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Sample records for yttrium-90 labeled resin

  1. Yttrium-90 resin microspheres and their use in the treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Luca; Schillaci, Orazio; Cianni, Roberto; Bagni, Oreste

    2018-04-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a severe and rapidly progressive hepatic tumor. Surgery is often impracticable due to locally advanced presentation. On the other hand, chemotherapy has demonstrated only limited effectiveness. For these reasons, liver-directed therapies have been successfully applied for treating ICC. In particular, radioembolization with Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y)-labeled spheres has been reported to be a promising therapeutic approach for this neoplasia. Two commercial forms of 90 Y-labeled spheres are available: glass (TheraSphere ® ) and resin (SIR-Spheres ® ) microspheres. The aim of the present paper is to review the existing literature on the use of the resin microspheres for the treatment of unresectable and chemorefractory ICC, focusing on the methodology, clinical applications and side effects.

  2. Optimization of the personnel radiation protection during the treatment by antibodies labelled by yttrium 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.; Prangere, T.; Cougnenc, O.; Leleu, C.; Huglo, D.; Morschhauser, F.

    2007-01-01

    Beyond the acquired experience limiting the exposure time, measures of adequate radiation protection allow to reduce the doses of surface received to extremities by the personnel participating to the preparation of treatments by antibodies labelled by yttrium 90. (N.C.)

  3. Efficacy and safety of selective internal radiotherapy with yttrium-90 resin microspheres compared with sorafenib in locally advanced and inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (SARAH): an open-label randomised controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgrain, Valérie; Pereira, Helena; Assenat, Eric; Guiu, Boris; Ilonca, Alina Diana; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Sibert, Annie; Bouattour, Mohamed; Lebtahi, Rachida; Allaham, Wassim; Barraud, Hélène; Laurent, Valérie; Mathias, Elodie; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Perdrisot, Rémy; Silvain, Christine; Gerolami, René; Mundler, Olivier; Seitz, Jean-Francois; Vidal, Vincent; Aubé, Christophe; Oberti, Frédéric; Couturier, Olivier; Brenot-Rossi, Isabelle; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Sarran, Anthony; Costentin, Charlotte; Itti, Emmanuel; Luciani, Alain; Adam, René; Lewin, Maïté; Samuel, Didier; Ronot, Maxime; Dinut, Aurelia; Castera, Laurent; Chatellier, Gilles

    2017-12-01

    Sorafenib is the recommended treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of sorafenib to that of selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) resin microspheres in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. SARAH was a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, investigator-initiated, phase 3 trial done at 25 centres specialising in liver diseases in France. Patients were eligible if they were aged at least 18 years with a life expectancy greater than 3 months, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1, Child-Pugh liver function class A or B score of 7 or lower, and locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer [BCLC] stage C), or new hepatocellular carcinoma not eligible for surgical resection, liver transplantation, or thermal ablation after a previously cured hepatocellular carcinoma (cured by surgery or thermoablative therapy), or hepatocellular carcinoma with two unsuccessful rounds of transarterial chemoembolisation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a permutated block method with block sizes two and four to receive continuous oral sorafenib (400 mg twice daily) or SIRT with 90 Y-loaded resin microspheres 2-5 weeks after randomisation. Patients were stratified according to randomising centre, ECOG performance status, previous transarterial chemoembolisation, and presence of macroscopic vascular invasion. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Analyses were done on the intention-to-treat population; safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of sorafenib or underwent at least one of the SIRT work-up exams. This study has been completed and the final results are reported here. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01482442. Between Dec 5, 2011, and March 12, 2015, 467 patients were randomly assigned; after eight patients withdrew consent, 237 were assigned to

  4. Study on stability of labeled yttrium-90 with lipiodol by chemical extraction for liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, P.Y.; Jiang, X.L.; Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.J.

    2005-01-01

    Liver cancer, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma, is one of the most common malignant diseases in many developed and developing countries. It is also one of the most common diseases endangering the people's lives and health heavily. Surgery is very effective in early-stage patients. Unfortunately, there is less than 10% of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma fitting for surgical therapy. Instead of surgical therapy, other methods are considered for patients in whom surgery may not work well. Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents is not often considered in liver cancer patients, due to discouraging result and adverse side effects. Also, hepatocellular carcinoma is not keen on usual radioactive therapy. However, method of inner interventional radioactive nuclide is a potential way to cure liver tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma would be cured with inner interventional radioactive nuclide, which is a hot topic in experimental research on hepatocellular carcinoma at home and abroad. The purpose of the study is to label Yttrium-90 with lipiodol by means of the chemical extraction method and research the stability of labeled Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y-P204-Lipiodol) in serum of a newly-born cattle and human's blood. We chose to label steady yttrium with lipiodol, because radioactive yttrium has great nuclear character for liver cancer, yttrium-90 can eradiate pure β radial, and it's half time is 64 hours. Average energy of it is 0.93 Mev, the highest energy is 2.27 Mev. Yttrium-90 can be labeled with lipiodol by means of the chemical extraction method, which is mature in chemical techniques, combined with method of radioactive nuclide labeled in. nuclear medicine. At first, yttrium-90 is extracted in certain condition(pH, temperature, whisk time, whisk frequency, etc ) after adding yttrium-90 solution. We use some distilled water to balance the labeled organic phase twice, and test the stability of labeled yttrium-90 in serum of a newly-born cattle and

  5. Experience with indium-111 and yttrium-90-labeled somatostatin analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgolini, I; Traub, T; Novotny, C; Leimer, M; Füger, B; Li, S R; Patri, P; Pangerl, T; Angelberger, P; Raderer, M; Burggasser, G; Andreae, F; Kurtaran, A; Dudczak, R

    2002-01-01

    lung cancer ((99m)Tc-depreotide), indicating high diagnostic cabability of this type of receptor tracers. Consequently to their use as receptor imaging agents, hSSTR recognizing radioligands have also been implemented for experimental receptor-targeted radionuclide therapy. Beneficial results were reported for high-dose treatment with (111)In-DTPA-DPhe(1)-octreotide, based on the emission of Auger electrons. The Phase IIa study "MAURITIUS" (Multicenter Analysis of a Universal Receptor Imaging and Treatment Initiative, a eUropean Study) showed in progressive cancer patients (therapy entry criteria) with a calculated tumor dose > 10 Gy / GBq (90)Y-DOTA-lanreotide, the proof-of-principle for treating tumor patients with peptide receptor imaging agents. In the "MAURITIUS" study, cummulative treatment doses up to 200 mCi (90)Y-DOTA-lanreotide were given as short-term infusion. Overall treatment results in 70 patients indicated stable tumor disease in 35% of patients and regressive tumor disease in 10% of tumor patients with different tumor entities expressing hSSTR. No acute or chronic severe hematological toxicity, change in renal or liver function parameters due to (90)Y-DOTA-lanreotide treatment, were reported. (90)Y-DOTA-DPhe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide may show a higher tumor uptake in neuroendocrine tumor lesions and may therefore be superior for treatment in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. However, there is only limited excess to long-term and survival data at present. Potential indications for (90Y-DOTA-lanreotide are radioiodine-negative thyroid cancer, hepatocellular cancer and lung cancer. Besides newer approaches and recent developments of 188)Re-labeled radioligands, no clinical results on the treatment response are yet available. In conclusion, several radioligands have been implemented on the basis of peptide receptor recognition throughout the last decade. A plentitude of preclinical data and clinical studies confirm their potential use in diagnosis as well as

  6. Aspects of radiation protection during the treatment of liver cancer using yttrium-90 labelled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.F.B.; Perry, A.M.; Fox, R.A.; Gray, B.N.; Burton, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty eight patients have received treatment for liver cancer by the intra-hepatic arterial injection of between 1 and 4 GBq of yttrium-90 labelled microspheres. The injection was performed at laparotomy. If 11.1 MBq of yttrium-90 are distributed evenly over 1 sq cm of tissue, the tissue surface will suffer an initial beta dose rate of 16.2 Gy h -1 . Special precautions are therefore essential during the injection procedure, subsequently in nursing the patient and if further intervention becomes necessary. A specially designed apparatus is used for the injection, glass spectacles are worn and if the active liver is to be handled, lead rubber gloves are used. The theatre is prepared so that contaminated items can be easily isolated and a 'spill pack' is readily available. At completion of the operation, the bremsstrahlung dose rate at 15 cm from the liver is initially 15 μSv h -1 GBq -1 . Contamination of urine is typically 20 to 50 kBq L -1 while the contamination of other body fluids is negligible. Finger doses to the surgeons has varied from 2 to 5 mSv GBq -1 injected while personnel film badges used to monitor the dose equivalent to the surgeons and ward staff have recorded maximum doses of 1.5 mSv and 300 μSv respectively. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. A revised method of labeling mouse IgG with yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, A.S.; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Araki, Tsutomu

    1996-01-01

    We report the successful labeling of mouse IgG with yttrium-90 (Y-90) using isothiocyanatobenzyl-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (SCN-Bz-EDTA) as a chelating agent and compared the result with labeling by indium-111 (In-111). After conjugating IgG with SCN-Bz-EDTA, a predetermined volume of conjugated IgG was mixed with different volumes of either Y-90 or In-111 acetate and incubated at 37degC. Labeling efficiency was assessed at specific intervals upto 3 hr. After 3 hr, the mixtures were challenged with Na 2 EDTA to evaluate the transchelation of labeled Y-90 or In-111. All mixtures showed labeling efficiency of around 50% with Y-90 and the leveling was fairly preserved even after Na 2 EDTA challenge. However, labeling with In-111 was unsuccessful when conjugated IgG was not separated from the unconjugated form. When separated, however, In-111 showed more than 80% labeling efficiency though labeling with In-111 could not tolerate Na 2 EDTA challenge. In conclusion IgG was efficiently labeled by Y-90 using SCN-Bz-EDTA though labeling with In-111 showed some problems associated with this method. (author)

  8. Determination of strontium-90 from direct separation of yttrium-90 by solid phase extraction using DGA Resin for seawater monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazoe, Hirofumi; Obata, Hajime; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Karube, Zin'ichi; Nagai, Hisao; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-05-15

    It is important for public safety to monitor strontium-90 in aquatic environments in the vicinity of nuclear related facilities. Strontium-90 concentrations in seawater exceeding the background level have been observed in accidents of nuclear facilities. However, the analytical procedure for measuring strontium-90 in seawater is highly demanding. Here we show a simple and high throughput analytical technique for the determination of strontium-90 in seawater samples using a direct yttrium-90 separation. The DGA Resin is used to determine the abundance of strontium-90 by detecting yttrium-90 decay (beta-emission) in secular equilibrium. The DGA Resin can selectively collect yttrium-90 and remove naturally occurring radionuclides such as (40)K, (210)Pb, (214)Bi, (238)U, and (232)Th and anthropogenic radionuclides such as (140)Ba, and (140)La. Through a sample separation procedure, a high chemical yield of yttrium-90 was achieved at 95.5±2.3%. The result of IAEA-443 certified seawater analysis (107.7±3.4 mBq kg(-1)) was in good agreement with the certified value (110±5 mBq kg(-1)). By developed method, we can finish analyzing 8 samples per day after achieving secular equilibrium, which is a reasonably fast throughput in actual seawater monitoring. By processing 3 L of seawater sample and applying a counting time of 20 h, minimum detectable activity can be as low as 1.5 mBq kg(-1), which could be applied to monitoring for the contaminated marine environment. Reproducibility was found to be 3.4% according to 10 independent analyses of natural seawater samples from the vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in September 2013. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain; Vial, Eric

    2013-03-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Yttrium-90

  10. Biodistribution of Yttrium-90-Labeled Anti-CD45 Antibody in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemecek, Eneida; Hamlin, Donald K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Pagel, John M.; Applebaum, F. R.; Press, Oliver W.; Matthews, Dana C.

    2005-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy may improve the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies by delivering targeted radiation to hematopoietic organs while relatively sparing nontarget organs. We evaluated the organ localization of yttrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 (90Y-anti-CD45) antibody in macaques, a model that had previously predicted iodine-131-labeled anti-CD-45 (131I-anti-CD45) antibody biodistribution in humans. Experimental Design: Twelve Macaca nemestrina primates received anti-CD45 antibody labeled with 1 to 2 mCi of 90Y followed by serial blood sampling and marrow and lymph node biopsies, and necropsy. The content of 90Y per gram of tissue was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Time-activity curves were constructed using average isotope concentrations in each tissue at measured time points to yield the fractional residence time and estimate radiation absorbed doses for each organ per unit of administered activity. The biodistribution of 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody was then compared with that previously obtained with 131I-anti-CD45 antibody in macaques. Results: The spleen received 2,120, marrow 1,060, and lymph nodes 315 cGy/mCi of 90Y injected. The liver and lungs were the nontarget organs receiving the highest radiation absorbed doses (440 and 285 cGy/mCi, respectively). Ytrrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 antibody delivered 2.5- and 3.7-fold more radiation to marrow than to liver and lungs, respectively. The ratios previously observed with 131I-antiCD45 antibody were 2.5-and 2.2-fold more radiation to marrow than to liver and lungs, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody can deliver relatively selective radiation to hematopoietic tissues, with similar ratios of radiation delivered to target versus nontarget organs, as compared with the 131I immunoconjugate in the same animal model

  11. Histological Comparison of Kidney Tissue Following Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 Resin Microspheres and Embolization with Bland Microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Suresh de, E-mail: suresh.desilva@unsw.edu.au [Southern Radiology Group, Radiology Department Sutherland Hospital (Australia); Mackie, Simon [Western General Hospital, Department of Urology (United Kingdom); Aslan, Peter [St George Hospital, Department of Urology (Australia); Cade, David [Sirtex Technology Pty Ltd (Australia); Delprado, Warick [Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    BackgroundIntra-arterial brachytherapy with yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) resin microspheres (radioembolization) is a procedure to selectively deliver high-dose radiation to tumors. The purpose of this research was to compare the radioembolic effect of {sup 90}Y-radioembolization versus the embolic effect of bland microspheres in the porcine kidney model.MethodsIn each of six pigs, ~25–33 % of the kidney volume was embolized with {sup 90}Y resin microspheres and an equivalent number of bland microspheres in the contralateral kidney. Kidney volume was estimated visually from contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy imaging. Morphologic and histologic analysis was performed 8–9 weeks after the procedure to assess the locations of the microspheres and extent of tissue necrosis from {sup 90}Y-radioembolization and bland embolization. A semi-quantified evaluation of the non-acute peri-particle and perivascular tissue reaction was conducted. All guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.ResultsKidneys embolized with {sup 90}Y-radioembolization decreased in mass by 30–70 % versus the contralateral kidney embolized with bland microspheres. These kidneys showed significant necrosis/fibrosis, avascularization, and glomerular atrophy in the immediate vicinity of the {sup 90}Y resin microspheres. By contrast, glomerular changes were not observed, even with clusters of bland microspheres in afferent arterioles. Evidence of a foreign body reaction was recorded in some kidneys with bland microspheres, and subcapsular scarring/infarction only with the highest load (4.96 × 10{sup 6}) of bland microspheres.ConclusionThis study showed that radioembolization with {sup 90}Y resin microspheres produces localized necrosis/fibrosis and loss of kidney mass in a porcine kidney model. This result supports the study of {sup 90}Y resin microspheres for the localized treatment of kidney tumors.

  12. Histological Comparison of Kidney Tissue Following Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 Resin Microspheres and Embolization with Bland Microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Suresh de; Mackie, Simon; Aslan, Peter; Cade, David; Delprado, Warick

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundIntra-arterial brachytherapy with yttrium-90 ("9"0Y) resin microspheres (radioembolization) is a procedure to selectively deliver high-dose radiation to tumors. The purpose of this research was to compare the radioembolic effect of "9"0Y-radioembolization versus the embolic effect of bland microspheres in the porcine kidney model.MethodsIn each of six pigs, ~25–33 % of the kidney volume was embolized with "9"0Y resin microspheres and an equivalent number of bland microspheres in the contralateral kidney. Kidney volume was estimated visually from contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy imaging. Morphologic and histologic analysis was performed 8–9 weeks after the procedure to assess the locations of the microspheres and extent of tissue necrosis from "9"0Y-radioembolization and bland embolization. A semi-quantified evaluation of the non-acute peri-particle and perivascular tissue reaction was conducted. All guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.ResultsKidneys embolized with "9"0Y-radioembolization decreased in mass by 30–70 % versus the contralateral kidney embolized with bland microspheres. These kidneys showed significant necrosis/fibrosis, avascularization, and glomerular atrophy in the immediate vicinity of the "9"0Y resin microspheres. By contrast, glomerular changes were not observed, even with clusters of bland microspheres in afferent arterioles. Evidence of a foreign body reaction was recorded in some kidneys with bland microspheres, and subcapsular scarring/infarction only with the highest load (4.96 × 10"6) of bland microspheres.ConclusionThis study showed that radioembolization with "9"0Y resin microspheres produces localized necrosis/fibrosis and loss of kidney mass in a porcine kidney model. This result supports the study of "9"0Y resin microspheres for the localized treatment of kidney tumors.

  13. Recommendations for radioembolisation after liver surgery using yttrium-90 resin microspheres based on a survey of an international expert panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim, Morsal [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Veenendaal, Linde M. van; Braat, Manon N.G.J.A.; Hoven, Andor F. van den; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Lam, Marnix G.E.H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hillegersberg, Richard van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sangro, Bruno [Clinica Universidad de Navarra-IDISNA and CIBEREHD, Liver Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Kao, Yung Hsiang [Cabrini Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Liu, Dave [Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y. [Stanford University Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Stanford (United States); Rose, Steven C. [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego (United States); Brown, Daniel B. [Vanderbilt University, Medical Center North, Department of Radiology, Nashville (United States); Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Kim, Edward [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, New York (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Guidelines on how to adjust activity in patients with a history of liver surgery who are undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolisation ({sup 90}Y-RE) are lacking. The aim was to study the variability in activity prescription in these patients, between centres with extensive experience using resin microspheres {sup 90}Y-RE, and to draw recommendations on activity prescription based on an expert consensus. The variability in activity prescription between centres was investigated by a survey of international experts in the field of {sup 90}Y-RE. Six representative post-surgical patients (i.e. comparable activity prescription, different outcome) were selected. Information on patients' disease characteristics and data needed for activity calculation was presented to the expert panel. Reported was the used method for activity prescription and whether, how and why activity reduction was found indicated. Ten experts took part in the survey. Recommendations on activity reduction were highly variable between the expert panel. The median intra-patient range was 44 Gy (range 18-55 Gy). Reductions in prescribed activity were recommended in 68% of the cases. In consensus, a maximum D{sub Target} of 50 Gy was recommended. With a current lack of guidelines, large variability in activity prescription in post-surgical patients undergoing {sup 90}Y-RE exists. In consensus, D{sub Target} ≤50 Gy is recommended. (orig.)

  14. Recommendations for radioembolisation after liver surgery using yttrium-90 resin microspheres based on a survey of an international expert panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samim, Morsal; Veenendaal, Linde M. van; Braat, Manon N.G.J.A.; Hoven, Andor F. van den; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Hillegersberg, Richard van; Sangro, Bruno; Kao, Yung Hsiang; Liu, Dave; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y.; Rose, Steven C.; Brown, Daniel B.; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Kim, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines on how to adjust activity in patients with a history of liver surgery who are undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolisation ( 90 Y-RE) are lacking. The aim was to study the variability in activity prescription in these patients, between centres with extensive experience using resin microspheres 90 Y-RE, and to draw recommendations on activity prescription based on an expert consensus. The variability in activity prescription between centres was investigated by a survey of international experts in the field of 90 Y-RE. Six representative post-surgical patients (i.e. comparable activity prescription, different outcome) were selected. Information on patients' disease characteristics and data needed for activity calculation was presented to the expert panel. Reported was the used method for activity prescription and whether, how and why activity reduction was found indicated. Ten experts took part in the survey. Recommendations on activity reduction were highly variable between the expert panel. The median intra-patient range was 44 Gy (range 18-55 Gy). Reductions in prescribed activity were recommended in 68% of the cases. In consensus, a maximum D Target of 50 Gy was recommended. With a current lack of guidelines, large variability in activity prescription in post-surgical patients undergoing 90 Y-RE exists. In consensus, D Target ≤50 Gy is recommended. (orig.)

  15. Temporary balloon occlusion of the common hepatic artery for administration of yttrium-90 resin microspheres in a patient with patent hepatoenteric collaterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahvash, Armeen; Zaer, Navid; Shaw, Colette; Chasen, Beth; Avritscher, Rony; Murthy, Ravi

    2012-02-01

    The most common serious complication of yttrium-90 ((90)Y) therapy is gastrointestinal ulceration caused by extrahepatic microsphere dispersion. The authors describe the use of a balloon catheter for temporary occlusion of the common hepatic artery to reverse hepatoenteric flow for lobar administration of resin microspheres when coil embolization of a retroportal artery was impossible. At 9 months after treatment, the patient had no gastrointestinal side effects and showed a partial response. Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Yttrium-90 Resin Microsphere Radioembolization Using an Antireflux Catheter: An Alternative to Traditional Coil Embolization for Nontarget Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morshedi, Maud M.; Bauman, Michael; Rose, Steven C.; Kikolski, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeSerious complications can result from nontarget embolization during yttrium-90 (Y-90) transarterial radioembolization. Hepatoenteric artery coil embolization has been traditionally performed to prevent nontarget radioembolization. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved Surefire Infusion System (SIS) catheter, designed to prevent reflux, is an alternative to coils. The hypothesis that quantifiable SIS procedural parameters are comparable to coil embolization was tested.MethodsFourteen patients aged 36–79 years with colorectal, neuroendocrine, hepatocellular, and other predominantly bilobar hepatic tumors who underwent resin microsphere Y-90 radioembolization using only the SIS catheter (n = 7) versus only detachable coils (n = 7) for nontarget protection were reviewed retrospectively. Procedure time, fluoroscopy time, contrast dose, radiation dose, and cost were evaluated.ResultsMultivariate analysis identified significant cohort differences in the procedural parameters evaluated (F(10, 3) = 10.39, p = 0.04). Between-group comparisons of the pretreatment planning procedure in the SIS catheter group compared to the coil embolization group demonstrated a significant reduction in procedure time (102.6 vs. 192.1 min, respectively, p = 0.0004), fluoroscopy time (14.3 vs. 49.7 min, respectively, p = 0.0016), and contrast material dose (mean dose of 174.3 vs. 265.0 mL, respectively, p = 0.0098). Procedural parameters were not significantly different between the two groups during subsequent dose delivery procedures. Overall cost of combined first-time radioembolization procedures was significantly less in the SIS group ($4252) compared to retrievable coil embolization ($11,123; p = 0.001).ConclusionThe SIS catheter results in a reduction in procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and contrast material dose and may be an attractive cost-effective alternative to detachable coil embolization for prevention of nontarget radioembolization

  17. Yttrium-90 Resin Microsphere Radioembolization Using an Antireflux Catheter: An Alternative to Traditional Coil Embolization for Nontarget Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morshedi, Maud M., E-mail: maud.morshedi@my.rfums.org; Bauman, Michael, E-mail: mbauman@ucsd.edu; Rose, Steven C., E-mail: scrose@ucsd.edu; Kikolski, Steven G., E-mail: skikolski@gmail.com [University of California San Diego Health Sciences, Radiology Department, University of California San Diego Medical Center (United States)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeSerious complications can result from nontarget embolization during yttrium-90 (Y-90) transarterial radioembolization. Hepatoenteric artery coil embolization has been traditionally performed to prevent nontarget radioembolization. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved Surefire Infusion System (SIS) catheter, designed to prevent reflux, is an alternative to coils. The hypothesis that quantifiable SIS procedural parameters are comparable to coil embolization was tested.MethodsFourteen patients aged 36–79 years with colorectal, neuroendocrine, hepatocellular, and other predominantly bilobar hepatic tumors who underwent resin microsphere Y-90 radioembolization using only the SIS catheter (n = 7) versus only detachable coils (n = 7) for nontarget protection were reviewed retrospectively. Procedure time, fluoroscopy time, contrast dose, radiation dose, and cost were evaluated.ResultsMultivariate analysis identified significant cohort differences in the procedural parameters evaluated (F(10, 3) = 10.39, p = 0.04). Between-group comparisons of the pretreatment planning procedure in the SIS catheter group compared to the coil embolization group demonstrated a significant reduction in procedure time (102.6 vs. 192.1 min, respectively, p = 0.0004), fluoroscopy time (14.3 vs. 49.7 min, respectively, p = 0.0016), and contrast material dose (mean dose of 174.3 vs. 265.0 mL, respectively, p = 0.0098). Procedural parameters were not significantly different between the two groups during subsequent dose delivery procedures. Overall cost of combined first-time radioembolization procedures was significantly less in the SIS group ($4252) compared to retrievable coil embolization ($11,123; p = 0.001).ConclusionThe SIS catheter results in a reduction in procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and contrast material dose and may be an attractive cost-effective alternative to detachable coil embolization for prevention of nontarget radioembolization.

  18. Effects of radiolysis on yttrium-90-labeled Lym-1 antibody preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salako, Q A; O'Donnell, R T; DeNardo, S J

    1998-04-01

    The physical half-life of 2.6 days and 2.2 MeV beta emissions of 90Y provide excellent properties for radioimmunotherapy applications. However, the clinically useful beta particles may be a source of radiation-induced damage of 90Y-labeled immunoconjugate radiopharmaceuticals during preparation or short-term storage. The stability of 90Y-labeled Lym-1 antibody was studied in standard radiopharmacy conditions to establish a formulation at which radiolysis is not a problem. Lym-1-21T-BAD immunoconjugate intermediate was prepared according to our standard procedure, then labeled with 90Y at 1, 2, 4 and 9.4 mCi/mg Lym-1 using 0.5 M tetramethylammonium acetate, pH 7, labeling buffer. Each mixture was challenged in diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid to remove nonspecifically bound 90Y. The 90Y-21T-BAD-Lym-1 products were purified by centrifuged molecular sieving column chromatography. The radiochemical purity and immunoreactivity of each preparation was monitored daily by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and solid-phase radioimmunoassay, respectively, for 3 days. The preparation at 2 mCi/mg was also formulated in 4% (wt/vol) human serum albumin (HSA) overall and at 9.4 mCi/mg in five-fold water, 4 and 10% (wt/vol) HSA overall; all were monitored as above. The monomeric quality and purity profile of products at 1 and 2 mCi/mg were retained (> or = 80%) as was their immunoreactivity (> or = 75%) over 3 days. The radiochemical purity and immunoreactivity of the product at 4 mCi/mg declined to 65% and 28%, respectively, by 3 days after preparation and in just 48 hr, the product at 9.4 mCi/mg had degraded to 21% in radiochemical purity with only 3% immunoreactivity. The current HPLC data and earlier published chromatographic evidence did not support a compromised radiochemical integrity of 90Y-DOTA complexes by loss of 90Y from the DOTA chelate. Radiolysis of 90Y-labeled antibody preparations did not appear to be a problem at 90Y-21T-BAD-Lym-1 products < or = 2 m

  19. Dose-response evaluation after Yttrium-90 resin microsphere radio-embolization of breast cancer liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesin, S.; Verdun, F.R.; Baechler, S.; Boubacker, A.; Adib, S.; Cherbuin, N.; Prior, J.O.; Bize, P.; Denys, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: Yttrium-90 resin microsphere radio-embolization is a valuable therapeutic option in metastatic breast cancer patients with progressive disease refractory to chemotherapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the dose-response relationship of liver metastasis based on a 3D voxelized 90 Y PET dosimetry. Materials and methods: we studied the dose-response relationship of twelve hepatic lesions in four selected patients with metastatic breast cancer who underwent 90 Y radio-embolization (Sirtex SIR-Spheres Pty Ltd.). The administered activity ranged from 1 to 1.3 GBq. Ten days before treatment, patients underwent a baseline 18 F-FDG PET/CT. The determination of the 90 Y-microsphere activity to administer for treatment was based on the BSA method refined with the partition model derived from a 99m Tc-MAA SPECT/CT performed a week prior to radio-embolization. Within 24 hours after treatment, 90 Y TOF PET/CT imaging was performed. A follow-up 18 F-FDG PET/CT was performed 1 month after the treatment to evaluate the response to radio-embolization. For each patient, 3D voxelized dose-maps were obtained from the post-treatment 90 Y TOF PET/CT. A volume of interest (VOI) was drawn for each selected hepatic lesion using the baseline 18 F-FDG PET/CT. To obtain dose-volume histogram (DVH) for each lesion, image co-registration and VOI masks were generated using the PMOD 3.4 software and then exported in Matlab for dose calculation. Furthermore, the average absorbed dose in lesions was corrected for PVE effects by multiplication for appropriate (phantom-based) recovery coefficients according to the lesion size. Early metabolic lesion response was assessed in terms of variation in the maximum standard uptake value (ΔSUVmax) between baseline and follow-up 18 F-FDG PET/CT. The average absorbed dose for each lesion was associated with the respective metabolic response. Results: for the 12 selected lesions, the average volume was 35 cm 3

  20. Yttrium-90 - ED 4310

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.; Frot, P.; Gambini, D.; Gauron, C.; Moureaux, P.; Herbelet, G.; Lahaye, T.; Pihet, P.; Rannou, A.; Vidal, E.

    2013-03-01

    This sheet presents the characteristics of yttrium-90, its origin, and its radio-physical and biological properties. It briefly describes its use in nuclear medicine. It indicates its dosimetric parameters for external exposure, cutaneous contamination, and internal exposure due to acute contamination or to chronic contamination. It indicates and comments the various exposure control techniques: ambient dose rate measurement, surface contamination measurement, atmosphere contamination. It addresses the means of protection: premise design, protection against external exposure and against internal exposure. It describes how areas are delimited and controlled within the premises: regulatory areas, controls to be performed. It addresses the personnel classification, training and medical survey. It addresses the issue of solid and liquid wastes and liquid or gaseous effluents. It briefly recalls the administrative procedures related to the authorization and declaration of possession and use of sealed and unsealed sources. It indicates regulatory aspects related to the transport of yttrium-90, describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (for the different types of contamination or exposure)

  1. Phase I trial of yttrium-90-labeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody J591 for androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milowsky, Matthew I; Nanus, David M; Kostakoglu, Lale; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Bander, Neil H

    2004-07-01

    To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity, human antihuman antibody (HAHA) response, pharmacokinetics, organ dosimetry, targeting, and preliminary efficacy of yttrium-90-labeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody J591 ((90)Y-J591) in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC). Patients with androgen-independent PC and evidence of disease progression received indium-111-J591 for pharmacokinetic and biodistribution determinations followed 1 week later by (90)Y-J591 at five dose levels: 5, 10, 15, 17.5, and 20 mCi/m(2). Patients were eligible for up to three re-treatments if platelet and neutrophil recovery was satisfactory. Twenty-nine patients with androgen-independent PC received (90)Y-J591, four of whom were re-treated. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was seen at 20 mCi/m(2), with two patients experiencing thrombocytopenia with non-life-threatening bleeding episodes requiring platelet transfusions. The 17.5-mCi/m(2) dose level was determined to be the MTD. No re-treated patients experienced DLT. Nonhematologic toxicity was not dose limiting. Targeting of known sites of bone and soft tissue metastases was seen in the majority of patients. No HAHA response was seen. Antitumor activity was seen, with two patients experiencing 85% and 70% declines in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels lasting 8 and 8.6 months, respectively, before returning to baseline. Both patients had objective measurable disease responses. An additional six patients (21%) experienced PSA stabilization. The recommended dose for (90)Y-J591 is 17.5 mCi/m(2). Acceptable toxicity, excellent targeting of known sites of PC metastases, and biologic activity in patients with androgen-independent PC warrant further investigation of (90)Y-J591 in the treatment of patients with PC.

