and incomplete, the author proposes an alternative perspective on Zhong-Yong as dynamic balancing between Yin-Yang opposites. Design/methodology/approach: The author first explain why Peter P. Li’s “asymmetry” and “superiority” arguments are flawed by referring...... to the original text of the classical book of Zhong-Yong (中庸) and a comparison between Zhong-Yong and Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean. The author then propose an alternative approach to Zhong-Yong balancing that is embedded in the original text Zhong-Yong but somehow has been neglected by many Chinese scholars...

  1. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way.

  2. Effect of Qiangji Jianli Yin on sex hormones in male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhixi; Xu Zhiwei; Liu Xiaobin; Zhao Hui; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang; He Zanhou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Qiangji Jianli Yin on male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome through changes of serum sex hormones (T, E 2 ), amylase and histologic changes of spleen, thymus, adrenals as well as to study the material foundation of spleno-renal mutual correlationship in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: Rat models male of splenoasthenic syndrome were established with daily gavage of rhubarb decoction (2ml 2 and amylase levels were determined with RIA on d10 and d20 and the animals were sacrificed on d20 to procure spleen, thymus and adrenals for histologic study. Control rats (n=10) were given daily gavage of distilled water only. Results: Serum E 2 and T levels in the splenoasthenic syndrome models without treatment were significantly higher than those in controls rats on dl0 (P 2 levels increased further but T levels dropped markedly and were significantly lower than those in untreated group (P 2 , T on d10 were much less in the models treated with Qiangji Jianli Yin with maintenance of E 2 /T ratio. On d20 the serum E 2 levels, though increased, were much lower than those in untreated group, hence the E 2 /T ratio was also much lower than that in untreated group and differed less from that in controls. Serum amylase levels on d10 and d20 in the splenoastheic models without treatment were significantly lower than those in controls rats (P 2 might be the material foundation responsible for the spleno-renal interrelationship. Histologic changes of spleen, thymus and adrenals might be the evidence of the traditional Chinese medicine theory of 'splenoasthenic would induce renal deficiency'. (authors)

  3. Comparison of congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls between Yu-cheng children and a potential food source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.

  4. Analysis on yin syndrome insomnia and yang syndrome insomnia%失眠的阴证阳证分类探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐娜娜; 余建玮; 吴长汶; 骆始华; 黄俊山; 刘中勇

    2017-01-01

    Sleeping and awaking of a man is compatible with the nature,in which movement of defensive qi between yin and yang is the root cause of sleeping and awaking.And besides,shen dominates sleeping.The insomnia based on wei yang ying yin theory is that if the causative factor of insomnia originated from the disorder of wei yang (defensive yang),there of it is yang syndrome;if the trigger was over-powerful wei yang,then it is insomnia of yang in the yang syndrome;if the cause was weak wei yang,then it is insomnia of yin in the yang syndrome.Likewise,if the trigger was the disorder of nutrient yin,then it is yin syndrome insomnia;if nutrient yin was too excessive,then it is insomnia of yang in the yin syndrome;if nutrient yin was too deficient,then it is insomnia of yin in the yin syndrome.Based on spirit dominated by heart mind theory:fire and heat harassing spirit is yang syndrome insomnia;excessive fire harassing heart is yang in the yang syndrome insomnia;deficient fire disturbing heart and mind is yin in the yang syndrome insomnia;the lack of cultivation of heart and mind is insomnia of yin syndrome,among which the trigger is deficiency,then insomnia belongs to yin in the yin syndrome,and the trigger is excess,then the insomnia is yang in the yin syndrome.This paper classified insomnia into two categories:the yin syndrome and yang syndrome for the sake of clinical practice.%人之寤寐是与自然相适应的结果,卫行于阴与阳,是寐与寤的根本原因,另外神主宰着睡眠.基于卫阳营阴理论引起的失眠:卫阳失调为阳证失眠,卫阳过强为阳中之阳证失眠,卫阳太弱为阳中之阴证失眠;营阴失调为阴证失眠,营阴过实为阴中之阳证失眠,营阴太虚为阴中之阴证失眠.基于心主神志理论引起的失眠:火热扰神为阳证失眠,实火扰心为阳中之阳证失眠,虚火扰心为阳中之阴证失眠;心神失养为阴证失眠,因虚致心神失养为阴中之阴证失眠,因实致心神失养为阴

  5. La fuerza expresiva del deseo en Lan Yu de Stanley Kwan .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Eng

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Stanley Kwan's Lan Yu configures the emergence of homosexuality in contemporary China far beyond its validation in recognizably Western identitarian terms: the affirmation of an existing but misrecognized minority population; the defense of sexual "perversion"; the positing of sexual freedom, legal recognition, and political rights; the justification of a bourgeois consumer lifestyle, or even the expression of a universalizing and bindingtove bringing togethertwo abstract individuáis. Instead, in Kwan's film, homosexuality and its expressive desire mark the emergence of a new humanism in (postsocialist China under the shadows of global capitalism and neoliberal development. Gays and lesbians, that is, are harbingers of a new modernity, helping to situate China in its proper place within a cosmopolitan globalized world. From this perspective, homosexuality functions as a critical tool for organizing and evaluating the historical continuities and ruptures among China's (semicolonial past, its revolutionary aspirations for a socialist modernity, and its present investments in a neoliberal capitalist world order.

  6. Formation of the oil composition of the Yu0 Bazhenov formation, Salym oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Soboleva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bazhenov horizon of Western Siberia has been studied in considerable detail from different perspectives and different methods, a large number of studies have been devoted to a wide range of issues related to the lithological composition of rocks, their reservoir properties, the study of organic matter, properties and composition of oil at various analytical levels, and many others. This work is devoted to restoring conditions for the formation of oil properties and composition of the Yu0 Salym oil field, based mainly on the geochemical aspects of the study of oil changes both in area and in the section within the productive layer of Salym structure, using some geological data, such as structural plan for the reflecting horizon B (the roof of the Bazhenov formation, having a complex configuration, reservoir temperatures and pressure, well flow rates, and others. There is no single reservoir at the Salym field in the Yu0 formation. For the conclusions of the geological-geochemical interpretation, a sampling of 61 samples of oil from exploration, appraisal and production wells of the initial stages of production was used, since in the future when oil is extracted, the ecology in the deposits changes, and 21 samples of oil from other fields in the West Siberian oil and gas basin. Conventionally, three types of oils are distinguished, differing in their physicochemical parameters, group hydrocarbon and molecular composition. It was suggested that in addition to the own organic matter of the Bazhenov formation, hydrocarbon fluids of the Vasyugan, Tyumen formations and possibly Paleozoic rocks were involved in the formation of the oil composition. The flow of light liquid hydrocarbons and gases occurred along the zones of faults of different genesis and duration of existence.

  7. PREFACE: SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor: Devoted to the 75th anniversary of Yu M Ostanevich's birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordely, Valentin; Kuklin, Alexander; Balasoiu, Maria

    2012-03-01

    The Second International Workshop 'SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor', devoted to the 75th anniversary of the birth of Professor Yu M Ostanevich (1936-1992), an outstanding neutron physicist and the founder of small-angle neutron scattering (field, group, and instrument) at JINR FLNPh, was held on 27-30 May at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. The first Workshop was held in October 2006. Research groups from different neutron centers, universities and research institutes across Europe presented more than 35 oral and poster presentations describing scientific and methodological results. Most of them were obtained with the help of the YuMO instrument before the IBR-2 shutdown in 2006. For the last four years the IBR-2 reactor has been shut down for refurbishment. At the end of 2010 the physical launch of the IBR-2M reactor was finally realized. Nowadays the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique is applied to a wide range of scientific problems in condensed matter, soft condensed matter, biology and nanotechnology, and despite the fact that there are currently over 30 SANS instruments in operation worldwide at both reactor and spallation sources, the demand for beam-time is considerably higher than the time available. It must be remembered, however, that as the first SANS machine on a steady-state reactor was constructed at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, the first SANS instrument on a 'white' neutron pulsed beam was accomplished at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at the IBR-30 reactor, beamline N5. During the meeting Yu M Ostanevich's determinative and crucial contribution to the construction of spectrometers at the IBR-2 high-pulsed reactor was presented, as well as his contribution to the development of the time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle scattering technique, and a selection of other scientific areas. His leadership and outstanding scientific achievements in applications of the

  8. Teachers' Use of a Pedagogical Framework for Improvement in Mathematics Teaching: Case Studies from YuMi Deadly Maths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Merilyn; Cooper, Tom; Anderson, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the pedagogical framework used by YuMi Deadly Maths, a school change process used to improve mathematics teaching and thus enhance employment and life chances for socially disadvantaged students. The framework, called the RAMR cycle, is capable of being used by mathematics teachers for planning and delivering lessons and units…

  9. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  10. In Vivo Chromatin Targets of the Transcription Factor Yin Yang 2 in Trophoblast Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, Raquel; Macías-Redondo, Sofía; Climent, María; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Muniesa, Pedro; Schoorlemmer, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Yin Yang 2 (YY2) is a zinc finger protein closely related to the well-characterized Yin Yang 1 (YY1). YY1 is a DNA-binding transcription factor, with defined functions in multiple developmental processes, such as implantation, cell differentiation, X inactivation, imprinting and organogenesis. Yy2 has been treated as a largely immaterial duplication of Yy1, as they share high homology in the Zinc Finger-region and similar if not identical in vitro binding sites. In contrast to these similarities, gene expression alterations in HeLa cells with attenuated levels of either Yy1 or Yy2 were to some extent gene-specific. Moreover, the chromatin binding sites for YY2, except for its association with transposable retroviral elements (RE) and Endogenous Retroviral Elements (ERVs), remain to be identified. As a first step towards defining potential Yy2 functions matching or complementary to Yy1, we considered in vivo DNA binding sites of YY2 in trophoblast stem (TS) cells. Results We report the presence of YY2 protein in mouse-derived embryonic stem (ES) and TS cell lines. Following up on our previous report on ERV binding by YY2 in TS cells, we investigated the tissue-specificity of REX1 and YY2 binding and confirm binding to RE/ERV targets in both ES cells and TS cells. Because of the higher levels of expression, we chose TS cells to understand the role of Yy2 in gene and chromatin regulation. We used in vivo YY2 association as a measure to identify potential target genes. Sequencing of chromatin obtained in chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays carried out with αYY2 serum allowed us to identify a limited number of chromatin targets for YY2. Some putative binding sites were validated in regular ChIP assays and gene expression of genes nearby was altered in the absence of Yy2. Conclusions YY2 binding to ERVs is not confined to TS cells. In vivo binding sites share the presence of a consensus binding motif. Selected sites were uniquely bound by YY2 as

  11. [Effects of Electroacupuncture on Joint Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients of Liver- and Kidney-Yin Deficiency Type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yin; Zhu, Jun; Li, Lian-Bo; He, Tian-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Yi; Zheng, Yong-Yao; Chen, Yun-Fei

    2016-10-25

    To compare the effects between electroacupuncture (EA) plus western medicine and simple western medicine in improving clinical symptoms and local joint function of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with yin deficiency of Liver and Kidney. A total of 68 RA patients of yin deficiency of Liver and Kidney were equally randomized into EA+medication group and medication group ( n =34 in each group). Both groups were given once-a-week methotrexate (7.5 mg/time) and once-a-day leflunomide (10 mg/time), while EA+medication group was additionally treated by EA at bilateral Ganshu (BL 18), Shenshu (BL 23), Xuanzhong (GB 39), Zusanli (ST 36), Taichong (LR 3), Hegu (LI 4) 3 times/week. The treatment lasted for 12 weeks. The visual analogue scale (VAS, for assessing rest pain), swollen joint count (SJC), tender joint count (TJC), patient's global assessment (PGA), physician's global assessment (PhGA), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptom scoring, 28 joints activity index (disease activity score, DAS 28), American College of Rheumatology 20 (ACR 20, i.e. 20% of clinical improving rate), and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) were assessed and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were examined for comparison. Statistical differences were observed in before-after-treatment comparisons in both groups in reducing rest pain, SJC, TJC, serum CRP content, PGA and PhGA, HAQ scoring and DAS 28 ( P yin deficiency of Liver and Kidney.

  12. Martensitic transformation in Heusler alloys Mn2YIn (Y=Ni, Pd and Pt): Theoretical and experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hongzhi; Liu, Bohua; Xin, Yuepeng; Jia, Pengzhong; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng

    2015-01-01

    The martensitic transformation and electronic structure of Heusler alloys Mn 2 YIn (Y=Ni, Pd, Pt) have been investigated by both first-principles calculation and experimental investigation. Theoretical calculation reveals that, the energy difference ΔE between the tetragonal martensitic phase and cubic austenitic phase increases with Y varying from Ni to Pt in Mn 2 YIn. Thus a structural transition from cubic to tetragonal is most likely to happen in Heusler alloy Mn 2 PtIn. A single Heusler phase can be obtained in both Mn 2 PtIn and Mn 2 PdIn. A martensitic transformation temperature of 615 K has been identified in Mn 2 PtIn. And in Mn 2 PdIn, the austenitic phase is stable and no martensitic transformation is observed till 5 K. This indicates there may exist a positive relation between ΔE and martensitic transformation temperature. Calculated results show that Mn 2 YIn are all ferrimagnets in both austenitic and martensitic phases. The magnetic properties are mainly determined by the antiparallel aligned Mn spin moments. These findings can help to develop new FSMAs with novel properties. - Highlights: • Positive relation between ΔE and martensitic transformation temperature has been observed. • Heusler alloy Mn 2 PdIn has been synthesized successfully and investigated. • Martensitic transformation in Heusler alloys can be predicted by first -principles calculations

  13. The genome and structural proteome of YuA, a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage resembling M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim; Sykilinda, Nina; Briers, Yves; Roucourt, Bart; Lavigne, Rob; Robben, Johan; Domashin, Artem; Miroshnikov, Konstantin; Volckaert, Guido; Hertveldt, Kirsten

    2008-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YuA (Siphoviridae) was isolated from a pond near Moscow, Russia. It has an elongated head, encapsulating a circularly permuted genome of 58,663 bp, and a flexible, noncontractile tail, which is terminally and subterminally decorated with short fibers. The YuA genome is neither Mu- nor lambda-like and encodes 78 gene products that cluster in three major regions involved in (i) DNA metabolism and replication, (ii) host interaction, and (iii) phage particle formation and host lysis. At the protein level, YuA displays significant homology with phages M6, phiJL001, 73, B3, DMS3, and D3112. Eighteen YuA proteins were identified as part of the phage particle by mass spectrometry analysis. Five different bacterial promoters were experimentally identified using a promoter trap assay, three of which have a sigma54-specific binding site and regulate transcription in the genome region involved in phage particle formation and host lysis. The dependency of these promoters on the host sigma54 factor was confirmed by analysis of an rpoN mutant strain of P. aeruginosa PAO1. At the DNA level, YuA is 91% identical to the recently (July 2007) annotated phage M6 of the Lindberg typing set. Despite this level of DNA homology throughout the genome, both phages combined have 15 unique genes that do not occur in the other phage. The genome organization of both phages differs substantially from those of the other known Pseudomonas-infecting Siphoviridae, delineating them as a distinct genus within this family.

  14. The Ethics of Clinical Care and the Ethics of Clinical Research: Yin and Yang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Charles J; Hutchinson, Raymond J; Mrdjenovich, Adam J

    2017-02-01

    The Belmont Report's distinction between research and the practice of accepted therapy has led various authors to suggest that these purportedly distinct activities should be governed by different ethical principles. We consider some of the ethical consequences of attempts to separate the two and conclude that separation fails along ontological, ethical, and epistemological dimensions. Clinical practice and clinical research, as with yin and yang, can be thought of as complementary forces interacting to form a dynamic system in which the whole exceeds the sum of its parts. Just as effective clinical practice cannot exist without clinical research, meaningful clinical research requires the context of clinical practice. We defend this thesis by triangulation, that is, by outlining how multiple investigators have reached this conclusion on the basis of varied theoretical and applied approaches. More confidence can be placed in a result if different methods/viewpoints have led to that result. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Yin Yang 1 Promotes Hepatic Gluconeogenesis Through Upregulation of Glucocorticoid Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Xiong, Xuelian; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zhijian; Li, Jin; Shi, Guojun; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Huijie; Ning, Guang; Li, Xiaoying

    2013-01-01

    Gluconeogenesis is critical in maintaining blood glucose levels in a normal range during fasting. In this study, we investigated the role of Yin Yang 1 (YY1), a key transcription factor involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Our data showed that hepatic YY1 expression levels were induced in mice during fasting conditions and in a state of insulin resistance. Overexpression of YY1 in livers augmented gluconeogenesis, raising fasting blood glucose levels in C57BL/6 mice, whereas liver-specific ablation of YY1 using adenoviral shRNA ameliorated hyperglycemia in wild-type and diabetic db/db mice. At the molecular level, we further demonstrated that the major mechanism of YY1 in the regulation of hepatic glucose production is to modulate the expression of glucocorticoid receptor. Therefore, our study uncovered for the first time that YY1 participates in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which implies that YY1 might serve as a potential therapeutic target for hyperglycemia in diabetes. PMID:23193188

  16. A study on the 'Yin-tonic' component of the Chinese herb Zhimu sarsasapogenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yuansheng; Yi Ningyu; Wang Yongqing; Dai Xiangdong; Xia Zongqin

    1991-01-01

    Sarsasapogenin was extracted from the Chinese herb Zhimu(Anemerrhena Asphodeloides Bunge) and its pharmacological action was compared with ZM decoction (ZM) in 'Hyperthyroid' mice. 125 I-Pindolol binding assay revealed that the maximum binding capacity (RT) of brain beta-adrenoceptors of the models was significantly higher than normal and that repeated oral administrations of either ZM or SAR reduced the elevated RT to nearly normal. The peak value of plasma cAMP after a single dose of isoproterenol (ISO) was also significantly higher in the models than in control. Again oral administrations of either ZM or SAR reduced the response of plasma cAMP to ISO to nearly normal. However, in vitro competitive binding assay indicated that neither SAR nor its succinyl derivative had any direct binding reaction with beta adrenoceptors. It is therefore concluded that SAR is an important component of Zhimu and the mechanism of its 'Yin-tonic' action is probably a down-regulation of the beta-adrenoceptors rather than direct occupation of receptor binding sites

  17. Design of 12-T Yin-Yang magnets operating in subcooled, superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, D.N.; Hoard, R.W.; Baldi, R.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study of a large 12-T yin-yang pair of coils, typical of the plug coils envisioned for a tandem-mirror facility to follow MFTF, has been completed. Because of its larger size and field strength, the magnetic forces are much greater than those experienced on MFTF. The main purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the feasibility of such a device, paying particular attention to mechanical stress and conductor strain. The conductor proposed operates at 15.6 kA and consists of a rectangular half-hard copper stabilizer with a Nb-Ti insert in the low-field regions and Nb 3 Sn in the high field. The coil is divided into four sections in the longitudinal direction, with steel substructure to limit the winding stress to an acceptable level. The conductor is cryostatically stabilized in superfluid He at 1.8K and 1.2 atm, with an operating heat flux of 0.8 W.cm -2

  18. A NEW HYBRID YIN-YANG-PAIR-PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM FOR UNCAPACITATED WAREHOUSE LOCATION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Heidari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yin-Yang-pair optimization (YYPO is one of the latest metaheuristic algorithms (MA proposed in 2015 that tries to inspire the philosophy of balance between conflicting concepts. Particle swarm optimizer (PSO is one of the first population-based MA inspired by social behaviors of birds. In spite of PSO, the YYPO is not a nature inspired optimizer. It has a low complexity and starts with only two initial positions and can produce more points with regard to the dimension of target problem. Due to unique advantages of these methodologies and to mitigate the immature convergence and local optima (LO stagnation problems in PSO, in this work, a continuous hybrid strategy based on the behaviors of PSO and YYPO is proposed to attain the suboptimal solutions of uncapacitated warehouse location (UWL problems. This efficient hierarchical PSO-based optimizer (PSOYPO can improve the effectiveness of PSO on spatial optimization tasks such as the family of UWL problems. The performance of the proposed PSOYPO is verified according to some UWL benchmark cases. These test cases have been used in several works to evaluate the efficacy of different MA. Then, the PSOYPO is compared to the standard PSO, genetic algorithm (GA, harmony search (HS, modified HS (OBCHS, and evolutionary simulated annealing (ESA. The experimental results demonstrate that the PSOYPO can reveal a better or competitive efficacy compared to the PSO and other MA.

  19. a New Hybrid Yin-Yang Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Uncapacitated Warehouse Location Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, A. A.; Kazemizade, O.; Hakimpour, F.

    2017-09-01

    Yin-Yang-pair optimization (YYPO) is one of the latest metaheuristic algorithms (MA) proposed in 2015 that tries to inspire the philosophy of balance between conflicting concepts. Particle swarm optimizer (PSO) is one of the first population-based MA inspired by social behaviors of birds. In spite of PSO, the YYPO is not a nature inspired optimizer. It has a low complexity and starts with only two initial positions and can produce more points with regard to the dimension of target problem. Due to unique advantages of these methodologies and to mitigate the immature convergence and local optima (LO) stagnation problems in PSO, in this work, a continuous hybrid strategy based on the behaviors of PSO and YYPO is proposed to attain the suboptimal solutions of uncapacitated warehouse location (UWL) problems. This efficient hierarchical PSO-based optimizer (PSOYPO) can improve the effectiveness of PSO on spatial optimization tasks such as the family of UWL problems. The performance of the proposed PSOYPO is verified according to some UWL benchmark cases. These test cases have been used in several works to evaluate the efficacy of different MA. Then, the PSOYPO is compared to the standard PSO, genetic algorithm (GA), harmony search (HS), modified HS (OBCHS), and evolutionary simulated annealing (ESA). The experimental results demonstrate that the PSOYPO can reveal a better or competitive efficacy compared to the PSO and other MA.

  20. Maps of Relocation and Poems of Tang Dynasty Poets: Li Bai, Du Fu, and Han Yu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    羅鳳珠、白璧玲、廖泫銘、范毅軍 、鄭錦全 Feng-Ju Lo,Pi-Ling Pai,Hsiung-Ming Liao,I-Chun Fan,Chin-Chuan Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Geographic environments affect literary contents and genre and thus, since ancient times, geographical area has been used to classify Chinese literature. In 1936 Liang Qichao was keenly aware of the relationship between literature and geography and brought up the idea of “literarygeography”. In 1979 Professor Chen Zhengxiang produced maps of birthplaces of Tang and Song poets to show the shift of Chinese cultural center from north to south. Furthermore, in the pastdecade, the attention to research in literary geography and geographical distribution of writersgradually increased. However, most studies focused on geographical distribution of birthplaces of writers and very few focused on the relationship between poets’ journey and the contents of their writings and their geographic environment. Meanwhile, geographic information system and aerialphotography have developed quickly and have become useful tools for the study of literary geography.Since then, the academic circles in Taiwan have built a solid foundation in this area. While Li Baiand Du Fu were called poetic immortal and poetic sage of the middle and end periods of the heydayof Tang Dynasty, respectively, Han Yu advocated the classical Chinese movement and becameone of the eight great authors of Tang and Song dynasties. Han Yu was also the best representative of Middle Tang poets. While the styles of these three poets differed from each other, they held key positions in the development and evolution of Tang poetry. Their footprints spread all over the countryand greatly affected later developments and contemporary of poetry. This project makes use of the digital Tang Dynasty maps by Tan Qixiang, Tang Dynasty transportation route maps by Yan Gengwang,aerial maps, the All Tang Poems, and chronicles of the poets to build the three poets’ relocation maps and study their poetic literature, language, geography, and interactions with others, in hopesof opening a new research direction

  1. Fabrication of welded pipes of the KhN45Yu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyapunov, A.I.; Krichevskij, E.M.; L'vov, V.N.; Kozlov, N.N.; Kireeva, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    A highly heat-resistant KhN45Yu (EP 747) alloy has been developed; the alloy is designed to withstand prolonged service in the temperature range of 1000-1300 deg C, or short-term service at 1300-1400 deg C. The satisfactory ductility and good weldability of the alloy have made it possible to obtain sheets and pipes (32 x 2.0 mm) by argon arc welding. The ductility of pipes from EP 747 alloy exceeds that of pipes from KhN78T (EI 435) alloy by 5.10%, the strength being approximately equal. In regard to strength the welded joint differs little from the base metal. The ductility characteristics up to 900 deg C are also equal, since failure occurs in the base metal. At higher temperatures the welded joint fails in the metal of the weld, and its ductility drops sharply. The grain size of the base metal corresponds to No. 3-4. The welded joint has a cast structure with a grain size larger than No. 1, but its ductility characteristics are satisfactory. This structure ensures an increased long-term strength of the material at 1000-1200 deg C

  2. Kondo Effect of U Impurities in Dilute (YU)2Zn17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Anzai, Kousuke

    2001-10-01

    Extending previous work on single-site properties of U ions in (LaU)2Zn17, we have investigated, from ρ(T), χ(T) and Cp(T) on single crystals, (Y1-xUx)2Zn17 with x=0.025 and 0.050, which has almost the same unit-cell volume as an antiferromagnetic heavy-electron compound U2Zn17. Remarkable features in the dilute-impurity limit have been clarified, which include Kondo behavior of ρ(T), large and almost isotropic χimp(T), and strongly enhanced Cimp(T)/T with gigantic γimp=2.02 2.05 J/K2·mole-U as T→0 due to a low characteristic energy-scale of the system. It is shown that gross features of the data are explained in terms of the conventional Kondo effect in the presence of the crystal field with the U3+ \\varGamma6 doublet ground state. It is also shown that the variation of γ with the unit-cell volume in related systems is not explained as a volume effect on TK and that even the behavior of fictitious “paramagnetic” U2Zn17 is not described as a collection of U impurities in dilute (YU)2Zn17.

  3. FY 1999 Report on overseas geological structure surveys. Joint Japan-China Yu Xian exploitation project; 1999 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project is based on the (agreement of the joint exploitation project for Yu Xian block in Yu Xian coal mine, Province of Hepei by Japan's NEDO and China's Coal Geological Bureau), signed on October 4, 1996. The joint project mainly comprises seismic exploitation and test drilling, Japan being mainly responsible for the former and China for the latter. The final report will be drawn jointly for the geological survey results necessary for designing coal mines. The Yu Xian block contains the Jurassic coal seams, which are covered by the Quaternary bed and not exposed to the surface. The Quaternary bed base is 50 to 400 m deep from the surface, and coal seams are 300 to 700 m deep also from the surface. A total of 11 coal seams are located in the Xiahuayuan strata as the coal-bearing strata. The first and fifth seams are most promising ones. In particular, the fifth seam is thick (0.2 to 6.91 m thick) and distributed throughout the block. It is estimated that 8 coal seams have a total coal quantity of approximately 346 million tons. (NEDO)

  4. High-throughput LC-MS method for the rapid characterization of multiple chemical constituents and metabolites of Da-Bu-Yin-Wan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianna; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Aihua; Liu, Zhidong; Zou, Di; Song, Yanhua; Liu, Liang; Wang, Xijun

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is the clinical experience accumulated by Chinese people against diseases. Da-Bu-Yin-Wan is a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of Phellodendri amurensis Rupr., Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge., Radix Rehmanniae Preparata and Chinemys reevesii. In this study, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry with the control software of Masslynx (V4.1) was established for comprehensive screening and identification of the chemical constituents and serum metabolites of Da-Bu-Yin-Wan in vivo and in vitro. Consequently, 70 peaks in the methanol extract from Da-Bu-Yin-Wan and 38 peaks absorbed into rat blood were characterized. The 70 constituents in vitro included alkaloids, flavonoids, polysaccharide, limonoids, flavonoid, etc. And the 38 constituents consist of 22 absorbed prototypes and 16 metabolites of Da-Bu-Yin-Wan absorbed in vivo. We fully clarified the chemical constituents of Da-Bu-Yin-Wan and provided a scientific strategy for the screening and characterization of the chemical constituents and metabolites of traditional Chinese medicine in vitro and in vivo. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Language Personality of the Publicist: Rhetorical and Stylistic Canon (Yu. Senkevich “To “Ra” Across the Atlantic”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Shatalova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In article the communicative and linguistic parameters of the speech of the publicist of the XX century Yu. Senkevich which are declared as a sample for formation of the language personality in the conditions of development of the modern information and communicative environment are designated. On the example of the analysis of the book «On “Ra” through Atlantic» locates the fact of that Yu.N. Senkevich’s creativity corresponds to the main criteria of popular scientific journalism: high degree of reliability, authoritativeness of the publicist; dynamism, dramatic nature, intelligence of a statement. The unostentatious enlightenment based on updating of scientific knowledge for the addressee and a dialogization of a publicistic discourse, the high level of psychological and philosophical generality, the declaration of humanistic values form specific rhetoric which is supported by the formal and grammatical organization of the speech of the publicist. Priority of syntactic designs of a certain type, stylistic ladders and figures – dynamism of a statement and scale of representation of material define. The humour and easy self-irony as significant characteristics of the language personality define a basis of the rhetorical and stylistic canon realized in publicistic works Yu.N. Senkevich – «the human view of people and society» that in the modern information and communicative environment becomes a necessary reference point.

  6. [Effect of protein intervention on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Na; Mao, Xin-Min; Ma, Xiao-Li; Li, Lin-Lin; Wang, Ye; Tao, Yi-Cun; Wang, Jing-Wei; Guo, Jia-Jia; Lan, Yi

    2016-11-01

    To study the effect of plant protein and animal protein on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats. 110 male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (n=10), diabetic model group (n=20), disease-symptoms group (n=80). The rats of blank group received ordinary feeding, while other groups were fed with high sugar and fat diets. During the whole process of feeding, rats of disease-symptoms group were given with Qingpi-Fuzi (15.75 g•kg⁻¹) once a day through oral administration. Five weeks later, the rats were given with a low dose of STZ (40 mg•kg⁻¹) by intraperitoneal injection to establish experimental diabetic models. Then the models were randomly divided into disease-symptoms group 1 (Qi and Yin deficiency diabetic group, 15.75 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 2 (plant protein group, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 3 (animal protein group, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 4 (berberine group, 0.1 g•kg⁻¹). The drugs were given for 4 weeks by gavage administration. After 4 weeks of protein intervention, the abdominal aortic blood was collected and serum was isolated to analyze its free amino acid by using AQC pre-column derivatization HPLC and fluorescence detector. Four weeks after the protein intervention, plant protein, animal protein and berberine had no obvious effect on body weight and blood sugar in type 2 diabetic rats. As compared with animal protein group, histidine and proline(PYin deficiency type 2 diabetic SD rats. Symbolic differential compounds could be found through metabonomics technology, providing experimental basis for early warning of type 2 diabetes and diagnosis of Qi and Yin deficiency syndrome. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Gene Expression Profiles of HIV/AIDS Patients with Qi-Yin Deficiency and Dampness-Heat Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sa; Chen, Yulong; Xie, Shiping; Xu, Qianlei; Chen, Jianshe; Wang, Changhai; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Suna; Wu, Xingwei; Zhang, Ning

    2016-11-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applied in the clinic as a complementary and alternative therapy has helped improve immunity and reduce side effects and symptomatic treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the mechanisms of TCM syndromes are not clear. Transcriptomics enables the study of such TCM syndromes. This study compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of healthy persons and patients with HIV/AIDS who had two common TCM syndromes, qi-yin deficiency and dampness-heat retention, to find the difference in HIV/AIDS with TCM syndromes. Comparison with healthy persons identified 113 mRNAs-41 enhanced and 72 decreased-in the qi-yin deficiency group. Additionally, 76 mRNAs were found in the dampness-heat retention group: 14 increased and 62 decreased. Functional genetic analysis of the mRNAs indicated that two TCM syndromes were correlated with cell apoptosis, immunoinflammatory responses, and lymphocyte activation. Differentially expressed mRNAs in the qi-yin deficiency group were obviously associated with cellular activity, communication, protein localization, cellular ion homeostasis, and regulation of cell motion, whereas mRNAs in the dampness-heat retention group were associated with sequence-specific DNA binding, cellular response to stress, and hemopoietic or lymphoid organ development. These results suggest that the formation of different TCM syndromes in patients with HIV/AIDS were founded on biological transcriptomics, which reveal mechanisms of the formation of these syndromes in HIV/AIDS. Differentially expressed mRNAs in two TCM syndrome groups tended to normalize after TCM intervention, which indicates that TCM might remit symptoms by changing genetic expression.

  8. Yin Yang 1 and Adipogenic Gene Network Expression in Longissimus Muscle of Beef Cattle in Response to Nutritional Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia J. Moisá; Daniel W. Shike; William T. Meteer; Duane Keisler; Dan B. Faulkner; Juan J. Loor

    2013-01-01

    Among 36 differentially-expressed genes during growth in longissimus muscle (LM) of Angus steers, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) had the most relationships with other genes including some associated with adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutritional management on mRNA expression of YY1 along with its targets genes PPARG, GTF2B, KAT2B, IGFBP5 and STAT5B. Longissimus from Angus and Angus ? Simmental steers (7 total/treatment) on early weaning plus high-starch...

  9. M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic/literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by philologist V.V. Vinogrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa N. Kuznetsova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic / literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by Great Russian scientist-philologist and linguist, Academician V.V. Vinogradov.

  10. Magnets for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility: testing of the first Yin-Yang and the design and development of other magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozman, T.A.; Wang, S.T.; Chang, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Completed in May 1981, the first Yin-Yang magnet for the tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was successfully tested in February 1982 to its full design field (7.68 T) and current (5775 A). Since that time, the entire magnet array has been reconfigured - from the original A-cell to an axicell design. The MFTF-B magnet array now contains a total of 26 large superconducting coils: 2 sets of yin-yang pairs, 2 sets of transition magnets (each containing two coils), 2 sets of axicell magnets (each containing three coils), and 12 central-cell solenoids. This paper chronicles recent magnet history - from te testing of the initial yin-yang set, through the design of the axicell configuration, to the planned development of the system

  11. Effects of Qiangji Jianli Yin on the hypothalamus CRH contents and plasma ACTH, cortisol levels in rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hui; Chen Zhixi; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang; He Zanhou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of qiangji jianli yin on hypothalamus CRH contents and plasma ACTH, Cortisol levels in rat models with kidney-yang deficiency syndrome. Methods: Rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome were prepared with intramuscular injuection of hydroeortisone and divided into 5 groups: (1) no further treatment, n=13 (2) treated with high dosage d qiangji jiandi yin, n=12 (3) treated with medium dosage of qiangji jianli yin, n=12 (4) treated with low dosage of qiangji jianli yin n=12, (5) treated with yougui wan, n=12. Ten rats injuected with intramuscular distilled water only served as controls. The animals were sacrificied 14 days later and the hypothalamus CRH contents as well as plasma AOM and cortisol levels were measured with RIA. The thymus gland weight index and the adrenal gland index were calculated. Results: (1) The hypothalamus CRH contents and plasma ACTH, cortisol levels were significantly lower (P<0.01) in the rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome without any treatment thas those in controls rats; the thymus and adrenal gland weight index were significantly decreased too (P <0.01). The CRH conteats and ACTH, cortisol levels in all the three group of rat model treated with different dosage of qiangji jianli yin were significantly higher than those in the models without any treatment (P<0.05-0.01). Conclusion: In rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome, dysfunction of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) led to decreased secretion of related hormones. The HPAA function might be partially restored with administation of qiangji jianli yin. (authors)

  12. [Impact on the gait time cycle of ischemic stroke in the treatment with yin-yang respiratory reinforcing and reducing needling technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tian, Fu-Ling; Liu, Guo-Rong; Zheng, De-Song; Chen, Jin-Ming; Ma, Shu-Riang; Cui, Jian-Mei; Wang, Hong-Bin; Li, Xue-Qing

    2014-03-01

    To compare the difference in the efficacy on gait time cycle of ischemic stroke between yin-yang respiratory reinforcing and reducing needling technique (yin-yang needling) and the conventional acupuncture. Sixty cases of ischemic stroke were randomized into a conventional acupuncture group and a yin-yang needling group, 30 cases in each one. The basic treatment (the control of blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid, the intravenous drops of ginkgo leaf extract and dipyridamole injection and vinpocetine injection) were applied in the two groups. Additionally, in the conventional acupuncture group, the acupoints of the Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming [Biguan (ST 31), Liangqiu (ST 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37), Xiajuxu (ST 39), etc.] were selected and stimulated with the even needling technique. In the yin-yang needling group, the acupoints of yin meridians such as Zuwuli (LR 10), Xuehai (SP 10), Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6), etc. and the acupoints of yang meridians such as Biguan (ST 31), Liangqiu (ST 34) and Yanglingquan (GB 34), etc. were selected. The reducing manipulation of respiratory reinforcing and reducing technique was applied to the acupoints of yin meridians and the reinforcing manipulation was applied to the acupoints of yang meridians. The kinematics time parameters were determined and compared before and 4 weeks after treatment. After treatment, the differences in the gait cycle, the phase time of standing (%), the phase time of single support (%), the phase time of unilateral sway (%) on the affected (healthy) foot and phase time of double support (%) were significant as compared with those before treatment in the patients of the two groups (all P yin-yang needling group were improved much obviously after treatment as compared with those in the conventional acupuncture group. The differences in support phase time (%), single support phase time (%) and sway phase time (%) were significant between the affected limb and

  13. "Yin and Yang" tuned fluorescence sensing behavior of branched 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaohuan; Qi, Yanyu; Liu, Huijing; Peng, Junxia; Liu, Kaiqiang; Fang, Yu

    2014-11-26

    Achieving high sensing performance and good photostability of fluorescent films based on adlayer construction represents a significant challenge in the area of functional fluorescent film research. A solution may be offered by "Yin and Yang", a balance idea from Chinese philosophy, for the design of a fluorophore and the relevant assembly. Accordingly, a 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) derivative (C2) with two cholesteryl residues in the side chains and two glucono units in the head and tail positions was designed and synthesized. As a control, compound C1 was also prepared. The only difference between C1 and C2 is that the hydroxyl groups in the glucono residues of C1 are fully acetylated. Studies of the fluorescence behaviors of the two compounds in solution revealed that both the profile and the intensity of the fluorescence emission of the compounds, in particular C2, are dependent on their concentration and on the nature of solvents employed. Presence of HCl also alters the emission of the compounds in solution. On the basis of the studies, three fluorescent films were prepared, and their sensing performances to HCl in vapor state were studied. Specifically, Film 1 and Film 3 were fabricated via physical coating, separately, of C2 and C1 on glass plate surfaces. As another comparison, Film 2 was also fabricated with C2 as a fluorophore but at a much lower concentration if compared to that for the preparation of Film 1. As revealed by SEM and fluorescent microscopy studies, Film 1 and Film 2 exhibit well-defined microstructures, which are spherical particles and spherical pores, respectively, while Film 3 is characterized by irregular aggregates of C1. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that Film 1 and Film 3 both display an aggregation emission, of which the emission from Film 1 is supersensitive to the presence of HCl vapor (detection limit: 0.4 ppb, a lowest value reported in the literatures). For Film 3, however, its emission is insensitive to the

  14. Explicit and exact nontraveling wave solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional potential Yu-Toda-Sasa-Fukuyama equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Na

    2018-04-01

    With the aid of the symbolic computation, we present an improved ( G ‧ / G ) -expansion method, which can be applied to seek more types of exact solutions for certain nonlinear evolution equations. In illustration, we choose the (3 + 1)-dimensional potential Yu-Toda-Sasa-Fukuyama equation to demonstrate the validity and advantages of the method. As a result, abundant explicit and exact nontraveling wave solutions are obtained including two solitary waves solutions, nontraveling wave solutions and dromion soliton solutions. Some particular localized excitations and the interactions between two solitary waves are researched. The method can be also applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations.

  15. Supercavitation Advances and Perspectives A collection dedicated to the 70th jubilee of YuN Savchenko

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This collection is dedicated to the 70th jubilee of Yu. N. Savchenko, and presents experimental, theoretical, and numerical investigations written by an international group of well-known authors. The contributions solve very important problems of the high-speed hydrodynamics, such as supersonic motion in water, drag diminishing, dynamics and stability of supercavitating vehicles, water entry and hydrodynamic performances of hydrofoils, ventilated cavities after a disc and under the ship bottom. The  book is written for researches, scientists, engineers, and students interested in problems of hydromechanics.

  16. [Effects and mechanism of Angelicae Sinensis Radix on Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg in mice with asthma and Yin deficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting-Ting; Feng, Xing-Zhong; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2017-02-01

    Angelicae Sinensis Radix, with nourishing Yin, promoting blood circulation, and moisturizing dryness functions, is commonly used in clinical medicine. In order to investigate the effects and mechanism of Angelica sinensis(AS) on Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg in mice with asthma and Yin deficiency syndrome, asthmatic and Yin deficiency syndrome Balb/c mice models were established by injecting and inhaling ovalbumin(OVA) and thyroxin. The models were treated with dexamethasone(DXM), AS extract and AS extract+DXM, respectively. Pathological examination of lung tissues was conducted by HE staining, and ELISA was used to detect the levels of IL-4, IL-17, IFN-γ, TGF-β as well as retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (RORγt). Results showed that AS could significantly improve the situation of inflammation infiltration, increase ratios of IFN-γ/IL-4 and TGF-β/IL-17, decrease the levels of RORγt in lung tissues. The AS+DXM group showed a best treatment effect. The results indicated that AS played a therapeutic role for asthma with Yin deficiency syndrome and improved airway inflammation by inhibiting the expression of RORγt in lung tissues and regulating the balance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Structural support conceptual studies for a Yin-Yang magnet of a tandem mirror reactor. Final report, September 1979-August 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojalvo, I.U.; Erickson, J.L.

    1980-07-01

    An investigation was made as to whether the TMR Yin-Yang coils will require elaborate external structural restraints. The approach taken was to use a simple coil case of compact design and to add and modify structural members to transfer loads from one coil to the other. The design considerations are described

  18. FY 2000 report on the survey of the overseas geological structure. Japan-China joint coal exploration - Yu Xian project; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The geological survey was carried out which is needed for coal mine design in the Yu Xian coal mine area, Yu Xian coal field, Hebei province, China. The term of survey was 5 years from 1996 to 2000. Activities are mainly for seismic survey and boring survey. Japan was in charge of the seismic survey, and China in charge of the boring survey. Both attained the goal. The results of the activities were summed up in the following 7 items: 1) outline of the survey; 2) general investigation; 3) state of the exploration related materials/machinery; 4) field survey; 5) items of survey; 6) results of the survey; 7) conclusion. In 6), the geological analysis, coal quality survey and coal amount survey were conducted. In the geological analysis, analyzed were the succession of strata, geological structure, and the situation of existence of coal seams. In 7), the following were made clear: geological structure of the survey area, coal seam, coal quality, hydrological geology, other conditions of drilling technology, and coal amount. The coal amount was 328.34 million tons in a total of A/B/C class coals. The total coal amount of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams was 259.79 million tons, which was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The average thickness of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams, which are the main minable coal seams, was 3.10m and 2.66m, respectively. (NEDO)

  19. Yuánmíng Yuán en el siglo XVIII: Arte entre la diplomacia y la filosofía; entre Europa y Pekín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luengo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio pretende probar que el Yuánmíng Yuán fue diseñado como una representación del macrocosmos imperial a partir de la filosofía de la China de Qianlong. Para ello se valorará la función simbólica de los palacios de estilo europeo a partir de las descripciones de embajadas orientales y occidentales. Esta información se pondrá en relación con las diferentes representaciones pictóricas del jardín, conservadas tanto en grabados o acuarelas como en pinturas murales. A partir de toda esta información se pretende valorar su utilización en las visitas de diferentes legados diplomáticos extranjeros. En concreto, se intenta comprobar que los palacios europeos se utilizaron eminentemente para impresionar a las misiones orientales, y no tanto a las occidentales.

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of Traditional Chinese medicine, "Kuan-Sin-Yin", in patients undergoing chemotherapy for advanced colon cancer - A controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsai-Ju; Liu, Chia-Yu; Lu, Ruey-Hwa; Kuo, Chin-Wei; Lin, Yang-Chao; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used increasingly as complementary medicine in cancer care. Kuan-Sin-Yin (KSY) is a TCM decoction containing seven herbs known to cause immunomodulation or anticancer activity, and which are associated with the TCM concept of Qi and energy supply. Kuan-Sin-Yin has cytostatic effects on cancer cells in animal models. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of improvement in meridian energy and heart-rate variability (HRV) and to assess whether these observations are compatible with TCM theory. A non-randomized controlled trial was designed with monitoring of the meridian electro-conductivity and heart-rate variability (HRV) to compare the efficacy of Kuan-Sin-Yin in the control and experimental groups. 52 patients were enrolled in this study. We also measured cancer-related symptoms and quality of life as secondary outcomes. We found that colon cancer patients who received KSY as complementary therapy benefitted with enhancement of meridian energy (Yin meridian: 27.90:35.45μA; p=0.014; Yang meridian: 27.09:33.55μA; p=0.024) and increases in HRV activity (78.40:129.04ms; SDNN: p=0.001) and parasympathetic tone(HF:1644.80:3217.92 ms 2 ; p=0.003; RMMSD:99.76:164.52ms; p=0.002). Cancer-related symptoms decreased (ECOG>1:46.2:7.7%; p=0.0001), and quality of life (KSY group: PCS 35.46:42.12, p=0.0001; MCS: 44.50:47.55, p=0.209) was improved with statistical significance. The correlation of positive results reflected in meridian energy and HRV activity confirms the positive role of complementary medicine of Kuan-Sin-Yin in cancer care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Review on the Book: Pochekaev R.Yu. The Golden Horde Law (Kazan, 2009. 260 p. » 231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Sayfetdinova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a review of the R.Yu. Pochekaev’s book “The Golden Horde Law”. The reviewer points out that the Pochekaev’s book is a significant academic research in both the study of the Golden Horde history and the law system of the Eurasian Turkic-Mongol peoples. This book is published by the Center for Research on the Golden Horde Civilization at the Sh.Marjani Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan. For several years, the author of this book, R.Yu. Pochekaev, has been concerned with the the history of the Golden Horde State and its law system. He has published a number of works on this topic, the main conclusions of which are reflected in this generalizing work. The study is based on a wide range of sources (annals and chronicles, memoirs of contemporaries, bureaucratic and numismatic materials and numerous studies including the works of foreign specialists in the original language. In his book, the author organically combines the latest achievements of research on both the Golden Horde history and theory and history of law. The book will be of interest to experts of the Golden Horde history and Orientalists, who are often faced with the legal aspects of the material under study.

  2. The Yin and Yang aspects of IL-27 in induction of cancer-specific T-cell responses and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Song; Liu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Jin-Qing; Zhu, Xiaotong; Liu, Zhihao; Bai, Xue-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidences from animal studies have indicated that both endogenous and exogenous IL-27, an IL-12 family of cytokine, can increase antitumor T-cell activities and inhibit tumor growth. IL-27 can modulate Treg responses, and program effector T cells into a unique T-effector stem cell (TSEC) phenotype, which enhances T-cell survival in the tumor microenvironment. However, animal studies also suggest that IL-27 induces molecular pathways such as IL-10, PD-L1 and CD39, which may downregulate tumor-specific T-cell responses. In this review paper, we will discuss the Yin and Yang aspects of IL-27 in the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses, and the potential impacts of these functions of IL-27 in the design of cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Characteristic proteins in the plasma of postoperative colorectal and liver cancer patients with Yin deficiency of liver-kidney syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Wang, Wenhai; Luo, Yunquan; Cai, Feifei; Lu, Yiyu; Deng, Wanli; Li, Qi; Su, Shibing

    2017-11-28

    Systems biology and bioinformatics provide the feasibility for the basic research associated with "same traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome in different diseases". In this study, the plasma proteins in postoperative colorectal (PCC) and postoperative liver cancer (PLC) patients with YDLKS (Yin deficiency of liver-kidney syndrome) were screened out using iTRAQ combined with LC-MS/MS technology. The results demonstrated that, KNG1, AMBP, SERPING1, etc, were all differentially expressed in both PCC and PLC patients with YDLKS, and associated closely with complement and coagulation cascades pathway. C7 and C2 were another two representative factors involving in former pathway. Further validation showed that, the C7 levels were increased significantly in PLC ( P patients with YDLKS ( P patients with YDLKS ( P patients with YDLKS.

  4. Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Complex Molecular Regulation in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Mutant Yu98-8A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Fang

    Full Text Available Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding.

  5. Role of heteroplasmic mutations in the mitochondrial genome and the ID4 gene promoter methylation region in the pathogenesis of chronic aplastic anemia in patients suffering from Kidney yin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xing; Wang, Jing-Yi; Liu, Kui; Cui, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Ya-Qin; Wang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    To analyze changes in gene amplification in the mitochondrial genome and in the ID4 gene promoter methylation region in patients with chronic aplastic anemia (CAA) suffering from Kidney (Shen) yin deficiency or Kidney yang deficiency. Bone marrow and oral epithelium samples were collected from CAA patients with Kidney yin deficiency or Kidney yang deficiency (20 cases). Bone marrow samples were collected from 20 healthy volunteers. The mitochondrial genome was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products were used for sequencing and analysis. Higher mutational rates were observed in the ND1-2, ND4-6, and CYTB genes in CAA patients suffering from Kidney yin deficiency. Moreover, the ID4 gene was unmethylated in bone marrow samples from healthy individuals, but was methylated in some CAA patients suffering from Kidney yin deficiency (positive rate, 60%) and Kidney yang deficiency (positive rate, 55%). These data supported that gene mutations can alter the expression of respiratory chain enzyme complexes in CAA patients, resulting in energy metabolism impairment and promoting the physiological and pathological processes of hematopoietic failure. Functional impairment of the mitochondrial respiration chain induced by gene mutation may be an important reason for hematopoietic failure in patients with CAA. This change is closely related to maternal inheritance and Kidney yin deficiency. Finally, these data supported the assertion that it is easy to treat disease in patients suffering from yang deficiency and difficult to treat disease in patients suffering from yin deficiency.

  6. III International Conference on Small Angle Neutron Scattering dedicated to the 80 anniversary of Yu.M. Ostanevich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Preface “Among the many well-known fundamental and applied consequences of neutron discovery, one of the first was the emergence of structural neutron diffraction - one of the methods for studying the spatial structure of condensed matter at the atomic level. Investigating the dynamics of biological macromolecules by neutron diffraction methods is an area that is almost untouched. We believe that also in this direction one should expect rapid progress.” Yu.M.Ostanevich and I.N.Serdyuk Uspekhi Fizicheskih Nauk (1982) More than 30 years after Ostanevich and Serdyuk reviewed the then 50 years from the neutron discovery, we are happy to support their statement and prediction by reporting on the further progress in the field of neutron scattering research. Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics has organized the III International Conference on Small Angle Neutron Scattering (YuMO2016) that was – not coincidently – dedicated to the 80th anniversary of Ostanevich. Yuriy Mechislavovich Ostanevich (1936–1992) has had a determinative and crucial contribution to the construction of spectrometers at the pulsed reactor IBR in Dubna, Russia. He contributed in particular to the development of time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique, and the selection of advanced scientific areas for its application. The SANS instrument at the IBR-2 reactor is called YuMO in his honour. The Ostanevich’s leadership and outstanding scientific achievements in SANS studies of polyelectrolytes, small molecules, fractals, metallic glasses, macromolecules, polymers, etc., were recognized also by a number of awards including the State Prize of the Russian Federation in 2000. To this end of course, we should not forget mentioning the contribution of close collaborators of Ostanevich: Laszlo Cser, Josef Plestil as well as Alexander Kunchenko, Vadim Bezzabotnov and Nikolay Gorski. The YuMO2016 conference focused on providing opportunities to discuss various possibilities of

  7. Durettenema guangdongense gen. et sp. nov. (Nematoda: Molineoidea) from Hipposideros larvatus (Horsfield) (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) with discussion of the taxonomic status of Macielia rhinolophi Yin, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hui-Dong; Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2017-09-26

    Durettenema guangdongense gen. et sp. nov. is described from Hipposideros larvatus (Horsfield) (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in Guangdong Province, China. The new genus differs from the other genera of subfamily Molineinae in the structure of the synlophe, the absence of lateral alae, the arrangement of the bursa rays, the shape of the spicules, the female tail and the presence of gubernaculum. Meanwhile, considering the morphological characters of Macielia rhinolophi Yin, 1980, including the pattern of the bursa ray, the shape of the spicules, and the female tail, this species should be transferred to the genus Durettenema, as D. rhinolophi (Yin, 1980) comb. nov., which can be distinguished from D. guangdongense in the shape of the ovejector. In addition, the ITS-1 sequences of D. guangdongense were also analysed, these sequence added new data for the molecular diagnosis of trichostrongylid nematodes.

  8. Effects of exogenous growth regulators on cell suspension culture of yin-hong grape (vitis vinifera l.) and establishment of the optimum medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.; Feng, J.C.; Yan, W.Y.; Xiao, Y.; Jun, Y.Y

    2015-01-01

    Callus induced by stem of Yin-hong grape (Vitis vinifera L.) was used as materials and B5 medium as basic medium. The major growth parameters of cell suspension cultures with various levels of 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-Benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) were investigated to provide a basis for the optimum medium of suspension cell cultures of Yin-hong grape regarding cell number, packed cell volume (PCV), dry cell weight (DCW), cell viability, and morphology. All data were analysed by of two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the treatment of 6-BA and NAA would effect the cell growth dynamics, probably causing logarithmic phase in advance at higher levels of 6-BA. Different concentration of 6-BA and NAA had significant effects on cells number, PCV, DCW and viability (p<0.05), while no-significant effect was observed on the cells morphology. The optimum medium for suspension cell cultures of Yin-hong grape was identified as B5+1.5 mg/L6-BA+1.5 mg/LNAA+ 250 mg/L casein hydrolysate + 30 g/L sucrose. With the optimum medium, the maximum number of suspension cells after the logarithmic growth phase was 34.78 * 108 / mL, the highest cell viability reached 86.45%.; DCW reached 3.84 g/L and PCV reached 0.092 mL/mL after eight days cultivating. (author)

  9. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Yin Zhi Huang Soup in an Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longsheng Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of the Chinese herbal medicine Yin Zhi Huang soup (YZS in an experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP rat model. In total, 48 rats were randomly divided into the following four groups (n=12/group: saline group, pathological model group, Qianlietai group, and YZS group. We determined the average wet weight of the prostate tissue, the ratio of the wet weight of the prostate tissue to body weight, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in the blood serum, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the rats’ prostate tissues, and the pathological changes in the prostate tissue using light microscopy. YZS reduced the rats’ prostate wet weight, the ratio of the prostate wet weight to body weight, and TNF-α levels in the blood serum and inhibited the expression of iNOS in the rats’ prostate tissues (P<0.05. Following YZS treatment, the pathological changes in the rats’ prostates were improved compared with those in the model group (P<0.05. Furthermore, YZS treatment reduced inflammatory changes in the prostate tissue. It also significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, and chemokines, such as iNOS, in the rat model of EAP.

  10. c-Abl phosphorylation of Yin Yang 1's conserved tyrosine 254 in the spacer region modulates its transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraiseh, Susan I; Kassardjian, Ari; Alexander, Karen E; Rizkallah, Raed; Hurt, Myra M

    2018-05-25

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor that can activate or repress transcription depending on the promotor and/or the co-factors recruited. YY1 is phosphorylated in various signaling pathways and is critical for different biological functions including embryogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation, cell-cycle regulation and tumorigenesis. Here we report that YY1 is a substrate for c-Abl kinase phosphorylation at conserved residue Y254 in the spacer region. Pharmacological inhibition of c-Abl kinase by imatinib, nilotinib and GZD824, knock-down of c-Abl using siRNA, and the use of c-Abl kinase-dead drastically reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of YY1. Both radioactive and non-radioactive in vitro kinase assays, as well as co-immunoprecipitation in different cell lines, show that the target of c-Abl phosphorylation is tyrosine residue 254. c-Abl phosphorylation has little effect on YY1 DNA binding ability or cellular localization in asynchronous cells. However, functional studies reveal that c-Abl mediated phosphorylation of YY1 regulates YY1's transcriptional ability in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate the novel role of c-Abl kinase in regulation of YY1's transcriptional activity, linking YY1 regulation with c-Abl tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Da-Bu-Yin-Wan and Qian-Zheng-San to Neuroprotect the Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Gang Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Da-Bu-Yin-Wan (DBYW and Qian-Zheng-San (QZS, two classic traditional Chinese medicinal formulas, were clinically employed to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD. Our previous studies demonstrated neuroprotective effects of them on mitochondrial function in PD mice induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. The purpose of this research was to investigate their possible mechanisms in the light of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP channels. The neuroprotective effect of DBYW and QZS on dopamine (DA neurons in substantia nigra (SN in the MPTP-induced PD mice was investigated by behavioral test (pole test and immunohistochemistry. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP level in the midbrain tissue was detected by firefly luciferase method. MitoKATP channel subunits SUR1 and Kir6.2 mRNA and protein expressions were tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR and Western blot. It was observed that DBYW and/or QZS served to ameliorate MPTP-induced behavioral impairment and prevent the loss of substantia nigra dopamine neurons, as well as increase ATP level in the midbrain tissue and downregulate SUR1 expression at mRNA and protein levels with no marked influence on Kir6.2. We concluded that DBYW and QZS exhibit neuroprotective effects probably through the regulation of ATP level and mitoKATP channel subunit expressions.

  12. Yin yang 1 and adipogenic gene network expression in longissimus muscle of beef cattle in response to nutritional management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Meteer, William T; Keisler, Duane; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    Among 36 differentially-expressed genes during growth in longissimus muscle (LM) of Angus steers, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) had the most relationships with other genes including some associated with adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutritional management on mRNA expression of YY1 along with its targets genes PPARG, GTF2B, KAT2B, IGFBP5 and STAT5B. Longissimus from Angus and Angus × Simmental steers (7 total/treatment) on early weaning plus high-starch (EWS), normal weaning plus starch creep feeding (NWS), or normal weaning without starch creep feeding (NWN) was biopsied at 0, 96, and 240 days on treatments. Results suggest that YY1 does not exert control of adipogenesis in LM, and its expression is not sensitive to weaning age. Among the YY1-related genes, EWS led to greater IGFBP5 during growing and finishing phases. Pro-adipogenic transcriptional regulation was detected in EWS due to greater PPARG and VDR at 96 and 240 d vs. 0 d. GTF2B and KAT2B expression was lower in response to NWS and EWS than NWN, and was most pronounced at 240 d. The increase in PPARG and GTF2B expression between 96 and 240 d underscored the existence of a molecular programming mechanism that was sensitive to age and dietary starch. Such response partly explains the greater carcass fat deposition observed in response to NWS.

  13. A Yin-Yang 1/miR-30a regulatory circuit modulates autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Peng, Yun-Peng; Zhu, Yi; Yin, Ling-Di; Wei, Ji-Shu; Gao, Wen-Tao; Jiang, Kui-Rong; Miao, Yi

    2017-10-19

    Autophagy is a highly regulated biological process that mediates the degradation of intracellular components. It is required for tumor cell metabolism and homeostasis. Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) has been reported to be involved in autophagy in several carcinomas. However, its role in autophagy in pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest human malignancies, is unknown. Here, we investigated the function of YY1 in pancreatic cancer cells autophagy and its mechanisms of action. The activity of cells undergoing autophagy was assessed using transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. A luciferase activity assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were also used to identify putative downstream targets of YY1. YY1 was confirmed to regulate autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. It was found to directly regulate the expression of miR-30a, a known modulator of autophagy-associated genes. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-30a attenuated the pro-autophagic effects of YY1. Cumulatively, our data suggest that miR-30a acts in a feedback loop to modulate the pro-autophagic activities of YY1. Thus, autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells may be regulated, in part, by a tightly coordinated YY1/miR-30a regulatory circuit. These findings provide a potential druggable target for the development of treatments for pancreatic cancer.

  14. A novel role of Yin-Yang-1 in pulmonary tuberculosis through the regulation of the chemokine CCL4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Santiago, Jesus F; Baay-Guzman, Guillermina J; Duran-Padilla, Marco A; Lopez-Bochm, Karla A; Garcia-Romero, Beatriz L; Hernandez-Cueto, Daniel D; Pantoja-Escobar, Gerardo; Vega, Mario I; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Huerta-Yepez, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is the etiological agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); this disease remains a worldwide health problem. Yin-Yang-1 (YY1) plays a major role in the maintenance and progression of some pulmonary diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of YY1 in TB remains unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of YY1 in the regulation of CCL4 and its implication in TB. We determined whether YY1 regulates CCL4 using reporter plasmids, ChIP and siRNA assays. Immunohistochemistry and digital pathology were used to measure the expression of YY1 and CCL4 in a mouse model of TB. A retrospective comparison of patients with TB and control subjects was used to measure the expression of YY1 and CCL4 using tissue microarrays. Our results showed that YY1 regulates the transcription of CCL4; moreover, YY1, CCL4 and TGF-β were overexpressed in the lung tissues of mice with TB during the late stages of the disease and the tissues of TB patients. The expression of CCL4 and TGF-β correlated with YY1 expression. In conclusion, YY1 regulates CCL4 transcription; moreover, YY1 is overexpressed in experimental and human TB and is positively correlated with CCL4 and TGF-β expression. Therefore, treatments that decrease YY1 expression may be a new therapeutic strategy against TB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum Metabolomic Characterization of Liver Fibrosis in Rats and Anti-Fibrotic Effects of Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang

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    Hongyang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT is a famous Chinese medicine formula which has long been used in clinical practice for treating various liver diseases, such as liver fibrosis. However, to date, the mechanism for its anti-fibrotic effects remains unclear. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS-based metabolomic study was performed to characterize dimethylnitrosamine (DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats and evaluate the therapeutic effects of YCHT. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA showed that the model group was well separated from the control group, whereas the YCHT-treated group exhibited a tendency to restore to the controls. Seven significantly changed fibrosis-related metabolites, including unsaturated fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholines (Lyso-PCs, were identified. Moreover, statistical analysis demonstrated that YCHT treatment could reverse the levels of most metabolites close to the normal levels. These results, along with histological and biochemical examinations, indicate that YCHT has anti-fibrotic effects, which may be due to the suppression of oxidative stress and resulting lipid peroxidation involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. This study offers new opportunities to improve our understanding of liver fibrosis and the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of YCHT.

  16. Multi-objective optimization of Stirling engine systems using Front-based Yin-Yang-Pair Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnathanam, Varun; Kotecha, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficient multi-objective optimization algorithm F-YYPO demonstrated. • Three Stirling engine applications with a total of eight cases. • Improvements in the objective function values of up to 30%. • Superior to the popularly used gamultiobj of MATLAB. • F-YYPO has extremely low time complexity. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate the performance of Front-based Yin-Yang-Pair Optimization (F-YYPO) to solve multi-objective problems related to Stirling engine systems. The performance of F-YYPO is compared with that of (i) a recently proposed multi-objective optimization algorithm (Multi-Objective Grey Wolf Optimizer) and (ii) an algorithm popularly employed in literature due to its easy accessibility (MATLAB’s inbuilt multi-objective Genetic Algorithm function: gamultiobj). We consider three Stirling engine based optimization problems: (i) the solar-dish Stirling engine system which considers objectives of output power, thermal efficiency and rate of entropy generation; (ii) Stirling engine thermal model which considers the associated irreversibility of the cycle with objectives of output power, thermal efficiency and pressure drop; and finally (iii) an experimentally validated polytropic finite speed thermodynamics based Stirling engine model also with objectives of output power and pressure drop. We observe F-YYPO to be significantly more effective as compared to its competitors in solving the problems, while requiring only a fraction of the computational time required by the other algorithms.

  17. Tumor features and correlation between lymphocyte count and biochemical parameters in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated primary liver cancer with Yin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhiyun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the tumor features and the correlation between lymphocyte count and biochemical parameters in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated primary liver cancer (PLC with yin deficiency. MethodsA total of 148 PLC patients who were treated in Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, from July 2013 to February 2015 were enrolled and divided into yin-deficiency PLC group (52 patients and non-yin-deficiency PLC group (96 patients. The patients′ general information and laboratory markers were collected, including oncological parameters (alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA19-9, virological parameter (HBsAg, gross type (nodular type, massive type, bulky type, and diffuse type, radiological features (main portal vein diameter, portal vein tumor thrombus, and extrahepatic metastasis, biochemical parameters (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score, white blood cell, red blood cell, platelet (PLT, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin (TBil, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholinesterase, prothrombin time (PT, and prothrombin time activity (PTA, and lymphocyte count. The t-test was applied for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Pearson correlation analysis was applied for correlation analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Spearman correlation analysis was applied for correlation analysis. The chi-square test was applied for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsHBsAg showed a significant difference between the two groups (χ2=5.658, P=0.017. Compared with the non-yin-deficiency PLC group, the yin-deficiency PLC group had significantly increased CEA and CA19-9 (U=-2.200 and -2.194, both P<0.05, significantly increased MELD score, TBil, and PT (t=2.2, U=-2.0, U=-2

  18. FY 2000 survey of the geological structure overseas, etc. Japan-China joint coal exploration - Yu Xian project; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa - futai shiryoshu. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This data book summarized the proceedings and the technical report of the management committee on the Japan-China geological structure survey based on the consultation concluded between NEDO and China's bureau of coal field geology and a report meeting on the Yu Xian project. In the exploration, conducted were the boring survey of 10 boreholes, seismic survey of 2D (71 traverse lines, 180.105km) and 3D (1.5km{sup 2}), VSP (6 holes (345 shots)) and the low velocity band survey (2,072 shots). The geological structure of the area presented the syncline structure with a gentle line associated with foldings and a number of faults and was classified into the medium class or the class of a little complication in the Chinese standard. The number of the faults confirmed in this exploration totaled 57. Coal reserves by coal seam were 157.22 million tons at No. 5 seam and 102.57 million tons at No. 1 seam. The total amount of the two seams was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The coal quality of Nos. 1 and 5 was brown coal - flame coal in the Chinese classification, and subbituminous coal B - subbituminous coal C in the ASTM classification. The coal, however, cannot be used for process raw coal. There is a technical potentiality of the fixed bed pressurized gasification. (NEDO)

  19. Real space mapping of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states of an extended magnetic scatterer on a conventional superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etzkorn, Markus; Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Topp, Andreas; Ast, Christian R. [Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of a local magnetic impurity with a superconductor causes the formation of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR)states in the vicinity of the impurity. These have recently received increasing attention in the context of Majorana Fermions and other exotic states that might be created from the mutual interplay. YSR states have been extensively studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and so far have been discussed mainly in the limit of point scattering impurities. Here we present our investigations of the local properties of single magnetic Copper-Phthalocynane molecules on the (5x1) reconstructed, superconducting V(100) surface measured at 15 mK temperature. We find very intense YSR states with energies that depend on the precise absorbtion geometry of the molecule. At the same time we find no indication of a local suppression of the superconducting gap around the impurity. We follow the state evolution in real space for about 3 nm corresponding to about three orders of magnitude in spectral intensity. The spectra display rich structure with local variations in the electron-hole asymmetries. The observed intensity changes in the spectra can not be described on the basis of a single point like scattering potential.

  20. BOOKPLATES, OWNERS’ RECORDINGS AND DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS ON THE BOOKS FROM THE BOOK COLLECTION OF THE MATHEMATICIAN I. YU. TIMTCHENKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Полевщикова

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The professor of Novorossiysky (Odessa University I. Yu. Timchenko (1863-1939 managed to collect a remarkable library on the history of Mathematics which contained primarily antiquarian books including incunabula and 16th century editions. Various aspects of this valuabe book collection have been studied lately. Books from this dispersed collection have been revealed and examined de visu. Their cataloguing incudes the description of individual book copies in view of their provenance. The purpose of the article is to provide the information on a complex of owners’ recordings and dedicatory inscriptions as well as bookplates left on the books making an attempt to trace the fate of the copies incorporated in the library of the Odessa mathematician. The information collected is considered in the context of the history of Mathematics. Many may characterise both direct and indirect expressions of the readers’ interests in books and reading. The study of provenance records demonstrate that the copies acquired by professor Timchenko used to be in the libraries of a number of men of science – mathematicians, physicists, philologists, etc. The findings of this article enable to enlarge the database of provenance making the practical value and results of the research.

  1. Network pharmacology-based identification of key pharmacological pathways of Yin-Huang-Qing-Fei capsule acting on chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Yanqiong; Ren, Weiqiong; Dong, Ling; Li, Junfang; Geng, Ya; Zhang, Yi; Li, Defeng; Xu, Haiyu; Yang, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    For decades in China, the Yin-Huang-Qing-Fei capsule (YHQFC) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, with good curative effects. Owing to the complexity of traditional Chinese herbal formulas, the pharmacological mechanism of YHQFC remains unclear. To address this problem, a network pharmacology-based strategy was proposed in this study. At first, the putative target profile of YHQFC was predicted using MedChem Studio, based on structural and functional similarities of all available YHQFC components to the known drugs obtained from the DrugBank database. Then, an interaction network was constructed using links between putative YHQFC targets and known therapeutic targets of chronic bronchitis. Following the calculation of four topological features (degree, betweenness, closeness, and coreness) of each node in the network, 475 major putative targets of YHQFC and their topological importance were identified. In addition, a pathway enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database indicated that the major putative targets of YHQFC are significantly associated with various pathways involved in anti-inflammation processes, immune responses, and pathological changes caused by asthma. More interestingly, eight major putative targets of YHQFC (interleukin [IL]-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, FCER1G, CCL11, and EPX) were demonstrated to be associated with the inflammatory process that occurs during the progression of asthma. Finally, a molecular docking simulation was performed and the results exhibited that 17 pairs of chemical components and candidate YHQFC targets involved in asthma pathway had strong binding efficiencies. In conclusion, this network pharmacology-based investigation revealed that YHQFC may attenuate the inflammatory reaction of chronic bronchitis by regulating its candidate targets, which may be implicated in the major pathological processes of the asthma pathway.

  2. MicroRNA-215 suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer by repressing Yin-Yang 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zehong; Han, Siqi; Huang, Wensheng; Wu, Jialin; Liu, Yuyi; Cai, Shirong; He, Yulong; Wu, Suijing; Song, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide with rising incidence. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that implicate in multiple physiological or pathological processes. The aberrant expression of miRNA-215 (miR-215) has been illustrated in various types of cancers. However, the expression of miR-215 in human colon cancer and the biological roles of it remain largely unknown. We conducted this study to explore the expression and the function of miR-215 in human colon cancer. The results showed that miR-215 was remarkably downregulated in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-215 by miR-215 mimic significantly inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion while knockdown of miR-215 by miR-215 inhibitor exerted reverse effects. Furthermore, we newly identified Yin-Yang 1(YY1) as a direct target of miR-215 which could rescue the effects of miR-215 on colon cancer cells. In summary, our investigation revealed that miR-215 was downregulated in colon cancer and it suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion by directly targeting YY1. - Highlights: • MiR-215 expression was decreased in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. • Mir-215 inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • MiR-215 targeted YY1 directly. • The effects of miR-215 on colon cancer cells were mediated by YY1.

  3. Book review of “Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering” edited by Y Hanry Yu and Nur Aida Abdul Rahim

    OpenAIRE

    Brey, Eric Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article is a review of the book “Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering” (ISBN-13: 978-1439848036, $149.95, 298 Pages, 114 Illustrations) edited by Y Hanry Yu and Nur Aida Abdul Rahim published by the CRC Press (Taylor&Francis) in 2013. The contents of the book and its relevance to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are discussed in this invited review.