  2. Radiolabeling Of Albumin Particles With Yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Thu; Nguyen Thi Khanh Giang; Bui Van Cuong, Vo Thi Cam Hoa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the process of the radiolabeling of microaggregated albumin particles with radionuclide Yttrium-90 using the directed method. The albumin microsphere kit was prepared in sodium phosphate buffer. The original solution includes 2 mg albumin particle and 0.5 mg stannous chloride dihydrate. The albumin particles size was ranged from 5 ?m to 30 ?m. The mixture was washed three times with phosphate buffer saline, pH 7.2 by centrifugation and suspended in 0.5 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 6. Yttrium - 90 in 1.0 M acetic acid was collected from 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator. The labeling of the particles with Y-90 (185 MBq) was performed at pH 5.5 in acetate buffer with agitating for 60 min at room temperature. The labeled albumin suspensions were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min. Labeling yields was calculated using centrifugation, filtration and compared with paper chromatography, which is developed in the Tris Acetic EDTA. In this system, the unbound of Y-90 migrates to an R f of 0.9-1.0 and the radiolabeled albumin particles remains at the point of origin (R f = 0). The size of 90 Y-albumin particles was compared with the albumin particles in the original solution to be sure that they did not change during the labeling treatment. The radiolabeling yields were more than 80%. The labeled compound was dialysis in phosphate buffer. The radiochemical purity was 98%. The 90 Y- albumin is an ideal radiopharmaceutical for potential use in malignant cancer treatment as brachytherapy. (author)

  3. Yttrium-90 and indium-111 labelling, receptor binding and biodistribution of [DOTA0,d-Phe1,Tyr3[octreotide, a promising somatostatin analogue for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, M. de; Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Pluijm, M.E. van der; Bernard, B.F.; Visser, T.J.; Jermann, E.; Behe, M.; Powell, P.; Maecke, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    In vitro octreotide receptor binding of [ 111 In-DOTA 0 ,d-Phe 1 ,Tyr 3 [octreotide ( 111 In-DOTATOC) and the in vivo metabolism of 90 Y- or 111 In-labelled DOTATOC were investigated in rats in comparison with [ 111 In-DTPA 0 [octreotide [ 111 In-DTPAOC). 111 In-DOTATOC was found to have an affinity similar to octreotide itself for the octreotide receptor in rat cerebral cortex microsomes. Twenty-four hours after injection of 90 Y- or 111 In-labelled DOTATOC, uptake of radioactivity in the octreotide receptor-expressing tissues pancreas, pituitary, adrenals and tumour was a factor of 2-6 that after injection of 111 In-DTPAOC. Uptake of labelled DOTATOC in pituitary, pancreas, adrenals and tumour was almost completely blocked by pretreatment with 0.5 mg unlabelled octreotide, indicating specific binding to the octreotide receptors. These findings strongly indicate that 90 Y-DOTATOC is a promising radiopharmaceutical for radiotherapy and that 111 In-DOTATOC is of potential value for diagnosis of patients with octreotide receptor-positive lesions, such as most neuroendocrine tumours. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Synthesis, Radiolabelling and In Vitro Characterization of the Gallium-68-, Yttrium-90- and Lutetium-177-Labelled PSMA Ligand, CHX-A''-DTPA-DUPA-Pep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Benjamin; Solbach, Christoph; Andreolli, Elena; Winter, Gordon; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Reske, Sven N

    2014-04-29

    Since prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been identified as a diagnostic target for prostate cancer, many urea-based small PSMA-targeting molecules were developed. First, the clinical application of these Ga-68 labelled compounds in positron emission tomography (PET) showed their diagnostic potential. Besides, the therapy of prostate cancer is a demanding field, and the use of radiometals with PSMA bearing ligands is a valid approach. In this work, we describe the synthesis of a new PSMA ligand, CHX-A''-DTPA-DUPA-Pep, the subsequent labelling with Ga-68, Lu-177 and Y-90 and the first in vitro characterization. In cell investigations with PSMA-positive LNCaP C4-2 cells, KD values of ≤14.67 ± 1.95 nM were determined, indicating high biological activities towards PSMA. Radiosyntheses with Ga-68, Lu-177 and Y-90 were developed under mild reaction conditions (room temperature, moderate pH of 5.5 and 7.4, respectively) and resulted in nearly quantitative radiochemical yields within 5 min.

  5. Synthesis, Radiolabelling and In Vitro Characterization of the Gallium-68-, Yttrium-90- and Lutetium-177-Labelled PSMA Ligand, CHX-A''-DTPA-DUPA-Pep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Baur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA has been identified as a diagnostic target for prostate cancer, many urea-based small PSMA-targeting molecules were developed. First, the clinical application of these Ga-68 labelled compounds in positron emission tomography (PET showed their diagnostic potential. Besides, the therapy of prostate cancer is a demanding field, and the use of radiometals with PSMA bearing ligands is a valid approach. In this work, we describe the synthesis of a new PSMA ligand, CHX-A''-DTPA-DUPA-Pep, the subsequent labelling with Ga-68, Lu-177 and Y-90 and the first in vitro characterization. In cell investigations with PSMA-positive LNCaP C4-2 cells, KD values of ≤14.67 ± 1.95 nM were determined, indicating high biological activities towards PSMA. Radiosyntheses with Ga-68, Lu-177 and Y-90 were developed under mild reaction conditions (room temperature, moderate pH of 5.5 and 7.4, respectively and resulted in nearly quantitative radiochemical yields within 5 min.

  6. Radioimmunotherapy of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with Yttrium-90 labeled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy does not preclude subsequent chemotherapy or autologous hematologic stem cell transplantation therapy in most patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, G.A.; Witzig, T.E.; Ansell, S.M.; Ristow, K.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Yttrium-90 (Y-90) labeled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (ibritumomab tiuxetan or Zevalin TM ) is a novel therapy for patients with relapsed CD20+ B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Patients treated with Zevalin radioimmunotherapy (RIT) are limited from higher doses due to transient and reversible platelet and neutrophil suppression. Patients with indolent NHL who relapse or are refractory to chemotherapy have a 70-80% overall response rate and a 20-30% complete response rate when treated with Zevalin RIT. Therefore additional treatment is required in a minority of patients shortly after Zevalin therapy and in many others at relapse. Relapsed patients are generally treated with chemotherapy alone or high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous transplantation. We wanted to evaluate the ability of patients to tolerate subsequent therapy given at relapse following Zevalin RIT. Methods: We had 58 patients who relapsed after receiving Zevalin RIT and later received additional therapy. The clinical records and lab results were reviewed and compared with a matched control group of patients treated prior to Zevalin availability who received chemotherapy without prior Zevalin RIT. Results: The toxicity in 58 patients treated with Zevalin RIT and subsequent therapy was not significantly different from the control group who did not receive Zevalin RIT. Patients had a median of two subsequent therapies (range, 1-7) after Zevalin. Twenty eight percent required blood cell growth factor support with subsequent chemotherapy and 2 patients required reductions from the standard chemotherapy doses due to prolonged myelosuppression. Eight patients subsequently had successful autologous hematologic stem cell transplant with cells collected after Zevalin. Thirteen of the 58 patients (28%) treated with standard dose chemotherapy were hospitalized for neutropenic fever or thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: Chemotherapy or high dose chemotherapy with autologous transplantation

  7. Abscopal Effects and Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodadra, Anish; Bhatt, Sumantha [University Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Camacho, Juan C. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@yale.edu [University Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We present the case of an 80-year-old male with squamous cell carcinoma with bilobar hepatic metastases who underwent targeted Yttrium-90 radioembolization of the right hepatic lobe lesion. Subsequently, there was complete regression of the nontargeted, left hepatic lobe lesion. This may represent the first ever reported abscopal effect in radioembolization. The abscopal effect refers to the phenomenon of tumor response in nontargeted sites after targeted radiotherapy. In this article, we briefly review the immune-mediated mechanisms responsible for the abscopal effect.

  8. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikabi Ali A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization. Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1–4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management.

  9. Yttrium 90 microspheres for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J; Riaz, Ahsun; Salem, Riad

    2013-01-01

    Yttrium-90 microspheres are radioactive particles which are increasingly being employed for treating patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The procedure is called radioembolization. It involves the injection of micron-sized embolic particles loaded with a radioisotope by use of transarterial techniques. Because of the sensitivity of liver parenchyma and relative insensitivity of tumor, external radiation has played a limited role in treating HCC. (90)Y administered via arterial route directs the highly concentrated radiation to the tumor while healthy liver parenchyma is relatively spared due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. This technique has proven useful for the majority of patients with HCC as most of them present in advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options (resection/liver transplantation). (90)Y microspheres can be used in downstaging large tumors to bring within transplantable criteria, in patients with portal venous thrombosis due to tumor invasion and as palliative therapy. There are two available devices for (90)Y administration; TheraSphere® (glass based) and SIR-Spheres® (resin based). The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis. The incidence of complications is comparatively less and may include nausea, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, biliary injury, fibrosis, radiation pneumonitis, GI ulcers, and vascular injury; however, these can be avoided by meticulous pretreatment assessment, careful patient selection, and adequate dosimetry. This article explores the technical and clinical aspects of (90)Y radioembolization with keeping emphasis on patient selection, uses, and complications.

  10. Root Cause Analysis of Gastroduodenal Ulceration After Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Banerjee, Subhas [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (United States); Louie, John D.; Abdelmaksoud, Mohamed H. K. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (United States); Ennen, Rebecca E.; Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-12-15

    IntroductionA root cause analysis was performed on the occurrence of gastroduodenal ulceration after hepatic radioembolization (RE). We aimed to identify the risk factors in the treated population and to determine the specific mechanism of nontarget RE in individual cases. Methods: The records of 247 consecutive patients treated with yttrium-90 RE for primary (n = 90) or metastatic (n = 157) liver cancer using either resin (n = 181) or glass (n = 66) microspheres were reviewed. All patients who developed a biopsy-proven microsphere-induced gastroduodenal ulcer were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on baseline parameters and procedural data to determine possible risk factors in the total population. Individual cases were analyzed to ascertain the specific cause, including identification of the culprit vessel(s) leading to extrahepatic deposition of the microspheres. Results: Eight patients (3.2 %) developed a gastroduodenal ulcer. Stasis during injection was the strongest independent risk factor (p = 0.004), followed by distal origin of the gastroduodenal artery (p = 0.004), young age (p = 0.040), and proximal injection of the microspheres (p = 0.043). Prolonged administrations, pain during administration, whole liver treatment, and use of resin microspheres also showed interrelated trends in multivariate analysis. Retrospective review of intraprocedural and postprocedural imaging showed a probable or possible culprit vessel, each a tiny complex collateral vessel, in seven patients. Conclusion: Proximal administrations and those resulting in stasis of flow presented increased risk for gastroduodenal ulceration. Patients who had undergone bevacizumab therapy were at high risk for developing stasis.

  11. Root Cause Analysis of Gastroduodenal Ulceration After Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Banerjee, Subhas; Louie, John D.; Abdelmaksoud, Mohamed H. K.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Ennen, Rebecca E.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionA root cause analysis was performed on the occurrence of gastroduodenal ulceration after hepatic radioembolization (RE). We aimed to identify the risk factors in the treated population and to determine the specific mechanism of nontarget RE in individual cases. Methods: The records of 247 consecutive patients treated with yttrium-90 RE for primary (n = 90) or metastatic (n = 157) liver cancer using either resin (n = 181) or glass (n = 66) microspheres were reviewed. All patients who developed a biopsy-proven microsphere-induced gastroduodenal ulcer were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on baseline parameters and procedural data to determine possible risk factors in the total population. Individual cases were analyzed to ascertain the specific cause, including identification of the culprit vessel(s) leading to extrahepatic deposition of the microspheres. Results: Eight patients (3.2 %) developed a gastroduodenal ulcer. Stasis during injection was the strongest independent risk factor (p = 0.004), followed by distal origin of the gastroduodenal artery (p = 0.004), young age (p = 0.040), and proximal injection of the microspheres (p = 0.043). Prolonged administrations, pain during administration, whole liver treatment, and use of resin microspheres also showed interrelated trends in multivariate analysis. Retrospective review of intraprocedural and postprocedural imaging showed a probable or possible culprit vessel, each a tiny complex collateral vessel, in seven patients. Conclusion: Proximal administrations and those resulting in stasis of flow presented increased risk for gastroduodenal ulceration. Patients who had undergone bevacizumab therapy were at high risk for developing stasis

  12. Effectiveness of quantitative MAA SPECT/CT for the definition of vascularized hepatic volume and dosimetric approach: phantom validation and clinical preliminary results in patients with complex hepatic vascularization treated with yttrium-90-labeled microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Etienne; Lenoir, Laurence; Rolland, Yan; Laffont, Sophie; Pracht, Marc; Mesbah, Habiba; Porée, Philippe; Ardisson, Valérie; Bourguet, Patrick; Clement, Bruno; Boucher, Eveline

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the use of quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) analysis for vascularized volume measurements in the use of the yttrium-90-radiolabeled microspheres (TheraSphere). A phantom study was conducted for the validation of SPECT/CT volume measurement. SPECT/CT quantitative analysis was used for the measurement of the volume of distribution of the albumin macroaggregates (MAA; i.e., the vascularized volume) in the liver and the tumor, and the total activity contained in the liver and the tumor in four consecutive patients presenting with a complex liver vascularization referred for a treatment with TheraSphere. SPECT/CT volume measurement proved to be accurate (mean error <7%) and reproducible (interobserver concordance 0.99). For eight treatments, in cases of complex hepatic vascularization, the hepatic volumes based on angiography and CT led to a relative overestimation or underestimation of the vascularized hepatic volume by 43.2 ± 32.7% (5-87%) compared with SPECT/CT analyses. The vascularized liver volume taken into account calculated from SPECT/CT data, instead of angiography and CT data, results in modifying the activity injected for three treatments of eight. Moreover, quantitative analysis of SPECT/CT allows us to calculate the absorbed dose in the tumor and in the healthy liver, leading to doubling of the injected activity for one treatment of eight. MAA SPECT/CT is accurate for volume measurements. It provides a valuable contribution to the therapeutic planning of patients presenting with complex hepatic vascularization, in particular for calculating the vascularized liver volume, the activity to be injected and the absorbed doses. Studies should be conducted to assess the role of quantitative MAA/SPECT CT in therapeutic planning.

  13. Planar gamma camera imaging and quantitation of Yttrium-90 bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, S.; DeNardo, G.L.; Yuan, A.

    1994-01-01

    Yttrium-90 is a promising radionuclide for radioimmunotherapy of cancer because of its energetic beta emissions. Therapeutic management requires quantitative imaging to assess the pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry of the 90 Y-labeled antibody. Conventional gamma photon imaging methods cannot be easily applied to imaging of 90 Y-bremsstrahlung because of its continuous energy spectrum. The sensitivity, resolution and source-to-background signal ratio (S/B) of the detector system for 90 Y-bremsstrahlung were investigated for various collimators and energy windows in order to determine optimum conditions for quantitative imaging. After these conditions were determined, the accuracy of quantitation of 90 Y activity in an Alderson abdominal phantom was examined. When the energy-window width was increased, the benefit of increased sensitivity outweighed degradation in resolution and S/B ratio until the manufacturer's energy specifications for the collimator were exceeded. Using the same energy window, the authors improved resolution and S/B for the medium-energy (ME) collimator when compared to the low-energy, all-purpose (LEAP) collimator, and there was little additional improvement using the high-energy (HE) collimator. Camera sensitivity under tissue equivalent conditions was 4.2 times greater for the LEAP and 1.7 times greater for the ME collimators when compared to the HE collimator. Thus, the best, most practical selections were found to be the ME collimator and an energy window of 55-285 keV. When they used these optimal conditions for image acquisition, the estimation of 90 Y activity in organs and tumors was within 15% of the true activities. The results for this study suggest that reasonable accuracy can be achieved in clinical radioimmunotherapy using 90 Y-bremsstrahlung quantitation. 28 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Yttrium-90 radioembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic disease to the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2006-03-01

    Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization is a catheter-based therapy that delivers internal radiation to hepatic tumors in the form of microspheres. (90)Y can be delivered to the hepatic tumor as either a constituent of a glass microsphere, TheraSphere(®), or as a biocompatible resin-based microsphere, SIR-Spheres(®). Once embedded within the tumor microcirculation, these microspheres emit β-radiation at therapeutic levels. While the technical aspects of radioembolization are quite complex, the collective clinical experience presented in the literature supports the use of (90)Y radioembolization for unresectable hepatic malignancies.

  15. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver’s cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51–71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction

  16. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  17. Yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Jean Francois H; Salem, Riad; Carr, Brian I; Soulen, Michael C; Thurston, Kenneth G; Goin, Kathleen A; Van Buskirk, Mark; Roberts, Carol A; Goin, James E

    2004-11-01

    Unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma is extremely difficult to treat. TheraSphere consists of yttrium-90 (a pure beta emitter) microspheres, which are injected into the hepatic arteries. This article reviews the safety and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were treated with yttrium-90 microspheres. Eighty patients were selected from a database of 108 yttrium-90 microsphere-treated patients and were staged by using Child-Pugh, Okuda, and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program scoring systems. Patients were treated with local, regional, and whole-liver approaches. Survival from first treatment was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Adverse events and complications of treatment were coded by using the Southwest Oncology Group toxicity scoring system. Patients received liver doses ranging from 47 to 270 Gy. Thirty-two patients (40%) received more than 1 treatment. Survival correlated with pretreatment Cancer of the Liver Italian Program scores ( P = .002), as well as with the individual Cancer of the Liver Italian Program components, Child-Pugh class, alpha-fetoprotein levels, and percentage of tumor replacement. Patients classified as Okuda stage I (n = 54) and II (n = 26) had median survival durations and 1-year survival rates of 628 days and 63%, and 384 days and 51%, respectively ( P = .02). One patient died of liver failure judged as possibly related to treatment. Thus, in selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, yttrium-90 microsphere treatment is safe and well tolerated. On the basis of these results, a randomized controlled trial is warranted comparing yttrium-90 microsphere treatment with transarterial chemoembolization by using the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program system for prospective stratified randomization.

  18. Occupational exposure following Yttrium-90 microspheres SIR therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, P.; Boirie, G.; Dieudonne, A.; Leguludec, D.; Lebtahi, R.; Ben Reguiga, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a promising technique for solid hepatic neoplasms treatment. SIRT consists in implanting radioactive microspheres (RMS) in targeted hepatic lesions via femoral artery. Two RMS-Therapsheres [glass-microspheres/TSR] and Sir-Spheres [resin-spheres/SSR]- are marketed in the European market, both radiolabeled with Yttrium-90. The objective of this study is to assess occupational exposure for nuclear medicine, radiology and clinical staff involved in Y 90 -RMS preparation and implantation. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 20 patients treated for Hepato-Cellular Carcinoma: 10 treated with TSR and 10 with SSR. Dose rate (DR, mSv/h) or absorbed doses (mSv) measurements were made during all steps of TSR and SSR handling: sources receipt and unpacking, preparation, transport to radiology, implantation, and patient care. Measurements were made with portable ionization chamber(Babyline/Nardeux), spectrometer(FieldSpect/Aries), digital dosimeter (NED/Unfors) and operational dosimeter (Mk2/Siemens). Values were expressed as mean±SD. Results: patients received of 1.8 GBq to 3.1 GBq of TSR and 0.55 GBq to 2.4 GBq of SSR. TSR were delivered ready-to-use with the prescribed activity. For SSR only one activity was commercially available and shipped (3 GBq at calibration-time)requiring a preparation step to adjust needed activity. DR measured during RMS was 1723 ± 157 μSv/h SSR and 1189 ± 92 μSv/h for TSR. When preparing spheres in radiopharmacy, fingers and whole body doses were respectively 8326 ± 2360 μSv and 12.3 ± 5,2 μSv for Sir-Spheres vs. 33.5 ± 7.8 μSv and 1.1 ± 0.3 μSv for TSR. DR in contact with carrying case during RMS transfer to radiology were 299 ± 102 μSv/h for SSR and 5.3 ± 1.2 μSv/h for TSR. During RMS infusion, radiologist's finger doses were limited to 3.6 ± 1 μSv for SSR and 0.7± 0.3 μSv for TSR. Finally, following RMS

  19. Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Yttrium-90 PET/CT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Attarwala, Ali Asgar; Molina-Duran, Flavia; Büsing, Karen-Anett; Schönberg, Stefan O.; Bailey, Dale L.; Willowson, Kathy; Glatting, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Yttrium-90 is known to have a low positron emission decay of 32 ppm that may allow for personalized dosimetry of liver cancer therapy with (90)Y labeled microspheres. The aim of this work was to image and quantify (90)Y so that accurate predictions of the absorbed dose can be made. The measurements were performed within the QUEST study (University of Sydney, and Sirtex Medical, Australia). A NEMA IEC body phantom containing 6 fillable spheres (10-37 mm ∅) was used to measure the 90Y distribut...

  20. Yttrium-90 radioembolization using TheraSphere in the management of primary and secondary liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, A; Lewandowski, R J; Kulik, L; Salem, R

    2009-06-01

    Locoregional therapies, such as transarterial chemoembolization, radioembolization and thermal ablation (e.g., radiofrequency ablation) are establishing their roles in the management of liver malignancies. With yYttrium-90 radioembolization therapy (90Y) radionuclide labeled microspheres are injected into the tumor feeding artery. This allows the delivery of a high radioactive dose to the tumor with minimal toxicity to normal tissues. 90Y has demonstrated to be safe and effective in the management of liver tumors. Authors present a review of the literature available for the use of TheraSphere for radioembolization in the management of liver tumors.

  1. Acromegaly with sleep disturbances relieved by yttrium-90 pituitary implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Joplin, G.F.; Jung, R.T.; Mashiter, K.

    1982-01-01

    A brief case history is presented of a patient, who, after yttrium-90 implantation, showed a complete clinical and hormonal remission of her acromegaly, maintaining normal pituitary function. The remarkable feature was the rapid disappearance of her attacks of somnolence within 96 hours of pituitary implantation, despite persistence of nocturnal snoring and well before any remodelling of soft tissues could have occurred. This response suggests that her daytime somnolence had a narcoleptic component. (author)

  2. Acromegaly with sleep disturbances relieved by yttrium-90 pituitary implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Joplin, G.F.; Jung, R.T.; Mashiter, K. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). Postgraduate Medical School)

    1982-03-01

    A brief case history is presented of a patient, who, after yttrium-90 implantation, showed a complete clinical and hormonal remission of her acromegaly, maintaining normal pituitary function. The remarkable feature was the rapid disappearance of her attacks of somnolence within 96 hours of pituitary implantation, despite persistence of nocturnal snoring and well before any remodelling of soft tissues could have occurred. This response suggests that her daytime somnolence had a narcoleptic component.

  3. Spectrographic determination of strontium in yttrium-90 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.

    1970-01-01

    The copper spark method has been used for determining strontium in the concentration range 1-100 g/ml in yttrium-90 solutions containing 0,5 % or thereabouts of ammonium citrate. The influence of the citric acid as well as the ammonium citrate with regard to 2N HCL solutions has been studied: the citric acid enhances the line intensities of strontium. The employment of either barium or lanthanum as reference element compensates for this enhancement. Because of the increase in sensitivity mentioned above, the study of influence of the citric acid has been extended and several impurities usually determined in radioisotope solutions have been considered. (Author) 4 refs

  4. Childhood acromegaly successfully treated with interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A child with a growth hormone producing tumour presented at the age of 4 1/2 years. The onset of the disease was at 18 months of age. Treatment was given with three doses of interstitial irradiation using yttrium-90 implants. There were no local complications from the procedures. Now, 11 years after diagnosis, she is asymptomatic, of normal appearance, and her height and the size of the pituitary fossa are normal. Growth hormone levels are almost normal, thyroid function is intact, and she is maintained on prednisone and sex hormones. (Authors)

  5. Childhood acromegaly successfully treated with interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Medicine and Radiology); Hall, R. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK))

    1982-01-01

    A child with a growth hormone producing tumour presented at the age of 4 1/2 years. The onset of the disease was at 18 months of age. Treatment was given with three doses of interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90 implants. There were no local complications from the procedures. Now, 11 years after diagnosis, she is asymptomatic, of normal appearance, and her height and the size of the pituitary fossa are normal. Growth hormone levels are almost normal, thyroid function is intact, and she is maintained on prednisone and sex hormones.

  6. Successful treatment of Cushing's disease using yttrium-90 rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Interstitial irradiation using yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) rods implanted by needle into the pituitary gland was used as primary treatment in 16 patients with pituitary dependent Cushing's disease. Clinical and biochemical remission was observed within three to six months in 13 and in the remaining three after a supplementary implant. There was no perioperative morbidity. Follow-up from the time of definitive operation ranged from six to 123 months (mean 39). No recurrence has been observed. The return of a normal diurnal cortisol rhythm has been observed in 10/12 patients studied after remission. Some form of long-term pituitary hormone replacement therapy was required in only the six patients who had received the largest irradiation dose. Implantation of 90 Y is safe and effective treatment for patients with Cushing's disease, comparing favourably with selective trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery. (author)

  7. radio embolization of yttrium 90 glass microspheres in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fouly, A.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer that typically occurs in the setting of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis virus infections. HCC is considered currently as global problem; its incidence is expected to increase dramatically by the next few decades. More than 90 % of the accidentally diagnosed patients have non resectable tumor. Portal vein thrombosis, diffuse multifocal liver infiltration and large tumor burden are considered to be a great obstacle in front of the modern lines of treatment, even with Child A liver cirrhosis. Transarterial intrahepatic application of Yttrium-90 glass microspheres may allow effective local ablative treatment of patients with intrahepatic advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with or without portal vein thrombosis. The aim of this open-label phase II study was to validate evidence on the safety and efficacy of this treatment in an European cohort of patients with locally advanced HCC such as (large tumor burden, multifocal distribution, portal vein thrombosis). And to assess the response rate according to different approved response assessment guidelines (WHO, RECIST and EASL). Patients and Methods Starting from November 2006 till March 2009, one hundred and eight advanced unresectable HCC patients with and without portal vein thrombosis were included in this prospective study. Yttrium-90 microspheres radiotherapy was performed in a lobar fashion through the right or left hepatic artery. In bilobar disease, right and left liver lobe were treated with 4-6 weeks intervals in between. Response rate was assessed according to different international response assessment criteria (WHO, RECIST and EASL) with sequential computed tomography scans till the last clinical visit or death. The safety of this technique was assessed according to the Common Toxicity Criteria version 3

  8. Effects of hepatic arterial yttrium 90 glass microspheres in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, I; Knutsen, C; Smith, P; Prieskorn, D; Chrisp, C; Andrews, J; Juni, J; Warber, S; Klevering, J; Crudup, J

    1988-04-01

    A 22-micron glass microsphere called TheraSphere (Theragenics Corp., Atlanta, GA) has been developed in which yttrium 89 oxide is incorporated into the glass matrix and is activated by neutron bombardment to form the beta-emitting isotope yttrium 90 (Y 90) before using the spheres as radiotherapeutic vehicles. The injection of up to 12 times (on a liver weight basis) the anticipated human dose of nonradioactive TheraSphere into the hepatic arteries of dogs was well tolerated and produced clinically silent alterations within centrolobular areas. The hepatic arterial (HA) injection of radioactive TheraSphere also produced portal changes similar to those observed in humans after external beam therapy. While the extent of damage increased with the delivered dose, radiation exposures in excess of 30,000 cGy did not cause total hepatic necrosis and were compatible with survival. No microspheres distributed to the bone marrow and absolutely no myelosuppression was encountered in any animal. Proposed hepatic exposures to humans of 5000 to 10,000 cGy by means of these microspheres, therefore, would appear to be feasible and tolerable. Radiotherapeutic microsphere administration preceded by regional infusion of a radiosensitizing agent and/or immediately following the redistribution of blood flow toward intrahepatic tumor by vasoactive agents can potentially yield a synergistic, highly selective attack on tumors confined to the liver.

  9. Effects of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Ruge, W.; Mueller, W.; Pavelka, K.

    1976-01-01

    Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint of 17 immunized rabbits, 8 animals were given an injection of 200 μCi yttrium 90( 90 Y) into the left joint cavity and 7 were injected with 400 μCi. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and at 6 to 12 months after the injection. Two uninjected animals used as morphological controls were sacrificed 13 weeks after immunization, and showed allergic arthritis had progressed to severe inflammation of the knee joint marked by massive round-cell infiltration, oedema, and proliferation of synovial mesothelium in the synovial villi and joint capsule. Treatment with 90 Y was effective 2 weeks after injection and the disappearance of inflammatory odema and marked regression of round-cell infiltration. This was accompanied by degeneration of the synovial mesothelium and fibrosis of the subsynovial tissue and synovial vessels as a secondary effect of the radiation. In the animals with severe allergic arthritis, the healing effects of 90 Y were more marked than the secondary effects of the radiation which were dose-dependent. Treatment with 90 Y of arthritic knee joints with the lowest effective dose of the isotope - if necessay with repeated application - seems justified. A single large dose does not have a greater therapeutic effect and causes more radiation damage to the joint. In view of the possible secondary effects in the joint, the indication for 90 Y therapy should be restricted, particularly in young patients, to cases of chronic relapsing arthritis unresponsive to other treatment. (U.K.)

  10. Hanford isotope project strategic business analysis yttrium-90 (Y-90)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to address the short-term direction for the Hanford yttrium-90 (Y-90) project. Hanford is the sole DOE producer of Y-90, and is the largest repository for its source in this country. The production of Y-90 is part of the DOE Isotope Production and Distribution (IP and D) mission. The Y-90 is ``milked`` from strontium-90 (Sr-90), a byproduct of the previous Hanford missions. The use of Sr-90 to produce Y-90 could help reduce the amount of waste material processed and the related costs incurred by the clean-up mission, while providing medical and economic benefits. The cost of producing Y-90 is being subsidized by DOE-IP and D due to its use for research, and resultant low production level. It is possible that the sales of Y-90 could produce full cost recovery within two to three years, at two curies per week. Preliminary projections place the demand at between 20,000 and 50,000 curies per year within the next ten years, assuming FDA approval of one or more of the current therapies now in clinical trials. This level of production would incentivize private firms to commercialize the operation, and allow the government to recover some of its sunk costs. There are a number of potential barriers to the success of the Y-90 project, outside the control of the Hanford Site. The key issues include: efficacy, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and medical community acceptance. There are at least three other sources for Y-90 available to the US users, but they appear to have limited resources to produce the isotope. Several companies have communicated interest in entering into agreements with Hanford for the processing and distribution of Y-90, including some of the major pharmaceutical firms in this country.

  11. Hanford isotope project strategic business analysis yttrium-90 (Y-90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to address the short-term direction for the Hanford yttrium-90 (Y-90) project. Hanford is the sole DOE producer of Y-90, and is the largest repository for its source in this country. The production of Y-90 is part of the DOE Isotope Production and Distribution (IP and D) mission. The Y-90 is ''milked'' from strontium-90 (Sr-90), a byproduct of the previous Hanford missions. The use of Sr-90 to produce Y-90 could help reduce the amount of waste material processed and the related costs incurred by the clean-up mission, while providing medical and economic benefits. The cost of producing Y-90 is being subsidized by DOE-IP and D due to its use for research, and resultant low production level. It is possible that the sales of Y-90 could produce full cost recovery within two to three years, at two curies per week. Preliminary projections place the demand at between 20,000 and 50,000 curies per year within the next ten years, assuming FDA approval of one or more of the current therapies now in clinical trials. This level of production would incentivize private firms to commercialize the operation, and allow the government to recover some of its sunk costs. There are a number of potential barriers to the success of the Y-90 project, outside the control of the Hanford Site. The key issues include: efficacy, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and medical community acceptance. There are at least three other sources for Y-90 available to the US users, but they appear to have limited resources to produce the isotope. Several companies have communicated interest in entering into agreements with Hanford for the processing and distribution of Y-90, including some of the major pharmaceutical firms in this country

  12. Treatment of persistent knee synovitis with Yttrium 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyoucef, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Management of persistent knee synovitis includes both systemic and local articular treatment relevant to specific etiology. Local treatment may involve attempts to control inflammation and pain in knee joints by intra articular application of analgesics or glucocorticoids. However, in many patients these fail to reduce significantly the synovitis phenomenon and moreover they may lead to severe side effects. Radiosynoviorthesis with Y90 has been in use for many years in several joint pathologies. Indications of Radiosynoviorthesis include various inflammatory and degenerative diseases and its use should be envisaged when other conservative methods have failed like intra articular injections of long acting corticosteroids. Persistent knee synovitis is defined by the presence of hydrops in the joint or functional impairment with warmth, pain and local signs and symptoms requiring intra articular injection of glucocorticoids. In this study, 151 knees with persistent knee synovitis have been treated with Y 90 and have had all a minimum of one year follow up. Many parameters have been identified to measure efficiency of the RSO including pain, hydarthrosis, mobility, as well as global perception of the patients. Excellent and good responses have been appreciated through pain at rest, pain at stress, volume of effusion, and articular mobility. Results showed that percentage of excellent and good response is superior to 80% at three and six months. Success of Y 90 appears to be higher for rheumatoid arthritis as well as for oligoarthritis. Whatever the etiology, intensity of the inflammatory process appears one the major parameters which could better predict the outcomes of yttrium 90 in persistent knee synovitis. (author)

  13. Effects of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Ruge, W [Sandoz A.G., Basel (Switzerland); Mueller, W; Pavelka, K

    1976-02-01

    Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint of 17 immunized rabbits, 8 animals were given an injection of 200 ..mu..Ci yttrium 90(/sup 90/Y) into the left joint cavity and 7 were injected with 400 ..mu..Ci. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and at 6 to 12 months after the injection. Two uninjected animals used as morphological controls were sacrificed 13 weeks after immunization, and showed allergic arthritis had progressed to severe inflammation of the knee joint marked by massive round-cell infiltration, oedema, and proliferation of synovial mesothelium in the synovial villi and joint capsule. Treatment with /sup 90/Y was effective 2 weeks after injection and the disappearance of inflammatory odema and marked regression of round-cell infiltration. This was accompanied by degeneration of the synovial mesothelium and fibrosis of the subsynovial tissue and synovial vessels as a secondary effect of the radiation. In the animals with severe allergic arthritis, the healing effects of /sup 90/Y were more marked than the secondary effects of the radiation which were dose-dependent. Treatment with /sup 90/Y of arthritic knee joints with the lowest effective dose of the isotope - if necessay with repeated application - seems justified. A single large dose does not have a greater therapeutic effect and causes more radiation damage to the joint. In view of the possible secondary effects in the joint, the indication for /sup 90/Y therapy should be restricted, particularly in young patients, to cases of chronic relapsing arthritis unresponsive to other treatment.

  14. Treatment of persistent knee effusions with Yttrium 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyoucef, S.E.; Drahmoune, R.; Mechken, F.; Amimour, A.; Hanni-Haddam, F.; Abtroun, F.; Sellah, M.; Mansouri, B.

    2002-01-01

    Yttrium 90 intra-articular injection is used in persisting active joint of the knee, where medication has failed to resolve chronic inflammation. The effective dose delivered to the synovia is linked to Y 90 activity and depends on the size of the joint space, the synovial structure and thickness and the inflammatory activity of the synovitis. The amount of the injected activity of Y90 was estimated according the volume effusion in 28 pathologic knee of 18 patients aged 18 years and more (mean age 46 years). All patients have persistent knee effusions and most of them have rheumatoid arthritis but others had ankylosing spondylitis, Behcet disease, psoriatic arthritis. According the radiological classification of Steinbrocker, 19 pathological knees were in stage 1, 5 in stage 2 and 4 in stage 3. The mean value of the monthly removed volume of the synovial liquid from the pathological knee was determined during the last month preceding the radiosynoviorthesis and four groups were identified: V0 no evidence of effusion liquid, 0 ml 100ml. The activity of Y 90 was estimated in order to obtain a total of 100 Gray in the envelope of 3 spherical phantoms with the same range of volume as defined above. The lowest activity of Y90, 111 MBq (3mCi) was determined for V0 according a mean value of standard sizes of knees. An activity of 18 MBq (0.5mCi) was added for each stage of 50 ml, so 129 MBq (3.5 mCi) for G1, 148 MBq (4 mCi) for G2 and 166 MBq (4.5 mCi) for G3. Efficacy of Y90 treatment was clinically assessed in all patients according to three parameters: pain, hydrarthrosis and range of joint movement at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. The results were excellent in 13 knees and good in 9 and for most of them the efficacy of Y 90 was observed after 6 months. The results were less good in 3 knees but with an initial good evolution for all at 1 month. For 4 knees, the efficacy of Y 90 was bad. Although the small number of patients, these results show a high rate, 75%, of successful

  15. Radiation protection data sheets for the use of Strontium 90-Yttrium 90 in unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This radiation protection data sheet is intended for supervisors and staff in the different medical, hospital, pharmaceutical, university and industrial laboratories and departments where Strontium 90-Yttrium 90 is handled, and also for all those involved in risk prevention in this field. It provides essential data on radiation protection measures during the use of Strontium 90-Yttrium 90 in unsealed sources: physical characteristics, risk assessment, administrative procedures, recommendations, regulations and bibliography

  16. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Unresectable Standard-chemorefractory Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Survival, Efficacy, and Safety Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafi, Shoaib; Piduru, Sarat M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); El-Rayes, Bassel; Kauh, John S. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology (United States); Kooby, David A.; Sarmiento, Juan M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Surgical Oncology in Surgery (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@emory.edu [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15

    To assess the overall survival, efficacy, and safety of radioembolization with yttrium-90 (Y90) for unresectable standard-chemorefractory intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Patients with unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC treated with Y90 were studied. Survival was calculated from the date of first Y90 procedure. Tumor response was assessed with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria on follow-up computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (NCI CTCAE), version 3, were used for complications. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier estimator by the log rank test. Nineteen patients underwent a total of 24 resin-based Y90 treatments. Median survival from the time of diagnosis and first Y90 procedure was 752 {+-} 193 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 374-1130] and 345 {+-} 128 (95 % CI 95-595) days, respectively. Median survival with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 1 (n = 15) and ECOG performance status 2 (n = 4) was 450 {+-} 190 (95 % CI 78-822) and 345 {+-} 227 (95 % CI 0-790) days, respectively (p = .214). Patients with extrahepatic metastasis (n = 11) had a median survival of 404 {+-} 309 (95 % CI 0-1010) days versus 345 {+-} 117 (95 % CI 115-575) days for patients without metastasis (n = 8) (p = .491). No mortality was reported within 30 days from first Y90 radioembolization. One patient developed grade 3 thrombocytopenia as assessed by NCI CTCAE. Fatigue and transient abdominal pain were observed in 4 (21 %) and 6 (32 %) patients, respectively. Y90 radioembolization is effective for unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC.

  17. Tomographic bremsstrahlung imaging with yttrium-90 in the context of radioembolisation of liver tumors; Tomografische Bildgebung mit Yttrium-90-Bremsstrahlung im Rahmen der Radioembolisation von Lebertumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosser, Oliver Stephan

    2013-04-12

    Establish tomographic Bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging (BSPECT) for the clinical validation of Selective Internal Radiotherapy (SIRT) with Yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) labelled microspheres. Various energy ranges (75 ± 3.8 keV; 135 ± 6.8 keV; 167 ± 8.4 keV) and the summation window were studied to see if they were suitable for BSPECT. To this end, clinically available reconstruction techniques were analysed for their suitability for BSPECT. The tomographic examinations were performed on a cylindrical phantom filled with spheres of different diameters d = [28; 35; 40; 50; 60] mm in a non-active waterfilled background. The spheres were filled with identical {sup 90}Y activity concentration (AC). Measurements were conducted at AC = [14.58; 5.20; 1.98; 0.66] MBq/cm{sup 3}. The BSPECT were reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP), a 2D Ordered-Subset Expectation Maximisation Algorithm (2D-OSEM) and a 3D Geometric Mean Algorithm (3D-GMA). Evaluation was made visually and on the basis of objective performance parameters such as contrast, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image noise. While the 75 keV ± 3.8 keV window was identified as suitable for the BSPECT, limitations were revealed as to use of different implementations of the Point Spread Function (PSF). It was found for all reconstruction techniques that, at a given sphere diameter, there existed a linear relationship between the AC in the spheres and the reconstructed pulse rate per volume element. The recovery effect was verified for small spheres. The iterative techniques were found to be suitable for the BSPECT at all AC. At low AC, the 3D-GMA exhibited the least noise and the highest SNR. The FBP turned out to be entirely inappropriate for the BSPECT. The narrow energy window in which the bremsstrahlung interferes with the characteristic X-radiation of lead can be used for BSPECT. In this approach, the tomographic data reconstructed with different algorithms exhibited a varying image quality, with the iterative

  18. Lack of rise in serum prolactin following yttrium-90 interstitial irradiation for acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.J.L.; Chahal, P.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have investigated the possibility that the increase in serum PRL levels observed in patients with acromegaly treated with external irradiation could be due to damage to the hypothalamus or portal vessels, by comparing the effects of yttrium-90 interstitial irradiation, which is highly localised and does not normally extend to the hypothalamus, in a similar series of patients. These results are consistent with the hypothesis; a less likely explanation is that an overgrowth of radio-resistant PRL-secreting tumour cells is occurring after external irradiation, but not after yttrium-90 implantation. (author)

  19. Lack of rise in serum prolactin following yttrium-90 interstitial irradiation for acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, A.J.L.; Chahal, P.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK))

    1983-11-01

    The authors have investigated the possibility that the increase in serum PRL levels observed in patients with acromegaly treated with external irradiation could be due to damage to the hypothalamus or portal vessels, by comparing the effects of yttrium-90 interstitial irradiation, which is highly localised and does not normally extend to the hypothalamus, in a similar series of patients. These results are consistent with the hypothesis; a less likely explanation is that an overgrowth of radio-resistant PRL-secreting tumour cells is occurring after external irradiation, but not after yttrium-90 implantation.

  20. Optimized conditions for chelation of yttrium-90-DOTA immunoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukis, D L; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L; O'Donnell, R T; Meares, C F

    1998-12-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 90Y-labeled immunoconjugates has shown promise in clinical trials. The macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N"'-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) binds 90Y with extraordinary stability, minimizing the toxicity of 90Y-DOTA immunoconjugates arising from loss of 90Y to bone. However, reported 90Y-DOTA immunoconjugate product yields have been typically only BAD) was conjugated to the monoclonal antibody Lym-1 via 2-iminothiolane (2IT). The immunoconjugate product, 2IT-BAD-Lym-1, was labeled in excess yttrium in various buffers over a range of concentrations and pH. Kinetic studies were performed in selected buffers to estimate radiolabeling reaction times under prospective radiopharmacy labeling conditions. The effect of temperature on reaction kinetics was examined. Optimal radiolabeling conditions were identified and used in eight radiolabeling experiments with 2IT-BAD-Lym-1 and a second immunoconjugate, DOTA-peptide-chimeric L6, with 248-492 MBq (6.7-13.3 mCi) of 90Y. Ammonium acetate buffer (0.5 M) was associated with the highest uptake of yttrium. On the basis of kinetic data, the time required to chelate 94% of 90Y (four half-times) under prospective radiopharmacy labeling conditions in 0.5 M ammonium acetate was 17-148 min at pH 6.5, but it was only 1-10 min at pH 7.5. Raising the reaction temperature from 25 degrees C to 37 degrees C markedly increased the chelation rate. Optimal radiolabeling conditions were identified as: 30-min reaction time, 0.5 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH 7-7.5 and 37 degrees C. In eight labeling experiments under optimal conditions, a mean product yield (+/- s.d.) of 91%+/-8% was achieved, comparable to iodination yields. The specific activity of final products was 74-130 MBq (2.0-3.5 mCi) of 90Y per mg of monoclonal antibody. The immunoreactivity of 90Y-labeled immunoconjugates was 100%+/-11%. The optimization of 90Y-DOTA chelation conditions represents an important advance in 90Y RIT

  1. Antibody-guided three-step therapy for high grade glioma with yttrium-90 biotin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganelli, G.; Grana, C.; Chinol, M.; Cremonesi, M.; De Cicco, C.; Zoboli, S.; De Braud, F.; Robertson, C.; Zurrida, S.; Veronesi, U.; Casadio, C.; Siccardi, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    While the incidence of brain tumours seems to be increasing, median survival in patients with glioblastoma remains less than 1 year, despite improved diagnostic imaging and neurosurgical techniques, and innovations in treatment. We have developed an avidin-biotin pre-targeting approach for delivering therapeutic radionuclides to gliomas, using anti-tenascin monoclonal antibodies, which seems potentially effective for treating these tumours. We treated 48 eligible patients with histologically confirmed grade III or IV glioma and documented residual disease or recurrence after conventional treatment. Three-step radionuclide therapy was performed by intravenous administration of 35 mg/m 2 of biotinylated anti-tenascin monoclonal antibody (1st step), followed 36 h later by 30 mg of avidin and 50 mg of streptavidin (2nd step), and 18-24 h later by 1-2 mg of yttrium-90-labelled biotin (3rd step). 90 Y doses of 2.22-2.96 GBq/m 2 were administered; maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined at 2.96 GBq/m 2 . Tumour mass reduction (>25%-100%), documented by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, occurred in 12/48 patients (25%), with 8/48 having a duration of response of at least 12 months. At present, 12 patients are still in remission, comprising four with a complete response, two with a parital response, two with a minor response and four with stable disease. Median survival from 90 Y treatment is 11 months for grade IV glioblastoma and 19 months for grade III anaplastic gliomas. Avidin-biotin based three-step radionuclide therapy is well tolerated at the dose of 2.2 GBq/m 2 , allowing the injection of 90 Y-biotin without bone marrow transplantation. This new approach interferes with the progression of high-grade glioma and may produce tumour regression in patients no longer responsive to other therapies. (orig.)

  2. Yttrium-90 used to treat colon cancer: Awaiting investigational new drug approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A new radiation treatment takes just 14 to 21 days to shrink colorectal tumors in laboratory mice, is under review for clinical trials with human cancer patients. The treatment has succeeded in reducing the size of tumors by up to 95%. Colon cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US, is extremely difficult to treat unless it is detected early enough for surgical procedures. In laboratory tests over the last 5 years, a team of researchers has developed the treatment using yttrium-90. The yttrium-90 is transported to the tumors by attaching it to monoclonal antibodies that seek out the cancer cells. Once the radioisotope has been targeted to the tumor, the radiation destroys many of the cells, dramatically reducing the size of the tumor. Since this treatment usually does not completely eliminate all the cancer cells, it cannot be called a cure, but it does seem to be an effective method of shrinking colorectal tumors

  3. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of Yttrium-90 PET/CT imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asgar Attarwala

    Full Text Available Yttrium-90 is known to have a low positron emission decay of 32 ppm that may allow for personalized dosimetry of liver cancer therapy with (90Y labeled microspheres. The aim of this work was to image and quantify (90Y so that accurate predictions of the absorbed dose can be made. The measurements were performed within the QUEST study (University of Sydney, and Sirtex Medical, Australia. A NEMA IEC body phantom containing 6 fillable spheres (10-37 mm ∅ was used to measure the 90Y distribution with a Biograph mCT PET/CT (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany with time-of-flight (TOF acquisition. A sphere to background ratio of 8:1, with a total (90Y activity of 3 GBq was used. Measurements were performed for one week (0, 3, 5 and 7 d. he acquisition protocol consisted of 30 min-2 bed positions and 120 min-single bed position. Images were reconstructed with 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM and point spread function (PSF for iteration numbers of 1-12 with 21 (TOF and 24 (non-TOF subsets and CT based attenuation and scatter correction. Convergence of algorithms and activity recovery was assessed based on regions-of-interest (ROI analysis of the background (100 voxels, spheres (4 voxels and the central low density insert (25 voxels. For the largest sphere, the recovery coefficient (RC values for the 30 min -2-bed position, 30 min-single bed and 120 min-single bed were 1.12 ± 0.20, 1.14 ± 0.13, 0.97 ± 0.07 respectively. For the smaller diameter spheres, the PSF algorithm with TOF and single bed acquisition provided a comparatively better activity recovery. Quantification of Y-90 using Biograph mCT PET/CT is possible with a reasonable accuracy, the limitations being the size of the lesion and the activity concentration present. At this stage, based on our study, it seems advantageous to use different protocols depending on the size of the lesion.

  4. Yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Riad; Hunter, Russell D.

    2006-01-01

    To present a critical review of yttrium-90 (TheraSphere) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Medical literature databases (Medline, Cochrane Library, and CANCERLIT) were searched for available literature concerning the treatment of HCC with TheraSphere. These publications were reviewed for scientific and clinical validity. Studies pertaining to the use of yttrium-90 for HCC date back to the 1960s. The results from the early animal safety studies established a radiation exposure range of 50-100 Gy to be used in human studies. Phase I dose escalation studies followed, which were instrumental in delineating radiation dosimetry and safety parameters in humans. These early studies emphasized the importance of differential arteriolar density between hypervascular HCC and surrounding liver parenchyma. Current trends in research have focused on advancing techniques to safely implement this technology as an alternative to traditional methods of treating unresectable HCC, such as external beam radiotherapy, conformal beam radiotherapy, ethanol ablation, trans-arterial chemoembolization, and radiofrequency ablation. Yttrium-90 (TheraSphere) is an outpatient treatment option for HCC. Current and future research should focus on implementing multicenter phase II and III trials comparing TheraSphere with other therapies for HCC

  5. Yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Riad; Hunter, Russell D

    2006-01-01

    To present a critical review of yttrium-90 (TheraSphere) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Medical literature databases (Medline, Cochrane Library, and CANCERLIT) were searched for available literature concerning the treatment of HCC with TheraSphere. These publications were reviewed for scientific and clinical validity. Studies pertaining to the use of yttrium-90 for HCC date back to the 1960s. The results from the early animal safety studies established a radiation exposure range of 50-100 Gy to be used in human studies. Phase I dose escalation studies followed, which were instrumental in delineating radiation dosimetry and safety parameters in humans. These early studies emphasized the importance of differential arteriolar density between hypervascular HCC and surrounding liver parenchyma. Current trends in research have focused on advancing techniques to safely implement this technology as an alternative to traditional methods of treating unresectable HCC, such as external beam radiotherapy, conformal beam radiotherapy, ethanol ablation, trans-arterial chemoembolization, and radiofrequency ablation. Yttrium-90 (TheraSphere) is an outpatient treatment option for HCC. Current and future research should focus on implementing multicenter phase II and III trials comparing TheraSphere with other therapies for HCC.

  6. Radio-synoviorthesis with yttrium 90 in the knee-joint in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagena, F.W.; Muenchen Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The radio-synoviorthesis with yttrium 90 in the knee-joint in rheumatoid arthritis was performed and controlled in 106 knees of patients with rheumatoid arthritis over a span of time between 6 and 49 months. The results are similar to those of other authors. As compared to synovectomy radio-synoviorthesis seems less successful as far as long-term results are concerned. As local treatment radio-synoviorthesis seems a good supplementory element in the therapeutic plan of rheumatoid arthritis. The indication to alternative procedures has been considered carefully for each individual case and joint. (orig.) [de

  7. Treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the liver with yttrium-90 microsphere embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Timothy S; Benjamin, Heather; Kroft, Steven H; Hohenwalter, Eric J; Rilling, William S

    2008-11-01

    A 41-year-old male with a 4-year history of chronic hepatitis C presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats. Laboratory examinations, chest, abdomen, and pelvic CT scans, PET-CT scans, ultrasound-guided needle biopsies of liver lesions, bone-marrow biopsy, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical staining for B-cell markers including CD20. Chemoresistant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with gradual loss of CD20 antigen expression. Embolization of hepatic tumors using yttrium-90 microspheres (Therasphere, Theragenics Corporation, Buford, GA).

  8. Use of Yttrium-90 TheraSphere for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Michael D; Uaje, Michelle B; Al-Ghazi, Muthana S; Fields, Denise; Herman, June; Kuo, Jeffrey V; Milne, Norah; Nguyen, Thong H; Ramsinghani, Nilam S; Tokita, Kenneth M; Tsai, Fong Y; Vajgrt, Duane J; Imagawa, David K

    2004-11-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of a new treatment modality, intra-arterial administration of Yttrium-90 TheraSphere, for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC not amenable to surgical treatment who had satisfactory physiological function without comorbid disease or significant pulmonary shunting were eligible for treatment. Patients were categorized into complete, partial, or no response based on serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and CT or MRI imaging. Fourteen patients were considered candidates for treatment. Three patients were excluded due to significant hepatopulmonary shunting. Eleven patients were treated with TheraSphere. One patient (9%) had a complete response, eight patients (78%) had a partial response, and two patients (18%) showed no response. Partial and complete responders with AFP-associated HCC demonstrated a median decrease in AFP levels of 79 per cent at 73 days. No patients developed liver toxicity nor died due to treatment. Five patients (45%) died of progressive disease at a median of 7 months post-treatment. Six patients (54%) were alive at a median of 11 months (range, 9 to 20 months). Okuda stage 2 and 3 patients showed a median survival of 11 months and 7 months, respectively. Yttrium-90 TheraSphere treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma is well tolerated and appears to extend survival.

  9. Effect of intra-articular yttrium-90 on chronic pyrophosphate arthropathy of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, M.; Dieppe, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Fifteen patients with bilateral, symmetrical chronic pyrophosphate arthropathy of the knee were given intra-articular injections of yttrium-90 (5 mCi) plus steroid (triamcinolone hexacetonide, 20 mg) into one knee, and saline plus steroid into the other (control) knee. Allocation of the 90 Y injection was random and double blind. After 6 months there was significantly less pain, inactivity stiffness, joint-line tenderness, and effusion in the 90 Y-injected knees than in the controls (p 90 Y-injected and control knees in the changes in range of movement (p 90 Y may be of benefit in chronic pyrophosphate arthropathy, a disease for which there is no treatment. The predilection of this condition to affect the knees of the elderly makes such treatment highly suitable because the joint lends itself readily to injection and the procedure carries very few actual or potential risks in this age group. (author)

  10. Pharmacokinetics of chimeric L6 conjugated to indium-111- and yttrium-90-DOTA-peptide in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.; Zhong, G.R.; Salako, Q.

    1995-01-01

    A bifunctional chelating agent, DOTA-Gly 3 -L-(p-isothiocyanato)-phenylalanine amide (DOTA-peptide-NCS), was studied in nude mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts (HBT 3477) to determine its potential for radioimmunoconjugate therapy. Indium-111 and yttrium-90 were attached to an anti-adenocarcinoma chimeric L6 (ChL6) monoclonal antibody (MAb) after pre-chelation to the DOTA-peptide-NCS and the desired neutral radiochelates were obtained by purification. The unique characteristic of the DOTA-peptide-NCS to form neutral complexes with trivalent metals was utilized to separate the resulting 111 In and 90 Y radiochelates from excess chelating agent and other anionic by-products resulting from metal impurities. The purified radiochelates were then conjugated to ChL6. The paramacokinetics of 111 In- and 90 Y-DOTA-peptide-ChL6 were obtained for 5 days after injection in nude mice bearing HBT 3477 xenographs. The results were compared with the pharmacokinetics of 125 I-ChL6 obtained in the same mouse model. The whole-body clearance of 125 I-ChL6, 90 Y-and 111 In-DOTA-peptide-ChL6 was monoexponential with biologic half-times of 92, 104 and 160 hr, respectively. Blood clearances of the three radiopharmaceuticals were biphasic. The radiometal immunoconjugates had greater tumor uptake and slower clearances. Indium-111- and 90 Y-DOTA-peptide-ChL6 can be produced at high specific activity with fewer than one chelate per MAb by using a pre-labeling method that permits radiochelate purification by charge selection. Studies in mouse xenografts indicate that tumor uptake in enhanced and a favorable therapeutic index is achieved using these agents. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Initial experience with Yttrium-90 microsphere therapy in patients with end stage metastatic liver disease due to colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poot, M.; Janssen, J.; McKay, E.; Clingan, P.; Morris, D.; Butler, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Yttrium-90 labelled microspheres (SIR-Spheres) delivered via the hepatic artery are used in the treatment of non-resectable metastatic liver disease, with the spheres becoming trapped in hepatic tumours. Sixteen patients (9 males, 7 females, 43-80 years) were assessed for therapy. All had failed chemotherapy and had evidence of progressive disease. Extrahepatic disease, ascites and abnormal liver function were first taken into consideration, eliminating 3 patients. The remaining patients underwent a breakthrough scan where Tc99m-MAA was administered intra-hepatically. This scan was used to calculate the level of shunting to the lungs, stomach and bowel and was co-registered with a recent CT scan to confirm MAA uptake corresponded with tumour sites. These breakthrough scans excluded 6 patients, 1 demonstrating high lung activity and 5 not showing focal metastatic accumulation of Tc-99m MAA. Another patient declined. Post-treatment, 4 patients spent 1-2 nights hospitalised for observation with no complications. One patient experienced pain requiring narcotic analgesia and 3 nights in hospital, the other experienced pain, fever, rigours, nausea and vomiting requiring 5 nights hospitalisation. For all patients, liver and bone marrow function was relatively unchanged 1 week post-therapy indicating no acute toxicity. Since receiving therapy, 2 patients survived less than 2 months, dying of disease progression. Two had progressive extrahepatic disease, and the remaining 2 patients, who also received chemotherapy, currently report a good quality of life, although no objective data is currently available to evaluate tumour response. In this selected group of patients, SIR therapy appears to have limited toxicity with yet to be demonstrated efficacy. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. Analysis of Prognostic Factors After Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inarrairaegui, Mercedes; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio; Rodriguez, Macarena; Bilbao, J. Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze which patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors may influence outcome after 90 Y radioembolization ( 90 Y-RE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods: Seventy-two consecutive patients with advanced HCC treated with 90 Y-RE were studied to detect which factors may have influenced response to treatment and survival. Results: Median overall survival was 13 months (95% confidence interval, 9.6-16.3 months). In univariate analysis, survival was significantly better in patients with one to five lesions (19 vs. 8 months, p = 0.001) and in patients with alpha-fetoprotein 52 UI/mL, and their survival in the multivariate analysis was significantly worse (hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 13-1.73) (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Yttrium-90 radioembolization results in control of target lesions in the majority of patients with HCC but does not prevent the development of new lesions. Survival of patients treated with 90 Y-RE seems to depend largely on factors related to the aggressiveness of the disease (number of nodules, levels of alpha-fetoprotein, and presence of microscopic disease).

  13. Right Gastric Artery Embolization Prior to Treatment with Yttrium-90 Microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosin, Octavio; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Alvarez, Sergio; Luis, Esther de; Alonso, Alberto; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. Intra-arterial infusion of yttrium-90 microspheres is a form of radiation treatment for unresectable hepatic neoplasms. Misdeposition of particles in the gastroduodenal area such as the right gastric artery (RGA) may occur with serious consequences. We present a series of patients who underwent a detailed vascular study followed by RGA embolization. Special emphasis is placed on anatomic variations and technical considerations .Methods. In a 1 year period, 27 patients were treated. Initial vascular evaluation was performed, with careful attention to anatomic variants or extrahepatic arterial supply, especially to the gastroduodenal area. Embolization of such arteries was planned if needed. RGA embolization was performed antegradely from the hepatic artery or retrogradely via the left gastric artery (LGA). Postprocedural follow-up included clinical interview and gastroscopy if necessary. Results. RGA embolization was performed in 9 patients presenting with primary (n = 3) or metastatic liver tumors (n 6). Six patients underwent antegrade RGA embolization and 3 had embolization done retrogradely via the LGA. Retrograde access was chosen for anatomic reasons. None of the patients complained of gastroduodenal symptoms. Conclusion. RGA embolization can help minimize the gastroduodenal deposition of radioactive particles. RGA embolization should routinely be carried out. The procedure can be performed, with similar technical success, by both anterograde and retrograde approaches

  14. A Woman with Black Beads in Her Stomach: Severe Gastric Ulceration Caused by Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu S. Voruganti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioembolization (RE is a selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT delivering targeted, high-dose, intra-arterial radiation directly to the vascular supply of liver tumors. Complications can occur due to aberrant deposition or migration of radiation microspheres into nontarget locations, including normal hepatic parenchyma, lungs, pancreas, and upper gastrointestinal (UGI tract. We report a case of gastric ulcers due to yttrium-90 (90Y seed migration to the stomach to alert clinicians to this rare cause of gastric injury. A 57-year-old woman with stage IV breast cancer with liver and lung metastases presented to the hospital with 2 months of worsening nausea and vomiting. Two months prior, she had received SIRT with 90Y microspheres without complications. Upper GI endoscopy showed diffuse gastritis and extensive antral ulceration. Biopsies revealed black, spherical foreign bodies, consistent with 90Y microspheres, documenting radiation injury. Radiation-induced UGI ulceration is caused by direct radiation injury from beta-radiation. Delay in diagnosis may be due to the nonspecificity of symptoms and temporal delay of symptom onset from SIRT, which was 2 months in our patient. Also, complaints may be attributed erroneously to adjuvant chemotherapy or widespread metastatic disease. Clinicians must consider radiation-associated toxicity in any SIRT-treated patient developing abdominal symptoms.

  15. Temporary Arterial Balloon Occlusion as an Adjunct to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, Klaus D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging (United States); Nambiar, Ashwin, E-mail: uvashwin@gmail.com [SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Hagspiel, Lauren M., E-mail: lmh4gg@virginia.edu [University of Virginia, College of Arts and Sciences (United States); Ahmad, Ehab Ali, E-mail: ehabradiodiagnosis@yahoo.com [Minia University, Department of Radiology (Egypt); Bozlar, Ugur, E-mail: ubozlar@yahoo.com [Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study was designed to describe the technique of arterial occlusion using a temporary occlusion balloon system as an alternative to coil occlusion during Yttrium-90 radioembolization of hepatic tumors. Methods. Review of charts, angiography, and follow-up imaging studies of consecutive patients undergoing oncological embolization procedures in which a HyperForm system (ev3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA) was used. Intraprocedural target vessel occlusion and patency of the target vessel on follow-up were recorded. Clinical data and Bremsstrahlung scans were reviewed for evidence of nontarget embolization. Results. Four radioembolization procedures were performed in three patients (all female, age 48-54 (mean 52) years). Five arteries were temporarily occluded (three gastroduodenal arteries, one right gastric artery, and one cystic artery). All radioembolization procedures were successfully completed. Follow-up imaging (either digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA)) was available for all patients between 28-454 (mean 183) days following the procedure, demonstrating all five vessels to be patent. No clinical or imaging evidence for nontarget embolization was found. Conclusions. Temporary balloon occlusion of small and medium-sized arteries during radioembolization allows safe therapy with preserved postprocedural vessel patency on early and midterm follow-up.

  16. Treating and Downstaging Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe with Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Saad M. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Kulik, Laura [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hepatology (United States); Baker, Talia [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Ryu, Robert K. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center (United States); Abecassis, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J., E-mail: r-lewandowski@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the technical feasibility, safety, efficacy, and potential to downstage patients to within transplantation criteria when treating patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of the caudate lobe using Y90 radioembolization. Methods: During a 4-year period, 8 of 291 patients treated with radioembolization for unresectable HCC had disease involving the caudate lobe. All patients were followed for treatment-related clinical/biochemical toxicities, serum tumor marker response, and treatment response. Imaging response was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) classification schemes. Pathologic response was reported as percent necrosis at explantation. Results: Caudate lobe radioembolization was successfully performed in all eight patients. All patients presented with both cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Half were United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) stage T3 (n = 4, 50%). Fatigue was reported in half of the patients (n = 4, 50%). One (13%) grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was reported. One patient (13%) showed complete tumor response by WHO criteria, and three patients (38%) showed complete response using EASL guidelines. Serum AFP decreased by more than 50% in most patients (n = 6, 75%). Four patients (50%) were UNOS downstaged from T3 to T2, three of who underwent transplantation. One specimen showed histopathologic evidence of 100% complete necrosis, and two specimens demonstrated greater than 50% necrosis. Conclusions: Radioembolization with yttrium-90 appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with unresectable caudate lobe HCC. It has the potential to downstage patients to transplantation.

  17. Treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma with intrahepatic yttrium 90 microspheres: factors associated with liver toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin, James E; Salem, Riad; Carr, Brian I; Dancey, Janet E; Soulen, Michael C; Geschwind, Jean Francois H; Goin, Kathleen; Van Buskirk, Mark; Thurston, Kenneth

    2005-02-01

    Intraarterial injection of yttrium 90 microspheres (TheraSpheres) is used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This article presents an analysis of the incidence of liver toxicities (liver-related events) and pretreatment factors associated with liver toxicities after TheraSphere treatment. Eighty-eight TheraSphere-treated patients with low 90-day mortality risk were selected for analysis, with liver toxicities coded with use of standard oncology criteria. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were applied to estimate the incidence of liver toxicities and to evaluate the influence of liver radiation dose and various pretreatment factors on the risk of their occurrence. Sixty-eight liver toxicities occurred in 37 of the 88 patients (42%). Thirty-two patients (36%) experienced 50 liver toxicities after the first treatment and nine of 23 patients (39%) who received a second treatment experienced 18 liver toxicities. Pretreatment total bilirubin and liver radiation dose were found to be associated with the risk of at least one liver toxicity and with the time to first occurrence of a liver toxicity after first treatment. Pretreatment total bilirubin also was associated with liver toxicities after the second treatment. Most of the toxicities resolved; however, those that did not resolve were attributed to tumor progression or advancing cirrhosis. The risk of liver toxicities in patients with unresectable HCC treated with TheraSpheres increases with increasing pretreatment total bilirubin level and liver radiation dose to a maximum of 150 Gy for a single administration. The toxicities attributed to treatment resolved over time, and none of the patients studied had confirmed radiation-induced liver disease. Consequently, doses as high as 150 Gy on a single administration and as high as 268 Gy on repeated administrations were well tolerated.