  4. Acknowledgements [3. international conference on small angle neutron scattering dedicated to the 80 anniversary of Yu.M. Ostanevich, Dubna (Russian Federation), 6-9 June 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The Organizers of the III International Conference on Small Angle Neutron Scattering dedicated to the 80-th anniversary of Yu. M. Ostanevich, acknowledge the financial support from the Grants of the Governmental Plenipotentiary Representatives of Romania, Slovakia, Czech Republic, scientific projects of the Cooperation Programmes JINR-Romania. Special gratitude to the JINR and FLNP administration and staff is expressed. The conference is also dedicated to the 60th Anniversary of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna. (paper)

  5. Residual hepatocellular carcinoma after oxaliplatin treatment has increased metastatic potential in a nude mouse model and is attenuated by Songyou Yin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Wei; Liu, Liang; Wang, Wen-Quan; Tang, Zhao-You; Ren, Zheng-Gang; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Bin-Bin; Li, Qi-Song; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The opposite effects of chemotherapy, which enhance the malignancy of treated cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are not well understood. We investigated this phenomenon and corresponding mechanisms to develop a novel approach for improving chemotherapy efficacy in HCC. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 (with low metastatic potential) and MHCC97L (with moderate metastatic potential) were used for the in vitro study. An orthotopic nude mouse model of human HCC was developed using MHCC97L cells. We then assessed the metastatic potential of surviving tumor cells after in vitro and in vivo oxaliplatin treatment. The molecular changes in surviving tumor cells were evaluated by western blot, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry. The Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin (composed of five herbs) was investigated in vivo to explore its effect on the metastatic potential of oxaliplatin-treated cancer cells. MHCC97L and HepG2 cells surviving oxaliplatin treatment showed enhanced migration and invasion in vitro. Residual HCC after in vivo oxaliplatin treatment demonstrated significantly increased metastasis to the lung (10/12 vs. 3/12) when re-inoculated into the livers of new recipient nude mice. Molecular changes consistent with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were observed in oxaliplatin-treated tumor tissues and verified by in vitro experiments. The Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin (4.2 and 8.4 g/kg) attenuated EMT and inhibited the enhanced metastatic potential of residual HCC in nude mice (6/15 vs. 13/15 and 3/15 vs. 13/15, respectively). The surviving HCC after oxaliplatin treatment underwent EMT and demonstrated increased metastatic potential. Attenuation of EMT by Songyou Yin may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in HCC

  6. [Jinshuibao capsule combined losartan potassium intervened early renal damage of hypertension patients of yin and yang deficiency: a clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Qiu; Yin, Ji-Qing; Xin, Qing; Wang, Ya-Qin; Ge, Zhi-Ming

    2013-06-01

    To observe the effects of Jinshuibao Capsule (JC) combined losartan potassium on some indices of early renal damage of hypertension patients of yin and yang deficiency syndrome (YYDS), such as levels of serum cystatin C (Cys C), beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), uric acid (UA), blood pressure, blood lipids, and fasting blood glucose (FBG), and to explore their protective effects on early renal damage of hypertension patients and on the metabolisms of blood lipids and blood glucose. Totally 106 hypertension patients of YYDS were randomly assigned to two groups, 53 patients in the control group (treated by losartan potassium) and 53 patients in the treatment group (treated by JC + losartan potassium). The treatment lasted for 16 weeks. The serum changes of UA, Cys C, beta2-MG, hs-CRP, blood lipids [including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], and FBG levels were measured to evaluate the renal protective effects and to assess their effect on the metabolisms of blood lipids and blood glucose. Compared with before treatment in the same group, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased in the two groups after treatment, showing statistical difference (P 0.05). The diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was not obviously declined in the two groups after treatment, showing no statistical difference. Compared with before treatment in the same group, the LDL-C level decreased obviously after treatment in the control group. But there was no obvious change in FBG, TC, HDL-C, and TG in the control group, showing no statistical difference when compared with before treatment (P 0.05). Compared with before treatment in the same group, the levels of UA, Cys C, beta2-MG, and hs-CRP all decreased in the two groups, showing statistical difference (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The SCr level decreased in the treatment group more obviously after treatment

  7. Suitability of Yin Yang 1 transcript and protein levels for biomarker studies in B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas Arranz, Jéssica; Winter, Dalia Nilufar; Drexler, Hans Günter; Eberth, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a transcription factor that plays an important role during all stages of B cell differentiation. Several studies reported upregulation of YY1 in B cell derived lymphoma, indicating that it might act as an oncogene. Furthermore, aberrant YY1 expression has been associated with survival in some entities of B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), suggesting that YY1 could be a valuable biomarker in B-NHL. However, studies are controversial and methodologically disparate, partially because some studies are based on transcript levels while others rely on YY1 protein data. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the dependence of YY1 protein levels on YY1 transcription. A panel of human cell lines representing different B-NHL subtypes was used to test for the correlation of YY1 mRNA and protein levels which were determined by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. To analyze YY1 mRNA and YY1 protein stability cells were treated with actinomycin-D and cycloheximide, respectively. siRNAs were transfected to knockdown YY1 . Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed with data from published patient cohorts. Pearson's correlation analyses were assessed and statistical power was examined by Student's t-test. In the analyzed panel of B-NHL cell lines YY1 transcript levels do not correlate with their cellular protein amounts. YY1 protein levels were unaffected by transient block of transcription or by targeting YY1 mRNA using siRNA. Additionally, global inhibition of translation up to 48 h did not alter protein levels of YY1, indicating that YY1 is a highly stable protein in B-NHL. Furthermore, in a retrospective analysis of two different B-NHL cohorts, YY1 transcript levels had no impact on patients' survival probabilities. Our results point out the necessity to focus on YY1 protein expression to understand the potential role of YY1 as an oncogene and to unravel its suitability as clinical biomarker in B-NHL.

  8. Pharmacogenomics and the Yin/Yang actions of ginseng: anti-tumor, angiomodulating and steroid-like activities of ginsenosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Hin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Chinese medicine, ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has long been used as a general tonic or an adaptogen to promote longevity and enhance bodily functions. It has also been claimed to be effective in combating stress, fatigue, oxidants, cancer and diabetes mellitus. Most of the pharmacological actions of ginseng are attributed to one type of its constituents, namely the ginsenosides. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the study of ginsenosides on angiogenesis which is related to many pathological conditions including tumor progression and cardiovascular dysfunctions. Angiogenesis in the human body is regulated by two sets of counteracting factors, angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors. The 'Yin and Yang' action of ginseng on angiomodulation was paralleled by the experimental data showing angiogenesis was indeed related to the compositional ratio between ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1. Rg1 was later found to stimulate angiogenesis through augmenting the production of nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that such responses were mediated through the PI3K→Akt pathway. By means of DNA microarray, a group of genes related to cell adhesion, migration and cytoskeleton were found to be up-regulated in endothelial cells. These gene products may interact in a hierarchical cascade pattern to modulate cell architectural dynamics which is concomitant to the observed phenomena in angiogenesis. By contrast, the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of ginsenosides (e.g. Rg3 and Rh2 have been demonstrated in various models of tumor and endothelial cells, indicating that ginsenosides with opposing activities are present in ginseng. Ginsenosides and Panax ginseng extracts have been shown to exert protective effects on vascular dysfunctions, such as hypertension, atherosclerotic disorders and ischemic injury. Recent work has demonstrates the target molecules of ginsenosides to be a

  9. Multi-Dimensional Spectrum-Effect Relationship of the Impact of Chinese Herbal Formula Lichong Shengsui Yin on Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichong Shengsui Yin (LCSSY is an effective and classic compound prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs used for the treatment of ovarian cancer. To investigate its pharmacodynamic basis for treating ovarian cancer, the multi-dimensional spectrum-effect relationship was determined. Four compositions (I to IV were obtained by extracting LCSSY successively with supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, 75% ethanol reflux extraction, and the water extraction-ethanol precipitation method. Nine samples for pharmacological evaluation and fingerprint analysis were prepared by changing the content of the four compositions. The specific proportions of the four compositions were designed according to a four-factor, three-level L9(34 orthogonal test. The pharmacological evaluation included in vitro tumor inhibition experiments and the survival extension rate in tumor-bearing nude mice. The fingerprint analyzed by chromatographic condition I (high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detec tor,HPLC-PDA identified 19 common peaks. High-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-Evaporative Light-scattering Detector (HPLC-PDA-ELSD hyphenated techniques were used to compensate for the use of a single detector, and the fingerprint analyzed by chromatographic condition II identified 28 common peaks in PDA and 23 common peaks in ELSD. Furthermore, multiple statistical analyses were utilized to calculate the relationships between the peaks and the pharmacological results. The union of the regression and the correlation analysis results were the peaks of X5, X9, X11, X12, X16, X18, Y5, Y8, Y12, Y14, Y20, Z4, Z5, Z6, and Z8. The intersection of the regression and the correlation analysis results were the peaks of X11, X12, X16, X18, Y5, Y12, and Z5. The correlated peaks were assigned by comparing the fingerprints with the negative control samples and reference standard samples, and identifying the structure using high

  10. Scalable Production of the Silicon-Tin Yin-Yang Hybrid Structure with Graphene Coating for High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Bin; Zheng, Qinghui; Zhang, Zijiao; Zhu, Guoying; Yu, Qian; Jin, Zhong; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-10

    Alloy anodes possessed of high theoretical capacity show great potential for next-generation advanced lithium-ion battery. Even though huge volume change during lithium insertion and extraction leads to severe problems, such as pulverization and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), various nanostructures including nanoparticles, nanowires, and porous networks can address related challenges to improve electrochemical performance. However, the complex and expensive fabrication process hinders the widespread application of nanostructured alloy anodes, which generate an urgent demand of low-cost and scalable processes to fabricate building blocks with fine controls of size, morphology, and porosity. Here, we demonstrate a scalable and low-cost process to produce a porous yin-yang hybrid composite anode with graphene coating through high energy ball-milling and selective chemical etching. With void space to buffer the expansion, the produced functional electrodes demonstrate stable cycling performance of 910 mAh g -1 over 600 cycles at a rate of 0.5C for Si-graphene "yin" particles and 750 mAh g -1 over 300 cycles at 0.2C for Sn-graphene "yang" particles. Therefore, we open up a new approach to fabricate alloy anode materials at low-cost, low-energy consumption, and large scale. This type of porous silicon or tin composite with graphene coating can also potentially play a significant role in thermoelectrics and optoelectronics applications.

  11. In situ hybridization on the change of m1 receptor mRNA in different brain areas of aged rats and the effect of Yin tonic Zhimu studied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yaer; Xia Zongqin; Yi Ningyu

    1996-01-01

    The change of gene expression of m1 receptors in different brain areas of aged rats and the effects of water extract of the Yin tonic Zhimu and its active principle ZMS was studied. In situ hybridization using 35 S-labelled m1 and m2 probes and analysis of the autoradiographs using a computerized image-analyzer was selected. The grain density of m1 mRNA in striatum was significantly lowered in old rats as compared with young rats (decreased by 12.26 +- 3.60, P<0.01). Long-term oral administration of ZMS, the active principle of Yin tonic Zhimu but not the water extraction of Zhimu, elevated the m1 mRNA in striatum of aged rats (increased by 15.71 +- 3.27, P<0.01). Neither significant change of the grain density of m1 mRNA in old rats nor significant effect of Zhimu or ZMS was observed in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The m1 mRNA level in striatum is decreased in aged rats and ZMS is able to elevate it

  12. A HYBRID SOLAR WIND MODEL OF THE CESE+HLL METHOD WITH A YIN-YANG OVERSET GRID AND AN AMR GRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xueshang; Zhang Shaohua; Xiang Changqing; Yang Liping; Jiang Chaowei; Wu, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid three-dimensional (3D) MHD model for solar wind study is proposed in the present paper with combined grid systems and solvers. The computational domain from the Sun to Earth space is decomposed into the near-Sun and off-Sun domains, which are respectively constructed with a Yin-Yang overset grid system and a Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) grid system and coupled with a domain connection interface in the overlapping region between the near-Sun and off-Sun domains. The space-time conservation element and solution element method is used in the near-Sun domain, while the Harten-Lax-Leer method is employed in the off-Sun domain. The Yin-Yang overset grid can avoid well-known singularity and polar grid convergence problems and its body-fitting property helps achieve high-quality resolution near the solar surface. The block structured AMR Cartesian grid can automatically capture far-field plasma flow features, such as heliospheric current sheets and shock waves, and at the same time, it can save significant computational resources compared to the uniformly structured Cartesian grid. A numerical study of the solar wind structure for Carrington rotation 2069 shows that the newly developed hybrid MHD solar wind model successfully produces many realistic features of the background solar wind, in both the solar corona and interplanetary space, by comparisons with multiple solar and interplanetary observations.

  13. Design scoping study of the 12T Yin-Yang magnet system for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The overall objective of this engineering study was to determine the feasibility of designing a Yin-Yang magnet capable of producing a peak field in the windings of 12T for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS) program. As part of this technical study, a rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost estimate of the winding for this magnet was undertaken. The preferred approach to the winding design of the TMNS plug coil utilizes innovative design concepts to meet the structural, electrical and thermodynamic requirements of the magnet system. Structurally, the coil is radially partitioned into four sections, preventing the accumulation of the radial loads and reacting them into the structural case. To safely dissipate the 13.34 GJ of energy stored in each Yin-Yang magnet, the winding has been electrically subdivided into parallel or nested coils, each having its own power supply and protection circuitry. This arrangement effectively divides the total stored energy of the coils into manageable subsystems. The windings are cooled with superfluid helium II, operated at 1.8K and 1.2 atmospheres. The superior cooling capabilities of helium II have enabled the overall winding envelope to be minimized, providing a current density of 2367 A/CM 2 , excluding substructure

  14. Identifying the candidate genes involved in the calyx abscission process of 'Kuerlexiangli' (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu) by digital transcript abundance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Jun; Wang, Lifen; Li, Leiting; Cao, Yufen; Tian, Luming; Dong, Xingguang; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-10-23

    'Kuerlexiangli' (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu), a native pear of Xinjiang, China, is an important agricultural fruit and primary export to the international market. However, fruit with persistent calyxes affect fruit shape and quality. Although several studies have looked into the physiological aspects of the calyx abscission process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In order to better understand the molecular basis of the process of calyx abscission, materials at three critical stages of regulation, with 6000 × Flusilazole plus 300 × PBO treatment (calyx abscising treatment) and 50 mg.L-1GA3 treatment (calyx persisting treatment), were collected and cDNA fragments were sequenced using digital transcript abundance measurements to identify candidate genes. Digital transcript abundance measurements was performed using high-throughput Illumina GAII sequencing on seven samples that were collected at three important stages of the calyx abscission process with chemical agent treatments promoting calyx abscission and persistence. Altogether more than 251,123,845 high quality reads were obtained with approximately 8.0 M raw data for each library. The values of 69.85%-71.90% of clean data in the digital transcript abundance measurements could be mapped to the pear genome database. There were 12,054 differentially expressed genes having Gene Ontology (GO) terms and associating with 251 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) defined pathways. The differentially expressed genes correlated with calyx abscission were mainly involved in photosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, candidate calyx abscission-specific genes, e.g. Inflorescence deficient in abscission gene, were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the digital transcript abundance measurements results. We identified candidate genes that showed highly dynamic changes in

  15. [Intervention effects of Zuoguiwan containing serum on osteoblast through ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in models with kidney-Yang-deficiency, kidney-Yin-deficiency osteoporosis syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Xin, Jing; Fan, Lian-Xia; Yin, Hua

    2017-10-01

    To clarify the effects of Zuoguiwan containing serum on osteoblast proliferation and alkaline phosphatase(ALP) expression and its effects on the expression of β-catenin, ERK1, ERK2 mRNA and protein of osteoblast through ERK1/2, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in models with osteoporosis(OP) kidney-Yang-deficiency, osteoporosis(OP) kidney-Yin-deficiency syndrome. Rat osteoporosis models were established by ovariectomy surgery, and 10 weeks after surgery, hydrocortisone was injected and thyroxine was administered by intragastric administration to establish OP kidney-Yang-deficiency rat model, and OP kidney-Yin-deficiency rat model. Osteoblasts were obtained from 24 h newborn rat skull and were identified by alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining. Zuoguiwan containing serum of OP, OP kidney-Yang-deficiency, and OP kidney-Yin-deficiency, as well as the blank serum were used to intervene the osteoblast, and the cells proliferation was detected by MTS. ELISA assay was used to detect ALP expression. RT-PCR assay was used to detect the mRNA expression of ERK1, ERK2, β-catenin and protein expression levels were detected by Western blot. The results showed that Zuoguiwan containing serum in OP kidney-Yin-deficiency model had stronger effect than OP kidney-Yang-deficiency in promoting osteoblast proliferation, ALP expression, osteoblast ERK1/2, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway related factors β-catenin, ERK1, ERK2 mRNA and protein expression levels. This was consistent with the TCM theory of "Zuoguiwan nourishes kidney Yin", providing a scientific basis for the clinical and dialectical treatment of osteoporosis. Zuoguiwan could regulate the proliferation and differentiation of bone cells by ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which may be one of the mechanisms of Zuoguiwan for the prevention of osteoporosis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Biopsychological structure of Yin-Yang using Cloninger’s Temperament model and Carver and White’s BIS/BAS scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological structure of Yin-Yang based on the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ in relation to Carver and White’s Behavior Inhibition/Behavior Activation System (BIS/BAS Scale and Cloninger’s temperament model of the West. Methods. A total of 188 university students were classified as high (30%, middle (40%, and low (30% groups based on their SPQ score and their differences in Cloninger’s temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales were analyzed using analysis of covariance after controlling the sex. Correlation among SPQ, Cloninger’s four temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales was also examined. Results. Significant differences in BAS (F = 11.703, p < .001, Novelty-Seeking (F = 4.945, p < .01, and Harm-Avoidance (F = 10.912, p < .001 were observed between high and low SPQ score groups after controlling for sex. The SPQ showed significant correlation with BAS (r = 0.303, Novelty-Seeking (r = 0.225, and Harm-Avoidance (r = − 0.273. However, BIS showed no significant differences between SPQ groups, and did not show correlation with the SPQ. Discussion. The current study demonstrated that Yin-Yang has similarities with and disparities from the Western tradition and may be examined with objective instruments. We showed that the emotionality of the East which is defined as mobility of emotion, not emotional instability as traditionally defined in Western theories, is pivotal for understanding the nature of emotion in the East. Suggestions are made for cross-cultural psychobiological study of the East and West.

  17. Chlorpromazine-induced perturbations of bile acids and free fatty acids in cholestatic liver injury prevented by the Chinese herbal compound Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaoling; Yang, Fan; Tang, Xiaowen; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ying; Xiong, Yinhua; Wang, Zhengtao; Yang, Li

    2015-04-16

    Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT), a commonly used as a traditional chinese medicine for liver disease. Several studies indicated that YCHT may improving hepatic triglyceride metabolism and anti-apoptotic response as well as decreasing oxidative stress .However, little is known about the role of YCHT in chlorpromazine (CPZ) -induced chlolestatic liver injury. Therefore, we aimed to facilitate the understanding of the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver injury and evaluate the effect of Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) on chlorpromazine (CPZ)-induced cholestatic liver injury in rats based on the change of bile acids (BAs) and free fatty acids (FFAs) alone with the biochemical indicators and histological examination. We conducted an experiment on CPZ-induced cholestatic liver injury in Wistar rats with and without YCHT for nine consecutive days. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TBIL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured to evaluate the protective effect of YCHT against chlorpromazine (CPZ)-induced cholestatic liver injury. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that pathological injuries were relieved after YCHT pretreatment. In addition, ultra-performance lipid chromatography coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to determine the content of bile acids, free fatty acids, respectively. Obtained data showed that YCHT attenuated the effect of CPZ-induced cholestatic liver injury, which was manifested by the serum biochemical parameters and histopathology of the liver tissue. YCHT regulated the lipid levels as indicated by the reversed serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C. YCHT also regulated the disorder of BA and FFA metabolism by CPZ induction. Results indicated that YCHT exerted a protective effect on CPZ-induced cholestasis liver injury. The variance of

  18. Influence of Magnetic Ordering between Cr Adatoms on the Yu-Shiba-Rusinov States of the β -Bi2Pd Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Deung-Jang; Fernández, Carlos García; Herrera, Edwin; Rubio-Verdú, Carmen; Ugeda, Miguel M.; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann; Pascual, José Ignacio; Lorente, Nicolás

    2018-04-01

    We show that the magnetic ordering of coupled atomic dimers on a superconductor is revealed by their intragap spectral features. Chromium atoms on the superconductor β -Bi2Pd surface display Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states, detected as pairs of intragap excitations in tunneling spectra. By means of atomic manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope's tip, we form Cr dimers with different arrangements and find that their intragap features appear either shifted or split with respect to single atoms. These spectral variations are associated with the magnetic coupling, ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, of the dimer, as confirmed by density functional theory simulations. The striking qualitative differences between the observed tunneling spectra prove that intragap Shiba states are extremely sensitive to the magnetic ordering on the atomic scale.

  19. Urinary Metabolite Profiling Offers Potential for Differentiation of Liver-Kidney Yin Deficiency and Dampness-Heat Internal Smoldering Syndromes in Posthepatitis B Cirrhosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zheng is the basic theory and essence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in diagnosing diseases. However, there are no biological evidences to support TCM Zheng differentiation. In this study we elucidated the biological alteration of cirrhosis with TCM “Liver-Kidney Yin Deficiency (YX” or “Dampness-Heat Internal Smoldering (SR” Zheng and the potential of urine metabonomics in TCM Zheng differentiation. Differential metabolites contributing to the intergroup variation between healthy controls and liver cirrhosis patients were investigated, respectively, and mainly participated in energy metabolism, gut microbiota metabolism, oxidative stress, and bile acid metabolism. Three metabolites, aconitate, citrate, and 2-pentendioate, altered significantly in YX Zheng only, representing the abnormal energy metabolism. Contrarily, hippurate and 4-pyridinecarboxylate altered significantly in SR Zheng only, representing the abnormalities of gut microbiota metabolism. Moreover, there were significant differences between two TCM Zhengs in three metabolites, glycoursodeoxycholate, cortolone-3-glucuronide, and L-aspartyl-4-phosphate, among all differential metabolites. Metabonomic profiling, as a powerful approach, provides support to the understanding of biological mechanisms of TCM Zheng stratification. The altered urinary metabolites constitute a panel of reliable biological evidence for TCM Zheng differentiation in patients with posthepatitis B cirrhosis and may be used for the potential biomarkers of TCM Zheng stratification.

  20. Qi-Dong-Huo-Xue-Yin Inhibits Inflammation in Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Toll-Like Receptor 4/Caveolin-1 Signaling

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    Li-Ying Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a critical illness with no current effective treatment. Caveolin-1 indirectly activates inflammation-associated signaling pathways by inhibiting endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. This induces an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, which are involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. The compound Chinese prescription Qi-Dong-Huo-Xue-Yin (QDHXY is efficacious for ALI treatment via an anti-inflammatory effect; however, the exact underlying mechanism is unknown. Therefore, we explored the protective effect of QDHXY against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced ALI in mice. Histopathological changes in mouse lung tissues were studied. Furthermore, alterations in the serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were investigated. The levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-1β, and interferon-γ-induced protein 10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured. Additionally, the expression levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, caveolin-1, and eNOS were assessed. QDHXY significantly reduced lung infiltration with inflammatory cells and the production of serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, caveolin-1, and MyD88 but not eNOS. These indicate that QDHXY significantly improved the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, possibly by inhibiting the caveolin-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, QDHXY may be a potential treatment for ALI.

  1. ZiBuPiYin recipe protects db/db mice from diabetes-associated cognitive decline through improving multiple pathological changes.

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    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Multiple organ systems, including the brain, which undergoes changes that may increase the risk of cognitive decline, are adversely affected by diabetes mellitus (DM. Here, we demonstrate that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM db/db mice exhibited hippocampus-dependent memory impairment, which might associate with a reduction in dendritic spine density in the pyramidal neurons of brain, Aβ1-42 deposition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus, and a decreased expression of neurostructural proteins including microtubule-associated protein (MAP2, a marker of dendrites, and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95, a marker of excitatory synapses. To investigate the effects of the ZiBuPiYin recipe (ZBPYR, a traditional Chinese medicine recipe, on diabetes-related cognitive decline (DACD, db/db mice received daily administration of ZBPYR over an experimental period of 6 weeks. We then confirmed that ZBPYR rescued learning and memory performance impairments, reversed dendritic spine loss, reduced Aβ1-42 deposition and restored the expression levels of MAP2 and PSD95. The present study also revealed that ZBPYR strengthened brain leptin and insulin signaling and inhibited GSK3β overactivity, which may be the potential mechanism or underlying targets of ZBPYR. These findings conclude that ZBPYR prevents DACD, most likely by improving dendritic spine density and attenuating brain leptin and insulin signaling pathway injury. Our findings provide further evidence for the effects of ZBPYR on DACD.

  2. Influence of Partial Dam Removal on Change of Channel Morphology and Physical Habitats: A Case Study of Yu-Sheng River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao Weng, Chung; Yeh, Chao Hsien

    2017-04-01

    The rivers in Taiwan have the characteristic of large slope gradient and fast flow velocity caused by rugged terrain. And Taiwan often aces many typhoons which will bring large rainfall in the summer. In early Taiwan, river management was more focus on flood control, flood protection and disaster reduction. In recent years, the rise of ecological conservation awareness for the precious fish species brings spotlight on the Taiwan salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus) which lives in the river section of this study. In order to make sure ecological corridor continuing, dam removal is the frequently discussed measure in recent years and its impact on environmental is also highly concerned. Since the dam removal may causes severe changes to the river channel, the action of dam removal needs careful evaluation. As one of the endangered species, Taiwan salmon is considered a national treasure of Taiwan and it was originally an offshore migration of the Pacific salmon. After the ice age and geographical isolation, it becomes as an unique subspecies of Taiwan and evolved into landlocked salmon. Now the Taiwan salmon habitats only exists in few upstream creeks and the total number of wild Taiwan salmon in 2015 was about 4,300. In order to expand the connectivity of the fish habitats in Chi-Jia-Wan creek basin, several dam removal projects had completed with good results. Therefore, this paper focuses on the dam removal of Yu-Sheng creek dam. In this paper, a digital elevation model (DEM) of about 1 kilometer channel of the Yu-Sheng creek dam is obtained by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Using CCHE2D model, the simulation of dam removal will reveal the impact on channel morphology. After model parameter identification and verification, this study simulated the scenarios of three historical typhoon events with recurrence interval of two years, fifteen years, and three decades under four different patterns of dam removal to identify the the head erosion, flow pattern, and

  3. Identification and Functional Analysis of microRNAs Involved in the Anther Development in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Line Yu98-8A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line. Sequencing revealed 1588 and 1536 known microRNAs and 347 and 351 novel miRNAs from male sterile and male fertile libraries, respectively. MicroRNA expression profiles revealed that 49 conserved and 51 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. Bioinformatic and degradome analysis indicated the regulatory complexity of microRNAs during flower induction and development. Further RT-qPCR and physiological analysis indicated that, among the different Kyoto Encyclopedia Gene and Genomes pathways, indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid signaling transduction pathways may play pivotal regulatory functions in male sterility.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of the healing of radial fractures treated with or without Huo-Xue-Hua-Yu decoction therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Huang, Hao; Chen, Rong; Feng, Shangyuan; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Lin, Jia

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess, through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, the incorporation of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA ~960 cm-1) and other biochemical substances in the repair of complete radial fractures in rabbits treated with or without Huo-Xue-Hua-Yu decoction (HXHYD) therapy. A total of 18 rabbits with complete radial fractures were randomly divided into two groups; one group was treated with HXHYD therapy and the other without therapy acted as a control. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 45 d after surgery. Specimens were routinely prepared for SERS measurement and high quality SERS spectra from a mixture of bone tissues and silver nanoparticles were obtained. The mineral-to-matrix ratios from the control and treated groups were calculated. Results showed that both deposition content of CHA measured by SERS spectroscopy and the mineral-to-matrix ratio in the treated group were always greater than those of the control group during the experiment, demonstrating that HXHYD therapy is effective in improving fracture healing and that SERS spectroscopy might be a novel tool to assess fracture healing.

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of the healing of radial fractures treated with or without Huo–Xue–Hua–Yu decoction therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weiwei; Huang, Hao; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Chen, Rong; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Jia

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess, through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, the incorporation of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA ∼960 cm −1 ) and other biochemical substances in the repair of complete radial fractures in rabbits treated with or without Huo–Xue–Hua–Yu decoction (HXHYD) therapy. A total of 18 rabbits with complete radial fractures were randomly divided into two groups; one group was treated with HXHYD therapy and the other without therapy acted as a control. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 45 d after surgery. Specimens were routinely prepared for SERS measurement and high quality SERS spectra from a mixture of bone tissues and silver nanoparticles were obtained. The mineral-to-matrix ratios from the control and treated groups were calculated. Results showed that both deposition content of CHA measured by SERS spectroscopy and the mineral-to-matrix ratio in the treated group were always greater than those of the control group during the experiment, demonstrating that HXHYD therapy is effective in improving fracture healing and that SERS spectroscopy might be a novel tool to assess fracture healing. (letter)

  6. A response to Yu et al. "A forward-backward fragment assembling algorithm for the identification of genomic amplification and deletion breakpoints using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array", BMC Bioinformatics 2007, 8: 145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Oscar M; Diaz-Uriarte, Ramon

    2007-10-16

    Yu et al. (BMC Bioinformatics 2007,8: 145+) have recently compared the performance of several methods for the detection of genomic amplification and deletion breakpoints using data from high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. One of the methods compared is our non-homogenous Hidden Markov Model approach. Our approach uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo for inference, but Yu et al. ran the sampler for a severely insufficient number of iterations for a Markov Chain Monte Carlo-based method. Moreover, they did not use the appropriate reference level for the non-altered state. We rerun the analysis in Yu et al. using appropriate settings for both the Markov Chain Monte Carlo iterations and the reference level. Additionally, to show how easy it is to obtain answers to additional specific questions, we have added a new analysis targeted specifically to the detection of breakpoints. The reanalysis shows that the performance of our method is comparable to that of the other methods analyzed. In addition, we can provide probabilities of a given spot being a breakpoint, something unique among the methods examined. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods require using a sufficient number of iterations before they can be assumed to yield samples from the distribution of interest. Running our method with too small a number of iterations cannot be representative of its performance. Moreover, our analysis shows how our original approach can be easily adapted to answer specific additional questions (e.g., identify edges).

  7. Qing-Xin-Jie-Yu Granules in addition to conventional treatment for patients with stable coronary artery disease (QUEST Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengyao; Guo, Ming; Mao, Huimin; Gao, Zhuye; Xu, Hao; Shi, Dazhuo

    2016-09-15

    Recurrent cardiovascular event remains high in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), especially in patients with multiple risk factors, despite a high rate of use conventional treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a promising complementary and alternative medicine for treating SCAD, while evidence for its effect on long-term survival is limited. This study was designed to test if Chinese herbal medicine in addition to conventional treatment is more effective than conventional treatment alone in reducing major adverse cardiac event (MACE) for SCAD patients with multiple risk factors during a 1-year follow-up. This is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 1500 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive the Qing-Xin-Jie-Yu Granules (QXJYG) or the placebo granules, twice daily for 6 months. The primary outcome is the combined outcomes including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and revascularization. The secondary outcome is the combined outcomes including all-cause mortality, re-admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure, malignant supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia influencing hemodynamics, ischemic stroke, and other thromboembolic events during 1-year follow-up. The assessment is performed at baseline (before randomization), 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. This is the first multicenter trial sponsored by the national funding of China to evaluate TCM in combination with conventional treatment on 1-year survival in high-risk SCAD patients. If successful, it will provide an evidence-based complementary therapeutic approach for reducing MACE from SCAD. The trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on December 28, 2013. The registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-13004370 .

  8. Xue-fu-Zhu-Yu decoction protects rats against retinal ischemia by downregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF via inhibition of RBP2 and PKM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu-Qiu; Geng, Xue; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Pan, Wynn Hwai-Tzong; Wang, Li-Xiang; Liu, Hui-Kang; Hu, Lei; Chao, Hsiao-Ming

    2017-07-14

    Retinal ischemia-related eye diseases result in visual dysfunction. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu decoction (XFZYD) with respect to retinal ischemia. Retinal ischemia (I) was induced in Wistar rats by a high intraocular pressure (HIOP) of 120 mmHg for 1 h, which was followed by reperfusion of the ischemic eye; the fellow untreated eye acted as a control. Electroretinogram (ERG), biochemistry and histopathology investigations were performed. Significant ischemic changes occurred after ischemia including decreased ERG b-wave ratios, less numerous retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), reduced inner retinal thickness, fewer choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) labeled amacrine cell bodies, increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity and increased vimentin Müller immunolabeling. These were accompanied by significant increases in the mRNA/protein concentrations of vascular endothelium growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, pyruvate kinase M2 and retinoblastoma-binding protein 2. The ischemic changes were concentration-dependently and significantly altered when XFZYD was given for seven consecutive days before or after retina ischemia, compared to vehicle. These alterations included enhanced ERG b-wave amplitudes, more numerous RGCs, enhanced inner retinal thickness, a greater number of ChAT immunolabeled amacrine cell bodies and decreased GFAP/vimentin immunoreactivity. Furthermore, decreased mRNA levels of VEGF, HIF-1α, PKM2, and RBP2 were also found. Reduced protein concentrations of VEGF, HIF-1α, PKM2, and RBP2 were also demonstrated. Furthermore, there was an inhibition of the ischemia-associated increased ratios (target protein/β-actin) in the protein levels of VEGF, HIF-1α, PKM2, and RBP2, which were induced by Shikonin, JIB-04 or Avastin. XFZYD would seem to protect against well-known retinal ischemic changes via a synergistic inhibition of RBP2 and PKM2, as well as down-regulation of HIF-1

  9. Review of the Monograph: Seleznev Yu.V. Russkie knyaz’ya pri dvore khanov Zolotoy Ordy (Russian Princes at the Court of the Golden Horde Khans

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    Nesin M.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a review of the monograph by Yu.V. Seleznev published in early 2017 and dedicated to the relations of Russian princes with the Golden Horde’s khans and their status among the Golden Horde’s nobility. This work is the first comprehensive study in the historiography of this issue for all two and a half centuries of the Tartar domination. The monograph was published for the first time in 2013 and served as the basis for a doctoral dissertation, which Seleznev defended in 2015. The book was reprinted with certain changes in 2017. The book commendably contains an abundance of factual material through the use of diverse sources and strands of historiography. Seleznev examines the social terminology of Golden Horde-Russian relations, the structure of the Golden Horde’s nobility and the trips of princes to the Horde, drawing attention not only to the status of the great Vladimir and Moscow princes, but also that of other great and appanage princes. He makes a significant contribution to the resolving the debate regarding the nature of the Golden Horde’s domination in Rus’ by examining in detail the relationship of the Russian princes with the Golden Horde’s authorities in different years. The book’s author proposed to divide the Golden Horde’s “yoke” into seven periods characterized by “changes in the degree of sovereignty and jurisdiction of the khan in relation to Russian principalities”. The author of this review agrees with the main conclusions of the book under review, but at the same time he notes some reservations and criticisms, which do not, however, reduce the academic caliber of the monograph.

  10. Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang exerts effects on a rat model of postpartum depression by regulating inflammatory cytokines and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells

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    Li JY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jingya Li,1,* Ruizhen Zhao,1,* Xiaoli Li,1 Wenjun Sun,1 Miao Qu,1 Qisheng Tang,1 Xinke Yang,1 Shujing Zhang2 1Third Affiliated Hospital, 2School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang (SJF is composed of eight Chinese medicinal herbs. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating postpartum depression (PPD. Previous studies have shown that SJF treats PPD through the neuroendocrine mechanism. Aim: To further investigate the effect of SJF on the immune system, including the inflammatory response system and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells. Materials and methods: Sprague Dawley rats were used to create an animal model of PPD by inducing hormone-simulated pregnancy followed by hormone withdrawal. After hormone withdrawal, the PPD rats were treated with SJF or fluoxetine for 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Levels of Treg cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry analysis. Serum interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gene and protein expressions of IL-1RI, IL-6Rα, and gp130 in the hippocampus were observed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results: Serum IL-1β in PPD rats increased at 2 weeks and declined from then on, while serum IL-6 increased at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Both IL-1β and IL-6 were downregulated by SJF and fluoxetine. Changes in gene and protein expressions of IL-1RI and gp130 in PPD rats were consistent with changes in serum IL-1β, and were able to be regulated by SJF and fluoxetine. The levels of Treg cells were negatively correlated with serum IL-1β and IL-6, and were decreased in PPD rats. The levels of Treg cells were increased by SJF and fluoxetine. Conclusion: Dysfunction of proinflammatory cytokines and Tregs in different stages of PPD was attenuated by SJF and fluoxetine through

  11. Sheng-ji Hua-yu formula promotes diabetic wound healing of re-epithelization via Activin/Follistatin regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Le; Zhang, Jing-Ting; Deng, Yu; Xu, Shun; Xu, Xun-Zhe; Wu, Min-Feng; Guo, Dong-Jie; Chen, Yu; Wu, Ren-Jie; Zhao, Xing-Qiang; Nian, Hua; Li, Bin; Li, Fu-Lun

    2018-01-29

    Sheng-ji Hua-yu(SJHY) formula is one of the most useful Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of the delayed diabetic wound. However, elucidating the related molecular biological mechanism of how the SJHY Formula affects excessive inflammation in the process of re-epithelialization of diabetic wound healing is a task urgently needed to be fulfilled. The objectives of this study is to evaluate the effect of antagonisic expression of pro-/anti-inflammatory factors on transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) superfamily (activin and follistatin) in the process of re-epithelialization of diabetic wound healing in vivo, and to characterize the involvement of the activin/follistatin protein expression regulation, phospho-Smad (pSmad2), and Nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-kB) p50 in the diabetic wound healing effects of SJHY formula. SJHY Formula was prepared by pharmaceutical preparation room of Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine. Diabetic wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision wound models. Wound healing activity was examined by macroscopic evaluation. Activin/follistatin expression regulation, protein expression of pSmad2 and NF-kB p50 in skin tissue of wounds were analyzed by Real Time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Macroscopic evaluation analysis showed that wound healing of diabetic mice was delayed, and SJHY Formula accelerated wound healing time of diabetic mice. Real Time PCR analysis showed higher mRNA expression of activin/follistatin in diabetic delayed wound versus the wound in normal mice. Western Blot immunoassay analysis showed reduction of activin/follistatin proteins levels by SJHY Formula treatment 15 days after injury. Immunohistochemistry investigated the reduction of pSmad2 and NF-kB p50 nuclear staining in the epidermis of diabetic SJHY versus diabetic control mice on day 15 after wounding. H&E staining revealed that SJHY Formula

  12. Therapeutic effects of Qian-Yu decoction and its three extracts on carrageenan-induced chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keda; Zeng, Xiaobin; Chen, Yonggang; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jinhu

    2017-01-25

    Qian-Yu decoction (QYD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal recipe composed of Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge var. mongholicus (Bunge) P.K. Hsiao, Fabaceae ), Herba epimedii (Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., Berberidaceae), Herba leonuri (Leonurus japonicus Houtt., Lamiaceae), Cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense Schneid., Rutaceae) and Radix achyranthis bidentatae (Achyranthes bidentata Bl., Amaranthaceae). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of QYD against carrageenan-induced chronic prostatic/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in rats and further elucidate its effective components. Three types of components, total polysaccharides, total flavonoids and total saponins were separately extracted from QYD. Carrageenan-induced CP/CPPS rats were intragastrically administered with lyophilized product of QYD, individual extracts and all the combined forms of extracts for three weeks. Prostatic index (PI) was determined and histopathological analysis was performed. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PEG2) in rat prostate tissues were measured using ELISA. The production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was evaluated by an enzymatic activity assay, and the release of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by a nitrate/nitrite assay. Treatment with QYD significantly ameliorated the histological changes of CP/CPPS rats and reduced the PI by 44.3%, with a marked downregulation of TNF-α (42.8% reduction), IL-1β (45.3%), COX-2 (36.6%), PGE2 (44.2%), iNOS (54.1%) and NO (46.0%). Each of three extracts attenuated the symptom of CP/CPPS, but much more weakly than QYD. The combined administration of three extracts showed efficacy comparable to that of QYD while better than that of any combination of two extracts. A principal component analysis of the six inflammatory mediators as variables indicated that the effects of TS on CP

  13. Potential effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine Yu ping feng san for adult allergic rhinitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiulan; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian

    2017-11-06

    Chinese herbal medicine formula Yu ping feng san (YPFS) is commonly used for allergic rhinitis (AR). Previous review had summarized the effectiveness and safety of YPFS, however without any subgroup analysis performed to provide detailed evidence for guiding clinical practice. YPFS was recommended for the management of AR by Chinese medicine clinical practice guideline, but the treatment duration of YPFS was also not specified. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of YPFS in treating adult AR with the most recent evidence, and attempt to specify the duration of utilisation through subgroup meta-analyses. Seven databases were searched from their inceptions to September 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating YPFS for adult AR were included. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis and subgroup meta-analyses were conducted for evaluating the effectiveness of YPFS. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used for rating the quality of evidence. Twenty-two RCTs involving 23 comparisons were included in this review. YPFS was compared to placebo, pharmacotherapy, and used as an add-on treatment compared to pharmacotherapy. Meta-analyses were feasible for the outcomes of four individual nasal symptom scores and "effective rate". Four individual nasal symptom scores decreased after YPFS' combination treatment: itchy nose (MD-0.46, 95% CI[-0.50, -0.42]), sneezing (MD-0.41, 95% CI[-0.47, -0.35]), blocked nose (MD-0.46, 95% CI[-0.54, -0.39]) and runny nose (MD-0.42, 95% CI[-0.58, -0.26]). Based on "effective rate", meta-analysis showed that YPFS did not achieve better effect than pharmacotherapy (RR1.07, 95%CI [0.94, 1.22), but its combination with pharmacotherapy seemed more effective than pharmacotherapy alone (RR1.27, 95%CI [1.19, 1.34]) (low quality). Subgroup analysis suggested that YPFS was not superior to the second

  14. Validation of the YuWell YE690A upper-arm blood pressure monitor, for clinic use and self-measurement, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Lei, Lei; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor YuWell YE690A for blood pressure measurement according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured sequentially in 33 adult Chinese (12 women, 44.2 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the YE690A device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. All the blood pressure requirements were fulfilled. The YuWell YE690A device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 79/99, 96/99, and 97/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 72/99, 95/99, and 98/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Thirty-one and 25 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). No participant for systolic and two participants for diastolic blood pressure had all the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The YuWell blood pressure monitor YE690A has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010 and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement in adults.

  15. 文化漫游与精神家园——当代中国文化散文的公共语境 (Cultural Tours and the Spiritual Home: On Yu Qiuyu and Contemporary Chinese Cultural Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the public social dimension of the “great cultural essays” as a popular post-socialist genre. It looks into the genre’s emergence and popularity as part of the making of a middleclass taste in contemporary China and its claim to a re-imagined cultural national inheritance. In particular, the discussion focuses on the example of essayist Yu Qiuyu and examines the implications of his successful transformation of an obsolete historical “Culture” into a desirable commodity that offers spiritual home to the aspiring and successful of a “Greater China”.

  16. A New Book on the Law System of the Golden Horde: Pochekaev R.Yu. Legal Culture of the Golden Horde (Historical and Legal Essays) (Moscow: Yurlitinform, 2015. 312 p.)

    OpenAIRE

    D.V. Nefedov

    2016-01-01

    This book is a study at the intersection of such academic disciplines as general history, history of state and law and source study. The subcect of R.Yu. Pochevalev’s book appears very relevant since the interest of the scientific community and readership toward the Golden Horde and its role in the history of the Russian state remains traditionally high for several centuries. However, the author is trying to take a fresh look at this state and refute the stereotype of the Golden Horde as a...

  17. Exotic aspects of black holes: an astronaut near the horizon (on the methodological note by A A Grib and Yu V Pavlov 'Is it possible to see the infinite future of the Universe when falling into a black hole?')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2009-01-01

    We comment on the methodological note by A A Grib and Yu V Pavlov [Phys. Usp. 52 257 (2009)] to show that its authors are incorrect in understanding a passage that they quote from A M Cherepashchuk's book Black Holes in the Universe (Fryazino: Vek-2, 2005, p.7) and which supposes an astronaut to be at rest in the vicinity of the horizon (not to fall freely into a black hole!). With this error corrected, Grib and Pavlov's note is quite useful methodologically. (letters to the editors)

  18. Herbal compound 'Songyou Yin' reinforced the ability of interferon-alfa to inhibit the enhanced metastatic potential induced by palliative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiu-Yan; Huang, Zi-Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xin-Yu; Ai, Kai-Xing; Zheng, Qi; Tang, Zhao-You

    2010-01-01

    Liver resection is a widely accepted treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous clinical study showed that the rate of palliative resection was 34.0% (1958-2008, 2754 of 8107). However, the influence of palliative resection on tumor metastasis remains controversial. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of palliative resection on residual HCC and to explore interventional approaches. Palliative resection was done in an orthotopic nude mice model of HCC (MHCC97H) with high metastatic potential. Tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, lifespan, and some molecular alterations were examined in vivo and in vitro. Mice that underwent palliative resection were treated with the Chinese herbal compound 'Songyou Yin,' interferon-alfa-1b (IFN-α), or their combination to assess their effects. In the palliative resection group, the number of lung metastatic nodules increased markedly as compared to the sham operation group (14.3 ± 4.7 versus 8.7 ± 3.6, P < 0.05); tumor matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) activity was elevated by 1.4-fold, with up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2). The sera of mice undergoing palliative resection significantly enhanced cell invasiveness by 1.3-fold. After treatment, tumor volume was 1205.2 ± 581.3 mm 3 , 724.9 ± 337.6 mm 3 , 507.6 ± 367.0 mm 3 , and 245.3 ± 181.2 mm 3 in the control, 'Songyou Yin,' IFN-α, and combination groups, respectively. The combined therapy noticeably decreased the MMP2/TIMP2 ratio and prolonged the lifespan by 42.2%. Moreover, a significant (P < 0.001) reduction of microvessel density was found: 43.6 ± 8.5, 34.5 ± 5.9, 23.5 ± 5.6, and 18.2 ± 8.0 in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Palliative resection-stimulated HCC metastasis may occur, in part, by up-regulation of VEGF and MMP2/TIMP2. 'Songyou Yin' reinforced the ability of IFN-α to inhibit the

  19. Analysis of neutron spectra and fluxes obtained with cold and thermal moderators at IBR-2 reactor: experimental and computer modeling studies at small-angle scattering YuMO setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuklin, A.I.; Rogov, A.D.; Gorshkova, Yu.E.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; Kutuzov, S.A.; Utrobin, P.K.; Rogachev, A.V.; Ivan'kov, O.I.; Solov'ev, D.V.; Gordelij, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    Results of experimental and computer modeling investigations of neutron spectra and fluxes obtained with cold and thermal moderators at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna) are presented. The studies are done for small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) spectrometer YuMO (beamline number 4 of the IBR-2). The measurements of neutron spectra for two methane cold moderators are done for the standard configuration of the SANS instrument. The data from both moderators under different conditions of their operation are compared. The ratio of experimentally determined neutron fluxes of cold and thermal moderators at different wavelength is shown. Monte Carlo simulations are done to determine spectra for cold methane and thermal moderators. The results of the calculations of the ratio of neutron fluxes of cold and thermal moderators at different wavelength are demonstrated. In addition, the absorption of neutrons in the air gaps on the way from the moderator to the investigated sample is presented. SANS with the protein apoferritin was done in the case of cold methane as well as a thermal moderator and the data were compared. The perspectives for the use of the cold moderator for a SANS spectrometer at the IBR-2 are discussed. The advantages of the YuMO spectrometer with the thermal moderator with respect to the tested cold moderator are shown

  20. Molecular diversity analysis of Tetradium ruticarpum (WuZhuYu) in China based on inter-primer binding site (iPBS) markers and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Yuan; Zhu, Yan; Yi, Ze; Wu, Gang; Xie, Guo-Yong; Qin, Min-Jian

    2018-01-01

    "Wu zhu yu", which is obtained from the dried unripe fruits of Tetradium ruticarpum (A. Jussieu) T. G. Hartley, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of headaches, abdominal colic, and hypertension for thousands of years. The present study was designed to assess the molecular genetic diversity among 25 collected accessions of T. ruticarpum (Wu zhu yu in Chinese) from different areas of China, based on inter-primer binding site (iPBS) markers and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Thirteen ISSR primers generated 151 amplification bands, of which 130 were polymorphic. Out of 165 bands that were amplified using 10 iPBS primers, 152 were polymorphic. The iPBS markers displayed a higher proportion of polymorphic loci (PPL = 92.5%) than the ISSR markers (PPL = 84.9%). The results showed that T. ruticarpum possessed high loci polymorphism and genetic differentiation occurred in this plant. The combined data of iPBS and ISSR markers scored on 25 accessions produced five clusters that approximately matched the geographic distribution of the species. The results indicated that both iPBS and ISSR markers were reliable and effective tools for analyzing the genetic diversity in T. ruticarpum. Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancement of Diosgenin Production in Plantlet and Cell Cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancement of Diosgenin Production in Plantlet and Cell Cultures of Dioscorea zingiberensis by Palmarumycin C13 from the Endophytic fungus, Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. Y Mou, K Zhou, D Xu, R Yu, J Li, C Yin, L Zhou ...

  2. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 6. Theoretical study of nucleophilic halogenalkylation of propylene oxide with halogenmethane and dihalogenmethane anion. Tao Liu Xiang-Chen Yin Guo-Dong Liu Zhang-Yu Yu. Full Papers Volume 122 Issue 6 November 2010 pp 901-909 ...

  3. A New Book on the Law System of the Golden Horde: Pochekaev R.Yu. Legal Culture of the Golden Horde (Historical and Legal Essays (Moscow: Yurlitinform, 2015. 312 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Nefedov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is a study at the intersection of such academic disciplines as general history, history of state and law and source study. The subcect of R.Yu. Pochevalev’s book appears very relevant since the interest of the scientific community and readership toward the Golden Horde and its role in the history of the Russian state remains traditionally high for several centuries. However, the author is trying to take a fresh look at this state and refute the stereotype of the Golden Horde as a some kind of bunch of nomads who lived only by plundering neighboring sedentary peoples. He succeeds in this by studying such an important part of the Golden Horde history as its law and legal culture. The book examines a number of questions on the history of state and law of the Golden Horde, which have not previously been the subject of a special study (for example, possessions of the Golden Horde in other uluses, dualism of power in different states, relations between authorities and traders, etc.. On some other issues that have already been studied by experts, he proposes new interpretations in the framework of historical and legal approach (for example, the causes of intestine strife in the Golden Horde in the mid-14th century, yarliks of the Golden Horde khans granted to the Russian Chruch, relations of the Golden Horde rulers and Italian colonies in the Northern Black Sea region. The author examines to a great extent the themes of state and legal regulation of economic relations: status of merchants in the Golden Horde and post-Golden Horde states, role of economic sanctions in the resolution of political conflicts. In other essays contained in the book, the author also emphasizes the role of the economic component of the political and legal relations. For example, R.Yu. Pochekaev convincingly shows that relations of the Golden Horde with other states of the Mongol Empire was based on the principle of mutual provision of possessions to the rulers of

  4. Magnetic Field Strength Evaluation Yu. S. Yefimov

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physical task is to evaluate the strength and topology of magnetic field in blazars and related ... polarization, spectral index of radiation, ratio of apparent velocity of the motion of matter along .... A detailed analysis of the evaluation of physical.

  5. Laule : [luuletused] / Li Yu ; tlk. Jaan Kaplinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Yu, Li

    2002-01-01

    Sisu : "Vahused lained kui kuhjaksid kokku lund..."; "Õhtuks mingitud näo ja ihu valendus..."; "Kirkad lilled, hämus kuu, udu hõljuv loor..."; "Pool kevadet lahkumisest..."; "Sõnatult astun läänekambrisse..."; "metsapuilt on pudenenud kevadevärvid..."; "Vihmasabin kardina taga..."; "Möödunut võib ainult leinata..."; "Öö oli rajune-vihmane...";"Kevadlilled, sügisekuu - kaua veel..."

  6. Chuangzaoli xinlixue yu jiechu rencai peiyang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiannong; Chen, N.; Du, Xiangyun

    2012-01-01

    as individual’s personal characteristics rather as the results of active interaction of creative individual and the environment. Creativity is a process of accumulation from quantitative changes to qualitative changes during a period of time. Meanwhile the authors discuss issues about individual’s creativity......The authors emphasize the importance of systemic perspectives for understanding human creativity after briefly introducing and commenting different theories or perspectives on creativity. It is emphasized that the manifestation of creativity or excellent achievement should not be treated...

  7. Selected papers of Yu. I. Manin

    CERN Document Server

    Manin, Yu I

    1996-01-01

    The book is a collection of research and review articles in several areas of modern mathematics and mathematical physics published in the span of three decades. The ICM Kyoto talk "Mathematics as Metaphor" summarises the author's view on mathematics as an outgrowth of natural language.

  8. Effect of Yi-nao-jie-yu decoction on γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor in the hippocampus and serum inflammatory factors in a rat model of poststroke anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wen Zhang,1 Ruizhen Zhao,1 Xiaoli Li,1 Xia Cui,1 Zijun Zhao,1 Yingqiu Mao,2 Fengzhi Wu,3 Qisheng Tang1 1Department of Encephalopathy, The Third Affiliated Hospital, 2Center of Scientific Research, 3Center of Journals, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: The Yi-nao-jie-yu decoction (YNJYD is a herbal preparation widely used in the clinics of traditional Chinese medicine and has been recently used as an important new therapeutic agent in poststroke anxiety (PSA. The neuroendocrine–immune system plays an important role in PSA mechanisms, although the modulating effects of YNJYD remain unknown. This study investigated the potential effects of YNJYD on the neuroendocrine–immune system in a rat model of PSA.Materials and methods: The PSA model was induced by injecting collagenase (type VII into the right globus pallidus, accompanied by empty water bottle stimulation for 2 weeks. The sham group and the PSA model group were gavaged with saline, while the treatment groups received buspirone (BuSpar or YNJYD. Behavior was evaluated with the open field test and elevated plus maze once a week. Pathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL-6, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, IL-1α, and cortisol were detected by radioimmunoassay. Expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR α2 subunit was examined by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: YNJYD-treated rats exhibited significantly better recovery than BuSpar-treated rats at 21 days and 28 days in the open field test and elevated plus maze. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed neural repair in the hippocampus in the treatment groups. Serum levels of IL-1α in the YNJYD group were significantly less than those in the model group and the Bu

  9. Multichannel time-analyser with an electrostatic memory tube; Analyseur en temps a plusieurs canaux, avec memoire a potentioscopes; Mnogokanal'nye vremennye analizatory s pamyat'yu na potentsialoskopakh; Analizador multicanal de tiempo con tubo de memoria electrostatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignat' ev, K G; Kirpichnikov, I V; Sukhoruchkin, S I

    1962-04-15

    forma de graficos y de datos numericos en fichas perforadas. (author) [Russian] V ITEHF AN SSSR byli so z d a ny dva mnogokanal'nykh vremennykh analizatora impul'sov s ''pamyat'yu'' na potentsialoskopakh JIH-4. V nastoyashchee vremya oni ISPOL'ZUYUTSYA V razlichnykh izmereniyakh i imeyut sleduyushchie kharakteristiki: chislo kanalov - 1024 i 2048; vremennaya shirina kanalov ot 0,2 mksek. i bol'she; emkost' kanalov - 4096 imp i 1024 imp; chastota zapuska analizatoroa do 1000 raz v sek; velichina zagruzki do 1000 imp/sek. Rezul'taty izmerenij vydayutsya analizatorami v vide grafikov i chislovykh dannykh na perfokartakh. (author)

  10. Effect of XingPiJieYu decoction on spatial learning and memory and cAMP-PKA-CREB-BDNF pathway in rat model of depression through chronic unpredictable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunye; Guo, Jianyou; Guo, Rongjuan

    2017-01-24

    Depression is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive low mood and loss of pleasure or interest in usual activities, and often results in cognitive dysfunction. The disturbance of cognitive processes associated with depression, especially the impairment of learning and memory, exacerbates illness and increases recurrence of depression. XingPiJieYu (XPJY) is one of the most widely clinical formulas of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and can improve the symptoms of depression, including learning and memory. However, its regulatory effects haven't been comprehensively studied so far. Recently, some animal tests have indicated that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway in hippocampus is closely related to depression and the pathogenesis of cognitive function impairments. The present study was performed to investigate the effect and mechanism of XPJY on depression and learning and memory in animal model. The rat model of depression was established by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 21 days. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, CUS group, CUS + XPJY (1.4 g/kg, 0.7 g/kg and 0.35 g/kg) groups, and CUS + sertraline (10 mg/kg) group. The sucrose preference, open field exploration and Morris water maze (MWM) were tested. The expression of cAMP, CREB, PKA and BDNF protein in hippocampus was examined with Elisa and Western Blot. The mRNA level of CREB and BDNF in hippocampus was measured with PCR. The results demonstrated that rats subjected to CUS exhibited decreases in sucrose preference, total ambulation, percentage of central ambulation, rearing in the open field test and spatial performance in the MWM. CUS reduced the expression of cAMP, PKA, CREB and BDNF in hippocampus of model rats. These effects could be reversed by XPJY. The results indicated that XPJY can improve depression and

  11. The Yin and Yang of Tuning History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováky, György

    2017-01-01

    History as a subject area is facing increasing demands from the society to be more profitable and, sometimes, more conformist. The Tuning methodology, developed in cooperation with a large number of Universities worldwide, could offer a viable and sustainable way to take societal needs into account without compromising academic soundness.

  12. The Yin and Yang of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst

    Innovation researchers tend to rely on patent data to map innovative activities, even though we are well aware that patent records is an incomplete measure for innovation. In this paper we analyze if highly innovative firms’ positions in global value chains affect their incentives to patent and p...

  13. The Yin and Yang of Colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    independent, device dependent, additive and subtractive color systems. In each color system, it is attempted to calculate the Complementary Color to an orange Brand Color (Pantone 151 C). The results are compared to the results from an online Adobe Creative Cloud Service, Adobe Kuler which was chosen because...

  14. LETTERS TO THE EDITORS: Exotic aspects of black holes: an astronaut near the horizon(on the methodological note by A A Grib and Yu V Pavlov "Is it possible to see the infinite future of the Universe when falling into a black hole?")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M.

    2009-08-01

    We comment on the methodological note by A A Grib and Yu V Pavlov [Phys. Usp. 52 257 (2009)] to show that its authors are incorrect in understanding a passage that they quote from A M Cherepashchuk's book Black Holes in the Universe (Fryazino: Vek-2, 2005, p.7) and which supposes an astronaut to be at rest in the vicinity of the horizon (not to fall freely into a black hole!). With this error corrected, Grib and Pavlov's note is quite useful methodologically.

  15. Comments on X. Yin, A. Wen, Y. Chen, and T. Wang, `Studies in an optical millimeter-wave generation scheme via two parallel dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators', Journal of Modern Optics, 58(8), 2011, pp. 665-673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Hall, Trevor J.

    2015-04-01

    Yin et al. have described an innovative filter-less optical millimeter-wave generation scheme for octotupling of a 10 GHz RF oscillator, or sedecimtupling of a 5 GHz RF oscillator using two parallel dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators (DP-MZMs). The great merit of their design is the suppression of all harmonics except those of order ? (octotupling) or all harmonics except those of order ? (sedecimtupling), where ? is an integer. A demerit of their scheme is the requirement to set a precise RF signal modulation index in order to suppress the zeroth order optical carrier. The purpose of this comment is to show that, in the case of the octotupling function, all harmonics may be suppressed except those of order ?, where ? is an odd integer, by the simple addition of an optical ? phase shift between the two DP-MZMs and an adjustment of the RF drive phases. Since the carrier is suppressed in the modified architecture, the octotupling circuit is thereby released of the strict requirement to set the drive level to a precise value without any significant increase in circuit complexity.

  16. Cardioprotective effect of Shenxiong glucose injection on acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yu JH, Wang LY, Akinyi M, Li YH, Duan ZZ, Zhu Y, Fan. GW. Danshensu protects ... Yin Y, Guan Y, Duan JL, Wei G, Zhu YR, Quan W, Guo. C, Zhou D, Wang YH, ... HM, Han J, Kang D. Lamotrigine increases intracellular. Ca(2+) levels and ...

  17. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fei Yu1 2 Chunhua Wang2 Yan Hu2 Jinwen Yin2. School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410004, People's Republic of China; College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, People's Republic of China ...

  18. Studies on middle silkgland proteins of cocoon colour sex-limited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 1. Studies on middle silkgland proteins of cocoon colour sex-limited silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Yuan-Xiang Jin Yu-Yin Chen Meng-Kui Xu Yong-Huang Jiang. Articles Volume 29 Issue 1 March 2004 pp 45- ...

  19. The production of radioisotopes with a betatron using an internal bombarding technique; Production de radioisotopes par bombardement interne dans un betatron; Proizvodstvo radioizotopov s pomoshch'yu betatrona s ispol'zovaniem metoda vnutrennej bombardirovki; Obtencion de radioisotopos por bombardeo interno en el betatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinaga, H [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1962-01-15

    pueden servir para la obtencion de isotopos. Con frecuencia es conveniente emplear isotopos de periodo corto debido a su rapida desintegracion, al hecho de que emitan radiaciones de alta energia y a la facilidad con que pueden obtenerse incluso sin necesidad de poseer conocimientos especiales. (author) [Russian] Razrabotan i uspeshno ispol'zuetsya novyj metod proizvodstva radioizotopov s vysokoj udel'noj aktivnost'yu s pomoshch'yu betatrona. Podvergaemye aktivatsii materialy pomeshchayutsya vnutr' vakuumnoj kamery betatrona v kontse slepogo tsilindra, ustanovlennogo izvne; takim obrazom, proby podvergayutsya bombardirovke pri odnoj atmosfere neposredstvenno za mishen'yu tormoznogo izlucheniya, gde intensivnost' radiatsii chrezvychajno vysoka. Aktivnost' pri nasyshchenii Cu{sup 62}, vyzvannaya v nebol'shoj chastitse medi, prevyshala 1 millikyuri, i poluchaemaya naivysshaya udel'naya aktivnost' priblizitel'no v 500 raz prevyshala aktivnost', vyzvannuyu v obychnom ustrojstve. Do sikh por ehtot metod vnutrennej misheni ispol'zuetsya tol'ko dlya rabot v oblasti yadernoj spektroskopii; bylo ustanovleno vosem' novykh vidov radioaktivnykh izotopov (Co{sup 63}, Ga{sup 75}, As{sup 81}, In{sup 121}, In{sup 123}, Tm{sup 173}, Tm{sup 175} i Ac{sup 231}). Gibkost' takogo metoda bombardirovki otkryvaet novye vozmozhnosti, t.k. meditsinskij, promyshlennyj, a takzhe issledovatel'skij betatrony mogut ispol'zovat'sya dlya proizvodstva izotopov. Korotkozhivushchie izotopy, kotorye chasto yavlyayutsya bolee udobnymi pri razlichnykh vidakh primeneniya vsledstvie ikh bystrogo raspada i obychno vysokoj ehnergii radiatsii, mogut byt' bystro polucheny bez kakogo-libo dopolnitel'nogo umeniya. (author)

  20. Ertong Zaoqi Jingxi Dongzuo Jineng yu Renzhi Fazhan de Guanxi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Da; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    Fine motor skills refer to any movement where an individual uses the small muscles or muscle areas of the hands and fingers; these movements serve to development of muscle while also improving the cognitive recognition of the object. Automatic fine motor skills can save limited attention resources...... for advanced cognition tasks as required by an individual; in the development of fine motor skills and cognition, the two abilities interact, some motor skills are the prerequisite for some cognition and the practice of cognition. Fine motor skills also can predict the academic performance of young students....... The two abilities are inter-related because they share common areas of the brain: the prefrontal lobe and the cerebellum. As a result, some cognition disorders could be treated through fine motor skill training and exercises....

  1. Meet Paris in Yu Xi's Documentaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2004-01-01

    "This is a documenfary porlrayal of cultural celebrities.All the 60 interviewees have devoted themselves to the greal cause of China-France cultural exchange.Today,it is highly important to stress the preservation and promotion of cultural diversity and make

  2. Pseudo-istorija/arheologija i globalizacija: primer ex Yu prostora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Manojlović Nikolić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu se diskutuje povezanost procesa globalizacije i pseudonaučnih tumačenja prošlosti. Istaknuta je dvostruka veza između efekata procesa globalizacije i pseudoistorijskog/pseudoarheološkog izmišljanja prošlosti. Prva je tendencija da se nezadovoljstvo kulturnom globalizacijom kompenzuje verovanjem u drugačiju i lepšu prošlost, dok se druga odnosi na upotrebu savremenih sredstava komunikacije u prenošenju pseudonaučnih tumačenja prošlosti širokoj javnosti. Pomoću primera sa područja bivše SFR Jugoslavije ukazano je da proces tranzicije ka globalnom društvu, koji se desio posle perioda eskalacije nacionalizama, doprinosi osećaju krize nacionalnih, regionalnih i lokalnih identiteta i prouzrokuje težnju ka stvaranju izmišljenih prošlosti. Takođe, skrenuta je pažnja da pseudoistoričari i pseudoarheolozi obilato koriste globalna sredstva masovne komunikacije, pre svega internet, čime njihova tumačenja postaju dostupna velikom broju ljudi i prete da postanu jedan od glavnih (iako zabludnih izvora za oblikovanje stavova o prošlosti i sadašnjosti.

  3. Relationships among Constitution, Stress, and Discomfort in the First Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ling Wang

    2012-01-01

    trimester of pregnancy. We adopted a descriptive and correlational research design and collected data from 261 pregnant women during their first trimester in southern Taiwan using structured questionnaires. Results showed that (1 stress was significantly and positively correlated with Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions, respectively; (2 Yin-Xu and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort, while Yang-Xu had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort except for “running nose”; (3 Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitution and stress were two indicators for “fatigue”; Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi was the indicator for “nausea”; Yang-Xu and Yin-Xu were indicators for “frequent urination.” Our findings also indicate that stress level affects constitutional changes and that stress and constitutional change affect the incidence of discomfort. This research can help healthcare professionals observe these discomforts and provide individualized care for pregnant women, to nurture pregnant women into neutral-type constitution, minimize their levels of discomfort, and promote the health of the fetus and the mother.

  4. Manufacture of Wood-Plastic Combinations by Use of Gamma Radiation; Fabrication de combinaisons bois-matiere plastique a l'aide des rayons gamma; Proizvodstvo drevesno-plastmassovykh sostavov s pomoshch'yu gamma-izlucheniya; Impregnacion de maderas con materiales plasticos en presencia de radiaciones gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, J. A.; Winston, A.; Boyle, W.; Updyke, L. [Engineering Experiment Station, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States)

    1963-11-15

    maderas de pino albar, encina blanca, encina roja, alamo, abedul, haya, abeto y arce sacarino. Se indica el efecto de la intensidad de dosis sobre las velocidades de polimerizacion en esas combinaciones, algunas de las cuales son incompatibles. Por ejemplo, la secoya no permite la polimerizacion del acetato de vinilo o del metacrilato de metilo, en tanto que el pino albar imposibilita la polimerizacion del acetato de vinilo. Los autores estudiaron diversos agentes de reticulacion con miras a determinar su eficacia para acelerar la polimerizacion y, con ello, conseguir ciclos mas breves, y exponen los resultados obtenidos para el acrilato de alilo, el dimetacrilato de etilenglicol, el dimetacrilato de polietilenglicol, el titanato de tetra-isopropilo, el metacrilato de alilo y (en el caso del estireno) el divinilbenceno. Los ensayos mecanicos realizados con maderas impregnadas ponen de manifiesto una mejora de propiedades tales como la dureza, el limite de elasticidad en la compresion y la estabilidad dimensional. Por lo general, se registra un aurpento de la fragilidad respecto de la madera natural. En la memoria se incluyen datos sobre la dureza, el limite de elasticidad en la compresion, la estabilidad en la compresion, la estabilidad dimensional, asi como la resistencia a la flexion y al cizallamiento. (author) [Russian] Opisan promyshlennyj metod polucheniya drevesno-plastmassovykh ''splavov'' s pomoshch'yu gamma-izlucheniya. Protsess sostoit iz dvukh chastej: propitki otobrannoj drevesiny neobkhodimym monomerom i polimerizatsii monomera v meste nakhozhdeniya .s pomoshch'yu gamma-luchej. Izucheno vliyanie razlichnykh faktorov na proniknovenie monomera v drevesinu. Provedennye ispytaniya pokazali, chto na praktike osushchestvimo khoroshee raspredelenie polimera v konechnom produkte. Odnu chast' obraztsov tolshchinoj 10 cm i dlinoj 150 cm podvergli propitke i issledovali na pronikanie monomera, v to vremya kak druguyu chast' obraztsov takoj zhe tolshchiny uspeshno

  5. Tumor hypoxia and reoxygenation: the yin and yang for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Beom Ju; Kim, Jong Woo; Jeong, Hoi Bin; Bok, Seo Yeon; Kim, Young Eun; Ahn, G One [Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Tumor hypoxia, a common feature occurring in nearly all human solid tumors is a major contributing factor for failures of anticancer therapies. Because ionizing radiation depends heavily on the presence of molecular oxygen to produce cytotoxic effect, the negative impact of tumor hypoxia had long been recognized. In this review, we will highlight some of the past attempts to overcome tumor hypoxia including hypoxic radiosensitizers and hypoxia-selective cytotoxin. Although they were (still are) a very clever idea, they lacked clinical efficacy largely because of ‘reoxygenation’ phenomenon occurring in the conventional low dose hyperfractionation radiotherapy prevented proper activation of these compounds. Recent meta-analysis and imaging studies do however indicate that there may be a significant clinical benefit in lowering the locoregional failures by using these compounds. Latest technological advancement in radiotherapy has allowed to deliver high doses of radiation conformally to the tumor volume. Although this technology has brought superb clinical responses for many types of cancer, recent modeling studies have predicted that tumor hypoxia is even more serious because ‘reoxygenation’ is low thereby leaving a large portion of hypoxic tumor cells behind. Wouldn’t it be then reasonable to combine hypoxic radiosensitizers and/or hypoxia-selective cytotoxin with the latest radiotherapy? We will provide some preclinical and clinical evidence to support this idea hoping to revamp an enthusiasm for hypoxic radiosensitizers or hypoxia-selective cytotoxins as an adjunct therapy for radiotherapy.

  6. Yin and Yang of mesenchymal stem cells and aplastic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglie, Larisa; Margolis, David; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2017-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by peripheral cytopenias and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is ultimately fatal without treatment, most commonly from infection or hemorrhage. Current treatments focus on suppressing immune-mediated destruction of bone marrow stem cells or replacing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by transplantation. Our incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of AA has limited development of targeted treatment options. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a vital role in HSC proliferation; they also modulate immune responses and maintain an environment supportive of hematopoiesis. Some of the observed clinical manifestations of AA can be explained by mesenchymal dysfunction. MSC infusions have been shown to be safe and may offer new approaches for the treatment of this disorder. Indeed, infusions of MSCs may help suppress auto-reactive, T-cell mediated HSC destruction and help restore an environment that supports hematopoiesis. Small pilot studies using MSCs as monotherapy or as adjuncts to HSC transplantation have been attempted as treatments for AA. Here we review the current understanding of the pathogenesis of AA and the function of MSCs, and suggest that MSCs should be a target for further research and clinical trials in this disorder. PMID:29321823

  7. Enhancing Poetry Writing through Technology: The Yin and the Yang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Schmidt, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Describes the outcome of an innovative mentoring program that paired technology faculty and methods faculty in order to form partnerships to facilitate the modeling of technology for preservice teachers. Discusses the creation of useful applications for enhancing poetry writing through technology for elementary school students. (SG)

  8. Switching transients in the MFTF yin-yang coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    This report is a study of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to the coils' performance tests

  9. Mill in Yin ing mine: developments and new technology application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangbiao; Liu Zhicheng

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the developments and new technology application of mill in Yining Mine, concretely evaluates the characters and effects employed three kinds of technological process, and considers that there are many advantages and features in the process No.3. It's technology is integrity, practical and worth recommending

  10. THE YIN AND YANG OF CSR ETHICAL BRANDING

    OpenAIRE

    Ellisha Nasruddin; Reevany Bustami

    2007-01-01

    Within the current discourse and the often overly-commercialized hyperbole of branding and positioning, there is a particular area that has not been given due attention. Yet, with the rapid changes and the multiple crises of present-day realities, a frequently neglected area, emerges as vitally imperative. The troubles can be seen in both large as well as small businesses within Malaysia. This article, thus, aims to bring back ethics, one of the management blind-spots, into the center stage o...

  11. The Yin and Yang of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrega, Paolo; Campana, Stefania; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2016-11-01

    The recent appreciation of novel subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as important regulators of tissue homeostasis, inflammation and repair, raise questions regarding the presence and role of these cells in cancer tissues. In addition to natural killer and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, the ILC family comprises non-cytolytic, cytokine-producing cells that are classified into ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 based on phenotypic and functional characteristics. Differently from natural killer cells, which are the prototypical members of ILC1 and whose role in tumors is better established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression or resistance is still fuzzy and in several instances controversial, since current studies indicate both context-dependent beneficial or pathogenic effects. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of these novel ILC subsets in the context of tumor immunology, highlighting how ILC subsets might behave either as friends or foes. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Looking East: Yin and Yang of an Academic Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Roche, Claire Reeves

    2011-01-01

    Intended as a brief guide to the cultural differences associated with an East-West academic exchange, this paper discusses customs and cultural norms likely to be encountered. Chinese economic growth has been accompanied by rapidly increasing East-West study abroad opportunities. Over the past decade, China has sent more students to study abroad…

  13. YIN, a fundamental frequency estimator for speech and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cheveigné, Alain; Kawahara, Hideki

    2002-04-01

    An algorithm is presented for the estimation of the fundamental frequency (F0) of speech or musical sounds. It is based on the well-known autocorrelation method with a number of modifications that combine to prevent errors. The algorithm has several desirable features. Error rates are about three times lower than the best competing methods, as evaluated over a database of speech recorded together with a laryngograph signal. There is no upper limit on the frequency search range, so the algorithm is suited for high-pitched voices and music. The algorithm is relatively simple and may be implemented efficiently and with low latency, and it involves few parameters that must be tuned. It is based on a signal model (periodic signal) that may be extended in several ways to handle various forms of aperiodicity that occur in particular applications. Finally, interesting parallels may be drawn with models of auditory processing.