  18. Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 microspheres for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangoo, Munveer Singh; Karnani, Diraj R; Hein, Paul N; Giap, Huan; Knowles, Harry; Issa, Chris; Steuterman, Steve; Pockros, Paul; Frenette, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is aggressive primary malignancy of the liver that most commonly presents late in the disease course. As a result, the majority of patients are not candidates for curative therapies. Locoregional therapies including Yttrium-90 (Y-90) radioembolization play an important role in management of the vast majority of patients with HCC. Patients with unnresectable HCC (n=17) treated with Y-90 radioembolization from 2005 to 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Data was abstracted from medical records including patient charts, laboratory data, and imaging. Toxicities were recorded using Common Terminology Criteria 3.0. Response was recorded according to modified RECIST (mRECIST) criteria. Seventeen patients received 33 treatments with Y-90 radioembolization. A majority (65%) received TheraSphere with a minority (35%) receiving SIR-Spheres. The median treatment activity delivered was 1.725 gBq (range, 1.4-2.5 gBq). The median treatment dose delivered was 100 Gy (range, 90-120 Gy). The median lung shunt fraction was 2.02% (range, 1.5-4.1%). The most common clinical toxicity among all patients was nausea and vomiting (59%), primarily grade 1 and 2. Other post-treatment findings included abdominal pain (29%), fatigue (53%), and weight loss (18%). One patient developed a grade 5 gastric ulcer after the treatment. A clinical benefit, defined as patients achieving complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD), was seen in 48% of patients. PR was seen in 24% of cases; progressive disease (PD) was noted in 35%. Patients survived for a median of 8.4 months (range, 1.3 to 21.1 months) after the first radioembolization treatment. Median survival after Y-90 treatment was 8.4 months among patients treated TheraSphere as compared with 7.8 months in patients treated with SIR-Spheres. The mean overall survival from the time of diagnosis was 11.7 months (range, 3.4 to 43.2 months). For patients with unresectable HCC, Y-90

  19. Spectrographic determination of strontium in yttrium-90 solutions; Determinacion espectrografica de estroncio en soluciones de itrio-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M; Capdevila, C

    1970-07-01

    The copper spark method has been used for determining strontium in the concentration range 1-100 g/ml in yttrium-90 solutions containing 0,5 % or thereabouts of ammonium citrate. The influence of the citric acid as well as the ammonium citrate with regard to 2N HCL solutions has been studied: the citric acid enhances the line intensities of strontium. The employment of either barium or lanthanum as reference element compensates for this enhancement. Because of the increase in sensitivity mentioned above, the study of influence of the citric acid has been extended and several impurities usually determined in radioisotope solutions have been considered. (Author) 4 refs.

  20. Treatment of primary liver tumors with Yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere) in high risk patients: analysis of survival and toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Kelli A; McIntosh, Alyson F; Shilling, A Tanner; Hagspiel, Klaus D; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah; Berg, Carl; Caldwell, Stephen H; Northup, Patrick G; Angle, Fritz; Mulder, Robert; Rich, Tyvin A

    2009-02-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to obtain information regarding the survival and toxicities after Yttrium-90 microspheres treatment in patients with primary liver malignancies. Baseline, treatment, and follow-up data were collected and analyzed for 21 patients treated with Yttrium-90 microspheres. Survival analysis was then performed. The results of this study showed that median survival for all the patients was 120 days. Twenty of 21 patients were categorized as high-risk with a median survival of 114 days. It was also found that one high-risk patient has survived 858 days with no recurrence of disease. Acute grade 3-5 toxicities were recorded for nine patients and consisted of elevations in AST and bilirubin, thrombocytopenia, abdominal pain, ascites, nausea, fatigue, and death. This study concluded that Yttrium-90 is a low-toxicity, outpatient alternative for individuals with liver cancer and without many options. The maximal value, however, may lie in the treatment of low-risk patients.

  1. Long-Term Palliative Effect of Stenting in Gastric Outlet Obstruction Due to Transarterial Chemoembolization with Yttrium-90 in a Patient with Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Caglar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal radioembolization with yttrium-90 is a promising treatment method, predominantly for liver tumors. However, the shifting of yttrium-90-loaded spherules into the arteries and veins that supply the duodenum and stomach, leading to ulceration, hemorrhage, perforation, and outlet obstruction of these organs, is one of the major undesirable consequences of this technique. We report a case of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO due to antropyloric stenosis with ulceration, edema, and inflammation following transarterial yttrium-90 treatment for a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor in a 58-year-old man. Stenting was used for palliation in this case. GOO improved after stenting and recovery of oral intake was permanent after stent removal.

  2. Non-target activity detection by post-radioembolization yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image assessment technique and case examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Hsiang eKao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution yttrium-90 (90Y imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed 90Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by 90Y PET/CT which qualitatively overcomes the problem of background noise. We present selected case examples of non-target activity in untargeted liver, stomach, gallbladder, chest wall and kidney, supported by angiography and 90Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT or technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT.

  3. Yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres) for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, C

    2007-09-01

    (1) Microspheres containing radioactive yttrium-90 (90Y) are infused into the hepatic artery. These deliver high doses of ionizing radiation to inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common type of primary liver cancer. (2) Limited evidence from several case series indicates that palliative therapy with 90Y microspheres may reduce tumour size and increase survival time. (3) In some patients, 90Y treatment may result in enough tumour reduction to permit liver resection or transplantation. (4) While 90Y microsphere therapy is generally well tolerated, major complications and several treatment-related deaths have occurred. Improved patient selection criteria and technical changes to microsphere delivery have reduced the risks of complications and death. (5) Patient selection and the technical aspects of 90Y microsphere treatment are complex and require the coordinated expertise of a multidisciplinary team.

  4. The sequential separation of strontium-90, yttrium-90, promethium-147, and cerium-144 from urine and their subsequent estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.; Davies, J.M.

    1981-04-01

    A method has been developed for separating low-level activities of the beta-emitting isotopes strontium-90, yttrium-90, promethium-147 and cerium-144 from urine and aqueous solutions. They are subsequently estimated by planchet or liquid scintillation counting. The radionuclides are separated from each other and from interfering elements by solvent extraction with HDEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) in n-heptane. It is possible to separate the elements with a minimum of cross-contamination by selecting appropriate pH's and solvent concentrations. Percentage recoveries for the radionuclides are: 90 Sr, 100 +- 12; 90 Y, 65 +- 4; 147 Pm, 90 +- 8; 144 Ce, 87 +- 11. The limits of detection are: 90 Sr, 0.6 pCi; 90 Y, 0.7 pCi; 147 Pm, 1.0 pCi; 144 Ce, 0.8 pCi. (author)

  5. Phase II trial of yttrium-90-DOTA-biotin pretargeted by NR-LU-10 antibody/streptavidin in patients with metastatic colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S J.; Goris, M L.; Tempero, M.; Weiden, P L.; Gentner, L.; Breitz, H.; Adams, G. P.; Axworthy, D.; Gaffigan, S.; Bryan, K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Colcher, D; Horak, I D.; Weiner, L M.

    1999-01-01

    A Phase II study of yttrium-90-tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid-biotin (Y-90-DOTA-biotin) pretargeted by NR-LU-10 antibody/streptavidin (SA) was performed. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this therapy in patients with metastatic colon cancer. Twenty-five patients were treated with a single dose of 110 mCi/m 2 (mean administered dose, 106.5-10.3 mCi/m 2 ) of Y-90-DOTA-biotin. There were three components of the therapy. Patients first received NR-LU-10/SA on day 1. A clearing agent (biotin-galactose-human serum albumin) was administered 48 h after the NR-LU-10/SA to remove residual circulating unbound NR-LU-10/SA. Lastly, 24 h after administration of clearing agent, patients received biotin-DOTA-labeled with 110 mCi/m 2 Y-90. All three components of the therapy were administered i.v. Both hematological and nonhematological toxicities were observed. Diarrhea was the most frequent grade 4 nonhematological toxicity (16%; with 16% grade 3 diarrhea). Hematological toxicity was less severe with 8% grade 3 and 8% grade 4 neutropenia and 8% grade 3 and 16% grade 4 thrombocytopenia. The overall response rate was 8%. Two partial responders had freedom from progression of 16 weeks. Four patients (16%) had stable disease with freedom from progression of 10-20 weeks. Despite the relatively disappointing results of this study in terms of therapeutic efficacy and toxicity, proof of principle was obtained for the pretargeting approach. In addition, valuable new information was obtained about normal tissue tolerance to low-dose-rate irradiation that will help to provide useful guidelines for future study designs

  6. Comparison by quantitative scanning of the distribution in the body of yttrium-90 and gold-198 after intra-articular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.D.; Caughey, D.E.; John, M.B.; Hurley, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, yttrium-90 ferric hydroxide colloid, has been used to treat knee effusion in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With a view to assessing absorbed radiation dose, a study was initiated to compare its body distribution with that of gold-198, which has also been used for this purpose. The treated knee was in each case scanned immediately after injection using a dual 5-inch detector scanner, and again two, four and seven days later, when the regional lymph nodes and liver were also scanned. Using calibration factors obtained by scanning water phantoms, data from the scans were used to calculate the percentage of the injected radioactivity in each site. Radioactivity in blood and urine was also measured. Ten knees have been treated, each with five mCi yttrium-90, and twelve with 10 mCi gold-198. The treated knee was immobilized, and the patient rested in bed for four days, to minimize loss of radioactivity from the knee. With this procedure, both radionuclides were found to be equally well retained in the knee. However, the lymph node uptake of yttrium was lower than for gold. Yttrium-90 emits only beta radiation, so the gonadal radiation done in patients treated with yttrium-90 is estimated to be much less than in those treated with gold-198. (author)

  7. Clinical evaluation of the partition model for estimating radiation doses from yttrium-90 microspheres in the treatment of hepatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.; Lau, W.Y.; Leung, T.W.T.; Chan, M.; Johnson, P.J.; Li, A.K.C.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation doses to the tumour and non-tumorous liver compartments from yttrium-90 microspheres in the treatment of hepatic cancer, as estimated by a partition model, have been verified by correlation with the actual doses measured with a beta probe at open surgery. The validity of the doses to the lungs, the tumour and non-tumours liver compartment as estimated by the partition model was further evaluated in clinical settings. On the basis of the observation that one of three patients who received more than 30 Gy from a single treatment and one of two patients who received more than 50 Gy from multiple treatments developed radiation pneumonitis, it was deduced that an estimated lung dose 30 Gy as estimated by the partition model and were predicted to develop radiation pneumonitis, did so despite the use of partial hepatic embolization to reduce the degree of lung shunting. Furthermore, a higher radiological response rate and prolonged survival were found in the group of patients who received higher tumour doses, as estimated by the partition model, than in the group with lower estimated tumour doses. Thus the radiation doses estimated by the partition model can be used to predict (a) complication rate, (b) response rate and (c) duration of survival in the same manner as the actual radiation doses measured with a beta probe at open surgery. The partition model has made selective internal radiation therapy using 90 Y microspheres safe and repeatable without laparotomy. (orig.)

  8. Treatment of unresectable primary and metastatic liver cancer with yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere): assessment of hepatic arterial embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kent; Lewandowski, Robert J; Bui, James T; Omary, Reed; Hunter, Russell D; Kulik, Laura; Mulcahy, Mary; Liu, David; Chrisman, Howard; Resnick, Scott; Nemcek, Albert A; Vogelzang, Robert; Salem, Riad

    2006-01-01

    In Canada and Europe, yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere); MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Canada) are a primary treatment option for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We present data from 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver disease treated with TheraSphere from a single academic institution to evaluate the angiographically evident embolization that follows treatment. Seven interventional radiologists from one treatment center compared pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms. The reviewers were blinded to the timing of the studies. The incidence of postembolization syndrome (PES) was determined as well as objective tumor response rates by the World Health Organization (WHO), Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria. There were 420 independent angiographic observations that were assessed using the chi-squared statistic. The pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms could not be correctly identified on average more than 43% of the time (p = 0.0004). The postprocedure arterial patency rate was 100%. The objective tumor response rates for all patients were 24%, 31%, and 72% for WHO, RECIST, and EASL criteria, respectively. All of the patients tolerated the procedure without complications and were treated on an outpatient basis, and four patients had evidence of PES. This treatment method does not result in macroscopic embolization of the hepatic arteries, thereby maintaining hepatic tissue perfusion. These data support the principle that the favorable response rates reported with TheraSphere are likely due to radiation and microscopic embolization rather than flow-related macroscopic embolization and ischemia.

  9. First experience of hepatic radioembolization using microspheres labelled with yttrium-90 (TheraSphere): practical aspects concerning its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, Etienne; Bourguet, Patrick; Rolland, Yan; Boucher, Eveline; Ardisson, Valerie; Laffont, Sophie; Boudjema, Karim; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    We report a first experience involving the use of 90 Y radiolabelled microspheres (TheraSphere) for the treatment of mainly primary hepatic tumours. Treatment using TheraSphere microspheres was planned in 15 patients (13 with hepatocellular carcinoma, 2 with neuroendocrine tumour metastases). The treatment was preceded by a first angiography aimed at embolizing the vascularizing arterial branches of other structures outside the liver and evaluating the percentage of pulmonary shunt by scintiscanning after perfusion with 99m Tc-MAA. The objective of the treatment carried out during a second angiography was to deliver a dose of 120±20 Gy (mean±SD) to the target hepatic volume. Technical difficulties were encountered in embolizing gastroduodenal or gastric branches in two patients and in one patient these led to cancellation of the treatment. A total of 14 patients were treated with an average activity of 3.18 GBq. In one patient, the injection was defective (stagnation of microspheres at the outlet of the catheter). SPECT/CT acquisitions provided important information in four patients (visualization of the gallbladder in three; visualization of the stomach in one, leading to a new coiling). The average exposure of the nuclear medicine physician carrying out the injections was 64±80μSv at the fingers. A partial response was seen in six patients, stabilization in five and progression in three. One patient presented with a gastric ulcer and two showed an increase in their hepatocellular insufficiency. Although sometimes technically difficult, the use of TheraSphere microspheres is a worthwhile therapeutic approach because of the low level exposure of operators and the encouraging rate of response or stabilization. The use of SPECT/CT contributes greatly to helping therapeutic planning, especially in the learning curve or when the angiographic procedure is difficult. (orig.)

  10. First experience of hepatic radioembolization using microspheres labelled with yttrium-90 (TheraSphere): practical aspects concerning its implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Etienne; Rolland, Yan; Boucher, Eveline; Ardisson, Valérie; Laffont, Sophie; Boudjema, Karim; Bourguet, Patrick; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2010-03-01

    We report a first experience involving the use of (90)Y radiolabelled microspheres (TheraSphere) for the treatment of mainly primary hepatic tumours. Treatment using TheraSphere microspheres was planned in 15 patients (13 with hepatocellular carcinoma, 2 with neuroendocrine tumour metastases). The treatment was preceded by a first angiography aimed at embolizing the vascularizing arterial branches of other structures outside the liver and evaluating the percentage of pulmonary shunt by scintiscanning after perfusion with (99m)Tc-MAA. The objective of the treatment carried out during a second angiography was to deliver a dose of 120+/-20 Gy (mean+/-SD) to the target hepatic volume. Technical difficulties were encountered in embolizing gastroduodenal or gastric branches in two patients and in one patient these led to cancellation of the treatment. A total of 14 patients were treated with an average activity of 3.18 GBq. In one patient, the injection was defective (stagnation of microspheres at the outlet of the catheter). SPECT/CT acquisitions provided important information in four patients (visualization of the gallbladder in three; visualization of the stomach in one, leading to a new coiling). The average exposure of the nuclear medicine physician carrying out the injections was 64+/-80 microSv at the fingers. A partial response was seen in six patients, stabilization in five and progression in three. One patient presented with a gastric ulcer and two showed an increase in their hepatocellular insufficiency. Although sometimes technically difficult, the use of TheraSphere microspheres is a worthwhile therapeutic approach because of the low level exposure of operators and the encouraging rate of response or stabilization. The use of SPECT/CT contributes greatly to helping therapeutic planning, especially in the learning curve or when the angiographic procedure is difficult.

  11. First experience of hepatic radioembolization using microspheres labelled with yttrium-90 (TheraSphere): practical aspects concerning its implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garin, Etienne; Bourguet, Patrick [Comprehensive Cancer Center Eugene Marquis, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rennes (France); University of Rennes 1, European University of Brittany/EA MDC, Rennes (France); Rolland, Yan [Comprehensive Cancer Center Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Imaging, Rennes (France); Boucher, Eveline [Comprehensive Cancer Center Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Oncology, Rennes (France); Ardisson, Valerie; Laffont, Sophie [Comprehensive Cancer Center Eugene Marquis, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rennes (France); Boudjema, Karim [University of Rennes 1, European University of Brittany/EA MDC, Rennes (France); CHU Pontchaillou, Department of Digestive Surgery, Rennes (France); Raoul, Jean-Luc [University of Rennes 1, European University of Brittany/EA MDC, Rennes (France); Comprehensive Cancer Center Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Oncology, Rennes (France)

    2010-03-15

    We report a first experience involving the use of {sup 90}Y radiolabelled microspheres (TheraSphere) for the treatment of mainly primary hepatic tumours. Treatment using TheraSphere microspheres was planned in 15 patients (13 with hepatocellular carcinoma, 2 with neuroendocrine tumour metastases). The treatment was preceded by a first angiography aimed at embolizing the vascularizing arterial branches of other structures outside the liver and evaluating the percentage of pulmonary shunt by scintiscanning after perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. The objective of the treatment carried out during a second angiography was to deliver a dose of 120{+-}20 Gy (mean{+-}SD) to the target hepatic volume. Technical difficulties were encountered in embolizing gastroduodenal or gastric branches in two patients and in one patient these led to cancellation of the treatment. A total of 14 patients were treated with an average activity of 3.18 GBq. In one patient, the injection was defective (stagnation of microspheres at the outlet of the catheter). SPECT/CT acquisitions provided important information in four patients (visualization of the gallbladder in three; visualization of the stomach in one, leading to a new coiling). The average exposure of the nuclear medicine physician carrying out the injections was 64{+-}80{mu}Sv at the fingers. A partial response was seen in six patients, stabilization in five and progression in three. One patient presented with a gastric ulcer and two showed an increase in their hepatocellular insufficiency. Although sometimes technically difficult, the use of TheraSphere microspheres is a worthwhile therapeutic approach because of the low level exposure of operators and the encouraging rate of response or stabilization. The use of SPECT/CT contributes greatly to helping therapeutic planning, especially in the learning curve or when the angiographic procedure is difficult. (orig.)

  12. Use of yttrium-90 hydroxyapatite radiosynovectomy as a primary modality of treatment in diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee joint: A first case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajan, David; Krishnan, Boopathi; Gounder, Thirumalaisamy Subbaih; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kalarickal, Radhakrishnan; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, relatively benign, intra-articular lesion characterized by a slowly progressive proliferation of synovial tissue. Knee is the most frequently involved joint. Localized and diffuse forms of synovial involvement were reported. In extensive diffuse cases, total synovectomy is needed, almost impossible to achieve. Hence, other treatment modalities such as intra-articular injection of yttrium-90 have been tried and shown to be effective in reducing the rate of local recurrence with “acceptable” joint damage. Radiosynovectomy is based on the irradiation of the joint synovium by the intra-articular administration of various β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. We describe the first case report of use of yttrium-90 hydroxyapatite particulates in a 33-year-old male who presented with diffuse PVNS of knee joint as a primary modality of treatment

  13. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with intra-arterial Yttrium-90 microspheres for down-staging patients to transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Man, K.; Defreyne, L.; Delanghe, E.; Smeets, P.; Verhelst, X.; Geerts, A.; Van Vlierberghe, H.; Rogiers, X.; Troisi, R.; Lambert, B.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction and aim: in our hospital, patients are referred for intra-arterial treatment with Yttrium-90 microspheres if they present with an HCC confined to the liver, but are ineligible for curative treatment options such as liver transplantation, partial hepatectomy or radio-frequent ablation. Additional eligibility criteria for radio-embolisation consist of Child-P ugh score Yttrium-90 microspheres in our hospital since 2008 and who presented at an age <70 and with a disease load exceeding the Milan criteria (single tumour ≤5 cm or ≤ 3 lesions ≤ 3 cm). We recorded whether the patient was down staged to a tumour load complying with the Milan criteria, and if so, whether transplantation was carried out. Results: 40 patients aged <70 years and with a tumour load exceeding the Milan criteria (all treated with TheraSphere, Nordion except 1 with SIR-Spheres, Sirtex) were evaluable. 35 had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) B stage disease and 5 had BCLC C. Overall median survival was 12.9 months. 16 out of 40 patients were down staged to the Milan criteria (40%, all BCLC B), of whom 8 were actually transplanted so far. Two patients are on the waiting list, 1 patient refuses to be listed and 1 patient suffers co-morbidity that excludes him from abdominal surgery. Unfortunately 4 patients died before or during work-out for transplantation: 1 unexplained sudden death, 1 lung embolism and 2 due to liver failure. The overall median survival was 30,4 months in the down staged patients. 24 out 40 patients (60%) did not have a tumour load within the Milan criteria at any point of their follow up and had a significant worse

  14. Model-Based Radiation Dose Correction for Yttrium-90 Microsphere Treatment of Liver Tumors With Central Necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ching-Sheng; Lin, Ko-Han; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Tseng, Hsiou-Shan; Wang, Ling-Wei; Huang, Pin-I; Chao, Liung-Sheau; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Yen, Sang-Hue; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Wang, Syh-Jen; Oliver Wong, Ching-yee; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to model and calculate the absorbed fraction φ of energy emitted from yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) microsphere treatment of necrotic liver tumors. Methods and Materials: The tumor necrosis model was proposed for the calculation of φ over the spherical shell region. Two approaches, the semianalytic method and the probabilistic method, were adopted. In the former method, the range--energy relationship and the sampling of electron paths were applied to calculate the energy deposition within the target region, using the straight-ahead and continuous-slowing-down approximation (CSDA) method. In the latter method, the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code was used to verify results from the first method. Results: The fraction of energy, φ, absorbed from 90 Y by 1-cm thickness of tumor shell from microsphere distribution by CSDA with complete beta spectrum was 0.832 ± 0.001 and 0.833 ± 0.001 for smaller (r T = 5 cm) and larger (r T = 10 cm) tumors (where r is the radii of the tumor [T] and necrosis [N]). The fraction absorbed depended mainly on the thickness of the tumor necrosis configuration, rather than on tumor necrosis size. The maximal absorbed fraction φ that occurred in tumors without central necrosis for each size of tumor was different: 0.950 ± 0.000, and 0.975 ± 0.000 for smaller (r T = 5 cm) and larger (r T = 10 cm) tumors, respectively (p 90 Y microsphere treatment of hepatic tumors with central necrosis. With this model, important information is provided regarding the absorbed fraction applicable to clinical 90 Y microsphere treatment.

  15. Embolisation of the Gastroduodenal Artery is Not Necessary in the Presence of Reversed Flow Before Yttrium-90 Radioembolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghir, Ahmed A., E-mail: ahmeddaghir@doctors.net.uk [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Gungor, Hatice [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Oncology (United Kingdom); Haydar, Ali A. [Barts and the London NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Wasan, Harpreet S. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Oncology (United Kingdom); Tait, Nicholas P. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Introduction: The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is usually embolised to avoid nontarget dispersal before yttrium-90 (Y{sup 90}) radioembolisation to treat liver metastases. In a minority of patients, there is retrograde flow in the GDA. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is any increased risk from maintaining a patent GDA in patients with reversed flow. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing Y{sup 90} radioembolisation at our institution. The incidence of toxicities arising from nontarget radioembolisation by way of the GDA (gastric/duodenal ulceration, gastric/duodenal bleeding, and pancreatitis) and death occurring within 2 months of treatment were compared between the reversed and the antegrade GDA groups. Results: Ninety-two patients underwent preliminary angiography. Reversed GDA flow was found on angiography in 14.1% of cases; the GDA was not embolised in these patients. The GDA was coiled in 55.7% of patients with antegrade GDA flow to prevent inadvertent dispersal of radioembolic material. There was no increased toxicity related to nontarget dispersal by way of the GDA, or increased early mortality, in patients with reversed GDA flow (P > 0.05). Conclusion: In patients with reversed GDA flow, maintenance of a patent GDA before administration of Y{sup 90} radioembolisation does not increase the risk of toxicity from nontarget dispersal. Therapeutic injection, with careful monitoring to identify early vascular stasis, may be safely performed beyond the origin of the patent GDA. A patent GDA with reversed flow provides forward drive for infused particles and may allow alternative access to the hepatic circulation.

  16. Multi institutional quantitative phantom study of yttrium-90 PET in PET/MRI: the MR-QUEST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Nichole M; Eldib, Mootaz; Faul, David; Conti, Maurizio; Elschot, Mattijs; Knešaurek, Karin; Leek, Francesca; Townsend, David; DiFilippo, Frank P; Jackson, Kimberly; Nekolla, Stephan G; Lukas, Mathias; Tapner, Michael; Parikh, Parag J; Laforest, Richard

    2018-04-04

    Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) radioembolization involves the intra-arterial delivery of radioactive microspheres to treat hepatic malignancies. Though this therapy involves careful pre-treatment planning and imaging, little is known about the precise location of the microspheres once they are administered. Recently, there has been growing interest post-radioembolization imaging using positron-emission tomography (PET) for quantitative dosimetry and identifying lesions that may benefit from additional salvage therapy. In this study, we aim to measure the inter-center variability of 90 Y PET measurements as measured on PET/MRI in preparation for a multi-institutional prospective phase I/II clinical trial. Eight institutions participated in this study and followed a standardized phantom filling and imaging protocol. The NEMA NU2-2012 body phantom was filled with 3 GBq of 90 Y chloride solution. The phantom was imaged for 30 min in listmode on a Siemens Biograph mMR non-TOF PET/MRI scanner at five time points across 10 days (0.3-3.0 GBq). Raw PET data were sent to a central site for image reconstruction and data analysis. Images were reconstructed with optimal parameters determined from a previous study. Volumes of interest (VOIs) matching the known sphere diameters were drawn on the vendor-provided attenuation map and propagated to the PET images. Recovery coefficients (RCs) and coefficient of variation of the RCs (COV) were calculated from these VOIs for each sphere size and activity level. Mean RCs ranged from 14.5 to 75.4%, with the lowest mean RC coming from the smallest sphere (10 mm) on the last day of imaging (0.16 MBq/ml) and the highest mean RC coming from the largest sphere (37 mm) on the first day of imaging (2.16 MBq/ml). The smaller spheres tended to exhibit higher COVs. In contrast, the larger spheres tended to exhibit lower COVs. COVs from the 37 mm sphere were  25%. Post-radioembolization dosimetry of lesions or other VOIs ≥ 22 mm in diameter can

  17. Cation exchange resins labeled with holmium-166 for treatment of liver malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Renata F.; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing interest in new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals is prompting investigators to utilize isotopes with more focused capabilities for treating various tumors, reducing the negative effects on neighboring healthy cells. Local radionuclide therapy using radioactive microspheres is a promising therapy for non-operable group of patients suffering from liver malignancies. Many publications have shown the success of this technique. The emphasis in the present work is the resin-based microspheres labeled with 166 Ho. The production of 166 Ho is feasible in the IEA-R1 Reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, because it does not need high power and high neutron fluxes. Samples of Ho 2 O 3 were irradiated in selected positions of the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN/CNEN-SP. The neutron flux was 1.0 x10 13 n.s -1 .cm -2 for 1 hour. The dissolution of Ho 2 O 3 was studied with different volumes of 0.1M HCl and also varying the heating temperature. The AG50W-X8 200-400 mesh and CM Sephadex C-25 cation exchange resins were labeled with 166 Ho. The retention of 166 Ho in the resins was studied and also its stability. The results of the dissolution experiments of Ho 2 O 3 showed that there is a direct relation between the increasing volumes needed to dissolve higher masses, and also the positive effect of raising the temperature. The results show very good retention of 166 Ho in both columns, even when high volumes of 0.1M HCl are passed through the column containing the resins and its good stability towards saline solution, PBS solution and glucose.Although the resins employed in this work did not have the right particle size (20-50μm), the chemical behavior showed the very good labeling of the resins with 166 Ho, and its stability. (author)

  18. Use of yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere) in a patient with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma leading to liver transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Laura M; Mulcahy, Mary F; Hunter, Russell D; Nemcek, Albert A; Abecassis, Michael M; Salem, Riad

    2005-09-01

    Prior to therapy, model for end stage liver disease (MELD) scoring, diagnostic imaging and tumor staging were performed in a patient with T3 HCC. The patient received an orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) 42 days after treatment. The explant specimen showed complete necrosis of the target tumor. Follow-up of this patient has demonstrated no evidence of recurrence. There was no life threatening or fatal adverse experiences related to treatment. This case report documents the natural course, history and outcome of a patient treated with yttrium-90 for unresectable HCC. The patient was downstaged from T3 to T2 and was subsequently transplanted.

  19. SU-C-204-01: A Dosimetric Investigation Into the Effects of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization On the GI Tract: In-Vivo and Histological Analysis in An Animal Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasciak, A [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States); The University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, Knoxville, TN (United States); Nodit, L; Bourgeois, A; Bradley, Y [The University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, Knoxville, TN (United States); Paxton, B [Duke university medical center, Durham, NC (United States); Arepally, A [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In Yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization, non-target embolization (NTE) to the stomach or small bowel can result in ulceration, a rare but difficult to manage clinical complication. However, dosimetric thresholds for toxicity to these tissues from radioembolization have never been evaluated in a controlled setting. We performed an analysis of the effect of 90Y radioembolization in a porcine model at different absorbed-dose endpoints. Methods: Under approval of the University of Tennessee IACUC, 6 female pigs were included in this study. Animals underwent transfemoral angiography and infusion of calibrated dosages of 90Y resin microspheres into arteries supplying part of the gastric wall. A 99mTc-MAA simulation study was performed first to determine perfused tissue volume for treatment planning along with contrast-enhanced CT. The pigs were monitored for side effects for 9 weeks, after which time they were euthanized and their upper gastrointestinal tracts were harvested for analysis. Results: 90Y radioembolization was infused resulting in average absorbed doses of between 35.5 and 91.9 Gy to the gastric wall. No animal exhibited any signs of pain or gastrointestinal distress through the duration of the study. Excised tissue showed 1–2 small (<3.0 cm2) healed or healing superficial gastric lesions in 5 out of 6 animals. Histologic analysis demonstrated that lesion location was superficial to areas of abnormally high microsphere deposition. An analysis of microsphere deposition patterns within the gastric wall indicated a high preference for submucosal deposition. Dosimetric evaluation at the luminal mucosa performed based on microsphere deposition patterns confirmed that 90Y dosimetry techniques conventionally used in hepatic dosimetry provide a reasonable estimate of absorbed dose. Conclusion: The upper gastrointestinal tract may be less sensitive to 90Y radioembolization than previously thought. Lack of charged-particle equilibrium at the luminal mucosa

  20. Patent hepatic falciform artery detected after Tc-99m-macroaggregated albumin injection on SPECT/CT prior to Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaman, B.; Aslan, A.; Hamcan, S.; Ugurel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Yttrium-90 (Y-90) microsphere radioembolization is increasingly used for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastasis. Objectives and tasks: We aim to present the upper abdominal wall skin involvement detected during routine pre-therapy Technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m-MAA) on SPECT/CT due to patent hepatic falciform artery and the precautions to avoid this potential complication. Material and methods: 38-year-old male with colon cancer and multiple liver metastasis was evaluated prior to radioembolization and Tc-99 MAA was slowly hand injected at the bifurcation of the proper hepatic artery. Then, the SPECT/CT scan was performed in order to investigate the systemic shunt or gastric involvement. Results: On SPECT/CT scan, involvement of the upper abdominal wall through falciform ligament was seen. Re-evaluation of the hepatic angiogram identified a patent hepatic falciform artery arising from the left hepatic artery. Y-90 microspheres were slowly hand injected to the left hepatic artery superselectively and no extra-hepatic activity was seen on SPECT/CT scan. Conclusion: Upper abdominal pain and dermatitis are uncommon findings after radioembolization and may occur due to inadvertent delivery of Y-90 microspheres into patent hepatic falciform artery. To prevent these complications, either patent hepatic falciform artery must be embolized by coil or Y-90 injection must be performed superselectively

  1. Lung Shunt Fraction prior to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Predicts Survival in Patients with Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Single-Center Prospective Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Johannes M.; Ambinder, Emily McIntosh; Ghodadra, Anish; Xing, Minzhi; Prajapati, Hasmukh J.; Kim, Hyun S.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate survival outcomes following radioembolization with Yttrium-90 (Y90) for neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NETLMs). This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Y90 radioembolization and to evaluate lung shunt fraction (LSF) as a predictor for survival.MethodsA single-center, prospective study of 44 consecutive patients (median age: 58.5 years, 29.5 % male) diagnosed with pancreatic (52.3 %) or carcinoid (47.7 %) NETLMs from 2006 to 2012 who underwent Y90 radioembolization was performed. Patients’ baseline characteristics, including LSF and median overall survival (OS) from first Y90 radioembolization, were recorded and compared between patients with high (≥10 %) and low ( 1.2 mg (p = 0.016), and lack of pretreatment with octreotide (p = 0.01) as independent prognostic factors for poorer survival. Tumor type and total radiation dose did not predict survival.ConclusionsLSF ≥10 %, elevated bilirubin levels, and lack of pretreatment with octreotide were found to be independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in patients with NETLMs.

  2. Treatment of Unresectable Primary and Metastatic Liver Cancer with Yttrium-90 Microspheres (TheraSphere (registered) ): Assessment of Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kent; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Bui, James T.; Omary, Reed; Hunter, Russell D.; Kulik, Laura; Mulcahy, Mary; Liu, David; Chrisman, Howard; Resnick, Scott; Nemcek, Albert A.; Vogelzang, Robert; Salem, Riad

    2006-01-01

    In Canada and Europe, yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere); MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Canada) are a primary treatment option for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We present data from 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver disease treated with TheraSphere from a single academic institution to evaluate the angiographically evident embolization that follows treatment. Seven interventional radiologists from one treatment center compared pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms. The reviewers were blinded to the timing of the studies. The incidence of postembolization syndrome (PES) was determined as well as objective tumor response rates by the World Health Organization (WHO), Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria. There were 420 independent angiographic observations that were assessed using the chi-squared statistic. The pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms could not be correctly identified on average more than 43% of the time (p = 0.0004). The postprocedure arterial patency rate was 100%. The objective tumor response rates for all patients were 24%, 31%, and 72% for WHO, RECIST, and EASL criteria, respectively. All of the patients tolerated the procedure without complications and were treated on an outpatient basis, and four patients had evidence of PES. This treatment method does not result in macroscopic embolization of the hepatic arteries, thereby maintaining hepatic tissue perfusion. These data support the principle that the favorable response rates reported with TheraSphere are likely due to radiation and microscopic embolization rather than flow-related macroscopic embolization and ischemia

  3. Comparison of post-embolization syndrome in the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: Trans-catheter arterial chemo-embolization versus Yttrium-90 glass microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goin, J.E.; Roberts, C.A.; Dancey, J.E.; Sickles, C.J.; Leung, D.A.; Soulen, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Post-embolization syndrome (PES) occurs in most patients who undergo trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Intra-hepatic arterial administration of TheraSphere, yttrium-90 glass microspheres, is an alternative treatment for unresectable HCC that does not require embolization of major vessels and may have a more favorable toxicity profile than TACE. This paper compares the incidence of PES after TACE vs. TheraSphere treatment in unresectable HCC patients. Data for 29 TACE-treated and 34 TheraSphere-treated patients were evaluated for PES. PES toxicities (i.e., nausea, vomiting, fever in the absence of infection, and abdominal pain) were scored according to Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) toxicity criteria. PES was defined as a total score for the four toxicities of 2 or greater. Survival was defined from the date of treatment to the date of death. TACE patients underwent one to seven treatment procedures; TheraSphere patients underwent one to two treatment procedures. The incidence of PES was 3.8-times (95% confidence interval 1.6-16.3) higher after TACE [20/29(69%)] than after TheraSphere [6/34 (18%)] treatment; this difference was statistically significant (p=.003). Median survival was similar for TheraSphere (N=20; 378 days, CI 209-719) and TACE (N=29; 343 days, CI 217-511) patients. It was concluded that treatment of unresectable HCC with TheraSphere results in a much lower incidence of PES compared to TACE. Since TheraSphere is a pure beta emitter; it can potentially be administered safely on an outpatient basis, and appears to be at least as efficacious as TACE on survival with fewer treatments per patient. (author)

  4. The prognostic value of functional and anatomical parameters for the selection of patients receiving yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoloras, Geraldine

    Yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere therapy is being utilized as a treatment option for patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer due to its ability to target tumors within the liver. The success of this treatment is dependent on many factors, including the extent and type of disease and the nature of prior treatments received. Metabolic activity, as determined by PET imaging, may correlate with the number of viable cancer cells and reflect changes in viable cancer cell volume. However, contouring of PET images by hand is labor intensive and introduces an element of irreproducibility into the determination of functional target/tumor volume (FTV). A computer-assisted method to aid in the automatic contouring of FTV has the potential to substantially improve treatment individualization and outcome assessment. Commercial software to determine FTV in FDG-avid primary and metastatic liver tumors has been evaluated and optimized. Volumes determined using the automated technique were compared to those from manually drawn contours identified using the same cutoff in the standard uptake value (SUV). The reproducibility of FTV is improved through the introduction of an optimal threshold value determined from phantom experiments. Application of the optimal threshold value from the phantom experiments to patient scans was in good agreement with hand-drawn determinations of the FTV. It is concluded that computer-assisted contouring of the FTV for primary and metastatic liver tumors improves reproducibility and increases accuracy, especially when combined with the selection of an optimal SUV threshold determined from phantom experiments. A method to link the pre-treatment assessment of functional (PET based) and anatomical (CT based) parameters to post-treatment survival and time to progression was evaluated in 22 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases treated using 90Y microspheres and chemotherapy. The values for pre-treatment parameters that were the best

  5. Use of Yttrium-90 glass microspheres (TheraSphere) for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with portal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert; Roberts, Carol; Goin, James; Thurston, Kenneth; Abouljoud, Marwan; Courtney, Angi

    2004-04-01

    Intra-arterial injection of Yttrium-90 glass microspheres ((90)Y- microS; TheraSphere, MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Canada) is indicated for treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the presence of acceptable liver function. This study presents hepatic toxicity results after unilobar and bilobar intra-arterial administration of (90)Y- microS in patients with unresectable HCC who had known portal vein thrombosis (PVT) without evidence of cavernous transformation. Fifteen patients with unresectable HCC and PVT of one or both first order and related segmental portal venous branches received a total of 29 infusions of (90)Y- microS for treatment of HCC. All patients had pretreatment evaluation including: computed tomography (CT) imaging, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, liver function tests, technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin ((99)Tc-MAA) scan for evaluation of lung and visceral shunting, and angiography with visualization into the portal venous phase. (90)Y- micro S dose was based on lobar hepatic volume with adjustment for lung shunt activity. Liver toxicity was assessed by serum total bilirubin graded for severity according to the NIH NCI Clinical Toxicity Criteria (CTC version 2.0). Other adverse events were reported according to the standards established by the Society of Interventional Radiology. There were no procedural complications with delivery of (90)Y- microS, and treatment was well tolerated by all patients. Increased post-treatment bilirubin levels were observed across all treatments in five patients, four of whom had CT or AFP evidence of intrahepatic disease progression. After initial treatment, two patients developed bilirubin toxicity (grades 1 and 2); one patient demonstrated an increment in bilirubin toxicity grade (grade 1 to grade 3) and one patient had an improvement in grade after initial treatment. There were no new treatment-related toxicities in nine patients after a second treatment. (90)Y- microS treatment was well tolerated

  6. WE-AB-204-02: Molecular-Imaging Based Assessment of Liver Complications for Yttrium-90 Microsphere Treatments: Can Existing NTCP Models Explain Clinical Outcomes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M; Choi, E; Chuong, M; Saboury, B; Moeslein, F; D’Souza, W; Guerrero, M [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate weather the current radiobiological models can predict the normal liver complications of radioactive Yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) selective-internal-radiation-treatment (SIRT) for metastatic liver lesions based on the post-infusion {sup 90}Y PET images. Methods: A total of 20 patients with metastatic liver tumors treated with SIRT that received a post-infusion {sup 90}Y-PET/CT scan were analyzed in this work. The 3D activity distribution of the PET images was converted into a 3D dose distribution via a kernel convolution process. The physical dose distribution was converted into the equivalent dose (EQ2) delivered at 2 Gy based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) model considering the dose rate effect. The biological endpoint of this work was radiation-induce liver disease (RILD). The NTCPs were calculated with four different repair-times (T1/2-Liver-Repair= 0,0.5,1.0,2.0 hr) and three published NTCP models (Lyman-external-RT, Lyman 90Y-HCC-SIRT, parallel model) were compared to the incidence of RILD of the recruited patients to evaluate their ability of outcome prediction. Results: The mean normal liver physical dose (avg. 51.9 Gy, range 31.9–69.8 Gy) is higher than the suggested liver dose constraint for external beam treatment (∼30 Gy). However, none of the patients in our study developed RILD after the SIRT. The estimated probability of ‘no patient developing RILD’ obtained from the two Lyman models are 46.3% to 48.3% (T1/2-Liver-Repair= 0hr) and <1% for all other repair times. For the parallel model, the estimated probability is 97.3% (0hr), 51.7% (0.5hr), 2.0% (1.0hr) and <1% (2.0hr). Conclusion: Molecular-images providing the distribution of {sup 90}Y enable the dose-volume based dose/outcome analysis for SIRT. Current NTCP models fail to predict RILD complications in our patient population, unless a very short repair-time for the liver is assumed. The discrepancy between the Lyman {sup 90}Y-HCC-SIRT model predicted and the clinically

  7. WE-AB-BRA-05: PET-Guided Delivery Quality Evaluation of Yttrium-90 Microsphere Radioembolizaton for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients: The Optimal Sequence of Radioembolizaton and Chemoembolization Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Ctr, Dallas, TX (United States); Saboury, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Selective-internal-radiation-therapy (SIRT) and transarterial-chemoembolization (TACE) are commonly used for treatment of liver tumors. The use of TACE, which is macroembolic, prior to SIRT may cause hemodynamic changes in tumor vasculature that impair yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere delivery to the targeted lesions. This work aims to quantify dosimetric tumor coverage using 90Y positron emission tomography (PET) dosimetry after SIRT alone compared to TACE followed by SIRT. Methods: A total of 40 consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SIRT patients who had a post-SIRT 90Y PET/CT scan were evaluated. The patient-specific-3D-dose was reconstructed from the PET images. Patients were categorized into two groups: patients received TACE prior SIRT procedure (n=18) and patient received SIRT alone (n=22). The lesions and liver were delineated by a senior radiologist. We evaluated both the lesion-specific dose-volume-histogram (DVH) and the selectivity index (SI) defined as the ratio of the average dose inside the total lesion(s) and the average dose of the normal liver. The SI values of patients were compared based on whether TACE was previously used. Results: A wide spectrum was observed in the lesion-specific DVH-evaluation and SI appeared to be suitable of evaluating the quality of each SIRT infusion. The average SI of the entire patient group was 3.0, i.e. targeted lesion receiving three times higher dose than normal liver. The average SI was 1.8 for patients who had prior TACE and 3.9 for patients who did not have prior TACE (p=0.008). 85% of the patients with prior TACE demonstrated poor 90Y-microsphere delivery (SI <2) while none demonstrated excellent delivery (SI >4). On the other hand, the incidence SI >4 among patients with no prior TACE was 37%. Conclusion: 3D dose evaluation using post-SIRT PET suggests that 90Y microsphere delivery to liver tumors is impaired among patients who received prior TACE compared to those who receive SIRT alone.

  8. Embolization of Hepatic Arterial Branches to Simplify Hepatic Blood Flow Before Yttrium 90 Radioembolization: A Useful Technique in the Presence of Challenging Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunanithy, Narayan; Gordon, Fabiana; Hodolic, Marina; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Wasan, Harpreet S.; Habib, Nagy; Tait, Nicholas P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In the presence of variant hepatic arterial anatomy, obtaining whole-liver coverage with yttrium 90 (Y90) radioembolization may be challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a technique whereby variant hepatic arterial branches are embolized and then Y90 is administered selectively into one remaining hepatic arterial branch results in whole-liver coverage and effective therapy. A retrospective comparison of treatment response was made between a group of patients who underwent this technique before Y90 administration and a group of patients who received standard Y90 administration as a single dose into the proper hepatic artery or in divided doses into the immediate hepatic artery branches. The rest of the workup and treatment were identical in both groups, including routine embolization of potential nonhepatic, nontarget vessels (e.g., the gastroduodenal artery). Methods: A total of 32 patients (mean age 56.9 years, range 39–77 years) treated with Y90 between June 2004 and March 2008 were analyzed. The primary malignancy was colorectal in 29, breast in 2, and cholangiocarcinoma in 1. Group 1 comprised 20 patients who had no alterations to their hepatic arterial supply. Group 2 comprised 12 cases who had undergone prior embolization of hepatic arterial branches before administration of Y90. The response to treatment was assessed by comparing standardized uptake value (SUV) on the pre- and postprocedure fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic studies of representative lesions within the right and left lobes of the liver. Results: In group 1, significant response (P < 0.001) was seen among right lobe lesions but not among left lobe lesions (P = 0.549). In group 2, there was a significant response among both right (P = 0.028) and left (P = 0.014) lobe lesions. No difference was found in the response of right lobe lesions (P = 0.726) between groups 1 and 2; a significantly greater response was found in group 2 compared to group 1 (P

  9. Lung Shunt Fraction prior to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Predicts Survival in Patients with Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Single-Center Prospective Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Johannes M. [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Ambinder, Emily McIntosh [John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States); Ghodadra, Anish [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Xing, Minzhi [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Prajapati, Hasmukh J. [The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@yale.edu [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    2016-07-15

    ObjectiveTo investigate survival outcomes following radioembolization with Yttrium-90 (Y90) for neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NETLMs). This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Y90 radioembolization and to evaluate lung shunt fraction (LSF) as a predictor for survival.MethodsA single-center, prospective study of 44 consecutive patients (median age: 58.5 years, 29.5 % male) diagnosed with pancreatic (52.3 %) or carcinoid (47.7 %) NETLMs from 2006 to 2012 who underwent Y90 radioembolization was performed. Patients’ baseline characteristics, including LSF and median overall survival (OS) from first Y90 radioembolization, were recorded and compared between patients with high (≥10 %) and low (<10 %) LSF. Baseline comparisons were performed using Fisher’s exact tests for categorical and Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate (Wilcoxon rank-sum test) and multivariate analyses (Cox Proportional Hazard Model) for risk factor analysis were performed.ResultsThere was no statistically significant difference in age, gender, race, tumor properties, or previous treatments between patients with high (n = 15) and low (n = 29) LSF. The median OS was 27.4 months (95 %CI 12.73–55.23), with 4.77 months (95 %CI 2.87–26.73) for high and 42.77 months (95 %CI 18.47–59.73) for low LSF (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis identified high LSF (p = 0.001), total serum bilirubin >1.2 mg (p = 0.016), and lack of pretreatment with octreotide (p = 0.01) as independent prognostic factors for poorer survival. Tumor type and total radiation dose did not predict survival.ConclusionsLSF ≥10 %, elevated bilirubin levels, and lack of pretreatment with octreotide were found to be independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in patients with NETLMs.

  10. Adsorption characteristics of 14C-labeled alanine, aspartic acid and adenosine triphosphate by metal-chelating resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Toshio; Matsunami, Tadao; Shibata, Setsuko; Honda, Yoshihide.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Adsorption properties of 14 C-alanine, 14 C-ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and 14 C-aspartic acid on the metal-chelating resins were determined and found that the Cu(II)-Chelex 100 and Fe(III)-Unicellex UR10, Fe(III)-Chelex 100 chelating resins were highly effective for the adsorption of 14 C-alanine and 14 C-ATP, respectively. (2) Desorption rate of 14 C-ATP from the Fe(III)-Unicellex UR10 and Fe(III)-Chelex 100 resins was somewhat higher than the case of 14 C-alanine, probably because the coordination bonds of Cu-alanine might be stronger than those of Fe-ATP. Thus, 14 C-labeled organic compounds such as 14 C-alanine and 14 C-ATP of a low activity concentration (3.7 mBq/ml) (1 x 10 -7 μCi/ml) in aqueous solution may be measured with liquid scintillation counter after pre-concentration by use of the Fe(III)- and Cu(II)-chelating resin columns. (author)

  11. Biologic gastric emptying time in diabetic patients, using Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal with and without metoclopramide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domstad, P.A.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.J.; Beihn, R.; Yonts, S.; Choy, Y.C.; Mandelstam, P.; DeLand, F.H.

    1980-11-01

    Biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) was measured in 24 patients with severe diabetes mellitus complicated by vascular damage and peripheral or sensory neuropathy. This population had a BGET of 192 +- 32.9 min (mean +- s.e.m. normal 40 to 85 min). Patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy had prolongation of BGET to 295 +- 45 (p < 0.05). Metoclopramide significantly shortened BGET in this subgroup to 101 +- 40 min, with return to normal values in eight of the 12 patients given the drug. The Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal test meal used as described in this study provides a reliable measure of BGET and of the response to metoclopramide.

  12. Evaluation of the parameters of SPECT images for yttrium-90 in radiosinoviorthesis; Avaliação dos parâmetros de aquisição de imagens SPECT para ítrio-90 em radiosinoviortese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, B.C. de; Sáa, L.V. de, E-mail: bruce.de.toledo@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Física Médica; Ramos, S.M.; Coelho, F.A.; Thomas, S.; Souza, S.A. de; Pinheiro, M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho

    2017-07-01

    Introduction: the evaluation of the distribution of radioactive material in the articulation by SPECT images after radiosinoviorthesis (RSO) can guarantee the efficacy of this therapy. However, Bremsstrahlung image quality has major limitations, necessitating studies on SPECT image acquisition parameters and yttrium-90 image reconstruction methods. Methods: SPECT images were obtained from an acrylic simulator containing four cylindrical inserts to simulate capturing lesions. The images were obtained with collimators of high, medium and low (HEGP, MEGP and LEHR) energy; 130 keV power window, 70% width and 64 x 64 matrix. The reconstruction methods used were: FBP and OSEM with different filters. Results: 45 results found. The images obtained with the MEGP and HEGP collimators presented better results than those obtained with the LEHR collimator. The OSEM reconstructions were superior when the MEGP and HEGP collimators were used. Conclusions: The acquisition of yttrium-90 SPECT images with MEGP collimators showed higher sensitivity, whereas those obtained with HEPG collimators presented lower noise. The image reconstruction methods have relevant importance in the image quality, showing a significant difference between the FBP and OSEM reconstructions and between the filters used.

  13. Proteomic Identification and Quantification of S-glutathionylation in Mouse Macrophages Using Resin-Assisted Enrichment and Isobaric Labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Dian; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Guo, Jia; Hatchell, Kayla E.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Clauss, Therese RW; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Wu, Si; Purvine, Samuel O.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Thrall, Brian D.; Qian, Weijun

    2014-02-11

    Protein S-glutathionylation (SSG) is an important regulatory posttranslational modification of protein cysteine (Cys) thiol redox switches, yet the role of specific cysteine residues as targets of modification is poorly understood. We report a novel quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic method for site-specific identification and quantification of S-glutathionylation across different conditions. Briefly, this approach consists of initial blocking of free thiols by alkylation, selective reduction of glutathionylated thiols and enrichment using thiol affinity resins, followed by on-resin tryptic digestion and isobaric labeling with iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) for MS-based identification and quantification. The overall approach was validated by application to RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages treated with different doses of diamide to induce glutathionylation. A total of 1071 Cys-sites from 690 proteins were identified in response to diamide treatment, with ~90% of the sites displaying >2-fold increases in SSG-modification compared to controls.. This approach was extended to identify potential SSG modified Cys-sites in response to H2O2, an endogenous oxidant produced by activated macrophages and many pathophysiological stimuli. The results revealed 364 Cys-sites from 265 proteins that were sensitive to S-glutathionylation in response to H2O2 treatment. These proteins covered a range of molecular types and molecular functions with free radical scavenging, and cell death and survival included as the most significantly enriched functional categories. Overall the results demonstrate that our approach is effective for site-specific identification and quantification of S-glutathionylated proteins. The analytical strategy also provides a unique approach to determining the major pathways and cell processes most susceptible to glutathionylation at a proteome-wide scale.

  14. Tc-99m labeled triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin gastric emptying studies in bulimia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih Weijen; Castellanos, F.X.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Humphries, L.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with bulimia, 20 patients (all women, ranging in age from 12 to 49 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms ingested 150-200 ..mu..Ci/sup 99m/ Tc-triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and had scintigraphy in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The results showed that the gastric emptying time was prolonged in 12 patients and decreased in 8. All 12 patients with prolonged emptying time were given 10 mg metoclopramide intravenously; 9 of these had a good response and 3 had no response. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, the results indicate that about 60% had delayed and 40% had rapid gastric emptying. The findings of two extremes of gastric emptying time remain to be explained, however, this enables (Albibi and McCullum 1983) objective documentation of gastric emptying as this technique (American Psychiatric Association 1980) can separate those patients with rapid GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide.

  15. Tc-99m labeled triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin gastric emptying studies in bulimia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih Weijen; Castellanos, F.X.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Humphries, L.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with bulimia, 20 patients (all women, ranging in age from 12 to 49 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms ingested 150-200 μCi 99m Tc-triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and had scintigraphy in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The results showed that the gastric emptying time was prolonged in 12 patients and decreased in 8. All 12 patients with prolonged emptying time were given 10 mg metoclopramide intravenously; 9 of these had a good response and 3 had no response. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, the results indicate that about 60% had delayed and 40% had rapid gastric emptying. The findings of two extremes of gastric emptying time remain to be explained, however, this enables (Albibi and McCullum 1983) objective documentation of gastric emptying as this technique (American Psychiatric Association 1980) can separate those patients with rapid GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide. (orig.)

  16. Intra-arterial therapy of neuroendocrine tumour liver metastases: comparing conventional TACE, drug-eluting beads TACE and yttrium-90 radioembolisation as treatment options using a propensity score analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Duc Do; Gorodetski, Boris; Smolka, Susanne; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Wainstejn, David [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Chapiro, Julius; Schlachter, Todd [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Huang, Qiang [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Capital Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Cuihong [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, The Ultrasound Department, Jinan (China); Lin, MingDe [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Philips Research North America, U/S Imaging and Interventions (UII), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gebauer, Bernhard [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Geschwind, Jean-Francois [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-12-15

    To compare efficacy, survival outcome and prognostic factors of conventional transarterial chemoembolisation (cTACE), drug-eluting beads TACE (DEB-TACE) and yttrium-90 radioembolisation (Y90) for the treatment of liver metastases from gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NELM). This retrospective analysis included 192 patients (58.6 years mean age, 56% men) with NELM treated with cTACE (N = 122), DEB-TACE (N = 26) or Y90 (N = 44) between 2000 and 2014. Radiologic response to therapy was assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria using periprocedural MR imaging. Survival analysis included propensity score analysis (PSA), median overall survival (MOS), hepatic progression-free survival, Kaplan-Meier using log-rank test and the uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model (MVA). MOS of the entire study population was 28.8 months. As for cTACE, DEB-TACE and Y90, MOS was 33.8 months, 21.7 months and 23.6 months, respectively. According to the MVA, cTACE demonstrated a significantly longer MOS as compared to DEB-TACE (p <.01) or Y90 (p =.02). The 5-year survival rate after initial cTACE, DEB-TACE and Y90 was 28.2%, 10.3% and 18.5%, respectively. Upon PSA, our study suggests significant survival benefits for patients treated with cTACE as compared to DEB-TACE and Y90. This data supports the therapeutic decision for cTACE as the primary intra-arterial therapy option in patients with unresectable NELM until proven otherwise. (orig.)

  17. Phase I/II 90Y-Zevalin (yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8) radioimmunotherapy dosimetry results in relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, G.A.; Dunn, W.L.; White, C.A.; Berlfein, J.R.; Ding, E.; Grillo-Lopez, A.J.; Stabin, M.; Erwin, W.; Spies, S.; Dahlbom, M.; Silverman, D.H.S.; Raubitschek, A.; Karvelis, K.; Schultheiss, T.; Witzig, T.E.; Belanger, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry studies in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were performed to estimate the radiation absorbed dose to normal organs and bone marrow from 90 Y-Zevalin (yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8) treatment in this phase I/II, multicenter trial. The trial was designed to determine the dose of Rituximab (chimeric anti-CD20, Rituxan, IDEC-C2B8, MabThera), the unlabeled antibody given prior to the radioconjugate to clear peripheral blood B cells and optimize distribution, and to determine the maximum tolerated dose of 90 Y-Zevalin [7.4, 11, or 15 MBq/kg (0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mCi/kg)]. Patients received 111 In-Zevalin (indium-111 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-In2B8) on day 0 followed by a therapeutic dose of 90 Y-Zevalin on day 7. Both doses were preceded by an infusion of the chimeric, unlabeled antibody Rituximab. Following administration of 111 In-Zevalin, serial anterior/posterior whole-body scans were acquired. Major-organ radioactivity versus time estimates were calculated using regions of interest. Residence times were computed and entered into the MIRDOSE3 computer software program to calculate estimated radiation absorbed dose to each organ. Initial analyses of estimated radiation absorbed dose were completed at the clinical site. An additional, centralized dosimetry analysis was performed subsequently to provide a consistent analysis of data collected from the seven clinical sites. In all patients with dosimetry data (n=56), normal organ and red marrow radiation absorbed doses were estimated to be well under the protocol-defined upper limit of 20 Gy and 3 Gy, respectively. Median estimated radiation absorbed dose was 3.4 Gy to liver (range 1.2-7.8 Gy), 2.6 Gy to lungs (range 0.72-4.4 Gy), and 0.38 Gy to kidneys (range 0.07-0.61 Gy). Median estimated tumor radiation absorbed dose was 17 Gy (range 5.8-67 Gy). No correlation was noted between hematologic toxicity and the following variables: red marrow radiation absorbed dose, blood T 1/2 , blood AUC

  18. Yttrium-90 Needles in Interstitial Beta-Ray Therapy; Les Aiguilles d'Yttrium-90 en Endo-Electron-Therapie (Betatherapie Interstitielle); ИГЛЫ ИЗ ИТТРИЯ-90 ДЛЯ ЭНДОЭЛЕКТРОННОЙ ТЕРАПИИ ВНУТРИТКАНЕВОЙ БЕТА-ТЕРАГИ; Agujas de Itrio-90 en la Endo-Electronterapia (Betaterapia Intersticial)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierquin, B.; Mortreuil, M.; Beyer, H.; Dutreix, J.; Chassagne, D.; Galle, P.; Jammes, R. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)

    1963-03-15

    The Technical Unit for Interstitial Irradiation Therapy by Radioisotopes, of the Gustave Roussy Institute is at present studying, in collaboration with the Saclay Nuclear Centre, some therapeutic applications of interstitial beta-therapy using yttrium-90. Equipment: The needles consist of a stainless-steel tube, 1-mm diam., 0.1-mm wall thickness and 30 or 40 mm in length, closed at one end by a sharp point and at the other by a projecting head for attaching a pull-out wire. The yttrium oxide cylinders or seeds (5 mm x 0.6 mm) are irradiated for one week at a flux of 2.7 x 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}s and are loaded three or five in each needle. Dosimetry: These yttrium-90 needles are supplied by the Saclay Centre with a standard activity of 1-1.5 me/cm (radioactive length). The activity is monitored both by a 4-{pi} counter and by a film densitometer. The reference dose is calculated by standard method at 2 mm from the tube wall assuming, with a certain approximation, a dose-rate of 10 rad/min for an activity of 1 me/cm. Therapeutic applications: Yttrium-90 needle radiobiology is still an almost unexplored field. The rapid fall-off in the dose beyond 3 mm from the needle wall causes difficulty in obtaining uniform distribution of irradiation in the treated tissues. In principle, the positioning of needles at 5 - 6 mm distance one from another is a possibility, but requires an implanting device capable of extremely delicate control, as an error of 1 or 2mm may cause too many hot or cold points. For that reason the authors decided to use the needles, at a first stage, in benign vascular tumours, with no biological attempt to obtain uniform irradiation of the tissue, the aim being confined to creating sclerotic areas in bands centred around the needles and separated by areas of tissue having received little or no irradiation. In this way it was-hoped to obtain an adequate sclerogenous effect in a certain number of tuberous angiomas while at the same time giving the

  19. Dose distribution to spinal structures from intrathecally administered yttrium-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirossian, George; Hall, Michael; Montebello, Joseph; Stevens, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Previous treatment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) malignancies by intrathecal administration of 131I-radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies has led to the assumption that more healthy tissue will be spared when a pure beta-emitter such as 90Y replaces 131I. The purpose of this study is to compare and quantitatively evaluate the dose distribution from 90Y to the CSF space and its surrounding spinal structures to 131I. A 3D digital phantom of a section of the T-spine was constructed from the visible human project series of images which included the spinal cord, central canal, subarachnoid space, pia mater, arachnoid, dura mater, vertebral bone marrow and intervertebral disc. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP4C) was used to model the 90Y and 131I radiation distribution. Images of the CSF compartment were convolved with the radiation distribution to determine the dose within the subarachnoid space and surrounding tissues. 90Y appears to be a suitable radionuclide in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies when attached to mAb's and the dose distribution would be confined largely within the vertebral foramen. This choice may offer favourable dose improvement to the subarachnoid and surface of spinal cord over 131I in such an application.

  20. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  1. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  2. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  3. Preclinical evaluation of intravenously administered 111In-and 90Y-labeled B72.3 immunoconjugate (GYK-DTPA) in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadri, S.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Yi Shao; Blum, J.E.; Leichner, P.K.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    B72.3, a monoclonal antibody with reactivity against human adenocarcinomas was obtained from the Cytogen Corporation in the form of an immunoconjugate coupled with linker-chelator GYK-DTPA by using proprietary carbohydrate directed site specific chemistry. The immunoconjugate was radiolabeled with indium-111 or yttrium-90. A preclinical analysis was performed in 10 normal beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered indium- and yttrium-labeled immunoconjugates were compared serially in blood, bone marrow and urine samples. Compared to 90 Y less of the 111 In label ended up in urine and more was found in blood and bone marrow. Indium-labeled B72.3 GYK-DTPA had relatively higher uptake in most glandular tissues than 111 In-labeled antiferritin immunoconjugate. Bone marrow toxicity was the dose limiting side effect after intravenous infusion of 90 Y-labeled B72.3 GYK-DTPA. Toxicity was also observed in the liver but not in other organ systems. Recently other investigators obtained similar results with these immunoconjugates in human patients. A preclinical pharmacokinetic analysis of radioimmunoconjugates in beagle dogs provided useful information regarding bone marrow toxicity, liver toxicity and in vivo instability of the immunoconjugate. Data suggest that for future trials in human patients, a more stable chelated immunoconjugate for yttrium is needed to achieve less liver uptake and a better correlation with the 111 In-labeled product than the 90 Y-labeled B72.3 GYK-DTPA used in this investigation. (Author)

  4. Biocompatibility, Inflammatory Response, and Recannalization Characteristics of Nonradioactive Resin Microspheres: Histological Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, Jose I.; Martino, Alba de; Luis, Esther de; Diaz-Dorronsoro, Lourdes; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; Martinez de la Cuesta, Antonio; Sangro, Bruno; Garcia de Jalon, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-arterial radiotherapy with yttrium-90 microspheres (radioembolization) is a therapeutic procedure exclusively applied to the liver that allows the direct delivery of high-dose radiation to liver tumors, by means of endovascular catheters, selectively placed within the tumor vasculature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of spheres within the precapillaries, inflammatory response, and recannalization characteristics after embolization with nonradioactive resin microspheres in the kidney and liver. We performed a partial embolization of the liver and kidney vessels in nine white pigs. The left renal and left hepatic arteries were catheterized and filled with nonradioactive resin microspheres. Embolization was defined as the initiation of near-stasis of blood flow, rather than total occlusion of the vessels. The hepatic circulation was not isolated so that the effects of reflux of microspheres into stomach could be observed. Animals were sacrificed at 48 h, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, and tissue samples from the kidney, liver, lung, and stomach evaluated. Microscopic evaluation revealed clusters of 10-30 microspheres (15-30 μm in diameter) in the small vessels of the kidney (the arciform arteries, vasa recti, and glomerular afferent vessels) and liver. Aggregates were associated with focal ischemia and mild vascular wall damage. Occlusion of the small vessels was associated with a mild perivascular inflammatory reaction. After filling of the left hepatic artery with microspheres, there was some evidence of arteriovenous shunting into the lungs, and one case of cholecystitis and one case of marked gastritis and ulceration at the site of arterial occlusion due to the presence of clusters of microspheres. Beyond 48 h, microspheres were progressively integrated into the vascular wall by phagocytosis and the lumen recannalized. Eight-week evaluation found that the perivascular inflammatory reaction was mild. Liver cell damage, bile duct injury, and

  5. The detection and evaluation of drug-induced changes in the gastrointestinal motility of beagle dogs using a 111In-labelled resin mixed into a standard meal as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Pilloy, W.; Meyer, B.J.; Maree, M.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was performed to establish the usefulness of 111 In-labelled polymer beads mixed into a standard meal as a tracer of gatrointestinal (GI)-motility changes due to the influence of various drugs. The labelled polymer beads were well mixed into the food, which was then fed to healthy beagle dogs undergoing drug therapy. GI motility was monitored using a gamma camera and data processor. The results were compared to those obtained from corresponding placebo studies on the same dogs. A significant acceleration of gastric emptying and colon transit was noted under the influence of a gastric and intestinal prokinetic coded R 51619. No influence on GI motility could, however, be detected after the administration of a calcium-blocking agent to the dogs. (orig.)

  6. Detection and evaluation of drug-induced changes in the gastrointestinal motility of beagle dogs using a /sup 111/In-labelled resin mixed into a standard meal as tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Pilloy, W.; Meyer, B.J.; Maree, M.