  14. Storage or Retrieval Deficit: The Yin and Yang of Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Wang, Szu-Han; Nader, Karim

    2009-01-01

    To this day, it remains unresolved whether experimental amnesia reflects failed memory storage or the inability to retrieve otherwise intact memory. Methodological as well as conceptual reasons prevented deciding between these two alternatives: The absence of recovery from amnesia is typically taken as supporting storage impairment…

  15. The Radiation Induced Graft Copolymerization of Methacrylic Acid to Nylon; Copolymerisation par greffe de l'acide methacrylique sur le nylon, provoquee par irradiation; Obluchenie vyzyvaet graft-kopolimerizats yu metakrilovoj kisloty v nejlone; Injerto del acido metacrilico en el nylon por copolimerizacion radioinducida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R; Thomas, J K

    1960-07-15

    metakrilovoj kisloty v nejlon putem podgotovki k oblucheniyu. Skorost' prosachivaniya otnositel'no bol'she, chem skorost' komopolimerizatsii. Ne sushchestvuet prostoj svyazi mezhdu skorost'yu reaktsii i vsej dozoj. Temperaturnaya zavisimost' skorosti prosachivaniya v volokno, podgotovlennoe k oblucheniyu v vozdukhe, ukazyvaet, chto nachalo prosachivaniya, po-vidimomu, proiskhodit putem razlozheniya peroksidnykh grupp, obrazovannykh posle oblucheniya. Izmereniya ehlektricheskogo soprotivleniya na obluchennom volokne ukazyvayut, chto razlozhenie umen'shaetsya na koehffitsient 10. (author)

  16. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru

    2013-08-23

    Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and

  17. Tracer Experiments on Food Exchange in Ants and Termites; Emploi des radioindicateurs dans l'etude de la trophallaxis chez les fourmis et les termites; Izuchenie s pomoshch'yu indikatorov obmena pishchej u murav'ev i termitov; Empleo de indicadores radiactivos para estudiar la trofalaxia en las hormigas y los termites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosswald, K.; Kloft, W. [Institute of Applied Zoology, University of Wurzburg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1963-09-15

    murav'i, medonosnye pchely i termity yavlyaetsya ikh stremlenie k trofollakticheskomu obmenu pishchej, kotoryj mokhet byt' khorosho izuchen s pomoshch'yu mechennoj radioaktivnymi veshchestvami pishchi. Pri sravnitel'nom izuchenii samaya vysokaya skorost' obmena byla obnaruzhena u medonosnykh pchel, v to vremya kak u razlichnykh podsemejstv murav'ev ona byla chrezvychajno raznoobraznoj, chto dolkhvo byt' uchteno pri provedenii polevykh ehksperimentov s primeneniem indikatorov. Samoe sil'noe stremlenie k trofollakticheskomu obmenu my obnaruzhili u podsemejstva Camponotlnae. Usilenno izuchalis' murav'i Genus Formica.osobenno Formica polyctena (Forst.), i rodstvennye poligennye i polycalous vidy, kotorye igrayut vakhnuyu rol' v predupreditel'noj biologicheskoj bor'be s nasekomymi-vreditelyami lesa. Ustanovleno, chto skorost' obmena pishchej v odnom muravejnike obuslovlena temperaturoj, vremenem, kolichestvom osobej i nasyshcheniem. Drugoj problemoj yavlyaetsya vopros o tom, sushchestvuet li obmen pishchej mekhdu razlichnymi muravejnikami kolonii murav'ev odnogo vida. Pometiv otdel'nye muravejniki s pomoshch'yu vneseniya radioaktivnoj pishchi, my smogli obnaruzhit' intensivnyj obmen pishchej mekhdu razlichnymi muravejnikami kolonii, otstoyashchimi drug ot druga na rasstoyanie do 200 m. Analogichnye rezul'taty my poluchili dlya trekh razlichnykh kolonij v razlichnye gody. Sushchestvovanie takogo dal'nego obmena pishchej yavlyaetsya ochen' vakhnym dlya otsenki reguliruptsego dejstviya poleznykh vidov murav'ev v otnoshenii nasekomykhvreditelej. Lelo v tom, chto obmen prepyatstvuet bystromu nasyshcheniyu populyatsii lyubogo muravejnika vsledstvie mestnoj massovoj invazii nasekomykh v ikh predydushchem gnezde. Kak pokazali ehksperimenty s primeneniem indikatorov, sobrannaya pishcha popadaet v bol'shinstvo okruzhayushchikh muravejnikov kolonii murav'ev. Poehtomu kolonii ehtikh poleznykh lesnykh murav'ev dejstvuyut kak slokhnaya sistema s vysokoj ehkologicheskoj ehffektivnost'yu. S

  18. 原住民完全中學的實施現況與挑戰:以蘭嶼高級中學為例 The Implementation and the Challenges Involved in Indigenous Integrated Secondary Schools in Taiwan: A Case Study of Lan-Yu High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張如慧Ju-Hui Chang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 建立以原住民為主體,符合原住民需求的教育體系,是原住民社區本位教育的重要理念,而此理念亦納入我國的《原住民族教育法》中。本研究以全國第一所原住民完全中學―蘭嶼高級中學為例,進行個案研究,希望由原住民社區本位教育的理論觀點出發,瞭解在地師生及居民的經驗和想法,重新解讀該校在完全中學原訂目標上的實施現況,及其面臨的挑戰。研究時間為2007年8月至2008 年7月,蒐集資料的方法以師生和社區人士的訪談為主,並輔以部分時間的田野觀察。研究結果發現,蘭嶼成立完全中學的成效包括:提供最弱勢學生的升學和學習機會;透過完全中學經費的溢注,提高城鄉高中教育均衡發展的可能性;以及透過文化融入課程與相關活動,促進學校社區化等。然而因為社區和在地參與 仍有限,所以官方的政策或經費運用,無法完全符合當地真正的需求,更遑論激發社區對教育的主體性和能動性。 Indigenous community-based education argues that indigenous peoples are the subject of educational systems and institutions whose needs should be fulfilled. This concept is also reflected in Indigenous Education Law in Taiwan. This case study is based on the theory of indigenous community-based education and focuses on the first indigenous integrated secondary school in Taiwan, Lan-Yu High School, trying to understand the implementation of the school and the challenges it faced. The research was conducted from August 2007 to July 2008. Its data was collected through interviews with teachers, students, and community members, as well as by participant observation. The findings showed that the integrated secondary school improved educational equality for the most disadvantaged students, that the financial subsidies helped to promote balanced development of secondary education, and that

  19. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of hypereutectic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2013-07-06

    Jul 6, 2013 ... dered (Hekmat-Ardakan et al 2010; Choi and Li 2012). Usually, the .... According to Clapeyron equation (Yu et al 1999) m. 2. 1 m. (. ) d d ,. T V. V. T. P. H. -. = ∆. (1) .... Jung H K, Seo P K and Kang C G 2001 J. Mater. Process. Technol ... Res. 14 141. Zhang H H, Duan H L, Shao G J, Xu L P, Yin J L and Yan B.

  20. Chuancheng yu gengxin: Liu Mei sheng yu Minguo shiqi de shixue%传承与更新:留美生与民国时期的史学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春雷

    2008-01-01

    @@ As it has long been acknowledged that historians do not simply write objectivehistories, but are themselves products of Specific times and places, there is littlequestion that histories of historiography can provide important insights. ProfessorLi Chunlei, of Tianjin Polytechnic University, contributes to our understandingof the origins of the modem discipline of history in China by focusing on theimportant role of returned students from the U.S. in fostering its developmentand shaping its direction.

  1. Technology Education and Technology Teacher Education in Taiwan, R.O.C. = Zhong Hua Min Guo Ke Ji Jiao Yu Ji qi shi zi Jiao Yu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven; Wang, Cheng-Pin Peter; Wang, Yen-chao; Shih, Neng-Mu; Yeh, Chung-ching

    Technology education in Taiwan begins with craft work at the elementary school level, and the most important point is the practical application. All junior high school students are required to take the Living Technology course. Content includes technology and life, information and communication, construction and manufacturing, and energy and…

  2. Feng xian tai du yu jiao yu he zhi ye xuan ze xing wei: yi ge shi yan fang fa de yan jiu an li

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, X.; Sun, Y.; Hartog, J.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study on risk attitude and choice behavior of education and career This paper introduces a research on risk attitude and choice behavior of education and career. Using the experimental methods, this study focuses on testing the reliability and validity of risk attitude measurement.

  3. [Textural research on the origin and evolution of the"theory of drying dampness"and its initiator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X M; Hu, J P

    2016-07-28

    There are two different records, namely,"vulnerability to dampness in autumn"and"dryness prevailing"in autumn, in the Neijing ( Inner Canon ). In the Jin and Yuan Dynasties, Liu Wansu supplemented the pathogenesis of dryness pathogen, whereas Wang Andao explained the contradictory records in the Neijing . In the Qing Dynasty, Yu Chang definitely challenged the theory"vulnerability to dampness in autumn"of the Neijing ,triggering a debate on the recognition of"drying dampness". In fact, Yu Guopei was the initiator of"theory of drying dampness", who discussed the nature of Yin and Yang of"drying dampness"based on the laws of correspondence between human body and natural environment, elucidating that drying dampness should be the root of both exogenous disease and internal damage, and elaborating the etiology and pathogenesis of"drying dampness", the diagnosis and the nature of the drugs for drying dampness. Shi Shoutang inherited Yu's theory and made a further development. In modern times, some scholars advocated that"drying dampness"should be consideredalong with Yin and Yang, superficies and interior, excess and deficiency, cold and heat, as the guiding principle for syndrome differentiation.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical properties of red MSX sources (RMSs) (Yu+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, N.; Xu, J.

    2017-05-01

    Our molecular line data come from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90GHz (MALT90) (e.g., Foster+ 2011, J/ApJS/197/25; Jackson+ 2013PASA...30...57J). This project is performed with Mopra, a 22m single-dish radio telescope located near Coonabarabran in New South Wales, Australia. The angular resolution of Mopra is 38", with a beam efficiency between 0.49 at 86GHz and 0.42 at 115GHz. The pointing accuracy of the main MALT90 maps is about 8", and the absolute flux uncertainty is in the range of 10%-17% depending on the transition in question. The target clumps of this survey are selected from the 870um Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL; Schuller+ 2009A&A...504..415S; Contreras+ 2013, J/A+A/549/A45; superseded by J/A+A/568/A41). Using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), Urquhart+ (2007, J/A+A/461/11) observed radio emissions of 826 Red Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Sources (RMSs) in the southern sky. We also have checked our sources with the data taken from the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) carried out at 843MHz with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST; Mauch+ 2003, VIII/81). See section 2 for further explanations. (5 data files).

  5. Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in phase-biased superconductor-quantum dot-superconductor junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsanskas, Gediminas; Goldstein, Moshe; Flensberg, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    supercurrent, and the differential conductance as measured by a normal-metal tunnel probe. In absence of a phase difference only one linear combination of the superconductor lead electrons couples to the spin, which gives a single YSR state. With finite phase difference, however, it is effectively a two...

  6. A New Book: Minnegulov Kh.Yu. Kazan-Tatar Turkological School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Aksanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book describes the history and current state of the Kazan-Tatar Turkological school. Its author analyzes the development of global and domestic Turkology, points out interrelations between various academic centers and specifies the convention of their separation. According to him, the Tatars played a significant role in the development of the Russian Oriental studies, since already from the 18th century, they collaborated with leading Russian Orientalists. The establishment of the University of Kazan in 1804 was a milestone in the development of Kazan School of Turkic Studies. The 1820–50s were a time of the highest development of Oriental studies in the University of Kazan. In addition to personnel training, the University created textbooks, dictionaries, scholarly works, collected manuscripts and established extensive international contacts. Soviet and modern periods were mainly related to the development of the historical and philological direction within the walls of educational institutions and the University of Kazan. In 2011, their Tatar faculties were united into the Institute of Philology and Arts of Kazan Federal University. Formation and development of the history of Tatar literature as an independent branch of literary science became one of the most important achievements of this stage. Great work on the collection, publication and study of Tatar folklore done in the last century was another important achievement.

  7. *Corresponding author. E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    content in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample ... KEY WORDS: Copper(II), Solid phase extraction, Activated carbon, Flame atomic ... ability to adsorb organic compounds and organic metal complexes as ...

  8. Complete genome sequence of Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens type strain (Yu37-1T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Zeytun, Ahmet [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Nolan, Matt [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hammon, Nancy [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Deshpande, Shweta [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Cheng, Jan-Fang [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Liolios, Konstantinos [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pagani, Ioanna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Palaniappan, Krishna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Detter, J. Chris [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Ngatchou, Olivier Duplex [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Bristow, James [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Eisen, Jonathan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Markowitz, Victor [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens Iino et al. 2008 is the type species of the genus Calditerrivibrio. The species is of interest because of its important role in the nitrate cycle as nitrate reducer and for its isolated phylogenetic position in the Tree of Life. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the third complete genome sequence of a member of the family Deferribacteraceae. The 2,216,552 bp long genome with its 2,128 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  9. Yu šien yuan cha dzu czha t šia lie kutí

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, W.; Křížek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 15 (2009), s. 159-194 ISSN 1000-0984 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : uniform partition * superconvergence * Céa's lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Tong and Yu et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF ADEWUNMI

    Serial dilution was undertaken using sterile distilled water and the inoculated normal saline. ... A multiple disc containing the antibiotics was placed on the surface of the agar. The multi ... sanitary risk there may be by hand contact with patients.

  11. Xinjiang Keji Rencai dui Chuangxin Huanjin de Neiyin Pingjia Moxing Goujian yu Shizheng Yanjiu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Chunping; Tang, ChaoYing; Jiannong, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Innovation environment is the key factor to give full play to the dynamic role of the scientific talents. The article has investigated and analyzed the environmental factors and the degree of satisfaction of Xinjiang scientific talents in innovation activities by implicit theory, and structured...

  12. Analysis of Psychological Growth of the Main Character in Chenlun by Yu Dafu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuc Lin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the psychological aspect of the main character in the novel “Chen Lun”. The feelings of inferiority and loneliness are his initial mental states. The latter is caused by two factors: the social and personality factors while the former is caused by the political condition in China at that time and the fact that the Japanese underestimate the Chinese people. The writer uses Freud’s theory on the structure of personality and conflict, anxiety, and the defense mechanism to analyze the process of the psychological development of the main character. In the end of the story, the main character commits suicide since “he” cannot only solve the problem of his loneliness and inferiority but also he feels guilty of his wrongdoing which crushes his-ideal-self. The guilty feeling haunts him in such a way that he even denies himself.

  13. Ozhirenie sredi bol'nykh, obrativshikhsya za meditsinskoy pomoshch'yu (dannye krupnogo otechestvennogo epidemiologicheskogo issledovaniya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to study obesity among 10541 patients in therapeutic, neurologik and cardiologikal practices in 29 cities of the Russian Federation from St.-Petersburg to Vladivostok (COMPASS program. All patients are divided on two groups: with obesity (average BMI=33,7+4,1 kg/m2, and without this disease (average BMI=24,4+3,0 kg/m2. Groups were compared under demographic characteristics; features of a medical route; somatic and mental state. 20% from all patients in mentioned practices in various cities of Russia have obesity. Patients with obesity are predominantly women (middle age 54,0+12,0 year. For these patients low social and economic status (with low educational level, absence of employment, loneliness etc. are characteristic. Patients with obesity are more often observe in cardiological practice. They suffer from cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The hypothesis about obesity formation within mental disorders (depression, food addiction - dependence on food is presented. Possibility of treatment of patients with the help of sibutramine is discussed.

  14. Yu et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med., (2017) 14 (6): 1-9

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MC SYSTEM

    10.21010/ajtcam.v14i6.1. 1 .... Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA). Bornyl acetate ... For the precision of the developed method, the prepared samples were analyzed for six replicates within one day, and calculated relative standard ...

  15. Yu et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(6):551-554 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    the cell survival rate was calculated according to the following formula: Cell survival rate = (OD value of the experimental group - OD value of the blank control group) / (OD value of the control group - OD value of the blank control group) x 100%. Four replicate wells were set up for each concentration at each time point, the ...

  16. The Yin and Yang of chromatin dynamics in adult stem cell fate selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rene C.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms rely on tissue stem cells for maintenance and repair. During homeostasis, the concerted action of local niche signals and epigenetic regulators establish stable gene expression patterns to ensure that stem cells are not lost over time. However, stem cells also provide host tissues with a remarkable plasticity to respond to perturbations. How adult stem cells choose and acquire new fates is unknown, but the genome-wide mapping of epigenetic landscapes suggests a critical role for chromatin remodeling in these processes. Here, we explore the emerging role of chromatin modifiers and pioneer transcription factors in adult stem cell fate decisions and plasticity, which ensure that selective lineage choices are only made when environmentally cued. PMID:26689127

  17. The Yin and Yang of human beta defensins in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron eWeinberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly evolving research examining the extended role of human beta-defensins (hBDs in chemoattraction, innate immune-mediated response and promotion of angiogenesis suggest that the collective effects of hBDs extend well beyond their antimicrobial mechanism(s. Indeed, the numerous basic cellular functions associated with hBDs demonstrate that these peptides have dual impact on health, as they may be advantageous under certain conditions, but potentially detrimental in others. The consequences of these functions are reflected in the overexpression of hBDs in diseases, such as psoriasis, and recently the association of hBDs with pro-tumoral signaling. The mechanisms regulating hBD response in health and disease are still being elucidated. Clearly the spectrum of function now attributed to hBD regulation identifies these molecules as important cellular regulators, whose appropriate expression is critical for proper immune surveillance; i.e., expression of hBDs in proximity to areas of cellular dysregulation may inadvertently exacerbate disease progression. Understanding the mechanism(s that regulate contextual signaling of hBDs is an important area of concentration in our laboratories. Using a combination of immunologic, biochemical and molecular biologic approaches, we have identified signaling pathways associated with hBD promotion of immune homeostasis and have begun to dissect the inappropriate role that beta-defensins may assume in disease.

  18. Balancing the Yin and Yang: The Role of Universities in Developing Softer Skills in Accountancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carl; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Wells, Jamie; Scott, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of the importance of softer skills in the accountancy profession and a discussion of the contribution that universities can make in supporting the development of these skills. With employers increasingly demanding a greater range of softer skills such as effective communication, the paper is intended to challenge…

  19. Good news – bad news: the Yin and Yang of immune privilege in the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Vincent Forrester

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The eye and the brain are prototypical tissues manifesting immune privilege (IP in which immune responses to foreign antigens, particularly alloantigens are suppressed, and even completely inhibited. Explanations for this phenomenon are numerous and mostly reflect our evolving understanding of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning immunological responses generally. IP is now viewed as a property of many tissues and the level of expression of IP varies not only with the tissue but with the nature of the foreign antigen and changes in the limited conditions under which privilege can operate as a mechanism of immunological tolerance. As a result, IP functions normally as a homeostatic mechanism preserving normal function in tissues, particularly those with highly specialised function and limited capacity for renewal such as the eye and brain. However, IP is relatively easily bypassed in the face of a sufficiently strong immunological response, and the privileged tissues may be at greater risk of collateral damage because of its natural defences are more easily breached than in a fully immunocompetent tissue which rapidly rejects foreign antigen and can restores integrity. This two-edged sword cuts its swathe through the eye: under most circumstances, IP mechanisms such as blood ocular barriers, intraocular immune modulators, induction of T regulatory cells, lack of lymphatics and other properties maintain tissue integrity; however, when these are breached, various degrees of tissue damage occur from severe tissue destruction in retinal viral infections and other forms of uveoretinal inflammation, to less severe inflammatory responses in conditions such as macular degeneration. Conversely, ocular IP and tumour-related IP can combine to permit extensive tumour growth and increased risk of metastasis thus threatening the survival of the host.

  20. Good news-bad news: the Yin and Yang of immune privilege in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, John V; Xu, Heping

    2012-01-01

    The eye and the brain are prototypical tissues manifesting immune privilege (IP) in which immune responses to foreign antigens, particularly alloantigens are suppressed, and even completely inhibited. Explanations for this phenomenon are numerous and mostly reflect our evolving understanding of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning immunological responses generally. IP is now viewed as a property of many tissues and the level of expression of IP varies not only with the tissue but with the nature of the foreign antigen and changes in the limited conditions under which privilege can operate as a mechanism of immunological tolerance. As a result, IP functions normally as a homeostatic mechanism preserving normal function in tissues, particularly those with highly specialized function and limited capacity for renewal such as the eye and brain. However, IP is relatively easily bypassed in the face of a sufficiently strong immunological response, and the privileged tissues may be at greater risk of collateral damage because its natural defenses are more easily breached than in a fully immunocompetent tissue which rapidly rejects foreign antigen and restores integrity. This two-edged sword cuts its swathe through the eye: under most circumstances, IP mechanisms such as blood-ocular barriers, intraocular immune modulators, induction of T regulatory cells, lack of lymphatics, and other properties maintain tissue integrity; however, when these are breached, various degrees of tissue damage occur from severe tissue destruction in retinal viral infections and other forms of uveoretinal inflammation, to less severe inflammatory responses in conditions such as macular degeneration. Conversely, ocular IP and tumor-related IP can combine to permit extensive tumor growth and increased risk of metastasis thus threatening the survival of the host.

  1. Photoluminescence properties of the red phosphor YInGe 2 O 7 :Eu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... y = 0.356) of Y0.60InGe2O7:Eu3+0.40 were close to National Television Standard Committee standard values. As such, the synthesized phosphors may find applications in near ultraviolet InGaN chip-based white light-emitting diodes. KEY WORDS: Optical materials, X-Ray diffraction, Luminescence, Solid state reaction.

  2. Is "Yin-Yang Balancing" Superior to Ambidexterity as an Approach to Paradox Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    ) of the Confucian principle of Zhong-Yong that is largely compatible with Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean. Second, at the practical level, his BYin-Yang balancing^ solution, while being different from the structural ambidexterity approach, is compatible with the contextual ambidexterity approach. These first two...

  3. Langerhans Cells: the 'Yin and Yang' of HIV Restriction and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Luzia; Su, Bin; Moog, Christiane

    2017-03-01

    Langerhans cells are specialized sentinels present in the epidermis expressing Langerin, a specific C-type lectin receptor involved in HIV capture and destruction. Recently, the specific mechanism leading to this HIV restriction was discovered. Nevertheless, Langerhans cells can be infected and the way HIV escapes this restriction needs to be unraveled. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Design principles and operating principles: the yin and yang of optimal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, Eberhard O

    2003-03-01

    Metabolic engineering has as a goal the improvement of yield of desired products from microorganisms and cell lines. This goal has traditionally been approached with experimental biotechnological methods, but it is becoming increasingly popular to precede the experimental phase by a mathematical modeling step that allows objective pre-screening of possible improvement strategies. The models are either linear and represent the stoichiometry and flux distribution in pathways or they are non-linear and account for the full kinetic behavior of the pathway, which is often significantly effected by regulatory signals. Linear flux analysis is simpler and requires less input information than a full kinetic analysis, and the question arises whether the consideration of non-linearities is really necessary for devising optimal strategies for yield improvements. The article analyzes this question with a generic, representative pathway. It shows that flux split ratios, which are the key criterion for linear flux analysis, are essentially sufficient for unregulated, but not for regulated branch points. The interrelationships between regulatory design on one hand and optimal patterns of operation on the other suggest the investigation of operating principles that complement design principles, like a user's manual complements the hardwiring of electronic equipment.

  5. The Yin and Yang of nicotine: harmful during development, beneficial in adult patient populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S Counotte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine has remarkably diverse effects on the brain. Being the main active compound in tobacco, nicotine can aversively affect brain development. However, it has the ability to act positively by restoring attentional capabilities in smokers. Here, we focus on nicotine exposure during the prenatal and adolescent developmental periods and specifically, we will review the long-lasting effects of nicotine on attention, both in humans and animal models. We discuss the reciprocal relation of the beneficial effects of nicotine, improving attention in smokers and in patients with neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, versus nicotine-related attention deficits already caused during adolescence. Given the need for research on the mechanisms of nicotine’s cognitive actions, we discuss some of the recent work performed in animals.

  6. Professional Formation in Hong Kong: Yin & Yang in a Free-Market Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Victor

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the professional formation of beginning teachers, education reforms and Hong Kong's free-market economy is explored. An overview of educational change and then beginning teachers' professional formation within the context of economic cycles provides a contextual background against which two research projects are…

  7. Concise review: the yin and yang of intestinal (cancer) stem cells and their progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, D.E.; Clevers, H.

    2013-01-01

    The intestine has developed over the last few years into a prime model system for adult stem cell research. Intestinal cells have an average lifetime of 5 days, moving within this time from the bottom of intestinal crypts to the top of villi. This rapid self-renewal capacity combined with an easy to

  8. The Yin and the Yang of visuo-spatial neglect: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J C; Halligan, P W

    1994-09-01

    We report a patient (R.B.) who has shown gross left visuo-spatial neglect over the 3 years since he sustained a right parietal infarct. Although his neglect is severe on such tasks as line bisection, cancellation, and drawing, there are some domains of preserved perceptual performance: he can perceive subjective contours, he can use lateral symmetry as a cue to figure-ground segregation, and he benefits from some forms of global cueing. In a series of five experiments, we show that R.B. has a selective inability to analyse and copy accurately the left contours of geometric nonsense-figures. These results hold even when there is a single vertical contour (to be copied) that divides a rectangle or a circle into two sub-figures; this physically-identical boundary is copied more accurately when it is cued as the right edge of the left sub-figure than when it is cued as the left edge of the right sub-figure. These effects are not influenced by a manipulation in which R.B. is required to trace the outline of the relevant sub-figure with his finger immediately prior to drawing his copy. The results are interpreted in terms of classical Gestalt theories of figure-ground assignment. Pre-attentive (global) figure-ground parsing is basically intact; but when focal attention is demanded, only the right side of an object is coded as figure.

  9. Multi-channel recording of a pulse spectrum on the screen of a Williams tube used with a ferrite memory analyser; Enregistrement du spectre d'impulsion sur l'ecran d'un tube de Williams au moyen d'un analyseur multicanal a memoire en ferrite; Zapis' spektra impul'sov na ehkrane ehlektronno-luchevoj trubki mnogokanal'nogo analizatora s ferritovoj pamyat'yu; Registro multicanal del espectro de los impulsos en la pantalla del tubo electronico, en un analizador con memoria de ferrita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumler, Shtirad [Institut Yadernogo Issledovannya Chekhoslovatskoj Akldemii Nauk, Rzhezh Chekhoslovatskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika (Czech Republic)

    1962-04-15

    promedio de impulsos es reducido. La causa reside en el dispositivo descifrador de la informacion leida en el canal directamente a partir de los circuitos sumadores y de los circuitos direccionales con registro inmediato en la pantalla. La ineptitud del registro inmediato es debida al bajo promedio y al tiempo estadistico de distribucion de los impulsos. El dispositivo propuesto resulta mas eficaz en este caso porque la calidad del registro no depende de la forma del espectro ni de la velocidad del recuento de los impulsos. Se utiliza este dispositivo en un analizador de 256 canales con una memoria de ferrita cuyo tiempo muerto es igual a 15 {mu}s. Los ciclos de la representacion oscilografica alternan periodicamente, con una frecuencia de repeticion de 50 Hz, con el ciclo de analisis del espectro medido. El tiempo de inscripcion del oscilografo es aproximadamente igual a 4 ms, es decir, un 20 por ciento de la duracion ordinaria del ciclo de trabajo del analizador. En analizadores cuyo numero de canales es menor y el tiempo muerto de memoria es mas corto, el tiempo del registro oscilografico representa apenas un pequeno porcentaje de la duracion del ciclo de. trabajo del analizador. (author) [Russian] V doklade budet opisana blok-skhema programmnykh tsepej, pozvolyayushchikh osushchestvlyat' mnogokanal'nuyu zapis' vozrastayushchego spektra anali- ziruemykh IMPUL'SOV na ehkrane ehlektronno-luchevoj trubki, v kombinatsii so staticheskoj ferritovoj pamyat'yu. Obshcheprinyatye sposoby neposredstvennoj zapisi na ehlektronno-luchevoj trubke yavlyayutsya v nekotorykh sluchayakh nesovershennymi v analizatorakh ukazannogo tipa. Zapis' okazyvaetsya nedostatochno chetkoj osobenno pri analize vremennykh ''kaskadov'' impul'sov s nizkoj chastotoj povtoreniya i s nizkim srednim chislom impul'sov. Prichinoj yavlyaetsya deshifrovka otchityvaemoj informatsii v kanale pryamo iz summiruyushchikh tsepej i iz adresnykh tsepej s neposredstvennoj zapis'yu na ehkrane. Neprigodnost

  10. FY 1999 Report on overseas geological structure surveys. Joint Japan-China Yu Xian exploitation project (Attachments); 1999 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa futai shiryo. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This reports provides the attachments for the report JN0041264. The contents include (1) minutes of the fourth steering committee, (2) technical reports presented to the fourth steering committee (I: report on FY 1998 joint exploitation works, and II: report on FY 1999 joint exploitation works), (3) minutes of the fifth steering committee, and (4) technical reports presented to the fifth steering committee (I: report on FY 1999 joint exploitation works, and II: report on planned FY 2000 joint exploitation works). The item (1) includes approval of the reports on FY 1998 and 1999 joint exploitation works. The item (2)-I report includes seismic exploitation test works, observation work results and quality evaluation thereof; drilling exploitation work results, quality evaluation thereof, exploitation results and evaluation thereof; exploitation results and evaluation thereof; and proposals. The item (2)-II report includes seismic exploitation, drilling exploitation, and man-hours of the workers from the both countries. The item (3) includes approval of the reports on FY 1999 joint exploitation works and planned FY 2000 joint exploitation works. The (4)-I report includes seismic exploitation work results and evaluation thereof, seismic exploitation test works, drilling exploitation work results, quality evaluation thereof, exploitation results and evaluation thereof, and proposals for the future works. The (4)-II report includes seismic and drilling exploitation plans, and numbers and periods of the workers from the both countries. (NEDO)

  11. About the article by M.A. Goncharov, Yu.N. Raznitsin, Yu.V. Barkin «SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DEFORMATION OF THE CONTINENTAL AND OCEANIC LITHOSPHERE AS A RESULT OF THE EARTH CORE NORTHERN DRIFT»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri G. Leonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The review summary states that studies of the hierarchical subordination of geodynamic systems is top in the scientific agenda, and researches of orientation of the Earth’s surface deformation structures in relation to the elements of the stress field are important. It is noted that the proposed classification of geological objects by ranks is ambiguous, and there is a need for a geodynamic model to provide a basis for studying relationships between the fields of forces, stresses and strains on the surface and processes which take place deep in the core and mantle of the Earth.

  12. Response to Dr Yu's paper: A survey of radon properties in underground railway stations in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frommer, G.

    1996-01-01

    This letter criticizes the results of a radon survey performed in underground railway stations in Hong Kong. The authors of the survey concluded that the radon dose received by the night time maintenance worker is not insignificant. However, it is the opinion of the Mass Transit Railway Corporation that this radon dose value is at best a crude estimate based on a limited number of non-representative short-term radon measurements. (UK)

  13. «The Light Thaw» at times of P.Yu. Shelest: myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanenko

    2016-06-01

    The central point of the issue is the phenomenon of «ukrainofilstvo» (the utmost love to Ukraine, which this outstanding but controversial official kept to. We specifically study the essence, components and consequences of the historical process known as «the light thaw» of P. Shelest. This process was particularly obvious in very concrete though discrepant steps done by the official towards Ukrainian national interests and rights protection. Among the priorities were the basics of the Ukrainian identity, such as the language, education and culture. As a devoted communist, a supporter of the Soviet Union’s «brotherhood» and a determined bearer of the communist ideas and ideals (especially in the struggle against dissidence, the Ukrainian leader, at the same time, opposed as he could the Kremlin dictatorship in particular segments of humanitarian and economical policy. It partly prevented extensive implementation of the Russian language, which had a tendency to substitute Ukrainian (the process of Russification, as well as resisted to total destruction of the Ukrainian national landscape uniqueness for the sake of Moscow’s political and ideological pressure. Simultaneously we stress, that existing myths about «autonomy», «national communism» or the program of the so called «second Ukrainisation» of P. Shelest are not proved by documents, which means these facts do not correspond to the real state of events at the mentioned historical period.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UY UMa and EF Boo compiled time of minima (Yu+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.-X.; Zhang, X.-D.; Hu, K.; Xiang, F.-Y.

    2017-11-01

    In order to construct the (O-C) diagram to analyze the period change of UY UMa, we have performed a careful search for all available times of light minima. A total of 76 times of light minima were collected and listed in Table 2. >From the literatures and two well-known databases (i.e., the O-C gateway (http://var.astro.cz/ocgate) and the Lichtenknecker database of the BAV (http://www.bav-astro.de/LkDB/index.php)), we have collected a total of 75 available times of light minima for EF Boo, which are summarized in Table 3. (3 data files).

  15. The Pulkovo Observatory in the last 50 years through the eyes of its Learned Secretary Yu. I. Vitinsky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, V. Yu.; Soboleva, T. V.

    A solar physicist, a Pulkovo astronomer, Yury Ivanovich Vitinsky (1926-2003) was the author of 210 scientific papers known in both Russia and abroad. He worked in the Observatory for about half a century (1953-2002) and held the office of the Learned Secretary of the Russian Academy of Sciences Main Astronomical Observatory for 35 years (1965-2000). In the last years of his life, Vitinsky brought his recollections that he titled "My Pulkovo" to the Main Astronomical Observatory Archive. His memoirs narrate about problems of the astronomical science, staff members and deeds of Pulkovo, things he thought of an events he was through. This is the half-a-century history of the Pulkovo Observatory in biographies of persons. The writer of the Recollections mentions the names of fifty persons most of whom are the Main Astronomical Observatory staff members that he worked with side by side. The memoirs provide accurate descriptions that are brief yet rather capacious of the author's Pulkovo colleagues, as well as other astronomers. The language of Vitinsky's recollection is good and clear. His memoirs contain moderate balanced views of people and events and provide objective and trustworthy data. "My Pulkovo" is an indispensable biographical source for the historian of the astronomical science, the Pulkovo Observatory and its scholarly staff members of the most recent decades. It is also just an interesting human document. In 2006, Yury Ivanovich would have been eighty.

  16. Crude oil pricing in Asia and future problems; Asia no gen`yu pricing to kongo no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper describes pricing factors of crude oil for Asia and future problems. Price of the Middle East crude oil for Asia is determined by linking the spot price of Dubayy crude oil using as a marker. Factors affecting the pricing of marker crude oil include the information dispatching functions for prices of spot market and paper market of marker crude oil, the presence of competitive crude oil, and the correlation between market of oil products and price of crude oil. The paper market of Dubayy crude oil with a small scale of trading provides poor impact and transparency. In Asia, there is no strong competitive crude oil except the Middle East crude oil. There is only a weak price linking between crude oil and products. These are the background that the price of Middle East crude oil stays at the high level and the price adjusting functions are hard to work. The marker crude oil should be changed to another except Dubayy crude oil, and information should be dispatched from purchasers based on the stable standard crude oil. The real paper market should be created, and the force of speaking to oil producing countries should be enhanced by concentrating forces of major oil consuming countries in Asia. It is necessary to find out competitive crude oils. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Development of fuel economy 5W-20 gasoline engine oil; Teinenpi 5W-20 gasoline engine yu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, K; Ueda, F; Kurono, K; Kawai, H; Sugiyama, S [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A 5W-20 gasoline engine oil which improves vehicle fuel efficiency by more than 1.5% relative to a conventional 5W-30 gasoline engine oil was newly developed. Its high fuel economy performance lasts 10,000 km. The viscosity was optimized to satisfy both fuel economy and antiwear performances. Thiadiazole was used to retain the initial fuel economy performance provided by MoDTC. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.

  19. Yauk gyar mann yin (Be a man!): masculinity and betel quid chewing among men in Mandalay, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Thida; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Lin, Chu Fu; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Betel quid chewing is associated with various oral cancers and other health concerns, including reproductive health issues. Nevertheless, the practice is widespread in Myanmar, especially among men. This qualitative study elucidates the gendered aspects of betel quid chewing by examining how it links with masculine ideology among male betel quid chewers in Mandalay, Myanmar. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions, key-informant interviews and participant observation. The thematic content analysis was guided by Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity and Butler's notion of gender performativity. The findings indicated that young Mandalay men were drawn to betel quid chewing by the value they gave to satisfying their curiosity, power competition, risk-taking and a display of manliness. Thus, the practice of betel quid chewing, as defined by our participants, was perceived as manly, trendy, stylish and sexually attractive. For adult men, betel quid chewing was a social lubricant that assisted them in talking with clients and co-workers, thus enhancing their economic opportunities with other men. It also helped working-class men to work harder. Betel quid chewing harm-reduction programmes therefore need to be mindful of masculinity issues as well as the economic aspects of betel quid chewing.

  20. Regulation of T cell immunity in atopic dermatitis by microbes: The Yin and Yang of cutaneous inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eBiedermann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease predominantly mediated by T helper cells. While numerous adaptive immune mechanisms in AD pathophysiology have been elucidated in detail, deciphering the impact of innate immunity in AD pathogenesis has made substantial progress in recent years and is currently a fast evolving field. As innate and adaptive immunity are intimately linked cross-talks between these two branches of the immune system are critically influencing the resulting immune response and disease. Innate immune recognition of the cutaneous microbiota was identified to substantially contribute to immune homeostasis and shaping of protective adaptive immunity in the absence of inflammation. Disturbances in the composition of the skin microbiome with reduced microbial diversity and overabundance of Staphylococcus spp. have been shown to be associated with AD inflammation. Distinct S. aureus associated microbial associated molecular patterns (MAMPs binding to TLR2 heterodimers could be identified to initiate long lasting cutaneous inflammation driven by T helper cells and consecutively local immune suppression by induction of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC further favoring secondary skin infections as often seen in AD patients. Moreover dissecting cellular and molecular mechanisms in cutaneous innate immune sensing in AD pathogenesis paved the way for exploiting regulatory and anti-inflammatory pathways to attenuate skin inflammation. Activation of the innate immune system by MAMPs of non-pathogenic bacteria on AD skin alleviated cutaneous inflammation. The induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells, Interleukin-10 expression and regulatory Tr1 cells were shown to mediate this beneficial effect. Thus, activation of innate immunity by MAMPs of non-pathogenic bacteria for induction of regulatory T cell phenotypes seems to be a promising strategy for treatment of inflammatory skin disorders as atopic dermatitis. These new findings demons

  1. Unsettling the yin-yang harmony: An analysis of gender inequalities in academic mobility among Chinese scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, M.W.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the gendered nature of international academic mobility. Drawing on a qualitative research on Chinese scholars who have professional mobility experiences overseas, specifically in Germany, the paper demonstrates how the practice, meanings and perceptions of academic mobility are

  2. Redescription of Paraleptus chiloscyllii Yin et Zhang, 1983 (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from the Arabian carpetshark Chiloscyllium arabicum (Chondrichthyes: Hemiscylliidae) off Iraq

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González-Solís, David; Ali, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 759-766 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Arabian Gulf * elasmobranchs * nematode Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2015

  3. INTERCONEXIÓN HOMBRE-MENTE-NATURALEZA DESDE EL TAOÍSMO UNA MIRADA DESDE EL YIN-YANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arlés Gómez Arévalo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, corresponde al proyecto investigativo “Ciencia-espiritualidad”, que indaga, entre otros aspectos, por las conexiones que se establecen entre el mundo de la ciencia occidental y las antiguas tradiciones del Lejano Oriente, más concretamente por el aporte del hinduismo, del budismo y del taoísmo en la comprensión de las problemáticas del hombre contemporáneo. En esta investigación, se hace un análisis del taoísmo, tradición de la antigua civilización China y sus conexiones con la reflexión occidental sobre la energía, la mente humana y la naturaleza. En el pensamiento taoísta, hay una visión de unidad indisoluble entre hombre y naturaleza. El hombre mismo hace parte de la unidad del cosmos: él mismo es naturaleza. Desde esta perspectiva, se analizan algunos de los aportes que esta milenaria tradición hace a la investigación actual sobre ciencia y espiritualidad y a la comprensión de nuevos discursos que se constituyen en temas fronterizos entre la fe y la ciencia contemporánea.

  4. The persistence of the text: the concept of the work in copyright law - part 2 / Yin Harn Lee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lee, Yin Harn

    2018-01-01

    Autoriõigusega kaitstava teose mõistest ja tähendusest Suurbritannia õigusajaloos. Teose materiaalsest ja abstraktsest olemusest. Järg. Algus Intellectual Property Quarterly, 2018, nr. 1, lk. 22-44

  5. Unsettling the yin-yang harmony: An analysis of gender inequalities in academic mobility among Chinese scholars

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, M.W.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the gendered nature of international academic mobility. Drawing on a qualitative research on Chinese scholars who have professional mobility experiences overseas, specifically in Germany, the paper demonstrates how the practice, meanings and perceptions of academic mobility are highly gendered. Research findings highlight how gender, intersecting with other axes of differences, shapes the power geometries of the transnationalized academic field, and in turn, facilitates ...

  6. Re-Imagining Affect with Study: Implications from a Daoist Wind-Story and Yin-Yang Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weili; Ford, Derek R.

    2018-01-01

    Within educational philosophy and theory there has recently been a re-turn to the concept and practices of studying as an alternative or oppositional educational logic to push back against learning as the predominant mode of educational engagement. While promising, we believe that this research on studying has been limited in a few ways. First,…

  7. Regulation of NKG2D-Dependent NK Cell Functions: The Yin and the Yang of Receptor Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Molfetta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural-killer receptor group 2, member D (NKG2D is a well characterized natural killer (NK cell activating receptor that recognizes several ligands poorly expressed on healthy cells but up-regulated upon stressing stimuli in the context of cancer or viral infection. Although NKG2D ligands represent danger signals that render target cells more susceptible to NK cell lysis, accumulating evidence demonstrates that persistent exposure to ligand-expressing cells causes the decrease of NKG2D surface expression leading to a functional impairment of NKG2D-dependent NK cell functions. Upon ligand binding, NKG2D is internalized from the plasma membrane and sorted to lysosomes for degradation. However, receptor endocytosis is not only a mechanism of receptor clearance from the cell surface, but is also required for the proper activation of signalling events leading to the functional program of NK cells. This review is aimed at providing a summary of current literature relevant to the molecular mechanisms leading to NKG2D down-modulation with particular emphasis given to the role of NKG2D endocytosis in both receptor degradation and signal propagation. Examples of chronic ligand-induced down-regulation of NK cell activating receptors other than NKG2D, including natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs, DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM1 and CD16, will be also discussed.

  8. Corrigendum to “Extracellular ATP and adenosine: The yin and yang in immune responses?”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M. M.; Saez, T.; de Vos, P.

    2017-01-01

    The authors regret that they did not mention this funding: This project has received funding from the Marie Curie International Research Staff Exchange Scheme with the 7th European Community Framework Program under grant agreement No. 295185 - EULAMDIMA. The authors would like to apologise for any

  9. Rupture, Invasion and Inflammatory Destruction of the Intestinal Barrier by Shigella: The Yin and Yang of Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J Sansonetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that causes bacillary dysentery in humans. This acute colitis reflects the capacity of the microorganism to disrupt, invade and cause the inflammatory destruction of the intestinal epithelium. The pathogenesis of the Shigella infection can be seen as a disruption of the homeostatic balance that protects the gut against inflammation in the presence of its commensal flora. This provides the unified view that enteroinvasive pathogens allow for the identification of key signalling molecules and pathways involved in the regulation of intestinal inflammation, and more generally, in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response.

  10. Are Supramodality and Cross-Modal Plasticity the Yin and Yang of Brain Development? From Blindness to Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetti, Luca; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    happens because of lack of vision. Here we provide a critical overview of the research in this field and discuss the implications that these novel findings have for the development of educative/rehabilitation approaches and sensory substitution devices (SSDs) in sensory-impaired individuals....

  11. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910

  12. Marine Educational and Research Cruise in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Lallemand, S.; Wu, F. T.

    2009-12-01

    During April 2009, we conducted a seismic and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) cruise as part of the Taiwan mountain building process study, called the TAIGER. The seismic is shot by the US Columbia University’s research vessel Langseth and the OBSs, including Taiwan, French and American OBSs, are carried out by a Taiwanese student training ship, called Yu-Yin (means to educate the young people) No. 2. Both ships take a big number of research scientists and technical staff (15-25 people) to conduct the seismic and OBS survey. In addition, the Yu-Yin No. 2 ship hosts a total of 25 students, both MS and PhD graduate students, from Taiwan, France and USA. The student group consists of 13 from the National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan), 1 from the National Central University (Taiwan), 9 from the Montpellier University (France) and 2 from the New York State University. Nearly all the French and American students are on their very first trip to Taiwan. The research activities will be reported in the T25 Tectonophysics Section. This paper only deals with the educational events. The cruise includes two parts: the first mainly to deploy the OBSs and the second to retrieve the OBSs back to the ship. In addition, the French group arranges a field geological trip onshore Taiwan to put into their hands of the actions of Taiwan mountain building processes. The marine educational courses are filled in the daily ship time at 4 hours per day. As a result, we believe that we have achieved the followings: (1) mix the students and encourage a lovely study environment, (2) mix the teachers and enhance their teaching spectrum, (3) stay in a live and work together boat, allowing more and wider culture exchange. In the future, we certainly will use every possible opportunity to promote more Marine Educational and Research Cruises.

  13. Revision of the Oriental genus Horniella Raffray (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2014-08-12

    The Oriental pselaphine genus Horniella Raffray, 1905 (tribe Tyrini: subtribe Somatipionina) is redefined and revised. Twenty-five new species are described: H. centralis Yin & Li, sp. n., H. confragosa Yin & Li, sp. n., H. dao Yin & Li, sp. n., H. hongkongensis Yin & Li, sp. n., H. nakhi Yin & Li, sp. n., H. schuelkei Yin & Li, sp. n., H. sichuanica Yin & Li, sp. n., H. simplaria Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. tianmuensis Yin & Li, sp. n. from China, H. himalayica Yin & Li, sp. n. from Nepal and North India, H. asymmetrica Yin & Li, sp. n., H. burckhardti Yin & Li, sp. n., H. intricata Yin & Li, sp. n., H. kaengkrachan Yin & Li, sp. n., H. khaosabap Yin & Li, sp. n., H. loebli Yin & Li, sp. n., H. phuphaman Yin & Li, sp. n., H. prolixo Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. schwendingeri Yin & Li, sp. n. from Thailand, H. philippina Yin & Li, sp. n. from the Philippines, H. awana Yin & Li, sp. n., H. gigas Yin & Li, sp. n., H. pilosa Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. smetanai Yin & Li, sp. n. from Malaysia, and H. cibodas Yin & Li, sp. n. from Indonesia. The two previously described species, H. hirtella Raffray, 1901 (type species) from Sri Lanka and H. falcis Yin & Li, 2010 from China are redescribed, and a lectotype is designated for H. hirtella. Illustrations of habitus and important diagnostic features, an identification key, and distributional maps for all species are provided. Eleven unidentified species represented only by females are left unnamed. Illustrations of the habitus and the genital complex, and label data of these species are given to facilitate future study. All available data indicates that species of Horniella typically inhabit leaf litter of various kinds of forests, and can be most efficiently collected by sifting and use of Winkler-Moczarski extractors. 

  14. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  15. Triomicrus Sharp of Eastern China (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia-Wei; Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-08-31

    Twelve species of the genus Triomicrus Sharp are here recognized in eastern China, with eleven of them described as new: T. Inaequalis Shen & Yin, sp. n. and T. mirus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Anhui, T. abhorridus Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. aculeus Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. damingensis Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. frondosus Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. gutianensis Shen & Yin, sp. n. and T. tibialis Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Zhejiang, T. anfractus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Anhui and Zhejiang, T. Hamus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Jiangxi, and T. contus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Jiangxi and Zhejiang. New distributional data for T. rougemonti Löbl, Kurbatov &Nomura is given. A key for the identification of the Triomicrus species in eastern China is presented.

  16. Notes on Michael Schülke's pselaphine collections from China. - Tyrini. I. genera Labomimus Sharp, Linan Hlaváč and Pselaphodes Westwood (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series that deals with Dr. Michael Schülke's collection of Pselaphinae from China. The tyrine genera Labomimus Sharp, Linan Hlaváč and Pselaphodes Westwood are chosen for the first part. The study revealed fourteen new species, all described and illustrated: Labomimus cognatus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus dabashanus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Hubei, Shaanxi), Labomimus mirus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus paratorus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Shaanxi), Labomimus sarculus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus schuelkei Yin & Li, sp. n. (Shaanxi), Labomimus vespertilio Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan), Linan tendothorax Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan), Pselaphodes distincticornis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan), Pselaphodes erlangshanus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes flexus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan), Pselaphodes tibialis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan), Pselaphodes venustus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan) and Pselaphodes zhongdianus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan). Pselaphodes jizushanus Yin, Li & Zhao is recorded from a new locality in Yunnan and its aedeagus is newly illustrated; new province records for Pselaphodes nomurai Yin, Li & Zhao is provided. Labomimus torus (Yin, Li & Zhao), comb. n. is moved from Pselaphodes after an examination of the holotype. Species represented only by unassociated females are listed with label data.

  17. FITTER. The package for fitting experimental data of the YuMO spectrometer by theoretical form factors. Version 1.0. Long write-up and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, A.G.; Stadnik, A.V.; Islamov, A.Kh.; Kuklin, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    FITTER is a C++ code aimed to fit a chosen theoretical multi-parameter function through a set of data points. The method of fitting is chi-square minimization. Moreover, the robust fitting method can be applied. FITTER was designed for a small-angle neutron scattering data analysis, using respective theoretical models. Commonly used models (Gaussian and polynomials) are also implemented for wider applicability

  18. Can yu rid guat ay rot? A Developmental Investigation of Cross-Linguistic Spelling Errors among Spanish-English Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Green, Jennifer D.; Arteagoitia, Igone

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature on cross-linguistic literacy relationships for English language learners, and in particular, the Spanish-influenced spelling patterns of Spanish-English bilinguals. English spelling, reading, and vocabulary assessments were administered to 220 students in four TWI programs over a three-year period, from…

  19. TattooYU: Tattooed Souvenirs from the Yugoslav People’s Army and Regimes of Memory of the Body Inscribed with Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi Abram

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the first mass imprints on the body in the entire region of the former Yugoslavia, which eternally marked members of its armed forces. Through bodies permanently imprinted with socialist history and narrations of tattooed solders from the Yugoslav People’s Army (YPA, I install tattoos from YPA in-between the subversion of power and the incorporation of the dominant ideology, in the antithesis between uniformity and subjectivity. Above all, tattoos from YPA function as a mnemotechnical practice of recollection of the cultural memory, which awakens narrations and the regimes of memory as well as the regimes of memorization of the YPA, socialism and the period of (post transition. Whereas the collected ethnographical material will sustain the claims made above, the situations in which the ethnography was impossible will be discussed further. Rejection, reflex silence or refusals of collaboration are all peculiar modes through which the paper emphasises the importance of the “ethnography of absent” (Telban. In this vein, they represent a fertile springboard to discuss notions of productive oblivion (Kuljić, forgetting (Ricoeur and the “eloquent reticence”. The recollection of negative sentiments (as a way of activating the past did not only materialize in tattooees’ non-responses. Tattoos from YPA also triggered practices of extreme permanent tattoo concealment (e.g. cicatrisation, cauterization that do not fit into the classical anthropological milieu as practices of embellishment, rites of passage, strengthening the pain-tolerance threshold, etc. Instead, I see these practices as a preliminary phase of oblivion and as ways of “deideologization”. Furthermore, the paper supplements Connerton's “habitual memory” preserved in the body and conserving the past in the memory, with its material constitutional side on the body – the tattoo.

  20. The Analysis of Differences and Similarities of Eastern and Western Women’s Images in Liang Sanbo Yu Zhu Yingtai and Romeo and Juliet Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Yenny

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanpek Engtay and Romeo Juliet are the two famous classic love novels from Eastern and Western countries. They are liked by many generation of eastern and western readers. Both novels describe the image of women at each decade. Engtay represents the image of women at feudalism era while Juliet represents it Renainsance era. In this article, the writer did research at education, marriage, love, women's personality, and women's position at each decade. Library research was done in this study with the purpose of letting people know the differences and similarities of women's images between those two decades It can be concluded that in both writings, they have some similarities when describing love, mindset, and women's personality. The differences are about education, marriage, and women's position at feudalism and Renainsance decades.

  1. Problems concerning abolishment of the ban on exportation of Alaskan crudeoil. Alaska gen'yu no yushutsu kaikin mondai no yukue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The ban on exhortation of Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil is being vigorously discussed on its maintenance or abolishment. The Department of Energy of the U.S. published the report which emphasized merits by abolishing the ban on ANS crude-oil exporting. The American Crew Union asserts that the Union will agree to the abolishment if ANS crude oil is transported by the Johns Act ships, which mean tankers built in the U.S., having the U.S. nationality, and plied by operation of the U.S. crews. The federal government of the U.S. declares that the government will not support the abolishment unless the items to restrict the transportation within Johns Act ships are deleted. It is said that British Petroleum, the largest producer of ANS crude oil, is sounding for the method in which use of the U.S. ships and employment of the U.S. crews for the transportation are guaranteed by direct contracts with the tanker owners and crews of the U.S. In any case, employment of U.S. crews is considered to the point to realize the abolishment of the bat on exportation of ANS crude oil.

  2. Radiation defect production in quartz crystals with various structure perfectness degree; Radiatsionnoe defektoobrazovanie v kristallakh kvartsa s razlichnoj stepen`yu sovershenstva struktury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khushvakov, O B

    1992-01-01

    Radiation defects production processes in pure and doped quartz crystals with various structure defectness, caused by preliminary irradiation with neutrons, protons, deuterons and {alpha}-particles, during various electron excitation densities were investigated. The distribution of colour centres along the thickness of irradiated quartz crystals was measured. It was supposed that colour centres are produced on account of inelastic energy losses as the result of collective decay of two or more interacting excitons. It was shown that in quartz crystals under the actions of protons with overthreshold energy 18 MeV and electrons with subthreshold energy 100 keV the same structure defects are formed. It was established that radiation defect production process has two stages. The first stage reveals radiation defects produced by preliminary irradiation. The second one reveals additional intrinsic defects formed under the action of gamma-rays and electrons. The probability dependence of defect production on neutron fluence and masses of incident particles was studied. It was supposed that the creation of additional defects in preliminary irradiated crystals is due to non-radiative decay of electron excitations near radiation-induced defects. It was shown that increase of impurity concentration leads to rate growth of accumulation of radiation induced defects. (A.A.D.) 15 refs. 4 figs.

  3. Radiation Disinfestation of Grain and Seeds; Radiodesinsection des Cereales et des Semences; Obezzarazhivanie zerna i semyan s pomoshch'yu oblucheniya; Desinfestacion de Granos y Semillas por Irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golumbic, C.; Davis, D. F. [Market Quality Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Hyattsville, MD (United States)

    1966-11-15

    Current interest in radiation treatment of grain and seeds mainly revolves about its efficacy for control of insect infestations in these products. The recent literature on this subject is reviewed and gaps still existing in the fundamental and practical knowledge of radiation disinfestation.are pointed out. Research programmes in the United States Department of Agriculture that are under way, or planned for the immediate future, are discussed in detail. Current studies are being directed toward establishing minimum effective doses for sexual sterilization and mortality, influence of environmental factors on dose requirements, and potential for the development of biological resistance. In May 1966 the scope of the work expanded as a new grain products irradiator became operative and applied studies were initiated. An integral part of this, research is a study of the effect of irradiation on the quality of food and feed grains and on cereal products, at the doses for both insect control and fungal disinfection. This paper examines critically the results of research in this area and estimates future research, needs. (author) [French] A'.l'heure actuelle, l'interet que suscite le traitement par les rayonnements des cereales et des semences est du avant tout a son efficacite pour la desinsection. Les auteurs analysent les recentes publications dans ce domaine et. signalent les lacunes, qui subsistent encore dans les connaissances fondamentales ou pratiques relatives a la radiodesinsection, ' Ils examinent en detail les programmes de recherches du Departement de l'agriculture des Etats-Unis qui sont actuellement mis.en oeuvre ou projetes pour l'avenir immediat. Les etudes actuelles concernent la determination de la dose minimale necessaire pour la sterilisation sexuelle et de la dose mortelle, l'influence des facteurs ambiants sur les doses requises, et les possibilites de developpement de la resistance biologique. En mai 1966, les travaux se sont elargis a la suite de la mise en service d'une nouvelle installation d'irradiation des.cereales qui permet d'entreprendre des etudes appliquees. Ce programme comprend l'etude des effets de l'irradiation aux doses insecticides et fongicides sur la qualite des cereales destinees a la consommation humaine et animale et sur celle des produits derives. Le memoire procede a un examen critique des resultats des recherches entreprises et evalue les besoins, futurs a cet egard. (author) [Spanish] El interes que suscita el tratamiento de granos y semillas por irradiacion radica principalmente en su eficacia en la lucha contra la infestacion de esos productos por insectos. Los autores examinan las publicaciones mas recientes sobre esta cuestion y senalan las lagunas que todavia existen en los conocimientos basicos y practicos de la radiodesinfestacion. Exponen detenidamente los programas de investigacion del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos que se estan ejecutando o que se proyecta ejecutar en un futuro inmediato. Los estudios actuales estan orientados hacia el establecimiento de valores minimos de dosis eficaces para la esterilizacion sexual y para provocar la muerte de los insectos, la influencia de los factores ambientales sobre las dosis necesarias y las posibilidades de desarrollo de una resistencia biologica. En mayo de 1966 se amplio el alcance de estos trabajos con la entrada en servicio de una nueva instalacion de cereales y derivados y se iniciaron estudios de aplicacion. Como parte integrante de esas investigaciones se lleva a cabo un estudio de los efectos de la irradiacion sobre la calidad del grano destinado a la alimentacion humana o utilizado como pienso, y sobre los productos derivados de los cereales. Esa irradiacion se efectua con las dosis que se precisan en la lucha contra los insectos y con las empleadas para la eliminacion de hongos. Los autores hacen un estudio critico de los resultados de las investigaciones que se realizan en este sector y evaluan las futuras necesidades en materia de investigacion. (author) [Russian] V nastojashhee vremja obrabotka zerna i semjan s pomoshh'ju obluchenija predstavljaet interes glavnym obrazom s tochki zrenija opredelenija ee jeffektivnosti v dele obespechenija kontrolja za zarazheniem jetih produktov parazitami. Rassmatrivaetsja sovremennaja literatura po jetomu voprosu i ukazyvajutsja vse eshhe sushhestvujushhie problemy v oblasti fundamental'nyh i prakticheskih znanij o sposobah obezzarazhivanija s pomoshh'ju obluchenija. Podrobno rassmatrivajutsja nauchno-issledovatel'skie programmy ministerstva sel'skogo'hozjajstva SShA, kotorye nahodjatsja v stadii vypolnenija ili planirujutsja na blizhajshee budushhee. Provodimye v nastojashhee vremja issledovanija napravleny na ustanovlenie minimal'nyh jeffektivnyh doz dlja polovoj sterilizacii i smertnosti, vlijanija okruzhajushhih faktorov na dozovye potrebnosti i vozmozhnosti dlja razvitija biologicheskoj soprotivljaemosti. V mae 1966 goda ob{sup e}m rabot budet rasshiren, tak kak budet vvedena v jekspluataciju novaja ustanovka po oblucheniju zernovyh produktov i nachnutsja prikladnye issledovanija. Sostavnoj chast'ju jetih nauchno-issledovatel'skih rabot javljaetsja izuchenie vlijanija obluchenija na kachestvo pishhi i furazha, a takzhe produktov iz hlebnyh zlakov pri dozah, obespechivajushhih kontrol' za parazitami i unichtozhenie gribkov. V dannom doklade kriticheski rassmatrivajutsja rezul'taty nauchno-issledovatel'skoj raboty v jetoj oblasti i opredeljajutsja potrebnosti v nauchnyh issledovanijah v budushhem. (author)

  4. The radiation age of meteorites; L'age des meteorites; Opredelenie vozrasta meteoritov s pomoshch'yu radiatsii; Edad de los meteoritos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, K; Schmidlin, P [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1962-01-15

    Radioisotopes produced by cosmic radiation in meteorites while travelling through space can be used to trace the history of these meteorites. The radioisotopes and the accumulated daughter-elements in the meteorite must be determined in order to evaluate how long the meteorite was exposed to cosmic radiation. (It must be assumed for this calculation that the flux of the cosmic radiation is constant with time.) Most often gaseous isotopes have been used for these measurements as they can be easily separated from the meteoric substance. In the reported work tritium and argon have been mainly used. From the ratio H{sup 3}/He{sup 3}, radiation ages from a few millions to several hundred millions of years have been found. The recent measurements made at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) agree in principle with results from other sources. The probable errors from diffusion-losses of gas and the influence of shielding in the pre-atmospheric meteorite are discussed in the paper. By taking into consideration the measured cross-section for tritium production in the elements which form the meteorite, the values of the cosmic-ray flux in outer space can be determined. (author) [French] Les radioisotopes produits par les rayonnements cosmiques dans les meteorites circulant dans l'espace peuvent servir a reconstituer l'histoire de ces corps. Il faut mesurer les radioisotopes et les produits de filiation accumules dans la meteorite pour evaluer le temps pendant lequel la meteorite a ete exposee aux rayonnements cosmiques. (On considere alors que le flux des rayonnements cosmiques ne varie pas dans le temps.) Pour ces mesures, on se fonde le plus souvent sur les isotopes gazeux parce qu'il est facile de les separer de la substance meteorique. Dans les recherches qui font l'objet du present memoire, il s'agissait surtout du tritium et de l'argon. En partant du rapport {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, on a pu evaluer des ages allant de quelques millions a plusieurs centaines de millions d'armees. Les mesures recemment effectuees au C E R N concordent en principe avec les resultats auxquels ont abouti d'autres auteurs. Le memoire traite des erreurs probables qui peuvent resulter des pertes de gaz par diffusion, et de la protection dont la meteorite beneficie dans la preatmosphere. E n tenant compte de la section efficace pour la production de tritium dans les elements qui constituent la meteorite, on peut determiner les valeurs du flux des rayons cosmiques dans l'espace extra-atmospherique. (author) [Spanish] Los radioisotopos formados por la accion de los rayos cosmicos sobre los meteoritos durante el recorrido de estos a traves del espacio pueden utilizarse para reconstruir el historial de estos cuerpos. Para evaluar el tiempo durante el cual el meteorito estuvo expuesto a los rayos cosmicos, es preciso determinar cuantitativamente los radioisotopos y los elementos descendientes que se han acumulado en el mismo. (A fin de poder efectuar el calculo, hay que suponer que el flujo de rayos cosmicos ha permanecido constante en el tiempo.) Estas mediciones se basan con frecuencia en los isotopos gaseosos, y a que estos pueden separase con facilidad del resto de la materia meteoritica. E n los trabajos objeto de este informe, se han empleado principalmente el tritio y el argon. A partir de la razon {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He se han podido calcular edades que abarcan de algunos millones a varios cientos do millones de anos. Las mediciones recientemente efectuadas en el CERN concuerdan esencialmente con los resultados obtenidos por otros investigadores. Los autores discutiran los errores probables debidos a las perdidas de gases por difusion, asi como el efecto de blindaje del meteorito en su recorrido preatmosferico. Si se tienen en cuenta los valores medidos de la seccion eficaz para la produccion de tritio a partir de los elementos de que se compone el meteorito, es posible determinar el flujo de rayos cosmicos en el espacio sideral. (author) [Russian] Radioizotopy, voznikayushchie v rezul'tate kosmicheskoj radiatsii v meteoritakh vo vremya ikh dvizheniya v kosmose, mogut byt' ispol'zovany dlya togo, chtoby prosledit' istoriyu ehtikh tel. Radioizotopy i akkumulirovannye dochernie ehlementy v meteorite dolzhny byt' opredeleny dlya vyrazheniya vremeni, v techenie kotorogo meteorit podvergalsya kosmicheskoj radiatsii. (Dlya vychisleniya neobkhodimo dopustit', chto potok radiatsii yavlyaetsya postoyannym v techenie vsego vremeni). Dlya izmereniya obyknovenno ispol'zuyutsya izotopy gazov, poskol'ku oni mogut byt' legko otdeleny ot samogo meteorita. V dannom issledovanii ispol'zovany, glavnym obrazom, tritij i argon. Po koehffitsientu radiatsii H3{sup /}He{sup 3} opredelyalsya vozrast meteorita ot neskol'kikh millionov let do neskol'kikh soten let. Poslednie izmereniya v TSERNe v printsipe soglasuyutsya s rezul'tatami drugikh issledovanij. V rabote obsuzhdayutsya voprosy vozmozhnykh otklonenij vvidu diffuzionnykh poter' gaza i vliyaniya ehkranirovki v atmosfernom meteorite. Velichina potoka kosmicheskikh luchej vo vneshnem prostranstve mozhet byt' opredelena, esli prinyat' vo vnimanie zamerennoe poperechnoe sechenie produktov tritiya v ehlementakh, kotorye obrazuyut meteorit. (author)

  5. Noel Maurer and Carlos Yu.  The Big Ditch:  How America Took, Built, Ran, and Ultimately Gave Away the Panama Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michael Gratale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1959, William Appleman Williams published The Tragedy of American Diplomacy.  It was a book that boldly set out to trace the contours of America’s imperial trajectory from the late nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century.  Williams’ approach to U.S. foreign policy put him in the vanguard of what would become New Left historical revisionism during the 1960s.  His reassessment of American history which in part involved his deployment of such concepts as imperialism and empi...

  6. Correction: Yu, Q., et al. Narrowband Bio-Indicator Monitoring of Temperate Forest Carbon Fluxes in Northeastern China. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 8986-9013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remote Sensing Editorial Office

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a technical error at the Editorial Office, Figure 8 of manuscript [1] is missing in the published paper. The correct version of the figure is reproduced below. We apologize for any inconvenience caused to authors or readers of Remote Sensing.[...

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF MEI-YU PRECIPITATION AND SVD ANALYSIS OF PRECIPITATION OVER THE YANGTZE-HUAIHE RIVERS VALLEYS AND THE SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN THE NORTHERN PACIFIC OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wen-shu; WANG Qian-qian; PENG Jun; LI Yong-hua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the precipitation data of Meiyu at 37 stations in the valleys of Yangtze and Huaihe Rivers from 1954 to 2001, the temporal-spatial characteristics of Meiyu precipitation and their relationships with the sea surface temperature in northern Pacific are investigated using such methods as harmonic analysis, empirical orthogonal function (EOF), composite analysis and singular value decomposition (SVD). The results show that the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of Meiyu precipitation are not homogeneous in the Yangtze-Huaihe Rivers basins but with prominent inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities. The key region between the anomalies of Meiyu precipitation and the monthly sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) lies in the west wind drift of North Pacific, which influences the precipitation anomaly of Meiyu precipitation over a key period of time from January to March in the same year. When the SST in the North Pacific west wind drift is warmer (colder) than average during these months, Meiyu precipitation anomalously increases (decreases) in the concurrent year. Results of SVD are consistent with those of composite analysis which pass the significance test of Monte-Carlo at 0.05.

  8. 平生足悲吒----論韓愈詩的憂憤悲懷/The Sadness of Life-Han Yu's Poetry of Grief and Sorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-chang LIN

    2012-09-01

    This paper is a study of the element of melancholy apprehension in Han Yu’s poetry. Han’s apprehension of melancholy, which up to now has received very little attention, is discussed in three aspects: (1 the fear of old age and sickness, (2 the fear of hunger and cold, and (3 the fear of death. Against the background of Han Yu’s unstable and uncertain life and career, the new reading and analysis show that melancholy lies at the very heart of his personality and writing.

  9. PRIVERZhENNOST' PROFILAKTIKE OSTEOPOROZA I VLIYaYuShchIE NA NEE FAKTORY U ZhITEL'NITs MOSKOVSKOY OBLASTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L A MARChENKOVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite high prevalence and severity of complications, osteoporosis (OP in Russia is still not recognized as a socially significant disease and there are no common standards for prevention of OP and associated fractures. The aim of the study was to investigate the adherence of healthy females to prevention measures of OP and the affecting it factors to develop the principles governing the preventive strategy of OP. Methods. The study is performed in Moscow Region (MR in a form of a questionnaire survey in the population of adult healthy women aged >20 years. The data are obtained using "Questionnaires on osteoporosis prevention" and "The test of knowledge in the field of osteoporosis" developed in Clinical Research Institution of Moscow Region named after M.F. Vladimirsky. Study comprised 1712 female aged from 20 till 87 years (median 55,0 years [45,0; 44,0] living in 16 districts and 11 cities of MR. Taking into account the quality of the filling of questionnaires, data provided by 1631 women were included in the statistical analysis. Results. It is established that 31% of female inhabitants of MR are engaged in OP prevention, using for this purpose mainly calcium-containing drugs (64,3% and increased consumption of calcium in food (59,8%. 93% of these women get preventive therapy at their own expense, spending on them on the average 200 rub a month, and preventive medication has appeared more saving than non-pharmacological preventive measures. Socially active working women at the age of 50-69 years are motivated on prevention of OP better than others. Level of the OP awareness and undertaking densitometry screening also directly influence adherence to OP prevention.

  10. Battling coal and rock dust in mines. Bor'ba s ugol'noi i porodnoi pyl'yu v shakhtakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, P.M.; Grodel, G.S.; Korenev, A.P.; Krivokhizha, B.M.; Kul' bachnyi, A.N.; Lyubimova, A.I.; Medvedev, E.N.; Yaremachenko, P.P.; Zhilyaev, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of comprehensive removal of dust from the atmosphere in mines are discussed. Physical and pnysicochemical properties of mine dust are described, which are important for estimating the processes of its formation, spread, and suppression. Presented are the results of theoretical and natural studies of dust aerodynamics of mines. Modern methods for battling coal and rock dust in mines, as well as means of monitoring the dust level of the air are outlined. Technical descriptions are given for new instruments for changing the dust level of the air. Brief reports are given on the preliminary wetting of coal in the massif, and theoretical and practical problems are discussed concerning hydrological methods of dust removal, dust suppression by foam, and dust trapping during the operation of mining equipment, and also on removal of dust from the air at the surface complex of a mine.

  11. Control of coal-dust in mines. Second edition. Bor'ba s ugol'noi i porodnoi pyl'yu v shakhtakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemrukhin, P.M.; Grodel, G.S.; Zhilyaev, N.I.; Korenev, A.P.; Krivokhizha, B.M.; Kul' bachnyi, A.N.; Lyubimoba, A.I.; Medvedev, E.N.; Yaremachenko, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    An examination is made of problems concerned with over-all removal of dust from the air in mines. A description is given of physical and physico-chemical properties of ore mine dust that are of importance to evaluating processes in the formation, propagation and suppression of dust. Results are given for theoretical and on-site studies of dust aerodynamics in mines. A presentation is made of contemporary measures for controlling coal and rock dust in mines as well as means and methods of controlling air dust-level. Technical characteristics are given for new instruments for measuring air dust level. Brief data are given on preliminary wetting of coal in a massif, and a discussion is made of theoretical and practical problems related to hydro-dedusting, dust suppression, and dust removal during the operation of mining machinery as well as instruments for dedusting air on the surface complex of a mine. The book is intended for engineering-technical personnel in coal mines, design-planning and scientific-research institutes. 52 references, 61 tables.

  12. Opyt primeneniya ingibitora angiotenzinprevrashchayushchego fermenta spiraprila u bol'nykh gipertonicheskoy bolezn'yu v sochetanii s sakharnym diabetom 2 tipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F Tushova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Цель. Оценка влияния иАПФ спираприла на плазменно-тромбоцитарный гемостаз, углеводный обмен и липидный профиль у больных ГБ, ассоциированной с СД 2. Материалы и методы. Под динамическим наблюдением находилось 33 больных СД 2 и ГБ (1-я ст. ? 2 (6,06%, 2-я ст. ? 9 (27,27%, 3-я ст. ? 22 (66,67% больных. Контрольную группу составили 35 больных гипертонической болезнью (1-я ст. ? 4 (11,43 %, 2-я ст. ? 14 (40 %, 3-я ст. ? 17 (48,57% без СД. Антропометрическое исследование включало измерение массы тела, объема талии (ОТ и бедер (ОБ, расчет ОТ/ОБ, индекса массы тела (ИМТ. Содержание глюкозы в крови определялось глюкозооксидазным методом в капиллярной крови натощак, через 1 и 2 часа в ходе стандартного перорального глюкозотолерантного теста с 75 г глюкозы. Исследовались липидный спект, экскреция альбумина, коагуляцинное звено гемостаза, тромбоцитарное звено гемостаза. Результаты. МАУ (экскреция альбумина >20 мг/л исходно диагностирована у 28 больных (84,85%. Через 4 недели лечения спираприлом у 93,94% больных отмечалось уменьшение уровня экскреции альбумина с мочой. У обследованных больных СД 2 с ГБ отмечены нарушения во всех звеньях гемостаза, но, в отличие от контрольной группы, были менее выражены нарушения спонтанной агрегации тромбоцитов. У больных СД с ГБ гиперкоагуляция наблюдалась преимущественно по внешнему пути свертывания крови. Заключение. У больных СД и ГБ повышен тромбогенный потенциал крови. В результате лечения спираприлом отмечена положительная динамика ? активация фибринолитической системы, снижение спонтанной агрегации тромбоцитов и нормализация в коагуляционном звене гемостаза. На фоне терапии спираприлом наблюдается улучшение показателей углеводного и липидного обмена. Спираприл обладает нефропротективным эффектом, что проявилось снижением уровня МАУ. Лечение спираприлом не влияло на динамику массы тела, ИМТ, отношения ОТ/ОБ.