    1985-03-01

    An investigation was performed to establish the usefulness of /sup 111/In-labelled polymer beads mixed into a standard meal as a tracer of gatrointestinal (GI)-motility changes due to the influence of various drugs. The labelled polymer beads were well mixed into the food, which was then fed to healthy beagle dogs undergoing drug therapy. GI motility was monitored using a gamma camera and data processor. The results were compared to those obtained from corresponding placebo studies on the same dogs. A significant acceleration of gastric emptying and colon transit was noted under the influence of a gastric and intestinal prokinetic coded R 51619. No influence on GI motility could, however, be detected after the administration of a calcium-blocking agent to the dogs.

  7. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  8. Use of Chelex-100 for selectively removing Y-90 from its parent Sr-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A method for selectively removing yttrium-90 from its parent strontium-90 contained in an environmental sample includes loading the sample onto a column containing a chelating ion-exchange resin capable of retaining yttrium-90; washing the column with a solution capable of removing strontium, calcium, and other contaminants from the yttrium-90 fraction retained on the column; removing excess acetate salts from the column; eluting yttrium-90 solution from the column and adjusting the pH of this solution to about 2.7; filtering the yttrium-90 solution and weighing this solution for gravimetric yield; and, counting the yttrium-90 containing solution with a radiological counter for a time sufficient to achieve the statistical accuracy desired. It is preferred that the chelating ion-exchange resin is a ligand having the chemical name iminodiacetic acid mounted on a divinyl benzene substrate, converted from sodium form to ammonia form

  9. A new model to estimate prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after Yttrium-90 radioembolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Weng

    Full Text Available AIMS: The current prognostic model to estimate the survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients treated with transarterial hepatic selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT is not fully characterized. The aim of this study was to establish a new scoring model including assessment of both tumor responses and therapy-induced systemic changes in HCC patients to predict survival at an early time point post-SIRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2008 and 2012, 149 HCC patients treated with SIRT were included into this study. CT images and biomarkers in blood tested at one month post-SIRT were analyzed and correlated with clinical outcome. Tumor responses were assessed by RECIST 1.1, mRECIST, and Choi criteria. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate survival curves. Cox regression was used in uni- and multivariable survival analyses and in the establishment of a prognostic model. RESULTS: A multivariate proportional hazards model was created based on the tumor response, the number of tumor nodules, the score of the model for end stage liver disease (MELD, and the serum C-reactive protein levels which were independent predictors of survival in HCC patients at one month post-SIRT. This prognostic model accurately differentiated the outcome of patients with different risk scores in this cohort (P<0.001. The model also had the ability to assign a predicted survival probability for individual patients. CONCLUSIONS: A new model to predict survival of HCC patients mainly based on tumor responses and therapy-induced systemic changes provides reliable prognosis and accurately discriminates the survival at an early time point after SIRT in these patients.

  10. Results of radiosynoviorthesis with yttrium 90 in cases of chronic synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, H.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this study was to answer the following questions: Is the outcome of radiosynoviorthesis with 90 Y in patients who suffer from a chronic polyarthritis dependent on the stage according to Steinbrocker and does this dependency change when the results are measured 1/2 to 3 years later? Is there a difference between the effect of 90 Y on the joints of seropositive and seronegative patients? How are the results of radiosynoviorthesis in patients who suffer under other chronic joint diseases? What is the success distribution of re-synoviorthesis in evaluated patients? Is there a difference in the effectiveness of radiosynoviorthesis between joints in stage I and stage II and is the outcome dependent on whether or not degenerative changes are already present? Is the effect of radiosynoviorthesis, measured after one year, dependent on the duration of the disease in the treated joint or on the process activity of the disease? Is there a connection between the outcome of radiosynoviorthesis and the laboratory parameters of blood sedimentation and hemoglobin content? Does radiosynoviorthesis influence the number of medically induced, intra-articular injections and punctures in the treated joint? Is there a connection between radiosynoviorthesis outcomes and common therapy outcomes? What side effects of radiosynoviorthesis therapy were observed? (orig./MG) [de

  11. Separation and Species Characterization of Complex Compound of Yttrium-90 and Strontium-90 by Paper Electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman; Adang Hardi G; Noor Anis Kundari

    2007-01-01

    The research for species characterization of 90 Y and 90 Sr complex compound have been conducted using variation of buffer, concentration of HCl, electrophoresis operation voltage, time of electrophoresis, and electrophoresis migration media. From many trials, the conclusions are the applicable buffer are tartrate buffer and citrate buffer. These buffers can make a complex compound of 90 Y and there is migration to the anode. But, 90 Sr can’t make any complex compound and migration to the cathode. The optimum concentration of hydrochloride acid is 8 M with tartrate buffer but for citrate buffer, the concentration HCl is 2 M. The hydrochloric acid is used to dissolved the both elements as the mentioned above, but also for making complex ligand. The optimum electrophoresis operation voltage is 200 Volt for the both buffer solution and the duration of electrophoresis operation is 2.5 hours with using tartrate buffer but for citrate buffer the duration is 2 hours. The media of migration which can be used for replacing paper is silica. (author)

  12. Retrospective analysis of cystic craniopharyngeomas after intracavital irradiation with yttrium-90 colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanova, E.; Vizda, J.; Netikova, M.; Kafka, P.; Jakubec, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The authors report about follow up the patients after intracavitary irradiation for cystic craniopharyngeoma. Material and Methods: For retrospective analysis 15 patients were selected. The volume of the cyst was determined by CT or MRI. For dosimetry Backlund's formula was used. The cumulative dose to the inner surface of the cyst wall was about 250Gy. 90 Yttrium silicate colloid was administered directly during stereotactically (CT guided) surgery or through the Ommaya drainage system. Control scintigraphy was performed 2-3 hours after 90 Y injection with gamma camera to detect possible leakage of the radioisotope. None of our patients showed evidence of this. In addition to this, the patients were checked daily to pay attention to visual function, neurological condition and possible meningeal irritation. Results: Cyst shrinkage was monitored by repeated CT examinations. CT cyst volume measurement analysed all patients before and 1,2,3 and 5 years after the treatment. In our study 45% of cysts decreased in volume during 4 month, shrinkage of the initial cyst volume was 75% after 1 year. The cyst disappeared nearly totally in 5 patients. Only 3 cyst remain unchanged and 90 Y treatment was repeated. No patients developed a visual field defect or evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction after the treatment. The neuro-opthalmological state completely recovered in 2 patients and improved in 5 patients. The prognosis was good only when an intact optic discs in time of the treatment was present. In some cases the radioisotope was implanted at a late stage of the disease without the opthalmological and neurological improvement. One patient died due to pulmonary embolism one week after the procedure. One patient died within a one year of the treatment from complications related to a solid cystic recurrence. One of typical signs for recurrence was worsening of neuro-opthalmological state. Conclusion: From our results this intracavitary 90 Y therapy is minimally invasive and very effective method without side effects. Instillation improves the quality of life. The best result can be expected in solitary cyst because the effect is limited to the cystic part of the tumour. Some cysts require more than one treatment. Our results demonstrate good outcome of this technique as primary therapy but also for patients who have exhausted many conventional means of treatment. This method plays important role in multimodality treatment of cystic craniopharyngeoma because there are low operative complications

  13. Use of Magic polymer gels for dosimetry of unsealed source of yttrium 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meynard, K.; Bordage, M.C.; Cassol, E.; Courbon, F.; Ravel, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer gels are relative chemical dosimeters. They allow to access to three-dimensional dose distribution. The aim of this study has been to investigate the preparation and the use of a polymer gel with a tissue equivalent density known as MAGIC gel from magnetic resonance imaging and x-ray computed tomography for non-sealed source dosimetry. This kind of gel is 'normoxic' because it can be manufactured and used in normal room atmosphere. In the first part of this study, its accuracy and sensibility were studied using external beam irradiation by photons. Spin-spin relaxation rate (R 2 ) and Computed Tomography (CT) number had been used to record gel responses. Using the same manufacture process. radiolabelled gels composed of 95% MAGIC gel and 5% of 90 Y termed 90 Y-MAGIC 95 with varying activity ranged from 0 to 30 MBq were made. In case of photon external beam irradiation, a linear response is observed whatever the calibration method and the imaging system used (the correlation coefficient r 2 > 0.98 in all cases). 90 Y-MAGIC 95 radiolabelled gel responses were recorded after 28. 76 and 124 h. The R 2 /dose curves are not linear: three phases can be described. the first being linear with a slow slope (0.14 s -1 Gy -1 instead of 0.41 s -1 Gy -1 for external beam irradiation of the same gel batch). This study shows safety of radiolabelled MAGIC gels manufacturing process and their large dosimetric feasibility. 90 Y-MAGIC 95 gel response appears to be reproducible and related to the absorbed dose, thus this gel is a promising tool for non-sealed source dosimetry. (authors)

  14. Treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma with intrahepatic yttrium 90 microspheres: a risk-stratification analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin, James E; Salem, Riad; Carr, Brian I; Dancey, Janet E; Soulen, Michael C; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H; Goin, Kathleen; Van Buskirk, Mark; Thurston, Kenneth

    2005-02-01

    To present the findings of a risk-stratification survival analysis with use of data collected on a heterogeneous group of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with TheraSphere. Baseline, treatment, and follow-up data were collected and analyzed from 121 TheraSphere-treated patients. Survival analyses were performed to identify those variables most strongly associated with 3-month mortality. The presence of any of the identified risk variables resulted in the assignment of a patient to the high-risk category. Five liver reserve and two non-liver reserve variables were identified and used to stratify patients into low- or high-risk groups. Sixteen of the 33 patients assigned to the high-risk group (49%) did not survive the first 3 months after treatment, compared with six of the 88 patients assigned to the low-risk group (7%; Fisher exact test, P TheraSpheres should be evaluated for the presence of the risk variables described herein. The absence of these variables is predictive of improved survival (median of 466 days) compared with patients at high risk (median of 108 days).

  15. The Technique and Dosimetry of Pituitary Implantation Using Sources of Y{sup 90}; Technique et Dosimetrie de l'Implantation de Sources d'Yttrium-90 dans l'Hypophyse; ДОЗИМЕТРИЯ ИМПЛАНТИРОВАННЫХ В ГИПОФИЗ ИГЛ ИТТРИЯ-90; Dosimetria de la Implantacion de Fuentes de {sup 90}Y en la Hipofisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Mary H.; Jones, E.; Mallard, J. R. [Department of Physics, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Joplin, G. F. [Department of Medicine, Postgraduate Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1963-03-15

    Pituitary ablation by needle implantation of Y{sup 90} is finding increasing use in the treatment of breast and prostatic cancer, as well as diabetic retinopathy, Cushing's disease, acromegaly, and perhaps exophthalmos in Graves' disease. Yttrium-90 is the most suitable radioisotope when complete ablation of the gland is sought. This is because only {beta}-particles are emitted, the maximum range (7mm) of which is comparable with the dimensions of the gland. The implantation of rods of standard activity into the gland, irrespective of its size, does not permit a standard dose level to be delivered to the gland and the method of implantation is to select the size and activity of the source to fit the dimensions of the gland in question. Thus consistency in procedure may be attempted from one implant to another. The shape of the gland and the mode of access to it is such that complete destruction may conveniently be obtained by implanting two.sources. Each source is a rod of sintered Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (2-mm diam., and of length cut to suit the individual gland length). The rod activity is also selected to suit the gland dimensions: typically, it is from 2 to 3 me. Radiation dose has been experimentally related to geometry and activity. Mix D wax is used as the tissue- equivalent absorber, film as the detector and a calibrated Sr{sup 90} source (which decays into Y{sup 90}) as the standard. One outcome of this work is that the pituitary gland requires a radiation dose of between 100 000 and 200 000 rad for necrosis and ablation. (author) [French] L'ablation de l'hypophyse par implantation d'aiguilles a l'yttrium-90 est de plus en plus utilisee dans le traitement du cancer du sein et de la prostate, comme dans celui de la retinite diabetique, de la maladie de Cushing, de l'acromegalie, et peut-etre de l'exophthalmie associee a la maladie de Graves. Lorsqu'on recherche l'ablation totale de la glande, l'yttrium- 90 est le radioisotope qui donne les meilleurs resultats

  16. Radiation curable epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najvar, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    A carboxyl containing polymer is either prepared in the presence of a polyepoxide or reacted with a polyepoxide. The polymer has sufficient acid groups to react with only about 1 to 10 percent of the epoxide (oxirane) groups. The remaining epoxide groups are reacted with an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid such as acrylic or methacrylic acid to form a radiation curable resin

  17. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  18. Embedding in thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de

    1985-01-01

    Medium activity waste coming either from nuclear power plants in operation such as evaporator concentrates, spent resins, filter cartridges or the dismantling of installations are embedded in order to obtain a product suitable for long term disposal. Embedding in thermosetting resins (polyester or epoxy) is one among currently used techniques; it is being developed by the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and Technicatome (subsidiary of CEA and EDF). The process is easy to operate and yields excellent results particularly as far as volume reduction and radioelement containment (cesium particularly) are concerned. The process has already been in operation in four stationary plants for several years. Extension of the process to mobile units has been completed by Technicatome in collaboration with the CEA [fr

  19. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  20. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitumen matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Many samples of bitumen mixed with ion exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared to study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms. The resins used in tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/aniocic bead resins. Different bitumen types were assayed: two distilled and two oxidized bitumens. Leached fractions were collected accordingly to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli beckers were used to improve counting efficiency in a Ge(Li) detector. The diffusion coefficients for samples prepared with distilled and oxidized bitumens were obtained. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry was employed to fit experimental data aiming to explain leaching mechanism and predict the long time behavior of immobilized radionuclides. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  2. Monoclonal antibody fragment removal mediated by mixed mode resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ellen; Aspelund, Matthew; Bartnik, Frank; Berge, Mark; Coughlin, Kelly; Kambarami, Mutsa; Spencer, David; Yan, Huiming; Wang, William

    2017-05-26

    Efforts to increase monoclonal antibody expression in cell culture can result in the presence of fragmented species requiring removal in downstream processing. Capto adhere, HEA Hypercel, and PPA Hypercel anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction mixed mode resins were evaluated for their fragment removal capabilities and found to separate large hinge IgG1 antibody fragment (LHF) from monomer. Removal of greater than 75% of LHF population occurred at pH 8 and low conductivity. The mechanism of fragment removal was investigated in two series of experiments. The first experimental series consisted of comparison to chromatographic behavior on corresponding single mode resins. Both single mode anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction resins failed to separate LHF. The second experimental series studied the impact of phase modifiers, ethylene glycol, urea, and arginine on the mixed mode mediated removal. The addition of ethylene glycol decreased LHF removal by half. Further decreases in LHF separation were seen upon incubation with urea and arginine. Therefore, it was discovered that the purification is the result of a mixed mode phenomena dominated by hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding effects. The site of interaction between the LHF and mixed mode resin was determined by chemical labeling of lysine residues with sulfo-NHS acetate. The labeling identified the antibody hinge and light chain regions as mediating the fragment separation. Sequence analysis showed that under separation conditions, a hydrophobic proline patch and hydrogen bonding serine and threonine residues mediate the hinge interaction with the Capto adhere ligand. Additionally, a case study is presented detailing the optimization of fragment removal using Capto adhere resin to achieve purity and yield targets in a manufacturing facility. This study demonstrated that mixed mode resins can be readily integrated into commercial antibody platform processes when additional chromatographic abilities

  3. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  4. Resin regenerating device in condensate desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Hiroo; Oosumi, Katsumi; Nishimura, Yusaku; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Norikazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy in the separation of anionic and cationic exchange resins. Constitution: Resins transferred from a condensate desalting column are charged in a cationic exchange resin column. The temperature of water for separating and transferring the resins is measured by a temperature detector disposed in a purified water injection line, and water is adjusted to a suitable flow rate for the separation and transfer of the resins by an automatic flow rate control valve, and then is injected. The resins are separated into cationic exchange resins and anionic exchange resins, in which only the anionic exchange resins are transferred, through an anionic exchange transfer line, into an anionic exchange resin column. By controlling the flow rate depending on the temperature of the injected water, the developing rate of the resin layer is made constant to enable separation and transfer of the resins at high accuracy. (Seki, T.)

  5. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  6. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  7. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Hou, T. H.; Bai, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A chemoviscosity model, which describes viscosity rise profiles accurately under various cure cycles, and correlates viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with structural transformations of the thermosetting resin system during cure, was established. Work completed on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins is reported.

  8. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  9. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  10. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  11. Radiochemistry, pre-clinical studies and first clinical investigation of 90Y-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) particles prepared utilizing 90Y produced by (n,γ) route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimalnath, K.V.; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Rajeswari, A.; Sarma, H.D.; Nuwad, Jitendra; Pandey, Usha; Kamaleshwaran, K.; Shinto, Ajit; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The scope of using no carrier added (NCA) 90 Y [T 1/2 = 64.1 h, E β(max) = 2.28 MeV] obtained from 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator in radiation synovectomy (RSV) is widely accepted. In the present study, the prospect of using 90 Y produced by (n,γ) route in a medium flux research reactor for use in RSV was explored. Methods: Yttrium-90 was produced by thermal neutron irradiation of Y 2 O 3 target at a neutron flux of ~ 1 × 10 14 n/cm 2 .s for 14 d. The influence of various experimental parameters were systematically investigated and optimized to arrive at the most favorable conditions for the formulation of 90 Y labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) using HA particles of 1–10 μm size range. An optimized kit formulation strategy was developed for convenient one-step compounding of 90 Y-HA, which is easily adaptable at hospital radiopharmacy. The pre-clinical biological evaluation of 90 Y-HA particles was studied by carrying out biodistribution and bioluminiscence imaging studies in Wistar rats. The first clinical investigation using the radiolabeled preparation was performed on a patient suffering from chronic arthritis in knee joint by administering 185 MBq 90 Y-HA formulated at the hospital radiopharmacy deploying the proposed strategy. Results: Yttrium-90 was produced with a specific activity of 851 ± 111 MBq/mg and radionuclidic purity of 99.95 ± 0.02%. 90 Y-labeled HA particles (185 ± 10 MBq doses) were formulated in high radiochemical purity (> 99%) and excellent in vitro stability. The preparation showed promising results in pre-clinical studies carried out in Wistar rats. The preliminary results of the first clinical investigation of 90 Y-HA preparation in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis in knee joints demonstrated the effectiveness of the formulation prepared using 90 Y produced via (n,γ) route in the management of the disease. Conclusion: The studies revealed that effective utilization of 90 Y produced via (n,γ) route in a medium flux research

  12. Chromatography resin support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  13. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  14. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  15. Effects of blood contamination on resin-resin bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksson, Sigurdur O; Pereira, Patricia N R; Swift, Edward J; Heymann, Harald O; Sigurdsson, Asgeir

    2004-02-01

    Incremental placement and curing of resin composites has been recommended. However, this requires longer operating time, and therefore, increased risk of contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination on microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) between resin interfaces and to determine the best decontamination method to re-establish the original resin-resin bond strength. The top surfaces of 64, 4-mm composite blocks (Z-250, Renew, APX, Pertac II) were untreated as the control, or were treated as follows: blood applied and dried on the surface (Treatment 1), blood applied, rinsed, dried (Treatment 2), blood applied, rinsed, and an adhesive applied (Single Bond, One-Step, Clearfil SE, Prompt L-Pop) (Treatment 3). Fresh composite was applied and light-cured in 2-mm increments. After 24 h storage in water, the specimens were sectioned into 0.7-mm thick slabs, trimmed to a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2), and loaded to failure at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min using an Instron universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (pcontamination resulted in resin-resin bond strengths of only 1.0-13.1 MPa. Rinsing raised bond strengths to over 40 MPa for each material. Use of an adhesive further increased bond strengths except for Pertac II. Rinsing blood from contaminated surfaces increases the resin-resin bond strength significantly and the application of an appropriate adhesive increases the bond strength to control levels.

  16. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  17. Mechanism for transporting used resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Kamiya, Kunio.

    1975-01-01

    Object: In the operation of a light water reactor type atomic power plant, to permit transport and reuse of used ion exchange resin used for the filtering or cleaning of cooling water or the desalting of radioactive exhaust liquid through an ejector. Structure: Used ion exchange resin within a desalter having high radioactivity is withdrawn through the action of an ejector and led to a solid-liquid separator for separation into used resin and water. The separated resin is directly collected in a storage tank while the separated water is forced through a circulating pump to a gas-liquid separator for separation into gas having radioactivity and water. The separated gas is led to a radioactive gas treatment station while the water deprived of the gas is recirculated by a drive water pump for repeated use. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  19. Mechanism for transporting used resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Kamiya, K

    1975-01-16

    In the operation of a light water reactor type atomic power plant the objectives is to permit transport and reuse of used ion exchange resin used for the filtering or cleaning of cooling water or the desalting of radioactive exhaust liquid through an ejector. Used ion exchange resin within a desalter having high radioactivity is withdrawn through the action of an ejector and led to a solid-liquid separator for separation into used resin and water. The separated resin is directly collected in a storage tank while the separated water is forced through a circulating pump to a gas-liquid separator for separation into gas having radioactivity and water. The separated gas is led to a radioactive gas treatment station while the water deprived of the gas is recirculated by a drive water pump for repeated use.

  20. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitument matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    To study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms, many samples of bitumen mixed with ion-exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared. The resins used in the tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/anionic bead resins. Different bittumen types were assayed: two destilled and to oxidized bitumens. Laboratory to scale samples, with surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 1, were molded to 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height. The composition of the mixtures were: 30, 40, 50 and 60% by weight of dried resin with bitumen. The leachant was deionized water with a leachant volume to sample surface rario of about 8 cm. Leached fractions were collected according to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant beckers after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli were used for counting in a Ge(Li) detector. Up to now, results of 250 days have been accumulated. Samples prepared with distilled bitumen have shown a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -14 cm 2 /sec and those prepared with oxidized bitumen yielded a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -12 cm 2 /sec. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry were employed to fit experimental data. (Author) [pt

  1. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  2. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  3. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. Labelling patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.

  5. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  6. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  7. The search for an 111In labeled agent for the solid component of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Brown, M.L.; Chowdhury, S.; Thomforde, G.; Malagelada, J.

    1988-01-01

    111 In-labeled solid meal was prepared by chelation of 111 In with Chelex resin bead. The effect of grinding of normal Chelex bead on 111 In chelation and retention in solid meal was evaluated in an in vitro system. The Chelex resin beads were ground in a mortar-pestle to form ground Chelex resin beads. Fine particles were removed by resuspension in distilled water and centrifugation. One hundred to 150 μCi of 111 In chloride was diluted with HCl and mixed with 1g of Chelex resin beads. Unbound 111 In was removed by centrifugation. The 111 In-labeled Chelex resin beads were mixed with fresh egg and 111 In-labeled solid metal was prepared by heating until solid. The meals were digested with HCl-pepsin for 4 h in a stirrer-bath (37 0 C). Aliquots were collected at intervals for determination of 111 In loss from 111 In-labeled solid meal. These results suggest that 111 In Chelex resin beads were retained in solid meals at a higher level than normal Chelex resin beads and other 111 In-tracers. (author)

  8. Search for an /sup 111/In labeled agent for the solid component of gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Brown, M.L.; Chowdhury, S.; Thomforde, G.; Malagelada, J.

    1988-01-01

    /sup 111/In-labeled solid meal was prepared by chelation of /sup 111/In with Chelex resin bead. The effect of grinding of normal Chelex bead on /sup 111/In chelation and retention in solid meal was evaluated in an in vitro system. The Chelex resin beads were ground in a mortar-pestle to form ground Chelex resin beads. Fine particles were removed by resuspension in distilled water and centrifugation. One hundred to 150 ..mu..Ci of /sup 111/In chloride was diluted with HCl and mixed with 1g of Chelex resin beads. Unbound /sup 111/In was removed by centrifugation. The /sup 111/In-labeled Chelex resin beads were mixed with fresh egg and /sup 111/In-labeled solid metal was prepared by heating until solid. The meals were digested with HCl-pepsin for 4 h in a stirrer-bath (37/sup 0/C). Aliquots were collected at intervals for determination of /sup 111/In loss from /sup 111/In-labeled solid meal. These results suggest that /sup 111/In Chelex resin beads were retained in solid meals at a higher level than normal Chelex resin beads and other /sup 111/In-tracers.

  9. Tracking of double-labeled thermoresponsive polymer biological behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukotova, L.; Kucka, J.; Hruby, M.; Rabyk, M.; Sefc, L.; Kolarova, V.; Vesela, M.; Francova, P.; Paral, P.; Heizer, T.

    2017-01-01

    To study biological behavior of this hybrid copolymer, we used mice (strain C57BL/6) bearing EL4 tumors. We separated mice into four groups. The first group (IMUNO) was treated with β-glucan-graft-poly(2-isopropyl-2- oxazoline-co-2-butyl-2-oxazoline) bearing at the graft ends fluorescence dye Dyomics-615 and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10- tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The second group (RADIO-IMUNO) was treated with the same polymer, here having at the graft ends complex DOTA-yttrium-90(III). The third group (RADIO) was treated only with corresponding polyoxazoline grafts bearing complex DOTA-yttrium- 90(III) and the fourth group we used without treatment as a control group. We measured for two weeks polymer depot stability in vivo with Optical Imaging System. We are also able to collect signal from radioactive isotopes by converting high energy beta particles into visible light. (authors)

  10. Positron-emitting resin microspheres as surrogates of 90Y SIR-Spheres: a radiolabeling and stability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A.; Selwyn, Reed G.; Hampel, Joseph A.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; DeJesus, Onofre T.; Converse, Alexander K.; Nickles, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Commercially available resin microspheres and SIR-Spheres were labeled with metallic positron emitters and evaluated as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging surrogates of 90 Y SIR-Spheres. Radiolabeling was performed using a batch method, and in vitro stability over 24 h was evaluated in saline at physiological pH at 37 o C. The activity per microsphere distribution, as evaluated by autoradiography, showed the activity per microsphere to be proportional to the square radius of the spheres, suggesting surface binding. The in vivo stability of radiolabeling was evaluated in rats by micro-PET imaging after the intravenous injection of labeled microspheres. The different resin microspheres and radionuclides evaluated in this study all showed good radiolabeling efficiency and in vitro stability. However, only resins labeled with 86 Y and 89 Zr proved to have the in vivo stability required for clinical applications

  11. Studying on process for labeling of EDTMP with 90Y using for bone pain palliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Dien; Duong Van Dong; Dang Ho Hong Quang; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Bui Van Cuong; Nguyen Dang Khoa; Nguyen Thi Thu; Mai Phuoc Tho; Vo Cam Hoa

    2013-01-01

    This Study describes the method for preparation of labelling compound Ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) with 90 Y. Malignant cancer is one of the most important resulting in human death. Bone metastases in nearly 25% of all cancer patients; so it is useful to develop radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of bone cancer. Yttrium-90 is high energy (2.3 MeV) beta emitter required with a physical haft life of 2.7 days which has limited bone-seeking properties. Its physical properties make it ideal for therapeutic application, the most energetic beta emission being able to penetrate to 1 cm from the site of deposition in soft tissue with an average range of approximately 4 mm. Theoretically, therefore, it can penetrate all marrow spaces in normal trabecular bone and conceivably even to the centre of large tumours where bone destruction may be extensive. Specific deposition of 90 Y into the skeleton demands its delivery in a chemical form with affinity for bone mineral alone. Compounds with these properties are the phosphonate analogues of polyaminocarboxylic acids, and one in particular EDTMP (ethylen diamine tetra methylene phosphonate) has already been used to target 153 Sm to bone mineral with success. Because of chemical similarities between 90 Y and the rare earths, EDTMP should form stable complexes with 90 Y and carry it specifically to the bone with comparable efficiency. Skeletal uptake of β - emitting radionuclides may be used for bone pain palliation or myeloablation. The physical characteristics of the β - particles required for the two conditions are, however, different, that is, higher energies are favorable for destruction of bone marrow. (author)

  12. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  13. Method for loading resin beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Rainey, R.H.; Greene, C.W.; Shockley, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145 to 200 0 C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145 0 C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO 3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate

  14. Stabilised 111In-labelled DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated neurotensin analogues for imaging and therapy of exocrine pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, M. de; Krenning, E.P.; Jong, M. de; Janssen, P.J.J.M.; Srinivasan, A.; Reubi, J.C.; Waser, B.; Erion, J.L.; Schmidt, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) receptors are overexpressed in exocrine pancreatic cancer and Ewing's sarcoma. The potential utility of native NT in cancer diagnosis and therapy is, however, limited by its rapid degradation in vivo. Therefore, NT analogues were synthesised with modified lysine and arginine derivatives to enhance stability and coupled either to DTPA, to enable high specific activity labelling with indium-111 for imaging, or to DOTA, to enable high specific activity labelling with β-emitting radionuclides, such as lutetium-177 and yttrium-90. Based on serum stability (4 h incubation at 37 C in human serum) and receptor binding affinity, the five most promising analogues were selected and further evaluated in in vitro internalisation studies in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells, which overexpress NT receptors. All five NT analogues bound with high affinity to NT receptors on human exocrine pancreatic tumour sections. The analogues could be labelled with 111 In to a high specific activity. The 111 In-labelled compounds were found to be very stable in serum. Incubation of HT29 cells with the 111 In-labelled analogues at 37 C showed rapid receptor-mediated uptake and internalisation. The most promising analogue, peptide 2530 [DTPA-(Pip)Gly-Pro-(PipAm)Gly-Arg-Pro-Tyr-tBuGly-Leu-OH] was further tested in vivo in a biodistribution study using HT29 tumour-bearing nude mice. The results of this study showed low percentages of injected dose per gram tissue of this 111 In-labelled 2530 analogue in receptor-negative organs like blood, spleen, pancreas, liver, muscle and femur. Good uptake was found in the receptor-positive HT29 tumour and high uptake was present in the kidneys. Co-injection of excess unlabelled NT significantly reduced tumour uptake, showing that tumour uptake is a receptor-mediated process. With their enhanced stability, maintained high receptor affinity and rapid receptor-mediated internalisation, the 111 In-labelled DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated NT

  15. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu; Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.)

  16. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro

    1995-11-07

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.).

  17. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of the...

  18. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  19. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  20. Resins production: batch plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banti, M.; Mauri, G.

    1996-01-01

    Companies that look for automation in their plants without external resources, have at their disposal flexible, custom and easy to use DCS, open towards PLC. In this article it is explained why Hoechts has followed this way of new plants for resins production automation

  1. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  2. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  3. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A

    2002-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, ion exchange resins are used for purification of aqueous streams. The major contaminants of the resins are usually the radioactive materials that are removed from the aqueous streams. The use of the ion exchange resins creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resin often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposal alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  4. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  5. Labelling of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Bioconjugates for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy: A Comparison among Manual, Semiautomated, and Fully Automated Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Iori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the hazard due to the radiation exposure, preparation of 90Y- and 177Lu-labelled radiopharmaceuticals is still mainly performed using manual procedures. In the present study the performance of a commercial automatic synthesizer based on disposable cassettes for the labelling of 177Lu- and 90Y-DOTA-conjugated biomolecules (namely, DOTATOC and PSMA-617 was evaluated and compared to a manual and a semiautomated approach. The dose exposure of the operators was evaluated as well. More than 300 clinical preparations of both 90Y- and 177Lu-labelled radiopharmaceuticals have been performed using the three different methods. The mean radiochemical yields for 90Y-DOTATOC were 96.2±4.9%, 90.3±5.6%, and 82.0±8.4%, while for 177Lu-DOTATOC they were 98.3%  ± 0.6, 90.8%  ± 8.3, and 83.1±5.7% when manual, semiautomated, and automated approaches were used, respectively. The mean doses on the whole hands for yttrium-90 preparations were 0.15±0.4 mSv/GBq, 0.04±0.1 mSv/GBq, and 0.11±0.3 mSv/GBq for manual, semiautomated, and automated synthesis, respectively, and for lutetium-177 preparations, they were 0.02±0.008 mSv/GBq, 0.01±0.03 mSv/GBq, and 0.01±0.02 mSv/GBq, respectively. In conclusion, the automated approach guaranteed reliable and reproducible preparations of pharmaceutical grade therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in a decent RCY. The radiation exposure of the operators remained comparable to the manual approach mainly due to the fact that a dedicated shielding was still not available for the system.

  6. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  7. Study and industrial applications of the external slowing-down {beta}{sup -} radiation of the yttrium - 90; Etude et applications industrielles du rayonnement de freinage externe des {beta}{sup -} de l'yttrium - 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P; Martinelli, P; Chauvin, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Inelastic scattering of the {beta}{sup -} particles on the nucleus gives place to the emission of a X-ray Bremsstrahlung radiation. In view of possible industrial applications, we studied the slowing-down radiation of {sup 90}(Sr + Y) sources in various materials. This pure {beta}{sup -} emitter of long period is in the fission products of uranium. Among of the industrial applications, these sources of weak X-rays energy can be used for the radiography of thin pieces, for measuring the thickness, or for the analysis by fluorescence. (M.B.) [French] La diffusion inelastique des particules {beta}{sup -} sur les noyaux donne lieu a l'emission d'un rayonnement X de freinage. En vue de possibles applications industrielles, nous avons etudie le rayonnement de freinage des sources {sup 90}(Sr + Y) dans divers materiaux. Cet emetteur {beta}{sup -} pur a longue periode se trouve dans les produits de fission de l'uranium. Parmi les applications industrielles a l'etude, ces sources de rayons X de faible energie peuvent etre utilisees pour la radiographie de pieces minces, la mesure d'epaisseurs, ou encore pour l'analyse par fluorescence. (M.B.)

  8. Radiotracer application for characterization of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P.U.

    2015-01-01

    Radio isotopic tracer technique as one of the versatile nondestructive technique is employed to evaluate the performance of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC. The evaluation was made on the basis of ion-isotopic exchange reaction kinetics by using 131 I and 82 Br radioactive tracer isotopes. It was observed that for both the resins, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of ion exchanged (mmol) and initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min) were calculated to be lower for bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. It was observed that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions of 30.0 C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.001 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were calculated as 0.377, 0.212, 0.080 and 15.5 respectively for Dowex SBR LC resin, which was higher than 0.215, 0.144, 0.031 and 14.1 respectively as that obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. Also at a constant temperature of 30.0 C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 84.75 % to 90.20 % for Dowex SBR LC resins which was higher than increases from 57.66 % to 62.38 % obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. The identical trend was observed for the two resins during bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The overall results indicate superior performance of Dowex SBR LC over Tulsion A23 resins under identical experimental conditions.

  9. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  10. Comparison of outcomes between SBRT, yttrium-90 radioembolization, transarterial chemoembolization, and radiofrequency ablation as bridge to transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mohamed, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: All bridge therapies demonstrated good pathological response and DFS after LT. SBRT and Y90 demonstrated significantly less grade ≥3 acute toxicity. Choice of optimal modality depends on tumor size, pretreatment bilirubin level, Child-Pugh status, and patient preference. Such a decision is best made at a multidisciplinary tumor board as is done at our institution.

  11. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes; Cho, Sung-Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma

  12. Yttrium-90 radioembolization vs sorafenib for intermediate-locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a cohort study with propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramenzi, Annagiulia; Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina; Cappelli, Alberta; Granito, Alessandro; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Marinelli, Sara; Pettinato, Cinzia; Erroi, Virginia; Fiumana, Silvia; Bolondi, Luigi; Bernardi, Mauro; Trevisani, Franco

    2015-03-01

    Sorafenib and transarterial (90) Y-radioembolization (TARE) are possible treatments for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) intermediate-advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). No study directly comparing sorafenib and TARE is currently available. This single-centre retrospective study compares the outcomes achieved with sorafenib and TARE in HCC patients potentially amenable to either therapy. Seventy-four sorafenib (71 ± 10 years, male 87%, BCLC B/C 53%/47%) and 63 TARE HCC patients (66 ± 9 years, male 79%, BCLC B/C 41%/59%) were included based on the following criteria: Child-Pugh class A/B, performance status ≤1, HCC unfit for other effective therapies, no metastases and no previous systemic chemotherapy. Median overall survivals of the two groups were comparable, being 14.4 months (95% CI: 4.3-24.5) in sorafenib and 13.2 months (95% CI: 6.1-20.2) in TARE patients, with 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates of 52.1%, 29.3% and 14.7% vs 51.8%, 27.8% and 21.6% respectively. Two TARE patients underwent liver transplantation after successful down-staging. To minimize the impact of confounding factors on survival analysis, propensity model matched 32 patients of each group for median age, tumour gross pathology and the independent prognostic factors (portal vein thrombosis, performance status, Model for End Liver Disease). Even after matching, the median survival did not differ between sorafenib (13.1 months; 95% CI: 1.2-25.9) and TARE patients (11.2 months; 95% CI: 6.7-15.7), with comparable 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates. In cirrhotic patients with intermediate-advanced or not-otherwise-treatable HCC, sorafenib and TARE provide similar survivals. Down-staging allowing liver transplantation only occurred after TARE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy with glass microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and updated literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanic, Lourdes [Div. of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (United States); Cho, Sung Ki [Div. of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Saab, Sammy [Div. of Hepatology, Dept. of Medicine, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cho, Sung-Ki [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351 (Korea, Republic of); Saab, Sammy [Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy with glass microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and updated literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanic, Lourdes; Cho, Sung Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma

  16. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes; Cho, Sung-Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere) treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: downstaging to resection, RFA and bridge to transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Laura M; Atassi, Bassel; van Holsbeeck, Lodewijk; Souman, Tameem; Lewandowski, Robert J; Mulcahy, Mary F; Hunter, Russell D; Nemcek, Albert A; Abecassis, Michael M; Haines, Kenneth G; Salem, Riad

    2006-12-01

    To present the clinical data of 35 patients with T3 unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that were treated with (90)Y with the specific intent of downstaging to resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) candidate, United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) stage T2 or liver transplantation. One hundred fifty patients with unresectable HCC were treated with (90)Y microspheres. Of these, 35 patients were UNOS stage T3 at the time of treatment. Patients were followed for clinical toxicities, alterations in model for end-stage-liver disease (MELD) score, tumor response, downstaging to RFA, resection, transplantation, and survival. Nineteen of 34 patients (56%) were successfully downstaged from T3 to T2 following treatment. 11 of 34 (32%) patients treated were downstaged to target lesions measuring 3.0 cm or less. Twenty-three of 35 (66%) were downstaged to either T2 status, lesion < 3.0 cm (RFA candidate), or resection. Seventeen of 34 (50%) had an objective tumor response by WHO criteria. Eight patients (23%) were successfully downstaged and underwent OLT following treatment. 1, 2, and 3-year survival was 84%, 54%, and 27%, respectively. Median survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis for the entire cohort was 800 days. These data suggest that intra-arterial (90)Y microspheres can be used as a bridge to transplantation, surgical resection, or RFA. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Pregnancies in women with hyperprolactinaemia: clinical course and obstetric complications of 41 pregnancies in 27 women. [Yttrium 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, W.F.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Banks, L.M.; Gordon, H.; Joplin, G.F.

    1979-09-01

    Observations are reported on 41 pregnancies in 27 patients who initially had infertility and raised serum prolactin concentrations. Associated symptoms were secondary amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea. All patients were at risk of pituitary expansion during pregnancy, especially these 19 (70 per cent) with radiological evidence of pituitary tumors. Fifteen patients had 21 pregnancies after pituitary implantation with 90 yttrium; 14 patients had 20 pegnancies without prior pituitary implantation or any other attempt to prevent tumor expansion. The induction and Cesarean section rates were about 30 per cent in 32 term pregnancies in 25 patients. Details of how pregnancy was achieved and the associated obstetric problems are given.

  19. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  20. Label triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)

  1. Radiotracers in performance evaluation of nuclear grade resins Amberlite IRN-78 and Purolite NRW-8000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P.U.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with evaluation of organic base nuclear grade anion exchange resins Amberlite IRN-78 and Purolite NRW-8000 by application of radioactive tracer isotopes 131 I and 82 Br. The evaluation was made on the basis of their performance in iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions carried out under different experimental conditions like temperature and ionic concentration. It was observed that during iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction at a constant temperature of 30.0 C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 70.10 % to 77.10 % for Amberlite IRN-78, which was higher than an increase of 63.90 % to 71.00 % as obtained for Purolite NRW-8000 resins. Also at a constant temperature of 30.0 C, using 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.001 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were calculated to be 0.280, 0.175, 0.049 and 11.4 respectively for Amberlite IRN-78 resin, which was higher than the values of 0.258, 0.160, 0.041 and 10.6 respectively as that obtained by using Purolite NRW-8000 resins. The identical trend was observed for the two resins during bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The results of present investigation also indicate that during the two ion-isotopic exchange reactions, for both the resins, there exists a strong positive linear correlation between amount of ions exchanged and concentration of ionic solution; and strong negative correlation between amount of ions exchanged and temperature of exchanging medium. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, Amberlite IRN-78 resins show superior performance over Purolite NRW-8000 resins. (orig.)

  2. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  3. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  4. Removal of radiocesium using cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita-Murase, Yuko; Mizumura, Ryosuke; Tachibana, Yoshitaka; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    Cation exchange resins (calcium polystyrene sulfonate, Ca-resin and sodium polystyrene sulfonate, Na-resin) have been used as agents to improve hyperkerlemia. For removing 137 Cs from the human body, the adsorption ability of the resin for 137 Cs was examined and evaluated. Resin (0.03 g) and 137 Cs (ca.1 kBq) were introduced into 3 mL of water, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 1st fluid for a dissolution test (pH 1.2) and 2nd fluid (pH 6.8), respectively, and shaken. After 1-3 hours, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was 99% in water, 60% in a pH 1.2 fluid and, 66% in a pH 6.8 fluid. By adding potassium, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Ca-resin was reduced. However, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was almost unchanged. These results show that both resins have adsorption ability for 137 Cs in the stomach and the intestines. Therefore, the proposed method will be an effective means in the case of a radiological emergency due to 137 Cs. (author)

  5. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  6. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  7. Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.F.

    2001-07-10

    Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

  8. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  9. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins; Karboxylatjonbytarmassans egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden); Boren, Hans [Linkoepings Univ. (Sweden); Torstenfelt, Boerje [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  10. Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2018-06-01

    Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.

  11. Overview on resins available in microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, B.; Schue, F.; Montginoul, C.; Giral, L.

    1985-01-01

    Lithographic equipments using electrons and X radiation are developed. Velocity and resolution requirements fix the nature of the material to irradiate. Circuit making principles are recalled here; resists (organic polymers) are employed for it. The different types of resins and then needed characteristics are reviewed here. In the scope of electron sensitive resins methyl polymethacrylate and derivative and its copolymers (and copolymers of methacrylonitrile) and reticulated copolymers are studied. Polysulfones are also presented (poly(buten-1 sulfone), poly(styrene sulfone), poly(methyl-1 cyclopentene-1 sulfone). The interest in photosensitive resins (such as AZ) as electron sensitive resins is recalled. In the field of negative resins, the polyepoxyds, polystyrene and halogenated derivates from polystyrene (CMS and PCMS), the poly(vinyl-2 naphtalene) and its derivatives (PSTTF) are presented. The X radiation sensitive resins are also reviewed: the methyl polymethacrylate and its halogenated derivates, the acrylic homopolymers and copolymers (example of poly(acrylate of chlorinated alcoyls). The resins developable by plasma are mentioned. At last, for photosensitive resins, the diazide polydiene systems are presented together with systems diazo-2 2H-naphtalenone-1. The systems with salt photolysis are just recalled [fr

  12. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motawie, A.M.; Ismail, E.A.; Mazroua, A.M.; Abd EI Aziem, M.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H 2 O 2 . Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H 1 NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  13. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disodium salt of 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol is made to react with 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone in such a... Limitations Dimethyl sulfoxide Not to exceed 50 parts per million as residual solvent in finished basic resin... residual solvent in finished basic resin in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone Not to...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...′-iso-propylidenediphenol with molten diphenyl carbonate in the presence of the disodium salt of 4,4... chloride Monochlorobenzene Not to exceed 500 p.p.m. as residual solvent in finished resin. Pentaerythritol...-88-3) Not to exceed 800 parts per million as residual solvent in finished resin. Triethylamine (c...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of an article... substances required in the production of basic resins or finished food-contact articles. The optional... and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park...

  16. 21 CFR 177.2440 - Polyethersulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2440 Polyethersulfone resins. Polyethersulfone resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended... Petition Control (HFS-215), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 1110 Vermont Ave. NW., suite 1200...

  17. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  18. Measurement of opalescence of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lu, Huan; Powers, John M

    2005-11-01

    Opalescence is an optical property, where there is light scattering of the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum, giving the material a bluish appearance under reflected light and an orange/brown appearance under transmitted light. The objective of this study was to determine the opalescence of resin composites with a color measuring spectrophotometer. Colors of A2 and enamel or translucent shades of four resin composites and of an unfilled resin measured in the reflectance and transmittance modes were compared, and the opalescence parameter (OP) was calculated as the difference in blue-yellow coordinate (Deltab*) and red-green parameter (Deltaa*) between the reflected and transmitted colors of 1-mm thick specimens. The masking effect was calculated as the color difference between the color of a black background and the color of specimen over the black background. The range of OP in resin composites was 5.7-23.7, which was higher than that of the unfilled resin. However, there were significant differences among the brands and shades of the resin composites. Opalescence varied by brand and shade of the resin composites, and contributed to the masking of background color along with translucency parameter. Some of the resin composites actually displayed opalescence.

  19. Embedding of reactor wastes in plastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    STEAG Kernenergie GmbH is so far the only firm commercially to condition radioactive bead ion exchange resins by embedding in polystyrene resins. The objective of the work reported here was to study and develop methods for immobilization of other reactor wastes in plastic resins. Comparison studies on high quality cement however showed favourable results for cement with respect to process safety and economy. For this reason STEAG interrupted its work in the field of resin embedding after about one year. The work carried out during this period is surveyed in this report, which includes a comprehensive literature study on reactor wastes and their solidification in plastic resins as well as on regulations with regard to radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Communities

  20. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  1. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  2. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  3. NON DESTRUCTIVE APPLICATION OF RADIOACTIVE TRACER TECHNIQUE FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL GRADE ANION EXCHANGE RESINS INDION GS-300 AND INDION-860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. SINGARE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of radio isotopic non-destructive technique in the characterization of two industrial grade anion exchange resins Indion GS-300 and Indion-860. For the characterization of the two resins, 131I and 82Br were used as tracer isotopes to trace the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions. It was observed that the values of specific reaction rate (min−1, amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol, initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min and log Kd were calculated as 0.328, 0.577, 0.189 and 19.7 respectively for Indion GS-300 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.180, 0.386, 0.070 and 17.0 calculated for Indion-860 resins when measured under identical experimental conditions. Also at a constant temperature of 40.0 °C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases 0.001 M to 0.004 M, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 75.16 % to 78.36 % for Indion GS-300 resins, which was higher than the increases from 49.65 % to 52.36 % compared to that obtained for Indion-860 resins. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, Indion GS-300 resins show superior performance over Indion-860 resins.

  4. Non Destructive Application of Radioactive Tracer Technique for Characterization of Industrial Grade Anion Exchange Resins Indio GS-300 and Indion-860

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P. U.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of radio isotopic non-destructive technique in the characterization of two industrial grade anion exchange resins Indion GS-300 and Indion-860. For the characterization of the two resins, 131 I and 82 Br were used as tracer isotopes to trace the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions. It was observed that the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were calculated as 0.328, 0.577, 0.189 and 19.7 respectively for Indion GS-300 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.180, 0.386, 0.070 and 17.0 calculated for Indion-860 resins when measured under identical experimental conditions. Also at a constant temperature of 40.0 .deg. C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases 0.001 M to 0.004 M, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 75.16 % to 78.36 % for Indion GS-300 resins, which was higher than the increases from 49.65 % to 52.36 % compared to that obtained for Indion-860 resins. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, Indion GS-300 resins show superior performance over Indion-860 resins

  5. Radiolysis of simple quaternary ammonium salt components of Amberlite resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhiman, Surajdevprakash B.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The radiation chemical yields of gaseous products, H 2 and CH 4 , in the radiolysis of dry methylammonium chloride, dimethylammonium chloride, trimethylammonium chloride, tetramethylammonium chloride and benzyl trimethylammonium chloride by γ-rays and 5 MeV helium ions have been investigated. Some of these amines are the different components of the quaternary ammonium resin Amberlite, which is a strongly basic anion exchange resin based on a polystyrene divinylbenzene copolymer. Molecular hydrogen yields with γ-radiolysis range from a high of 4.43 molecules per 100 eV for trimethylammonium chloride to 0.07 and 0.05 molecules per 100 eV for tetramethylammonium chloride and benzyl trimethylammonium chloride, respectively. Yields of methane gas are generally negligible except for trimethylammonium chloride and tetramethylammonium chloride, 0.26 and 0.02 molecules per 100 eV, respectively. Isotopic labeling studies suggest that the first step in H 2 production is the breakage of the N-H bond followed by abstraction of H · atom from the methyl groups. EPR analysis shows the formation of both N and C centered radicals. A comparison is made between the radiolysis of Amberlite and its various components

  6. Surface flashover performance of epoxy resin microcomposites improved by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin; Min, Daomin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li, Shengtao, E-mail: stli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li, Zhen; Xie, Dongri [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and its Application, Ministry of Education, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Lin, Shengjun [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Pinggao Group Company Ltd., State Grid High Voltage Switchgear Insulation Materials Laboratory, Pingdingshan 467001 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy resin microcomposites were irradiated by electron beam with energies of 10 and 20 keV. • Surface flashover voltage increase with the increase of electron beam energy. • Both the untreated and irradiated samples have two trap centers, which are labeled as shallow and deep traps. • Deposition energy in epoxy resin microcomposites increases with electron beam energy, and surface trap properties are determined by deposition energy. • The influence of surface conductivity and trap distribution on flashover voltage is discussed. - Abstract: The influencing mechanism of electron beam irradiation on surface flashover of epoxy resin/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcomposite was investigated. Epoxy resin/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcomposite samples with a diameter of 50 mm and a thickness of 1 mm were prepared. The samples were irradiated by electron beam with energies of 10 and 20 keV and a beam current of 5 μA for 5 min. Surface potential decay, surface conduction, and surface flashover properties of untreated and irradiated samples were measured. Both the decay rate of surface potential and surface conductivity decrease with an increase in the energy of electron beam. Meanwhile, surface flashover voltage increase. It was found that both the untreated and irradiated samples have two trap centers, which are labeled as shallow and deep traps. The increase in the energy and density of deep surface traps enhance the ability to capture primary emitted electrons. In addition, the decrease in surface conductivity blocks electron emission at the cathode triple junction. Therefore, electron avalanche at the interface between gas and an insulating material would be suppressed, eventually improving surface flashover voltage of epoxy resin microcomposites.

  7. EPICOR-II resin degradation results from first resin samples of PF-8 and PF-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1985-12-01

    The 28 March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gallons of contaminated water to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings. The water was decontaminated using a demineralization system called EPICOR-II developed by Epicor, Inc. The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Project is studying the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins found in several EPICOR-II prefilters. This report summarizes results and analyses of the first sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PE-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated Epicor, Inc. resins to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose received by the EPICOR-II resins. Results also are compared with recent findings on resin degradation by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analyses comparing test results of resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 with unirradiated resins obtained from Epicor, Inc. show resin degradation has occurred in some of the EPICOR-II resins examined. The mechanism of degradation is compared with work of other researchers and is consistent with their findings. The strong acid cation resins (divinylbenzene, styrene base structure) are losing effective cross-linking along with scission of functional groups and are experiencing first an increase and eventually a decrease in total exchange capacity as the absorbed radiation dose increases. The phenolic cation resins (phenol-formaldehyde base structure) show a loss of effective cross-linking and oxidation of the polymer chain. Analyses of resins removed from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 over the next several years should show a further increase in degradation

  8. Decomposing method for ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Takeshi; Sato, Shinshi; Akai, Yoshie; Moniwa, Shinobu; Yamada, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of decomposing ion exchange resins generated in a nuclear power plant to carbon dioxide reliably in a short period of time. (1) The ion exchange resins are mixed with water, and then they are kept for a predetermined period of time in the presence of an inert gas at high temperature and high pressure exceeding the critical point of water to decompose the ion exchange resins. (2) The ion exchange resins is mixed with water, an oxidant is added and they are kept for a predetermined time in the presence of an inert gas at a high temperature and a high pressure exceeding a critical point of water of an inert gas at a high temperature to decompose the ion exchange resins. (3) An alkali or acid is added to ion exchange resins and water to control the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution and the ion exchange resins are decomposed in above-mentioned (1) or (2). Sodium hydroxide is used as the alkali and hydrochloric acid is used as the acid. In addition, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide or ozone is used as an oxidant. (I.S.)

  9. Synthesis of two tritium-labeled derivatives of a vasopressin antagonist peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landvatter, S.W.; Heys, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    SK and F 101926, a potent vasopressin antagonist, has been tritium labeled in the tyrosine residue via exchange followed by solid phase coupling to a hexapeptide. The peptide thus obtained was subsequently coupled with a PMP residue, cleaved from the resin with HF, oxidized by ferricyanide and purified by HPLC giving the desired cyclic peptide. Alternatively, a labeled PMP residue can be prepared via reduction starting from phenol. Conversion of the labeled cyclohexanone to PMP followed by solid phase coupling to a heptapeptide can then afford PMP labeled peptide. 3 refs

  10. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  11. Safety evaluation of cation-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Results are presented of a study to evaluate whether sufficient information is available to establish conservative limits for the safe use of cation-exchange resins in separating radionuclides and, if not, to recommend what new data should be acquired. The study was also an attempt to identify in-line analytical techniques for the evaluation of resin degradation during radionuclide processing. The report is based upon a review of the published literature and upon discussions with many people engaged in the use of these resins. It was concluded that the chief hazard in the use of cation-exchange resins for separating radionuclides is a thermal explosion if nitric acid or other strong oxidants are present in the process solution. Thermal explosions can be avoided by limiting process parameters so that the rates of heat and gas generation in the system do not exceed the rates for their transfer to the surroundings. Such parameters include temperature, oxidant concentration, the amounts of possible catalysts, the radiation dose absorbed by the resin and the diameter of the resin column. Current information is not sufficient to define safe upper limits for these parameters. They can be evaluated, however, from equations derived from the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosions provided the heat capacities, thermal conductivities and rates of heat evolution in the relevant resin-oxidant mixtures are known. It is recommended that such measurements be made and the appropriate limits be evaluated. A list of additional safety precautions are also presented to aid in the application of these limits and to provide additional margins of safety. In-line evaluation of resin degradation to assess its safety hazard is considered impractical. Rather, it is recommended that the resin be removed from use before it has received the limiting radiation dose, evaluated as described above

  12. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  13. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  14. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  15. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the products' properties. (author)

  16. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.

    1985-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure like CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics for use as nuclear track detectors. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been obtained. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives up an important clue for the development of highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. They will also be useful for observations of ultra-heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (orig.)

  17. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Yokota, Rikio

    1985-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure like CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics for use as nuclear track detectors. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been obtained. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives us an important clue for the development of highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. They will also be useful for observations of ultra-heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (author)

  18. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  19. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use

  20. Thermosetting behavior of pitch-resin from heavy residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingfang, Z.; Yansheng, G.; Baohua, H.; Yuzhen, Z. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying, Shandong (China). State Key LAboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Heavy Oil Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Thermosetting resins are widely employed as a basic matrix for c/c composites in carbon materials production. A new type of synthesized thermosetting resin is called pitch resin. Pitch resin is a cheaper resin and possesses a potential opportunity for future use. However, the thermosetting behavior of pitch resin is not very clear. The hardening process and conditions for thermosetting are very important for future use of pitch resin. B-stage pitch resin is a soluble and meltable inter-media condensed polymer, which is not fully reacted and is of a low molecular weight. The insoluble and unmelted pitch resin can only be obtained from synthesized B-stage resin after a hardening stage. This paper presented an experiment that synthesized B-stage pitch resin with a link agent (PXG) under catalyst action from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of the slurry's aromatic enriched component (FCCDF). The paper discussed the experiment, including the synthesis of pitch resin and thermosetting of pitch resin. Two kinds of thermosetting procedures were used in the study called one-step thermosetting and two-step thermosetting. It was concluded that the B-stage pitch resin could be hardened after a thermosetting procedure by heat treatment. The thermosetting pitch resin from 2-step thermosetting possesses was found to have better thermal resistant properties than that of the 1-step thermosetting pitch resin. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Condensate-polisher resin-leakage quantification and resin-transport studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, C.C.; Doss, P.L.

    1983-04-01

    The objectives of this program were to: (1) determine the extent of resin leakage from current generation condensate polisher systems, both deep bed and powdered resin design, during cut-in, steady-state and flow transient operation, (2) analyze moisture separator drains and other secondary system samples for resin fragments and (3) document the level of organics in the secondary system. Resin leakage samples were obtained from nine-power stations that have either recirculating steam generators or once through steam generators. Secondary system samples were obtained from steam generator feedwater, recirculating steam generator blowdown and moisture separator drains. Analysis included ultraviolet light examination, SEM/EDX, resin quantification and infrared analysis. Data obtained from the various plants were compared and factors affecting resin leakage were summarized

  2. The mechanism of uranium adsorption on Resin 508 and isoelectric point of the resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Qingping; Lu Weichang; Su Huijuan; Hu Jinbo; Zhang Liqin; Chen Banglin

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption process of uranium by Resin 508 at the solid-liquid interface was investigated and the mechanism of uranium adsorption including adsorption dynamics, adsorption thermodynamics and isoelectric point of resin was studied. The results are as follows: The maximum of uranium adsorption is attained at pH5-7; Uranium adsorption isotherm by Resin 508 in experimental conditions agrees with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm, the maximum of uranium adsorbed (Vm) is 716 mg U/g-dried resin; The adsorption of uranium by Resin 508 is an endothermic reaction and ΔH = 16.87 kJ/mol; The exchange-adsorption rate is mainly controlled by liquid film diffusion; The isoelectric points of Resin 508 before and after uranium adsorption are found to be pH7.5 and pH5.7 respectively. It is a specific adsorption for uranium

  3. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  4. Nanosilica Modification of Elastomer-Modified VARTM Epoxy Resins for Improved Resin and Composite Toughness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Jason; Bujanda, Andres; DeSchepper, Daniel; Dibelka, Jessica; Costanzo, Philip; Jensen, Robert; McKnight, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Recent publications have reported a synergy between rubber and silica in modified epoxy resins that results in significantly improved fracture toughness without reductions in other material properties...

  5. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  6. Standardization of Procedures for the Preparation of (177)Lu- and (90)Y-labeled DOTA-Rituximab Based on the Freeze-dried Kit Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdowska, Wioletta; Karczmarczyk, Urszula; Maurin, Michal; Garnuszek, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Rituximab when radiolabelled with (177)Lu or (90)Y has been investigated for the treatment of patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. In this study, we optimized the preparation of antibody conjugates with chelating agent in the freeze-dried kit. It shortens procedures needed for the successful radiolabeling with lutetium-177 and yttrium-90 and assures reproducible labelling yields. Various molar ratios of Rituximab:DOTA (from 1:5 to 1:100) were used at the conjugation step and different purification method to remove unbound DOTA were investigated (size-exclusion chromatography, dialysis, ultrafiltration). The final monoclonal antibody concentration was quantified by Bradford method, and the number of DOTA molecules was determined by radiolabeling assay using (64)Cu. The specific activity of (177)Lu-DOTA-Rituximab and (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab were optimized using various amounts of radiometal. Quality control (SE-HPLC, ITLC) and stability study were performed. An average of 4.2 ± 0.8 p-SCN-Bz-DOTA molecules could be randomly conjugated to a single molecule of Rituximab. The ultrafiltration system was the most efficient for purification and resulted in the highest recovery efficiency (77.2%). At optimized conditions the (177)Lu-DOTARituximab and (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab were obtained with radiochemical purity >99% and specific activity ca. 600 MBq/mg. The radioimmunoconjugates were stable in human serum and 0.9% NaCl. After 72 h of incubation the radiochemical purity of (177)Lu-DOTA-Rituximab decreased to 94% but it was still more than 88% for (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab. The radioimmunoconjugate showed stability after six months storage at 2 - 8(0)C, as a lyophilized formulation. Our study shows that Rituximab-DOTA can be efficiently radiolabeled with (177)Lu and (90)Y via p-SCN-Bn-DOTA using a freezedried kit.

  7. A method for producing a hydrocarbon resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsachev, A B; Andonov, K S; Igliyev, S P

    1980-11-25

    Rock coal resin (KS), for instance, with a relative density of 1,150 to 1,190 kilograms per cubic meter, which contains 8 to 10 percent naphthaline, 1.5 to 2.8 percent phenol and 6 to 15 percent substances insoluble in toluene, or its mixture with rock coal or oil fractions of resin are subjected to distillation (Ds) in a pipe furnace with two evaporators (Is) and a distillation tower with a temperature mode in the second stage of 320 to 360 degrees and 290 to 340 degrees in the pitch compartment. A hydrocarbon resin is produced with a high carbon content, especially for the production of resin and dolomite refractory materials, as well as fuel mixtures for blast furnace and open hearth industry.

  8. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  9. Integrating Porous Resins In Enzymatic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Haque, Naweed

    . Screening resins for moderately hydrophobic multi-component systems is challenging. Often it is found that the capacity of the resin is inversely related with product selectivity. Therefore a tradeoff has to be made between these parameters which can be crucial from an economic point of view. A low resin...... procedure. The screening therefore becomes a multi-objective task that has to be solved simultaneously. Such an approach has been applied in the method formulated in this framework. To overcome these challenges, different process strategies are required to obtain high yields. A number of different...... inhibition, has gained considerable recognition. The resins act as a reservoir for the inhibitory substrate and a sink for the inhibitory product and simultaneously attain the required high substrate loading to make the process economically feasible. In this way the potential benefit of the enzyme can...

  10. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas; Wilkes, Marty

    2012-01-01

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  11. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  12. Feasibility of vitrifying EPICOR II organic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Two laboratory-scale runs have recently been completed to test the feasibility of a single-step incineration/vitrification process for Three Mile Island EPICOR II resins. The process utilizes vitrification equipment, specifically a 15-cm-dia in-can melter, and a specially designed feed technique. Two process tests, each conducted with 1.2 kg of EPICOR II resins loaded with nonradioactive cesium and strontium, showed excellent operational characteristics. Less than 0.8 wt% of the resins were entrained with the gaseous effluents in the second test. Cesium and strontium losses were controlled to 0.71 wt% and less. In addition, all the carbonaceous resins were converted completely to CO 2 with no detectable CO. Future activities are being directed to longer-term tests in laboratory-scale equipment to determine attainable volume reduction, process rates, and material conformance to processing conditions

  13. Photopolymerizable silicone monomers, oligomers, and resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobine, A.F.; Nakos, S.T.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to acquaint the general photopolymer researcher with the historical development of the chemistry and technology of photopolymerizable silicone monomers, fluids, and resins. The current status of research in these areas is assessed. The focus of this chapter is not only on the polymer chemistry and application of this technology, but also on important aspects of the synthetic chemistry involved in the preparation of UV-curable silicone monomers, oligomers, and resins. 236 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschueren, K.; Balwant Kaur

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  15. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  16. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH 2 BO 3 -H 3 BO 3 solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB

  17. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  18. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  19. Studies on the absorption of epoxy resin /sup 14/C-epidian 5 through the skin of guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyton, A; Wozniak, M; Dobryszycka, W [Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The absorption and spread of epoxy resin labelled with /sup 14/C-epidian 5 was evaluated by measurements of radioactivity of the skin and individual organs in guinea pigs and of the ovum in pregnant guinea pigs. It has been demonstrated that the radioactive resin is slowly absorbed through the skin and reaches, by blood vessels, inner organs and the skin distant from the smeared site. The liver participates actively in the metabolism of epidian 5. The radioactivity of the nervous tissue and urine of the guinea pig bladder increased successively with the length of time, which indicates this way of excretion of the resin. In fetal membranes the level of radioactivity was considerably higher than in the placental tissue and fetal fluids. Worthy of note is also that livers of guinea pig fetuses showed an isotope mark and that radioactivity increased in the fetal pulmonary tissue.

  20. Studies on the absorption of epoxy resin 14C-epidian 5 through the skin of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyton, A.; Wozniak, M.; Dobryszycka, W.

    1976-01-01

    The absorption and spread of epoxy resin labelled with 14 C-epidian 5, was evaluated by measurements of radioactivity of the skin and individual organs in guinea pigs and of the ovum in pregnant guinea pigs. It has been demonstrated that the radioactive resin is slowly absorbed through the skin and reaches, by blood vessels, inner organs and the skin distant from the smeared site. The liver participates actively in the metabolism of epidian 5. The radioactivity of the nervous tissue and urine of the guinea pig bladder increased successively with the length of time, which indicates this way of excretion of the resin. In fetal membranes the level of radioactivity was considerably higher than in the placental tissue and fetal fluids. Worthy of note is also that livers of guinea pig fetuses showed an isotope mark and that radioactivity increased in the fetal pulmonary tissue. (author)

  1. Gastrointestinal scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc- or 111In-labelled polymer beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordaan, J.H.; Dormehl, I.C.; Pilloy, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to establish normal and pathological stomach emptying characteristics by external measurement of a radioactive meal using a gamma camera and computer system, it is necessary for the radioactively labelled substance to have the same behaviour in the stomach as the ingested food. Resins containing chelating groups which enable binding to either reduced sup(99m)TcO 4 - or 111 In +3 were tested for their suitability as tracers mixed into solid food. The preparation of such styrene-divinyl-benzene resins containing either triethylenetetramine substituents or the fully carboxymethylated derivatives is discussed, as well as the procedures of labelling with either sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate or 111 In-chloride. An evaluation of the resins for gastrointestinal scintigraphy was performed on 3 chacma baboons and a male human volunteer with encouraging results. (orig.) [de

  2. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  3. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin...