  13. Study of effects of engine oil additives on the properties of fluorelastomers; Fusso gomu ni oyobosu engine yu tenkazai no eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurono, K; Owaki, M; Suzuki, Y; Akiyama, K; Shionoya, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Fluoroelastmers are well known for their resistance to heat and fluids and have become major material for crankcase oil sealers. On the other hand new additive formulations are developed for engine lubricants used for fuel economic gasoline engines. In this paper the effects of those additives on properties of fluoroelastmers are investigated. The results of the immersion tests of both test plaques and oil sealer products indicates that dithiocarbamates friction modifier have hardening effects on fluoroelastomers. The fluoroelastmer deterioration mechanism is presumed by analysis of elastmer samples after immersion in oil. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The Yin and Yang of SagS: Distinct Residues in the HmsP Domain of SagS Independently Regulate Biofilm Formation and Biofilm Drug Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Jozef; Poudyal, Bandita

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The formation of inherently drug-tolerant biofilms by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the sensor-regulator hybrid SagS, with ΔsagS biofilms being unstructured and exhibiting increased antimicrobial susceptibility. Recent findings indicated SagS to function as a switch to control biofilm formation and drug tolerance independently. Moreover, findings suggested the periplasmic sensory HmsP domain of SagS is likely to be the control point in the regulation of biofilm formation and biofilm cells transitioning to a drug-tolerant state. We thus asked whether specific amino acid residues present in the HmsP domain contribute to the switch function of SagS. HmsP domain residues were therefore subjected to alanine replacement mutagenesis to identify substitutions that block the sensory function(s) of SagS, which is apparent by attached cells being unable to develop mature biofilms and/or prevent transition to an antimicrobial-resistant state. Mutant analyses revealed 32 residues that only contribute to blocking one sensory function. Moreover, amino acid residues affecting attachment and subsequent biofilm formation but not biofilm tolerance also impaired histidine kinase signaling via BfiS. In contrast, residues affecting biofilm drug tolerance but not attachment and subsequent biofilm formation negatively impacted BrlR transcription factor levels. Structure prediction suggested the two sets of residues affecting sensory functions are located in distinct areas that were previously described as being involved in ligand binding interactions. Taken together, these studies identify the molecular basis for the dual regulatory function of SagS. IMPORTANCE The membrane-bound sensory protein SagS plays a pivotal role in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and biofilm cells gaining their heightened resistance to antimicrobial agents, with SagS being the control point at which both pathways diverge. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the two distinct pathways leading to biofilm formation and biofilm drug tolerance are under the control of two sets of amino acid residues located within the HmsP sensory domain of SagS. The respective amino acids are likely part of ligand binding interaction sites. Thus, our findings have the potential not only to enable the manipulation of SagS function but also to enable research of biofilm drug tolerance in a manner independent of biofilm formation (and vice versa). Moreover, the manipulation of SagS function represents a promising target/avenue open for biofilm control. PMID:29848761

  15. The Yin and Yang of Invariant Natural Killer T Cells in Tumor Immunity—Suppression of Tumor Immunity in the Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are known as early responding, potent regulatory cells of immune responses. Besides their established role in the regulation of inflammation and autoimmune disease, numerous studies have shown that iNKT cells have important functions in tumor immunosurveillance and control of tumor metastasis. Tumor-infiltrating T helper 1 (TH1/cytotoxic T lymphocytes have been associated with a positive prognosis. However, inflammation has a dual role in cancer and chronic inflammation is believed to be a driving force in many cancers as exemplified in patients with inflammatory bowel disease that have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Indeed, NKT cells promote intestinal inflammation in human ulcerative colitis, and the associated animal model, indicating that NKT cells may favor tumor development in intestinal tissue. In contrast to other cancers, recent data from animal models suggest that iNKT cells promote tumor formation in the intestine by supporting an immunoregulatory tumor microenvironment and suppressing TH1 antitumor immunity. Here, we review the role of iNKT cells in suppression of tumor immunity in light of iNKT-cell regulation of intestinal inflammation. We also discuss suppression of immunity in other situations as well as factors that may influence whether iNKT cells have a protective or an immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting role in tumor immunity.

  16. We Know the Yin-But Where Is the Yang? Toward a Balanced Approach on Common Source Bias in Public Administration Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Bert; Pandey, Sanjay K

    2017-06-01

    Surveys have long been a dominant instrument for data collection in public administration. However, it has become widely accepted in the last decade that the usage of a self-reported instrument to measure both the independent and dependent variables results in common source bias (CSB). In turn, CSB is argued to inflate correlations between variables, resulting in biased findings. Subsequently, a narrow blinkered approach on the usage of surveys as single data source has emerged. In this article, we argue that this approach has resulted in an unbalanced perspective on CSB. We argue that claims on CSB are exaggerated, draw upon selective evidence, and project what should be tentative inferences as certainty over large domains of inquiry. We also discuss the perceptual nature of some variables and measurement validity concerns in using archival data. In conclusion, we present a flowchart that public administration scholars can use to analyze CSB concerns.

  17. Promoter-region hypermethylation and expression downregulation of Yy1 (Yin yang 1) in preneoplastic liver lesions in a thioacetamide rat hepatocarcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hajime; Ogawa, Takashi; Wang, Liyun; Kimura, Masayuki; Tanaka, Takeshi; Morita, Reiko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Thioacetamide (TAA) has been used to develop a rodent model for hepatocarcinogenesis. To determine the genes with epigenetic modifications in early hepatocarcinogenesis, we did a genome-wide scan for hypermethylated promoter regions using CpG island microarrays in TAA-promoted rat liver tissue. Eight genes were selected based on the microarray profile; of these, Yy1 and Wdr45b were confirmed to be hypermethylated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing and downregulated by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Non-neoplastic liver cells had nuclear Yy1 immunoreactivity, while preneoplastic foci with glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) immunoreactivity had decreased Yy1 immunoreactivity. The incidence of these foci was proportional to the dose of TAA administered. Co-expression analysis of gene products downstream of Yy1 revealed increased nuclear phospho-c-Myc + foci as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic p21 Cip1+ foci in Yy1 − or GST-P + foci in response to TAA-promotion dose. Although the absolute number of cells was low, the incidence of death receptor 5 − foci was increased in Yy1 − foci in proportion to the TAA dose. Yy1 − /GST-P + foci revealed a higher number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells than Yy1 + /GST-P + foci, while cleaved caspase-3 + cells were unchanged between Yy1 – /GST-P + and Yy1 + /GST-P + foci. In the case of Wdr45b, most GST-P + foci were Wdr45b – and were not increased by TAA promotion. These results suggest involvement of Yy1 in the epigenetic gene regulation at the early stages of TAA promoted cell proliferation and concomitant cell cycle arrest in preneoplastic lesions. - Highlights: • Epigenetically downregulated genes were searched in TAA-promnoted rat livers. • Yy1 and Wdr45b showed promoter-region hypermethylation and mRNA downregulation. • TAA promoted increase of preneoplastic Yy1 – /GST-P + foci showing high proliferation. • TAA promoted activation of c-Myc or p21 Cip1 within Yy1 − /GST-P + foci. • Epigenetic Yy1 downregulation plays a role in rat liver tumor promotion by TAA

  18. 论唐寅性格的女性化特征及成因%On TangYin's Feminized Personality and the Cause of Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富鹏

    2006-01-01

    唐寅在其作品中,尤其是在他的散曲中常常自比女性,并常常以弃妇的形象出现.这些作品很明显地标示出了他人格的女性化特点.这些作品中的夫弃之怨,实质上是作者被抛出政治轨道的政治悲情.

  19. Further studies on the Pselaphodes complex of genera from China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Hlaváč, Peter; Li, Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    New data on the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini) from China is presented. The generic limits of Labomimus Sharp and Pselaphodes Westwood are discussed and expanded. A revised key to the genera of the Pselaphodes complex is provided. New geographic evidence suggests that previously believed wide-spread species Pselaphodes tianmuensis Yin, Li & Zhao contains a number of related species, resulting in a division of the species to nine separate taxa. Fourteen new species belonging to three genera are diagnosed, described and illustrated: Dayao emeiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Labomimus fimbriatus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus jizuensis Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus simplicipalpus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes anhuianus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Anhui), Pselaphodes daii Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes grebennikovi Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan), Pselaphodes hainanensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Hainan), Pselaphodes kuankuoshuiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Guizhou), Pselaphodes longilobus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Hunbei, Yunnan), Pselaphodes monoceros Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Xizang), Pselaphodes pengi Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes tiantongensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Zhejiang) and Pselaphodes wrasei Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan). Labomimus sichuanicus Hlaváč, Nomura & Zhou (Sichuan) is redescribed and illustrated based on a paratype and the material from the type locality. Two recently described species, Pselaphodes tibialis Yin & Li (Yunnan), and Pselaphodes venustus Yin & Li (Yunnan), are transferred to Labomimus (comb. n.) due to the presence of a median metaventral fovea. New locality data is provided for Pselaphodes aculeus Yin, Li & Zhao (Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Pselaphodes maoershanus Yin & Li (Guangxi, Guizhou), Pselaphodes tianmuensis (Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi) and Pselaphodes pectinatus Yin, Li & Zhao (Hainan), with the aedeagus newly illustrated for the latter species.

  20. 真實性與主體性的追求:本土主義和多元文化主義影響下的臺灣原住民儀式展演 (Zhenshixing yu zhutixing de zhuiqiu: bentu zhuyi yu duoyuan wenhua zhuyi yingxiang xia de Taiwan yuanzhumin yishi zhanyan)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Michael

    2017-01-01

    展演理論的擁護者強調展演對於社會組織和權威的模式存在建設性和變革性的潛在影響。對於他們來說,「儀式不僅意味深長,且具有實際用途,尤其在建構與題寫權力關系方面」(Bell 1997)。本篇論文側重於儀式展演在台灣後殖民意識形成中的角色, 以及在政治權力和社會權威認證(authentication)中的主要作用。自從20世紀90年代中期,原住民的展演開始在島內盛行,政府為了試圖宣揚台灣的本土和多元化文化取向,紛紛慷慨資助,原住民菁英們不僅公開崇拜先祖神靈,在所謂 「復振」的公共儀式中還使用動物祭祀,並在這種場合,向過去的漢族殖民者彰顯原住民的原生力。然而,在許多情況下,這些被復振的儀式與原住...

  1. Selective Neoplasm Localization with Mercury-197 Neohydrin; Localisation Selective de Neoplasmes a l'aide de la Neohydrine Marquee avec {sup 197}hg; Obnaruzhenie opukholej s pomoshch'yu neogidrina, mechennogo rtut'yu-197; Localizacion Selectiva de Neoplasmas con Neohidrina - {sup 197}hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodee, D. B. [Doctors Hospital and Renner Clinic Foundation, Cleveland Heights, OH (United States)

    1964-10-15

    Hg{sup 197} a low-energy X- and gamma- ray emitter (2.7-d half-life, 69-keV conversion X-rays, 77-keV gamma-rays) was tested as a scanning agent in a large series of patients. Five hundred patients suspected of neuro-surgical disease were scanned with Hg{sup 197}-Neohydrin. Utilizing photoscanning techniques that brought out vascular lesions as well as tumours, this procedure had a 96% correlation with the final diagnostic evaluation. This screening procedure was done before all other diagnostic tests. As an outgrowth of this brain-scanning procedure, we have found localization of Hg{sup 197}-Neohydrin in lymphomas as well as in carcinomas. There seems to be selective deposition of the radioactive substance intercellularly. Areas of increased uptake of radioactivity can easily be delineated with standard commercial scanners. Hg{sup 197}-Neohydrin was also found to be useful as a screening agent in thc differentiation of eye tumours in a series of 88 patients and recently this low-energy radiopharmaceutical was found to concentrate in naso- pharangeal tumours which could then be delineated by photoscanning. The diagnostic dose of Hg{sup 197}-Neohydrin for brain scanning delivers a radiation dose of 3 rad to the kidneys as compared to the 70 rad delivered to the kidneys by that of Hg{sup 203}-Neohydrin. The high counting efficiency and ease of collimation of Hg{sup 197} make this isotope far better for scanning purposes than all other standard diagnostic scanning agents. (author) [French] Le mercure-197, emetteur de rayons X et de rayons gamma de faible energie (periode de 65 h, rayons X de 69 keV, rayons gamma de 77 keV), a ete essaye comme agent d'exploration scintigraphique sur un grand nombre de patients. On a utilise la neohydrine marquee avec {sup 197}Hg pour la scintigraphie de 500 cas de neurochirurgie. Par des procedes de photoscintigraphie qui permettaient la visualisation des lesions vasculaires aussi bien que celle de tumeurs, on a obtenu des resultats confirmes dans 96% des cas par le diagnostic final. La scintigraphie etait toujours faite avant tous les autres tests. L'application de cette methode de scintigraphie du cerveau a permis, en outre, de constater que la neohydrine marquee avec {sup 197}Hg etait localisee aussi bien dans les lymphomes que dans les carcinomes. Il semble y avoir depot selectif de la substance radioactive au niveau intercellulaire. Les zones de fixation accrue de la radioactivite peuvent etre aisement delimitees avec des agents scintigraphiques courants. Des essais sur 88 patients on montre que la neohydrine marquee avec {sup 197}Hg etait egalement utile comme agent de detection pour differencier les tumeurs des yeux; enfin, on a constate tout recemment qu'elle se concentrait dans les tumeurs rhino-pharyngiennes, que l'on pouvait alors delimiter par photoscintigraphie. La quantite de neohydrine marquee avec {sup 197}Hg necessaire a une scintigraphie du cerveau delivre au reins une dose de 3 rad, contre 70 rad pour la neohydrine marquee avec {sup 203}Hg, Du fait de la grande efficacite de comptage et de la facilite de collimation, {sup 197}Hg convient mieux que tous les autres agents classiques de diagnostic par scintigraphie. (author) [Spanish] El autor ensayo como agente de exploracion el {sup 197}Hg, emisor de rayosX y gamma de baja energia (periodo: 2,7 d; rayos X de conversion: 69keV; rayos gamma: 77keV). Quinientos pacientes, que presentaban sintomas de afecciones neuroquirurgicas, fueron examinados mediante neohidrina-{sup 197}Hg. Aplicando tecnicas de fotoexploracion que revelan tanto las lesiones vasculares como los tumores, se comprobo que entre los resultados asi obtenidos y el diagnostico definitivo habla una correlacion del 96%. Ese procedimiento de examen se aplico antes de proceder a las demas pruebas diagnosticas Como resultado de la aplicacion de ese procedimiento de exploracion del cerebro, el autor descubrio localizaciones de neohidrina-{sup 197}Hg en linfomas y carcinomas. Al parecer, la sustancia radiactiva tiende a depositarse selectivamente en regiones intercelulares. Con los aparatos de exploracion de. tipo comercial se pueden delinear facilmente las zonas de mayor absorcion de radiactividad. Tambien se comprobo la utilidad de la neohidrina-{sup 197}Hg para la diferenciacion de tumores oculares en una serie de 88 pacientes - recientemente se ha observado que este compuesto radiofarmaceutico de baja energia se concentra en los tumores nasofaringeos que luego pueden delinearse por fotoexploracion. La dosis diagnostica de neohidrina-{sup 197}Hg administrada para la exploracion del cerebro entrafla la absorcion de 3 rad por el riflon; la de neohidrina-{sup 203}Hg entrafla la absorcion de 70 rad por este ultimo organo. El elevado rendimiento de recuento del {sup 197}Hg y la facilidad con que se coliman las radiaciones que emite, hacen que este isotopo resulte mucho mas util para la exploracion gammagra-fica que cualquier otro de los agentes habitualmente empleados. (author) [Russian] RtuT'-197-izluchatel' rentgenovskih i gamma-luchej maloj jenergii (period poluraspada 2,7 dnja, konversionnoe rentgenovskoe izluchenie moshhnost'ju 69 kjev, gamma-izluchenie 77 kjev) byl oprobovan v kachestve skennirujushego sredstva v bol'shogo kolichestva bol'nyh. U 500 bol'nyh s predpolagaemymi nervohirurgicheskimi zabolevanijami proizvedeno skennirovanie po izlucheniju neogidrina, mechennogo Hg{sup 197}. S pomoshh'ju metoda fotOskennirovanija udalos' vyjavit' porazhenie sosudov i opuholi, prichem jeta metodika v 96% obespechivala korreljaciju s okonchatel'nym diagnozom. Jeta metodika rentgenologicheskogo issledovanija predshestvovala vsem drugim vidam diagnosticheskogo obsledovanija. S pomoshh'ju metoda skennirovanija golovnogo mozga avtory obnaruzhili lokalizaciju Neogidrina-Hg{sup 197} kak v limfomah, tak i v karcinomah. Po-vidimomu, imeet mesto mezhkletochnoe selektivnoe otlozhenie radioaktivnogo veshhestva. Uchastki usilennogo pogloshhenija radioaktivnosti mozhno legko opredelit' s pomoshh'ju standartnyh imejushhihsja v prodazhe skennirujushhih ustrojstv. Neogidrin, mechennyj Hg{sup 197}, okazalsja prigodnym sredstvom dlja radiologicheskogo issledovanija pri ustanovlenii differencial'nogo diagnoza glaznyh opuholej u 88 bol'nyh. Nedavno bylo obnaruzheno, chto jetot radiofarmacevticheskij preparat s mjagkim izlucheniem koncentriruetsja v opuholjah nosoglotki, kontur kotoryh mozhno zatem opredelit' s pomoshh'ju fotoskennirovanija. Diagnosticheskaja doza neogidrina - Hg{sup 197} dlja skennirovanija golovnogo mozga sozdaet dozu obluchenija pochek, ravnuju 3 rad, v to vremja kak diagnosticheskaja doza neogidrina -Hg{sup 203} sozdaet dozu obluchenija v 70 rad. Blagodarja vysokoj jeffektivnosti scheta i legkosti kollimacii Hg{sup 197}, jetot izotop v gorazdo bol'shej stepeni otvechaet celjam skennirovanija, chem vse drugie standartnye sredstva diagnosticheskogo skennirovanija. (author)

  2. Renal Scintiscanning with Hg{sup 209}-Neohydrin in Urologic Diseases; Scintigraphy du Rein dans les Maladies des Voies Urin Aires au Moyen de Neohydrine Marquee avec {sup 203}Hg; Stsintillyatsionnoe skennirovanie pochek s pomoshch'yu neogidrina,mechennogo Rtut'yu-203, pri urologicheskikh zabolevaniyakh; Exploracion Centelleografica del Rinon con Neohydrina - {sup 203}hg en las Afecciones Urologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollini, V.; Tori, G. [Radiology Institute of the University of Bologna (Italy)

    1964-10-15

    Renal scintiscanning has been carried out using Hg{sup 203} - labelled Neohydrin. The equipment used is the Nuclear Chicago Isotope Scanner Type 1700 with 2 x 2 - i n crystal and a 7 - cm focal-length honeycomb collimator. Usually the scintigrams are registered both on paper and on photographic film. Hg{sup 203} - labelled Neohydrin is usually employed in doses of 120 - 160 {mu}c (about 2 {mu}c/kg). The scanning examination starts about 2 h after the injection and lasts about 40-50 min. The selective storage of labelled Neohydrin at the level of the renal cortex makes it possible to obtain a graphic representation of the two kidneys and to identify their position, orientation and shape, and the homogeneity of the actively functioning parenchyma. In some cases, autoradiographic investigations have been carried out on diseased kidneys after surgical removal. By this method anomalies in position and orientation, both congenital and acquired, can be ascertained. As regards shape, the limits of the renal patterns are the mote clearly defined as the renal function is better. Technical aspects such as the width of the crystal, type of collimator (whose focal plane should pass through the transverse medial plane of the kidneys), and dose - which should be not too high not too low - are essential conditions for a correct graphic reproduction of the renal patterns. Failure in tabular activity in the parenchyma is shown by a lack in the uptake of radioactivity. The position, extent and shape of such defects in uptake vary according to the entity of the renal structures and their derangement due to various pathological processes: tumours, cysts, hydronephrosis, tuberculosis etc. In normal subjects a homogeneous scintigram is usual, although a clearer hilar region is not a rare occurrence. Any circumscribed decrease of scintigraphic density outside the hilum is the expression of a less actively functioning zone. Among kidney patterns larger than normal, the homogeneous ones which point to a compensatory hypertrophy should be distinguished from the dishomogeneous and irregular ones. These last pictures suggest the presence of large hydronephroses, tumours or multiple cysts. In renal vascular disease, the character of the uptake in the two kidneys can be of significant value in assessing the reduced function and in differentiating unilateral from bilateral diseases. Renal scintiscanning thus shows promise of proving a useful clinical technique, particularly if combined with radiological examination of the kidneys by traditional means (urography, ascending pyelography, retropneumoperitoneum, tomography, aortography, etc.). (author) [French] Les auteurs ont procede a des scintigraphies du rein au moyen de neohydrine marquee avec {sup 203}Hg. Ils ont utilise le dispositif de scintigraphie 'NuclearChicago', type 1700, a cristal de 5 x 5 cm et collimateur alveolaire de 7 cm de distance focale. En general, les scintigrammes sont enregistres a la fois sur papier et sur film photographique; la neohydrine marquee avec {sup 203}Hg est administree en doses de 120 a 160 {mu}c (environ 2 {mu}c/kg). L'examen scintigraphique commence deux heures environ apres l'injection et dure de 40 a 50 min. Le fait que la neohydrine marquee se fixe selectivement au niveau du cortex renal permet d'obtenir une representation graphique des deux reins et de determiner leur position, leur orientation et leur forme, ainsi que le degre d'homogeneite du parenchyme normal. Dans certains cas, des examens autobiographiques ont ete effectues sur des reins malades, apres ablation. Cette methode permet de determiner les anomalies, congenitales ou acquises, dans la position et l'orientation des reins. En ce qui concerne la forme de l'organe, les contours de l'image du rein sont d'autant plus nets que la fonction renale est meilleure. Des caracteristiques techniques telles que la largeur du cristal, le type.de collimateur (dont le plan focal doit couper le plan median transversal des reins) et la dose (qui ne doit etre ni trop elevee ni trop faible) representent les conditions determinantes d'une reproduction graphique correcte de la structure renale. Une mauvaise fixation de la radioactivite denote une insuffisance de l'activite tubulaire dans le parenchyme. La position, l'etendue.et la forme des zones de mauvaise fixation varient suivant le degre d'integrite des structures renales et leur alteration sous l'effet de divers processus pathologiques: tumeurs, kystes, hydro- nephrose, tuberculose, etc. Chez des sujets normaux, le scintigramme est generalement homogene, bien qu'il ne soit pas rare d'observer une plus faible densite dans la region du hile. Toute tache plus claire en dehors du hile indique une zone ou la fonction renale n'est pas normale. Parmi les images du rein plus grandes que la normale, il convient d'etablir une distinction entre les images homogenes, qui denotent une hypertrophie compensatoire, et les images non homogenes et irregulieres. Ces dernieres semblent indiquer une forte uronephrose ou la presence de tumeurs ou de kystes multiples. Dans les affections reno-vasculaires, le caractere de la fixation de la radioactivite dans les deux reins peut beaucoup aider a evaluer la diminution de la fonction renale et a etablir si un seul rein ou les deux sont atteints. On peut donc s'attendre que la scintigraphie du rein constituera une methode interessante d'exploration clinique, surtout en association avec l'examen radiologique des reins par les methodes classiques (urographie, pyeiographie ascendante, retropneumoperitoine, tomo- graphie, aortographie, etc.). (author) [Spanish] Los autores han efectuado exploraciones centelleograficas del rinón empleando neohidrina marcada con {sup 203}Hg. Para ello, utilizaron el Nuclear Chicago Isotope Scanner, tipo 1100, con un cristal de 2 x 2 pulg y un colimador alveolar de 7 cm de distancia focal. Los centelleogramas se registran generalmente simultaneamente en papel y pelicula fotografica. La neohidrina marcada con {sup 203}Hg suele administrarse en dosis de 120 a 160 {mu}c (aproximadamente 2 {mu}/kg). La exploracion se empieza unas dos horas despues de la inyeccion y dura de 40 a 50 min. La concentracion selectiva de la neohidrina marcada en la corteza renal permite obtener una representacion grafica de ambos rinones, comprobar su posicion, orientacion y forma, y verificar la homogeneidad del parenquima en actividad. En algunos casos se han efectuado investigaciones autorradiograficas en rifiones despues de extirparlos quirurgicamente. Gracias a ese metodo se pueden determinar anomalias, congenitas o adquiridas, en la posicion y la orientacion. Por lo que respecta a la forma, los limites del diagrama quedan mas claramente definidos cuanto mejor es la funcion renal. Ciertas condiciones tecnicas tales como la anchura del cristal, el tipo de colimador (cuyo plano focal debe cortar el plano transversal mediano de los rinones) y la dosis (que no debe ser ni excesiva ni demasiado baja) son esenciales para obtener un centelleograma correcto. Las deficiencias en la actividad tubular del parenquima dificultan la captacion de radioactividad. La situacion, la extension y la forma de esos defectos de la captacion varian en funcion de las estructuras renales y segun los procesos patologicos que los determinan: tumores, quistes, hidronefrosis, tuberculosis, etc. Para las personas sanas se obtienen centelleogramas homogeneos, aunque no es raro que la region hilar aparezca mas clara. Cualquier disminucion circunscrita de la densidad centelleografica fuera del hilio indica una zcna de actividad atenuada. Cuando los rinones aparecen dilatados hay que distinguir entre los homogeneos, que indican una hipertrofia compensatoria, y los no homogeneos e irregulares. Estos ultimos sugieren la presencia de hidronefrosis extensas, de tumores o de quistes multiples. Cuando se trata de enfermedades vasculares, el caracter de la captacion en ambos rinones puede contribuir considerablemente a determinar una disminucion de la funcion renal y a diferenciar los casos unilaterales de los bilaterales. Asi, la centelleografia del rinon constituye al parecer una tecnica clinica de gran utilidad, especialmente si se combina con el examen radiologico por medios tradicionales (urogtafia, pielografia ascendente, retroneumoperitoneo, tomografia, aorto- grafia, etc.). (author) [Russian] Dlja scintilljacionnogo skenirovanija pochek ispol'zovalsja neogidrin, mechennyj rtut'ju-203. Byl primenen jaderncj Chikagskij izotopnyj skenner tipa 1700 s kristallom 5 h 5 sm i kollimator ''Hanikoum'' s fokusnym rasstojaniem 7 sm. Obychno scintigrammy registrirujutsja odnovremenno na bumage i na fotoplenke. Neogidrin, mechennyj rtut'ju-203, primenjaetsja obychno v dozah 120 - 160 mkkjuri (okolo 2 mkkjuri/kg). Skennirovanie nachinajut spustja 2 chasa posle in{sup e}kcii i prodolzhajut 40 - 50 minut. Selektivnoe skoplenie mechenogo neogidrina v korkovom sloe pochek daet vozmozhnost' poluchit' graficheskoe izobrazhenie obeih pochek i opredelit' ih polozhenie, orientaciju i formu, a takzhe gomogennost' aktivno funkcionirujushhej parenhimy. V nekotoryh sluchajah byli provedeny avtoradiograficheskie issledovanija porazhennyh pochek posle hirurgicheskogo udalenija. S pomoshh'ju takogo metoda mozhno diagnoscirovat' kak vrozhdennye, tak i priobretennye anomalii polozhenija i orientacii. Chto kasaetsja formy, to granicy pochek mozhno opredelit' tem tochnee, chem luchshe funkcioniruet pochka. Takie tehnicheskie aspekty, kak shirina kristalla, tip kollimatora (fokal'naja ploskost' kotorogo dolzhna prohodit' cherez srednjuju poperechnuju ploskost' pochek) i doza, kotoraja ne dolzhna byt' slishkom vysokoj ili slishkom maloj, sostavljajut sushhestvennoe uslovie dlja pravil'nogo graficheskogo vosproizvedenija ochertanij pochek. Narushenie dejatel'nosti kanal'cev v parenhime opredeljaetsja blagodarja narusheniju pogloshhenija radioaktivnosti. Polozhenie, razmery i forma takih defektov pogloshhenija kolebljutsja v sootvetstvii s harakterom pochechnoj struktury i ee narushenij vsledstvie razlichnyh patologicheskih processov: opuholej, kist, gidronefroza, tuberkuleza i t.d. U zdorovyh ljudej obychno poluchajut odnorodnye scintigrammy, hotja poluchenie bolee chetkoj oblasti vorot organa ne javljaetsja redkim sluchaem. Kakoe-libo ogranichennoe umen'shenie scintigraficheskoj plotnosti vne vorot predstavljaet soboj funkcionirujushhuju menee aktivno zonu. Pri bolee krupnyh razmerah pochek, po sravneniju s normal'nymi, sleduet otlichat' odnorodnye skennogrammy, kotorye ukazyvajut na kompensatornuju gipertrofiju, neodnorodnyh i imejushhih nepravil'nuju formu. Izobrazhenija jetih poslednih ukazyvajut na nalichie krupnyh uchastkov gidronefroza, opuholej ili mnozhestvennyh kist. Pri pochechnyh sosudistyh zabolevanijah opredelenie haraktera pogloshhenija v obeih pochkah predstavljaet bol'shuju cennost' dlja ocenki snizhenija ih funkcii i dlja razgranichenija odnostoronnih i dvustoronnih porazhenij. Takim obrazom, scintilljacionnoe skennirovanie pochek obeshhaet dat' poleznye klinicheskie metody, osobenno v sochetanii s radiologicheskim issledovaniem pochek tradicionnymi sredstvami (urografija, voshodjashhaja pijelografija, retropnevmoperitoneum, tomografija, aorto- grafija it.d,),. (author)

  3. The Living Goddess of Mercy at the Rape of Nanking: Minnie Vautrin and the Ginling Refugee Camp in World War II (1937–1938 †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ping Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the infamous Nanking Atrocity, some Western businesspersons and missionaries established the Nanking Safety Zone to protect about 250,000 refugees. When the Japanese army was pressing on Nanking, Minnie Vautrin, an educational missionary from the United Christian Missionary Society, took charge of the Ginling College campus. As one of the 25 refugee camps, Ginling provided shelter to about 10,000 women and children in late December 1937—the hardest time during World War II in China. With her neutral identity of American nationality, Vautrin seriously struggled with Japanese soldiers when they were seizing Chinese women for rape from the campus; thus, she helped many women avoid the possible fate of sexual violence and slaughter. The Chinese people promoted her as a “Goddess of Mercy”, in the Chinese language a “Living Buddha” (Huo pu sa or “Guanyin Buddha” (Guan Yin pu sa. The Chinese central government awarded her the Order of Jade (Cai Yu xun zhang. Drawing from Vautrin’s diaries and other original materials, this paper narrates this Christian female missionary’s moving story in humanism, evangelism, and internationalism. Her devotion to the Chinese refugee women and children made her an eyewitness to the Nanking Massacre, a rehabilitator of refugee sufferings, and a mental and bodily victim of disastrous war.

  4. Unusual delayed presentation of diaphragmatic hernia complicated by transverse colon and total small-bowel obstruction after postoperative chemotherapy of esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yanlai Sun,1,2,* Lei Yin,2,* Hongfan Xue,2 Haipeng Wang,2 Zengjun Li,2 Jinming Yu3 1Post-doctoral Research Station, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgery, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors equally contributed to this work Abstract: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH is defined as the passage of abdominal contents into the chest cavity through a defect in the diaphragm. DH occurs after chest or abdominal surgery, and is very rare and sporadically reported in the literature. However, the complications are significant and put the patient at great risk. The aim of the present report was to describe a special case with postesophagectomy diaphragmatic hernia (PDH because of its appearance during chemotherapy and confusion of the symptoms with the side effects of chemotherapy. A high index of suspicion needs to be maintained in clinical practice. Keywords: diaphragmatic hernia, postoperative chemotherapy, esophageal cancer, complications

  5. NOT CARELESS BUT WEAK: LANGUAGE MIXING OF MALAYSIAN CHINESE IN A BUSINESS TRANSACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Ching Hei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is an inevitable tool for business transactions and regardless of nationality, ethnicity, gender, religion, age and social class, interlocutors depend on it to conduct their daily dealings. In multilingual and multicultural Malaysia, it is not uncommon to hear a business transaction being conducted in various languages depending on who the participants are and what the context involves. This study focussed on the phenomenon of language (code mixing within a business transaction that involved four Malaysians of Chinese descent. The study aimed to detect at what level language mixing occurred and what their functions would be. Data were video recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Mandarin utterances were documented in Chinese and Han Yu Pin Yin and provided with translations. Utterances containing a mixture of languages were then extracted for analysis. Findings suggest that language mixing occurred at the word, phrase, sentential and tag level. Language mixing was applied as a strategy to sustain the conversation mainly because of the interlocutors’ weak proficiency in specific languages. It was also employed for various functions such as for distancing or narrowing the social status, making emphasis and projecting a higher personal identity. A follow up interview is required in order to verify the extent of the participants’ low or high proficiency level in the various languages used in this context.

  6. Photodissociation of Small Molecules and Photoionization of Free Radicals Using the VUV Velocity-Map Imaging Photoion and Photoelectron Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong

    (2012). (Chapter 2) 2. Hong Gao, Yu Song, Lei Yang, Xiaoyu Shi, Qing-Zhu Yin, C. Y. Ng and William M. Jackson. "Branching ratio measurements of the predissociation of 12C16O by time-slice velocity-map ion imaging in the energy region from 108,000 to 110,500 cm-1", the Journal of Chemical Physics, 137, 034305 (2012). (Chapter 3) 3. Hong Gao, Yu Song, Yih-Chung Chang, Xiaoyu Shi, Qing-Zhu Yin, Roger C. Wiens, William M. Jackson, C. Y. Ng, "Branching Ratio Measurements for Vacuum Ultraviolet Photodissociation of 12C16O", the Journal of Physical Chemistry A. (article online ASAP). (Chapter 4) 4. Hong Gao, Yu Song, C. Y. Ng, William M. Jackson, " Communication: State-to-state photodissociation study by the two-color VUV-VUV laser pump-probe time-slice velocity-map-imaging-photoion method", the Journal of Chemical Physics, 138, 191102(2013). (Chapter 5) 5. Hong Gao, Zhou Lu, Lei Yang, Jingang Zhou, C. Y. Ng, "Communication: A vibrational study of propargyl cation using the vacuum ultraviolet laser velocity-map imaging photoelectron method", the Journal of Chemical Physics, 137, 161101(2012). (Chapter 6)

  7. Different-ligand boron complexes with gluconate-ions and pentaerythritol and gluconatoborates with B-O-B bridge bond. Raznoligandnye kompleksy bora s glyukonat-ionami i pentaehritritom i glyukonatoboraty s mostikovoj V-O-V svyaz'yu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tel' zhenskaya, P N; Shvarts, E M; Vitola, I M [AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga (USSR). Inst. Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1990-01-01

    Borogluconates differing in structure of the complex dimeric borogluconate ion from the described earlier have been synthesized. The results of physicochemical measurements (chemical and thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, titration according to Fisher, conductometry) allowed to propose formulas for the studied compounds.

  8. 胡阿祥:《东晋南朝侨州郡县与侨流人口研究》%Axiang Hu, Dongjin Nanchao Qiao zhoujunxian yu qiaoliu renkou yanjiu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥军

    2010-01-01

    @@ The epoch of the Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern dynasties was perhaps the most chaotic and complicated era in Chinese history, in terms of regime instability. Except for a short period of unification under the Western Jin, this era was marked by continuous division and confrontation. Accordingly, professional historians and amateur history lovers alike prefer to examine the unified and the powerful Han and Tang dynasties and are often unwilling to deal with this discordant and tumultuous time.However,the furious conflicts of this era actually promoted ethnic amalgamations,territorial exploits,cultural transmission and intellectual communication,therefore,an in-depth study of this period is not only worthwhile,but necessary.

  9. Potential denitrification rates of subsurface soil under paddy fields receiving ground water with high nitrate concentration; Konodo shosantai chisso gan`yu chikasui no ryunyusuru suiden kasodo ni okeru dacchitsu kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, H [Shizuoka Agricultural Experiment Station, Shizuoka (Japan); Hidaka, S [Saitama Agricultural Experiment Station, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-02-10

    It is well known that the concentration of nitrate nitrogen in the surface water decreases as it flows downward in rice paddies irrigated with water high in nitrate nitrogen concentration. The decrease is attributed to absorption by rice plants and algae adherent thereto and denitrification in the reduction layer well developed in the rice paddy surface soil. In paddy fields downstream of the Kushibiki plateau in the northwestern part of Saitama Prefecture, it is occasionally observed that nitrate nitrogen concentration in the ground water decreases as it flows down (farther from the plateau) not only in the flooded period but also in the non-flooded period. This suggests that in the said paddy field denitrification takes place not only in the rice paddy surface layer soil but also in the lower layer soil. Under the circumstances, the denitrification rate in the rice paddy lower layer soil was measured using the acetylene inhibition method under anaerobic and added nitrate conditions. A denitrification rate of 0.4-46ngN/g{sup -1} wet soil/h{sup -1} was obtained from a 40-150cm deep layer soil, smaller by the order of 1-2 than that in the surface layer soil. This suggests that the lower layer soil contributes to denitrification. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Pancreas Scanning with Se{sup 75}-Selenomethionine; Scintigraphie du Pancreas avec de la Selenomethionine Marquee au Selenium-75; Skennirovanie podzheludochnoj zhelezy s pomoshch'yu selenometionina, mechennogo Selenom-75; Exploracion del Pancreas con Selenometionina-{sup 75}Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1964-10-15

    Amino-acids show a high degree of localization in the pancreas during the first few hours after administration. This specificity is related to the rapid synthesis and turnover of the digestive enzymes. Since none of the elements in the structure of amino-acids (C,H, N,0 and S) have suitable gamma-emitting isotopes, they cannot be used for scanning. Several I{sup 131} derivatives of amino-acids were prepared and tested, but the pancreas-localizing property of the original amino-acid was lost in every case. The chemical similarity of selenium and sulphur suggested that the selenium analogue of methionine might resemble methionine closely enough to take its place in protein synthesis. Se{sup 75} (halflife, 128 d; principal gamma-ray, 0.27 MeV) is suitable for scanning. Selenium-75-selenomethionine was prepared by yeast biosynthesis. The yeast was grown on a low sulphur medium containing high specific activity Se{sup 75} as selenite. After extraction with ether and hot trichloracetic acid, the protein residue was hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid The resulting amino-acid mixture was separated by column chromatography. Selenium-75-selenomethionine prepared in this manner showed biological properties of a natural aminoacid. The uptake in pancreas was about 7% of the administered dose and the concentration in a gramme of pancreas was seven times that in a gramme of liver. Blood and other organs had even lower uptakes. The clinical usefulness of pancreas scanning is now being evaluated. Tumours of the pancreas have been found as areas of decreased uptake. There is no concentration of selenomethionine in cases of acute pancreatitis. It is too early to give a statistical estimate of our ability to find tumours of the pancreas by this technique. The estimated total body dose from this procedure is less than 1 rad. The selenium dose is only a. few microgrammes and represents no toxicity hazard. (author) [Spanish] Los aminoacidos tienden a localizarse en el pancreas durante las primeras horas que siguen a su administracion. Esta especificidad esta relacionada con la rapidez de la sintesis y de la renovacion de las enzimas digestivas. Como ninguno de los elementos que componen los aminoacidos (C, H, N, O y S) tiene isotopos emisores de rayos gamma apropiados, no es posible recurrir a ellos para la exploracion centelleografica. Los autores prepararon y ensayaron varios derivados de aminoacidos marcados con 131I, pero en todos los casos comprobaron la desaparicion de la propiedad de localizarse en el pancreas caracteristica del aminoacido original. La semejanza qufmica entre el selenio y el azufre sugirio a los autores la posibilidad de que el analogo seleniado de la metionina se pareciese a esta lo suficiente para poder sustituirla en la sintesis proteica. El selenio-75 (periodo: 128 d; rayos gamma principales: 0,27 MeV) es adecuado para la exploracion. La selenometionina-75Se fue preparada biosinteticamente mediante levaduras. Estas levaduras se cultivaron en un medio con poco azufre que contenia de alta actividad especifica, en forma de selenito. El residuo protefnico extraido con eter y acido tricloracetico en caliente, se hidrolizo con acido clorhidrico. La mezcla de aminoacidos obtenida se separo por cromatografia en columna. La selenometionina-{sup 75} asi preparada tiene las propiedades biologicas de un aminoacido natural. El pancreas absorbio el 7%, aproximadamente, de la dosis administrada y la concentracion por gramo de tejido fue siete veces mayor en el pancreas que en el higado. Menor aun que en este fue la concentracion en la sangre y en otros Organos. Los autores estan ahora evaluando la utilidad clinica de la exploracion del pancreas. Han comprobado que los tumores del pancreas constituyen zonas de absorcion disminuida. En los casos de pancreatitis aguda no se produce concentracion de selenometionina. Seria prematuro estimar estadisticamente la posibilidad de aplicar esta tecnica para descubrir tumores del pancreas. Se estima que la dosis corporal total imputable a la aplicacion de este procedimiento es inferior a 1 rad. La dosis de selenio es de algunos microgramos solamente y no entrana ningun riesgo de toxicidad. (author) [Russian] Obnaruzhena vysokaja stepen' koncentracii aminokislot v podzheludochnoj zheleze v techenie pervyh neskol'kih chasov posle vvedenija. Jeta osobennost' svjazana s bystrym sintezom i krugooborotom pishhevaritel'nyh fermentov. Poskol'ku ni odin iz jelementov v strukture aminokislot (C,H,N i S) ne imeet sootvetstvujushhih gamma- izluchajushhih izotopov, ih nel'zja ispol'zovat' dlja skennirovanija. Byli podgotovleny i ispytany neskol'ko proizvodnyh aminokislot -jod-131, no v kazhdom sluchae terjalos' svojstvo ishodnoj aminokisloty sosredotochivat'sja v podzheludochnoj zheleze. Himicheskoe shodstvo selena i sery daet osnovanie schitat', chto selenovyj analog meteonina blizok k metioninu po stroeniju v dostatochnoj stepeni, chtoby zanjat' ego mesto pri sinteze belka. Selen-75 (period poluraspada 128 dnej, osnovnye dannye: gamma-luchi, 0,27 Mjev) prigoden dlja skennirovanija. Prigotavlivalsja selenometionin - selen-75 s pomoshh'ju biosinteza drozhzhej. Drozhzhi vyrashhivali na srede s nizkim soderzhaniem sery i vysokoj udel'noj aktivnost'ju selena-75 v vide selenita. Posle jekstragirovanija jefirom i gorjachej trihloruksusnoj kislotoj belkovyj ostatok podvergali gidrolizu s pomoshh'ju soljanoj kisloty. Rezul'tirujushhuju smes' aminokislot razdeljali metodom hromatografii na kolonke. Selenometionin -selen-75, podgotovlennyj takim obrazom, imel biologicheskie svojstva prirodnyh aminokislot. Pogloshhenie v podzheludochnoj zheleze sostavljalo okolo 7%vvedennoj dozy, a koncentracija na gramm podzheludochnoj zhelezy byla v 7 raz bol'she chem na gramm pecheni. Pogloshhenie v krovi i drugih organah bylo eshhe nizhe, pecheni. Pogloshhenie v krovi i drugih organah bylo eshhe nizhe. V nastojashhee vremja proizvoditsja klinicheskaja ocenka metodov skennirovanija podzheludochnoj zhelezy. Opuholi podzheludochnoj zhelezy predstavljali uchastki s men'shim pogloshheniem. Ne nabljudalos' koncentracii selenometionina v sluchajah ostrogo pankreatita. Eshhe slishkom rano davat' statisticheskuju ocenku jetogo metoda obnaruzhenija opuholej podzheludochnoj zhelezy. Predpolagaemaja obshhaja doza, poluchaemaja organizmom v rezul'tate jetoj procedury, sostavljaet menee 1 rada. Doza selena sostavljaet neskol'ko mikrogramm i ne predstavljaet opasnosti v otnoshenii toksichnosti. (author)

  11. Changed of the working capacity of CMOS integrated circuits under ionizing radiations effect of low and high dose rate; Izmeneniya rabotosposobnosti KMOP integral`nykh mikroskhem pri vozdejstvii ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij s nizkoj i vysokoj intensivnost`yu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogatyrev, Yu V; Korshunov, F P

    1994-12-31

    Results of experimental investigations into the working capacity of different types of integrated CMOS circuits under effect of electron and gamma radiation are presented. Methods for evaluating IC CMOS under low irradiation intensity using the microcircuit testing under hugh intensity or at increased temperature with regard to the processes of parameter reconstruction after irradiation are proposed.

  12. Pochekaev R.Yu. Chinggis Khan’s Great Yasa in the Mongol Empire and Chinggisid States of the 13th–14th centuries: Legal Code or Ideal “Law and Order”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Yu. Pochekaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective of the article is clarifying of the nature of the Greta Yasa of Chinggis Khan: was it legal code or set of specific edicts, regulations and principles? Research materials include Arabian and Persian historical sources which already were used by another researchers of the Great Yasa (D. Ayalon, D.O. Morgan, as well as new sources on the history of the Mongol Empire, the Golden Horde, Yuan Empire, Chaghataid state recently introduced into scholarly circulation. Research results of the article consist in getting of arguments that the Great Yasa, in fact, was a set of specific principles and rules established by Chinggis Khan, and their observance provided a harmony in the Mongol Empire and the states of Chinggisids, i.e. the Great Yasa was a kind of “law and order” but not a legal code. Research novelty of the article is represented by analysis of the level of the legal development of the Mongols of the 13th–14th cc. when they didn’t need a special codification to regulate their legal relations, that’s why no one authentic source mentioned the Great Yasa as code of laws and it is characterized in this way only by representatives of the “written legal culture” (European, Caucasus, Arabian, etc..

  13. Relationship between surface structure of silicon containing steel and adhesion of hot dip galvanized coating; Si gan'yu koban no hyomen kozo to yoyu aen mekki micchakuseino kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Y.; Hashimoto, S.; Ishibashi, Y. [Kokan Keisoku K.K., Kawasaki (Japan); Inagaki, J. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fukuda, Y. [Shuibuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    The surface of the annealed steel and the exfoliated interface of the coating for the hot dip galvanized Si containing steel sheets was characterized by using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The adhesion of the coatings have depended on the Si content of the steel. It have been found that MnSiO{sub 3} particles are formed at the surface of the annealed steels having high Si content and that two types of grain having different distribution of the oxide exist in the steels. Large oxide particles have been formed in one type of grain and small particles are formed in the other type of grain. The different type of Fe-Zn alloy are formed on two types of grains. It have been observed that the oxide particles exist at the interface of exfoliated coatings after the adhesion test for the steels with high Si content. The distribution of the oxide particles observed at the bottom of the exfoliated coating is quite similar to that of the surface oxide of the annealed steel. From these results, the exfoliation of the coating has initiated at the oxide particles of the steel surface that has been not reduced during the hot dip galvanizing. (author)

  14. Fitter. The package for fitting a chosen theoretical multi-parameter function through a set of data points. Application to experimental data of the YuMO spectrometer. Version 2.1.0. Long write-up and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, A.G.; Stadnik, A.V.; Islamov, A.N.; Kuklin, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Fitter is a C++ program aimed to fit a chosen theoretical multi-parameter function through a set of data points. The method of fitting is chi-square minimization. Moreover, the robust fitting method can be applied to Fitter. Fitter was designed to be used for a small-angle neutron scattering data analysis. Respective theoretical models are implemented in it. Some commonly used models (Gaussian and polynomials) are also implemented for wider applicability

  15. Problems of the agriculture radiology and radiobiology at the environment contamination by the young mixture of the nuclear fission products; Problemy sel'skokhozyajstvennoj radioehkologii i radiobiologii pri zagryaznenii okruzhayushchej sredy molodoj smes'yu produktov yadernogo deleniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prister, B S

    2008-07-01

    The basic problem on population radiation safety and the farm production at the environment contamination by the young mixture of the nuclear fission products are considered. In the field experiments, the conformities of the out of root plant contamination, kinetics of the irradiation absorbed doses and the biological effect of the NFP on the plants during the different ontogenesis phases are investigated. The kinetics of the nuclear fission product accumulation and drawing out from the cattle organisms of the most movable radionuclides in the biological systems; the distribution and kinetics of the absorbed irradiation doses formation and the nuclear fission products biological effect on the cattle organism is studied. The comparative quantitative assessment of the meaning of the basic formation factors of the radiation situation is produced.

  16. Synthesis of Graft Copolymers by Small Doses of Irradiation; Synthese des copolymeres greffes au moyen de petites doses de rayonnements; Sintez privitykh sopolimerov s pomoshch'yu malykh doz oblucheniya; Sintesis de copolimeros de injerto mediante pequenas dosis de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobo, J; Somogyi, M; Kiss, L

    1960-07-15

    In addition to grafting, there is often an undesirable alteration in the properties of the original polymer when polymer monomer mixtures are irradiated. As a result of irradiation, grafting occurs not only on the original polymeric backbone, but also on the already grafted side-chains. The result is an acceleration of grafting. The effect is especially pronounced in the case of preformed polymers, if irradiation is carried out intermittently. The grafting of styrene can be accelerated by the addition of some solvents which suppress the protective effect of the styrene on the polymer. Grafting can be accelerated by other additives. The swelling properties of the irradiated films were investigated. (author) [French] Lorsque des melanges de polymeres et de monomeres sont soumis a des rayonnements, il se produit souvent, en meme temps que la greffe, une alteration facheuse des proprietes du polymere original. L'irradiation provoque une reaction de greffage, non seulement sur le polymere original, mais aussi sur les chaines laterales deja greffees. Il en resulte une acceleration du processus de greffage. L'effet est particulierement marque dans le cas des polymeres preformes, lorsque l'irradiation est effectuee par intermittence. On peut accelerer le processus de greffage du styrolene en ajoutant certains solvants qui suppriment l'action protectrice du styrolene sur le polymere. On peut aussi accelerer le processus a l'aide d'autres additifs. Les auteurs ont etudie les proprietes de gonflement des pellicules irradiees. (author) [Spanish] Simultaneamente con el injerto, bajo la accion de las radiaciones se produce frecuentemente una alteracion de las propiedades del polimero original, efecto que convendria evitar. Por lo tanto, quiza ofrezcan interes los elevados grados de injerto obtenidos en nuestros laboratorios con pequenas dosis de radiacion. La irradiacion no solo provoca una reaccion de injerto en la estructura polimerica original, sino tambien en las cadenas laterales injertadas. Ello se traduce en una aceleracion, del proceso de injerto. Este efecto es especialmente pronunciado en el caso de los polimeros preformados, cuando la irradiacion es intermitente. El injerto de las moleculas de estireno puede acelerarse anadiendo algunos solventes que suprimen la accion protectora ejercida por el estireno sobre el polimero. Asimismo, el proceso puede acelerarse agregando otras sustancias. Al injertar moleculas de metacrilato de metilo en el polietileno, hemos conseguido un injerto de 6 400 por ciento con una dosis de 31 400 roentgens. Hemos examinado la estructura de los copolimeros asi obtenidos. (author) [Russian] Grafting (privivanie ) chasto soprovozhdaetsya nezhelatel'nym izmeneniem svojstv pervonachal'nogo polimera pri obluchenii monomernykh smesej polimera. Pod vozdejstviem oblucheniya grafting proiskhodit ne tol'ko v pervonachal'noj polimernoj osnove, no takzhe v bokovoj tsepi, uzhe podvergnuvshejsya graftingu. Grafting v rezul'tate ehtogo uskoryaetsya. EHtot ehffekt osobenno yarko vyrazhen v tverdykh polimerakh, esli obluchenie proizvoditsya periodicheski. Grafting stirola mozhet byt' uskoren dobavleniem nekotorykh rastvoritelej, kotorye blokiruyut zashchitnoe vozdejstvie stirola na dannyj polimer. Grafting mozhet byt' uskoren i drugimi additivami. Issleduyutsya kachestva nabukhaniya obluchennoj plenki. (author)

  17. Disinfestation of Dried Figs by Gamma Radiation; Desinsectation des figues seches par les rayons gamma; Dezinfestatsiya sushenogo inzhira s pomoshch'yu gamma-izlucheniya'; Desinfestacion de higos secos mediante rayos gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, C. P. [Department of Biology, Democritus Nuclear Research Centre, Aghia Paraskevi, Attica (Greece)

    1963-09-15

    Research has been carried on for many years on the disinfestation of stored agricultural products. Recently gamma radiation has been successfully applied in such investigations. Dried figs are among the main export products of Greece. Serious damage is caused by insect attack each year. The research work aimed at: (1) Determining the doses of radiation required to destroy certain species of insects attacking dried figs at their various stages of development, or to destroy their eggs and thus prevent reproduction; and (2) Determining the physical and chemical changes of the texture of dried figs caused by radiation. Studies have been made on the following species: Plodia interpunctella, Ephestia cautella, Carpophilus hemipterous, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Lasioderma serricorne. The optimum doses required are discussed. At these doses, irradiation damage does not become apparent in the texture of the figs. (author) [French] Des recherches sur la desinsectation des produits agricoles en magasin sont en cours depuis de nombreuses annees. On a recemment utilise avec succes les rayons gamma dans ces etudes. Les insectes font chaque annee de grands ravages dans les figues seches, qui sont l'un des principaux produits d'exportation de la Grece. L'objet des recherches etait le suivant: 1. Determiner les doses de rayonnements necessaires pour detruire certaines especes d'insectes qui, a differents stades de leur developpement, attaquent les figues, ou detruire leurs oeufs et les empecher ainsi de se reproduire; 2. Determiner les modifications physiques et chimiques que les rayonnements produisent dans la texture de la figue seche. Les travaux ont porte sur les especes suivantes: Plodia interpunctella, Ephestia cautella, Carpophilus hemipterous, Oryzaephilus surinamensis et Lasioderma serricorne. Le memoire etudie les dises optimum d'irradiation, qui ne provoquent aucun dommage visible dans la texture de la figue. (author) [Spanish] Des hace muchos anos se estan efectuando investigaciones sobre la desinfestacion de los productos agricolas almacenados. En esas investigaciones se han utilizado recientemente con exito los rayos gamma. Los higos secos constituyen uno de los principales productos de exportacion de Grecia y los insectos ocasionan perdidas importantes. Las investigaciones tenian las siguientes finalidades: a) determinar las dosis de radiacion necesarias para destruir ciertas especies de insectos que atacan los higos en diversas fases de su desarrollo, o destruir sus huevos impidiendo asi que se reproduzcan; b) determinar las modificaciones fisicas y quimicas que las radiaciones producen en la contextura de los higos secos. Se han estudiado las especies siguientes: Plodia interpunctella, Ephestia cautella, Carpophilushemipterous, Oryzaephilus surinamensis y Lasioderma serricorne. En la memoria se estudian las dosis optimas de radiacion que no producen dafios aparentes en la contextura de los higos. (author) [Russian] V techenie mnogikh let provodyatsya issledovaniya to voprosam dezinfestatsii sel'skokhozyajstvennykh produktov v khranilishchakh. Nedavno gamma-izluchechie bylo uspeshno primeneno pri provedenii takikh issledovanij. Sushenyj inzhir sostavlyaet odin iz osnovnykh produktov ehksporta Gretsii. Ezhegodno nasekomye nanosyat ser'eznyj ushcherb ehtomu produktu. Tsel' issledovaniya: 1) opredelenie doz izlucheniya, neobkhodimykh dlya unichtozheniya nekotorykh vidov nasekomykh, porazhayushchikh sushenyj inzhir, na razlichnykh stadiyakh ikh razvitiya, i dlya unichtozheniya ikh yaits i predotvrashcheniya takim obrazom ikh razmnozheniya; i 2) opredelenie fiziko-khimicheskikh izmenenij tekstury sushenogo inzhira pod dejstviem izlucheniya. Issledovaniya provodilis' so sleduyushchimi vidami: Plodia Interpunctella, Ephestia coutella, Carpophilus hemipterous, Gryzaephllus surinamensis i Lasioderma serricorne. Obsuzhdayutsya neobkhodimye optimal'nye dozy. Pri ehtikh dozakh ne nablyudaetsya vidimogo narusheniya tekstury inzhira pod dejstviem oblucheniya. (author)

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on development of technology related to new recycled products. Research and development of simultaneous recovery of chlorine contained in waste plastics and alkali contained in waste glass bottles; 2000 nendo shinki recycle seihin nado kanren gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hai plastic gan'yu enso to hai glass bin gan'yu alkali no doji kaishu ni kakawaru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made on a technology to have alkali contained in waste glass bottles reacted with chlorine contained in waste plastics to separate and remove salt, and reuse the residues as a resource for cement raw material. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the research, glass powder pulverized to 5 to 10 {mu} m, calcium carbonate, iron oxide, and alumina were used to prepare raw material for the ordinary Portland cement. Vinyl chloride pulverized to 3 mm was added into this cement raw material so that chlorine-alkali equivalent ration will be 1.0, and the material was sintered in a rotary kiln at 800 to 1,400 degrees C. As a result, it was discovered that salt is produced from the alkali in glass and the chlorine in vinyl chloride, whereas the produced salt volatilizes when heated to 1,200 degrees C or higher, and clinker containing low chlorine and alkali can be produced. The test result reveals that the control range of the chlorine and alkali ratio is from 1.0 to 1.1. The remaining problems are measures against carbon monoxide and dioxin contained in the exhaust gas, and treatment of dust containing salt. (NEDO)

  19. Nuclear Materials Management and its Relationship to Nuclear Safety and Criticality Control; La Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires et ses Rapports avec la Securite Nucleaire et le Controle de la Criticite; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami i ego svyaz' s yadernoj bezopasnost'yu i kontrolem nad kritichnost'yu; La Administracion de Materiales Nucleares y sus Relaciones con la Seguridad Nuclear y el Control de la Criticidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, F. H. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1966-02-15

    The preclusion of those conditions which would result in an inadvertent collection of fissionable material in quantity, geometry and environment to produce a neutron chain reaction is of fundamental importance to all those actively engaged in the nuclear industry. It is of particular concern to those individuals who are. responsible for the handling, transfer and storage of the fissionable materials in the performance of their various tasks. These same people are part of the nuclear materials management (NMM) system. They are the individuals who are primarily responsible for generating and receiving the SS accountability data channelled through the NMM office and as such must depend upon that office for valid and timely information in discharging their responsibility. Basically the responsibility for preventing inadvertent criticality in any area of plant operation lies with line supervision. In devising preventative measures at least three different types of problems need be considered. These are: (a) The scientific or technical problems connected with evaluating the hazard presented by a proposed quality of fissile material in a given geometry and environment; (b) The engineering problems presented by the restrictions dictated from the scientific or technical considerations; (c) The purely administrative problems presented in implementing the restrictions and requirements imposed from the technical and engineering considerations. To assist the supervisor in the successful discharge of this responsibility, some organizations provide certain groups or committees specialized in particular areas. Usually the technical problems are submitted to criticality specialists, commonly called a Nuclear Safety Committee, who are familiar with the experimental data of critical systems and can by theoretical calculation extend this experience to the problems at hand. Support in the engineering problems is given by plant engineering groups made cognizant of the requirements dictated by the technical considerations and familiar with the operational limitations. The administrative problems are solved through procedural restrictions placed by the supervisor. The NMM office can be most valuable in further support to the supervisor in these activities. The primary responsibility of this office is to alert responsible supervision to potentially hazardous situations as indicated either from information made available through the routine processing of accountability data or from material balance calculations. Any information pertaining to criticality studies as requested from the NMM office must be accurate and precise. A vigorous inventory management policy must be pursued to lessen the problems presented by accumulation of fissile materials. Internal audit by the NMM staff of inventory holdings can also serve to verify adherence to safeguard procedures. A vigorous orientation programme can be implemented by the NMM staff in its dealing with those individuals handling nuclear materials to make them more aware of the hazards involved. The integration of the NMM group into the general criticality safeguard problems at the NRT and has provided an effective system for assisting the line supervision in discharging this very important responsibility. (author) [French] Il est essentiel pour tous ceux qui travaillent dans l'industrie nucleaire de savoir comment eviter que des matieres nucleaires ne se trouvent rassemblees en quantites, selon une geometrie ou dans un milieu tels qu'elles puissent donner lieu a une reaction neutronique en chaine. Ceci interesse tout particulierement ceux qui, dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions, sont responsables de la manipulation, du transfert et de l'entreposage des matieres fissiles. Ces memes personnes participent au systeme de gestion des matieres nucleaires. Elles ont au premier chef la responsabilite de fournir et de recevoir les donnees comptables par l'intermediaire du service de gestion des matieres nucleaires; elles dependent donc de ce service pour les renseignements precis dont elles ont besoin pour assumer leurs responsabilites. C'est en premier lieu a la personne chargee de la surveillance generale du circuit qu'il incombe de veiller a ce qu'en aucun point les matieres nucleaires ne puissent, par inadvertance, atteindre l'etat critique. Pour mettre au point des mesures preventives, il faut tenir compte d'au moins trois categories de problemes, a savoir: a) Les problemes scientifiques et techniques lies a l'evaluation des risques que presente une certaine quantite de matieres fissiles disposee selon une certaine geometrie dans un certain endroit; b) Les problemes materiels souleves par les restrictions qu'imposent les considerations scientifiques ou techniques; c) Les problemes purement administratifs a resoudre pour respecter les restrictions et les conditions particulieres imposees par les considerations techniques et materielles. Pour aider le responsable de la surveillance a s'acquitter de sa tache, certaines organisations prevoient des groupes ou des comites specialises dans des domaines particuliers. Les problemes techniques sont le plus souvent soumis a des specialistes de la criticite, generalement constitues en comites de securite nucleaire, qui connaissent bien les donnees experimentales des systemes critiques et peuvent, par le calcul, exploiter cette experience pour resoudre les problemes qui se posent. En ce qui concerne les problemes materiels, ils sont soumis a des groupes de techniciens que l'on met au courant des conditions particulieres qu'imposent les facteurs techniques et qui connaissent bien les limites de fonctionnement de l'installation. Quant aux problemes administratifs, le responsable de la surveillance se charge de les resoudre' en reglementant les activites en consequence. Le service de gestion des matieres nucleaires peut apporter une aide precieuse au responsable de la surveillance. C'est tout d'abord a ce service qu'il incombe d'alerter le service de surveillance en lui signalant les conditions presentant un danger potentiel qu'il a pu deceler par l'etude des donnees comptables ou par le bilan matieres. Tous les renseignements demandes au service de gestion des matieres nucleaires au sujet de la criticite doivent etre exacts et precis. Un systeme efficace de controle de l'inventaire doit etre applique pour limiter les problemes que pose l'accumulation de matieres fissiles. En faisant proceder par le personnel du service de gestion des matieres nucleaires a une verification interne des matieres consignees dans l'inventaire, on peut egalement s'assurer que les mesures de securite sont bien appliquees. Le service de gestion des matieres nucleaires peut aussi assurer la formation du personnel charge de la manipulation des matieres nucleaires afin de lui faire prendre devantage conscience des risques encourus. En associant le service de gestion des matieres nucleaires aux specialistes de la prevention des etats critiques, la National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) dispose d'un systeme efficace pour faciliter la tache du responsable de la surveillance du circuit matieres. (author) [Spanish] Para las personas que desempenan funciones importantes en la industria nuclear es de suma importancia evitar las acumulaciones accidentales de material fisionable en cantidades, medios y disposiciones que puedan ocasionar una reaccion neutronica en cadena. Esto concierne especialmente a los encargados de la manipulacion, la transferencia y el almacenamiento de dichos materiales. Estas personas forman parte del sistema de administracion de materiales nucleares y son fundamentalmente responsables de facilitar y recibir, por conducto de los servicios de administracion, datos contables relativos a los materiales basicos y a los materiales fisionables especiales; para que puedan desempenar satisfactoriamente sus funciones, es preciso que los servicios dispongan de informacion valida en el momento oportuno. Basicamente, la prevencion de los accidentes de criticidad en cualquier etapa del funcionamiento de una planta es una de las funciones inherentes a la inspeccion de las operaciones. Al proyectar las medidas preventivas hay que considerar, por lo menos, tres grupos distintos de problemas: a) Los problemas cientificos y tecnicos relativos a la evaluacion de los riesgos que presenta la acumulacion de materiales fisionables en cantidades, disposiciones y medios determinados; b) Los problemas de ingenieria que plantean las restricciones basadas en consideraciones de caracter cientifico o tecnico; c) Los problemas puramente administrative' que suscitan las limitaciones impuestas por cuestiones tecnicas y de ingenieria. Para facilitar el desempeno de las funciones de los inspectores algunas organizaciones han constituido comites especializados en determinados aspectos de la cuestion. Por lo general, los problemas tecnicos se someten a especialistas en criticidad, comunmente agrupados en un comite de seguridad nuclear, quienes conocen los datos experimentales de los sistemas criticos y pueden por calculo teorico extender ese conocimiento a los problemas especificos de la planta. Para los problemas de ingenieria se cuenta con la cooperacion de los grupos de ingenieros, a los cuales se mantiene informados de las necesidades impuestas por consideraciones tecnicas y de las limitaciones operativas. Los problemas administrativos se resuelven mediante restricciones de procedimiento dictadas por el inspector. Los servicios de administracion de materiales nucleares pueden facilitar en gran medida las tareas de inspeccion. En primer lugar, estos servicios tienen el deber de alertar a los inspectores cuando la informacion de que disponen gracias a la sistematizacion de los datos contables o a calculos basados en el balance de materiales revela la existencia de una situacion que puede resultar peligrosa. Toda la informacion referente a cuestiones de criticidad facilitada por los servicios de administracion de materiales nucleares debe ser exacta y precisa. Es necesario seguir una politica rigida de administracion de existencias a fin de limitar los problemas que suscita la acumulacion de materiales fisionables. La comprobacion interna de las existencias por el personal de los servicios de administracion puede servir tambien para verificar si se aplican los procedimientos de salvaguardia. Este personal puede llevar a cabo una importante labor de orientacion informando a los encargados de manipular los materiales fisionables sobre los peligros que sus actividades implican. La orientacion de los servicios de administracion de materiales nucleares hacia los problemas relativos a la prevencion de la criticidad aumenta considerablemente la eficacia de las inspecciones. (author) [Russian] Dlja vseh, aktivno rabotajushhih v oblasti jadernoj promyshlennosti, chrezvychajno vazhno ne dopuskat' sozdanija takih uslovij, kotorye mogli by privesti k nepredusmotrennomu skopleniju rasshhepljajushhih materialov v takih kolichestvah, geometrii i okruzhenii, kotorye mogut vyzvat' cepnuju reakciju nejtronov. Jeto osobenno vazhno dlja teh, na kom lezhit otvetstvennost' za pogruzochno-razgruzochnye raboty, peremeshhenie i hranenie rasshhepljajushhihsja materialov v hode vypolnenija razlichnyh zadanij. Jeti-zhe lica vhodjat v sistemu administrativno-hozjajstvennogo ucheta jadernyh materialov. Na objazannosti jetih lic lezhit v pervuju ochered' otvetstvennost' za sostavlenie i poluchenie dannyh statisticheskoj otchetnosti, napravljaemyh cherez Upravlenie po administrativnohozjajstvennomu uchetu jadernyh materialov, i v kachestve takovyh pri vypolnenii svoih objazannostej oni dolzhny obrashhat'sja v ukazannoe Upravlenie za predostavleniem im pravil'noj i svoevremennoj informacii. V osnovnom otvetstvennost' za nedopushhenie nepredusmotrennoj kritichnosti v ljuboj zone jekspluatacii ustanovki lezhit na rukovoditele rabot. Pri vyrabotke predupreditel'nyh meroprijatij sleduet uchityvat' po men'shej mere tri razlichnyh vida problem, a imenno: a) problemy nauchnogo ili tehnicheskogo haraktera, svjazannye s opredeleniem stepeni opasnosti, voznikajushhej v rezul'tate sosredotochenija v opredelennoj geometrii i okruzhenii namechaemyh kolichestv rasshhepljajushhihsja materialov; b) tehnologicheskie problemy, vytekajushhie iz diktuemyh nauchnymi i tehnicheskimi soobrazhenijami ogranichenij; v) chisto administrativjaye problemy, voznikajushhie pri osushhestvlenii ogranichenij i trebovanij, nalagaemyh po tehnicheskim i tehnologicheskim soobrazhenijam. Dlja okazanija sodejstvija rukovoditelju v celjah uspeshnogo vypolnenija im jetih funkcij nekotorye organizacii sozdajut opredelennye gruppy ili komitety, specializirovannye v opredelennyh oblastjah. Obychno tehnicheskie problemy predstavljajutsja na rassmotrenie specialistov po kritichnosti, ob{sup e}dinjaemyh v tak nazyvaemye Komitety po jadernoj bezopasnosti, kotorye horosho oznakomleny s jeksperimental'nymi dannymi kriticheskih sistem i v sostojanii raschetnym putem primenit' svoj opyt k dannoj konkretnoj probleme. Pomoshh' v tehnicheskih voprosah predostavljaetsja tehnicheskim personalom predprijatija, oznakomlennym s trebovanijami, diktuemymi tehnicheskimi soobrazhenijami, i horosho osvedomlennym otnositel'no jekspluatacionnyh ogranichenij. Administrativnye problemy razreshajutsja putem nalagaemyh rukovoditelem procedurnyh ogranichenij. Upravlenie po administrativno-hozjajstvennomu uchetu jadernyh materialov mozhet okazyvat' rukovoditelju dal'nejshuju podderzhku v ego rabote v jetoj oblasti. Prezhde vsego i glavnym obrazom na jetom Upravlenii lezhit objazannost' svoevremenno preduprezhdat' rukovodjashhie organy o vozmozhnosti sozdanija opasnyh polozhenij, kotorye mogut vyjasnit'sja libo na osnovanii svedenij, postupajushhih v rezul'tate povsednevnoj obrabotki dannyh otchetnosti, libo na osnovanii material'nyh raschetnyh balansov. Ljubye zaprashivaemye ot Upravlenija po administrativno-hozjajstvennomu uchetu jadernyh materialov svedenija, kasajushhiesja izuchenija kritichnosti, dolzhny byt' pravil'nymi i tochnymi. Dlja oblegchenija polozhenija, voznikajushhego v rezul'tate nakoplenija rashhepljajushhihsja materialov, sleduet strogo osushhestvljat' raspolozhenie material'nymi zapasami. Dlja proverki sobljudenija pravil bezopasnosti mozhet sluzhit' vnutrennjaja revizija inventarnyh zapisej personalom Upravlenija po administrativno-hozjajstvennomu uchetu jadernyh materialov. Dlja lic, imejushhih delo s jadernymi materialami, personal jetogo upravlenija mozhet provodit' intensivnuju programmu obluchenija dlja luchshego ponimanija imi svjazannoj s kritichnost'ju opasnosti. Na nacional'noj reaktornoj ispytatel'noj stancii vkljuchenie personala jetogo Upravlenija v razreshenie obshhih problem kritichnosti privelo k sozdaniju jeffektivnoj organizacii po okazaniju pomoshhi rukovodstvu v vypolnenii otvetstvennoj raboty. (author)

  20. A novel nanobody specific for respiratory surfactant protein A has potential for lung targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shan-Mei Wang,1,* Xian He,2,* Nan Li,1,* Feng Yu,3 Yang Hu,1 Liu-Sheng Wang,1 Peng Zhang,4 Yu-Kui Du,1 Shan-Shan Du,1 Zhao-Fang Yin,1 Ya-Ru Wei,1 Xavier Mulet,5 Greg Coia,6 Dong Weng,1 Jian-Hua He,3 Min Wu,7 Hui-Ping Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, 2School of Medicine, Suzhou University, SuZhou, 3Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Department of Chest Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 5CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton, 6CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 7Department of Basic Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Lung-targeting drugs are thought to be potential therapies of refractory lung diseases by maximizing local drug concentrations in the lung to avoid systemic circulation. However, a major limitation in developing lung-targeted drugs is the acquirement of lung-specific ligands. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA is predominantly synthesized by type II alveolar epithelial cells, and may serve as a potential lung-targeting ligand. Here, we generated recombinant rat pulmonary SPA (rSPA as an antigen and immunized an alpaca to produce two nanobodies (the smallest naturally occurring antibodies specific for rSPA, designated Nb6 and Nb17. To assess these nanobodies’ potential for lung targeting, we evaluated their specificity to lung tissue and toxicity in mice. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that these anti-rSPA nanobodies selectively bound to rat lungs with high affinity. Furthermore, we intravenously injected fluorescein isothiocyanate-Nb17 in nude mice and observed its preferential accumulation in the lung to other tissues, suggesting high

  1. 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles with dual magnetic resonance–fluorescence imaging for tracking of chemotherapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei KC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Chen Wei,1 Feng-Wei Lin,2 Chiung-Yin Huang,1 Chen-Chi M Ma,3 Ju-Yu Chen,1 Li-Ying Feng,1 Hung-Wei Yang2 1Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 2Institute of Medical Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: To date, knowing how to identify the location of chemotherapeutic agents in the human body after injection is still a challenge. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a drug delivery system with molecular imaging tracking ability to accurately understand the distribution, location, and concentration of a drug in living organisms. In this study, we developed bovine serum albumin (BSA-based nanoparticles (NPs with dual magnetic resonance (MR and fluorescence imaging modalities (fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-BSA-Gd/1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea [BCNU] NPs to deliver BCNU for inhibition of brain tumor cells (MBR 261-2. These BSA-based NPs are water dispersible, stable, and biocompatible as confirmed by XTT cell viability assay. In vitro phantoms and in vivo MR and fluorescence imaging experiments show that the developed FITC-BSA-Gd/BCNU NPs enable dual MR and fluorescence imaging for monitoring cellular uptake and distribution in tumors. The T1 relaxivity (R1 of FITC-BSA-Gd/BCNU NPs was 3.25 mM-1 s-1, which was similar to that of the commercial T1 contrast agent (R1 =3.36 mM-1 s-1. The results indicate that this multifunctional drug delivery system has potential bioimaging tracking of chemotherapeutic agents ability in vitro and in vivo for cancer therapy. Keywords: drug tracking, fluorescence imaging, MR imaging, BSA nanoparticles, cancer therapy

  2. Use of micronucleus test in evaluating radioprotective action of mixed tremella preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jiaben; Huang Yinmei; Zhu Bingchai

    1993-01-01

    The radioprotective action of mixed tremella preparation (Yinshen Yin) on whole body gamma irradiated dogs has been studied. 25 male dogs were divided into five groups: tremella, mercaminum, Yinshen Yin at high dose, Yinshen Yin at low dose and control. All the dogs were given above drugs in 10 successive days before acute exposure of 1 Gy radiation. The results showed that the prophylactic use of Yinshen Yin had good anti-irradiation effect, and the radioprotective effect was similar to the mercaminum, but significantly higher than tremella. Thereby it was considered as a good radioprotective agent. The dose reduction factor in different groups were: Yinshen Yin high dose 2.01, Yinshen Yin low dose group 1.72, mercaminum group 1.55 and tremella group 1.11

  3. Taxonomic notes on the genus Bellenden Chandler (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Jiang, Ri-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The monotypic genus Buobellenden Yin & Nomura, 2009 is placed as a junior synonym of Bellenden Chandler, 2001. This act results in Bellenden jingyuanensis (Yin & Nomura), comb. n. (from Buobellenden ). A new species, Bellenden siguniang Yin & Jang, sp. n. , collected from the alpine area in Sichuan, SW China, is described, illustrated, and distinguished from all congeners. A new illustration of the aedeagus of Buobellenden jingyuanensis is given.

  4. Catalytic Oxidation by Transition Metal Ions in Zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-28

    exotic schemes were developed. It was previously demonstrated that MoCI5 may be reacted with a HYu (here Yu denotes a steam-stabilized or...34ultrastable" zeolite) to form a MoYu zeolite and HC1 which is removed from the system.1 In this study, MoYu zeolites have been prepared by reacting HYu with Mo

  5. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Properties of ternary NiFeW alloy coating by jet electrodeposition · J K YU J ZHAO M Q YU ... Article ID 43. Effects of static electricity and fabrication parameters on PVDF film properties ..... PING YANG JUN HU YOUCHUN YU BIN WANG ... Studies of thermally assisted interactions of polysulphide polymer with ionic liquids.

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT. Eu3+-doped YInGe2O7 phosphors were prepared via a solid-state reaction with metal oxides and their excitation and emission spectra were measured at room temperature. The results showed that pure-phase. YInGe2O7 could be obtained after firing at 1250 °C. The maximum photoluminescence intensity of.

  7. Formative Assessment as a Vehicle for Changing Classroom Practice in a Specific Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, I interpret Xinying Yin and Gayle Ann Buck's collaborative action research from a social-cultural perspective. Classroom implementation of formative assessment is viewed as interaction between this assessment method and the local learning culture. I first identify Yin and Buck's definition of the formative assessment, and then…

  8. Two new species of Nomuraius Hlaváč (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng-Chi; Yin, Zi-Wei

    2018-03-22

    Two new Chinese species of the tyrine genus Nomuraius Hlaváč, N. excavatus Huang Yin, sp. n. (Guangxi), and N. nanlingensis Huang Yin, sp. n. (Guangdong), are described and illustrated. The identification key and distributional map of the genus are updated to include the new data.

  9. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ming Kang1 2 Xiaoming Liao1 Guangfu Yin1 Xun Sun3 Xing Yin4 Lu Xie4 Jun Liu2. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China; College of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China; Department of ...

  10. Yakama Indian Nation Treaty rights and development of cleanup standards for D and D and ER actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Barry, B.

    1995-01-01

    The Yakama Indian Nation (YIN) is a sovereign government located in the Northwestern United States. In 1855, the US government recognized Yakama Nation dominion on 12.2 million acres of land, or more than one-quarter of present-day Washington State. In the Treaty of 1855 between US and Yakama representatives, the YIN ceded control on 10.8 million acres of its ancestral land to the US government, but retained certain perpetual rights to that land. The Hanford Nuclear Site is located on Yakama ceded land, upon which the YIN retains rights to fish, hunt, gather roots and berries, and to pasture horses and cattle. The YIN has been recognized by the US Department of Energy as having regulatory authority concerning Hanford operations. This authority requires incorporation of YIN Treaty rights in the development of environmental cleanup standards for D and D and ER actions. The legal and policy framework upon which YIN environmental protection standards are based includes protection of the health, safety and well-being of YIN Tribal members, protection of the environment necessary to support Treaty protected resources, and preservation of the culture which sustains the unique YIN lifestyle and religion. The basis for Yakama cleanup standards will address risk, environmental, and cultural factors. It is recognized that the unique Yakama lifestyle and diet create specific exposure pathways for hazardous and radioactive materials which are not routinely factored into risk models used to calculate doses

  11. Real-world treatment patterns and opioid use in chronic low back pain patients initiating duloxetine versus standard of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews JS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Scott Andrews,1 Ning Wu,2 Shih-Yin Chen,2 Xia Yu,2 Xiaomei Peng,1 Diego Novick1 1Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Evidera, Lexington, MA, USA Abstract: To describe the use of pain medications in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP after initiating duloxetine or standard of care (SOC [muscle relaxants, gabapentin, pregabalin, venlafaxine, and tricyclic antidepressants] for pain management, pharmacy and medical claims from Surveillance Data, Inc (SDI Health were analyzed. Adult patients with CLBP who initiated duloxetine or SOC between November 2010 and April 2011 were identified. Treatment initiation was defined as no pill coverage for duloxetine or SOC in the previous 90 days. Included patients had no opioid use in the 90 days before initiation. Propensity score matching was used to select patients with similar baseline demographic and clinical characteristics for duloxetine and SOC cohorts. Compliance with index medication was assessed via medication possession ratio (MPR and proportion of days covered (PDC for 6 months after initiation. The proportion of patients receiving opioids and days on opioids after index date were assessed, and regression models were estimated to compare opioid use between cohorts. A total of 766 patients initiated duloxetine and 6,206 patients initiated SOC. After matching, 743 patients were selected for the duloxetine (mean age 57 years; female 74% and SOC (mean age 57 years; female 75% cohorts, respectively. Of the duloxetine cohort, 92% started on or below recommended daily dose (≤60 mg. The duloxetine cohort had significantly higher MPR (0.78 versus [vs] 0.60 and PDC (0.50 vs 0.31, were less likely to use opioids (45% vs 61%, and had fewer days on opioids (median 0 vs 7 days than the SOC cohort (all P < 0.001. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the duloxetine cohort initiated opioids later than the SOC cohort (hazard ratio 0.77, 95

  12. Study of acupuncture for low back pain in recent 20 years: a bibliometric analysis via CiteSpace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang YD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Dan Liang,1,* Ying Li,1,* Jian Zhao,2 Xiao-Yin Wang,3 Hui-Zheng Zhu,1 Xiu-Hua Chen1 1The Second Clinical Medical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 2Longgang District People’s Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 3Guangdong Second Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Acupuncture has been applied to relieve low back pain (LBP in many countries. However, a bibliometric analysis of the global use of acupuncture for LBP is rare.Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the state of the art and trends concerning the global use of acupuncture for LBP in recent 20 years.Methods: Literature relating to acupuncture for LBP from 1997 to 2016 was retrieved from Web of Science. CiteSpace was used to analyze country/institution, cited journals, authors/cited authors, cited references, and keywords. An analysis of counts and centrality was used to reveal publication outputs, countries/institutions, core journals, active authors, foundation references, hot topics, and frontiers.Results: A total of 958 references were obtained, and the total number of publications continually increased over the investigated period. Journal articles (662 were the most frequently occurring document type. The most productive country and institution in this field was the USA (342 and Harvard University (47, respectively. The J Altern Complem Med (69 was the most productive journal, and Pain (636 was the most cocited journal, which reflected the nature of the research. The Haake’s (2007 article (cocitation counts: 130 and the Cherkin’s (2001 article (centrality: 0.59 were the most representative and symbolic references, with the highest cocitation number and centrality, respectively. Cherkin was the most influential author, with the highest number of publications of 25 and a cocitation number of 226. The four hot topics in acupuncture for

  13. Improving thermal stability and efficacy of BCNU in treating glioma cells using PAA-functionalized graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu YJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jen Lu1,2,#, Hung-Wei Yang1,#, Sheng-Che Hung3, Chiung-Yin Huang2, Shin-Ming Li4, Chen-Chi M Ma4, Pin-Yuan Chen2, Hong-Chieh Tsai2, Kuo-Chen Wei2, Jyh-Ping Chen1 1Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan#These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a commercial chemotherapeutic drug for treating malignant brain tumors, has poor thermal stability and a short half-life. Immobilization of BCNU on a nanocarrier might increase the thermal stability of BCNU and extend its half-life.Methods: Nanosized graphene oxide (GO could be modified by polyacrylic acid (PAA to improve the aqueous solubility and increase the cell penetration efficacy of the nanocarrier. PAA–GO intended as a drug carrier for BCNU was prepared and characterized in this study. The size and thickness of PAA–GO was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and the presence of PAA functional groups was confirmed by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. BCNU was conjugated to PAA–GO by covalent binding for specific killing of cancer cells, which could also enhance the thermal stability of the drug.Results: Single layer PAA–GO (about 1.9 nm with a lateral width as small as 36 nm was successfully prepared. The optimum drug immobilization condition was by reacting 0.5 mg PAA–GO with 0.4 mg BCNU, and the drug-loading capacity and residual drug activity were 198 µg BCNU/mg PAA–GO and 70%, respectively. This nanocarrier significantly prolonged the half-life of bound BCNU from 19 to 43 hours compared with free drug and showed efficient intracellular

  14. Antitumor effect of a Pt-loaded nanocomposite based on graphene quantum dots combats hypoxia-induced chemoresistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Z

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zheng Wei,1,2,* Xiteng Yin,1,2,* Yu Cai,2,3 Wenguang Xu,1,2 Chuanhui Song,1,2 Yufeng Wang,1,2 Jingwei Zhang,4 An Kang,5 Zhiyong Wang,1,2 Wei Han1,2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; 2Central Laboratory of Stomatology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; 3Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics and Institute of Advanced Materials, Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China; 4Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China; 5School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the chemoresistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Hypoxia in the microenvironment is one of the important factors that contributes to OSCC chemoresistance; therefore overcoming hypoxia-mediated chemoresistance is one of the great challenges in clinical practice. Methods: In this study, we developed a drug delivery system based on Pt-loaded, polyethylene glycol-modified graphene quantum dots via chemical oxidation and covalent reaction. Results: Our results show that synthesized polyethylene glycol-graphene quantum dots-Pt (GPt is about 5 nm in diameter. GPt sensitizes OSCC cells to its treatment in both normoxia and hypoxia conditions. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry assay shows that GPt enhances Pt accumulation in cells, which leads to a notable increase of S phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of OSCC cells in both normoxia and hypoxic conditions. Finally, compared with free cisplatin, GPt exhibits a strong inhibitory effect on the tumor growth with less systemic drug toxicity in an OSCC xenograft mouse tumor model

  15. α-lipoic acid suppresses neuronal excitability and attenuates colonic hypersensitivity to colorectal distention in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yan Sun,1,* Pan-Pan Yang,1,* Zhen-Yuan Song,2 Yu Feng,1 Duan-Min Hu,1 Ji Hu,1 Guang-Yin Xu,3 Hong-Hong Zhang1,3 1Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Endocrinology, The East District of Suzhou Municipal Hospital, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Translational Research and Therapy for Neuro-Psycho-Diseases, Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: Patients with long-standing diabetes often demonstrate intestinal dysfunction, characterized as constipation or colonic hypersensitivity. Our previous studies have demonstrated the roles of voltage-gated sodium channels NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG in colonic hypersensitivity of rats with diabetes. This study was designed to determine roles of antioxidant α-lipoic acid (ALA on sodium channel activities and colonic hypersensitivity of rats with diabetes. Methods: Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in adult female rats. Colonic sensitivity was measured by behavioral responses to colorectal distention in rats. The excitability and sodium channel currents of colon projection DRG neurons labeled with DiI were measured by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. The expressions of NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 of colon DRGs were measured by western blot analysis. Results: ALA treatment significantly increased distention threshold in responding to colorectal distension in diabetic rats compared with normal saline treatment. ALA treatment also hyperpolarized the resting membrane potentials, depolarized action potential threshold, increased rheobase, and decreased frequency of action potentials evoked by ramp current stimulation. Furthermore, ALA treatment also reduced neuronal sodium current densities of DRG neurons innervating the colon from rats with diabetes. In addition, ALA

  16. Incidence, risk factors, and phenomenological characteristics of postoperative delirium in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin YT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yao Tsung Lin,1 Kuo Mao Lan,1 Li-Kai Wang,1 Chin-Chen Chu,1 Su-Zhen Wu,1 Chia-Yu Chang,2 Jen-Yin Chen1,3 1Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Neurology, Chi Mei Medical Center, 3Department of the Senior Citizen Service Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan Background: Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA is a common method of relieving pain which is a risk factor of postoperative delirium (POD. However, research concerning POD in IVPCA patients is limited. Objective: We aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and phenomenological characteristics of POD in patients receiving IVPCA. Methods: A prospective, cohort study was conducted in post-general anesthesia IVPCA patients aged ≥60 years. POD was measured by the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (NuDESC; 0–10. Delirium, pain severity at rest and/or on movement, and side effects of IVPCA during 3 postoperative days were examined twice-daily by the acute pain service team. Pain severity is measured by an 11-point verbal numerical rating scale (11-point VNRS (0–10. An 11-point VNRS >3 was considered inadequate pain relief. If POD (detected by NuDESC ≥1 is suspected, consulting a neurologist or a psychiatrist to confirm suspected POD is required. Results: In total, 1,608 patients were included. The incidence rate of POD was 2.2%. Age ≥70 years and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status >III were the risk factors of POD in IVPCA patients. Approximately three-quarters of all POD cases occurred within the first 2 postoperative days. For pain at rest, patients with inadequate pain relief had significantly greater rates of POD than patients with adequate pain relief (day 1, 8.4% vs 1.5%, P<0.001; day 2, 9.6% vs 2.0%, P=0.028; day 3, 4.1% vs 2.1%, P=0.412. However, the incidence of POD was not associated with movement-evoked pain relief. Most (79.9% POD cases in IVPCA patients showed either one or two symptoms. The

  17. Comparison of the short-term efficacy between docetaxel plus carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil plus carboplatin in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv X

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xing Lv,1,2,* Wei-Xiong Xia,1,2,* Liang-Ru Ke,1,2 Jing Yang,1,2 Wen-Zhe Qiu,1,2 Ya-Hui Yu,1,2 Hu Liang,1,2 Xin-Jun Huang,1,2 Guo-Yin Liu,1,2 Qi Zeng,1,2 Xiang Guo,1,2 Yan-Qun Xiang1,2 1Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 2Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy is a standard treatment strategy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. This study aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of inductive chemotherapy with docetaxel plus carboplatin (TC or 5-fluorouracil plus carboplatin (FC followed by concurrent radiation therapy in patients with NPC. Methods: Patients (N=88 were randomized to receive TC or FC as inductive therapy followed by concurrent radiotherapy (60–70 Gy with two cycles of carboplatin (area under the curve =5 mg·h/L. Patients were followed up for 8 years. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS. Secondary end points included overall survival (OS, toxicity, tumor response, distant metastasis-free survival, and local recurrence-free survival. Results: At the end of the follow-up period, 31 patients died, 32 had disease progression, eleven had cancer recurrence, and 25 had distant metastasis. Overall, there was no difference between treatment groups with regard to response or survival. We found that following induction and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the majority of patients showed a complete response (~96%–98% for induction therapy and 82%–84% for comprehensive therapy to both therapies. PFS and OS were also similar between groups. The rate of PFS was 63.6% for both FC and TC and that of OS was 65.9% and 63.5%, respectively. The overall incidence of grade 3–4 adverse events in the TC group (20.5% was higher than in the FC group (10.7%. Neutropenia and leukopenia

  18. Intracellular disposition of chitosan nanoparticles in macrophages: intracellular uptake, exocytosis, and intercellular transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LQ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Li Qun Jiang,1 Ting Yu Wang,1 Thomas J Webster,2 Hua-Jian Duan,1 Jing Ying Qiu,1 Zi Ming Zhao,1 Xiao Xing Yin,1,* Chun Li Zheng3,* 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Biodegradable nanomaterials have been widely used in numerous medical fields. To further improve such efforts, this study focused on the intracellular disposition of chitosan nanoparticles (CsNPs in macrophages, a primary cell of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS. Such interactions with the MPS determine the nanoparticle retention time in the body and consequently play a significant role in their own clinical safety. In this study, various dye-labeled CsNPs (about 250 nm were prepared, and a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 was selected as a model macrophage. The results showed two mechanisms of macrophage incorporation of CsNPs, ie, a clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway (the primary and phagocytosis. Following internalization, the particles partly dissociated in the cells, indicating cellular digestion of the nanoparticles. It was proved that, after intracellular uptake, a large proportion of CsNPs were exocytosed within 24 h; this excretion induced a decrease in fluorescence intensity in cells by 69%, with the remaining particles possessing difficulty being cleared. Exocytosis could be inhibited by both wortmannin and vacuolin-1, indicating that CsNP uptake was mediated by lysosomal and multivesicular body pathways, and after exocytosis, the reuptake of CsNPs by neighboring cells was verified by further experiments. This study, thus, elucidated the fate of CsNPs in macrophages as well as identified cellular disposition

  19. Effects of a selective educational system on fatigue, sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and depression among senior high school adolescents in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen TY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tien-Yu Chen,1,2 Yu-Ching Chou,3 Nian-Sheng Tzeng,1,2,4 Hsin-An Chang,1,2,4 Shin-Chang Kuo,1,2,5 Pei-Yin Pan,1,2 Yi-Wei Yeh,1,2,5 Chin-Bin Yeh,1,2 Wei-Chung Mao1,2,6 1Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, 2School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, 3School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, 4Student Counseling Center, National Defense Medical Center, 5Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, 6Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Objective: The aim of the study reported here was to clarify the effects of academic pressure on fatigue, sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and depression among senior high school adolescents in Taiwan. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 757 senior high school adolescents who were classified into four groups: Grade 1 (n=261, Grade 2 (n=228, Grade 3T (n=199; Grade 3 students who had another college entrance test to take, and Grade 3S (n=69; Grade 3 students who had succeeded in their college application. Fatigue, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and depression were assessed using the Chinese version of the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory – Short Form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Taiwan Form, the Chinese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory®-II (BDI-II, respectively. Results: Physical, emotional, and mental fatigue scores were all higher in higher-grade groups. The Grade 3T (test students had the worst fatigue severity, and the Grade 3S (success students had the least fatigue severity. More than half of the students (60.9% went to bed after 12 am, and they had on average 6.0 hours of sleep per night. More than 30% of the students in Grade 2 (37.3% and Grades 3T/S (30.2%/30.4% possibly had daily sleepiness problems. The students in Grade 3T had the worst BDI-II score (13.27±9.24, and the Grade 3S

  20. Report on the survey of the project on the environmentally friendly type energy community field test. Investigative project for development and commercialization of recycle technology of waste edible oil; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy community field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Hai shokuryo yu no recycle gijutsu kaihatsu to jitsuyoka no tameno chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    An investigative study was made of the use of waste edible oil as fuel and recycle use of residual food in the food service business. As to the existence/recovery of edible oil, it was found out that waste edible oil of 15.9g/meal per capita was discharged at multiple wide-area distributed shops and that the total amount reached 1,861kl/y in the country. Concerning the technology for using it as biodiesel fuel, Ronford Co., which has the most actual results of the technology, recovers waste edible oil in Kyoto City, refines it and uses it as fuel for the City's garbage truck. About the use of waste edible oil as boiler use fuel, there are examples in Sapporo Grand Hotel, which has been contributing to energy conservation for more than five years. In the assessment of the profitability as project, for the direct combustion for boiler fuel use, the same/large heat supply system is a prerequisite, and for the hot stove loaded type direct combustion, there is an element of the technology development. Therefore, the use as bio-diesel fuel is most expected, though there is a taxation problem. (NEDO)

  1. Ultrasonic Inspection following Heat Treatment of Uranium Alloys; Controle des Traitements Thermiques d'Alliage d'Uranium par Ultrasons; Kontrol' termicheskoj obrabotki uranovykh splavov s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvuka; Control Ultrasonico de los Tratamientos Termicos de Aleaciones de Uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destribats, Marie-Therese; Cherpentier, C.; Papezik, F.; Pigeon, M. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires Desaclay (France)

    1965-10-15

    To improve the behaviour of low uranium alloys in reactors it is often necessary to reduce grain size by heat treatment. It has proved essential to provide for inspection of the whole element and the entire output in order to discover the exact quality of the fuel used. This inspection cannot be made by micrography because of the time required and the fact that the data obtained are incomplete. The inspection system adopted is based on the principle of absorption of ultrasonic waves by materials. This absorption depends on the structure of the medium. If {lambda} is small in relation to grain size G, absorption is low; whereas if G is of the order of {lambda}/2, absorption is very high. The tests were made first in air, using the multiple-echo system, then by measuring the height of the first echo, and finally by transmission in water, the height of the transmitted echo being compared with that of the initial signal. In industrial use, the amplitude of the echo transmitted by the material is compared with the echo obtained from a standard of the same characteristics and shape. Inspection takes place in a special machine in which the materials are rotated by rollers and adjustable transducers move over the element. The helicoidal scanning is carried out with a pitch of less than 5 mm. The ultrasonic generator includes a control system ensuring a constant reference echo. The paper quotes a series of records showing the results obtained with various alloys and in particular the faults observed in elements treated by induction upon linear displacement. The arrangement can detect faulty treatment zones of less than 1 cm{sup 2}. The system is at present used to inspect all low alloy uranium fuels of the G2, EL3, EDF1, EDF2 and INCA reactors, i.e. rods and tubes with diameters between 20 and 95 mm. (author) [French] Afin d'obtenir une meilleure tenue des alliages d'uranium faiblement allies dans les reacteurs, un affinage du grain par traitements thermiques est souvent necessaire. Il s'est avere indispensable de pouvoir effectuer un controle sur l'ensemble de l'element et la totalite d'une production afin de connaitre exactement la qualite du combustible utilise. Ce controle ne pouvait etre envisage par micrographie en raison de la duree trop longue des operations et de leurs resultats partiels. Le controle auquel les auteurs ont procede est base sur le principe de l'absorption des ultrasons par les materiaux. L'absorption est fonction de la structure du milieu. Si {lambda} est petit par rapport a la taille du grain G, elle est faible; si G est de l'ordre de {lambda}/2, elle est tres grande. Les tout premiers essais ont ete faits dans l'air, par echos multiples, puis en mesurant la hauteur du premier echo, ensuite par transmission dans l'eau, en comparant la hauteur de l'echo transmis a celle de l'echo initial. Dans le controle industriel, on compare l'amplitude de l'echo transmis par le materiau a l'echo obtenu avec un etalon bien traite de meme nuance et de meme forme geometrique. L'examen se fait dans une machine speciale; les materiaux sont entraines en rotation par des galets et les traducteurs orientables se deplacent le long de l'element. L'exploration helicoiedale s'effectue avec un pas inferieur a 5 mm. Le generateur d'ultrasons comporte un systeme de regulation qui maintient l'echo de reference constant. On montrera, une serie d'enregistrements obtenus sur divers alliages, en particulier des defauts observes sur les elements traites par induction au defile. Des zones mal traitees inferieures a 1 cm{sup 2} sont detectees. Actuellement, on controle ainsi tous les combustibles en uranium faiblement allies des divers reacteurs G2, EL3, EDF1, EDF2 et INCA, c'est-a-dire des barres et tubes de diametre compris entre 20 et 95 mm. (author) [Spanish] Con el fin de aumentar en los reactores la estabilidad de las aleaciones con bajo contenido de uranio resulta a menudo necessario afinar el grano mediente tratamientos termicos. Para conocer ia calidad del combustible utilizado se considera indispensable controlar el conjunto del elemento y la totalidad de la produccion. Este control no puede realizarse por micrograffa debido al tiempo prolongado que esta requiere y a sus resultados de caracter parcial. El metodo de control adoptado se basa en el principio de la absorcion de ondas ultrasonicas por los distintos materiales. Dicha absorcion es funcion de la estructura del medio. Si {lambda} es pequena en comparacion col el tamano del grano G, la absorcion resultara debil mientras que si G es del orden de {lambda}/2, la absorcion sera muy considerable. Los primeros ensayos se efectuaron en aire, utilizando ecos multiples y midiendo la altura del primer eco; los siguientes se realizaron por transmision en agua, comparando la altura del eco transmitido con la del inicial. En el control industrial, se compara la amplitud del eco transmitido por el material con la del obtenido usando una probeta patron sometida al tratamiento correcto, de la misma composicion y de igual forma geometrica. La inspeccion se realiza en una maquina especial; los materiales se hacen girar mediante roldanas y los transductores orientables se desplazan a lo largo del elemento. La exploracion helicoidal se lleva a cabo con un paso inferior a 5 mm. El generador de ondas ultrasonicas comprende un sistema de regulacion que mantiene constante la intensidad del eco de referencia. Se presenta una serie de registros obtenidos con diversas aleaciones y, en particular, defectos observados en elementos tratados por induccion durante el avance lineal. Se detectan zonas de tratamiento deficiente, de area inferior a 1 cm{sup 2}. En la actualidad se controlan de esta manera todos los combustibles aleados de bajo contenido de uranio destinados a los reactors G2, EL3, EDF1, EDF2 e INCA, es decir, barras y tubos con diametros comprendidos entre 20 y 95 mm. (author) [Russian] Chtoby dobit'sja luchshego rezhima raboty reaktorov, v kotoryh ispol'zujutsja slegka legirovannye splavy urana, chasto voznikaet neobhodimost' izmel'chat' zerna termicheskoj obrabotkoj. Pri jetom okazalos' neobhodimym osushhestvljat' kontrol' za vsemi jelementami i za vsem proizvodstvom, chtoby tochno znat' kachestvo ispol'zovannogo topliva. Jetot kontrol' nevozmozhno osushhestvljat' cherez mikrografiju, tak kak on zanimaet mnogo vremeni i ne daet polnyh rezul'tatov. Kontrol prinjatyj v jadernom centre, osnovan na principe pogloshhenija ul'trazvukov materialami. Dannoe pogloshhenie svjazano so strukturoj sredy. Esli znachenie Xmalo po sravneniju s velichinoj zerna {lambda}, to pogloshhenie slaboe, a esli G sostavljaet porjadka {lambda}/2, to pogloshhenie ochen' sil'noe. Vse pervye opyty provodili v vozduhe na osnove analiza mnogokratnyh jeho i zatem izmerjali vysoty pervogo jeha. Dalee izmerenie provodili v vode. Pri jetom sravnivali vysoty propushhennogo i pervonachal'nogo jeha. Pri promyshlennom kontrole sravnivaetsja amplituda jeha, propushhennogo cherez material, s jehom, poluchennym na horosho obrabotannom jetalone togo zhe tipa i toj zhe geometricheskoj formy. Ispytanie provodili v special'noj ustanovke, kogda materialy zapuskali v rotaciju s pomoshh'ju rolikov, a napravljaemye preobrazovateli peremeshhali vdol' jelementa. Vintovoe skennirovanie osushhestvljali pri shage menee 5 mm. V ul'trazvukovom generatore imeetsja sistema regulirovanija,kotoraja podderzhivaet kontrol'noe jeho. Privoditsja serija zapisej po razlichnym splavam, i v chastnosti govoritsja o defektah, nabljudaemyh u jelementov, kotorye byli obrabotany indukciej vo vremja prohozhdenija. Obnaruzhivajutsja ploho obrabotannye uchastki razmerom menee 1 sm{sup 2} . V nastojashhee vremja podobnym obrazom osushhestvljaetsja kontrol' za vsemi tipami topliva v vide slegka legirovannyh uranovyh splavov, primenjaemyh v reaktorah G2 EL3,EF1 EdF2 i INCA, inymi slovami, kontrolirujutsja vse sterzhni i trubki s diametrom mezhdu 20 i 95 mm. (author)

  2. Pulsed Neutron Studies of BeO-Natural Uranium Lattices; Etudes de Reseaux Uranium Naturel-Glucine, par la Methode des Neutrons Pulses; Issledovanie reshetok BeO-prirodnyj uran s pomoshch'yu impul'snykh nejtronov; Estudio de Reticulados de Beo-Uranio Natural con Ayuda de Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, B. V.; Nargundkar, V. R.; Subbarao, K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1965-10-15

    The use of the pulsed neutron method for determination of the diffusion parameters and multiplication constants of lattices is described. The diffusion parameters and multiplication constants of BeO-natural uranium lattices are obtained by this method. The uranium rods used were 2.92 cm diameter clad in aluminium 0.072 cm thick and were arranged vertically in channels of square cross-section 5 cm x 5 cm, in a square lattice of pitch 15 cm. The neutron bursts were produced from a cascade accelerator by pulsing the ion source and using the Be(d,n) reaction. The detectors were enriched boron trifluorfde proportional counters. The space and time harmonics were eliminated as described by the authors in another paper at this Symposium. The decay constant of the fundamental mode was determined for several bucklings, far from criticality. In these calculations the effect of diffusion cooling and anisotropy was taken into account. All the diffusion and multiplication constants were determined by the method of least squares fit by three different approaches. The prompt critical buckling was determined by solving the decay constant equation for {lambda} = 0. The final results are: Diffusion length L = 15.2 cm Absorption constant {lambda}{sub 0} = 762.5 s{sup -1}. Diffusion coefficient D = 1.761 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s Diffusion cooling constant C = -8.766 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 4}/s Age {tau} = 150.7 cm{sup -2} Infinite multiplication factor k{sub {infinity}} = 1.126 Prompt critical buckling B{sup 2} = 3.00 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup -2}. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent l'utilisation de la methode des neutrons puises pour la determination des parametres de diffusion et des constantes de multiplication des reseaux. Cette methode permet d'obtenir les parametres de diffusion et les constantes de multiplication du reseau uranium naturel-glucine. Les barres d'uranium utilisees avaient un diametre de 2,92 cm et un gainage'd'aluminium d'une epaisseur de 0,072 cm elles etaient disposees verticalement dans des .canaux de section carree 5 x 5 cm dans un reseau carre dont le pas etait de 15 cm. Les bouffees de neutrons etaient produites par la reaction Be(d,n), la source de deuterons puises etant un accelerateur a cascade. Les detecteurs etaient des compteurs proportionnels au BF{sub 3}. Les harmoniques du lieu et du temps ont ete eliminees de la facon decrite par les auteurs dans un autre memoire presente au meme colloque. Les auteurs ont determine la constante de decroissance du mode fondamental pour plusieurs laplaciens, loin de l'etat critique. Dans ces calculs, ils ont tenu compte de l'effet de refroidissement par diffusion et de l'anisotropie. Ils ont determine toutes les constantes de diffusion et de multiplication en ajustant les donnees de trois manieres differentes par la methode des moindres carres. Ils ont obtenu le laplacien pour l'etat critique instantane en resolvant l'equation de la constante de decroissance pour {lambda} = 0. Les resultats definitifs qu'ils ont obtenus sont les suivants: Longueur de diffusion L = 15,2 cm Constante d'absorption {lambda}{sub 0} = 762, 5 s{sup -1} Coefficient de diffusion D = 1,761 * 105 cm{sup 2}/s Constante de refroidissement par diffusion C = -8,766 * 10{sup 5} cm{sup 4}/s Age {tau} = 150,7 cm{sup 2} Facteur de multiplication infini k{sub {infinity}} = 1,126 Laplacien pour l'etat critique instantane B{sup 2} = 3,00 * 10{sup -4} cm{sup -2}. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen el empleo del metodo de los neutrones pulsados para determinar los parametros de difusion y las constantes de multiplicacion de diversos reticulados. Empleando este metodo, han obtenido los parametros de difusion y las constantes de multiplicacion en reticulados de BeO-uranio natural. Las barras de uranio empleadas medfan 2,92 cm de diametro, estaban revestidas de una capa de aluminio de 0,072 cm de espesor, y se hallaban colocadas verticalmente en canales de seccion cuadrada de 5 cm de lado, en un reticulado cuadrado de 15 cm de paso. Las rafagas de neutrones se produjeron con un acelerador de cascada pulsando la fuente de iones y empleando la reaccion Be(d, n). Como detectores se emplearon contadores proporcionales de BF{sub 3} enriquecido. Los armonicos espaciales y temporales se eliminaron por el metodo descrito por Joshi y sus colaboradores en otra memoria presentada en este simposio. Se determino la constante de decrecimiento del modo fundamental para diversos laplacianos cuando la criticidad estaba muy lejos de alcanzarse. En estos calculos se tuvo en cuenta el efecto del enfriamiento por difusion, asi como el de la anisotropic. Todas las constantes de difusion y de multiplicacion se determinaron mediante ajuste por cuadrados minimos siguiendo tres procedimientos distintos. El laplaciano crftico inmediato se obtuvo resolviendo la ecuacion de la constante de decrecimiento para {lambda} = 0. Los resultados finales fueron los siguientes: Longitud de difusion L = 15,2 cm. Constante de absorcion {lambda}{sub 0} = 162,5 s{sup -1}. Coeficiente de difusion D = 1,761 * 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s. Constante de enfriamiento por difusion C = -8,766 * 10{sup 5} cm{sup 4}/s. Edad {tau} = 150,7 cm{sup 2} Factor de multiplicacion infinita k{sub {infinity}}= 1,126. Laplaciano crftico inmediato B{sup 2} = 3,00 * 10{sup -4} cm{sup -2}. (author) [Russian] Opisyvaetsja primenenie metoda impul'snyh nejtronov dlja opredelenija dif- fuzionnyh parametrov i postojannyh razmnozhenija reshetok. S pomoshh'ju jetogo metoda po- lucheny diffuzionnye parametry i postojannye razmnozhenija dlja reshetok VeO-prirodnyj uran. Ispol'zovavshiesja uranovye sterzhni imeli v diametre 2,92 sm i byli pokryty alju- miniem tolshhinoj v 0,072 sm. Oni byli raspolozheny vertikal'no v kanalah, imejushhih kva- dratnoe sechenie 5 h 5 sm v kvadratnoj reshetke s shagom 15 sm. Impul'sy nejtronov polu- chali s pomoshh'ju kaskadnogo uskoritelja v rezul'tate pul'sirovanija istochnika ionov i is- pol'zovanija reakcij Be (d,n). Detektorami sluzhili proporcional'nye schetchiki iz oboga- shhennogo trehftoristogo bora. Prostranstvennye i vremennye garmoniki byli ustraneny s pomoshh'ju metoda, opisannogo Dzhoshi i drugimi v 1965 godu. Postojannaja raspada osnov- nogo sostojanija opredelena dlja neskol'kih laplasianov pri sostojanii, dalekom ot kriti- cheskogo. V jetih vychislenijah prinimali v raschet jeffekt diffuzionnogo ohlazhdenija i ani- zotropii. Vse postojannye diffuzii i razmnozhenija opredeljali metodom approksimacii naimen'shih kvadratov tremja razlichnymi podhodami. Mgnovennyj kriticheskij laplasian opredelen putem razlozhenija uravnenija postojannoj raspada dlja {lambda} = 0 . Okonchatel'nymi re- zul'tatami javljajutsja: Diffuzionnaja dlina L = 15,2 sm. Postojannaja absorbcii {lambda}{sub 0} = 762,5 sek{sup -1} . Diffuzionnyj kojefficient D = 1,761 * 10{sup 5} sm{sup 2} sek{sup 1} . Postojannaja diffuzionnogo ohlazhdenija C = -8,766 * 10{sup 5} sm{sup 4} sek{sup -1}. Vozrast {tau} = 150,7 sm{sup 2}. Kojefficient neogranichennogo razmnozhenija k{sub {infinity}} = 1,126. Mgnovennyj kriticheskij laplasian V{sup 2} = 3,00 - 10{sup -4} sm{sup -2}. (author)

  3. Diffusion Parameters of BeO by the Pulsed Neutron Method; Calcul des Parametres de Diffusion de BeO par la Methode des Neutrons Pulses; Opredelenie diffuzionnykh parametrov BeO s pomoshch'yu metoda impul'snykh nejtronov; Determinacion de los Parametros de Difusion en el BeO por el Metodo de los Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, B. V.; Nargundkar, V. R.; Subbarao, K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1965-08-15

    The use of the pulsed neutron method for the precise determination of the diffusion parameters of moderators is described. The diffusion parameters of BeO have been obtained by this method. The neutron bursts were produced from a cascade accelerator by pulsing the ion source and using the Be (d, n) reaction. The detector was an enriched boron trifluoride proportional counter. It is shown that by a proper choice of the counter position arid length, and the source position, most of the space harmonics can be eliminated. Any constant background can be accounted for in the calculation of the decay constant. Very large bucklings were not used to avoid time harmonics. Any remaining harmonic content was rendered ineffective by the use of adequate time delay. The decay constant of the fundamental mode of the thermal neutron population was determined for several bucklings. Conditions to be satisfied for an accurate determination of the diffusion cooling constant C are discussed. The following values are obtained for BeO: {lambda}{sub 0} = absorption constant = 156.02 {+-} 4.37 s{sup -1} D = diffusion coefficient = (1.3334 {+-} 0.0128) x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s C = diffusion cooling constant = (-4.8758 {+-} 0.5846) x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 4}/s. The effect of neglecting the contribution of the B{sup 6} term on the determination of the diffusion parameters was estimated and is shown to be considerable. The reason for the longstanding discrepancy between the values of C obtained for the same moderator by different workers is attributed to this. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent l'emploi de la methode des neutrons puises pour la determination precise des parametres de diffusion des ralentisseurs. Ils ont calculi ceux de la glucine par cette methode. Des deuterons puises au moyen d'un accelerateur a cascade produisaient les bouffees de neutrons par la reaction Be (d, n). Le detecteur etait constitue par un compteur proportionnel au BF{sub 3} enrichi. En choisissant convenablement la position et la longueur du compteur d'une part, la position de la source d'autre part, il est possible d'eliminer la plupart des harmoniques spatiaux. Il est egalement possible de tenir compte de n'importe quel bruit de fond constant pour le calcul de la constante de decroissance. Il faut eviter les laplaciens tres eleves afin de ne pas avoir d {sup h}armoniques du temps. Tous les harmoniques qui restent sont rendus inoperants par un retard en temps adequat. Les auteurs ont determine la constante de decroissance du mode fondamental de la population de neutrons thermiques pour plusieurs laplaciens. Ils discutent les conditions a remplir pour une determination exacte de la constante du refroidissement par diffusion C. Pour la glucine, ils ont obtenu les constantes suivantes: {lambda}{sub 0} (constante d'absorption) = 156, 02 {+-} 4, 37 s{sup -1}. D (coefficient dediffusion) = (1,3334 {+-} 0,0128) * 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s, C (constante du refroidissement de diffusion) = (-4,8758 {+-} 0,5846) * 10{sup 5} cm{sup 4}/s. Les auteurs ont etudie le role que peut jouer, dans la determination des parametres de diffusion, le fait que la contribution du terme en B{sup 6} est neglige; ils montrent qu'il est considerable. Ce serait la probablement la cause des ecarts entre les valeurs de C obtenues pour un meme ralentisseur par differents chercheurs. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen el empleo del metodo de los neutrones pulsados para determinar con precision los parametros de difusion en moderadores. Con ayuda de este metodo, han obtenido los parametros de difusion en el BeO. Las rafagas de neutrones se generaron mediante un acelerador en cascada pulsando la fuente ionica y empleando la reaccion Be (d, n). Como detector se utilizo un contador proporcional de BF{sub 3} enriquecido. Los autores demuestran que por seleccion adecuada de la posicion y longitud del contador y de la ubicacion de la fuente, pueden eliminarse la mayoria de los armonicos espaciales. En el calculo de la constante de decrecimiento, fue posible tener en cuenta toda actividad de fondo constante. Para evitar armonicos temporales se prescindio de los laplacianos de valor muy elevado. Se elimino el efecto de todo contenido armonico remanente mediante el empleo de un retardo adecuado. Se determino, para varios laplacianos, la constante de decrecimiento del modo fundamental de la poblacion de neutrones termicos. Los autores examinan las condiciones que han de satisfacerse para determinar con precision la constante C de enfriamiento por difusion. Los valores obtenidos para el BeO fueron los siguientes: {lambda}{sub 0} = constante de absorcion = 156, 02 {+-} 4,37 s{sup -1}, D = coeficiente de difusion = (1,3334 {+-} 0,0128) * 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s, C = constante de enfriamiento por difusion = (-4,8758 {+-} 0,5846) * 10{sup 5} cm{sup 4}/s. Los autores calcularon el efecto de despreciar la influencia del termino B{sup 6} sobre la determinacion de los parametros de difusion, demostrando que es considerable. Atribuyen a ese efecto la persistente discrepancia entre los valores de C obtenido para el mismo moderador por distintos investigadores. (author) [Russian] Opisyvaetsja primenenie metoda impul'snyh nejtronov dlja toch- nogo opredelenija diffuzionnyh parametrov zamedlitelej. S pomoshh'ju jetogo metoda byli polucheny diffuzionnye parametry VeO. Impul'sy nejtronov poluchalis' s pomoshh'ju kas- kadnogo uskoritelja v rezul'tate pul'sirovanija istochnika ionov i ispol'zovanija reakcii Be (d, n). Detektorom sluzhil proporcional'nyj schetchik iz obogashhennogo grehftoristogo bora. Pokazano, chto pri pravil'nom vybore polozhenija i dliny schetchika, a takzhe polozhenija istochnika, mozhno ustranit' bol'shuju chast' prostranstvennyh garmonik. Ljuboj postojannyj fon mozhet byt' uchten pri raschete postojannoj raspada. Chtoby izbezhat' vremennyh garmo- nik, ochen' bol'shie laplasiany ne ispol'zovalis'. Vse ostavshiesja garmoniki byli svedeny na net blagodarja ispol'zovaniju pravil'nogo vremeni zapazdyvanija. Postojannaja raspada osnovnogo sostojanija plotnosti teplovyh nejtronov Oyla opredelena dlja neskol'kih lapla- sianov. Rassmatrivajutsja te uslovija, kotorye dolzhny byt' sobljudeny dlja tochnogo opre- delenija konstanty diffuzionnogo ohlazhdenija (S). Dlja VeO polucheny sledujushhie velichiny: {lambda}{sub 0} = postojannaja pogloshhenija = 156,02 {+-} 4,37 sek{sup -1}, D = kojefficient diffuzii = (1,3334 {+-} 0,0128) {+-} 10{sup 5} sm2/sek, S = postojannaja diffuzionnogo ohlazhdenija = (-4,8758 {+-} 0,5846) * 10{sup 5} sm{sup 4}/sek. Vyjavleny posledstvija prenebrezhenija V{sup 6} pri opredelenii diffuzionnyh parametrov, pokazano, chto jeti posledstvija javljajutsja znachitel'nymi i ob{sup j}asnjajut sushhestvovavshee v teche- nie dlitel'nogo vremeni rashozhdenie mezhdu znachenijami S, poluchennymi dlja odnogo i togo zhe zamedlitelja razlichnymi issledovateljami. (author)

  4. Diagnosis of Massive Pulmonary Embolism in Man by Radioisotope Scanning; Diagnostic par Scintigraphy de l'Embolie Pulmonaire Massive chez l'Homme; Diagnostika massivnoj legochnoj ehmbolii u cheloveka s pomoshch'yu radioizotopnogo skennirovaniya; Diagnostico de la Embolia Pulmonar Masiva en el Hombre por Exploracion Radioisotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Jr., H. N.; Sabiston, Jr., D. C.; Iio, M.; Langan, J. K. [Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1964-10-15

    Macroaggregated human-serum albumin particles labelled with either I{sup 131} or chromium-51 have been utilized to determine regional blood flow to the lungs in dogs and man. Following intravenous injection, the particles accumulated in the lung, permitting clear delineation of the lung fields by scintillation scanning. In patients with lung abscess, pneumonia, atelectasis, tumours and thromboembolic disease of the lung, there was a decreased accumulation of the radioactivity in the regions of the lungs involved. The technique was found to be clinically useful in the diagnosis of massive pulmonary emboli in man and in the demonstration of vascular occlusion in certain patients with cor pulmonale. Studies in dogs made possible the determination of the rate at which revascularization occurred following experimental pulmonary emboli. Scintillation scanning was carried out at various times after the removal of the experimental emboli. The circulation was restored through the lungs within a period of several weeks after the removal of chronic pulmonary emboli in dogs. Although aggregated human-serum albumin retained its antigenicity in rabbits, guinea pigs and dogs, extensive studies failed to reveal any antigenicity of the particles to man. Because of the rapid metabolism of the macroaggregated albumin particles, the radiation to the patient was well within permissible levels. The use of albumin of high specific activity permitted injections of small chemical quantities; consequently no cardiovascular effects, such as increases in pulmonary artery pressure, changes in electrocardiogram or respiratory rate, were noted. (author) [French] Pour determiner chez le chien et chez l'homme le flux sanguin vers les poumons, on a utilise des macroparticules d'albumine de serum humain marquee avec {sup 131}I ou {sup 51}Cr. A la suite d'une injection intraveineuse, les particules s'accumulaient dans les poumons, permettant ainsi de delimiter nettement les regions pulmonaires par scintigraphie. Chez les sujets atteints d'abces pulmonaires, de pneumonie, d'atelectasie, de tumeurs ou dethrombo- embolie des poumons, on observait une accumulation moins intense de la radioactivite dans les regions pulmonaires affectees. Du point de vue clinique, cette methode s'est revelee utile pour le diagnostic des embolies pulmonaires massives chez l'homme et pour la mise en evidence d'une occlusion vasculaire chez certains sujets atteints de coeur pulmonaire. Les etudes sur des chiens ont permis de determiner le rythme auquel une vascularisation nouvelle se produisait a la suite d'embolies pulmonaires induites. On a fait des scintigraphies a diverses reprises apres embolectomie. Chez les chiens, la circulation dans les poumons etait retablie dans les quelques semaines qui suivaient l'embolectomie. Si les macroparticules d'albumine de serum humain gardaient leur caractere antigene chez les lapins, les cobayes et les chiens, des etudes tres poussees n'ont pu deceler un tel caractere chez l'homme. Par suite du metabolisme rapide des macroparticules d'albumine, la dose de radioactivite recue par les sujets restait bien en deca des niveaux admissibles. L'emploi d'albumine a forte activite specifique permettait de faire des injections de petites quantites de produit chimique; de ce fait, on n'a pas releve d'effets cardio-vasculaires, tels que des augmentations de la tension dans l'artere pulmonaire, des modifications de l'electro-cardiogramme ou du rythme respiratoire, etc. (author) [Spanish] Los autores utilizaron macroagregados de particulas de seroalbumina humana marcada con {sup 131}I o con {sup 51}Cr para determinar el caudal sanguineo regional que afluye a los pulmones en el perro y en el hombre. Inyectadas por via intravenosa, las particulas se acumulan en el pulmon y permiten delinear claramente los campos pulmonares por exploracion centelleografica. En pacientes con absceso del pulmon, neumonia, atelectasia, tumores y tromboembolias pulmonares, se observo una acumulacion disminuida de radiactividad en las regiones afectadas. Se comprobo la utilidad clinica de esta tecnica para diagnosticar embolias pulmonares masivas en el hombre y para descubrir oclusiones vasculares en ciertos pacientes afectados de cor pulmonale. Los estudios en perros permitieron determinar la rapidez con que progresa la revascularizacion despues de una embolia pulmonar experimental. Se efectuaron varias exploraciones centelleograficas una vez retirados los embolos experimentales. La circulacion se restablecio en todo el pulmon algunas semanas despues de haber eliminado los embolos pulmonares cronicos en los perros. Los agregados de seroalbumina humana han conservado su poder antigenico en los conejos, los cobayos y los perros, pero los estudios realizados no han permitido comprobar que las particulas tengan poder antigenico alguno en el hombre. Gracias al rapido metabolismo de los macroagregados, la dosis de radiacion recibida por el paciente se mantiene bastante inferior a los valores admisibles. El empleo de albuminas de elevada actividad especifica permite limitar considerablemente las cantidades inyectadas; no se observan, por lo tanto, efectos cardiovasculares tales como aumentos de presion en la arteria pulmonar, ni alteraciones del electrocardiograma o del ritmo respiratorio. (author) [Russian] Krupnye chasticy al'bumina syvorotki cheloveka, mechennye jodom-131 ili hromom-51, ispol'zovalis' dlja opredelenija regional'nogo toka krovi v legkih u sobak i cheloveka. Posle vnutrivennogo vvedenija chasticy, nakaplivajushhiesja v legkih, dajut chetkoe izobrazhenie konturov legkih pri scintilljacionnom skenniro- vanii. U pacientov s legochnymi abscessami, pnevmoniej, atelektazom, rakom legkih i trombojembolicheskoj bolezn'ju legkih nabljudalos' ponizhenie nakoplenija radioaktivnosti v porazhennyh uchastkah. Byl najden metod, kotoryj budet prigoden v klinike dlja diagnostiki massivnoj legochnoj jembolii u cheloveka i demonstracii zakuporki sosudov u nekotoryh pacientov s ''cor pulmonale''. Issledovanija na sobakah sdelali vozmozhnym opredelenie skorosti revaskuljarizacii posle jeksperimental'noj legochnoj jembolii. Scintilljacionnoe skennirovanie provodilos' v razlichnye periody vremeni posle udalenija jeksperimental'nogo jembola. Cirkuljacija krovi v legkih u sobak vosstanavlivalas' v techenie neskol'kih nedel' posle udalenija hronicheskogo legochnogo jembola. Hotja krupnye chasticy al'bumina syvorotki cheloveka sohranjali svoi antigennye svojstva dlja krolikov, morskih svinok i sobak, shirokie issledovanija ne priveli k obnaruzheniju kakih-libo antigennyh svojstv jetih chastic dlja cheloveka. Vvidu bystrogo metabolizma krupnyh chastic al'bumina doza obluchenija pacienta nahodilas' v predelah dopustimyh doz. Ispol'zovanie al'bumina s vysokoj udel'noj aktivnost'ju pozvoljalo vvodit' nebol'shie himicheskie kolichestva; vposledstvii ne otmecheno kakih-libo izmenenij so storony serdechno-sosudistoj sistemy, kak povyshenija davlenija v legochnoj arterii, izmenenija jelektrokardiogrammy ili chastoty dyhanija.

  5. 面对文字的历史:仪式之"乐"与身体记忆%Another Kind of Memory: In Search of Alternative History Through the Meaning of Yue (Music) in Ritual ( miandui wenzi de iishi: yishi zhi "yue" yu shenti jiyi)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧梅

    2006-01-01

    本文立足于民族音乐学实地考察之经验,以及相关领域的理论梳理,着重于任何仪式活动都不可或缺之"乐",探索其中存在的以人的身体的直接感受为媒介的记忆方式和"时间性"体现的可能,及其对于音乐学学科发展的意义.

  6. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Joint verification research on use for power generation of Omani superhigh-viscosity crude oil remaining unexploited; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru miriyo chokonensei gen'yu no denryoku riyo ni kansuru kyodo jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A Mukhaizna oil field remains to be exploited in Oman, with an estimated reserve of 2.4-billion barrels of very heavy oil with an API (American Petroleum Institute) specific gravity of 15.3. The viscosity of the oil is so high as to be over 100-thousand cP (at 15 degrees C). The extremely high viscosity causes its exploitable rate to be so low as 3%, and makes shipment by pipeline quite difficult. In this survey, a method using water emulsion is proposed for viscosity reduction, which aims to reduce the Mukhaizna crude oil viscosity to 200mm2/s or less. In an experiment using the water emulsion method, oil is mixed with water at a rate of 72 to 28 in a shearing mixer for the production of a water emulsion of crude oil. It is found that a certain degree of stability is acquired using a surface active agent available on the market. Using this emulsion method, the crude oil is converted into a power generator fuel with a heating value of 6,775kcal/kg. The crude oil-turned product is a fine fuel superior to Orimulsion which is a fuel of the same type in terms of viscosity, amount of ash, and vanadium concentration. (NEDO)

  8. Optimization of Gamma-Ray Counting and Spectrometry in Biomedical Tracer Studies; Optimisation du Comptage et de la Spectrometrie des Rayons Gamma dans des Etudes Biomedicales Faites a l'Aide de Traceurs; Optimizatsiya gamma-scheta i spektrometrii gamma-luchej v biomeditsinskikh issledovaniyakh s pomoshch'yu indikatorov; Optimizacion del Recuento y de la Espectrometry Gamma en los Estudios Biomedicos con Indicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, V. P. [General Dynamics Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    In biomedical tracer studies, especially in man and even more so in children and pregnant women, it is important to operate at the lowest possible level of administered radioisotope that is commensurate with the required precision and accuracy of the subsequent radioassay measurements. Similarly, with administered stable elements (as specified compounds) or enriched stable isotopes (again, in compound form), followed by radioactivation analysis of resulting samples, it is important from the toxicological standpoint to minimize the amounts of administered element. The problem of optimization of counting of one, two and three gamma-emitting radioisotopes, by Nal(Tl) scintillation counting, single-channel spectrometry and multichannel spectrometry, has been considered in some detail in these laboratories, with particular attention to single-, double-, or triple-tagging tracer studies with radioisotopes frequently used in biomedical studies: {sup 51}Cr, {sup 198}Au, {sup 75}Se, {sup 197}Hg, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 76}As, {sup 82}Br, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, {sup 42}K, and {sup 24}Na. The same considerations apply to the widely-used thermal-neutron activation analysis determinations of the corresponding elements or enriched stable isotopes, so the results of these counting optimization calculations have a double usefulness. The calculations are based on a few reasonable assumptions made on practical biomedical considerations, namely: (1) small samples ({<=} 10 ml), (2) moderate counting periods (s 20 minutes), (3) modest allowable decay periods ({<=} 3 days) and (4) use of commercially available counting equipment and shielding. On this basis, the most sensitive methods of counting each of the aforementioned radioisotopes, and a number of pairs and trios of them, have been ascertained. The counting variables included in the considerations are: (1) type of Nal(Tl) crystal, i.e., solid or well-type, (2) size of Nal(Tl) crystal, up to a 5 in x 5 in size, (3) type of measuring equipment: simple scalar, single-channel pulse-height analyser, or multichannel pulse-height analyser. The minimum detectable sample specific activity has been computed for each optimum counting situation, as well as the levels needed for statistical accuracies (expressed as standard deviations) of {+-} 20%, {+-} 10%, {+-} 5%, and {+-} 2%. In a number of illustrative cases, the calculated limits have been compared with experimentally determined values. Special attention has been devoted to the best conditions for minimization of contributions from lead X-rays, backscattered gamma-rays, escape peaks, sample beta-particles, and Bremsstrahlung. (author) [French] Lorsqu'on fait des etudes biomedicales a l'aide de radioindi- cateurs, notamment chez l'homme et plus particulierement chez les enfants et les femmes enceintes, il importe de limiter autant que possible la quantite de radioisotopes administres au minimum necessaire pour assurer la precision et Texactitude des mesures ulterieures de la radioactivite des specimens biologiques. De meme, il importe, du point de vue toxicologique, de reduire au minimum la quantite d'elements stables (sous forme de composes specifies) ou de radioisotopes stables enrichis (egalement sous forme de composes) administres en vue de faire l'analyse par radioactivation des echantillons ulterieurement preleves. Les auteurs ont etudie de maniere assez approfondie, en laboratoire, le probleme de l'optimisation du comptage des radioisotopes emettant un, deux et trois rayons gamma, au moyen de scintillateurs a Nal(Tl), de spectrometres a un canal et de spectrometres multicanaux, et on s'est attache plus particulierement aux etudes avec marquage au moyen de un, deux ou trois traceurs en utilisant les radioisotopes d'usage frequent dans les etudes biomedicales: {sup 51}Cr, {sup 198}Au, {sup 75}Se, {sup 197}Hg, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 76}As, {sup 82}Br, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, {sup 42}K, et {sup 24}Na. Les memes considerations valent pour la methode bien connue d'analyse par activation avec neutrons thermiques des elements ou des radioisotopes stables enrichis correspondants, de sorte que les resultats de ces calculs d'optimisation du comptage presentent une double utilite. Les calculs sont faits sur la base de quelques hypotheses raisonnables elles-memes fondees sur des constatations biomedicales pratiques: 1. emploi d'echantillons de dimensions reduites ( Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 10 ml), 2. duree moyenne des temps de comptage ( Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 20 min), 3. emploi de radioisotopes dont la periode de desintegration est assez breve ( Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 3) et 4. utilisation d'ensembles de comptage et de blindage en vente dans le commerce. Sur ces bases, on a determine les methodes de comptage les plus sensibles pour chacun des radioisotopes ci-dessus et pour des groupes de deux ou trois d'entre eux. Pour le comptage,. les variables sont les suivantes: 1. type du cristal de Nal(Tl), c'est-a-dire cristal normal ou cristal a puits, 2. dimensions du cristal de Nal(Tl), qui peuvent atteindre 13 x 13 cm, 3. type des appareils de mesure: echelle de comptage simple, analyseur d'amplitude a un seul canal ou a plusieurs canaux. On a calcule l'activife specifique minimale decelable des echantillons pour chaque situation optimale ainsi que les quantites necessaires pour atteindre le degre d'exactitude qu'exigent les statistiques: ecarts types de {+-} 20%, {+-} 10%, {+-} 5% et {+-} 2%. L'auteur compare dans plusieurs exemples les valeurs limites theoriques aux valeurs determinees experimentalement. Une attention particuliere a ete accordee aux meilleures conditions permettant de reduire au minimum la radioactivite des rayons X emis par le plomb, des rayons gamma retrodiffuses, des pics de fuite, des particules beta emises par les echantillons et du rayonnement de freinage. (author) [Spanish] En los estudios biomedicos con indicadores, especialmente cuando se efectuan en el hombre y, sobre todo, en el nino y en la mujer embarazada, es importante administrar la menor cantidad de radioisotopos compatible con una medicion suficientemente precisa de la radiactividad. Lo mismo sucede, por razones toxicologicas, cuando se administran elementos estables (en torma de compuestos) o isotopos estables enriquecidos (tambien en forma de compuestos) y se analizan por radiactivacion las muestras correspondientes. El autor ha estudiado con cierto detalle el problema de la optimizacion del recuento de uno, dos y tres radioisotopos emisores gamma por centelleo con Nal(Tl) y espectrometria mono y multicanal, prestando especial atencion a los estudios efectuados por marcacion simple, doble o triple con los radioisotopos mas frecuentemente usados en los estudios biomedicos: {sup 51}Cr, {sup 198}Au, {sup 75}Se, {sup 197}Hg, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 76}As, {sup 82}Br, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, {sup 42}K, y {sup 24}Na. Como las mismas consideraciones son aplicables al analisis corriente por activacion con neutrones termicos de los elementos correspondientes o de los isatopos estables enriquecidos, los resultados de los calculos de la optimizacion del recuento tienen una utilidad doble. Esos calculos parten de unas pocas suposiciones razonables basadas en consideraciones biomedicas practicas: a) muestras pequenas ( Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 10 cm{sup 3}) ; b) tiempos de recuento de mediana duracion ( Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 10 minutos) ; c) cortos perfodos de espera antes de la medicion ( Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 3 dias) y d) empleo de equipo de recuento y blindaje de tipo comercial. Partiendo de esta base se ha determinado cuales son los metodos mas sensibles de recuento para los mencionados radioisotopos y para algunas combinaciones de dos o tres de ellos. El recuento se ha estudiado en funcion de las siguientes variables: a) tipo del cristal de Nal(Tl), macizo o de cavidad; b) tamafio del cristal de Nal(Tl), hasta 5 x 5 pulg; c) equipo de medicion: escalfmetro simple, analizador de amplitudes de impulso monocanal o multicanal. Para cada circunstancia Sptima de recuento se ha calculado la actividad especifica minima detectable de la muestra, asi como los niveles requeridos para las precisiones estadfsticas (expresadas como desviaciones tipo) de {+-} 20%, {+-} 10%, {+-} 5% y {+-}2% En varios casos se han comparado los limites calculados con valores experimentales. Se ha prestado especial atencion a las mejores condiciones para reducir al mfnimo las contribuciones de los rayos X generados en el plomo, de los rayos gamma retrodispersos, de los maximos de escape, de las particulas beta de las muestras y de las radiaciones de frenado. (author) [Russian] V biomedicinskih issledovanijah s pomoshh'ju indikatorov, osobenno ljudej i, tem bolee, detej i beremennyh zhenshhin, vazhno rabotat' pri naimenee nizkom urovne vvodimyh radioizotopov, naskol'ko jeto sovmestimo s trebuemoj tochnost'ju i pravil'nost'ju posledujushhih izmerenij radioaktivnosti. Analo- gichnym obrazom, v sluchae vvedenija v organizm stabil'nyh jelementov (v vide opredelennyh soedinenij) ili obogashhennyh stabil'nyh izotopov (opjat'-taki v vide soedinenij) dlja dal'- nejshego radioaktivacionnogo analiza poluchennyh prob, s tochki zrenija toksikologii vazhno sokrashhat' do minimuma kolichestvo vvodimogo jelementa. V laboratorijah byla tshhatel'no izuchena problema optimizacii otschityvanija odnogo, dvuh n treh gamma-izluchajushhih radioizotopov pri pomoshhi scintilljacionnyh schetchikov s kristallom NaJ(Tl), odnokanal'noj i mnogokanal'noj spektrometrii, prichem osoboe vni- manie udeljalos' issledovanijam pri pomoshhi mechenija odnim, dvumja ili tremja indikatorami, naibolee chasto ispol'zuemymi v bnomedicinskih issledovanijah, a imenno: hrom-51, zoloto-198, selen-75, rtut'-197, med'-64, mysh'jak-76, brom-82, zhelezo-59, kobal't-60, kal'cij-42 i natrij-24. Odinakovye soobrazhenija otnosjatsja k opredeleniju pri pomoshhi shiroko ispol'zuemogo aktivacionnogo analiza teplovymi nejtronami sootvetstvujushhih jelementov ili obogashhennyh stabil'nyh izotopov, tak chto rezul'taty jetih raschetov opti- mizacii otschityvanija imejut dvojnuju pol'zu. V osnovu raschetov byli polozheny prostye gipotezy, osnovannye prakticheskih bio- medicinskih soobrazhenijah: 1) malyj razmer prob (ne bolee 10 ml); 2) ogranichennoe vremja' otschityvanija (ne bolee 20 min); 3) nebol'shie dopustimye periody raspada (ne bolee treh sutok) i 4) ispol'zovanie imejushhegosja v prodazhe oborudovanija dlja otscheta i zashhity. Na jetoj osnove byli opredeleny naibolee chuvstvitel'nye metody otscheta dlja kazhdogo iz vysheupomjanutyh radioizotopov, a takzhe dlja ih par i troek. Uchityvalis' sledujushhie peremennye velichiny otscheta: 1) tip kristalla NaJ (T1), a imenno cel'nyj ili s kanalom, 2) razmer kristalla NaJ (T1)-do5h 5 djujmov i 3) tip izmeritel'nyh priborov: prostaja pereschetnaja shema, odnokanal'nyj i mnogokanal'nyj analizator amplitudy impul'sov. Dlja kazhdogo optimal'nogo uslovija otscheta podschitany minimal'naja ulovimaja udel'naja aktivnost' proby, a takzhe urovni ee, neobhodimye dlja sobljudenija statisticheskoj pra- vil'nosti (vyrazhennoj v vide standartnyh otklonenij) v predelah {+-}20, {+-}10, {+-}5 i {+-}2% . Dlja celogo rjada pokazatel'nyh sluchaev raschetnye predely byli sopostavleny s jeksperi- mental'nymi. Osoboe vnimanie udeljalos' nailuchshim uslovijam ponizhenija do minimuma doli izluchaemyh svincom rentgenovskih luchej, obratnogo rassejanija gamma-luchej, pikov utechki, chisla beta-chastic v probe i tormoznogo izluchenija. (author)

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Joint verification research on use for power generation of Omani superhigh-viscosity crude oil remaining unexploited; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru miriyo chokonensei gen'yu no denryoku riyo ni kansuru kyodo jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A Mukhaizna oil field remains to be exploited in Oman, with an estimated reserve of 2.4-billion barrels of very heavy oil with an API (American Petroleum Institute) specific gravity of 15.3. The viscosity of the oil is so high as to be over 100-thousand cP (at 15 degrees C). The extremely high viscosity causes its exploitable rate to be so low as 3%, and makes shipment by pipeline quite difficult. In this survey, a method using water emulsion is proposed for viscosity reduction, which aims to reduce the Mukhaizna crude oil viscosity to 200mm2/s or less. In an experiment using the water emulsion method, oil is mixed with water at a rate of 72 to 28 in a shearing mixer for the production of a water emulsion of crude oil. It is found that a certain degree of stability is acquired using a surface active agent available on the market. Using this emulsion method, the crude oil is converted into a power generator fuel with a heating value of 6,775kcal/kg. The crude oil-turned product is a fine fuel superior to Orimulsion which is a fuel of the same type in terms of viscosity, amount of ash, and vanadium concentration. (NEDO)

  10. Actual situation investigation utilizing a crude oil tanker for the air pollution in the Persion Gulf due to Kuwaiti oil field fire. Gen'yu tanker wo riyoshita Kuwait yusei kasai ni yoru Perushawan no taiki osen no jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)

    1992-01-10

    Very serious air pollution was brought about by the fire in oil fields at the end of February, 1991 after the Middle East Gulf War had come to an end. The present report explained the investigation result of actual air pollution situation obtained through measurement by implements mounted on board of the Japan Violet, crude oil tanker which made navigation in the Persian Gulf from 17 to 29 August, 1991. Non-marine salinity sulfate and nitrate in the dust particulates which are representative substances for the air pollution were 10.5 and 3.7[mu]g/m[sup 3], respectively in mean atmospheric content. Such a content level was nearly equal to that in the air-polluted land area and very high for the offshore air. It is judged to be resultant from the particulate formation of non-marine salinity salt from SO2 and NOx which were abundantly emitted, dispersed in the Persian Gulf and oxidized. However as a result of the neutralization by Ca contained in high content sanddust in the atmosphere of the Persian Golf, the acidity of sanddust was not so high. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Stabilization by Shear and Negative V''; Stabilisation au Moyen du Croisement de Lignes de Champ et de l'Emploi d'un V'' Negatif; Stabilizatsiya spomoshch'yu shira i otritsatel'nogo V{sup ;} Estabilizacion por Cizallamiento y Empleo de V'' Negativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H. P.; Killeen, J. [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Rosenbluth, M. N. [General Atomic Division, General Dynamics Corporation and University of California (San Diego), La Jolla, CA (United States); Coppi, B. [University of California (San Diego), La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1966-04-15

    A criterion is derived for the stability against gravitational interchange of toroidal systems by using the hydrodynamic equation with finite resistivity. The stability depends on an expression that reduces to the sign of the second derivative of the volume per unit flux (V'') in the case that the plasma does not surround any ''floating'' conductors. If this condition is violated, then a ''rapid'' resistive instability results. If the condition is satisfied, then both the resistive growth rate and the critical {beta} against ''ballooning'' modes depend on a figure of merit rR{sub c}/L{sup 2} where r is plasma radius, L is length along field lines between ''good'' and ''bad'' regions, Re the mean radius of curvature and {gamma} is a shape factor depending on the design. A similar consideration applies to ''kinking'' modes. Using the results of numerical calculations, we will discuss the structure, stability properties and figure of merit of several ''stagnation-point'' solutions having the negative-V'' property. The principle here is to create directions of favorable {Delta}B, then cause the rotational transform to be weakened in the favorable regions (reaching a null at the stagnation point). The negative contributions to V'' are then weighted heavily, becoming infinite at the stagnation point. We consider three types of solution: (1) Linear periodic-multipole arrays, by using helical Script-Small-L = 2 and 4, or Script-Small-L = 3 ''shaping fields'' with natural stagnation points; and by superimposing Script-Small-L = 0 and 2, Script-Small-L = 1 and 3, or Script-Small-L = 0 and 3 ''corrugating fields'', to create favorable {Delta}B regions. (2) Helical equilibria, by using gross helical curvature to create the favorable VB regions and stagnating the rotational transform by means of a current on an axial conductor, around which the helical equilibrium flux-tube is wound. (3) Toroidal equilibria, by using the gross toroidal curvature to create the favorable {Delta}B regions. The rotational transform is generated by a helical Script-Small-L = 2 winding and stagnated by an auxiliary poloidal field. (author) [French] Les auteurs etablissent un critere de stabilite a l'egard de l'interchange gravitationnel dans les dispositifs torriidaux a l'aide de l'equation hydrodynamique dans laquelle on tient compte d'une reistivite finie. La stabilite depended'une expression qui se reduit au signe de la derivee seconde du volume par unite de flux (V'') lorsque le plasma n'entoure pas de conducteurs . Si cette condition n'est pas remplie, il se produit une instabilite resistive 'rapide'. Si elle l'est, le taux de croissance de l'instabilite resistive ainsi que la valeur critique de {beta} au-dela de laquelle se produit le mode de 'ballonnement' dependent d'un nombre caracteristique a (rR{sub c}/L{sup 2}) y ou r est le rayon de plasma, L la distance separant les 'bonnes' et les 'mauvaises' regions mesuree le long des lignes de forces, R{sub c} le rayon moyen de courbure et {gamma} un facteur de forme qui depend des details de la configuration. Des considerations semblables s'appliquent a des 'modes en serpentements ' . En se fondant sur les resultats de calculs numeriques, les auteurs etudient la structure, les proprietes de stabilite, ainsi que le nombre caracteristique de plusieurs solutions a 'points de stagnation ' pour lesquelles V'' est negatif. La methode consiste, dans ce cas, a creer des directions ou {Delta}B est favorable et a provoquer ensuite l'affaiblissement de la transformee rotationnelle dans les regions favorables (pour atteindre la valeur zero au point de stagnation). Les facteurs contribuant a rendre V'' negatif sont alors fortement ponderes et deviennent infinis au point de stagnation. Les auteurs examinent trois types de solutions: 1. Des dispositifs lineaires a multipoles periodiques, au moyen de 'champs modelants' helicoiedaux (du type Script-Small-L = 2 et 4 ou Script-Small-L = 3) presentant des points de stagnation naturels auxquels on superpose des 'champs de gaufrants' (du type Script-Small-L = 0 et 2, Script-Small-L = 1 et 3 ou Script-Small-L = 0 et 3), pour creer les regions a {Delta}B favorable. 2. Des equilibres helicoiedaux au moyen de la courbure heli'cbidale globale pour creer des regions a {Delta}B favorable, la stagnation de la transformee rotationnelle etant obtenue a l'aide d'un courant circulant sur un conducteur axial, autour duquel s'enroule le tube de flux en equilibre dont la forme est helicoiedale. 3. Des equilibres toroiedaux, au moyen de la courbure toroiedale globale, pour creer les regions a {Delta}B favorable. La transformee rotationnelle est engendree par un enroulement helicoiedal du type Script-Small-L = 2. Sa stagnation est obtenue par un champ poloiedal auxiliaire. (author) [Spanish] Se establece en la presente memoria un criterio de estabilidad respecto del intercambio gravitatorio en los sistemas toroidales, usando la ecuacion hidrodinamica en la cual se tiene en cuenta una resistividad finita. La estabilidad depende de una expresion que se reduce al signo de la derivada segunda del volumen por unidad de flujo (V'') en el caso de que el plasma no rodee a ningun conductor 'flotante'. Si esta condicionlno se cumple aparece una inestabilidad resistiva rapida mientras que, en caso contrario, tanto el indice de aumento de la inestabilidad resistiva como el valor critico de {beta} mas alla del cual se manifiesta el modo de 'inflacion' depende de un valor caracteristico Tilde-Operator rRc {gamma}/L{sup 2}, donde r es el radio del plasma, L la distancia que separa las zonas 'buenas' {gamma} 'malas', medida a lo largo de las lineas de fuerza, R{sub c} el radio de curvatura medio, y {gamma} un factor de forma que depende de detalles de la configuracion. Analogas consideraciones se aplican a los modos 'serpenteados'. Sobre la base de los resultados de los calculos numericos, los autores analizan la estructura, las propiedades de estabilidad y el valor caracteristico de varias soluciones de 'punto de estancamiento' para las cuales V'' es negativa. El metodo consiste en crear direcciones en que {Delta}B es favorable y debilitar luego la transformada rotacional en las regiones favorables (para alcanzar el valor cero en el punto de estancamiento). Los factores que contribuyen al valor negativo de V'' se ponderan entonces marcadamente, llegando a ser infinito en el punto de estancamiento. Los autores consideran tres tipos de solucion: 1) Disposiciones lineales de multipolos periodicos, mediante campos 'modeladores' helicoidales (del tipo Script-Small-L = 2 y 4 o Script-Small-L = 3) que presentan puntos de estancamiento naturales a los que se superponen 'campos de acanaladura' (del tipo Script-Small-L = 0 y 2, Script-Small-L s 1 y 3, o bien Script-Small-L = 0 y 3) pata crear regiones de {Delta}B favorable. 2) Equilibrios helicoidales, empleando la curvatura helicoidal de caracter global para crear las regiones de {Delta}B favorable y estancando la transformada rotacional mediante una corriente que circula por un conductor axial, alrededor del cual se arrolla el tubo de flujo en equilibrio, de forma helicoidal. 3) Equilibrios toroidales empleando la curvatura toroidal de caracter global para crear las regiones de {Delta}B favorable. La transformada rotacional se genera mediante un devanado helicoidal del tipo Script-Small-L = 2 y se logra el estancamiento mediante un campo poloidal auxiliar. (author) [Russian] Dlja ustojchivosti otnositel'no gravitacionnoj zhelobkovoj neustojchivosti toroidal'nyh sistem vyvoditsja kriterij putem ispol'zovanija gidrodinamicheskogo priblizhenija s konechnym udel'nym soprotivleniem. Ustojchivost' zavisit ot vyrazhenija, kotoroe svoditsja k znaku vtoroj proizvodnoj velichiny ob''ema na edinicu potoka (V''); v tom sluchae, kogda plazma ne okruzhena kakimi-libo ''plavajushhimi'' provodnikami. Esli jeto uslovie narushaetsja, to voznikaet ''bystraja'' rezistivnaja neustojchivost'. Esli jeto uslovie vypolnjaetsja, to kak dissipativnyj inkrement, tak i kriticheskoe {beta} dlja ''balonnyh'' mod zavisjat ot velichiny Tilde-Operator rRc {gamma}/L{sup 2} , gde g - radius plazmy, L - dlina vdol' linij polja mezhdu ''horoshimi'' i ''plohimi'' oblastjami, R{sub c} srednij radius krivizny i, nakonec, {gamma} formfaktor, zavisjashhij ot detal'noj konstrukcii. Podobnye soobrazhenija rasprostranjajutsja i na vintovye mody. Ispol'zuja rezul'taty chislennyh raschetov, my obsudim strukturu, ustojchivost' i preimushhestva neskol'kih reshenij so ''stacionarnoj tochkoj'', imejushhih otricatel'noe V''. Princip sostoit v tom, chtoby sozdat' napravlenija blagoprijatnogo VB, a zatem sozdat' vrashhatel'noe preobrazovanie, oslabljaemoe v blagoprijatnyh oblastjah (dostigaja 0 v stacionarnoj tochke). Otricatel'nye vklady v velichinu V'' priobretajut bol'shoj ves, stanovjas' beskonechnymi v stacionarnoj tochke. Rassmatrivajutsja tri tipa reshenija: 1) Linejnye periodicheski-mul'tipol'nye rjady S ispol'zovanija vintovyh 1 = 2 i 4, ili 1=3 ''formirujushhih polej'' s estestvennymi stacionarnymi tochkami; i putem nalozhenija 1 = 0 i 2, 1 = 1 i 3, ili 1 = 0 i 3 ''gofrirujushhih polej'', dlja togo, chtoby sozdat' blagoprijatnye oblasti {Delta}B. 2) Vintovoe ravnovesie putem ispol'zovanija bol'shoj vintovoj krivizny s cel'ju sozdanija blagoprijatnyh oblastej {Delta}B i ostanovki vrashhatel'nogo preobrazovanija s pomoshh'ju toka na osevom provodnike, vokrug kotorogo navita vintovaja trubka dlja ravnovesnogo potoka. 3) Toroidal'noe ravnovesie s ispol'zovaniem bol'shoj toroidal'noj krivizny dlja sozdanija blagoprijatnyh oblastej {Delta}B. Vrashhatel'noe preobrazovanie sozdaetsja s pomoshh'ju spiral'nyh vitkov 1 =2 i stacionarnaja tochka obrazuetsja blagodarja vspomogatel'nomu poloidal'nomu-polju. (author)

  12. Quality Selection of Zircaloy-2 Canning Tubes by Ultrasonic Testing on Small Defects; Controle de la Qualite des Gaines en Zircaloy-2: Detection de Petits Defauts par les Ultrasons; Achestvennyjotb ortrub chatykh obolochek iz tsirkalloya-2 putem vyyavleniya nebol'shikh defektov s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvuka; Control de Calidad de los Revestimientos de Zircaloy-2 por Localizacion Ultrasonica de Pequenos Defectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Linde, A. [Reactor Centrum Nederland, Petten (Netherlands); Deraad, J. A. [Roentgen Technische Dienst N.V., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1965-09-15

    Zircaloy-2 canning tubes, 10.20 mm I.D. x 0.90 mm wall x 1500 mm length, destined for testing as fuel-rod cladding in a high temperature. 330 Degree-Sign C, in-pile pressurized water loop, were tested ultrasonically for defects to get an impression of the tubes' quality. The tested tubes were delivered by manufacturers in the United States of America, United Kingdom and Scandinavia. Our requirement that all delivered tubes should be free from defects with a length greater than 500- 1000 {mu}m and/or with a depth greater than 50-25 {mu}m was not completely accepted by the manufacturers. They could guarantee that defects longer than 1000 {mu}m and/or with a depth greater than 50 {mu}m should be absent. Because only two of the 93 tested tubes had defects with a depth greater than 50 {mu}m it was decided to apply a more severe test by which defects with a depth in the range 10-50 {mu}m could be detected. To detect and record such small defects, longitudinal as well as transverse, a semi-automatic ultrasonic pulse equipment was used in combination with gating systems and a multiple-channel recorder. The adjustment of the scanning system was such that inner and outer defects of the same size were indicated with equal amplitudes. Calibration of the equipment was made on artificial defects. Longitudinal defects were detected with a separated transmitter-receiver system using a focused beam. Transverse defects were scanned by a single probe acting as transceiver. To obtain the sensitivity required the tests were carried out in immersion at a frequency of 4 MHz whereby the tubes were rotated with 120 rpm. A description is given of the mechanical device, the general set-up and the difficulties encountered. The result was that from the 93 tested tubes 21 had defects in the transverse direction with a depth between 10 and 50 {mu}m. Thus a relative qualification of the tubes was obtained. (author) [French] Des gaines en Zircaloy-2, ayant un diametre interieur de 10, 20 mm, une epaisseur de 0,90 mm et une longueur de 1500 mm, destinees a des essais en pile (dans une boucle a eau sous pression , a la temperature de 330 Degree-Sign C) en vue de leur utilisation pour le gainage de barreaux de combustible, ont ete soumises a un controle au moyen d'ultrasons pour detecter leurs defauts et evaluer leur qualite. Les gaines soumises aux essais avaient ete livrees par des fabricants des Etats-Unis, du Royaume-Uni et des pays scandinaves. D'apres les specifications, toutes les gaines devaient etre exemptes de failles ayant plus de 500 a 1000pm de longueur et plus de 50 a 25 {mu}m de profondeur, mais les fabricants n'avaient pas accepte de repondre pleinement a ces exigences. Ils pouvaient simplement garantir qu'il n'y aurait pas de failles ayant plus de 1.000 pm de longueur et plus de 50 {mu}m de profondeur. Comme seulement deux des 93 gaines controlees presentaient des failles ayant plus de 50 {mu}m de profondeur, on a decide de faire un controle plus severe pour detecter des failles de 10 a 50 {mu}m de profondeur. Pour detecter et enregistrer des defauts aussi minimes, on a utilise un dispositif semi-automatique a impulsions ultrasonores, en meme temps que des conditionneurs et un enregistreur multicanal. L'appareil d'exploration etait regle de telle facon que des defauts de meme taille etaient indiques avec la meme amplitude, qu'ils soient interieurs ou exterieurs. L'etalonnage du meteriel a ete fait au moyen de defauts artificiels. Les defauts longitudinaux ont ete detectes au moyen d'un emetteur-recepteur distinct, a faisceau focalise. Les defauts transversaux ont ete detectes par une sonde unique faisant office de traducteur. Pour obtenir la sensibilite voulue, les essais ont ete effectues en immersion, avec une frequence de 4 MHz, les tubes tournant a 120 t/min. Le memoire decrit le dispositif mecanique, l'ensemble des operations et les difficultes rencontrees. On a constate que, sur 93 gaines controlees, 21 presentaient des defauts transversaux profonds de 10 a 50 {mu}m. On avait donc obtenu un classement qualitatif des gaines. (author) [Spanish] Se han efectuado ensayos ultrasonicos con tubos de revestimiento de Zircaloy-2 (diametro interno 10, 20 mm, espesor 0,90 mm, longitud 1 500 mm) con objeto de determinar su calidad y localizar posibles defectos. Los tubos se destinan a proteger las barras de combustible a la temperatura de 330 Degree-Sign C en un circuito de agua a presion en el interior del ractor. Los tubos procedian de fabricantes de Estados Unidos, Reino Unido y Escandinavia, que no llegaron a aceptar por completo la condicion que se les impuso de que aquellos careciesen de defectos con dimensiones superiores a 500-1 000 {mu}m de longitud y 50-25 {mu}m de profundidad. Lo que garantizaron fue que los tubos no tendrian defectos superiores a 1 000 {mu}m de largo y 50 {mu}m de profundidad. Como unicamente dos de los 93 tubos verificados tenian defectos de profundidad superior a 50 {mu}m, se decidio someterlos a una prueba mas estricta que permitiese localizar defectos de 10 a 50 {mu}m. Para localizar y registrar fallas longitudinales y transversales tan pequenas se utilizo un equipo semiautomatico de impulsos ultrasonicos en combinacion con circuitos de desbloqueo y registradores multicanales. El sistema de exploracion se ajusto de manera que resultaran indicados con identica amplitud defectos internos y externos de iguales proporciones. Para calibrar el equipo, se usaron tubos con defectos artificiales. Los defectos longitudinales se localizaron con un sistema independiente transmisor-receptor y un haz enfocado. Los transversales se detectaron con una sonda que funcionaba como transceptor. Para lograr la sensibilidad necesaria, los ensayos se efectuaron por inmersion a una frecuencia de 4 MHz, estando los tubos animados de un movimiento de rotacion de 120 revAnin. Se incluye en la memoria una descripcion de la instalacion mecanica y de las dificultades que hubo que superar. Segun los resultados obtenidos, de los 93 tubos ensayados, 21 presentaban defectos transversales de 10 a 50 {mu}m de profundidad. Por consiguiente, puede afirmarse que el procedimiento indicado permite clasificar los tubos con arreglo a su calidad. (author) [Russian] Trubchatye obolochki iz cirkalloja-2 s vnutrennim diametrom 10,20 mm, tolshhinoj stenok 0,90 mm i dlinoj 1500 mm, prednaznachennye dlja proverki v kachestve pokrytija toplivnyh sterzhnej pri temperature 330 Degree-Sign S v reaktornoj petle s vodoj pod davleniem ispytyvalis' s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka s cel'ju obnaruzhenija defektov. Ispytyvaemye trubchatye obolochki byli postavleny izgotoviteljami v SShA, soedinennom Korolevstve i v Skandinavii. Nashe trebovanie, chtoby vse postavlennye trubki byli svobodny ot treshhin i drugih defektov razmerom svyshe 500 - 1000 mikron po dline i svyshe 25 - 50 mikron po glubine, ne bylo prinjato polnost'ju izgotoviteljami. Oni mogli garantirovat' tol'ko otsutstvie treshhin velichinoj svyshe 1000 mikron po dline i svyshe 50 mikron po glubine. V svjazi s tem, chto iz 93 ispytannyh trub tol'ko u dvuh byli obnaruzheny treshhiny velichinoj svyshe 50 mikron po glubine, reshili provodit' bolee stroguju proverku, v rezul'tate kotoroj mozhno bylo by obnaruzhivat' defekty velichinoj porjadka 10 - 50 mikron po glubine. Dlja obnaruzhenija i registracii takih nebol'shih defektov primenjalos' poluavtomaticheskoe ul'trazvukovoe impul'snoe oborudovanie, dejstvujushhee kak v prodol'nom, tak i v poperechnom napravlenijah, v kombinacii s sistemami propuskanija i mnogokanal'nym registratorom. Sistema razvertki byla otregulirovana takim obrazom, chto vnutrennie i naruzhnye defekty odnogo i togo zhe porjadka i razmera ukazyvalis' s odinakovymi amplitudami. Kalibrovanie oborudovanija proizvodili na iskusstvennyh defektah. Defekty, obrazovavshiesja v prodol'nom napravlenii, obnaruzhivalis' s pomoshh'ju razdel'noj sistemy datchik-priemnik s primeneniem fokusirovannogo puchka. Defekty, obrazovavshiesja v poperechnom napravlenii, skennirovalis' s pomoshh'ju edinichnogo zonda, rabotavshego v kachestve priemoperedatchika. Dlja dostizhenija neobhodimoj chuvstvitel'nosti ispytanija provodilis' v sostojanii pogruzhenija s chastotoj 4 Mgc,v to vremja kak trubki vrashhalis' so skorost'ju 120 ob/min. Daetsja opisanie mehanicheskogo pribora, obshhej ustanovki i voznikavshih trudnostej. V rezul'tate iz 93 proverennyh trubok u 21 byli obnaruzheny defekty v poperechnom napravlenii velichinoj ot 10 do 50 mikron po glubine. Takim obrazom, byla sostavlena otnositel'naja kvalifikacija trubok. (author)

  13. Report on the survey of the project on the environmentally friendly type energy community field test. Separate volume - reference data. Investigative project for development and commercialization of recycle technology of waste edible oil; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy community field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Hai shokuryo yu no recycle gijutsu kaihatsu to jitsuyoka no tameno chosa jigyo (Bessatsu - Sanko shiryo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    For the purpose of promoting the effective utilization of biomass resource, an investigative study was made on the development of recycle technology of waste edible oil. In the survey, the following were carried out and the results were summarized: promotion measures for biodiesel oil by the EU, promotion measures for biodiesel oil by other countries including Canada, promotion measures for biodiesel oil by the US's Department of Energy (DOC), actual results of the use of biodiesel oil in Kyoto City, reference data on biodiesel oil in Japan, and tackling toward the promotion of BDF in the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. As to the transportation use fuel in the EU in the coming 20 years, biofuel, natural gas and hydrogen seem to be selected. If measures are positively taken, biofuel is expected to be 2%, 6%, 7% and 8% in FY 2005, FY 2010, FY 2015 and FY 2020, respectively. Also, natural gas is expected to be 2% in FY 2010, 5% in FY 2015 and 10% in FY 2020, and hydrogen is expected to be 2% in FY 2015 and 5% in FY 2020. (NEDO)

  14. Study of pentane and cyclopentane radiolysis with the aid of radioactive iodine; Etude de la radiolyse du pentane et du cyclopentane a l'aide d'iode radioactif; Issledovanie radioliza pentana i tsiklopentana s pomoshch'yu radioaktivnogo joda; Estudio de la radiolisis del pentano y del ciclopentano con ayuda de yodo radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauphin, J [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Paris (France)

    1962-03-15

    Irradiation of hydrocarbons by ionizing radiation such as Co{sup 60} gamma-rays produces, inter alia, free radicals. Analysis of these radicals may lead to at least a partial explanation of the phenomena occurring. For analysis, the ''isotopic dilution'' method is used: the iodine used for taking up the radicals is labelled with iodine-131, resulting in a whole series of labelled iodides when the reaction is completed. Separation is affected by means of distillation on a microcolumn after inactive carriers have been added and the mineral iodine has been extracted. The activity of each fraction is measured directly it leaves the column. A control is used to obtain absolute G values from the counting. Precautions are taken to prevent isotopic exchange during separation. This method has been applied to cyclopentane and n-pentane and has yielded a detailed radiolysis spectrum. (author) [French] Les hydrocarbures irradies par des rayonnements ionisants tels que les {gamma} du cobalt-60 produisent entre autres entites des radicaux libres, dont l'analyse peut amener a decouvrir une explication au moins partielle des phenomenes. Pour effectuer cette analyse, on utilise la technique de la : l'iode servant de capteur est marque par de l'iode-131, ce qui a pour resultat de donner toute une serie d'iodures marques en fin de reaction. La separation se fait par distillation sur une microcolonne, apres addition d'entraineurs inactifs et extraction de l'iode mineral. L'activite de chaque fraction est mesuree directement a la sortie de la colonne. Un temoin permet l'obtention de valeurs absolues de G a partir des comptages. Des precautions sont prises pour eviter l'echange isotopique en cours de separation. Appliquee au cyclopentane et au n-pentane, cette methode a permis d'obtenir un spectre detaille de radiolyse. (author) [Spanish] La exposicion de los hidrocarburos a la accion de radiaciones ionizantes tales como los rayos gamma del {sup 60}Co da lugar a la formacion de radicales libres. Es posible que el analisis de estos radicales permite explicar, por lo menos parcialmente, los fenomenos observados. El autor efectua el analisis por : el yodo empleado como receptor se marca con yodo-131, por lo que al final de la reaccion se obtiene toda una serie de yoduros marcados. Lleva a cabo la separacion por destilacion en una microcolumna despues de haber anadido portadores inactivos y extraido el yodo inorganico. La actividad de cada fraccion se mide directamente a la salida de la columna. Los valores absolutos del coeficiente G se determinan por recuento de la actividad de una muestra testigo. El autor adopta las precauciones necesarias para evitar el intercambio isotopico durante la separacion. El metodo se aplico al ciclopentano y al n-pentano, habiendose obtenido un espectro de radiolisis detallado. (author) [Russian] Uglevodorody, obluchennye ioniziruyushchimi luchami, takimi, kak gamma-luchi kobal'ta-60, sredi drugikh veshchestv dayut svobodnye radikaly. Analiz ehtikh radikalov mozhet privesti k chastichnomu ob{sup y}asneniyu yavlenij. CHtoby osushchestvit' ehtot analiz, primenyayut metod ''izotopnogo razbavleniya'': jod, sluzhashchij ulovitelem, metyat jodom-131, chto privodit k tomu, chto v kontse reaktsii poluchaetsya tselaya seriya mechenykh jodidov. Razdelenie osushchestvlyaetsya peregonkoj na mikrokolonnom apparate posle dobavleniya neaktivnykh nositelej i izvlecheniya svobodnogo joda. Aktivnost' kazhdoj fraktsii izmeryaetsya pryamo posle vykhoda iz kolonki. Znak daet vozmozhnost' poluchit' absolyutnye znacheniya G ot nachala scheta. Byli prinyaty mery predostorozhnosti, chtoby izbezhat' izotopnogo obmena vo vremya razdeleniya. EHtot metod primenyalsya k tsiklopentanu i k p-pentanu i pozvolil poluchit' podrobnyj spektr radioliza. (author)

  15. The Possibility of Making a Quantitative Study of the Precipitin Reaction by Gamma-Radioactive Tracers; Possibilite d'une Etude Quantitative de la Reaction de Precipitation par Marquage a l'Aide d'Emetteurs Gamma; Vozmozhnost' kolichestvennogo opredeleniya reaktsii osazhdeniya s pomoshch'yu gamma-radioaktivnykh indikatorov; Estudio Cuantitativo de la Reaccion de Precipitacion con Ayuda de Indicadores Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonev, L.; Todorov, S.; Robev, S. [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Radiologii i Radiacionnoj Bezopasnosti, Sofija (Bulgaria)

    1965-10-15

    The paper presents the first results of the quantitative determination of the precipitin reaction (formation of an antigen-antibody complex) by labelling the precipitating components with gamma-radioactive tracers which do not chemically interact with albuminous molecules. As tracers it is possible to use chrome-manganese and nickel-copper compounds, whose tendency to hydrolyze permits the fixation of the radioactive tracer on the antigen and antibody respectively. The radioactivity of the components is determined by a multichannel pulse-height analyser. The results obtained show that the precipitation curve, plotted on the basis of radiometric data, closely corresponds to the curve plotted by the well-known quantitative methods used to determine albumin. The paper discusses the possibilities of using the method described. (author) [French] Les auteurs communiquent les premiers resultats d'une etude quantitative qu'ils ont faite de la reaction de precipitation (formation du complexe antigene-anticorps) en marquant les composants du precipites avec des emetteurs gamma qui ne reagissent pas chimiquement avec les molecules d'albumine. Pour le marquage, on peut utiliser des composes de chrome/manganese ou de fer qui subissent facilement l'hydrolyse et assurent de ce fait la fixation de la substance radioactive sur l'antigene et, partant, sur l'anticorps. La radioactivite des composants est determinee a l'aide d'un selecteur d'amplitudes a plusieurs canaux. Les resultats montrent que la courbe de precipitation obtenue avec les donnees radiometriques concorde parfaitement avec celle que l'on obtient par les methodes quantitatives connues servant au dosage de l'albumine. Les auteurs discutent les possibilites d'application de la methode etudiee. (author) [Spanish] Los autores presentan los primeros resultados de un estudio cuantitativo de la reaccion de precipitacion (formacion del complejo antigeno-anticuerpo) que efectuaron marcando los componentes de precipitacion con indicadores gamma que no reaccionan quimicamente con las moleculas de albumina. Como indicadores pueden utilizarse ciertos compuestos de cromo, manganeso y hierro que, por su teridencia a hidrolizarse, permiten fijar el indicador radiactivo en el antigeno y en el anticuerpo, respectivamente. La radiactividad de los componentes se determino con ayuda de un analizador multicanal de amplitud de impulsos. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la curva de precipitacion, trazada sobre la base de los datos radiometricos, concuerda con la que se obtiene por los metodos cuantitativos corrientemente empleados en la valoracion de la albumiRa. Los autores examinan las posibilidades de aplicacion del metodo descrito. (author) [Russian] Soobshhajutsja pervye rezul'taty kolichestvennogo opredelenija reakcii osazhdenija (obrazovanija kompleksa antigen-antitelo) posredstvom mechenija precipitacionnyh komponentov gamma-radioaktivnymi indikatorami, ne vstupajushhimi v himicheskoe vzaimodejstvie s belkovymi molekulami. V kachestve indikatorov mogut byt' ispol'zovany hromomargancevye soedinenija i soedinenija zheleza, sklonnost' kotoryh k gidrolizu obespechivaet fiksaciju radioaktivnogo indikatora na antigene sootvetstvenno i na antitelo. Opredelenie radioaktivnosti komponentov proizvoditsja posredstvom mnogokanal'nogo amplitudnogo analizatora. Poluchennye rezul'taty pokazyvajut, chto precipitacionnaja krivaja, postroennaja na osnovanii radiometrichnyh dannyh, nahoditsja v blizkom sootvetstvii s krivoj, postroennoj izvestnymi kolichestvennymi metodami, sluzhashhimi dlja opredelenija belka. Rassmatrivajutsja vozmozhnosti primenenija jetogo metoda na praktike. (author)

  16. Excitation of Neutron Waves by Modulated And Pulsed Sources; Excitation d'Ondes Neutroniques au Moyen de Sources Modulees et Pulsees; Vozbuzhdenie nejtronnykh voln s pomoshch'yu modulirovannykh i impul'snykh istochnikov; Excitacion de Ondas Neutronicas Mediante Fuentes Moduladas y Pulsadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R. B.; Booth, R. S. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1965-10-15

    Placement of either a sinusoidally modulated or pulsed source of thermal neutrons at one of the boundaries of a nuclear assembly creates a disturbance which can be analysed in terms of wave components, propagating away from the localized source with frequency-dependent attenuation factors and wave velocities. The dispersive properties of the assembly are expressed through the dispersion relation, connecting the inverse complex relaxation length (or complex wave number). {rho}({omega}), to the frequency of the excitation and the nuclear parameters of the system. It will be shown that the dispersion relation is of the form {rho}{sup 2}({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(even)} B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n} + i {Sigma}{sub n(odd}) B{sup (n)} {omega}{sup n} (1) where the coefficients B{sup (n)} are related to matrix elements of the various operators in moderating and multiplicative media. In a neutron wave experiment one measures the attenuation factor {alpha}({omega}) and the phase shift per unit length {delta}({omega}), which satisfy the relationships {alpha}{sup 2}({omega}) - {delta}{sup 2}({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(even)} B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n}. (2) 2{alpha}({omega}){delta}({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(odd)} B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n}. (3) One has then the advantage over the conventional pulsing with fast neutrons of measuring two independent magnitudes (real and imaginary part of the wave number) from which more information can be extracted about the nuclear properties of interest. Experiments were performed using graphite as the moderating material. Two different sources of thermal neutrons were used. In one case 14-MeV neutrons generated by a Cockcroft-Walton machine were thermalized in a tank containing several layers of iron, lead and graphite immersed in water. Lately the University of Florida 4-MeV Van de Graaff accelerator produced 29-keV neutrons from the (Li-p) reaction which were thermalized in a few inches of paraffin. In both instances the ion beams could be modulated sinusoidally or pulsed. Fourier analysis of the slow pulses showed very good agreement with the results obtained from the sinusoidal excitation of the waves. The range of frequencies studied was between zero and 1200 c/s Least-squares fits of the experimental data with equations (4) and (5) yielded the results B{sup (0)} = B{sup 2}{sub Up-Tack} + a{sub 1}/L{sub 0} = (6.6 {+-} 0.1) 10{sup -3} (cm{sup -2}) (4) B{sup (1)} = a{sub 2}/D{sub 0} = (4.38 {+-} 0.2) 10{sup -6} (cm{sup -2}) (5) B{sup (2)} = {Sigma}{sub {gamma}} H{sub 0{gamma}}/ Empty-Set {sub {gamma}{gamma}} = (2.5 {+-} 0.2) 10{sup -10} ({gamma} = 0, 1, 2, .....10) B{sup 2}{sub Up-Tack} = Transverse buckling (cm{sup -2}) = 5.96 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup -2} (6) where a{sub 1}, a{sub 2}, H{sub 0{gamma}} and Empty-Set {sub {gamma}{gamma}} are related to matrix elements of the diffusion and thermalization operators. From Eq. (5) a value of D{sub 0} = (2.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s was found in agreement with conventional pulsed neutron measurements. Theoretical calculations using various kernels also agree with the experimental results. (author) [French] En placant une source de neutrons thermiques puisee sinusoldalement a l'une des frontieres d'un assemblage nucleaire, on provoque une perturbation que l'on peut analyser sous forme de composantes d'onde, se propageant a partir de la source avec des facteurs d'attenuation et des vitesses variables selon la frequence. Les caracteristiques de dispersion de l'ensemble sont exprimees par la relation de dispersion qui relie l'inverse de la longueur de relaxation complexe (ou nombre d'onde complexe), {rho}({omega}), a la frequence de l'excitation et aux parametres nucleaires du systeme. Les auteurs montrent que la relation de dispersion se presente sous la forme {rho}{sup 2}({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(pair}) B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n} + i {Sigma}{sub n(impair}) B{sup (n)} {omega}{sup n} (1) dans laquelle les coefficients B{sup (n)} dependent des elements de matrice des differents operateurs dans les milieux ralentisseurs et multiplicateurs. Dans les experiences sur les ondes neutroniques, on mesure le facteur d'attenuation {alpha}({omega}) et le dephasage par unite de longueur Greek-Small-Letter-Delta ({omega}), qui satisfont aux relations {alpha}{sup 2}({omega}) - Greek-Small-Letter-Delta {sup 2}({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(pair}) B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n}. (2) 2{alpha}({omega}) Greek-Small-Letter-Delta ({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(impair}) B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n}. (3) Par rapport a la methode classique des bouffees de neutrons rapides, cette facon de proceder donne alors l'avantage de mesurer deux grandeurs independantes (la partie reelle et la partie imaginaire du nombre d'otfde) dont on peut extraire davantage de renseignements sur les proprietes nucleaires qui presentent un interet. Les experiences ont ete effectuees en utilisant le graphite comme ralentisseur et deux sources differentes de neutrons thermiques. Dans l'un des cas, des neutrons de 14 MeV produits par une machine Cockcroft-Walton ont ete thermalises dans un reservoir contenant plusieurs couches de fer, de plomb et de graphite immerges dans l'eau. Recemment, l'accelerateur Van de Graaff (4 MeV) de l'Universite de Floride a produit a partir de la reaction (Li-p) des neutrons de 29 keV, qui ont ete thermalises dans quelques centimetres de paraffine. Dans les deux cas, on pouvait moduler sinusoldaleme; it ou puiser les faisceaux d'ions. Les auteurs ont trouve que les resultats de l'analyse de Fourier des bouffees de neutrons lents etaient en tres bon accord avec les resultats obtenus par excitation sinusoiedale des ondes. La gamme de frequence etudiee allait de zero a 1200 Hz. L'application de la methode des moindres carres aux donnees experimentales dans les equations (4) et (5) donne les resultats suivants: B{sup (0)} = B{sup 2}{sub Up-Tack} + a{sub 1}/L{sub 0} = (6.6 {+-} 0.1) 10{sup -3} (cm{sup -2}) (4) B{sup (1)} = a{sub 2}/D{sub 0} = (4.38 {+-} 0.2) 10{sup -6} (cm{sup -2}) (5) B{sup (2)} = {Sigma}{sub {gamma}} H{sub 0{gamma}}/ Empty-Set {sub {gamma}{gamma}} = (2.5 {+-} 0.2) 10{sup -10} ({gamma} = 0, 1, 2, .....10) B{sup 2}{sub Up-Tack} = Laplacien transversal (cm{sup -2}) = 5.96 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup -2} (6) dans lesquels a{sub 1}, a{sub 2}, H{sub 0{gamma}} and Empty-Set {sub {gamma}{gamma}} dependent des elements de matrice des operateurs de diffusion et de thermalisation. A partir de l'equation (5), on a trouve une valeur D{sub 0} = (2.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s qui concorde avec les mesures classiques au moyen des neutrons puises. Les calculs theoriques au moyen de divers noyaux concordent egalement avec les resultats experimentaux. (author) [Spanish] La colocacion de una fuente de neutrones termicos modulada o pulsada sinusoidalmente en uno de los limites de un conjunto nuclear crea una perturbacion que puede analizarse como si se operase con componentes de una onda que, al propagarse, se aleja de la fuente localizada, con factores de atenuacion y velocidades de onda dependientes de la frecuencia. Las propiedades de dispersion del conjunto se expresan mediante la relacion de dispersion, que vincula la inversa de la longitud de relajamiento compleja (o niimero de onda complejo), {rho}({omega}), con la frecuencia de la excitacion y con los parametros nucleares del sistema. Los autores senalan que la relacion de dispersion presenta la forma {rho}{sup 2}({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(par}) B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n} + i {Sigma}{sub n(impair}) B{sup (n)} {omega}{sup n} (1) expresion en la que los coeficientes B{sup (n)} estan relacionados con elementos matriciales de diversos operadores en medios moderadores y multiplicadores. En un experimento sobre ondas neutronicas se miden el factor de atenuacion, {alpha}({omega}), y el desplazamiento de fase por unidad de longitud, Greek-Small-Letter-Delta ({omega}), que satisfacen las relaciones {alpha}{sup 2}({omega}) - Greek-Small-Letter-Delta {sup 2}({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(par}) B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n}. (2) 2{alpha}({omega}) Greek-Small-Letter-Delta ({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(impair}) B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n}. (3) De esta forma se tiene la ventaja, sobre el empleo del metodo tradicional de los neutrones rapidos pulsados, de poder medir dos magnitudes independientes (partes real e imaginaria del numero de onda) de las cuales puede obtenerse mas informacion sobre las propiedades nucleares de interes. Los autores realizaron experimentos empleando grafito como moderador, y neutrones termicos procedentes de dos fuentes distintas. En uno de los casos termalizaron en un tanque que contenia varias capas de hierro, plomo y grafito emergiendo parcialmente del agua, neutrones de 14 MeV generados por un aparato Cockcroft- Walton. Con el acelerador Van de Graaff de 4 MeV de la Universidad de Florida se obtuvieron, en virtud de la reaccion Li-p, neutrones de 29 keV que se termalizaron en una capa de parafina de algunas pulgadas de espesor. En ambos casos, fue posible pulsar o modular sinusoidalmente los haces ionicos. El analisis por el metodo de Fourier de los impulsos de neutrones lentos dio resultados que concordaron con los obtenidos partiendo de la excitacion sinusoidal de las ondas. El intervalo de frecuencias estudiado estuvo comprendido entre 0 y 1200 Hz. El ajuste de los datos experimentales a las ecuaciones (4) y (5) por el metodo de los cuadrados minimos dio los siguientes resultados: B{sup (0)} = B{sup 2}{sub Up-Tack} + a{sub 1}/L{sub 0} = (6.6 {+-} 0.1) 10{sup -3} (cm{sup -2}) (4) B{sup (1)} = a{sub 2}/D{sub 0} = (4.38 {+-} 0.2) 10{sup -6} (cm{sup -2}) (5) B{sup (2)} = {Sigma}{sub {gamma}} H{sub 0{gamma}}/ Empty-Set {sub {gamma}{gamma}} = (2.5 {+-} 0.2) 10{sup -10} ({gamma} = 0, 1, 2, .....10) B{sup 2}{sub Up-Tack} = Laplaciano transversal (cm{sup -2}) = 5.96 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup -2} (6) en donde a{sub 1}, a{sub 2}, H{sub 0{gamma}} y Empty-Set {sub {gamma}{gamma}} estan relacionados con elementos matriciales de los operadores de difusion y terma- lizacion. Partiendo de la ecuacion (5), se hallo un valor de D{sub 0} = (2.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s crri/s que concuerda con los resultados de las mediciones realizadas por el metodo tradicional de los neutrones pulsados. Los resultados de calculos teoricos realizados empleando diversos nucleos concuerdan tambien con los datos experimentales. (author) [Russian] Esli postavit' sinusoidal'no modulirovannyj ili impul'snyj istochnik teplovyh nejtronov na odnu iz granic jadernoj sborki, to jeto sozdaet narushenie, kotoroe mozhno proanalizirovat' s tochki zrenija volnovyh komponentov, rasprostranjajushhihsja iz lokalizovannogo istochnika s kojefficientami oslablenija, zavisjashhego ot chastoty, i s volnovymi skorostjami. Dispersionnye svojstva sborki vyrazhajutsja s pomoshh'ju dispersionnogo sootnoshenija, svjazyvajushhego obratnuju volnu kompleksnogo zatuhanija (ili kompleksnoe volnovoe chislo), {rho}({omega}), s chastotoj vozbuzhdenija i jadernymi parametrami sborki. Dispersionnoe sootnoshenie imeet sledujushhij vid: {rho}{sup 2}({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(chetnye}) B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n} + i {Sigma}{sub n(nechetnye}) B{sup (n)} {omega}{sup n} (1) gde kojefficienty B{sup (n)} svjazany s matrichnymi jelementami razlichnyh operatorov v zamedljajushhih i razmnozhajushhih sredah. Pri jeksperimente s nejtronnoj volnoj izmerjaetsja kojefficient oslablenija {alpha}({omega}) i sdvig fazy na edinicu dliny Greek-Small-Letter-Delta ({omega}), kotorye udovletvorjajut sootnoshenijam: {alpha}{sup 2}({omega}) - Greek-Small-Letter-Delta {sup 2}({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(chetnye}) B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n}. (2) 2{alpha}({omega}) Greek-Small-Letter-Delta ({omega}) = {Sigma}{sub n(nechetnye}) B{sup (n)}{omega}{sup n}. (3) Takim obrazom poluchajut preimushhestvo po sravneniju s obychnym metodom s ispol'zovaniem pul'sacii s bystrymi nejtronami, kotoroe zakljuchaetsja v izmerenii dvuh nezavisimyh velichin (dejstvitel'noj i mnimoj chast'ju volnovogo chisla), blagodarja kotorym mozhno poluchit' bol'she informacii o jadernyh svojstvah, predstavljajushhih interes. Pri provedenii jeksperimentov v kachestve zamedlitelja ispol'zovali grafit. Ispol'zovali dva razlichnyh istochnika teplovyh nejtronov. V odnom sluchae nejtrony s jenergiej 14 Mjev, poluchennye s pomoshh'ju uskoritelja Kokrofta-Uoltona, byli termalizovany v bake, soderzhashhem neskol'ko sloev zheleza, svinca i grafita, pogruzhennyh v vodu. Pozdnee s po* moshh'ju imejushhegosja vo Floridskom universitete uskoritelja Van de Graafa moshhnost'ju 4 Mjev byli polucheny nejtrony s jenergiej 29 kjev iz reakcii ( Li -r) , kotorye byli termalizovany v neskol'kih djujmah parafina. V oboih sluchajah ionnye puchki mogli byt' sinusoidal'no modulirovannymi ili pul'sirujushhimi. Rezul'taty analiza Fur'e, provedennogo s medlennymi impul'sami, prekrasno soglasujutsja s rezul'tatami, poluchennymi pri sinusoidal'nom vozbuzhdenii voln. Issleduemye chastoty byli v diapazone ot nulja do 1200 gc. V rezul'tate aproksimacii jeksperimental'nyh dannyh sposobom naimen'shih kvadratov s primeneniem uravnenij (4) i (5) byli polucheny sledujushhie rezul'taty: B{sup (0)} = B{sup 2}{sub Up-Tack} + a{sub 1}/L{sub 0} = (6.6 {+-} 0.1) 10{sup -3} (cm{sup -2}) (4) B{sup (1)} = a{sub 2}/D{sub 0} = (4.38 {+-} 0.2) 10{sup -6} (cm{sup -2}) (5) B{sup (2)} = {Sigma}{sub {gamma}} H{sub 0{gamma}}/ Empty-Set {sub {gamma}{gamma}} = (2.5 {+-} 0.2) 10{sup -10} ({gamma} = 0, 1, 2, .....10) (6) B{sup 2}{sub Up-Tack} = poperechnyj laplasian (cm{sup -2}) = 5.96 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup -2} otnosjatsja k matrichnym jelementam diffuzionnyh i termalizacionnyh operatorov. S pomoshh'ju uravnenija (5) opredeleno, chto znachenie D{sub 0} = (2.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/sek-l soglasuetsja s obychnymi izmerenijami impul'snyh nejtronov (5). Teoreticheskie raschety s ispol'zovaniem razlichnyh modelej jadra takzhe soglasujutsja s jeksperimental'nymi rezul'tatami. (author)

  17. ASSOTsIATsIYa GENETIChESKOGO POLIMORFIZMA GENOV RETsEPTORA VITAMINA D (VDR, KOLLAGENA AI TsEPI KOLLAGENA A I TIPA (COL1A1, I FAKTORA NEKROZA OPUKhOLE-A (TNFA I SOSTOYaNIYa MINERALIZATsII SKELETA U DETEY S BOLEZN'Yu KRONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TV GABRUSSKAYa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Болезнь Крона (БК - тяжелое аутоиммунное заболевание желудочно-кишечного тракта, влияющее на качество жизни, развитие ребенка и характеризующееся высоким риском инвалидизации. Изменения состояния костной ткани у пациентов с БК являются нередкими и проявляются задержкой линейного роста, снижением показателей минерализации скелета, изменениями костного метаболизма, повышенным риском низкоэнергетических переломов. Изменения костной ткани обусловлены сочетанием факторов болезни (мальабсорбция, терапия кортикостероидами, дефицит витамина D, низкая двигательная активность, дефицит инсоляции, задержка полового развития и генетических факторов, регулирующими костный метаболизм. Цель: проанализировать наличие ассоциации между показателями костного метаболизма и носительством полиморфных генетических маркеров генов VDR, COL1A1, TNFa. Материал и методы. В исследование включено 44 ребенка с БК (25 мальчиков и 19 девочек в возрасте от 3 до 17 лет. Исследование минерализации скелета осуществлялось методом двуэнергетической рентгеновской абсорбциоме-трии поясничного отдела позвоночника L1-L4 (денситометр Hologic QDR 4500C, оснащенный педиатрической референтной базой. Молекулярно-генетические исследования: определение 1546G/T полиморфизма гена al цепи коллагена I типа (COL1A1, TaqI полиморфизма гена рецептора витамина D (VDR, -308G/A полиморфизм гена фактора некроза опухолей-a (TNF-a осуществлялось методом полимеразной цепной реакции с последующим рестрикционным анализом. Оценивались показатели минеральной плотности кости (МПК, оцениваемые при помощи Z критерия (МПК-Zscore, дефицит МПК в процентах, частота низкой МПК (НМПК, которая определялась как МПК-Zscore < - 2 SD. Результаты. При изучении частот распределения полиморфных генотипов изученных генов у детей с НМПК и без, не было выявлено достоверных различий в общей группе, а также среди мальчиков и девочек. В показателях МПК-Zscore среди носителей TaqI полиморфных генотипов гена VDR в общей группе (р=0,51, группе мальчиков (р=0,7 и девочек (р=0,68. Среди носителей полиморфных 1546G/T генотипов гена (COL1A1 также не было выявлено различий в показателях МПК-Zscore в общей группе (р=0,79, группе мальчиков (р=0,42 и девочек (р=0,95. При изучении ассоциации -308 G/A полиморфизма гена TNF-a выявлено, что, пациенты, носители гетерозиготного генотипа m/n по сравнению с носителями гомозиготного генотипа n/n имели более низкие показатели МПК: МПК-Zscore = -2,35 SD (-3,4; -1,35 и -1,4 SD (-2,3; -0,5, p=(0,1, соответственно и дефицит МПК: -28,0% (-43,0; -15,5 и -11,5% (-22,5; -6,0, (р=0,034, соответственно Выводы. Выявлена ассоциация гетерозиготного полиморфного генотипа m/n гена -308 G/A TNF-a с более выраженными нарушениями МПК у детей с БК. Требуется продолжение исследований для уточнения роли полиморфных маркеров генов в реализации нарушений МПК у детей с БК.

  18. Pulsed Source Measurements on a Uranium-Water Subcritical Assembly; Mesures Faites sur un Assemblage Sous- Critique Uranium-Eau Ordinaire a l'Aide d'une Source Pulsee; Izmereniya s pomoshch'yu istochnikov impul'snykh nejtronov na urano-vodnoi podkriticheskoi sborke; Mediciones con Fuentes Pulsantes en un Conjunto Subcritico Uranio-Agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, I. H.; Walker, J. [Department of Physics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1964-02-15

    An unreflected assembly of natural uranium and light water has been used in conjunction with a pulsed source of neutrons for decay-time measurements at different bucklings. Four different lattice pitches over the range 3.94 cm to 5.08 cm were obtained by using different pairs of accurately machined lattice plates and in each case the uranium was in the form of bars 109.8 cm long and 3.0 cm diameter. The fuel- was mounted horizontally and loadings up to approximately 6 t were involved. Spatial harmonics were eliminated or selected by appropriate placing of a small scintillation detector. Experimental results showing the dependence of decay constant on buckling are presented and compared with theoretical values. (author) [French] On a utilise conjointement un assemblage sans reflecteur uranium naturel-eau ordinaire et une source puisee en vue de mesurer le temps de decroissance pour differents laplaciens. - Plusieurs paires de plaques de reseau usinees avec precision ont permis d'adopter quatre differents pas de reseau allant de 3,94cm a 5,08 cm; dans chaque cas, l'uranium etait sous forme de barres de 109,8 cm de long et de 3,0 cm de diametre. Le combustible etait monte horizontalement et le chargement a atteint parfois jusqu'a pres de 6 t. Grace a un petit detecteur a scintillations convenablement place, on a pu eliminer les harmoniques spatiaux ou les selectionner. Les auteurs presentent des resultats d'experiences qui montrent les variations de la constante de desintegration en fonction du laplacien, et les comparent avec les valeurs theoriques. (author) [Spanish] Los autores utilizaron un conjunto de uranio natural y agua ligera, sin reflector, juntamente con una fuente neutronica pulsante, para efectuar determinaciones del tiempo de desintegracion en correspondencia con diferentes valores del laplaciano. En este conjunto se pueden establecer cuatro diferentes espaciamientos del reticulado, desde 3,94 cm hasta 5,08 cm. utilizando diferentes pares de placas de reticulado rectificadas con precision; en todos los casos el uranio adopta la forma de barras de 109,8 cm de largo por 3,0 cm de diametro. El combustible se monta horizontalmente, alcanzando el peso de las cargas hasta unas 6 t. Se eliminan, o eligen a voluntad, los armonicos espaciales ubicando convenientemente un pequeno detector de centelleo. Los autores presentan resultados experimentales que indican la relacion de dependencia existente entre la constante de desintegracion y el laplaciano y los comparan con los valores hallados teoricamente. (author) [Russian] Sborka na prirodnom urane i legkoj vode bez otrazhatelja ispol'zuetsja sovmestno s istochnikom impul'snyh nejtronov dlja izmerenija vremeni raspada pri razlichnyh znachenijah laplasiana. Chetyre razlichnyh shaga reshetki na otrezke 3,94 - 5,8 sm byli polucheny putem ispol'zovanija razlichnyh par horosho obrabotannyh plastinok reshetki, v kazhdom sluchae uran byl v vide sterzhnej dlinoj 109,8 i diametrom 3,0 sm. Sterzhni ustanavlivalis' gorizontal'no, ves zagruzok sostavljal priblizitel'no 6 t. Prostranstvennye kolebanija ustranjalis' ili vydeljalis' putem sootvetstvujushhego ustanovlenija nebol'shogo scintilljacionnogo detektora. Budut predstavleny i sravneny s teoreticheskimi dannymi rezul'taty opytov, pokazyvajushhie zavisimost' postojannoj raspada ot laplasiana. (author)

  19. Industrial Ultrasonic Inspection of Stainless-Steel Claddings for the EL4 Reactor; Controle Industriel par Ultrasons des Gaines en Acier Inoxydable du Reacteur EL4; Promyshlennyj kontrol' obolochechnykh trub iz nerzhaveyushchej stali reaktora dlya EL4 s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvukovogo metoda; Metodos Ultrasonicos para Control Industrial de las Vainas de Acero Inoxidable del Reactor EL4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prot, A. C.; Foulquoer, H. E.; Peyrot, J. P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1965-09-15

    Improved reactor performance requires the use of accurately fabricated and carefully inspected components. One inspection relates to the quality of the cladding tubes, whose mechanical reliability is essential for economic reactor operation. The choice and development of a method is a difficult matter and the authors explain the main factors involved. Once the choice has been made and the method has been developed in the laboratory, two new problems arise: Adaptation to meet industrial requirements; and The need to reconcile the quality standards attainable with the manufacturing process at any given stage and the somewhat arbitrarily defined specifications for the finished product. In practice, this involves a statistical study of batches of tubes from various sources and their classification in relation to more or less strict thresholds. The number of tubes which have to be inspected is much larger than originally expected. This has led to the design of an automatic inspection device geared both to the output rates involved and to the requirements of the type of inspection adopted; the latter are generally mechanical and impose particularly careful product fabrication. These various characteristics are now embodied in a device whose capacity can already easily meet the requirements of a fuel-element production line. The potentialities of the device are closely dependent on the characteristics of the inspection equipment used, especially the performances of the electronic part of ultrasonic inspection instruments and of the transducers. This study shows that standard equipment is not very suitable and that immediate thought should be given to special instruments for this type of inspection. (author) [French] L'accroissement des performances des reacteurs necessite l'utilisation de materiaux finement elabores et soigneusement controles. L'un des aspects de ce controle est celui de la qualite des tubes de gainage utilises, dont la tenue mecanique est un facteur essentiel de rentabilite du reacteur. Il s'avere que le choix de la methode a utiliser et a mettre au point est delicat; le memoire en donne les elements essentiels. Ce choix etant fait, apres mise au point en laboratoire, deux nouveaux problemes se posent: - la transposition dans le domaine industriel; - la necessite de tenir compte de la qualite permise, a un instant determine, par les procedes de fabrication, en relation avec les normes de reception definies de maniere plus ou moins arbitraire. Ceci se traduit en fait par la necessite d'une etude statistique sur des lots de tubes de diverses provenances, et leur classement par rapport a des seuils plus ou moins severes. On verra que le nombre de tubes a controler est tres superieur a celui prevu initialement. Cela conduit a l'etude d'une machine de controle automatique, capable de satisfaire a la fois les exigences de cadence et celles propres au type de controle choisi: ces dernieres sont generalement d'ordre mecanique et necessitent une construction particulierement soignee. L'ensemble de ces considerations a conduit a concevoir une machine dont la cadence peut des maintenant couvrir sans difficulte les besoins d'une chaihe de fabrication d'elements combustibles. Les possibilites de cette machine sont etroitement liees aux caracteristiques du materiel de controle choisi, en particulier aux performances de l'electronique des appareils de controle par ultrasons et a celles des traducteurs utilises. Il resulte d'ailleurs de cette etude que le materiel standard ne repond que tres imparfaitement au probleme et que l'on doit envisager des maintenant un appareillage particulier pour ce type de controle. (author) [Spanish] Las mayores exigencias a que se someten los reactores obligan a utilizar materiales elaborados y controlados con sumo cuidado. Un aspecto de tal control se refiere a la calidad de las vainas empleadas, cuyas propiedades mecanicas ejercen una influencia decisiva sobre la rentabilidad del reactor. La eleccion del metodo a utilizar representa un proceso delicado, cuyas consideraciones fundamentales se exponen en el presente trabajo. Una vez elegido el metodo y puesto a punto en el laboratorio, surgen dos nuevos problemas: Transposicion a escala industrial. Necesidad de tener siempre presente la calidad que puede alcanzarse en la industria, en relacion con normas de aceptacion definidas de manera mas o menos arbitraria. En la practica, ello obliga a realizar un estudio estadistico sobre partidas de tubos de diversos origenes y clasificarlos teniendo en cuenta umbrales de aceptacion de distintos grados de severidad. Como se ve en el trabajo, el numero de tubos a controlar es muy superior al previsto inicialmente. Este hecho indujo a estudiar una maquina de control automatico, capaz de satisfacer al mismo tiempo las exigencias de la cantidad y las propias del tipo de control seleccionado; estas ultimas son por lo general de orden mecanico y requieren una construccion especialmente esmerada. El conjunto de estas consideraciones llevo a concebir una maquina capaz de satisfacer sin dificultad las necesidades de una cadena de fabricacion'de elementos combustibles. Las posibilidades de esta maquina estan estrechamente ligadas a las caracteristicas del material descontrol escogido, sobre todo al rendimiento de los circuitos electronicos correspondientes a los aparatos de control por metodos ultrasonicos y al de los transductores utilizados. Se deduce del presente estudio, por otra parte, que el material corriente no responde al problema sino de manera muy imperfecta, y que se debe encarar desde ya el proyecto de un aparato especial para este tipo de control. (author) [Russian] Uluchshenie rabochih harakteristik reaktorov trebuet primenenija tshhatel'no razrabotannyh i strogo kontroliruemyh materialov. Odnim iz aspektov jetogo kontrolja javljaetsja kachestvo ispol'zuemyh pokrytij dlja trub, mehanicheskoe sostojanie kotoryh predstavljaet soboj sushhestvennyj faktor rentabel'nosti reaktorov. Podtverzhdaetsja, chto vybor metoda, kotoryj sleduet primenjat' i razrabatyvat', javljaetsja trudnym. Privodjatsja osnovnye momenty. Posle togo, kak v rezul'tate laboratornyh rabot sdelan vybor, voznikajut dve novye problemy: D) vnedrenie v promyshlennost' neobhodimost' ucheta dopustimogo kachestva v opredelennyj moment metodami izgotovlenija v svjazi s ustanovlennymi bolee ili menee proizvol'nym obrazom normami dlja priema. Jeto, v dejstvitel'nosti, obuslavlivaetsja neobhodimost'ju v statisticheskom issledovanii komplektov trub razlichnogo izgotovlenija i ih klassifikacii po otnosheniju k bolee ili menee strogim normam. Vidno, chto kolichestvo podlezhashhih kontrolju trub znachitel'no prevyshaet pervonachal'no namechennoe. Jeto vedet k izucheniju avtomaticheskogo kontrol'nogo mehanizma, sposobnogo udovletvorit' odnovremenno i trebovanijam tempa, i trebovanijam, vytekajushhim iz vybrannogo tipa kontrolja: poslednie obychno svodjatsja k mehanicheskomu kontrolju i nuzhdajutsja v osobenno tshhatel'no razrabotannoj konstrukcii. Sovokupnost' jetih soobrazhenij privela k razrabotke ustrojstva, temp raboty kotorogo uzhe sejchas mozhet bez truda pokryt' potrebnosti vsego cikla proizvodstva toplivnyh jelementov. Vozmozhnosti jetogo ustrojstva tesno svjazany s harakteristikami podobrannogo oborudovanija navedenija i kontrolja, v osobennosti so svojstvami jelektroniki priborov kontrolja po ul'trazvuku i so svojstvami ispol'zuemyh preobrazovatelej. K tomu zhe iz jetogo issledovanija javstvuet, chto standartnoe oborudovanie daleko ne sootvetstvuet probleme i chto uzhe sejchas sleduet predusmotret' osoboe ustrojstvo dlja dannogo tipa kontrolja. (author)

  20. Analysis of Scan Records with a Recording Densitometer - The ''Re-Scanner''; Etude d'un Grand Collimateur a Focalisation et Fort Pouvoir de Resolution: Resultats; Analiz skenogramm s pomoshch'yu registriruyushchego densitometra - ''re-skenner''; Diseno y Funcionamiento de un Gran Colimador Enfocado de Alto Poder de Resolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C. C.; Bell, P. R.; Satterfield, M. M.; Ross, D. A.; Jordan, J. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1964-10-15

    The impact of improvements in scanning equipment has not been fully felt at the clinical level, largely because of deficiencies in scan recording. In an attempt to improve visualization and contrast in scan records, various instrumental methods of analysis have been devised. We have devised a simple and comparatively inexpensive recording densitometer for ''re-scanning'' scan records. A light-sensor scans the record just as a scanner scans a patient. The output of the device is a pulse rate proportional to the opacity (or transmission) of the record, and may be used to make a new, or ''re-scan'', record. The area of the record over which information is integrated is set by sensor aperture. The wide range of output pulse-rates (zero to 15 000 parts/s) causes large and adjustable contrast amplification. A threshold control provides any ''cut-off level'' of choice. Operation is rapid, and a record can be re-scanned in a small fraction of the time required to obtain the original record. Studies on clinical scans of almost every organ or area of interest show that the re-scanner reveals information not at first evident in original scan records. It has been particularly useful in determining the statistical significance of small variations in counting rate in a scan record. In scan records of large dynamic range where no single cut-off level satisfactorily shows all regions of interest, re-scans at several cut-off levels were once necessary. A two-region sensor, that views a region of the record around the field of view of the main sensor, has been used in an attempt to overcome this difficulty. At least three modes of operation are possible with the two-region sensor: (1) ''normal'' operation; (2) ignoring general record density and responding only to small variations, thus setting its own cut-off level; and (3) reporting only abrupt changes in record density. Other modes seem to be possible. This relatively simple and inexpensive device is proving to be of valuable assistance in the interpretation of scan records. (author) [French] U s perfectionnements des appareils de scintigraphie n'ont pas eu d'effet comparable sur le plan clinique, surtout en raison des imperfections des enregistrements scintigraphiques. En vue d'ameliorer la visualisation et le contraste des scintigrammes, on a mis au point divers appareils d'analyse. Les auteurs ont concu un densitometre enregistreur, assez simple et relativement peu couteux, qui permet de 'scintigraphier' les scintigrammes. Une cellule photoelectrique explore le scintigramme, tout comme un detecteur ascintillation explore le patient. Les impulsions a la sortie de l'appareil sont proportionnelles a la densite du scintigramme et elles peuvent etre utilisees pour etablir un nouvel enregistrement. La surface du scintigramme pour laquelle on integre les informations est determinee par l'ouverture de la c ellule . La gamme etendue des impulsions a la sortie (de zero a 15 000 impulsions/s) permet d'amplifier fortement et a volonte le contraste. Un dispositif special permet de choisir a l'avance un ' seuil de coupure' L'operation est rapide, si bien qu'un scintigramme peut etre explore en une fraction du temps qui avait ete necessaire pour l'etablir. L*etude de scintigrammes cliniques de presque tous les organes ou regions interessants a permis de constater que le densitometre enregistreur revele des informations qui n'apparaissaient pas clairement sur le scintigramme. Cet appareil a ete particulierement utile pour determiner la signification statistique de legeres variations du taux de comptage dans un scintigramme. Pour les scintigrammes representant de fortes variations de la radioactivite, ou un seul seuil de coupure du densitometre ne donne pas une image satisfaisante de toutes les zones interessantes, il fallait autrefois faire plusieurs explorations avec differents seuils de coupure. Pour surmonter cette difficulte, on a eu recours a une c ellule a deux plages qui explore le scintigramme autour du champ de vision de la c ellule principale. On peut l 'utiliser d'au moins trois manieres: a) normalement; b) sans tenir compte de la densite generale du sci ntigramme, pour n 'accuser que de faibles variations de la densite (en fixant alors son propre seuil de coupure); c) pour n'enregistrer que de brusques variations de la densite du scintigramme. Il semble que d'autres modes d'utilisation soient egalement possibles. Cet appareil, relativement simple et peu couteux, se revele extremement utile pour l'interpretation des scintigrammes. (author) [Spanish] El perfeccionamiento de los aparatos de centelleografia no ha repercutido como debiera en los estudios clinicos debido, en gran parte, a las deficiencias de los centelleogramas. Para mejorar la visualizacion y acentuar el contraste se han estudiado diversos metodos instrumentales de analisis. Los autores han ideado un densitometro registrador sencillo y poco costoso para 'reexplorar' centelleogramas. Un elemento fotosensible analiza el centelleograma de la misma manera que el detector explora al paciente. Ese elemento responde con impulsos de frecuencia proporcional a la opacidad (o capacidad de transmision) del registro y puede utilizarse para hacer otro nuevo (registro de ' reexploracion'). El area del registro respecto a la cual se integra la informacion, se determina fijando la apertura del elemento fotosensible. El amplio margen de la frecuencia de los impulsos de salida (entre 0 y 15 000 impulsos/s) da lugar a un gran aumento del contraste, que es posible graduar. Un regulador de umbral permite preseleccionar cualquier ' nivel de corte' . La operacion es rapida y es posible reexplorar un registro en una pequena fraccion del tiempo que se necesito para obtenerlo. El estudio de centelleogramas clinicos de casi todos los organos o zonas de interes maestra que la reexploracion proporciona datos que no eran evidentes en los centelleogramas originales. Ese metodo resulta especialmente util para determinar la significacion estadistica de pequenas variaciones del fndice de recuento en un centelleograma. Con los centelleogramas de intervalo dinamico muy amplio, en los que un solo nivel de corte no revela todas las regiones de interes, era preciso anteriormente trabajar a diversos niveles. Para allanar esta dificultad, los autores han tratado de emplear un elemento fotosensible bizonal que analiza una region del centelleograma situada alrededor del campo de vision del elemento principal. Este dispositivo se puede emplear, por l'o menos, de tres maneras diferentes: a) de manera ' n o rm a l' ; b) prescindiendo de la densidad general del registro y respondiendo solamente a pequenas variaciones, fijando asi su propio nivel de corte; c) indicando solamente cambios bruscos de densidad. Tambien parecen posibles otros procedimientos de empleo. Ese dispositivo relativamente sencillo y poco costoso es sumamente util para la interpretacion de centelleogramas. (author) [Russian] Vlijanie usovershenstvovanij v skennirujushhem oborudovanii ne chuvstvovalos' polnost'ju na klinicheskom urovne v znachitel'noj mere vvidu nedostatkov registracii skenn ogram m. Dlja uluchshenija izobrazhenija i kontrastnosti pri skenniorovanii byli razrabotany razlichnye instrumental'nye metody analiza. Avtory sozdali prostoj i sravnitel'no nedorogostojashhij registrirujushhij densitometr dlja ''povtornogo skennirovanija'' skennogramm. Legkij chuvstvitel'nyj jelement skenniruet diagrammu tochno t akzhe, kak skenner pacienta. Moshhnost' ustrojstv a javljaetsja ravnoj kojefficientu impul'sa, proporcional'nomu neprozrachnosti (ili peredache) izobrazhenija i mozhet i sp ol' zov at' sja dlja togo, chtoby sdelat' novoe ili ''reskennirovannoe'' i zobrazhenie. Ploshhad' diagrammy, s kotoroj obobshhaetsja informacija, ustanavlivaetsja otverstiem, snabzhennym chuvstvitel'nym jelementom. Shirokij diapazon kojefficientov moshhnosti impul'sov (ot 0 do 15 000 impul'sov v sekundu) vyzyvaet znachitel'noe i reguliroemoe uvelichenie kontrastnosti. Porogovyj kontrol' d a et ljuboj ''sokrashhennyj uroven'' vybora. Rabota provoditsja bystro, i diagramma mozhet byt' reskennirovana v techenie nebol'shogo promezhutka vremeni, neobhodim ogo dlja poluchenija pervonachal'nogo izobrazhenija. Issledovanija v oblasti klinicheskogo skennirovanija pochti ljubogo organa ili rajona., predstavljajushhego interes, pokazyvajut, chto rerazvertyvatel' daet informaciju, ne vidimuju snachala na di agram mah pri pervonachal'nom skennirovanii. Jeto bylo osobenno poleznym pri opredelenii st atisticheskogo znachenija nebol'shih izmenenij v kojefficiente scheta pri skennirujushhem izobrazhenii. . Pri diagrammah, poluchennyh metodom skennirovanija, bol'shogo dinamicheskogo diapazo n a , gle nikakoj otdel'nyj sokrashhennyj urov en' udovletv orit el'no ne pokazy vaet vse rajony, predstavljajushhie interes, vnov' byli neobhodimy rerazvertyvateli na nekotoryh sokrashhennyh urovnjah. V popytke preodolet' je t u trudnost' ispol'zovalsja dvuhdiapazonnyj chuvstvitel'nyj jel em en t , kotoryj ohvatyvaet rajon registracii vokrug o bl a sti nabljudenija glavnogo chuvstvitel'nogo jel em en t a . Po krajnej m er e , vozmozhny tri vida jek s pluatacii pribora s dvuhdiapazonnym chuvstvitel'nym jelemen tom: 1) ''normal'naja'' je k s pluatacija; 2) ignorirovanie obshhej plotnosti izobrazhenija i reakcija tol'ko na nebol'shie izmenenija, ustanavlivaja takim obrazom svoj sobstvennyj sokrashhennyj uroven'; 3) soobshhenie tol'ko o vnezapnyh izmenenijah v plotnosti registracii. Po-vidimomu, vozmozhny takzhe drugie vidy. Jeto sravnitel'no prostoj i nedorogostojashhij pribor obespechivaet okazanie cennoj pomoshhi v interpretacii diagramm, proizvedennyh metodom skennirovanija. (author)

  1. The Design and Performance of a Large High resolution Focusing Collimator; Etude d'un Grand Collimateur a Focalisation et Fort Pouvoir de Resolution: Resultats; Konstruktsiya i kharakteristika krupnogo fokusiruyushchego kollimatora s vysokoj stepen'yu razresheniya; Diseno y Funcionamiento de un Gran Colimador Enfocado de Alto Poder de Resolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C. C.; Bell, P. R.; Satterfield, M. M.; Ross, D. A.; Jordan, J. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1964-10-15

    The primary reason for use of a ''focusing collimator'' is to permit the use of a large detector giving increased counting rate without loss of spatial resolving power. Since many apertures aimed at a common point are used, a sort of ''focusing'' effect is achieved. Because the septa between the apertures are necessarily thin, penetration of these walls by gamma rays causes a loss of spatial resolution. Tungsten and gold have been used (for 3-in-diam. detectors) to reduce this penetration as compared with lead. Reducing penetration by using a longer lead collimator damages the main design objective, that of increased counting rate, unless a larger detector is also used. We have designed and constructed a 91-hole lead collimator for use with a 5.25-in (13. 5 cm) by 3-in (7.5 cm) NaI(Tl) detector. The focal point is 9.5 in (24 cm) from the detector, and the solid angle of ac ceptance is the same as focusing collimators in common use with 3 -in detectors. The maximum length is 6.5 in (16.5 cm); normal design length is 5.5 in (14 cm). At these lengths, the optical ''circles of resolution'' are 0.476 in (1.2 cm) and 0. 304 in (0.77 cm) respectively. The designs achieved the following: (1) A longer focal distance with an increase of counting efficiency due to the larger phosphor; (2) a lead collimator with a resolving power comparable with shorter gold c o llimators (a scan of a point source of Cs-Ba{sup 137} appears only 7 mm in diam.); (3) a high-resolution collimator for human and small animal scanning; (4) a basic assembly design for use with larger-solid-angle collimators for increased counting efficiency. Total-body scans have been made with Au{sup 198} and I{sup 131}. The scans indicate the increased efficiency and resolution of the 5.5-in collimator. A scan (Au198) of a dog with the 6.5 - in collimator showed well a concentration of activity apparently less than 1/4 in (6 mm) in diam.; the activity was only five times ''body background'' but was clearly separated by 1/4 in from a |- in diam. source about 50 times more intense. (author) [French] Le collimateur a focalisation a pour principal avantage de permettre l'emploi d'un grand detecteur pour augmenter le taux de comptage sans diminuer la resolution dans l 'espace. Un grand nombre d 'orifices etant orientes vers un point unique, on obtient une sorte d'effet ' d e focalisation ' Etant donne que les parois entre les orifices sont obligatoirement minces, la penetration de ces parois par les rayons gamma provoque une diminution de la resolution dans l'espace. Afin d'attenuer cette penetration, on a utilise, au lieu de plomb, le tungstene et l 'or pour les detecteurs de 7,5 cm de diametre. A moins d'utiliser aussi un plus grand detecteur, le fait d'utiliser un collimateur en plomb plus long pour reduire la penetration compromet l 'objectif essentiel de l 'etude de l 'appareil; qui est d'augmenter le taux de comptage. Les auteurs ont etudie et construit un collimateur en plomb, a 91 orifices, destine a etre utilise avec un detecteur a NaI(Tl) de 13,5 cm sur 7,5 cm. Le foyer est a 24 cm detecteur, et l'angle solide d'acceptation est le meme que pour les collimateurs a focalisation utilises couramment avec des detecteurs de 7,5 cm. La longueur maximum est de 16,5 cm; la longueur normale de l 'appareil etudie est de 14 cm. A ces longueurs, les 'cercles de resolution'optiques sont de 1,2 cm et 0,77 cm, respectivement. Les resultats de l 'etude sont les suivants: a) distance focale plus longue et augmentation de l 'efficacite de comptage, grace a l'emploi d'un scintillateur de plus grandes dimensions; b) collimateur en plomb, avec resolution comparable a c elle de collimateurs en or, plus courts (sur le scintigramme, l'image d'une source ponctuelle de Cs-{sup 137}Ba ne mesure que 7 mm de diametre); c) collimateur a fort pouvoir de resolution, pour la scintigraphie de l'homme et des petits animaux; d) ensemble standard destine a etre utilise avec des collimateurs a plus grand angle solide, en vue d'augmenter l'efficacite de comptage. Des scintigrammes de l'organisme entier ont ete obtenus au moyen de '{sup 198}Au et de {sup 131}I. Ces scintigrammes montrent que le collimateur de 14 cm a une plus grande efficacite et une plus grande resolution. Sur un scintigramme ({sup 198}Au) de chien obtenu au moyen du collimateur de 16,5 cm, on a discerne nettement une zone active d'un diametre apparent inferieur a 6 mm; l'activite n'etait que cinq fois superieure au bruit de fond du aux tissus, mais la zone active etait nettement separee par un espace d 0,6 cm d'une source environ cinquante fois plus intense ayant un diametre de 1,8 cm. (author) [Spanish] Los 'colimadores enfocados' permiten utilizar detectores de grandes dimensiones que dan un indice de recuento mayor sin perdida del poder de resolucion espacial. Como estos colimadores tienen muchos canales dirigidos hacia un mismo punto se obtiene con ellos una especie de efecto 'de enfoque'. Los tabiques de esc' canales son necesariamente delgados y, por consiguiente, le' rayos gamma los atraviesan en detrimento de la resolucion espacial. A fin de reducir esa penetracion se han empleado, para detectores de 3 pulg de diametro, colimadores de wolframio y oro, de preferencia a los de plomo. Si se reduce la penetracion empleando un colimador de plomo mas largo se malogra la finalidad perseguida ya que el indice de recuento disminuye, a no ser que se emplee tambien un detector de mayores dimensiones. Los autores han disenado y construido un colimador de plomo de 91 canales para emplearlo con un detector de Nal(Tl) de 5,25 pulg (13,5 cm) por 3 pulg (7,5 cm). El foco esta situado a 9,5 pulg (24 cm) del detector, y el angulo solido de admision es igual al de los colimadores enfocados que se emplean corrientemente con detectores de 3 pulg. La longitud maxima es de 6,5 pulg (16 ,5 cm); la normal es de 5,5 pulg (14 cm). Para estas longitudes, los 'circulos de resolucion' opticos son, respectivamente, de 0.476 pulg (1,2 cm) y 0,304 pulg (0,77 cm). Se han logrado las siguientes mejoras: a) un incremento de la distancia focal con un aumento de la eficacia de recuento debida al empleo de un cristal de mayores dimensiones; b) un colimador de plomo con un poder de resolucion comparable al de los colimadores de oro mas cortos (la imagen de una fuente puntiforme de Cs-137 Ba tiene solo 7 mm de diametro) ; c) un colimador de alto poder de resolucion para la exploracion en seres humanos y animales pequenos; d) una estructura basica disenada de modo que permite emplear co limadores de angulo solido mayor para incrementar la eficacia de recuento. Se han efectuado exploraciones del organismo entero con oro-198 y yodo-131. Las imagenes indican una mejora de la eficacia y del poder de resolucion del colimador de 5 ,5 pulg. La imagen de un perro obtenida con el colimador de 6,5 pulg en una exploracion efectuada con oro-198 mostro muy bien una concentracion de actividad de un diametro aparentemente de menos de 0,25 pulg (6 mm); la actividad era solo cinco veces mayor que el 'fondo corporal', pero quedaba claramente separada por 0,25 pulg de una fuente de 0,75 pulg de diametro unas 50 veces mas intensa. (author) [Russian] Osnovnaja prichina ispol'zovanija ''fokusirujushhego kollimatora'' svoditsja k t om u , chtoby pozvolit' ispol'zovat' krupnyj d et ek t or , dajushhij povyshennuju skorost' scheta b e z poteri prostranstvennoj razreshajushhej sp o so bn o s ti . Poskol'ku ispol'zuetsja neskol'ko apertur, napravlennyh na odnu obshhuju tochku, dosti ga et sja horoshij ''okusirujushhij'' jeffekt. Vvidu neobhodimosti imet' tonkuju peregorodku mezhdu aperturami, proniknovenie skvoz' jeti stenki gamma-luchej vyzyvaet poterju prostranstvennogo razreshenija. Byli ispol'zovany vol'fram i zoloto (dlja detektorov diametrom 7,5 sm) dlja togo, chtoby umen'shit' jeto , chto dalo vozmozhnost' provesti proniknovenie po sravneniju s t em , kogda primenjaetsja svinec. Umen'shenie proniknovenija za schet primenenija udlinennogo svincovogo kollimatora nanosit ushherb osnovnym konstrukcionnym celjam iz - z a uvelichenija skorosti sch et a , esli ne ispol'zuetsja takzhe krupnyj det ek tor. Avtory sproektirovali i sozdali svincovyj kollimator s 91 otverstiem dlja ispol'zovanija s d et ektorom NaJ (T 1 ) r a zm er om 13,5 h 7,5 s m . Fokus nahoditsja na rasstojanii 24 sm ot d et ek tora , a prostranstvennyj ugol vosprijatija analogichen uglam fokusirujushhih kollimatorov pri odnovremennom ispol'zovanii ih s detektorami na 7,5 sm . Maksimal'naja dlina sostavlja et 16,5 sm ; obychnaja dlina konstrukcii sost avlja et 14 sm . Pri dannyh velichinah dliny opticheskie ''okruzhnosti razreshenija'' sostavljajut sootvetstvenno 1,2 i 0,77 sm . Jeti konstrukcii dajut sledujushhee: 1 . Bol e e dlinnoe fokusnoe r a s stojan i e s odn o vremennym uvelicheniem jeffektivnosti scheta blagodarja b ol e e krupnomu ljuminoforu. 2 . Svincovyj kollimator s razreshajushhej sposobnost'ju, kotoruju mozhno sravnit' s bolee korotkimi kollimatorami iz zolot a (skennogramma t ochechnogo istochnika C s-V a 137 imeet di ametr v sego 7 m m ) . 3. Kollimator s vysokoj stepen'ju razreshenija dlja skennirovanija chelovecheskogo organizma i melkih zhivotnyh. 4. Osnovnaja konstrukcija sborki dlja ispol'zovanija kollimatorov s bolee krupnym prostranstvennym uglom dlja uvelichenija jeffektivnosti scheta. Polucheny skennogrammy v sego organizma s primeneniem zolota -198 i jod a -131. Obnaruzhena vozrosshaja jeffektivnost' i razreshenie 14-sm kollimatora. Na skennogramme sobaki s 16,5 sm kollimatorom horosho vidna koncentracija aktivnosti, imejushhaja, ochevidno, v Diametre menee 6m m; aktivnost',lish' v 5 raz prevyshajushhaja ''fon organizma'', vse zhe byla chetko otdelena rasstojaniem 6 mm ot istochnika diametrom 1,8 sm s bolee vysokim (v 50 raz) urovnem aktivnosti. (author)

  2. Report on the survey of the project on the environmentally friendly type energy community field test. Separate volume - reference data. Investigative project for development and commercialization of recycle technology of waste edible oil; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy community field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Hai shokuryo yu no recycle gijutsu kaihatsu to jitsuyoka no tameno chosa jigyo (Bessatsu - Sanko shiryo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    For the purpose of promoting the effective utilization of biomass resource, an investigative study was made on the development of recycle technology of waste edible oil. In the survey, the following were carried out and the results were summarized: promotion measures for biodiesel oil by the EU, promotion measures for biodiesel oil by other countries including Canada, promotion measures for biodiesel oil by the US's Department of Energy (DOC), actual results of the use of biodiesel oil in Kyoto City, reference data on biodiesel oil in Japan, and tackling toward the promotion of BDF in the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. As to the transportation use fuel in the EU in the coming 20 years, biofuel, natural gas and hydrogen seem to be selected. If measures are positively taken, biofuel is expected to be 2%, 6%, 7% and 8% in FY 2005, FY 2010, FY 2015 and FY 2020, respectively. Also, natural gas is expected to be 2% in FY 2010, 5% in FY 2015 and 10% in FY 2020, and hydrogen is expected to be 2% in FY 2015 and 5% in FY 2020. (NEDO)

  3. 16-channel analyser with high time-resolution for multiple coincidence experiments; Selecteur a 16 canaux a temps de resolution eleve pour experiences de coincidences multiples; Ispol'zovanie shestiadtsatikanal'nogo analizatora s bol'shoj razreshayushchej sposobnost'yu po vremeni dlya opytov s mnogokratnymi sovpadeniyami; Analizador de 16 canales de elevado poder temporal de resolucion para experimentos de coincidencias multiples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B; Cappeller, U [University of Marburg, Marburg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1962-04-15

    In usual slow-fast-coincidence experiments such events are counted which are selected in pulse-height by means of single-channel analysers. It is desirable to extend these techniques to a simultaneous energy-analysis of the pulses, selecting pulse-heights by means of multi-channel analysers. Multi-channel analysers used to perform such multiple coincidence experiments should give information about the amplitudes of arriving pulses at a well defined time-interval after the rising of the analysed pulse. A 16-channel pulse-height analyser is described which permits the generation of a pulse-height signal 2.5 x 10{sup -6} s after pulse-rising with an uncertainty of less than {+-} 2 x 10{sup -8} s. The resolving-time is less than 5 x 10{sup -6} s, controlled by an inspector-circuit to avoid distortions arising from the pile-up of pulses. The channel width is controlled by a window-amplifier, adjustable from 1 V to 7 V. The channel-height may be selected from 7 V to 103 V in steps of 0.5 V. (author) [French] En general, dans les experiences de coincidences lentes-rapides, on compte des evenements traduits sous forme d'impulsions dont l'amplitude est selectionnee a l'aide de selecteurs a un seul canal. Il est souhaitable d'etendre cette technique a l'analyse simultanee de l'energie des impulsions, en selectionnant les amplitudes au moyen de selecteurs a canaux multiples. Les selecteurs multi-canaux utilises pour ces experiences de coincidences multiples devraient fournir une indication sur les amplitudes des impulsions d'entree a un intervalle de temps bien defini, apres la montee de l'impulsion analysee. Les auteurs decrivent un selecteur d'amplitude a 16 canaux, qui delivre un signal 2,5 {center_dot} 10{sup -6} s apres l'etablissement de l'impulsion avec une erreur inferieure a {+-} 2 {center_dot} 10{sup -8} s. Le temps de resolution, inferieur a 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -6} s, est commande par un circuit special pour eviter les derangements qui resulteraient de l'empilement des impulsions. La largeur du canal est commandee par un amplificateur a fenetre, ajustable entre 1 V et 7 V. La hauteur du canal peut etre reglee entre 7 V et 103 V, de 0,5 V en 0,5 V. (author) [Spanish] En los experimentos de coincidencia lenta-rapida se cuentan generalmente sucesos cuya amplitud de impulso ha sido seleccionada por medio de analizadores de un solo canal. Resulta conveniente lograr que estas tecnicas permitan analizar simultaneamente las energias de varios impulsos, seleccionando sus amplitudes por medio de analizadores de canales multiples. Los analizadores que se emplean en los experimentos de coincidencia multiple deben informar sobre las amplitudes de los impulsos incidentes (ordenandolos en canales de amplitud) tras un intervalo de tiempo bien definido despues de establecido el impulso que se analiza. Se describe un analizador de amplitudes de impulso de 16 canales que permite generar una senal de amplitud de impulso 2,5 x 10{sup -6} s despues de establecido este, con un error inferior a 2 x 10{sup -8} s. El tiempo de resolucion es menor de 5 x 10{sup -6} s y esta controlado por un circuito inspector para evitar distorsiones debidas a la acumulacion de impulsos. La anchura del canal, controlada por un amplificador de ventana, es ajustable entre 1 y 7 V. La posicion del canal puede variarse entre 7 y 103 V a intervalos de 0,5 V. (author) [Russian] Pri obychnykh opytakh s medlennymi i bystrymi sovpadeniyami proizvoditsya otschet velichin, kotorye vybirayutsya po amplitude impul'sov pri pomoshchi odnokanal'nykh analizatorov. Predstavlyaetsya zhelatel'nym rasprostranit' ehti metody na odnovremennyj analiz ehnergii impul'sov, putem otbora impul'sov po amplitude pri pomoshchi mnogokanal'nykh analizatorov. Mnogokanal'nye analizatory, primenyaemye dlya proizvodstva takogo roda opytov s mnogokratnymi sovpadeniyami, dolzhny davat' svedeniya otnositel'no amplitudy postupayushchikh impul'sov (raspredelyaya ikh po amplitudnym kanalam) v tochno opredelennye promezhutki vremeni posle narastaniya issleduemogo impul'sa. Opisyvaetsya shestikanal'nyj amplitudnyj analizator impul'sov, pozvolyayushchij proizvodit' signaly amplitudy impul'sa cherez 2,5 x 10{sup -6} sekundy posle narastaniya impul'sa s predelom pogreshnosti menee, chem {+-} 2 x 10{sup -8} sekundy. Vremya razresheniya ne prevyshaet 5 x 10{sup -6} sekund; vo izbezhanie iskazheniya v rezul'tate nakopleniya impul'sov ehto vremya reguliruetsya kontrol'nym konturom. SHirina kanala reguliruetsya usilitelem s oknom, kotoryj mozhet regulirovat'sya v intervale ot 1 v do 7 v. Vysota kanala mozhet vybirat'sya cherez kazhdye 0,5 v v intervale ot 7 v do 103 v. (author)

  4. Report on the survey of the project on the environmentally friendly type energy community field test. Investigative project for development and commercialization of recycle technology of waste edible oil; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy community field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Hai shokuryo yu no recycle gijutsu kaihatsu to jitsuyoka no tameno chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    An investigative study was made of the use of waste edible oil as fuel and recycle use of residual food in the food service business. As to the existence/recovery of edible oil, it was found out that waste edible oil of 15.9g/meal per capita was discharged at multiple wide-area distributed shops and that the total amount reached 1,861kl/y in the country. Concerning the technology for using it as biodiesel fuel, Ronford Co., which has the most actual results of the technology, recovers waste edible oil in Kyoto City, refines it and uses it as fuel for the City's garbage truck. About the use of waste edible oil as boiler use fuel, there are examples in Sapporo Grand Hotel, which has been contributing to energy conservation for more than five years. In the assessment of the profitability as project, for the direct combustion for boiler fuel use, the same/large heat supply system is a prerequisite, and for the hot stove loaded type direct combustion, there is an element of the technology development. Therefore, the use as bio-diesel fuel is most expected, though there is a taxation problem. (NEDO)

  5. Study on Restriction Contract in Huizhou during Qing Dynasty-48 Pieces of Restriction Contract in Huizhou of Yu Jiang's Collection%论清代徽州禁约合同--以俞藏48件徽州禁约文书为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云朝; 童旭

    2014-01-01

    Restriction contract is a kind of contract documents in which the clansmen and fellow villagers covenant and negotiate penalty provisions to prohibit stealing and chopping trees,protecting Lailong, Shuikou and other affairs.It has a broad application scope and diverse types;meanwhile the main contrac-ting body is generally a clan,an association or a union of people with different surnames.The contents trend to embody compulsory regulations on prohibition and punishment.The validity of restriction contract is guaranteed by self protection or “submitting to the government for treatment.”As the necessary comple-ment and extension of the national law,it plays an important role in the construction of the basic social or-ders.%禁约合同是同族、同村人等为禁止盗窃、砍伐树木、保护来龙与水口等事务,共同立约承诺并议定罚则的合同文书。其适用领域广泛,类型多样,订立主体多为宗族、会社以及数姓的联合;内容上更多地体现为禁止、惩罚等强制性规范。对违禁行为进行私力救济或“呈官究治”,保证了禁约合同效力的实施。作为国家法的必要补充和延伸,禁约合同在基层社会秩序的构建中扮演了十分重要的角色。

  6. Compilation of the ``Atlas of Gamma-rays from the Inelastic Scattering of Reactor Fast Neutrons'' (1978DE41) by A.M. Demidov, L.I. Govor, Yu. K. Cherepantsev, M.R. Ahmed, S. Al-Najjar, M.A. Al-Amili, N. Al-Assafi, and N. Rammo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Aaron M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bernstein, Lee A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chong, Su-Ann [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-26

    A Structured Query Language (SQL) relational database has been developed based on the original (n,n'gamma) work carried out by A.M. Demidov et al., at the Nuclear Research Institute in Baghdad, Iraq [``Atlas of Gamma-Ray Spectra from the Inelastic Scattering of Reactor Fast Neutrons'', Nuclear Research Institute, Baghdad, Iraq (Moscow, Atomizdat 1978)] for 105 independent measurements comprising 76 elemental samples of natural composition and 29 isotopically-enriched samples. The information from this ATLAS includes: gamma-ray energies and intensities; nuclide and level data corresponding to where the gamma-ray originated from; target (sample) experimental-measurement data. Taken together, this information allows for the extraction of the flux-weighted (n,n'gamma) cross sections for a given transition relative to a defined value. Currently, we are using the fast-neutron flux-weighted partial gamma-ray cross section from ENDF/B-VII.1 for the production of the 847-keV transition from the first excited 2+ state to the 0+ ground state in 56Fe, 468 mb. This value also takes into account contributions to the 847-keV transition following beta(-) decay of 56Mn formed in the 56Fe(n,p) reaction. However, this value can easily be adjusted to accommodate the user preference. The (n,n'gamma) data has been compiled into a series of ASCII comma separated value tables and a suite of Python scripts and C modules are provided to build the database. Upon building, the database can then be interacted with directly via the SQLite engine or accessed via the Jupyter Notebook Python-browser interface. Several examples exploiting these utilities are also provided with the complete software package.

  7. Scanning Study of 700 Livers Evaluation of Existing Diagnostic Procedures; Etude Scintigraphique de 700 Foies (Evaluation des Procedures Actuelles de Diagnostic); Issledovanie pecheni 700 bol'nykh s pomoshch'yu skennirovaniya; Exploracion Hepatica de 700 Pacientes (Evaluacion de los Metodos Actuales De Diagnostico); Exploracion Hepatica de 700 Pacientes (Evaluacion de los Metodos Actuales de Diagnostico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, P. [Radium and Isotope Institute, Government Hospital, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)

    1964-10-15

    The livers of 700 patients have been examined. Clinical studies, laboratory tests, roentgenographic examinations and liver-scanning studies were performed. The patients were followed up and finally an objective diagnostic confirmation was obtained in most cases. In this way an evaluation of the performed tests was established. The liver scanning was done using Au{sup 198}, I{sup 131}-Rose Bengal and I{sup 131} PVP. Apart from the classical AP technique, special techniques were utilized, such as tri- or bi-plane stereoscanning and combined isotope studies with Au{sup 198} and I{sup 131}-Rose Bengal leading to a determination of the RLC (radioisotope liver coefficients). The patients were divided into eight clinical groups and the diagnostic data were accordingly compiled and evaluated. A summary of the results of this study is presented. Each clinical group was separately analysed. For example, a space-occupying lesion was detected in 95% of the 65 cases of Echinococcus disease. X-ray examination detected calcifications in only 35% of these cases, but also in 14% of other liver diseases. Weinberg and Casoni reactions were positive in 64% of the cases of Echinococcus, but also in 22% of other diseases. In hepatic malignancy, a space-occupying lesion was detected in 44% of cases, a foggy scan in 30% and morphological changes in 29%. In two of the 158 tumour cases the scan falsely appeared to be normal, but in 40% of the same cases the laboratory results were negative. By using the bi- and tri-plane stereoscanning technique, new and supplementary information on the state of the liver was obtained in 45% of cases. Liver scanning was also used in the follow-up study. It was found that: (1) After Echinococcotomy, a definite scar persists as a space-occupying lesion; (2) Three months after a treated amoebic abscess, complete regeneration occurs; (3) After a porto-caval shunt, the liver scan becomes smaller and the spleen larger - even when the general condition is satisfactory; (4) Cytostatic agents may be temporarily effective in some diffuse hepatic lesions; (5) A rescanned suspected lesion may reappear as a space-occupying lesion or disappear. Thus the time of scanning may affect the diagnosis. Conclusions: (1) Liver scanning can be considered as a very useful method for clinical, morphological and topographical diagnosis in hepatopathology; and (2) The results may be improved by (a) advanced instrumentation and the use of stereoscanning techniques and (b) good collaboration between the internists and surgeons. (author) [French] On a examine les foies de 700 malades (etude clinique, analyses en laboratoire, examens radiographiques, explorations scintigraphiques). Onacontinuea les malades apres ces examens; on a pu avoir la confirmation objective du diagnostic dans la plupart des cas et evaluer les resultats de la campagne. Pour la scintigraphie du foie, on a utilise l'or-198, le rose bengale marque avec {sup 131}I et le polyvinylpyrrolidone egalement marque avec {sup 131}I. On a applique, non seulement la methode classique, mais aussi des methodes particulieres comme l'exploration stereographique dans deux plans ou trois plans et l'emploi combine de l'or-198 et du rose bengale marque a l'iode-131 pour determiner les coefficients relatifs de fixation de ces radioisotopes dans le foie. Les sujets avaient ete repartis en huit groupes cliniques aux fins de compilation et devaluation des resultats du diagnostic, qui sont presentes succinctement dans le memoire. Chaque groupe clinique a ete analyse separement. Par exemple, on a detecte une lesion en volume dans 95% des 65 cas d'echinococcose. La radiographie a permis de constater des calcifications dans 35% seulement de ces cas, mais aussi dans 14% des autres cas de maladies hepatiques. Les reactions de Weinberg et Casoni ont ete positives dans 64% des cas d'echinococcose, mais aussi dans 22% des autres cas. En ce qui concerne le cancer du foie, on a detecte une lesion en volume dans 44% des cas, on a obtenu un scintigramme voile dans 30% des cas et on a constate des modifications morphologiques de l'organe dans 29% de cas. Dans deux des 158 cas de tumeurs malignes, le scintigramme semblait faussement normal, mais dans 40% de ces memes cas les resultats obtenus au laboratoire etaient negatifs. Par la technique d'exploration stereographique dans deux ou trois plans, on a obtenu dans 45% des cas des renseignements nouveaux ou complementaires sur l'etat de l'organe. On a egalement utilise la scintigraphie pour le controle ulterieur des resultats. On a fait les constations suivantes: 1. Apres extirpation du kyste hydatique, une cicatrice caracterisee persiste sous forme de lesion en volume; 2. Trois mois apres le traitement d'un abces amibien, une regeneration complete intervient; 3. Apres une derivation porto-cavale, le scintigramme du foie devient plus petit et celui de la rate plus grand - meme lorsque l'etat general est satisfaisant; 4. Les agents cytostatiques peuvent etre momentanement efficaces pour certaines lesions hepatiques diffuses; 5. Il arrive qu'une lesion dont on n'avait pu affirmer la presence avec certitude devienne macroscopique ou qu'elle cesse totalement d'etre visible; par consequent, le moment de l'exploration peut affecter le diagnostic. L'auteur tire les conclusions suivantes: 1. On peut considerer la scintigraphie comme une methode tres utile pour le diagnostic clinique, morphologique et topographique en hepatopathologie. 2. On peut ameliorer les resultats: a) en utilisant des appareils perfectionnes ou en ayant recours aux techniques d'exploration stereographiques; b) par une bonne collaboration entre le clinicien et le chirurgien. (author) [Spanish] El autor ha examinado el higado de 700 pacientes (estudios clinicos, analisis de laboratorio, examenes roentgenograficos y exploraciones centelleograficas), ha seguido la evolucion clinica de los pacientes y ha podido obtener en la mayoria de los casos una confirmacion objetiva del diagnostico. Esto ha permitido evaluar los ensayos realizados. Para la exploracion del higado se utilizo 198Au, Rosa Bengala marcado con {sup 131}I y polivinilpirrolidona marcada tambien con {sup 131}I. Ademas de la exploracion anteroposterior, se recurrio a tecnicas especiales como la exploracion estereoscopica en dos o tres planos y al empleo combinado del {sup 198}Au y el Rosa Bengala marcado con {sup 131}I para determinar los coeficientes relativos de fijacion de estos radioisotopos en el hfgado. Los pacientes habfan sido distribuidos en ocho grupos clinicos con miras a la compilacion y evaluacion de los resultados del diagnostico. En la memoria se presenta un resumen de estos resultados. Cada grupo clfnico se analizo por separado. Por ejemplo, se detecto una lesion macroscopica en el 95% de los 65 casos de equinococosis. La radiografia solo permitio descubrir calcificaciones en el 35% de estos casos, pero tambien en el 14% de los otros casos de afecciones hepaticas. Las reacciones de Weinberg y Casoni fueron positivas en el 64% de los casos de equinococosis, pero tambien en el 22 por ciento de las otras enfermedades. En loque respecta al cancer del hfgado, se detecto una lesion macroscopica en el 44% de los casos, se obtuvo un centelleograma velado en el 30% y se observaron modificaciones morfologicas en el 29%. En dos de los 158 casos de tumores malignos, el centelleograma parecia falsamente normal, pero en el 40% de estos mismos casos los resultados obtenidos en el laboratorio fueron negativos. Con la tecnica de exploracion estereoscopica en dos o tres planos se obtuvieron datos nuevos o complementarios sobre el estado del higado en el 45% de los casos. La centelleografia se utilizo tambien para el control ulterior de los resultados. Se han hecho las siguientes observaciones: 1. Despues de una equinococotomia persiste una cicatriz caracteristica en forma de lesion macroscopica. 2. Tres meses despues del tratamiento de un absceso amebico, se produce una regeneracion completa. 3. Despues de una derivacion porta-cava, la imagen del higado es mas pequena y la del bazo mas grande, incluso cuando el estado general es satisfactorio. 4. Los agentes citostaticos pueden ser momentaneamente eficaces para ciertas lesiones hepaticas difusas. 5. Ha ocurrido a veces que al explorar de nuevo una lesion dudosa esta ha aparecido como una lesion macroscopica o ha desaparecido totalmente. Por tanto, la epoca en que se efectua la exploracion puede afectar al diagnostico, . Conclusiones: 1. La exploracion hepatica puede considerarse como metodo muy util para el diagnostico clfnico, morfologico y topografico en hepatopatologia. 2. Los resultados pueden mejorarse: a) utilizando aparatos perfeccionados o tecnicas de exploracion estereoscopica, y b) estableciendo una eficaz colaboracion entre el clinico y el cirujano. (author) [Russian] Provodilis' klinicheskie issledovanija, laboratornye analizy, rentgenograficheskoe obsledovanie i skennirovanie pecheni 700 bol'nyh. Za bol'nymi bylo ustanovleno nabljudenie, i v bol'shinstve sluchaev v konechnom itoge diagnoz podtverdilsja. Takim obrazom byla dana ocenka provedennym issledovanijam. Skennirovanie pecheni proizvodilos' s pomoshh'ju bengal'skoj rozy i polivinilpirolidona, mechennyh zolotom-198 i jodom-131 . Pomimo klassicheskogo AR-metoda dlja opredelenija ra- dioizotopnyh kojefficientov pecheni primenjalis' special'nye metody, takie kak treh ili dvuhploskostnoe stereoskennirovanie i kombinirovannoe izotopnoe issledovanie s pomoshh'ju mechennoj zolotom-198 i jodom-131 bengal'skoj rozy. Bol'nye byli razdeleny na vosem' klinicheskih grupp, i sootvetstvenno proizvodilsja sbor i ocenka diagnosticheskih dannyh. Daetsja kratkoe izlozhenie rezul'tatov jetogo issledovanija. V kazhdoj klinicheskoj gruppe analizy provodilis' otdel'no. Naprimer, v 95%iz 65 sluchaev jehinokokkovoj bolezni byl obnaruzhen ogranichennyj uchastok porazhenija. Rentgenovskoe obsledovanie vyjavilo obizvestvlenie tol'ko v 35%jetih sluchaev, a takzhe v 14% sluchaev drugih zabolevanij pecheni. Reakcii Vajnberga i Kasoni byli polozhitel'ny v 64% sluchaev jehinokokkovoj bolezni, a takzhe v 22%sluchaev drugih zabolevanij. Pri zlokachestvennyh zabolevanijah pecheni ogranichennyj uchastok porazhenija byl obnaruzhen v 44% sluchaev, nejasnaja skennogramma v 30%, morfologicheskie izmenenija -v*29%. V dvuh iz 158 sluchaev skennogramma oshibochno okazalas' normal'noj, odnako v 40% jetih zhe sluchaev laboratornye rezul'taty byli otricatel'nymi. Blagodarja primeneniju metoda dvuh i trehploskostnogo stereoskennirovanija v 45% sluchaev byli polucheny novye i dopolnitel'nye dannye o sostojanii pecheni. Skennirovanie pecheni primenjalos' takzhe pri posledujushhih issledovanijah. Bylo obnaruzheno, chto: 1) posle jehinokokkotomii ostaetsja otchetlivyj rubec kak ogranichennyj uchastok porazhenija; 2) cherez tri mesjaca posle izlechenija amebnogo abscessa proishodit polnaja regeneracija; 3) posle sozdanija porto-kaval'nogo anastomoza razmer skennogrammy pecheni umen'shaetsja , a selezenki -uvelichivaetsja, dazhe pri udovletvoritel'nom obshhem sostojanii; 4) pri nekotoryh diffuznyh porazhenijah pecheni citostaticheskie agenty mogut byt' vremenno jeffektivny; 5) pri povtornom skennirovanii predpolagaemoe zabolevanie mozhet okazat'sja ogranichennym uchastkom porazhenija ili ischeznut'. Takim obrazom diagnoz zavisit ot vremeni skennirovanija. Vyvody: 1. Skennirovanie pecheni mozhet schitat'sja ochen' poleznym metodom klinicheskogo, morfologicheskogo i topograficheskogo diagnoza pri patologicheskih izmenenijah pecheni. 2. Rezul'taty mogut byt' uluchsheny putem: a) uluchshenija apparatury i primenenija metodov stereoskennirovanija, b) luchshego sotrudnichestva mezhdu terapevtami i hirurgami. (author)

  8. Compounds Labelled with Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Emitters for Medical Isotope Scanning; Gammagraphie au Moyen de Composes Marques avec des Emetteurs Gamma de Faible Energie; Soedineniya, ispol'zuemye pri meditsinskom izotopnom skennirovanii, mechennye s pomoshch'yu gamma-izluchatelej nizkoj ehnergii; Compuestos Marcados con Emisores Gamma de Baja Energia para la Exploracion Medica Mediante Isotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, K. E.; Zum Winkel, K.; Georgi, M. [Czerny-Krankenhaus der Universitat Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-10-15

    Low-energy gamma emitters have a special merit for medical scintillation scanning for the following reasons: (1) The lead shielding of the collimators is much more effective. Multiple focusing thin-walled hole collimators can therefore be used, making a higher geometrical resolution possible and, therefore, the detection of smaller lesions. (2) The absorption of the radiation within the body tissue limits the depth of visibility of lesions. In extended organs like the liver, the superposition of radiation originating from the back of the organ is avoided. This allows a better detection of more superficial lesions. The most important low-energy gamma-emitting nuclide is I{sup 125}. For thyroid scanning, it is used in the form of iodide. A suitable compound for liver scanning is I{sup 125}-labelled Rose Bengal. An alternative compound is I{sup 125} -CAI (heat denatured albumin). For kidney scanning I{sup 125}-Hippuran was found to be suitable when injected intramuscularly with hyaluronidase to ensure a uniform level of radioactivity in the kidneys. Another useful low-energy gamma-emitting nuclide for medical scanning is Hg{sup 197} which may be used as chloride for kidney and spleen scanning. Special precautions must be taken to avoid overlying of kidney and spleen. A higher quality scan is obtained with Hg{sup 197}-labelled Neohydrin. This compound is also useful for brain-tumour localization. Typical scans of thyroid, liver, spleen, kidney and brain tumours obtained with low-energy gamma emitters and conventional nuclides and compounds are presented and the merits of the former are discussed. (author) [French] Les emetteurs gamma de faible energie presentent un interet particulier en gammagraphie, pour les raisons suivantes: 1. L'ecran en plomb des collimateurs est beaucoup plus efficace. On peut donc utiliser des collimateurs a focalisation a canaux multiples, et a parois minces, qui permettent d'avoir un excellent pouvoir de resolution et, par consequent, de detecter de petites lesions. 2. L'absorption du rayonnement par les tissues limite la profondeur a laquelle les lesions sont 'visibles'. Dans de grands organes comme le foie, on evite la superposition des rayonnements provenant de la partie posterieure de l'organe, d'ou une meilleure detection des lesions superficielles. Le plus important emetteur gamma de faible energie est l'iode-125. Pour l'exploration de la thyroiede on l'utilise sous forme d'iodure. Pour le foie, le rose bengale marque avec {sup 125}I convient parfaitement, mais on peut aussi utiliser de l'albumine alteree par la chaleur et marquee avec {sup 125}I. Pour le rein, on a constate que l'hippuran marque avec {sup 125}I donne de bons resultats en injection intra-musculaire, si on le melange a de l'hyaluronidase pour assurer un niveau uniforme de radioactivite dans cet organe. Un autre emetteur gamma de faible energie tres utile en gammagraphie est le mercure-197, qui peut etre utilise sous forme de chlorure pour l'exploration du rein et de la rate. On doit prendre des precautions speciales pour eviter la superposition de ces organes. On obtient un meilleur scintigramme avec de la neo- hydrine marquee avec {sup 197}Hg; ce produit peut servir aussi a localiser les tumeurs du cerveau. Les auteurs donnent des details sur des cas typiques d'exploration de tumeurs de la thyroiede, du foie, de la rate, du rein et du cerveau, d'une part avec des emetteurs gamma de faible energie et d'autre part avec des nucleides et des composes classiques; ils comparent les resultats obtenus. (author) [Spanish] Los emisores gamma de baja energia presentan ventajas especiales para la exploracion medica por centelleografia. He aquilas razonest . 1. El blindaje de plomo de los colimadores es mucho mas eficaz. Por tanto, pueden utilizarse colimadores enfocados con canales de tabiques delgados, lo que da un mayor grado de resolucion geometrica y permite, por consiguiente, detectar lesiones'mas pequenas. 2. La absorcion de la radiacion por los tejidos del cuerpo limita la profundidad a que las lesiones pueden ser visualizadas. En organos de grandes dimensiones, como el higado, se evita la superposicion de las radiaciones procedentes de la parte posterior del organo, lo que permite detectar mejor las lesiones superficiales. El. emisor,gamma de baja energia mas importante es el {sup 125}I. Para la exploracion de la tiroides se utiliza en forma de yoduro. El Rosa Bengala marcada con {sup 125}I es un compuesto adecuado para la exploracion del higado. Tambien puede utilizarse albumina desnaturalizada por el calor, marcada con {sup 125}I. Para la exploracion del rinon se ha comprobado que el hipuran marcado con {sup 125}I da buenos resultados cuando se inyecta por via intramuscular con hialuronidasa a fin de lograr un nivel uniforme de radiactividad en este organo. Otro emisor gamma de baja energia muy util para la exploracion medica es el {sup 197}Hg que puede utilizarse en forma de cloruro para la exploracion de los rinones y el bazo. Deben tomarse precauciones especiales para evitar la superposicion del rinon y el bazo. La exploracion da mejores resultados si se utiliza {sup 197}Hg marcado con neohidrina. Este compuesto puede emplearse tambien para la localizacion de tumores del cerebro. Los autores presentan centelleogramas tipicos de tumores de la tiroides, del higado, del bazo, del rinon y del cerebro obtenidos con emisores gamma de baja energia y con nuclidos y compuestos tradicionales, y examinan las ventajas que ofrecen los primeros. (author) [Russian] Gammaizluchateli nizkoj jenergii imejut osobye preimushhestva pri ispol'zovanii ih dlja medicine - skogo scintilljacionnogo skennirovanija po dvum prichinam: 1. Svincovaja zashhita kollimatorov znachitel'no jeffektivnee. Pojetomu mozhno primenjat' tonkostennye kollimatory s mnogokratnoj fokusirovkoj, dobivajas' pri jetom naibol'shego geometricheskogo razreshenija, i v svjazi s jetim- vozmozhnosti obnaruzhenija nebol'shih porazhenij. 2. Pogloshhenie izluchenija v tkanjah organizma ogranichivaet glubinu obnaruzhenija povrezhdeg nij. V krupnyh organah, naprimer v pecheni, ustranjaetsja nalozhenie izluchenija ot zadnego otdela organa. Jeto pozvoljaet luchshe obnaruzhivat' bolee poverhnostnye porazhenija. Naibolee vazhnym gamma-izluchajushhim radioizotopom nizkoj jenergii javljaetsja jod-125, pri skennirovanii shhitovidnoj zhelezy on ispol'zuetsja v forme iodida. Sootvetstvujushhim soedineniem dlja skennirovanija pecheni javljaetsja mechennaja jodom-125 bengal'skaja roza. Drugim soedineniem javljaetsja jod-125 -CAI (denaturirovannyj pri vysokoj temperature al'bumin). Ustanovleno, chto pri skennirovanii pochek naibolee podhodjashhim soedineniem dlja vnutrimyshechnogo vvedenija vmeste s gialuronidazoj s cel'ju obespechenija ravnomernogo urovnja radioaktivnosti v pochkah javljaetsja jod-125-gippuran. Drugim poleznym gamma-izluchajushhim radioizotopom nizkoj jenergii, kotoryj primenjaetsja pri medicinskom skennirovanii, javljaetsja rtut'-197, kotoryj mozhno ispol'zovat' v vide hlorida pri skennirovanii pochek i selezenki. Neobhodimo predprinimat' osobye mery predostorozhnosti, chtoby izbezhat' perekryvanija pochek i selezenki. Pri ispol'zovanii neogidrina, mechennogo rtut'ju-197, poluchajut bolee vysokokachestvennye skennogrammy. Jeto soedinenie primenjaetsja takzhe dlja ustanovlenija lokalizacii mozgovyh opuholej. Obsuzhdajutsja tipichnye skennogrammy shhitovidnoj zhelezy, pecheni, selezenki, pochek i mozgovyh opuholej, poluchennye s pomoshh'ju gamma-izluchatelej nizkoj jenergii, i obychnyh radioizotopov i soedinenij, a takzhe dostoinstva pervyh. (author)

  9. Autofluorography with an X-Ray Image Amplifier; Autofluorographie a l'Aide d'un Amplificateur d'Images a Rayons X; Avtofl u orografiya s pomoshch'yu usilitelya rentgenovskogo izobrazheniya; Autofluorografia con un Amplificador de Imagen de Rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ter-Pogossian, M. M.; Eichling, J. O. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1964-10-15

    The visualization of organs containing radioactive isotopes emitting X- or gamma-ray photons with energies between 20 and about 100 keV can be achieved by converting the radiation emerging from the organ into light by means of an X-ray image amplifier of conventional design. The apparatus designed for this purpose consists of the following elements: (1) A collimator, the specifications of which are determined by the resolution and by the operating distance desired. (2) An electrostatic focusing X-ray image amplifier, which converts the collimated X- or gamma-ray photons into an optical image of high brightness. (3) A large aperture lens system which projects the image into: (4) A ''Polaroid'' camera loaded with fast (10 000 ASA), high-contrast film. The performance of this apparatus for low-energy photons is superior to that of conventional scintiscanners. The usefulness of this apparatus for the visualization of brain tumours and kidneys and the thyroid gland is discussed. (author) [French] Pour permettre la visualisation d'organes contenant des radioisotopes emetteurs de rayons X ou gamma ayant une energie de 20 a 100 keV, on peut convertir en lumiere le rayonnement provenant de l'organe examine au moyen d'un amplificateur d'images a rayons X du type classique. Le dispositif concu a cet effet comprend les elements suivants: 1. Un collimateur dont les caracteristiques sont determinees par la resolution et la distance source-detecteur souhaitables; 2. Un amplificateur d'images a rayons X, electrostatique et focalisant, qui transforme les rayons X ou gamma collimates en une image optique de forte luminosite; 3. Un ensemble de lentilles a grand angle d'ouverture, qui projette l'image dans l'appareil photographique ci-dessous; 4. Un appareil photographique 'Polaroid' charge d'un film rapide (10 000 ASA) a fort contraste. Les performances de ce dispositif en presence de photons de faible energie sont superieures a celles des scintigraphes classiques. Les auteurs traitent de l'utilite de ce dispositif pour la visualisation des tumeurs du cerveau, des reins et de la thyroide. (author) [Spanish] La visualizacion de organos que contienen isotopos radiactivos emisores de fotones (rayos X o gamma) de energia comprendida entre 20 y 100 keV aproximadamente, puede lograrse convirtiendo en luz, mediante un amplificador de imagen de rayos X de tipo corriente, la radiacion emitida por el organo. El aparato construido con esta finalidad esta constituido por los siguientes elementos: 1. Un colimador, cuyas caracteristicas vienen determinadas por el poder de resolucion y la distancia a que debe operar. 2. Un amplificador de imagen de rayos X de enfoque electrostatico, que convierte los rayos X o gamma colimados en una imagen optica muy brillante. 3. Un sistema de lentes de gran apertura que proyecta la imagen en la camara mencionada a continuacion. 4. Una camara 'Polaroid' cargada con pelicula rapida (10 000 ASA) de gran contraste. El rendimiento de este aparato para fotones de baja energia es superior al de los exploradores centelleograficos de tipo tradicional. Los autores examinan su utilidad para visualizar tumores cerebrales, renales y tiroideos. (author) [Russian] Vizual'noe nabljudenie organov, soderzhashhih radioaktivnye izotopy, kotorye i z luchajut rentgenovskie kvanty ili gamma-kvanty s jenergijami v predelah ot 20 do 100 kjev, do stiga et sja za schet prevrashhenija radiacii organa v svechenie s pomoshh'ju usilitelja rentgenovskogo izobrazhenija obychnogo tipa. Skonstruirovannyj dlja jetoj celi apparat sostoit iz sledujushhih jelementov: 1 . Kollimatora, harakteristiki kotorogo opredeljajutsja razreshajushhej sposobnost'ju i zh e laemym rabochim rasstojaniem. 2 . Jelektrostaticheskogo fokusirujushhego usilitelja r ent genov skogo izobrazhenija, kotoryj prevrashhaet kollimirovannye rentgenovskie kvanty ili gamma-kvanty v opticheskoe izobrazhenie, imejushhee bol'shuju jarkost'. 3 . Ob{sup e}ktiva s bol'shoj diafragmoj, kotoryj proeciruet izobrazhenie na kameru. 4 . Kamera ''Polaroid'', zarjazhennaja vysokochuvstvitel'noj (10.000 ASA) plenkoj s vysokoj kontrastnost'ju. Po kachestvam raboty s fotonami maloj jenergii jetot apparat luchshe, chem obychnye scinti- skennery. i Obsuzhdaetsja prigodnost' jet ogo apparata dlja vizual'nogo nabljudenija opuholej mozga pochek i shhitovidnoj zhelezy . (author)

  10. Contrast Enhancement by Multicolour Print-Out of Thyroid, Kidney, Liver and Brain Scans; Accentuation des Contrastes dans les Scintigrammes Polychromes du Cerveau, du Foie, du Rein et de la Thyroide; Kontrastnoe usilenie s pomoshch'yu mnogotsvetnogo otpechatka skennogramm shchitovidnoj zhelezy, pochek, pecheni i golovnogo mozga; Aumento del Contraste en los Centelleogramas Policromos de la Tiroides, el Rinon, el Higado y el Cerebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hine, G. J.; Patten, D. H.; Burrows, B. A. [Radioisotope Service, Veterans Administration Hospital Boston University School of Medicine Boston, MA (United States)

    1964-10-15

    Quantitative information can be obtained from a scan if the colour of the print-out changes with the count-rate. The printing pattern shows then the radioisotope distribution and the printing colour serves as a code for a digital evaluation of the scan. This can delineate areas with small differences in count-rate more clearly than other read-out methods. A stylus hits one of several coloured typewriter ribbons mounted on a common carriage. Its movement is controlled by a count-rate meter with a time constant of 0.3 s. The first ribbon covering the lowest countrate interval is uninked. This suppresses coloured prints at count-rates of less than 12.5% of the 100% maximum adjusted for each scan when eight coloured ribbons are used. However, all counts are preserved in black on carbon copies. The clinical advantage of the colour scan is to recognize immediately differences in count-rate which outline areas of varying radioisotope concentration. The colour cut-off at low count-rates yields an improved visualization of areas such as brain lesions, which are difficult to localize due to high tissue background. The colour scan outlines the contours corresponding to the thickness of functioning liver tissue which are not easily seen otherwise. Compared with normal liver scans, areas of fibrosis and tumour infiltration are more readily recognized. The same is true for kidney scans where a change in colour may indicate ischemic, cystic or tumour areas. For thyroid scans, the colour print-out provides semi-quantitative comparison of radioiodine uptake in different areas. (author) [French] Un scintigramme peut fournir des renseignements quantitatifs si la couleur de l'epreuve photographique varie suivant le taux de comptage. Le dessin de l'epreuve indique alors comment se repartit le radioisotope, et sa coloration est utilisee comme code pour l'evaluation numerique du scintigramme. Cette technique permet de determiner, plus clairement que d'autres methodes de lecture, le contour de zones ou les differences de taux de comptage sont faibles. Des rubans de machines a ecrire de diverses couleurs sont montes sur un chariot unique; un stylet, dont le mouvement est commande par un debitmetre, avec une constante de temps de 0 ,3 s, frappe l'un des rubans. Le premier ruban, qui correspond a la gamme des taux de comptage la plus basse, n'est pas encre; ainsi, il n'y a pas de marques colorees pour les taux de comptage inferieurs a 12, 5% du maximum, qui est ajuste pour chaque scintigramme lorsque les huit rubans colores sont utilises en meme temps. Toutefois, tous les coups sont enregistres en noir sur des copies carbone. Du point de vue clinique, le scintigramme polychrome a l'avantage de faire apparaitre immediatement les differences de taux de comptage qui delimitent des zones oue la concentration du radioisotope n'est pas la meme. La suppression de la couleur, pour les taux de comptage peu eleves, permet de mieux distinguer certaines zones difficiles a localiser par suite de l'intensite du bruit de fond du aux tissus, par exemple les lesions cerebrales. Le scintigramme polychrome fait apparaitre les contours correspondant a l'epaisseur du tissu hepatique qui participe aux fonctions du foie et qu'il est difficile de voir autrement. Il permet d'identifier plus aisement les zones de fibrose et d'infiltration neoplasique, en le comparant avec des scintigrammes de foies normaux. Il en est de meme pour des scintigrammes de reins, oiei une modification de la couleur peut indiquer la presence de zones ischemiques, cystiques ou tumorales. Le scintigramme polvchrome de la thyroiede permet de proceder a des comparaisons semi-quantitatives de la fixation du radioiode entre les differentes zones. (author) [Spanish] Un centelleograma puede proporcionar datos cuantitativos si el color de la impresion varia segun el indice de recuento. La estructura de la impresion indica entonces la reparticion de los radioisotopos; su color sirve de clave para la evaluacion numerica del centelleograma. Esta tecnica permite delimitar mas claramente que otros metodos de lectura las zonas en que las diferencias del indice de recuento son muy reducidas. En un mismo carro se montan cintas de maquina de escribir de diferentes colores; un punzon, cuyo movimiento esta regido por un integrador, con una constante de tiempo de 0,3 s, golpea una de las cintas. La primera, que corresponde al intervalo mas bajo del indice de recuento, no tiene tinta; asi, no hay senales en color para los indices de recuento inferiores al 12,5 por ciento del valor maximo, que se ajusta para cada centelleograma cuando se utilizan las ocho cintas de color. Sin embargo, todos los impulsos quedan registrados en copias sacadas con papel carbon. Desde el punto de vista clinico, el centelleograma policromo tiene la ventaja de que hace aparecer inmediatamente las variaciones del indice de recuento que delimitan zonas con concentraciones de radioisotopos distintas. La supresion del color para los indices de recuento poco elevados permite distinguir mejor ciertas zonas que son dificiles de visualizar a consecuencia de la intensidad de la actividad de fondo debida a los tejidos, por ejemplo, las correspondientes a lesiones cerebrales. Los centelleogramas policromos hacen aparecer los contornos correspondientes al espesor del tejido hepatico que participa en las funciones del higado y que dificilmente pueden observarse de otra manera. Permiten identificar mejor las zonas de fibrosis y de infiltracion tumoral comparandolos con centelleogramas de tipo corriente. Lo mismo puede decirse de los centelleogramas del rinon en los que un cambio de color puede indicar la presencia de zonas isquemicas, cisticas o tumorales. Los centelleogramas policromos de la tiroides permiten proceder a una comparacion semicuantitativa de la concentracion del yodo radiactivo en las diferentes zonas. (author) [Russian] S pomoshh'ju skennogrammy mozhno poluchit' kolichestvennuju informaciju, esli cvet snimka i zm e njaetsja vmeste s intensivnost'ju scheta. Obrazcy snimkov pokazyvajut raspredelenie radioizotopov, a cvetnye otpechatki sluzhat v kachestve koda dlja cifrovoj ocenki skennogrammy. Jeto da et vozmozhnost' ustanovit' ochertanija uchastkov s nebol'shimi rashozhdenijami v sk o rosti scheta gor a zd o luchshe, chem pri drugih metodah snjatija pokazanij. Pero ostavljaet sled na odnoj iz neskol'kih cvetnyh lent pishushhej mashinki, smontirovannyh na obshhej k ar etk e. Ego dvizhenija kontrolirujutsja izmeriteljami skorosti scheta s postojannoj vremeni v 0,3 sekundy. Na pervuju lentu, sootvetstvujushhuju samoj nizkoj skorosti scheta , chernila ne n anosjatsja. Jeto iskljuchaet cvetnoj otpechatok pri skorosti scheta men'shej 12,5%ot maksimuma v 100%dlja kazhdoj skennogrammy, so otvetstv ujushh e go ispol'zovaniju 8 cvetnyh l en t . Odnako, v sevychislenija sohranjajutsja na kopijah v chernom c vete. Klinicheskoe preimushhestvo cvetnoj skennogrammy zakljuch aetsja v nep osr edstven n om opredelenii razlichij v skorosti sch et a , kotorye opredeljajut rajony razlichnoj koncentracii radioizotopov. Vypadenie cveta pri nizkoj skorosti scheta uluchshaet vozmozhnost' nabljudenija v takih rajonah, kak uchastki porazhennogo golovnogo mozga, kotorye trudno lokalizovat' vrezul't at e vysokogo fona tkanej. Cvetnaja skennogramma opredelja et kontury v sootvetstvii s tolshhinoj funkcionirujushhej tkani pecheni, kotoruju inache trudno uvidet'. Pri sravnenii normal'nyh skennogramm pecheni uchastki fibroza opuholevoj infil'tracii ra s poznajutsja gor azdolegche. Jeto spravedlivo i dlja skennogramm pochek, g d e izmenenija cveta mogut ukazat' na ishemicheskie, kistoznye ili opuholevye uchastk i . Chto ka sa et sja skennogramm shhitovidnoj zhelezy, to cvetnye otpechatki dajut vozmozhnost' provesti polukolichest-vennoe sravnenie pogloshhenija radiojoda v razlichnyh uchastkah. (author)

  11. Ultrasonic Water-Gap Measurements in MTR Fuel Elements; Mesure par Ultrasons des Espaces Intercalaires dans les Elements Combustibles des Reacteurs d'Essai de Materiaux; Izmereniya vodyanogo zazora v teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementakh dlya materialovedcheskogo reaktora s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvuka; Medicion Ultrasonica de la Capa de Agua en Elementos Combustibles para Reactores de Ensayo de Materiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deknock, R. [Metallurgy Department, S.C.K./C.E.N., Mol (Belgium)

    1965-10-15

    The high thermal fluxes, which are usual in the latest materials testing reactors, impose suitable paths for uniform heat transfer and a reliable heat removal avoiding bulk-vapour formation. Furthermore, to control the over-all swelling and reactor fuel behaviour, water-gap measurements will also be performed in post-irradiation experiments on spent fuel elements. For that purpose, a probe for measuring the 3-mm water-gap of the BR-2 fuel element over a 1-m length, based on the principle of ultrasonics, has been developed. In the case of post-irradiation experiments, the measuring probe should operate in a fuel element by being immersed in a water pool at a depth of at least 6 m. The probe can withstand prolonged immersion in water and is not affected by normal gamma-irradiation doses. Although operating on the usual pulse-reflection method, the system allows emitted and reflected pulses to be separated by a 10-MHz ferro-electric crystal with high inherent energy dissipation. Oscilloscope read-out can be used, whereby the time is displayed on the horizontal axis, the scanning speed being adjusted to bear a direct relation to the velocity of wave propagation, i.e. the gap distance. This type of read-out Is satisfactory where the number of measurements is restricted, but chart recorder read-out is obviously desirable. In this case, emitted and reflected pulses are shaped and fed to a time-voltage converter using transistor logic techniques. The instrument allows continuous adjustment of output zero for any arbitrary gap distance between 2 and 4 mm thereby permitting zero-centre recording. Furthermore, any desired 100-{mu}m gap distance variation can give a stable 1-V output voltage to a recorder. An accuracy of 5-{mu}m gap-distance variation is easily obtained. Several fuel elements have been measured. The results and reproducibility were very satisfactory. (author) [French] Etant donne que dans les plus recents reacteurs d'essai de materiaux les flux thermiques sont generalement eleves, il est indispensable de prevoir un transfert de chaleur uniforme et un refroidissement regulier empechant toute formation massive de vapeur. En outre, pour determiner le gonflement et le comportement general du combustible dans le reacteur, il faudra mesurer les espaces intercalaires dans les elements combustibles au cours de controles apres irradiation. A cette fin, on a mis au point une sonde fondee sur le principe des ultrasons, qui permet de mesurer les espaces intercalaires de 3 mm sur 1 m de long dans les elements combustibles du reacteur BR-2. Lorsqu'on procede a des experiences apres irradiation, la sonde doit pouvoir fonctionner dans un element combustible immerge dans un reservoir d'eau a une profondeur de 6 m au minimum. La sonde peut resister a une immersion prolongee dans l'eau et n'est pas endommagee par une irradiation gamma a des doses normales. Bien que le systeme soit fonde sur la methode classique de la reflexion des impulsions, il permet de separer les impulsions emises des impulsions reflechies au moyen d'un cristal ferroelectrique de 10 MHz a pouvoir eleve de dispersion de l'energie. Les resultats des mesures peuvent etre lus directement sur un oscilloscope: le temps est indique sur l'axe horizontal et la vitesse d'exploration est reglee de maniere a se trouver en relation directe avec la vitesse de propagation de l'onde, c'est-a-dire avec la distance intercalaire. Ce mode de lecture est satisfaisant lorsqu'on procede a un nombre limite de mesures, mais il est evidemment preferable d'enregistrer les resultats sur un graphique. Dans ce cas, les impulsions incidentes et les impulsions reflechies sont transmises a un convertisseur temps-tension au moyen d'un circuit logique transistorise. Cet appareil permet un ajustement continu du zero de sortie pour toute distance intercalaire choisie arbitrairement entre 2 et 4 mm, grace a quoi on peut obtenir un enregistrement autour d'un axe zero. En outre, toute variation de 100 {mu}m de la distance intercalaire fournit a un enregistreur une tension stable de sortie de 1 V. Il est facile de mesurer les variations des distances intercalaires avec une precision de 5 {mu}m. Les mesures ont ete faites pour plusieurs elements combustibles. Les resultats et la reproductibilite sont tres satisfaisants. (author) [Spanish] Los elevados flujos termicos que suelen alcanzarse en los recientes reactores de ensayo de materiales, exigen recorridos adecuados para lograr una transmisiun uniforme de calor y una disipacion segura del mismo, evitando asf la formacion de vapor en la masa. Ademas, a fin de controlar el hinchamiento y el comportamiento del combustible en el reactor, tambien debe medirse la capa de agua en experimentos realizados despues de la irradiacion, con elementos combustibles agotados. A tal efecto se ha disenado una sonda ultrasonica destinada a medir, en una longitud de 1 m el espesor de 3 mm de agua correspondiente al elemento combustible BR-2. En el caso de los experimentos posteriores a la irradiacion, es necesario trabajar con el elemento combustible sumergido en un tanque de agua, a profundidad no menor de 6 m. La sonda puede resistir una prolongada inmersion en agua, y no le afectan las dosis normales de radiacion gamma. Aunque proyectado conforme al metodo usual de reflexion de impulsos, el sistema permite separar pulsos emitidos y reflejados, usando un cristal ferro-electrico de 10 MHz, con elevada disipacion inherente de energia. Puede usarse un osciioscopio para la lectura, en cuyo caso el tiempo se representa en el eje horizontal, regulandose la velocidad de barrido de manera que sea directamente proporcional a la velocidad de propagacion de la onda, es decir, al espesor de la capa de agua. Este tipo de representacion da resultados satisfactorios cuando setrata de un numero limitado de mediciones, pero sin duda resulta mas conveniente el registro grafico. En este caso, se da a los impulsos emitidos y reflejados la forma deseada y se les inyecta en un convertidor tiempo-tension con circuitos logicos transistorizados. El instrumento permite un ajuste continuo del cero para cualquier espesor-arbitrario de la capa de agua entre 2 y 4 mm, con lo cual posibilita un registro con el cero en el centro de la escala. Ademas, cualquier intervalo deseado de 100 {mu}m puede dar una tension estable de 1 V a la salida para accionar un registrador. Se puede medir facilmente cualquier variacion en el espesor del agua con una precision de 5 {mu}m. Se han medido con este metodo varios elementos combustibles, y los resultados y la reproducibilidad fueron muy satisfactorios. (author) [Russian] Sil'nye potoki teplo- vyh nejtronov, kotorye obychno voznikajut v novejshih reaktorah dlja ispytanija materialov, javljajutsja podhodjashhim s r e d s t v om ravnomernoj teploperedachi i nadezhnogo otvoda tepla, s pomoshh'ju kotorogo mozhno izbezhat' obrazovanija para v bol'shih ob{sup e}mah. Krome togo, v celjah kontrolja nad obshhim raspuhaniem i povedeniem reaktornogo topli- va izmerjajut vodjanoj zazor pri jeksperimentah posle obluchenija s otrabotannymi teplovy- deljajushhimi jelementami. S jetoj cel'ju byl razrabotan zond dlja izmerenija 3 - m m vodjanogo zazora teplovydeljaju- shhego jelementa ispytatel'nogo reaktora BR-2 dlinoj bolee 1 m , v osnovu kotorogo polozhen princip ul'trazvuka. Pri jeksperimentah posle obluchenija izmeritel'nyj zond dolzhen dej- stvovat' v teplovydeljajushhem jelemente, pogruzhennom v bassejn na glubinu ne menee 6 m . Zond mozhet vyderzhat' pogruzhenie v vodu prodolzhitel'nyj period vremeni, i on ne podver- gaetsja vozdejstviju obychnyh doz gamma-obluchenija. Hotja sistema dejstvuet na osnove obychnogo metoda otrazhenija impul'sov, ona pozvo- ljaet razdeljat' ispuskaemye i otrazhennye impul'sy s pomoshh'ju 10 Mgc ferrojelektriches- kogo kristalla, kotoromu svojstvenno bol'shoe rassejanie jenergii. Mozhno ispol'zovat' zapis' pokazanij oscilloskopa, v kotorom vremja registriruetsja na gorizontal'noj osi, skorost' skennirovanija podbiraetsja v sootvetstvii so skorost'ju rasprostranenija volny, t,e.s velichinoj zazora. Takaja zapis' pokazanij javljaetsja udovletvoritel'noj v otnoshenii ogranichennogo chisla izmerenij, odnako javno celesoobrazno imet' zapis' pokazanij samopisca. V jetom sluchae ispuskaemye i otrazhennye impul'sy formirujutsja i podajutsja v preobrazovatel' vremja- naprjazhenie s pomoshh'ju logicheskoj shemy s ispol'zovaniem tranzistora. S pomoshh'ju jetogo pribora mozhno nepreryvno podbirat' nulevoe znachenie vyhoda dlja ljuboj proizvol'noj ve- lichiny zazora mezhdu 2 i 4 mm, chto pozvoljaet ispol'zovat' nulevoj metod zapisi. Krome togo, putem ljubogo zhelatel'nogo izmenenija velichiny zazora na 100 mk mozhno poluchit' ustojchivoe vyhodnoe naprjazhenie 1 vol't dlja registratora. Mozhno legko kontrolirovat'' izmenenie velichiny zazora s tochnost'ju do 5 mk. Izmereno neskol'ko teplovydeljajushhih jelementov. Rezul'taty i vosproizvodimost' javljajutsja ves'ma udovletvoritel'nymi. (author)

  12. Measurements with a Pulsed and Modulated Source in a Reactor; Mesures au Moyen d'une Source Pulsee et Modulee dans un Reacteur; Izmereniya v reaktore s pomoshch'yu impul'snogo i moduliruemogo is tochnika; Mediciones Efectuadas en Reactor con una Fuente Pulsada y Modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotter, W. [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1965-10-15

    A generator with a neutron level variable in terms of any time factor has been developed by Philips Research Laboratories. Its practical use. in reactor physics has been demonstrated through a series of measurements carried out in the BRO2 reactor when subcritical. The stability of this generator, and the possibility of introducing sharp variations in the neutron intensity and of pulsing the flux or modulating it sinusoidally, makes it a very versatile instrument. It enables reactivity ({rho} = {Delta}k/{beta}) and neutron lifetime ( Script-Small-L /{beta}) to be determined by different independent methods. An exact comparison can be made of these methods since they can be employed without changing the conditions under which measurements are carried out. The following were determined: (1) {rho} based on delayed neutrons, by a sudden reduction of neutron level, (2) {rho} based on prompt neutrons by neutron pulses, (3) ( Script-Small-L /{beta}) by a combination of (1) and (2) for 0.5$ < {rho} < 2$; and (4) Script-Small-L /{beta} based on the transfer function of the reactor for a modulated source. The transfer functions for a reactivity oscillator and for a sinusoidally modulated source are discussed. It is shown that the measurement of Script-Small-L /{beta} is possible for 0.1 $ < {rho} < 10 $ by using a modulated source. The same method also gives the reactivity on the basis of the ratio of prompt neutrons to delayed neutrons for an optimal frequency, practically independently of the data for delayed neutrons and of the value of Script-Small-L /{beta}. By accumulating a large number of cycles in the multi-channel analyser, better statistics for each method can be obtained. Since the neutron level from the generator is in fact sinusoidal, the response of the reactor may be integrated over each quarter of a period, as the measurement sequence is controlled by the generator; measurement time is then minimal. Observations recorded on a perforated tape are analysed by a digital computer [French] Un generateur dont le debit neutronique est variable selon une fonction du temps quelconque a ete mis au point par les Laboratoires de recherches Philips. Son utilite pratique dans le domaine de la physique des reacteurs a ete demontree par une serie de mesures effectuees dans le reacteur BRO2 a fotat sous-critique. Sa bonne stabilite, la possibilite de faire varier brusquement l'intensite neutronique, de puiser le debit ou de le moduler sinusoldalement, rend ce generateur tres souple. Il permet de determiner la reactivite ({rho} = {Delta}k/{beta}) et le temps de vie des neutrons ( Script-Small-L /{beta}) d'apres differentes methodes independantes. Une comparaison exacte de ces methodes est possible puisqu'elles peuvent etre employees sans modifier les conditions de mesure. On a determine: a) {rho} sur la base des neutrons retardes, par une reduction instantanee du debit de neutrons; b) {rho} sur la base des neutrons instantanes par des bouffees de neutrons; c) Script-Small-L /{beta} par combinaison de a) et b) pour 0,5 $ < {rho} <2 $; d) Script-Small-L /{beta} sur la base de la fonction de transfert du reacteur pour une source modulee. Les fonctions de transfert pour un oscillateur de reactivite et pour une source modulee sinusoldalement sont discutees. Il est montre que la mesure de Script-Small-L /{beta} est possible pour 0,1 $ < {rho} < 10 $ en utilisant une source modulee. La meme methode fournit aussi la reactivite a l'aide du rapport des neutrons instantanes aux neutrons retardes pour une frequence optimale, pratiquement independamment des donnees relatives aux neutrons retardes et de la valeur de f Script-Small-L /{beta}. Par accumulation d'un grand nombre de cycles dans l'analyseur multicanal, la statistique peut etre amelioree pour chaque methode. Le debit du generateur etant bien sinusoiedal, la reponse du reacteur peut etre integree sur chaque quart d'une periode, etant donne que la chafhe de mesure est pilotee par le generateur: le temps de mesure est donc minimum. Les observations enregistrees sur bande perforee sont depouillees par une calculatrice numerique. (author) [Spanish] Los laboratorios de investigacion Philips han construido un generador neutronico de flujo variable en funcion del tiempo. Con una serie de mediciones efectuadas en el reactor BRO2 en estado subcrftico, se ha demostrado su utililidad practica en la esfera de la fisica de los reactores. El funcionamiento del generador es muy flexible debido a su alta estabilidad, a la posibilidad de variar bruscamente la intensidad neutronica, y de pulsar el flujo o modularlo de manera sinusoidal. El generador permite determinar la reactividad ({rho} = {Delta}k/{beta}) y la vida media de los neutrones ( Script-Small-L /{beta}) segun varios metodos independientes. Es posible proceder a una comparacion exacta de esos metodos, dado que pueden aplicarse sin modificar las condiciones de medicion. El autor ha calculado los siguientes valores: a) p, sobre la base de los neutrones retardados, por reduccion instantanea del flujo neutronico; b) p, sobre la base de los neutrones inmediatos, por impulsos neutronicos; c) Script-Small-L /{beta}, combinando 1) y 2), cuando 0, 5 dolares < {rho} < 2 dolares, y d) Script-Small-L /{beta}, sobre la base de la funcion de transferencia del reactor para una fuente modulada. En la memoria se examinan las funciones de transferencia correspondientes a un oscilador de reactividad y a una fuente de modulacion sinusoidal. Se demuestra que es posible medir Script-Small-L /{beta}, cuando 0,1 dolar < {rho} < 10 dolares utilizando una fuente modulada. Por el mismo metodo se obtiene tambien la reactividad partiendo de la razon neutrones inmediatos/neutrones retardados para una frecuencia optima que es practicamente independiente de los datos relativos a los neutrones retardados y del cociente Script-Small-L /{beta}. La precision estadistica de cada metodo puede aumentarse acumulando un gran numero de ciclos en el analizador multicanal. Como el flujo del generador es perfectamente sinusoidal, la respuesta del reactor puede integrarse en cada cuarto de perfodo, puesto que el circuito de medicion esta gobernado por el generador; por consiguiente, el tiempo de medicion es minimo. Los datos registrados sobre cinta perforada se analizan con ayuda de una calculadora numerica. (author) [Russian] Generator, vyhod nejtronov kotorogo izmenjaetsja v zavisimosti ot funkcii kakogo-to vremeni, byl razrabotan v issledovatel'skih laboratorijah Filipsa. Ego prakticheskaja pol'za v oblasti fiziki reaktorov byla prodemonstrirovana na serii izmerenij, provedennyh v reaktore BR-O 2 v podkriticheskom sostojanii. Horoshaja ustojchivost', vozmozhnost' proizvodit' rezkie izmenenija intensivnosti nejtronnogo potoka, impul'sirovat' vyhod ili modulirovat' ego sinusoidal'no, - vse jeto delaet takoj generator ochen' gibkim. On pozvoljaet ustanavlivat' reaktivnost' ({rho} = {Delta}k/{beta}) i vremja zhizni nejtronov ( Script-Small-L /{beta}) po razlichnym nezavisimym metodam. Tochnoe sravnenie jetih metodov vozmozhno, poskol'ku poslednie mogut byt' ispol'zovany bez izmenenija uslovij izmerenija. Ustanovleno: 1) {rho} na osnove zapazdyvajushhih nejtronov putem mgnovennogo umen'shenija vyhoda nejtronov; 2) {rho} na osnove mgnovennyh nejtronov putem ispol'zovanija impul'sov nejtronov; 3) Script-Small-L /{beta} putem soedinenija 1) i 2) dlja 0,5 $ < {rho} < 2 $ ; 4) Script-Small-L /{beta} na osnove peredatochnoj funkcii reaktora dlja moduliruemogo istochnika. Obsuzhdajutsja peredatochnye funkcii dlja oscilljatora reaktivnosti i dlja sinusoidal'no moduliruemogo istochnika. Pokazano, chto izmerenie Script-Small-L /{beta} vozmozhno dlja 0,1 $< {rho} < $ s uchetom primenenija moduliruemogo istochnika. Tot zhe metod takzhe daet reaktivnost' s pomoshh'ju otnoshenija mgnovennyh nejtronov k zapazdyvajushhim nejtronam dlja optimal'noj chastoty, prichem na praktike jeto proishodit nezavisimo ot dannyh, otnosjashhihsja k zapazdyvajushhim nejtronam, i ot znachenija Script-Small-L /{beta}. Statistika mozhet byt' uluchshena dlja kazhdogo metoda v rezul'tate nakoplenija bol'shogo kolichestva ciklov v mnogokanal'nom analizatore. Esli vyhod s generatora dostatochno sinusoidalen, to chuvstvitel'nost' reaktora mozhet byt' integrirovana dlja kazhdoj chetverti perioda pri uslovii, chto cep' izmerenij upravljaetsja generatorom; pojetomu vremja izmerenija minimal'no. Zaregistrirovannye na perforirovannoj lente nabljudenija rasshifrovyvajutsja na cifrovom vychislitel'nom ustrojstve. (author)

  13. Study of inclusions and segregation in metals by autoradiography; Etude autoradiographic des inclusions et de la segregation dans les metaux; Izuchenie primesej i usadki metalla s pomoshch'yu avtoradiografii; Estudio autoradiografico de las inclusiones y de la segregacion en los metales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makin, S M [Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    Three applications of radioisotope techniques to metallurgy are described. During the course of this work, new autoradiographic techniques are developed. These include the irradiation and autoradiography of extraction replicas, similar to those used in electron microscopy, and a two-colour dye-transfer process in which colour prints of autoradiographs are shown with the corresponding micrographs superposed. These methods are applied to the study of inclusions in steel and uranium and to an investigation of the segregation of sulphur and phosphorus in welds in stainless steel. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit trois applications des radioisotopes en metallurgie. Au cours de ces travaux, l'auteur a mis au point de nouvelles techniques d'autoradiographie. Celles-ci comportent l'irradiation d'empreintes pour autoradiographie et d'empreintes d'extraction, semblables a celles qui sont employees dans la microscopie electronique, et font appel a un procede de transfert en deux couleurs dans lequel on superpose des autoradiographies en couleur et les microphotographies correspondantes. Ces methodes sont appliquees a l'etude des inclusions dans l'acier et l'uranium ainsi qu'aux recherches sur la segregation du soufre et du phosphore dans les pieces soudees en acier inoxydable. (author) [Spanish] Se describen tres aplicaciones de las tecnicas de los radioisotopes en la metalurgia. En el curso de los experimentos se han perfeccionado nuevas tecnicas autorradiograficas, que comprenden la irradiacion de replicas de autorradiografia y extraccion, analogas a las utilizadas en la microscopia electronica y un procedimiento de impresion a dos colores que permite obtener autorradiografias superpuestas a las correspondientes micrografias. Estos metodos se aplican al estudio de inclusiones en el acero y el uranio y a una investigacion de la segregacion del azufre y del fosforo en soldaduras hechas en acero inoxidable. (author) [Russian] Daetsya opisanie trekh sposobov primeneniya radioizotopov v metallurgii. V khode ehtoj raboty byli sozdany novye avtoradiograficheskie metody. Oni vklyuchayut obluchenie i avtoradiografiyu ehkstraktsionnykh modelej, podobno ispol'zuemym v ehlektronnoj mikroskopii, i protsess dvukhtsvetnogo perekhoda, pri kotorom tsvetnye kopii chertezhej avtoradiografa pokazyvayutsya s sootvetstvuyushchimi nalozhennymi dannymi mikrografov. EHti metody ispol'zuyutsya pri izuchenii primesej v stali i urane i pri issledovanii segregatsii sery i fosfora pri svarke v nerzhaveyushchej stali. (author)

  14. Taiwan zhanhou chuqi wenxue changyu chongjian : Shuwei renwen gangfa de yunyong yu shilie fenxi 台灣戰後初期文學場域重建:數位人文方法的運用與實例分析

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dluhošová, Táňa; Chen, A.Ch.-H.

    -, č. 27 (2015), s. 113-152 ISSN 1608-1692 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) MOST/2014/0004 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Early Post-war Literature * Digital Humanities * Literary Field * Multivariate analysis * Literary Autonomy Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  15. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  16. Control Rods in high-Flux Swimming-Pool Reactors; Les Barres de Controle dans les Piles Piscines a Haut Flux; Reguliruyushchie sterzhni dlya reaktorov bassejnovogo tipa s vysokoj plotnost'yu nejtronnogo potoka; Las Barras de Control en los Reactores Tipo Piscina de Flujo Elevado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageroni, P.; Blum, P.; Denielou, G.; Denis, P.; Meunier, C. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France)

    1964-06-15

    Control-rod problems in open swimming-pool high-flux and high specific power research reactors are examined in the light of the calibrations and experiments made during the construction of the SILOE reactor. Control-rod operating experience for this reactor at 13 MW is also described. 2. The following are considered in turn: (a) Reactivity balances and reactivity values for the different types of rod tested (cadmium, B4C , rare earths and combinations of these different elements). (b) Flux peaks set up in the core by the presence of the control rods, their incidence on the specific power, the fast fluxes that can be obtained and means of increasing them. (c ) The technological problems involved in constructing the rods. (d) In-pile cooling, vibration, deformation and scram-time problems. 3. In conclusion, current studies on control rods in open swimming-pool reactors operating in the 10 - 30 1W range are briefly summarized. (author) [French] 1. Les problemes poses par les barres de controle dans les reacteurs de recherche de type piscine ouverte a haute puissance specifique et haut flux sont examines a la lumiere des calculs et des experiences effectues pendant la construction du reacteur SILOE. Les resultats de l'experience de fonctionnement a 13 MW de ce reacteur sont egalement presentes en ce qui concerne les barres de controle. 2. On examine successivement: a) les bilans de reactivite et les valeurs en reactivite des differents types de barres qui ont ete essayes (Cadmium, B 4C , terres rares et combinaisons de ces differents elements). b) Les pics de flux crees dans le coeur par la presence de barres de controle, leur incidence sur la puissance specifique, et les flux rapides que l'on peut obtenir ainsi que les moyens correspondants d'accroitre ces flux. c) Les problemes technologiques poses par la construction des barres. d) Les problemes de refrigeration, de vibration, de deformation, de temps de chute en pile. 3. En conclusion on decrit sommairement les etudes en cours sur les barres de controle des piles piscine a coeur ouvert fonctionnant dans la bande de 10 a 30 MW. (author) [Spanish] La memoria examina los problemas planteados por las barras de control en los reactores de investigacion de tipo piscina abierta, de alta potencia especifica y elevado flujo, basandose en calculos y experimentos efectuados durante la construccion del reactor SILOE. Expone asimismo la experiencia adquirida con las barras de control mientras el reactor funcionaba a 13 MW. Examina sucesivamente: a) Los balances de reactividad y los valores de esta para los diversos tipos de barras de control que se han ensayado (cadmio, B4C, tierras raras, y combinaciones de estas sustancias); b) los picos de flujo que la presencia de barras de control crea en el cuerpo del reactor, su influencia sobre la potencia especifica, los flujos rapidos que se pueden obtener y los medios para incrementarlos; c) los problemas tecnologicos planteados por la construccion de las barras; d) los problemas de refrigeracion, vibracion, deformacion y tiempo necesario para introducirlos en el reactor. Para terminar, describe someramente loe estudios que se estan realizando con las barras de control de reactores de tipo piscina de cuerpo abierto cuando funcionan en el intervalo de potencias comprendido entre 10 y 30 MW. (author) [Russian] 1. V svete raschetov i jeksperimentov, provedennyh pri postrojke reaktora STLOE , rassmatrivajutsja problemy, voznikajushhie v svjazi s regulirujushhimi sterzhnjami dlja issledovatel'skih reaktorov otkrytogo bassejnovogo tipa s bol'shoj udel'noj moshhnost'ju i s vysokoj plotnost'ju nejtronnogo potoka. Privodjatsja takzhe rezul'taty ispytanija jetogo reaktora pri .moshhnosti 13 mgvt v svjazi s razlichnymi regulirujushhimi sterzhnjami. 2. Posledov atel'no rassmatrivajutsja sledujushhie problemy: a) balans reaktivnosti i reaktivnaja sposobnost' podvergnutyh ispytanijam regulirujushhih sterzhnej razlichnyh tipov (kadmij, B{sub 4}C , redkie zemli i kombinacii jetih razlichnyh jelementov); b) piki potokov, sozdavaemyh v aktivnoj zone prisutstviem regulirujushhih sterzhnej, iz vlijanie na udel'nuju moshhnost', potoki bystryh nejtronov, kotorye mogut byt' polucheny takim obrazom, a takzhe sposoby usilenija jetih potokov; v) tehnologicheskie problemy, voznikajushhie v svjazi s izgotovleniem regulirujushhih sterzhnej; g) problemy ohlazhdenija, vibracii, deformacii i vremeni bystrogo zakrytija na dejstvujushhem reaktore. 3. V zakljuchenie daetsja kratkij obzor provodimogo v nastojashhee vremja izuchenija regulirujushhih sterzhnej dlja reaktorov bassejnovogo tipa s otkrytoj aktivnoj zonoj, rabotajushhih v diapazone moshhnostej 10 - 30 mgvt. (author)

  17. Identification and estimation ot carbohydrates using radioisotopic methods; Identification et dosage des hydrates de carbone a l'aide des radioisotopes; Identifikatsiya i opredelenie karbogidratov s pomoshch'yu radioizotopnykh metodov; Identificacion u valoracion de hidratos de carbono con ayuda de radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, G O; Criddle, W J [Department of Chemistry, University College, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    Isotope-dilution methods have been developed to identify and estimate the small amount of products formed when carbohydrates are irradiated in aqueous solution with Co{sup 60} gamma-radiation. Conventional analytical methods proved inadequate. After irradiation of C{sup 14}-sugar solutions, the autoradiographs prepared after paper chromatography indicated extensive degradation. Using a reverse isotope-dilution procedure involving the addition of known carriers, and conversion of the fragments into crystalline derivatives, various constituents were quantitatively determined. It is possible to distinguish between d- and Z-isomers, and estimate each isomer independently. The method is applicable to other analytical problems in carbohydrate chemistry. A new method for scanning and recording the radioactivity along paper-chromatogram strips, which involves an inexpensive modification to conventional counting equipment, is described. (author) [French] On a mis au point des methodes de dilution isotopique destinees a identifier et a doser les menues quantites de produits qui se forment lorsque des hydrates de carbone en solution aqueuse sont irradies par les rayons gamma du cobalt-60. A cet egard, les methodes d'analyse classiques se sont revelees inadequates. Apres irradiation de solutions de sucre marque au carbone-14, les autoradiogrammes etablis a la suite d'une chromatographic sur papier indiquaient une forte degradation. En recourant a une methode de dilution isotopique inverse, avec adjonction d'entraineurs connus, et en operant une conversion des fragments en derives cristallins, on a pu determiner quantitativement plusieurs elements constitutifs. Il est possible de distinguer les isomeres dextrogyres des isomeres levogyres et de doser chaque isomere independamment. La methode peut etre appliquee a d'autres problemes d'analyse dans la chimie des hydrates de carbone. Le memoire decrit une nouvelle methode permettant d'explorer et d'enregistrer la radioactivite de chromatogrammes sur bandes de papier; elle n'exige qu'une modification peu couteuse du materiel de comptage traditionnel. (author) [Spanish] Dado que los metodos analiticos clasicos no permiten obtener resultados satisfactorios, los autores han perfeccionado unos metodos de dilucion isotopica para identificar y valorar los productos que se forman en pequenas cantidades al exponer hidratos de carbono en solucion acuosa a las radiaciones gamma del {sup 60}Co. Las autorradiografias de cromatogramas sobre papel, obtenidos despues de irradiar soluciones de azucares marcados con {sup 14}C, revelan una considerable degradacion molecular. Gracias a un metodo de dilucion isotopica inverso basado en la adicion de portadores conocidos, y en la obtencion de derivados cristalizados de los fragmentos, los autores han podido determinar cuantitativamente los siguientes constituyentes. El metodo descrito por los autores permite distinguir entre estereoisomeros y valorar cada lino de ellos por separado. Asimismo puede utilizarse para resolver otros problemas de orden analitico que plantea la quimica de los hidratos de carbono. Los autores describen un nuevo metodo de exploracion y registro de la radiactividad a lo largo de las tiras de papel en las que se ha desarrollado el cromatograma. Este metodo solo requiere una modificacion poco onerosa del equipo de recuento corriente. (author) [Russian] Dlya identifikatsii i otsenki nebol'shikh kolichestv obrazovavshikhsya produktov pri obluchenii karbogidratov v vodnom rastvore gamma-aktivnym kobal'tom-60 byli razrabotany metody razbavleniya izotopov. Obychnye zhe analiticheskie metody okazalis' nedostatochnymi. Po obluchenii rastvorov S14-sakhar podgotovlennye avtoradiografii posle khromatografii na bumage ukazyvayut na znachitel'noe snizhenie. Ispol'zovanie protsedury obratnogo izotopnogo rastvora, svyazannoj s dobavkoj izvestnykh nositelej i preobrazovaniem oskolkov v derivaty kristallov, byli opredeleny kolichestvennye razmery sleduyushchikh sostavnykh chastej : Mozhno razlichit' d- i i-izomery i proizvesti individual'nuyu otsenku kazhdogo iz nikh. EHtot metod primenyaetsya pri reshenii drugikh analiticheskikh problem v khimii karbogidratov. V doklade daetsya opisanie novogo metoda graficheskogo izobrazheniya i zapisi radio- aktivnosti po liniyam khromogrammy na bumage, chto vozmozhno osushchestvit' pri neznachitel'nykh zatratakh na modifikatsiyu obychnogo schetnogo oborudovaniya. (author)

  18. FY 1999 report on the results of a feasibility study on a system for producing useful chemical substances by utilizing CO2-containing natural gas fields. II; 1999 nendo CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper studied the solar energy use methanol synthesis using CO2 as raw material in the natural gas field with which a large quantity of CO2 is associated. This is a report on the FY 1999 survey. It was found that comparatively many natural gas fields containing CO2 exist also in Asia/Oceania regions. It was also found that when considering the climate and the transportation to Japan, Australia has more advantages in terms of the effective desert area, etc. and is the best site for solar system construction. Various solar concentrating/collecting methods now under development are roughly viewed to extract characteristics and developmental conditions. As to the reforming reaction furnace, it is necessary not only to absorb the world technology, but to develop Japan's original one. The conceptual design and assessment of the system were conducted. About the associated CO2, a limit of the concentration for use was estimated at 25%. In the study of elements of system structure, examined was the thermally combined simulation of heat flow and chemical reaction in the solar heat reaction furnace, and simple models were calculated and subjects were extracted. In a comparison with the conventional methanol synthesis method, this system was found to be excellent in conservation of fossil fuel resources and reduction in CO2 emissions. (NEDO)

  19. Propuesta de metodología para la estimación de la resistencia del hormigón en un punto de una estructura a través de ensayos de información, en éste y/u otros puntos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxade Ribot, Carlos

    1976-02-01

    Full Text Available The destructive character of the extraction of test specimens, which at present is the only test that provides trustworthy data with regard to strength, makes it necessary to assign a strength to areas in the structure that are at a greater or lesser distance from the extraction points. The variables of the problem are the number of extractions and their emplacement. At one end we would have the case in which samples are taken from all the structural parts at the risk of weakening the structure, above all during the sampling process itself, as well as the negative financial and time factors, that this procedure would imply. At the other far end we would place the case of evaluating the strength in a great structural area on the basis of the results from breaking a small quantity of test pieces, by way of an extrapolation without the required guarantees. Naturally, the number of test and their emplacement situates the problem in between the two above mentioned extremes. The necessary extrapolation of some results that by nature are not exhaustive, is then carried out with greater or lesser guarantee with regard to advance knowledge of the execution of the work: the greater this knowledge is, the easier it is to establish the strength relation between the specimens and the pieces, which without being represented directly by samples, can adapt themselves to their characteristics, either by proximity or known execution rhythm. The most important problem arises when there is not enough knowledge on how the work was carried out, so that it is impossible to relate the strength of the test specimens with the actual strength of the rest of the structure under investigation. In this case it does not seem possible to establish the relation between two points in the structure other than on the basis of the actual physical distances and the results obtained through the test specimens. This report dealts with the application of the Information theory to quantify these relations and to group the points at which the concrete strength is estimated.El carácter destructivo de la extracción de probetas testigo, actualmente el único ensayo de información que facilita datos de partida fidedignos desde el punto de vista resistente, obliga a asignar una resistencia a zonas de la estructura más o menos lejanas de los puntos de extracción. Las variables del problema son el número de extracciones y su localización. En un extremo tendríamos el caso de la obtención de testigos en todas las piezas estructurales, con el consiguiente riesgo de debilitación de la estructura, sobre todo durante las operaciones necesarias para ello, y el gravoso factor económico y de tiempo que este planteamiento lleva aparejado. En el otro extremo se situaría el caso de la evaluación de la resistencia de una gran zona de estructura en base a los resultados de la rotura de un mínimo número de probetas, a través de una extrapolación sin las necesarias garantías. Naturalmente, el número de ensayos de Información y su localización sitúa el problema en una región intermedia entre los dos extremos expuestos. La necesaria extrapolación de unos resultados, forzosamente no exhaustivos, se realiza, entonces, con una mayor o menor garantía en función del conocimiento previo de la ejecución de la obra: cuanto mayor es este conocimiento más fácilmente se podrá establecer la relación de resistencias entre los testigos y las piezas que, sin tener probetas que los representen directamente, puedan, por proximidad o ritmo de ejecución conocido, asimilarse a las características de dichos testigos. El problema más grave se plantea cuando el desconocimiento de la ejecución de la obra no permite establecer nexos de conocimiento entre los resultados obtenidos en determinados testigos y el resto de la zona de estructura cuya capacidad resistente se trata de evaluar. En este caso no parece posible el establecimiento de relaciones entre dos puntos de la estructura más que basándose en las distancias físicas y los resultados obtenidos en los testigos ensayados. Este trabajo trata de la aplicación de la teoría de la información para cuantificar estas relaciones y agrupar los puntos en los cuales el hormigón es objeto de estimación resistente.

  20. Scintillation Scanning of the Spleen with Red Cells Labelled with Cr{sup 51}; Scintigraphie de la Rate au Moyen d'Hematies Marquees au Chrome-51; Stsintillyatsionnoe skennirovanie selezenki s pomoshch'yu ehritrotsitov mechennykh Khromom-51; Exploracion Centelleografica del Bazo Mediante Eritrocitos Marcados con Cromo-51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli-Ressi, F. [Istituto di Radiologia e Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Maggiore, Milan (Italy)

    1964-10-15

    Satisfactory scintiscans of the spleen have been obtained using chromium-51-labelled red cells, modified by two methods. Initially red cells were sensitized in vitro by coating with incomplete anti-D antibody. In this method the concentration of sensitized red cells in the spleen is proportional to the volume of anti- D serum employed in the sensitization procedure. Satisfactory scintiscans were obtained using 0.50 ml of a 1:128 dilution of anti-D serum, having an original titre of 1: 512/ml of red cells. In spite of good results, the sensitization method, utilizable only in Rh positive patients, has been replaced by the method using red cells modified by heating, which is technically easier and may be used also in Rh negative patients. The image of the spleen is clearly delineated in all the cases, without interference from hepatic radioactivity. The spleen: liver ratio ranges between 5:1 and 10:1. To date scintillation scans of the spleen have been performed in about 60 patients. No immediate or delayed clinical reactions have been observed in the patients after the injection of sensitized or heated red cells. Since the radiation dose delivered to the patient is lower than the dose delivered in many radiological and clinical examinations with radioactive isotopes, the scanning procedure has been widely used in the differential diagnosis of the masses of the left abdomen. Among the cases studied, it is worth while mentioning two cases of splenomegaly associated with a tumour of the left kidney, one case of Banti's disease in a patient, in which a neoplasm of descending colon was suspected and a case of neuroblastoma in a patient two years old, in which the scintiscan of the spleen and that of the kidneys were of great help in making the right diagnosis. Further, the scintiscan has been of unique utility to rule out an accessory spleen and to demonstrate the spleen in congenital malformations, like situs inversus viscerum. In patients affected by chronic leukaemia the scanning procedure has been used in objectively demonstrating modifications in spleen size after roentgen- ray therapy. (author) [French] L'auteur a obtenu des scintigrammes satisfaisants de la rate au moyen d'hematies marquees au chrome-51, alterees suivant deux methodes differentes. La methode utilisee en premier lieu consistait a sensibiliser les hematies in vitro en les revetant d'anticorps anti-D incomplet. Avec cette methode, la concentration dans la rate des hematies sensibilisees est proportionnelle au volume de serum anti-D utilise pour la sensibilisation. L'auteur a obtenu des scintigrammes satisfaisants en utilisant, par ml d'hematies, 0,50 ml de serum anti-D dilue a 1:128, dont le titre initial etait de 1:512. Bien qu*elle ait donne de bons resultats, la methode de sensibilisation, qui ne peut etre utilisee que chez des patients a Rh positif, a ete remplacee par une autre methode dans laquelle les hematies sont alterees thermiquement; cette seconde methode est techniquement plus facile et peut egalement etre appliquee chez des patients a Rh negatif. L'image de la rate est nettement delimitee dans tous les cas, sans interference due a la radioactivite hepatique. Le rapport rate:foie varie entre 5 et 10. A ce jour, l'auteur a etabli des scintigrammes de la rate pour une soixantaine de patients. Aucune reaction clinique, immediate ou differee, n*a ete observee a la suite de l'injection d'hematies sensibilisees ou alterees thermiquement. La dose de rayonnement delivree au patient etant inferieure a la dose administree dans de nombreux examens radiologiques et cliniques au moyen des radioisotopes, cette methode scintigraphique est largement utilisee a l'hopital de l'auteur pour le diagnostic differentiel des masses de la partie gauche de l'abdomen. Parmi les cas etudies, il convient de citer deux cas de splenomegalie associee a une tumeur du rein gauche, un cas de maladie de Banti chez un sujet presentant les symptomes d'un neoplasme du colon descendant et un cas de neuroblastome chez un enfant de deux ans, que la scintigraphie de la rate et des reins a beaucoup aide a diagnostiquer correctement. En outre, la scintigraphie peut seule permettre d'ecarter l'hypothese d'une rate accessoire et de visualiser la rate dans les malformations congenitales telles que l'inversion viscerale. Chez les sujets atteints de leucemie chronique, la scintigraphie a permis d'obtenir une preuve objective des modifications de la taille de la rate apres roentgentherapie. (author) [Spanish] El autor ha obtenido centelleogramas satisfactorios del bazo empleando eritrocitos marcados con cromo-51, modificados por dos procedimientos. Al principio, sensibilizaba los eritrocitos in vitro recubriendolos con un anticuerpo incompleto anti-D. Con este procedimiento la concentracion en el bazo de eritrocitos sensibilizados resulta proporcional al volumen del suero anti-D empleado para su sensibilizacion. Con 0,50 mi de una solucion de suero anti-D, diluida al 1:128 a partir de un titulo inicial de 1: 512, por milimetro de eritrocitos, se han conseguido centelleogramas satisfactorios. Pese a sus buenos resultados, este procedimiento de sensibilizacion, que solo puede aplicarse a pacientes con Rh po: itivo, fue sustituido por un metodo basado en el empleo de eritrocitos modificados por la accion del calor, metodo que es mas facil de utilizar y que puede aplicarse tambien a pacientes con Rh negativo. En todos los casos la imagen del bazo aparece claramente delineada, sin ninguna interferencia de la radiactividad hepatica. La razon bazo/higado varia entre 5:1 y 10:1. Hasta ahora el autor ha procedido a la exploracion centelleografica del bazo de unos 60 pacientes. No ha observe do en estos ultimos ninguna reaccion clinica inmediata ni retardada despues de la inyeccion de los eritrocitos sensibilizados o calentados. Como la dosis de radiacion recibida por el paciente es inferior a la que se administra en muchos examenes radiologicos y clinicos efectuados mediante isotopos radiactivos, este procedimiento de exploracion ha sido muy utilizado para el diagnostico diferencial de las masas de la mitad izquierda del abdomen. Entre los casos estudiados, cabe mencionar dos de esplenomegalia acompanada de tumor del rinon izquierdo, uno de enfermedad de Banti en el que se sospechaba la presencia de un neoplasma del colon descendente, y otro de neuroblastoma en un nino de dos anos, cuyo diagnostico fue facilitado por el centelleograma del bazo y de los rinones. La exploracion centelleografica ha sido, ademas, de suma utilidad para descartar la existencia de un bazo suplementario y senalar malformaciones congenitas del bazo, tales como un situs inversus viscerum. En pacientes afectados por leucemia cronica este procedimiento de exploracion ha servido para demostrar objetivamente la existencia de modificaciones del tamano del bazo causadas por una aplicacion terapeutica de rayos X. (author) [Russian] Udovletvoritel'nye scintigrammy selezenki byli polucheny pri ispol'zovanii jeritrocitov, mechennyh hromom-51, chto osushhestvljalos' dvumja sposobami. Pervonachal'no jeritrocity sensibilizirovali in vitro putem vozdejstvija nepolnogo anti-D antitela. Pri takom metode koncentracija sensibilizirovannyh jeritrocitov v selezenke proporcional'na ob{sup e}mu primenjaemoj v processe sensibilizacii syvorotki anti-D . Udovletvoritel'nye scintigrammy byli polucheny pri ispol'zovanii 0,50 ml syvorotki anti-D v razbavlenii 1: 128, pri pervonachal'nom titre 1:512, na 1 ml jeritrocitov. Nesmotrja na horoshie rezul'taty, metod sensibilizacii, primenimyj lish' u rezus-polozhitel'nyh bol'nyh, byl zamenen metodom s ispol'zovaniem jeritrocitov, vidoizmenennyh posredstvom nagrevanija, kotoryj v tehnicheskom otnoshenii gorazdo proshhe i mozhet ispol'zovat'sja i u re- zus-otricatel'nyh bol'nyh. Izobrazhenie selezejki imelo chetkuju konfiguraciju vo vseh sluchajah bez kakih libo pomeh za schet radioaktivnosti pecheni. Sootnoshenie selezenka-pechen' kolebletsja v predelah mezhdu 5: 1 i 10: 1 . K nastojashhemu momentu scintigrammy pecheni polucheny pochti u 60 bol'nyh. U bol'nyh posle in{sup e}kcii sensibilizirovannyh ili podogretyh jeritrocitov ne nabljudalos' neposredstvennyh ili otdalennyh klinicheskih reakcij. Poskol'ku doza radiacii, poluchennaja bol'nym, men'she dozy, poluchaemoj pri mnogih radiologicheskih i klinicheskih issledovanijah za schet radioaktivnyh izotopov, to procedura skennirovanija shiroko ispol'zovalas' dlja differencial'noj diagnostiki obrazovanij v levoj polovine brjushnoj polosti. Sredi izuchavshihsja sluchaev zasluzhivajut upominanija dva sluchaja splenomegalii, sochetavshiesja s opuhol'ju levoj pochki, odin sluchaj bolezni Banti u bol'nogo, gde predpolagalos' nalichie novoobrazovanija v nishodjashhej petle tolstoj kishki, a takzhe sluchaj nenroblastomy u dvuhletnego rebenka, pri kotoroj scintigramma selezenki i pochek okazyvajut bol'shuju pomoshh' dlja postanovki pravil'nogo diagnoza. Krome togo, scintigramma javilas' unikal'nym metodom dlja iskljuchenija dobavochnoj selezenki i dlja demonstracii selezenki pri vrozhdennyh anomalijah, podobnyh obratnomu raspolozheniju vnutrennostej. U bol'nyh hronicheskoj lejkemiej skennirovanie ispol'zovalos' dlja ob{sup e}ktivnoj demonstracii izmenenija razmerov selezenki posle rentgenoterapii. (author)

  1. New species and records of Awas Löbl (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from China, with notes on the biology of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei

    2017-10-24

    A new species of the arnylliine ant-loving beetle genus Awas Löbl, A. helii Yin, sp. n., collected with Ectomomyrmex ants in Sichuan, SW China, is described and illustrated. The new taxon externally resembles A. kayan Yin & Li from Hunan, central China, but can be readily separated by the different forms of the pronotum and elytra, and details of the aedeagal structures. New collecting data for Awas loebli Yin & Li in eastern China, as well as some notes on the biology of the genus are provided.

  2. System Optical Quality Users Guide. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    UPDATES 1. *ID FIXZRN This update redefines the coeffiencets to be input to the Zernike subroutine. This new convention is more physically meaningful...XROT = XIN x COSROT + YIN x SINROT YROT = -XIN x SINROT + YIN x COSROT Application of Zernike polynomials to and SOQ point located at (XIN, YIN) would...MA) MAI1N d !P1 CumT I NUE MAIN 903 opf I TEI bt %) U%7AU5S #AMtES MAIN eI14 ’ 3d F4JeMAr~auoo (AUSSIAN AMP.LLTUOE UJlbIdN~d ON tEAS dtEN FOMb) wIIM

  3. Experimental Research Into High Barometric Oxygen Prevention of Guinea Pig Hearing Loss,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-28

    PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS by Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. DTIC MLECTE •<• EP 2 9 1992 Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited...PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS By: Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. English pages: 9 Source: Chung-Hua I Shueh Tsa Chih, Vol. 65, Nr. 11, Nov.eember...Distributionf._DL~~~t .•b • / or __ Dlist szeccat .lef ’ ~1 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH INTO HIGH BAROMETRIC OXYGEN PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS BY: Yin

  4. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 86, November - December 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Rudnitskaya, A.A.; Librovich, N.B.; Fialkov , Yu.Ya. (IKhF). Ion-molecular interactions in H(sub2)SO(sub4) - diethyl ether and H(sub2)SO(sub4... FIALKOV YU YA 94 GIPPIUS N A 104 DOLGOV-SAVEL’YEV G G 24 FILIMONOV D A 100 GIRDAUSKAS V V 64 DONRACHEV S 1 50 FILIPPOV 0 K 80 GIRENKO YU N 21

  5. 78 FR 44806 - Amendments to Regulation D, Form D and Rule 156

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Charles Kwon, Special Counsel or Ted Yu, Senior Special Counsel, Office of... Efficiency, Competition and Capital Formation X. Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act XI...

  6. Summaries of Research, 1 July - 31 December 1965

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watten, R

    1965-01-01

    ...: Intestinal parasites of aborigines (Yami) of Lan Yu (Orchid Island), NOTES ON SOME MALLOPHAGA FROM FORMOSAN MAMMALS, OBSERVATIONS ON THE BIONOMICS OF THE BITING MIDGE CULICOIDES ARAKAWAE (ARKAKAWA...

  7. Qualitative research from start to finish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    .... Despite his stature as a world-renowned qualitative researcher, Yin's approach and writing style are so accessible that readers will feel like he is speaking directly to them in a small seminar...

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese honeybees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... honeybees (Apis cerana) under microsatellite markers. Ting Ji, Ling Yin and ... from Apis mellifera introduced into China since 1896 (Yang, 2005). With the ..... Commercial and Feral Honey Bees in Western Australia. J. Econ.

  9. [The academic characteristics of acupuncture and moxibustion of professor ZHANG Yongshu:a famous acupuncturist in Southern Fujian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiwei; Meng, Xianjun; Zhu, Anning; Wang, Yu; Luo, Wuyougumo; Kuang, Zifang

    2017-01-12

    Professor ZHANG Yongshu , who studied from professor LIU Zhangjie , is a famous acupuncturist in Quanzhou of Southern Fujian. The publications authored by professor ZHANG Yongshu were collected in this study to summarize his academic characteristics of acupuncture and moxibustion. The result indicated he highly valued the regulation of yang qi , and established the theory of "developing yang to nourish yin ", which proposes to develop yang qi to achieve the effect of culturing yin ; he summarized eight methods to regulate the governor vessel and conception vessel, which can condition the body's yin and yang ; he paid attention to moxibustion therapy and its dosage, and made the best of direct moxibustion. In addition, he focused on meridian theory with effective application of meridian syndrome differentiation; in clinical treatment, he regulated the hand- yangming meridian to treat diseases by nourishing yang , generating yin and regulating fu .

  10. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 42 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression in luteal cells · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. X Pang, Z Wang, D Yin, Z Zhang, 8227-8235 ...

  11. Correction: Synthesis of pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives via asymmetric Michael addition reactions of carboxylate-substituted enones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Feng; Garifullina, Ainash; Tanaka, Fujie

    2018-04-25

    Correction for 'Synthesis of pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives via asymmetric Michael addition reactions of carboxylate-substituted enones' by Feng Yin et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2017, 15, 6089-6092.

  12. Characterization and identification of in vitro metabolites of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and identification of in vitro metabolites of (-)-epicatechin using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rui Jun Cai, Xiao Ling Yin, Jing Liu, Da Xu Qin, Gui Zhen Zhao ...

  13. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Xiaoming Liao1 Hongyang Zhu1 Guangfu Yin1 Zhongbing Huang1 Yadong Yao1 Xianchun Chen1. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, P.R. of China ...

  14. Moving towards a geocentric, polycultural theory of organizational paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, J.; Lewis, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud This paper comments on “Global implications of the indigenous epistemological system from the east” (Li, 2016), which provides an indigenous Chinese perspective on organizational paradox. Li introduces Yin-Yang balancing as an epistemological system that can help scholars examine and practitioners manage paradoxes. In this commentary, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the merits of Yin-Yang balancing and how this approach and other indigenous theories might enrich organizatio...

  15. Influence of I-ching (Yijing, or The Book Of Changes) on Chinese medicine, philosophy and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    I-Ching or Yi-Jing ([see text] also known as The Book of Changes) is the earliest classic in China. It simply explained the formation of the universe and the relationship of man to the universe. Most, if not all, branches of various knowledge, including traditional Chinese medicine, can be traced back its origin to this Book in which Fu Shi ([see text] 2852 B.C.) theorized how the universe was formed, through his keen observation of environment and orbits of sun, moon and stars. He used symbols to represent his views. The essence of I-Ching is basically the expression and function of Yang symbolized as "--" (from ) and Yin symbolized "- -" (from --><--), and [see text] Yin and Yang as interaction and circulation of Yang and Yin. Both Yin and Yang were derived from the same origin, Tai-Chi. Fu Shi believed Yin and Yang were the two opposite background force and energy that make the universe as what it is. Yang and Yin manifest in great variety of phenomena such as mind and body, masculine and feminine, sun and moon, hot and cold, heaven and earth, positive and negative electricity etc. The entire theory of Chinese medicine is based on the theories of Yin and Yang as well as that of 5 Element Cycles which are also related to the orderly arrangement of 8 trigrams ([see text]) by King Wen ([see text]1099-1050 B.C.). The 5 Elements Theory explains the "check and balance" mechanism created by the background force of Yin and Yang Qi and illustrated the relationships that are either strengthened or weakened by "acting and controlling" among the 5 elements. I-Ching has exerted profound influences on some well- known European philosophers and scientists, notably Leibnitz and Hegel. Between I-Ching and modern cosmology and the physics of sub-atomic particles, there are some basic theories in common.

  16. Technical and Economic Considerations in the Preservation of Meats and Poultry by Ionizing Radiation; Considerations d'Ordre Technique et Economique sur la Conservation des Viandes et de la Volaille par les Rayonnements Ionisants; Tekhnicheskie i ehkonomicheskie soobrazheniya otnositel'no'konservatsii myasa i ptitsy s pomoshch'yu ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij; Consideraciones Tecnicas y Economicas Acerca de la Conservacion de Carnes y Volateria por Irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbain, W. M. [Department of Food Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1966-11-15

    Radiation-sterilized meats and poultry can be of a quality better than that obtained with thermal processing. Where the normal method of preservation of meat and poultry during distribution is refrigeration, radiation at sterilizing levels is not likely to replace it. A principal reason for this is cost. In such a civilian market, radiation-sterilized meats will serve primarily as convenience foods. Radiation-pasteurization could provide a significant product life extension for fresh meats and poultry by delaying microbial spoilage, especially in the centralized preparation of retail cuts. Other factors of meat spoilage of a chemical or physical nature, however, are not controlled by radiation; and until they are, there is no real marketing value in the use of radiation. For fresh or frozen poultry there is the possibility of Salmonella control, should this be needed. Costs for sterilization and pasteurization are estimated and are presented in a form to permit selection of specific conditions within a range for certain important variables. From a commercial viewpoint, it is important to determine the consumer acceptance of radiation- sterilized meats and poultry. The usual approach to such a determination is to market the products in question in a limited manner and to measure the acceptance under such market conditions. To accomplish this with radiation-sterilized foods, the next step appears to be to obtain a production capability to supply the products for test marketing. (author) [French] Les viandes et la volaille sterilisees par les rayonnements peuvent etre de meilleure qualite que celle obtenue par un traitement thermique; Lorsqu'on utilise la refrigeration comme methode normale de conservation de la viande et de la volaille en cours de distribution, il est peu probable qu'on lui substitue l'irradiation a des doses sterilisantes. La principale raison eri est le cout eleve de l'irradiation. Dans un marche destine a repondre aux besoins civils, les viandes radiosterilisees seront utilisees comme appoint. La radiopasteurisation pourrait prolonger sensiblement la duree de conservation des viandes et volailles fraiches en retardant la deterioration par les bacteries, notamment dans les grandes installations de debitage pour la vente au detail. Par contre, les rayonnements n'influent pas sur certains autres facteurs chimiques ou physiques de la corruption des viandes; tant que cela ne sera pas le cas, l'emploi des rayonnements ne presentera pas d'interet commercial reel. Dans le cas de la volaille fraiche ou congelee, on pourrait, le cas echeant, appliquer un traitement contre la Salmonella. Des estimations des prix de revient de la radiosterilisation et de la pasteurisation sont presentees de maniere a permettre le choix de conditions particulieres et une certaine latitude pour tenir compte de variations importantes. Du point de vue commercial, il importe de savoir dans quelle mesure le.consommateur accepte les viandes et la volaille radiosterilisees. La methode habituelle a cette fin consiste a ne mettre sur le marche qu'une quantite limitee des produits en question et a ' mesurer' l'acceptation dans de telles conditions du marche. S'il s'agit de denrees alimentaires radiosterilisees, il faut encore assurer une capacite de production suffisante pour l'essai de commercialisation. (author) [Spanish] La calidad de las carnes y la volateria radioesterilizadas puede ser. superior a la que se obtiene sometiendolas a tratamiento termico. Cuando la refrigeracion es el metodo normalmente empleado para conservar la carne y la volateria durante su distribucion, hay pocas probabilidades de que sea sustituida por la radioesterilizacion. La razon principal estriba en los costos. En estas condiciones, las carnes radioesterilizadas se utilizaran en el mercado sobre todo como recurso excepcional. La radiopasteurizacion podria prolongar considerablemente el periodo de conservacion de las carnes y la volateria frescas, puesto que retarda la accion destructiva de los microbios, sobre todo en la preparacion centralizada de piezas para detallistas. Pero las radiaciones no eliminan otros agentes de naturaleza fisica o quimica tambien nocivos para la carne; mientras dure tal situacion, la irradiacion carece de autentico valor comercial. En lo que se refiere a la volateria fresca o congelada, las radiaciones, si es necesario, permiten eliminar la Salmonella. Se calculan los costos de la esterilizacion y de la pasterizacion, y se presentan de forma que permite seleccionar condiciones especificas en un intervalo de valores de ciertas variables importantes. Desde el punto de vista comercial, es importante conocer la aceptacion que tendran las carnes y la volateria radioesterilizadas. Para ello el procedimiento habitualmente seguido consiste en poner en venta una cantidad limitada de productos y observar su acogida en el mercado. Es por consiguiente necesario lograr una capacidad de produccion adecuada a las necesidades de ese estudio. (author) [Russian] Mjaso i ptica, sterilizovannye s pomoshh'ju izluchenij, mogut byt' luchshego kachestva po sravneniju s tem, kotoroe dostigaetsja termicheskoj obrabotkoj. Tam, gde obychnym metodom konservirovanija mjasa i pticy vo vremja raspredelenija javljaetsja zamorazhivanie, obluchenie, dostigajushhee urovnej sterilizacii, vrjad li zamenit jetot metod. Glavnaja prichina jetogo zakljuchaetsja v stoimosti. Na takom rynke sterilizovannoe s pomoshh'ju obluchenija mjaso budet sluzhit' glavnym obrazom v kachestve polufabrikata . Pasterizacija s pomoshh'ju obluchenija mogla by znachitel'no uvelichit' srok sohrannosti svezhego mjasa i pticy putem predohranenija ih ot porchi mikrobami, osobenno pri centralizovannoj razdelke dlja prodazhi v roznicu. Tem ne menee obluchenie ne ustranjaet drugie prichiny porchi mjasa, kotorye imejut himicheskij ili fizicheskij harakter; do teh por, poka jeti prichiny sushhestvujut, primenenie obluchenija ne budet davat' zhelaemyh jeffektov pri realizacii. V sluchae neobhodimosti dlja svezhej ili morozhenoj pticy mozhno primenit' kontrol' v otnoshenii salmonelly. Orientirovochno opredeleny rashody, svjazannye so sterilizaciej i pasterizaciej, kotorye predstavleny v takoj forme, kotoraja pozvoljaet vybrat' konkretnye uslovija v ramkah opredelennyh osnovnyh peremennyh. S kommercheskoj tochki zrenija mozhno opredelit' priemlemost' dlja potrebitelja sterili zovannyh s pomoshh'ju obluchenija mjasa i pticy. Obychnym sposobom reshenija takogo voprosa javljaetsja razmeshhenie na rynke opredelennyh produktov v ogranichennyh kolichestvah i oprede lenie intensivnosti sprosa na nih v takih uslovijah rynka. Sledujushhim shagom na puti realizacii sterilizovannyh s pomoshh'ju obluchenija produktov javitsja, po-vidimomu, dostizhenie proizvodstvennyh vozmozhnostej dlja postavok produktov dlja kontrol'noj realizacii. (author)

  17. Determination of D{sub 2}O-2% Enriched Uranium Lattice Parameters by Means of a Critical System; Determination des Parametres d'un Reseau Uranium Enrichi a 2%-Eau Lourde au Moyen d'un Ensemble Critique; Opredelenie s pomoshch'yu kriticheskoj sistemy parametrov reshetki s 2%-nym obog ashcheniem Urana i s zamedlitelem D{sub 2}O; Determinacion, Mediante un Conjunto Critico, de los Parametros de un Reticulado de D{sub 2}O y Uranio Enriquecido al 2%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N.; Takac, S.; Markovic, H.; Bosevski, T. [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1964-02-15

    The paper describes a series of experiments performed to determine the basic parameters of a D{sub 2}O-2% enriched-uranium lattice. The fuel elements were hollow cylinders, canned in aluminium and wetted by heavy water both on the inside and outside. The experiments were performed on the RB critical assembly of the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Belgrade. The clean geometry of this system enables a rather simple theoretical interpretation of experimental results, and straightforward comparison with two-group diffusion-theory calculations. Measurements performed for ten different lattice configurations included determination of buckling, water-level reactivity coefficient and disadvantage factors for thermal-and epithermal-neutron flux inside a reactor cell. Techniques for these measurements are described. The experimental data are then used to derive the lattice parameters defined by the four-factor formula and two-group diffusion-theory treatment of the reactor core. The results are compared with the standard calculations of the same parameters for measured lattice configurations. Deviations are found in the value of n and resonance integral for U{sup 238}. In conclusion, an analysis is made of the usefulness and accuracy of information obtained from critical experiments for design and exploitation of a research reactor, composed of D{sub 2}O and enriched uranium. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent une serie d'experiences qu'ils ont faites pour determiner les parametres fondamentaux d'un reseau uranium enrichi a 2%-eau lourde. Les elements combustiblesetaient des cylindres creux, gaines d'aluminium et baignant'dans l'eau lourde, a l'interieur comme a l'exterieur. Ils se sont servis de l'assemblage critique RB de l'Institut Boris Kidric des sciences nucleaires a Belgrade. La geometrie de cet assemblage non empoisonne a permis d'interpreter le resultat experimental a l'aide d'une theorie assez simple et de le comparer directement aux calculs faits par la theorie de la diffusion a deux groupes. Les mesures, pour dix configurations de reseau differentes, comportaient la determination du laplacien, du coefficient du niveau d'eau et des facteurs de desavantage pour le flux de neutrons thermiques et epither- miques a l'interieur d'une cellule. Le memoire decrit les methodes de mesure. Les auteurs utilisent ensuite les donnees experimentales pour en deduire les parametres de reseau determines par le calcul du coeur du reacteur au moyen de la formule des quatre facteurs et dans une theorie de diffusion a deux groupes. Ils comparent ces resultats avec les calculs classiques des memes parametres pour des configurations de reseau ayant fait l'objet de mesures. Ils ont constate des ecarts dans la valeur de n et de l'integrale de resonance pour {sup 238}U. En conclusion, les auteurs analysent l'utilite et l'exactitude des informations recueillies a l'aide des montages critiques en vue de l'etude et de l'exploitation d'un reacteur de recherche a uranium enrichi et eau lourde. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se describe una serie de experimentos efectuados con objeto de determinar los parametros basicos de un reticulado de D{sub 2}O y uranio enriquecido al 2% Los elementos combustibles consistian en cilindros huecos, revestidos de aluminio, con agua pesada en el interior y en el exterior. Los experimentos se realizaron en el conjunto critico RB del Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares 'Boris Kidric' (Belgrado). La geometria sencilla de este conjunto facilita la interpretacion teorica de los resultados experimentales, asi como la comparacion directa con calculos efectuados segun la teoria de difusion de dos grupos. Entre las mediciones efectuadas para diez configuraciones diferentes de reticulado, figuraban la determinacion del laplaciano, del coeficiente de reactividad del nivel de agua y de los factores de desventaja para un flujo de neutrones termico y epitermico dentro de una celda del reactor. En la memoria se describen las tecnicas utilizadas en las mediciones. Los datos experimentales sirvieron a continuacion para deducir los parametros del reticulado, dennidos por la formula de cuatro factores y el estudio matematico del cuerpo del reactor con arreglo a la teoria de difusion de dos grupos. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con los valores corrientemente asignados a los mismos parametros para configuraciones de reticulados medidos. Se presentan las desviaciones halladas en el valor de n y en la integral de resonancia para el {sup 238}U. En conclusion, se analiza la utilidad y precision de los datos obtenidos con los experimentos criticos para la construccion y explotacion de un reactor de investigacion de D{sub 2}O y uranio enriquecido. (author) [Russian] Daetsja opisanie serii opytov, vypolnennyh s cel'ju opredelenija osnovnyh parametrov reshetki s 2%-nym obogashheniem urana i s zamedlitelem v vide D{sub 2}O. Toplivnye jelementy predstavljali soboj polye cilindry, pokrytye aljuminiem i smochennye kak snaruzhi, tak i iznutri vodoj. Opyty provodilis' na kriticheskoj sborke RB Instituta jadernyh nauk im. Boris Kidric v Belgrade. Udobooptekaemaja geometricheskaja forma jetoj sistemy daet vozmozhnost' sravnitel'no prosto teoreticheski ob'jasnit' rezul'taty opytov i provesti neposredstvennoe gotovoe sravnenie s raschetami dvuhgruppovoj teorii diffuzii. Izmerenija, vypolnennye dlja desjati razlichnyh konfiguracij reshetki, vkljuchali opredelenie laplasiana, kojefficienta reaktivnosti urovnja vody i blok-jeffekta dlja potoka teplovyh i nadteplovyh nejtronov vnutri kamery reaktora. Opisyvaetsja metodika ctih izmerenij. Dannye opytov ispol'zujutsja dlja vyvedenija parametrov reshetki, opredeljaemyh po formule chetyreh somnozhitelej i pri primenenii k aktivnoj zone reaktora dvuhgruppovoj teorii diffuzii. Rezul'taty sravnivajutsja so standartnymi raschetami teh zhe parametrov dlja izmerjaemyh konfiguracij reshetki. Otmechajutsja otklonenija v velichine p i rezonansnogo integrala U-238. V zakljuchenie provoditsja analiz poleznosti i tochnosti poluchennoj v re zul'tate provedenija kriticheskih jeksperimentov informacii dlja proektirovanija i jekspluatacii issledovatel'skogo reaktora ja obogashhennom urane s tjazhelovodnym zamedlitelem. (author)

  18. A Procedure for the Determination of Alpha-Emitting Plutonium in Urine Using a Solid-State Counter; Methode de Determination du Plutonium Emetteur Alpha Present dans l'Urine, au Moyen d'un Compteur a Semi-Conducteurs; Metod opredeleniya al'fa-izlucheniya plutoniya v moche s pomoshch'yu poluprovodnikovogo schetchika; Procedimiento para Determinar la Actividad Alfa del Plutonio en la Orina con Ayuda de un Contador de Estado Solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandalls, F. J.; Morgan, A. [Health Physics and Medical Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1964-10-15

    A method for the routine determination of alpha-emitting plutonium in urine is described. In evolving this procedure various techniques for concentrating, purifying and electro depositing plutonium were compared, and these investigations are summarized. In the procedure finally adopted, urine is wet-ashed and the residue dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Plutonium (IV) is co-precipitated with iron cupferride from this solution and extracted into chloroform. After evaporation of the chloroform, the residue is oxidized, dissolved in hydrochloric acid and the iron extracted into di-isopropyl ether. The aqueous phase containing the plutonium is evaporated and dissolved in an acid ammonium sulphate solution from which the plutonium is electrodeposited onto stainless steel. Quantitative recoveries are obtained over the electrodeposition stage and on overall recovery of 84 {+-} 7%. The electrodeposited plutonium is counted with a solid-state (silicon junction diode) detector in a counter developed for this purpose. The low inherent background of this type of counter is effectively reduced still further by counting only those alpha particles with energy in the 4.2 - 5.4 MeV range. The good resolution which can be obtained with thin electrodeposited sources of plutonium enables this narrow channel to be used with only small losses in counting efficiency. By counting over this restricted energy range, the blank activity arising from reagents and incomplete removal of alpha-emitting contaminants in urine is also reduced by a factor of two, to just over 0.01 pc/24-h sample. The limit of detection with this method is about 0.025 pc of Pu{sup 239}. (author) [French] Les auteurs exposent une methode pour la determination courante du plutonium emetteur alpha present dans l'urine. Pour mettre au point cette methode, ils ont compare diverse procedes de concentration, de purification et de depot electrolytique du plutonium; les resultats de ces recherches sont resumes dans le memoire. La methpde qu'ils ont finalement adoptee consiste a incinerer l'urine et a dissoudre le residu dans de l'acide chlorhydrique. A partir de cette solution,' le plutonium (IV) est coprecipite avec du cupferrate de fer et extrait au moyen de chloroforme. Apres evaporation de celui-ci, le residu est oxyde et dissous dans l'acide chlorhydrique, puis le fer est extrait au moyen d'ether di-isopropy- lique. La phase aqueuse contenant le plutonium est evaporee et dissoute dans une solution de sulfate acide d'ammonium, d'ou le plutonium est depose par electrolyse sur de l'acier inoxydable. Au stade du depot . electrolytique, on recueille dans l'ensemble 84 {+-} 7% du plutonium contenu. Le plutonium depose par electrolyse est mesure au moyen d'un detecteur a semi-conducteur (diode a jonction au silicium) dans un compteur concu a cette fin. Le faible mouvement propre de ce type de compteur est encore efficacement reduit si l'on ne compte que les particules alpha ayant des energies comprises entre 4,2 et 5,4 MeV. La bonne resolution que l'on peut obtenir avec de minces couches de plutonium deposees par electrolyse permet d'utiliser ce canal etroit en ne faisant que de faibles pertes de rendement de comptage. En ne comptant que dans cette gamma d'energies peu etendue, l'activite due a la presence de reactifs et d'autres agents de contamination emetteurs alpha residuels dans l'urine, qui n'est pas entierement decontaminee, se trouve egalement reduite de moitie et atteint un peu plus de 0,01 pc par echantillon preleve sur les urines recueillies pendant 24 h. La limite de detection a l'aide de cette methode est d'environ 0, 025 pc de {sup 239}Pu. (author) [Spanish] La memoria describe un metodo para determinaciones corrientes de plutonio en la orina. Tambien resume las investigaciones que llevaron a establecer este procedimiento y en las que se compararon diversas tecnicas de concentracion, purificacion y deposito electrolitico del plutonio. Con arreglo al procedimiento adoptado en definitiva, la orina se calcina en humedo y el residuo se disuelve con acido clorhidrico. El plutonio (IV) presente en la solucion asi obtenida se coprecipita con cupferrato de hierro y se extrae con cloroformo. Una vez evaporado este,, se oxida el residuo, se disuelve en acido clorhidrico y el hierro se extrae con eter diisopropflico. Seguidamente se evapora a sequedad la fase acuosa que contiene, al plutonio y se disuelve en una solucion acida de sulfato amonico desde la cual se separa el plutonio por deposito electrolitico sobre acero inoxidable. El rendimiento de esta ultima etapa es cuantitativo, siendo de 84 {+-} 7% para el proceso en conjunto. . El plutonio electrodepositado se recuenta con un detector de estado solido (diode de union de silicio) en un contador especialmente construido para este fin. La baja actividad de fondo inherente de este tipo de contadores puede disminuirse aun mas contando solamente las particulas alfa de energia comprendida entre 4.2 y 5,4 MeV. El buen poder de resolucion que se obtiene con capas delgadas de plutonio electrodepositado permite emplear un canal tan estrecho sin que la eficacia de recuento disminuya apreciablemente. Al efectuar el recuento en este intervalo restringido, la actividad de fondo debida a los reactivos y a la eliminacion incompleta de las impurezas de emisores alfa de la orina queda reducida tambien a la mitad, esto es, a un valor del orden de 0,01 pcuries por muestra de 24 horas. El limite de deteccion mediante este metodo es aproximadamente de 0,025 pc de {sup 239}Pu. (author) [Russian] Opisan metod prakticheskogo'opredelenija al'fa-izluchenija plutonija v moche. Pri razrabotke jetogo metoda sravnivalis' razlichnye metody koncentrirovanija, ochistki i jelektroliticheskogo osazhdenija plutonija ; podvoditsja itog jetih issledovanij. Soglasno prinjatomu v konechnom itoge metodu mochu podvergajut vlazhnomu ozoleniju, osadok rastvorjajut v soljanoj kislote. Plutonij (IV) podvergajut sovmestnomu osazhdeniju s kupferronatom zheleza iz jetogo rastvora i jekstragirujut hloroformom. Posle vyparivanija hloroformom osadok okisljajut, rastvorjajut v soljanoj kislote i jekstragirujut zhelezo di- izopropilovym jefirom. Vodnuju fazu, soderzhashhuju plutonij, vyparivajut i rastvorjajut v kislom sul'fate ammonija, iz kotorogo plutonij osazhdajut jelektroliticheski na nerzhavejushhej stali. Kolichestvennye vosstanovlenija na stadii jelektroliticheskogo osazhdenija dali 84 {+-} 7% Osazhdennyj plutonij podschityvali s pomoshh'ju diodnogo (tverdogo s kremnevym soedineniem) schetchika,sozdannogo dlja jetoj celi. Nizkij estestvennyj fon schetchika jetogo tipa byl jeffektivno snizhen putem podscheta lish' teh al'fa-chastic, kotor''ge imejut jenergiju 4.2 - 5,4 Mjev. Horoshee razreshenie, poluchaemoe s pomoshh'ju tonkogo jelektroosazhdennogo istochnika plutonija3obespechivaet vozmozhnost' ochen' malyh poter' jeffektivnosti scheta v jetom uzkom kanale. Pri schete vne'jetoj ogranichennoj oblasti jenergii kontrol'naja aktivnost', sozdavaemaja reaktivami i nepolnoj ochistkoj ot drugih al'fa-izluchatelej v moche, takzhe snizhaetsja na faktor porjadka 2, nemnogo vyshe 0,01 mkmkkjuri v-techenie 24 chasov. Predel obnaruzhenija s pomoshh'ju jetogo metoda sostavljaet okolo 0,025 mkmkkjuri plutonija-239. (author)

  19. A Low-Background Liquid-Scintlllation Counter for the Assay of Low-Specific Activity Tritiated Water; Compteur a scintillations a liquides, a faible mouvement propre, pour le dosage d'eau tritiee en faible activite specifique; ZHidkostnyj stsintillyatsionnyi schetchik s nizkim fonom dlya analiza nasyshchennoj tritiem vody s nizkoj udel'noj aktivnost'yu; Contador de centelleador liquido de reducida actividad de fondo para el analisis de agua pritiada de baja actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, I S; Cameron, J F [Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    In liquid-scintillation counting of tritiated water single photomultiplier counters and coincidence systems offer comparable sensitivities. To investigate low level counting a coincidence system was selected to avoid Uncertainties in the background due to single photon events arising from phosphorescence and chemiluminescenc e in the solution. With this system the background was found to be due largely to light originating in the photomultiplier photocathode. Using two photomultipliers with ''Pyrex'' photocathodes in contact in an 8 in thick iron shield experiments were conducted to determine the relative importance of the following possible courses of background : (a) Ionization and excitation of residual gas and of the semi-conductor dynode surfaces, particularly in regions where the current density is greatest. (b) Sparking, electroluminescence and field emission. (c) Positive ion feedback to the photocathode causing secondary electron emission. (d) Operation of the photocathode window itself as a phosphor for cosmic radiation, K{sup 40} beta particles or radiation from uranium daughter products. In particular it was found that contribution (c) was significantly lower than was previously supposed. Methods of minimizing these effects, including the use of quartz photocathodes, and special photomultipliers were investigated. In the finished design of counter the minimum detectable specific activity with a counting time of 30 min. is 6x10{sup 7} {mu}c/ml. (author) [French] Dans le dosage de l'eau tritiee au moyen d'un compteur a scintillations a liquides, les compteurs a photomultiplicateur unique et les ensembles a coincidences presentent une sensibilite du meme ordre. Pour faire des recherches sur la mesure des faibles activites, les auteurs ont choisi un dispositif monte en coincidence, afin d'eviter les incertitudes dans le mouvement propre causees par l'apparation de photons isoles, dus a la phosphorescence et a la chimioluminescenc e de la solution. Dans ce dispositif, on a constate que le mouvement propre provient surtout de la lumiere qui emane de la photocathode du photomultiplicateur. En utilisant deux photomultiplicateurs a photocathode en pyrex, en contact dans une protection en fer de 20 cm, on a procede a des experiences pour determiner l'importance relative des phenomenes ci-apres pouvant constituer le mouvement propre: a) Ionisation et excitation des gaz residuels et des surfaces des dynodes a semi-conducteurs, notamment aux endroits ou la densite du courant est la plus elevee; b) Production d'etincelles, electroluminescence et emission du champ; c) Retroaction positive des ions vers la photocathode, provoquant une emission d'electrons secondaire; d) Fenetre de la photocathode jouant elle-meme le role de scintillateur pour les rayons cosmiques, les particules beta du {sup 40}K et les rayonnements emis par les produits de filiation de l'uranium. Les auteurs ont notamment etabli que le facteur c) avait sensiblement moins d'importance qu'on ne l'avait suppose precedemment. Ils ont fait des recherches sur les methodes permettant de reduire ces effets au minimum, notamment en utilisant des photocathodes en quartz et des photomultiplicateurs speciaux. Avec l'ensemble de comptage concu par les auteurs, l'activite specifique minimum decelable est de 6x10{sup 7} {mu}c/ml, le temps de comptage etant de 30 minutes. (author) [Spanish] Cuando se trata de efectuar el recuento de agua tritiada dor centelleo de liquidos, los contadores de fotomultiplicador unico y los dispositivos de coincidencias presentan sensibilidades comparables. Con el fin de efectuar estudios sobre la medicion fe bajas actividades, los autores eligieron un sistema de coincidencias para evitar la incertidumbre en lo que respecta a la actividad de fondo debida a fotones aislados emitidos en virtud de la fosforescencia y quimioluminiscenci a de la solucion. Los autores comprobaron que, en este sistema, la actividad de fondo proviene principalmente de la luz que emana del fotocatodo del fotomultiplicador. Utilizando dos fotomultiplicadores con fotocatodos de pyrex en contacto, encerrados en un blindaje de hierro de 20 cm de espesor, hicieron experimentos para determinar la importancia relativa de las siguientes posibles causas de la actividad de fondo: a) Ionizacion y excitacion del gas residual y de las superficies del dinodo semiconductor, especialmente en las regiones en que la densidad de corriente es maxima; b) Formacion de chispas, electroluminiscencia y emision de campo; c) Realimentacion de iones positivos al fotocatodo, que provoca una emision de electrones, secundarios ; d) Funcionamiento de la propia ventana fotocatodica en caracter de ''fosforo'' para la radiacion cosmica, las particulas del {sup 40}K o las radiaciones de los productos de filiacion del uranio. Los autores comprobaron que, en particular, el factor c) interviene en una proporcion mucho menor que lo que se habia supuesto. Estudiaron metodos para reducir a un minimo estos efectos, incluyendo el uso de fotocatodos de cuarzo y fotomultiplicadores especiales. Con el dispositivo disenado por los autores, la minima actividad especifica detectable, con un tiempo de recuento de 30 min, asciende a 6 x 10{sup 7}{mu}c/ml. (author) [Russian] Pri schege zhidkostnykh stsintillyatsij nasytsennoj tritiem vody schetchiki s odnim fotoumnozhitelem i sistemy sovpadenij dayut pokazaniya sravnitel'noj chuvstvitel'nosti. Dlya issledovaniya scheta izlucheniya maloj intensivnosti byla primenena sistema sovpadenij dlya togo, chtoby izbezhat' neopredelennosti v fone, vyzyvaemom izmeneniemi odnogo fotona v rezul'tate fosforestsentsii i khimicheskoj lyuminestsentsii v rastvore. Bylo obnaruzheno, chto vozniknovenie fona v ehtoj sisteme ob{sup y}asnyaetsya glavnym obrazom dejstviem sveta, iskhodyashchego iz fotokatoda fotoumnozhitelya. Byli provedeny ksperimenty s primeneniem dvukh fotoumnozhitelej s fotokatodami Pireks v kontakte s zheleznym ehkranom tolshchinoj v 8 dyujmov dlv opredeleniya otnositel'noj vazhnosti sleduyushchikh vozmozhnykh faktorov fona: a) Ionizatsiya i vozbuzhdenie ostatochnogo gaza i poverkhnostej poluprovodnikovogo dinoda, osobenno v tekh zonakh, gde imeetsya samaya bol'shaya plotnost' potoka; b) Iskroobrazovanie , ehlektrolyuminestsentsiya i avtozlektronnaya ehmissiya; c) Obratnaya svyaz' polozhitel'nykh ionov s fotokatodom, chto vyzyvaet vtorichnuyu ehlektronnuyu emissiyu; d) Samostoyatel'noe dejstvie fotokatodnogo okna podobno lyuminoforu kosmicheskoj radiatsii, beta-chastitsam K{sup 40} ili radiatsii dochernikh produktov urana. V chastnosti, bylo obnaruzheno znachitel'no men'shee vozdejstvie faktora, chem ranee predpolagalos'. Byli issledovany metody umen'sheniya ehtikh vozdejstvij, vklyuchaya ispol'zovanie kvartsevykh fotokatodov i spetsial'nykh fotoumnozhitelej. V okonchatel'noj konstruktsii schetchika miiimal'nayaobiaruzhim aya udel'naya aktivnost' so vremenem scheta v 30 minut sostavlyaet 6 x 10{sup 7} mikrokyuri na milillitr. (author)

  20. Carbon-14 and Hydrogen-3 Measurement by Means of a Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer: Colour Quenching; Mesure du Carbone-14 et du Tritium a l'Aide d'un Spectrometre a Scintillateurliquide: Extinction Chromatique; Izmerenie soderzhaniya Ugleroda-14 i Vodoroda-3 s pomoshch'yu zhidkostnogo stsintillyatsionnogo spektrometra. oslablenie tsveta; Influencia de la Extincion Cromatica en la Medicion del Carbono-14 y del Hidrogeno-3 por Espectrometria del Centelleo Liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakura, T.; Kasida, Y. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1965-10-15

    An attempt was made to correlate colour quenching and wavelength of the absorption maximum in liquid scintillators. Attempts were also made to find a difference in discriminator ratio versus counting efficiency curves between chemical and colour quenching. Fourteen photosensitive cyanine dyes were used as colouring agents in alcohol solution. The concentration of the dye in the counting samples ranged from 0.5 to 10 x 10{sup -6} M to give the desired absorbance in the liquid scintillator medium. Toluene-1-{sup 14}C and toluene-{sup 3}H were used as the internal standards. Counting was carried out with a Packard TRI-CARB Model 314 EX2 liquid scintillation spectrometer. Discriminator settings were 100-1000 divisions for the red channel and 186-1000 divisions fox the green channel. The high voltage applied to the photomultiplier was selected to give balance point operation in the red channel in an unquenched sample. Concentration of dyes against extent of quenching was examined. Because of the characteristic wavelengths of light emitted by the scintillator systems and the response of the photomultipliers (S-11 response), it was expected that red and yellow solutions which have maximum absorption at 400-500 nm would show the greatest quenching effect. To evaluate the total colour quenching, the following relationship was used to define the total absorption coefficient: A = ({Sigma}A{sub i}W{sub i})/({Sigma}W{sub i}) where W{sub i} is the relative photomultiplier sensitivity for light within the spectral range i nm, and A{sub i} is the absorbance of light within the spectral range i nm used. Total absorbance was calculated for each 40 nm range. 360-400, 400-440 etc., to 520-560 nm. The reciprocal absorbance 1/A versus the counting efficiency shows a linear relationship over a wide range of counting efficiencies. The curves of the discriminator ratio versus counting efficiency show that when colour quenching becomes strong, the colour quenching curve separates from the chemical quenching curve in {sup 14}Ccounting. On the other hand, similar measurements made in counting {sup 3}H do not show a separation of the two quenching curves. (author). (author) [French] On s'est efforce de trouver une correlation entre l'extinction chromatique et la longueur d'onde d'absorption maximale des scintillateurs liquides. On a egalement cherche a trouver une difference entre les courbes exprimant l'efficacite du comptage en fonction du rapport du discriminateur, selon qu'il s'agit d'extinction chimique ou d'extinction chromatique. On a utilise comme colorants 14 cyanines photosensibles en solution alcoolique. On a fait varier la concentration de teinture dans les echantillons de comptage de 0,5 a 10x10{sup -6} M, de maniere a obtenir le pouvoir absorbant voulu dans le scintillateur liquide. Du toluene-1- 14C et du toluene-3 H ont servi d'etalons internes. On a procede au comptage avec un spectrometre a scintillateur liquide Packard TRI-CARB, modele 314 EX2. Les reglages du discriminateur etaient les suivants: 100 a 1000 divisions pour le canal rouge et 186 a 1000 divisions pour le canal vert. La haute tension appliquee au photomultiplicateur a ete choisie de maniere a obtenir le point d'equilibre dans le canal rouge pour un echantillon non eteint. On a etudie les concentrations des teintures en fcuction du degre d'extinction. En raison des longueurs d'onde caracteristiques de la lumiere emise par le scintillateur et de la reponse des photomultiplicateurs (reponse S-ll), on s'attendait que les solutions rou,geb et jaunes qui accusent une absorption maximale a 400-500 nm donnent l'effet d'extinction le plus prononce. En vue de calculer l'extinction chromatique totale, on a utilise la formule suivante pour determiner le coefficient d'absorption totale: A = ({Sigma}A{sub i}W{sub i})/({Sigma}W{sub i}), dans laquelle W{sub i} est la sensibilite relative du photomultiplicateur pour une lumiere emise sur une longueur d'onde de i nm et A{sub i} est le coefficient d'absorption de la lumiere emise sur la longueur dlonde de i nm dans la bande spectrale utilisee. On a calcule le coefficient d'absorption totale pour chaque bande de 40 nm soit 360-400, 400-440, etc. jusqu'a 520-560 nm. Le graphique de l'inverse du coefficient d'absorption 1/A en fonction de l'efficacite du comptage revele une relation lineaire pour un large intervalle d'efficacite de comptage. Les courbes donnant le rapport du discriminateur en fonction de l'efficacite de comptage montrent que, lorsque l'extinction chromatique devient forte, la courbe qui la represente se separe de la courbe d'extinction chimique dans le comptage de {sup 14}C. Au contraire, des mesures analogues faites avec {sup 3}H ne font pas apparaitre cette separation entre les courbes d'extinction. (author) [Spanish] Los autores procuraron establecer una relacion entre la extincion cromatica y la longitud de onda en el maximo de. absorcion de centelleadores liquidos. Asimismo intentaron hallar una diferencia en la razon de discriminacion en funcion de las curvas del rendimiento de recuento entre la extincion qufmica y la cromatica. Utilizaron 14 colorantes fotosensibles a base de cianina en solucion alcoholica. La concentracion del colorante en las muestras que se querfan analizar estaba comprendida entre 0,5 y 10 x 10{sup -6} M fin-de obtener la absorcion deseada en el centelleador liquido. Como patrones internos emplearon tolueno-1- {sup 14}C y tolueno-{sup 3}H. El recuento se efectuo con un espectrometro de centelleo liquido Packard TRI-CARB, modelo 314 EX2. El discriminador se graduo en 100 a 1000 divisiones para el canal rojo y en 186 a 1000 divisiones para el canal verde. El valor de la alta tension aplicada al fotomultiplicador se eligio con miras a conseguir un funcionamiento en el punto de equilibrio del canal rojo para una muestra sin extintor. Los autores estudiaron la concentracion de colorantes en funcion del grado de extincion. Debido a la longitud de onda caracteristica de la luz emitida por los centelleadores y la respuesta del fotomultiplicador (S-ll), se supuso que la solucion roja y amarilla, que tiene un poder maximo de absorcion a 400-500 nm, ejerceria el efecto de extincion mas acusado. Para evaluar la extincion cromatica total el coeficiente de absorcion total se definio mediante la expresion A = ({Sigma}A{sub i}W{sub i})/({Sigma}W{sub i}), donde W{sub i} es la sensibilidad relativa del fotomultiplicador a luz de una longitud de onda i nm y A{sub i} es la absorbencia de luz de longitud de onda i nm en el intervalo espectral empleado. La absorbencia total se calculo para una serie de intervalos de 40 nm (360 a 400 , 400 a 440, etc., hasta 520 a 560 nm). La inversa de la absorbencia (1/A) es proporcional al rendimiento de recuento de un amplio intervalo de valores de este. En el recuento del {sup 14}C, las curvas de la razon de discriminacion en funcion del rendimiento de recuento ponen de manifiesto que a medida que se intensifica la extincion cromatica, la curva correspondiente se separa de la curva de extincion qufmica. Por otra parte, mediciones similares efectuadas durante el recuento de {sup 3}H no revelan separacion de las dos curvas de extincion. (author) [Russian] Byla sdelana popytka ustanovit' sootnoshenie mezhdu oslableniem cveta i dlinoj volny maksimuma pogloshhenija v zhidkostnyh scintilljatorah. Byla takzhe sdelana popytka opredelit' razlichija krivyh zavisimosti kojefficienta diskriminatora ot jeffektivnosti scheta dlja himicheskogo oslablenija i oslablenija cveta. Chetyrnadcat' fotochuvstvitel'nyh cianinovyh krasok bylo ispol'zovano v kachestve krasjashhih agentov v rastvore spirta. Koncentracija kraski v izmerjaemyh obrazcah menjalas' ot 0,5 do 10-10{sup 6} molja, chtoby poluchit' trebujushheesja pogloshhenie v zhidkoj scintilljacionnoj srede. V kachestve vnutrennih standartov ispol'zovalis' toluol-1-uglerod-14 i toluol- vodorod-3. Schet proizvodili s pomoshh'ju zhidkostnogo scintilljacionnogo spektrometra Pakard TRI-CARB, model' 314 EH2. Nastrojka diskriminatora sostavljala 100-1000 delenij dlja krasnogo kanala i 186-1000 delenij dlja zelenogo. Vysokoe naprjazhenie, primenjaemoe dlja fotoumnozhitelja, vybrali dlja togo, chtoby obespechit' uravnoveshennuju tochechnuju rabotu v krasnom kanale pri neoslablennom obrazce. Koncentracija krasok byla izuchena po stepeni oslablenija. Vsledstvie harakternosti dliny voln sveta, ishodjashhego iz scintilljatornyh sistem i reakcii fotoumnozhitelej (reakcija S-I), predpolagalos', chto krasno-zheltyj rastvor, kotoryj imeet maksimum pogloshhenija pri 400 - 500 mmk budet imet' samyj bol'shoj jeffekt oslablenija. Chtoby ocenit' obshhee oslablenie cveta dlja opredelenija kojefficienta obshhego pogloshhenija ispol'zovalos' sledujushhee otnoshenie: A = ({Sigma}A{sub i}W{sub i})/({Sigma}W{sub i}), gde W{sub i} - otnositel'naja chuvstvitel'nost' fotoumnozhitelja k svetu s dlinoj volny i mmk; a A{sub i} - pogloshhenie sveta s dlinoj volny i mmk v predelah ispol'zuemogo spektra. Obshhee pogloshhenie bylo rasschitano dlja kazhdogo intervala v 40 mmk, naprimer dlja 360 - 400, 400 - 440 i t.d. do 520 - 560 mmk. Jekvivalentnoe pogloshhenie 1/A v zavisimosti ot jeffektivnosti scheta pokazyvaet linejnuju zavisimost' v shirokom diapazone jeffektivnosti scheta. Krivye zavisimosti kojefficienta diskriminatora ot jeffektivnosti scheta pokazyvajut, chto, kogda oslablenie cveta stanovitsja sil'nym, krivaja oslablenija cveta otdeljaetsja ot krivoj himicheskogo oslablenija pri schete ugleroda-14. S drugoj storony, proizvedennye pri schete vodoroda-3 analogichnye izmerenija ne pokazyvajut razdelenija dvuh krivyh oslablenija. (author)

  1. The Determination of Components of Radioactive Decay Mixtures by Computer Analysis of Count-Rate Data; Determination des Composants de Melanges Radioactifs en Decroissance par Analyse a l'Ordinateur des Resultats du Comptage; Opredelenie komponentov smesej radioaktivnogo raspada posredstvom analiza dannykh skorostej scheta s pomoshch'yu schetno-reshayushchego ustrojstva; Determinacion de los Componentes de Mezclas Radiactivas por Analisis de los Datos de Recuento Mediante Calculadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airman, W. D.F.; Tyler, S. A.; Dipertand, M. H.; Sedlet, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-10-15

    The components of a mixture of n radioactive isotopes can be determined from the change in activity with time provided that the activity of at least n-1 components changes significantly during the period of observation, either by direct decay or by the growth of decay products. ft is possible to predict a set of possible components for each mixture encountered, based on considerations such as the origin and history of the mixture and the separation chemistry and counting technique(s) used. If such considerations are properly applied, the set of possible components will include all of the actual components in the mixture. The appropriate growth and/or decay equations can then be formulated and solved simultaneously to obtain each component, or the mixture can be resolved graphically by extrapolations of the linear portions of the total decay-growth curve. However, when the number of components is large and/or when complex decay schemes are involved, these two techniques either cannot be applied or the errors associated with the estimates cannot be assessed. Selection of decay components by a least-squares procedure provides better estimates than solution by simultaneous equations alone. Consequently, a least-squares Fortran computer programme (designated CORD) has been developed which solves the general problem: given the times and counts per unit time from a sample, the possible radioisotopic parents and decay schemes and all associated decay constants and detection efficiencies compute the amount of each parent actually present at a predetermined zero time. In addition, the programme yields the amounts of the parents and daughters present at all data times. Initially used with bioassay and environmental samples, the programme has been specifically designed for analysing count-rate data obtained by non-spectroscopic alpha- or beta-counting. However, it should be adaptable to total gamma and spectroscopic data, provided the energy ranges over which these measurements are made permit correlations between the data obtained and the total decay and growth rates. The development of the programme and the results obtained from theoretical and experimental data used to test it are discussed. (author) [French] Les composants d'un melange de n radioisotopes peuvent etre determines d'apres les variations de l'activite avec le temps, a condition que l'activite d'au moins n-1 elements se modifie de maniere appreciable au cours de la periode consideree, soit par la decroissance directe, soit par la croissance des produits de desintegration. Pour chaque melange, il est possible de predire un ensemble d'elements d'apres des facteurs tels que l'origine et l'evolution anterieure du melange et les techniques de separation chimique et de comptage utilisees. Si ces facteurs sont appliques de maniere convenable, l'ensemble suppose contiendra tous les elements que comporte effectivement le melange. On peut alors, soit formuler les equations de croissance ou de decroissance et les resoudre simultanement pour obtenir chaque element, soit determiner le melange sous forme graphique par extrapolation des parties lineaires de la courbe totale decroissance-croissance. Toutefois, lorsque le nombre d'elements est eleve ou que des schemas complexes de decroissance entrent en ligne de compte, il est impossible, soit d'appliquer l'une ou l'autre de ces techniques, soit d'evaluer les erreurs inherentes aux previsions. L'application de la methode des moindres carres permet d'identifier plus exactement les elements en decroissance que la methode consistant a n'utiliser que des equations simultanees. Les auteurs ont donc mis au point un programme d'ordinateur Fortran, fonde sur la methode des moindres carres (designe par le vocable CORD) et destine a resoudre le probleme general, a savoir: etant donne le taux de comptage pour un echantillon, les precurseurs et les schemas de decroissance possibles, toutes les constantes de decroissance et les caracteristiques de detection, calculer la quantite de chaque precurseur effectivement present a un moment zero fixe a l'avance. En outre, le programme iournit les quantites de precurseurs et de produits de filiation presents a tous les moments ob des mesures sont faites. D'abord applique a des specimens biologiques et a des echantillons du milieu ambiant, le programme est essentiellement destine a l'analyse des taux de comptage fournis par les mesures non spectroscopiques des rayonnements alpha ou beta. Toutefois, ce programme devrait permettre de traiter l'ensemble des donnees relatives aux rayonnements gamma et des donnees spectroscopiques pourvu que les gammes d'energie dans lesquelles les mesures sont effectuees permettent d'etablir une correlation entre les donnees obtenues et les taux de decroissance et de croissance totales. Les auteurs decrivent la mise au point du programme et analysent les resultats des essais qui ont ete effectues, a partir de donnees theoriques et de donnees experimentales, pour en verifier l'efficacite. (author) [Spanish] Es posible determinar los componentes de una mezcla de n isotopos radiactivos basandose en la variacion temporal de la actividad, siempre que la actividad de n-1, por lo menos, de los componentes, varfe apreciablemente durante el periodo de observacion, bien por desintegracion directa o bien por acumulacion de los productos de desintegracion. Fundandose en consideraciones tales como el origen, los antecedentes de la mezcla y los metodos de separacion quimica y de recuento aplicados, es posible predecir para cada mezcla una. serie de componentes posibles. Si esas consideraciones se aplican correctamente, la serie de posibles componentes comprendera todos los componentes reales de la mezcla. Entonces pueden formularse las ecuaciones pertinentes de crecimiento y/o desintegracion y resolverse simultaneamente para obtener cada componente, o bien se puede resolver la mezcla graficamente por extrapolacion de las partes lineales de la curva global de desintegracion-crecimiento. De todas formas, cuando el numero de componentes es elevado o cuando se trata de esquemas de desintegracion complejos, es imposible aplicar estas dos tecnicas o evaluar los errores inherentes al calculo. La determinacion de los componentes de desintegracion por cuadrados minimos da mejores resultados que la solucion por ecuaciones simultaneas exclusivamente. Por tanto, se ha preparado un programa de computo Fortran basado en el metodo de los cuadrados minimos (denominado CORD) que resuelve el problema general: Dados los tiempos y el numero de cuentas por unidad de tiempo correspondientes a una muestra, los precursores radioisotopicos y esquemas de desintegracion posibles, asi como todas las constantes de desintegracion y los rendimientos de deteccion asociados, calcular la cantidad de cada precursor realmente presente en un tiempo cero preestablecido. Ademas, el programa permite conocer las cantidades de precursores y descendientes presentes en cada momento de toma de datos. Utilizado en un principio para la determinacion de muestras biologicas y tomadas del medio ambiente, el programa se ha concebido especialmente para analizar los datos de recuento obtenidos en la medicion de actividades alfa o beta por procedimientos distintos de los espectroscopicos. Sin embargo, deberia poder adaptarse a la medicion de la actividad gamma total y al analisis de los datos obtenidos por metodos espectroscopicos, siempre que los intervalos de energia en que estas mediciones se efectuen permitan correlacionar los datos obtenidos y las velocidades totales de desintegracion y crecimiento. Se estudian el perfeccionamiento del programa y los resultados obtenidos con datos teoricos y experimentales utilizados para ensayarlo. (author) [Russian] Predstavljaetsja vozmozhnym opredelit' komponenty smesi, sostojashhej iz p radioaktivnyh izotopov, na osnovanii izmenenija aktivnosti v zavisimosti ot vremeni, odnako pri uslovii, chto aktivnost' po men'shej mere p-1 komponentov izmenjaetsja znachitel'nym obrazom za period vremeni nabljudenija, libo v rezul'tate neposredstvennogo raspada, libo vsledstvie narastanija produktov raspada. Dlja kazhdoj novoj smesi predstavljaetsja vozmozhnym predskazat' sostav vozmozhnyh komponentov na osnovanii takih soobrazhenij, kak proishozhdenie i posledujushhaja jevoljucija smesi, harakter himii otdelenija i metod ili metody scheta. Esli takogo roda soobrazhenija primenjajutsja nadlezhashhim obrazom, to sostav vozmozhnyh komponentov vkljuchit vse dejstvitel'nye komponenty smesi. V takom sluchae mozhno sostavit' nadlezhashhie uravnenija narastanija i raspada i reshit' ih odnovremenno dlja poluchenija kazhdogo komponenta, ili zhe smes' mozhet byt' razlozhena na sostavnye chasti graficheski putem jekstrapoljacii linejnyh otrezkov krivoj obshhego raspada i narastanija. Odnako v sluchae bol'shogo chisla komponentov, esli rech' idet o kompleksnyh shemah raspada, jeti dva metoda libo okazyvajutsja nepriemlemymi, libo ne predstavljaetsja vozmozhnym opredelit' velichiny pogreshnostej, svjazannyh s vychislenijami. Otbor komponentov raspada po metodu naimen'shih kvadratov daet luchshuju ocenku, chem samo po sebe odnovremennoe reshenie uravnenij. Pojetomu na osnovanii metoda naimen'shih kvadratov byla vyrabotana programma po fortranu dlja schetno-reshajushhego ustrojstva (oboznachennaja po kodu {sup K}ORD{sup )}, kotoraja razreshaet sledujushhuju obshhuju problemu: zadajutsja momenty vremeni i otschety za edinicu vremeni dlja proby, vozmozhnye ishodnye radioizo- ' topy i shemy ih raspada, a takzhe vse sootvetstvujushhie konstanty raspada i jeffektivnosti obnaruzhenija; trebuetsja podschitat' kolichestvo kazhdogo ishodnogo izotopa, dejstvitel'no prisutstvujushhego v zaranee opredelennoe nulevoe vremja. V dopolnenie k jetomu programma daet kolichestvo ishodnyh i dochernih produktov v ljuboj moment registracii dannyh. Ispol'zovannaja pervonachal'no dlja bioanalizov i dlja analiza vzjatyh iz okruzhajushhej sredy prob, jeta programma byla zatem special'no prisposoblena k analizu dannyh skorostej al'fa- i beta-scheta, poluchennyh nespektroskopicheskimi metodami. Odnako jetu programmu mozhno prisposobit' dlja obrabotki obshhih gamma- i spektroskopicheskih dannyh pri uslovii, chto diapazony jenergij, v predelah kotoryh delajutsja jeti izmerenija, dajut vozmozhnost' ustanovit' korreljaciju mezhdu jetimi dannymi i skorostjami polnogo raspada i narastanija. Obsuzhdajutsja podrobnosti vyrabotki jetoj programmy, a takzhe rezul'taty, poluchennye na osnovanii teoreticheskih i jeksperimental'nyh dannyh i posluzhivshie dlja proverki jetoj programmy. (author)

  2. FY 2000 report o