  4. Performance evaluation of anion exchange resins Purolite NRW-5050 and Duolite A-611 by application of radioisotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P.U.

    2014-01-01

    Radioanalytical techniques using 131 I and 82 Br as tracer isotopes were applied to study the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions taking place between the external labeled ionic solution and the resin surface. The results indicate low values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of ion exchanged (mmol) and initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min) for bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction as compared to that obtained for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. It was observed that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction performed at 35.0 C, 1 000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.002 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were 0.340, 0.394, 0.134 and 20.2 respectively for Purolite NRW-5050 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.216, 0.290, 0.063 and 18.2 as that obtained by using Duolite A-611. The results of present investigation indicate that during the two ion-isotopic exchange reactions, for both the resins, there exists a strong positive linear correlation between amount of ions exchanged and concentration of ionic solution; and strong negative correlation between amount of ions exchanged and temperature of exchanging medium. From the results it appears that as compared to Duolite A-611 resins, Purolite NRW-5050 resins shows superior performance under identical experimental conditions.

  5. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  6. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  7. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  8. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  9. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  10. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  11. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  12. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...

  13. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  14. Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  7. Hot dewatering and resin encapsulation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, J.; Birch, D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the processes involved in the hot dewatering and encapsulation of alumino-ferric hydroxide floc in epoxide resin have been studied. Pretreatment of the floc to reduce resin attack and hydrolysis and to increase the dimensional stability of the solidified wasteform has been evaluated. It has been demonstrated that removal of ammonium nitrate from the floc and control of the residual water in the resin are important factors in ensuring dimensional stability of the solidified resin. Resin systems have been identified which, together with the appropriate waste pretreatment have successfully encapsulated a simulated magnox sludge producing a stable wasteform having mechanical and physical properties comparable with the basic resin. (author)

  8. Characterization of Polyimide Matrix Resins and Prepregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximovich, M. G.; Galeos, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite/polyimide composite materials are attractive candidates for a wide range of aerospace applications. They have many of the virtues of graphite/epoxies, i.e., high specific strengths and stiffness, and also outstanding thermal/oxidative stability. Yet they are not widely used in the aerospace industry due to problems of procesability. By their nature, modern addition polyimide (PI) resins and prepregs are more complex than epoxies; the key to processing lies in characterizing and understanding the materials. Chemical and rheological characterizations are carried out on several addition polyimide resins and graphite reinforced prepregs, including those based on PMR-15, LARC 160 (AP 22), LARC 160 (Curithane 103) and V378A. The use of a high range torque transducer with a Rheometrics mechanical spectrometer allows rheological data to be generated on prepreg materials as well as neat resins. The use of prepreg samples instead of neat resins eliminates the need for preimidization of the samples and the data correlates well with processing behavior found in the shop. Rheological characterization of the resins and prepregs finds significant differences not readily detected by conventional chemical characterization techniques.

  9. Ion chromatography for the analysis of salt splitting capacities of cation and anion resin in premixed resin sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Satinath; Kumar, Rakesh; Tripathy, M.K.; Dhole, K.; Sharma, R.S.; Varde, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    Mixed bed ion exchange resin is commonly used in various plants including nuclear reactors for the purpose of fine polishing. The analysis of ion exchange capacities of cation and anion resin in resin mixture is therefore an agenda in the context of purchasing of premixed resin from the manufacturer. An ion chromatographic method for assaying ion exchange capacities of pure as well as mixed resin has been optimized. The proposed method in contrast to the conventional ASTM method has been found to be quite encouraging to consider it as an alternate method for the analysis of premixed resin. (author)

  10. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  11. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  12. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Yokota, R.

    1986-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure similar to that of CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics as nuclear track detectors. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives us an important clue to develop highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. For example, butanediol bis allylcarbonate (BuAC) shows the sensitivity about ten times higher than diallyl and adipate (DAA). This suggests the carbonate groups in the BuAC molecule provide a much higher sensitivity than the ester groups in the DAA. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been developed. Though the sensitivity of DAA is low, it will be useful for observations of ultra heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (author)

  13. Aging in CTBN modified epoxy resin stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, K.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The cause of degradation in the glass transition temperature (T/sub G/) of a partially crystallized polymer was investigated. Sample epoxy resin filled capacitors were cured at 90 0 C for 24 hours, then stored at room atmospheric conditions. These showed typical degradation in T/sub G/ after storage for one month. One set of epoxy resin castings was stored at room atmosphere and another set was stored in a dry box at 0% relative humidity and 27 0 C. The samples at room atmospheric conditions showed typical degradation in T/sub G/, while the T/sub G/ for those stored in the dry box increased. Further tests were then made on epoxy resin castings at various curing temperatures and times at both room atmosphere and 0% humidity. Resulting data indicated that absorption of moisture during storage was the predominant cause of T/sub G/ degradation, with stress relaxation another, though smaller, contributing factor

  14. Restoration of traumatized teeth with resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2018-01-01

    For a long time, the primary choice for initial restoration of a crown-fractured front tooth has been resin composite material. The restoration can in most cases be performed immediately after injury if there is no sign of periodontal injury. The method’s adhesive character is conservative to tooth...... present an aesthetic problem due to exposure of un-aesthetic crown-margins. The invasive permanent crown restorations are therefore often not suc-cessful on a long-term scale. On the other hand, a conservative direct restoration of an extensively fractured incisor crown with resin composite may......-structure and with minimal risk of pulpal complication. In addition, it offers an aesthetic solution to the patient immediately after an injury, which may bring a little comfort in a sad situation. The resin composite build-up is often changed or repaired a couple of times, before the tooth is restored with a porcelain...

  15. Incineration of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki

    1990-01-01

    It is a pressing need to reduce radioactive waste which is generated from the maintenance and operation of a nuclear power plant. Incineration of low level combustible solid waste such as polyethylene seats, paper and others have been successfully performed since 1984 at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore, for extending incineration treatment to spent ion exchange resin, the incineration test was carried out in 1989. However, as the cation exchange resin contains sulfur and then incineration generates SOx gases, so the components of this facility will be in a corrosive environment. We surveyed incineration conditions to improve the corrosive environment at the exhaust gas treatment system. This paper includes these test results and improved method to incinerate spent ion exchange resin. (author)

  16. Comparative study of resin sealant and resin modified glass ionomer as pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Malek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the marginal integrity of resin modified glass ionomer cement with that of resin sealant, in vitro. Forty artificial pit and fissure cavities were prepared in occlusal surface of extracted premolar teeth by using ¼ round carbide bur. Cavities were condensed with artificial organic debris followed by cleaning with prophylaxis pumice brush and paste and then separated into two treatment groups. In Group A, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin sealant and in Group B, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant. These specimens were subjected to thermo-cycling followed by dye penetration test. The remaining 5 cavities from each group were analyzed for debris score by the SEM. The results of the microleakage test showed that the efficacy of preventing microleakage of samples sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant was higher than the samples sealed by resin sealant. However, no significant differences were found. It can be concluded that use of resin modified glass ionomer sealant is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures.

  17. Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G

    2014-11-01

    Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The μ-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates.

  18. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  19. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five... revocation of the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely...

  20. Development of amino resin for paint formulation: Copolymerization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... IR spectroscopy and macro phase separation techniques. At a given TEA ... form aldehyde emission from urea formaldehyde resin through one step ..... of resin molecules (Barminas and Osemeahon, 2007;. Sekaran et al.

  1. Composite resin fillings and inlays: An 11-year evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, U.; Qvist, V.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical trial, composite resin, direct restorations, indirect restorations, long-term behaviour, posterior teeth......Clinical trial, composite resin, direct restorations, indirect restorations, long-term behaviour, posterior teeth...

  2. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  3. Thermal behavior of halogenated imidebismaleimide resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, A.; Al-Halim, N.Z.

    1995-01-01

    Several new poly-halogenated malecimides, bismaleimides and therir copoly resins were synthessised thermally from their corresponding amic acids. The synthesis was accomplished by two way method (amic acid-polimide) instead of the well-known three way method (amic acid-imide-polyimide). Thermal characterization of monomers and their cured resins was achieved using differential thermal analysis (DTA), dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA). The effect of halogen substituent, especially in the ortho postion, is clear in the imidization proces, while polymerization proceeds almost equally in all systems. Thermal properties of homo and copolymers were correlated with their chemical structures. (author). 15 refs., 4

  4. Understanding of the color in composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Park

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In clinic, esthetic restoration of a defective natural tooth with composite resin is challenging procedure and needs complete understanding of the color of tooth itself and materials used. The optical characteristics of the composites are different because the chemical compositions and microstructures are not same. This review provided basic knowledge of the color and the color measurement devices, and analyze the color of the natural tooth. Further, the accuracy of the shade tab, color of the composite resins before and after curing, effect of the water, food and bleaching agent, and translucency, opalescence, and fluorescence effects were evaluated.

  5. Study on the Novel Dicyanate Ester Resin Containing Naphthalene Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Qiang YAN; Hong Yun PENG; Li JI; Guo Rong QI

    2004-01-01

    The novel dicyanate ester resin containing naphthalene unit (DNCY) was synthesized, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and elemental analysis (EA).The thermal properties of DNCY resin was studied by thermal degradation analysis at a heating rate of 10 (C /min-1 in N2 and air. The DNCY resin exhibited better thermal and thermal-oxidative stability than bisphenol A dicyanate (BACY) resin.

  6. Modification of Aliphatic Petroleum Resin by Peracetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bondaletov, Vladimir Grigoryevich; Bondaletova, Lyudmila Ivanovna; Hamlenko, A.; Bondaletov, Oleg Vladimirovich; Starovoit, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining modified aliphatic resin (PRC5) by means of petroleum resin oxidation by peracetic acid. We have experimentally determined oxidation conditions that lead to producing resin with maximum epoxy and acid numbers. Ratio of "oxidative system: PRC5" is 0.5:1, process duration is 2 hours. The modified resin structure is determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  7. Performances and improvement of copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fenfen; Zhang Hao; Sun Haijun; Liu Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin is tested to examine its performances including effluent water quality and capacity of deoxidisation. By the means of changing the resin type and regeneration, the deoxidising capacity of the resin can be improved to 13 times more than before. At the same time, physical performances of the resin are also greatly improved while maintaining its velocity of deoxidisation and effluent quality. (authors)

  8. Recovery of tretrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery of the tretrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q=kC''n. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20 degree centigree. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin. (Author) 6 refs

  9. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  10. Evaluation of an Experimental Adhesive Resin for Orthodontic Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgesh, B. H.; Alkheraif, A. A.; Pavithra, D.; Hashem, M. I.; Alkhudhairy, F.; Elsharawy, M.; Divakar, D. D.; Vallittu, P. K.; Matinlinna, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of an experimental adhesive resin for orthodontic bonding by measuring some the chemical and mechanical properties. The resin demonstrated increased values of nanohardness and elastic modulus, but the differences were not significant compared with those for the Transbond XT adhesives. The experimental adhesive resin could be a feasible choice or a substitute for the traditional bis-GMA-based resins used in bonding orthodontic attachments.

  11. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50 Section 414.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The provisions... the products classified under SIC 28214 thermosetting resins including those resins and resin groups...

  12. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.

  13. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device that consists of a water...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the...

  17. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for use in a two-step dental mold fabricating... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670 Section...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface of molded...

  1. Evaluation of some anionic exchange resins as potential tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of resin concentration and compression force on the properties of tablets using the selected resin was investigated. In addition, the disintegrant efficacy of the selected resin in the tablet formulations containing either a basic drug, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DMP), or an acidic drug, e.g., diclofenac ...

  2. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Dahlan; Harun, Abdul Ghani [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive.

  3. 21 CFR 177.2430 - Polyether resins, chlorinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyether resins, chlorinated. 177.2430 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2430 Polyether resins, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyether resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use in...

  4. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Abdul Ghani Harun

    1993-01-01

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive

  5. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2 and after (B2. It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  7. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  8. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  9. Resin Flow in Fiber Preformed by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding with Flexible Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Shokrieh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, as a sub-branch of RTM is a method of manufacturing composite specimens. Considering the industrial development of this method, different modified techniques are designed to improve its performance. Among these techniques, using a half flexible mold is regarded as an important method. In this work, dominant equations of resin flow through the mold in polar coordinates are solved analytically. Based on this approach, closed-form solutions have been presented for different parameters such as thickness variation of preformed fiber, resin pressure, resin velocity and fiber volume fraction as functions of two variables, namely, time and the distance from injection port. After verification of the approach employed in this work, the results are presented. Important parameters influencing the quality and the rate production are studied in detail.

  10. 21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyarylate resins. 177.1555 Section 177.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... in contact with all foods except beverages containing more than 8 volume percent ethanol under...

  11. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O.

    2001-01-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  12. [Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A resin-bonded fixed partial denture is a prosthetic construction which can replace I or several teeth in an occlusal system and which comprises a pontic element which is adhesively attached to 1 or more abutment teeth. To compensate for the limited shear strength of the adhesive layer, the Jixed

  13. Studies on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J. M.; Hou, T. H.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1987-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resins has been formulated. The model is developed by modifying the well-established Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By introducing a relationship between the glass transition temperature Tg(t) and the degree of cure alpha(t) of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants C sub 1 (t) and C sub 2 (t) were determined from the isothermal cure data. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data. This work represents progress toward establishing a chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformation of the thermosetting resin systems during cure.

  14. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Polyestercarbonate resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for use in producing.... Copies are available from the Office of Premarket Approval, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition... examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100...

  15. Effect of Resin Extract from Commiphora swynnertonii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    of Commiphora swynnertonii resin on biochemical parameters in rats was investigated. Sixty rats were ... significantly elevated protein and albumin levels but had no significant effect on bilirubin and all the liver enzymes in the rats. These findings are ... hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects against high fat diet- induced ...

  16. Evaluation of resins for use in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Luiz Claudio F.M. Garcia; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Santos, Ana Maria M., E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b, E-mail: amms@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment where radioactive seeds or sources are placed near or directly into the tumor thus reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues. Prostate cancer can be treated with interstitial brachytherapy in initial stage of the disease in which tiny radioactive seeds with cylindrical geometry are used. Several kinds of seeds have been developed in order to obtain a better dose distribution around them and with a lower cost manufacturing. These seeds consist of an encapsulation, a radionuclide carrier, and X-ray marker. Among the materials that have potential for innovation in the construction of seeds, biocompatible resins appear as an important option. In this paper, we present some characterization results with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) performed on two types of resins in which curing temperatures for each one were varied as also the results of coatings with these resins under titanium substrates. Interactions of these resins in contact with the simulated body fluid were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  17. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  18. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  19. Incineration of ion exchange resins using concentric burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, T.; Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.; Kuriyama, O.; Yusa, H.

    1985-01-01

    A new incineration method, using concentric burners, is studied to reduce the volume of spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants. Resins are ejected into the center of a propane-oxygen flame and burned within it. The flame length is theoretically evaluated by the diffusion-dominant model. By reforming the burner shape, flame length can be reduced by one-half. The decomposition ratio decreases with larger resin diameters due to the loss of unburned resin from the flame. A flame guide tube is adapted to increase resin holding time in the flame, which improves the decomposition ratio to over 98 wt%

  20. Method for curing alkyd resin compositions by applying ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Murata, K.; Maruyama, T.

    1975-01-01

    An alkyd resin composition is prepared by dissolving a polymerizable alkyd resin having from 10 to 50 percent of oil length into a vinyl monomer. The polymerizable alkyd resin is obtained by a half-esterification reaction of an acid anhydride having a polymerizable unsaturated group and an alkyd resin modified with conjugated unsaturated oil having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per one molecule. The alkyd resin composition thus obtained is coated on an article, and ionizing radiation is applied on the article to cure the coated film thereon. (U.S.)

  1. Method for detecting resin leakage in LWR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    Resin leakage from condensate polishing units can result in steam generator corrosion. This report describes the development of a resin leakage detection method based in analyzing the organic breakdown products released from resin on heating. The breakdown products are analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Some of the organic products formed have been identified. A design for a resin monitoring unit, suitable for incorporation into the IONTRAC system, is presented. Theoretically, detection of ppB levels of resin by processing about one liter of water, is possible

  2. Extracorporeal adsorption therapy: A Method to improve targeted radiation delivered by radiometal-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemecek, Eneida R.; Green, Damian J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Pagal, John M.; Lin, Yukang; Gopal, A. K.; Durack, Lawrence D.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Wilbur, D. S.; Nilsson, Rune; Sandberg, Bengt; Press, Oliver W.

    2008-01-01

    antibody labeled with indium-111 (111In), seven patients received RIT with anti-CD20 antibody labeled with indium-111 for biokinetics and dosimetry, and therapeutic doses of antibody labeled with yttrium-90 (90Y). Performing the ECAT procedure at a rate that such that one blood volume per hour were circulated for 3 hours, resulted in mean radioactivity depletion of 96% in whole blood, 49% in whole body 49%, 62% in the lungs and 40% in liver and kidneys. There was no sufficient data to determine whether there was an improvement in the relative delivery of radiation to the tumor compared to normal organs by performing ECAT, but pharmacokinetic modeling studies suggested a potential therapeutic advantage using this approach. [refs] To evaluate the potential therapeutic advantages of ECAT, we performed biodistribution studies in nonhuman primates comparing the therapeutic ratios of radiation delivered using this approach to those delivered by conventional RIT alone. In addition, we evaluated lutetium-177 (177Lu) as an alternative isotope to optimize the delivery of RIT by improving the therapeutic index (target to non-target ratio)

  3. Dynamic map labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  4. Method of burning ion-exchange resin contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To process spent ion exchange resins to reduce their volume, without increasing the load on a off-gas system and in a stable state and at the same time not leaving any uncombusted portions. Method: The water slurries of the ion exchange resins contaminated with radioactive materials is dehydrated or dry combusted to reduce the water content. A binder is then added to solidify the ion exchange resin. The solidified ion exchange resins are then combusted in a furnace. This prevents the ion exchange resin from being dispersed by air and combustion gases. Furthermore, the solidified ion exchange resins in the form of small pellets burn from the surface inwards. Moreover the binder is carbonized by the combustion heat and promotes combustion to convert the ion exchange resins into a solid mass, making sure that no uncombusted portion is left. (Takahashi, M.)

  5. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J.

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper

  6. Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Resin Composites with Resin Modified Glass Ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha NA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There are controversial reports regarding physical and mechanical properties of resin composites and glass ionomer cements. Some revealed higher strength and hardness for resin composites while others showed a comparable value for glass ionomer cements. Evaluation of mechanical properties of different types of resin composites in comparison with resin modified glass ionomers is not widely studied. Objectives: To measure and compare the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of three resin composites and two resins modified glass ionomer cements before and after ageing. Materials and Methods: Three resin composites, i.e. Filtek Supreme XTE (3M ESPE, Ice (SDI, Gradia (GC, and two resins modified glass ionomers, i.e. Fuji II LC (GC and Riva Light Cure (SDI, were selected. Ten barshaped specimens were prepared for each material and cured using LED curing light. After 24 hours storage in distilled water at 37oC, the specimens were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=5. The first group was tested as a baseline and the second group was restored at 37oC for another 29 days. Flexural strength was performed by four-point bending test using universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min, and the maximum load at failure was recorded. The specimen’s halves were used for evaluating Vickers hardness, using a Digital Hardness Tester (300 g/15 sec and the Vickers hardness number (VHN was recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey’s and student’s t-test. Results: After 24 hours of immersion, the highest hardness number was found for Filtek Supreme and Ice and the highest flexural strength was obtained for Gradia. After 30 days of storage, hardness of Fuji II LC and Gradia showed a significant decrease; flexural strength of Ice and Fuji II LC revealed a significant increase while Gradia and Filtek Supreme showed a significant decrease. Conclusions: Resin modified glass ionomers showed

  7. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  8. RNase-gold labelling in primary roots of Zea Mays L.: evaluation of a particulate marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piche, Y.; Peterson, R.L.; Ackerley, C.A.; Rauser, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    RNase-gold complexes were applied to thin sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed and Spurr's resin-embedded corn root tips in order to assess the specificity of these gold complexes for RNA in meristematic cells. Numerous micrographs showed that among cellular compartments, nucleoli, nuclei and portions of the cytoplasm were densely labelled whereas cell walls and vacuoles were infrequently labelled. A number of controls used to test the specificity of the labelling showed that RNase-gold was bound to RNA in the cells. Quantitative evaluation of the labelling performed on the samples using morphometric and X-ray microanalysis confirmed the qualitative distribution of RNase-gold based on visual evidence. Minor discrepancies were apparent between morphometric and X-ray microanalysis results. These results show that corn root tissues fixed and embedded in this way retain RNA in a form which can be labelled effectively with RNase-colloidal gold complexes. (author)

  9. Studies on the preparation of labelled compounds for γ-scintigraphy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Park, Kyung Bae; Awh, Ok Doo

    1991-03-01

    To develop 99m Tc instant labelling kit of d,1-HMPAO and 131 I labelled IMP for the regional cerebral blood flow scintigraphic use, d,1-HMPAO and IMP were synthesized. The former was prepared from 2,3-butadione monoxim and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine in the presence of cation exchange resin, and then selective reduction of imine bond with sodium borohydride followed by fractional crystallization of diastereometric mixture of HMPAO. The latter was prepared by condensation of p-iodophenylpropanone with isopropylamine, and then reduction of double bond with sodium borohydride. For the preparation of 99m Tc labelled HSA, experiments on incorporation of bifunctional chelating agent of DTPA to HSA, establishment of optimal conditions of 99m Tc labelling, determination of labelling yield and radiochemical purity, and examination of stability were carried out. (Author)

  10. Ion-Isotopic Exchange Reaction Kinetics using Anion Exchange Resins Dowex 550A LC and Indion-930A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Singare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the characterization of ion exchange resins Dowex 550A LC and Indion-930A based on kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reactions for which the short lived radioactive isotopes 131I and 82Br were used as a tracers. The study was performed for different concentration of ionic solution varying from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L and temperature in the range of 30.0 °C to 45.0 °C. The results indicate that as compared to bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, iodide exchange reaction take place at the faster rate. For both the ion-isotopic exchange reactions, under identical experimental conditions, the values of specific reaction rate increases with increase in the ionic concentration and decreases with rise in temperature. It was observed that at 35.00C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.002 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the values of specific reaction rate (min-1, amount of ion exchanged (mmol, initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min and log Kd were 0.270, 0.342, 0.092 and 11.8 respectively for Dowex 550A LC resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.156, 0.241, 0.038 and 7.4 as that obtained for Indion-930A resins. From the results, it appears that Dowex 550A LC resins show superior performance over Indion-930A resins under identical experimental conditions.

  11. [Physical properties of resins for veneer crown. (Part 1) Bending strength of thermosetting methacrylic resins (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, T

    1979-01-01

    The physical properties of thermosetting methacrylic resins contain a kind or more than two kinds of cross linking agents were investigated. Knoop hardness and bending strength after drying, water sorption and thermal cycling were listed in table 4 and 5. Hydrophilic resins absorbed water about 3 times as much as hydrophobic resins. The materials contain a small amount of hydrophobic cross linking agents in MMA indicate comparatively excellent properties after drying, water sorption and thermal cycling. Knoop hardness of resins generally reduced by water sorption, especially in the case of the resin contains a large amount of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate.

  12. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  13. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  14. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  15. Development and application of high performance resins for crud removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Tatsuya; Izumi, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    The development of crud removal technology has started with the finding of the resin aging effect that an old ion exchange resin, aged by long year of use in the condensate demineralizer, had an enhanced crud removal capability. It was confirmed that some physical properties such as specific surface area and water retention capacity were increased due to degradation caused by long year of contact with active oxygens in the condensate water. So, it was speculated that those degradation in the resin matrix enhanced the adsorption of crud particulate onto the resin surface, hence the crud removal capability. Based on this, crud removal resin with greater surface area was first developed. This resin has shown an excellent crud removal efficiency in an actual power plant, and the crud iron concentration in the condensate effluent was drastically reduced by this application. However, the cross-linkage of the cation resin had to be lowered in a delicate manner for that specific purpose, and this has caused higher organic leachables from the resin, and the sulfate level in the reactor was raised accordingly. Our major goals, therefore, has been to develop a crud resin of as little organic leachables as possible with keeping the original crud removal efficiency. It was revealed through the evaluation of the first generation crud resin and its improved version installed in the actual condensate demineralizers that there was a good correlation between crud removal efficiency and organic leaching rate. The bast one among a number of developmental resins has shown the organic leaching rate of 1/10 of that of the original crud resin (ETR-C), and the crud removal efficiency of 90%. So far as we understand, the resin was considered to have the best overall balance between crud removal and leaching characteristics. The result of six month evaluation of this developmental resin, ETR-C3, in one vessel of condensate demineralizer of a power plant will be presented. (J.P.N.)

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  18. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  19. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  20. Nanomechanical properties of dental resin-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S; Akhtar, R; Silikas, N; Watts, D C

    2012-12-01

    To determine by nanoindentation the hardness and elastic modulus of resin-composites, including a series with systematically varied filler loading, plus other representative materials that fall into the categories of flowable, bulk-fill and conventional nano-hybrid types. Ten dental resin-composites: three flowable, three bulk-fill and four conventional were investigated using nanoindentation. Disc specimens (15mm×2mm) were prepared from each material using a metallic mold. Specimens were irradiated in the mold at top and bottom surfaces in multiple overlapping points (40s each) with light curing unit at 650mW/cm(2). Specimens were then mounted in 3cm diameter phenolic ring forms and embedded in a self-curing polystyrene resin. After grinding and polishing, specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. Specimens were investigated using an Agilent Technologies XP nanoindenter equipped with a Berkovich diamond tip (100nm radius). Each specimen was loaded at one loading rate and three different unloading rates (at room temperature) with thirty indentations, per unloading rate. The maximum load applied by the nanoindenter to examine the specimens was 10mN. Dependent on the type of the resin-composite material, the mean values ranged from 0.73GPa to 1.60GPa for nanohardness and from 14.44GPa to 24.07GPa for elastic modulus. There was a significant positive non-linear correlation between elastic modulus and nanohardness (r(2)=0.88). Nonlinear regression revealed a significant positive correlation (r(2)=0.62) between elastic moduli and filler loading and a non-significant correlation (r(2)=0.50) between nanohardness and filler loading of the studied materials. Varying the unloading rates showed no consistent effect on the elastic modulus and nanohardness of the studied materials. For a specific resin matrix, both elastic moduli and nanohardness correlated positively with filler loading. For the resin-composites investigated, the group-average elastic

  1. Study on the pyrolysis of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and modified PF resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jigang, E-mail: wangjigang@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Jiang, Haiyun [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 210013 (China); Jiang, Nan [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-12-10

    The pyrolysis of pure phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) modified PF resin was investigated by using thermogravimetry (TG) and pyrolysis gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (PY-GC/MS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were also employed to investigate the micro-structural evolution. It was shown from the TG analysis that the char residues of pure PF resin were 62.9 and 60.5% after being pyrolyzed at 700 and 1000 {sup o}C, respectively. The degradation and failure of the resin matrix were mainly resulted from the release of volatiles. The phenol and its methyl derivates took a large proportion in the amount of volatiles. In comparison with the pure PF resin, the char residues of B{sub 4}C modified PF resin were obviously higher, with the values of 71.9 and 68.4% at 700 and 1000 {sup o}C, respectively. Due to the oxidation-reduction reactions between B{sub 4}C additive and oxygen-containing volatiles including CO and H{sub 2}O, partial carbon and oxygen elements in the volatiles remained in the resin matrix in the forms of amorphous carbon and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. The results of SEM and FT-IR characterization demonstrated the occurrence of the modification, and the amorphous carbon existed in the form of reticular substance. In addition, the amount of the released phenol and its methyl derivates was also decreased drastically due to the formation of borate.

  2. Effect of Resin Coating and Chlorhexidine on Microleakage of Two Resin Cements after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shafie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluating the effect of resin coating and chlorhexidine on microleakage of two resin cements after water storage.Materials and Methods: Standardized class V cavities were prepared on facial and lingual surfaces of one hundred twenty intact human molars with gingival margins placed 1mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Indirect composite inlays were fabricated and thespecimens were randomly assigned into 6 groups. In Groups 1 to 4, inlays were cemented with Panavia F2.0 cement. G1: according to the manufacturer’s instruction. G2: with light cured resin on the ED primer. G3: chlorhexidine application before priming. G4: withchlorhexidine application before priming and light cured resin on primer. G5: inlays were cemented with Nexus 2 resin cement. G6: chlorhexidine application after etching. Each group was divided into two subgroups based on the 24-hour and 6-month water storagetime. After preparation for microleakage test, the teeth were sectioned and evaluated at both margins under a 20×stereomicroscope. Dye penetration was scored using 0-3 criteria.The data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and complementary Dunn tests.Results: There was significantly less leakage in G2 and G4 than the Panavia F2.0 control group at gingival margins after 6 months (P<0.05. There was no significant differences in leakage between G1 and G3 at both margins after 24 hours and 6 months storage. After 6months, G6 revealed significantly less leakage than G5 at gingival margins (P=0.033. In general, gingival margins showed more leakage than occlusal margins.Conclusion: Additionally, resin coating in self-etch (Panavia F2.0 and chlorhexidine application in etch-rinse (Nexus resin cement reduced microleakage at gingival margins after storage.

  3. Post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, A.U.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin using a digital microhardness tester. Change in hardness of these materials over a period of 6 months was compared to that of conventional glass ionomer cements and a composite resin. With the exception of the composite resin, all materials showed a significant increase in hardness over 24 h after their initial set. Dual-cure resin-modified glass ionomer cements showed decreased hardness with increased storage time in saline at 37 o C. Results suggest that the addition of resins to glass ionomer cements does not improve initial hardness and does not negate the acid-base reaction of conventional cements. Resin addition may, however, lead to increased water sorption and decreased hardness. (author)

  4. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  5. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Ikladious, N.E.; Eskander, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    PMMA was studied with the aim to evaluate its usefulness as an incorporation medium for the final containment of spent ion-exchange resins. The study of the effect of water content (ranging from 25 to 100%) of the incorporated resin into PMMA on the compression strength of the final solid products shows that with the increasing water content the compression strength of the final products decreases sharply. Hardness of the final products follows nearly the same trend of compression strength. Increasing gamma irradiation doses, up to 7.77x10 7 rad, PMMA shows increase in compression strength and hardness for small doses and then decreases with increasing irradiation dose due to the increase in polymerization process and the degradation of the incorporation medium

  6. Epoxy resins used to seal brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Natalia Carolina Camargos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment with brachytherapy is recommended for patients with cancer at an early stage. In this treatment, small radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate gland. These seeds are composed at least of one radionuclide carrier and an X-ray marker enclosed within a metallic tube usually sealed by laser process. This process is expensive and, furthermore, it can provoke a partial volatilization of the radionuclide and change the isotropy in dose distribution around the seed. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin. Three kinds of resins were utilized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in sodium iodine solution (NaI). The sealing process showed excellent potential to replace the sealing laser usually employed. (author)

  7. Lysine purification with cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayati, GH.; Mottaghi Talab, M.; Hamooni Hagheeghat, M.; Fatemi, M.

    2003-01-01

    L-lysine is an essential amino acid for the growth most of animal species and the number one limiting amino acid for poultry. After production and biomass removal by filtration and centrifugation, the essential next step is the lysine purification and recovery. There are different methods for lysine purification. The ion exchange process is one of the most commonly used purification methods. Lysine recovery was done from broth by ion exchange resin in three different ways: repeated passing, resin soaking and the usual method. Impurities were isolated from the column by repeated wash with distilled water. Recovery and purification was done with NH 4 OH and different alcohol volumes respectively. The results showed that repeated passing is the best method for lysine absorption (maximum range 86.21 %). Washing with alkali solution revealed that most of lysine is obtained in the first step of washing. The highest degree of lysine purification was achieved with the use of 4 volumes of alcohol

  8. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gastauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of the resin have been carried out. When handling the resin, all tarsi touch the resin while walking above it. For transportation from plants to the nest during foraging flight, the resin is packed to the corbicula via tarsi and basitarsi of front and middle legs. Once stuck to the resin or after the corbicula had been unloaded, the bee's legs have to be cleaned thoroughly. Only the tips of the mandibles, that form, cut and apply the sticky resin, seem to have at least temporarily resin-rejecting properties.

  9. Evaluation of the resin oxidation process using Fenton's reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Leandro G.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2013-01-01

    The ion exchange resin is considered radioactive waste after its final useful life in nuclear reactors. Usually, this type of waste is treated with the immobilization in cement Portland, in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, reducing the possibility of radionuclides release in to environment. Because of the characteristic of expansion and contraction of the resins in presence of water, its incorporation in the common Portland cement is limited in 10% in direct immobilization, causing high costs in the final product. A pre-treatment would be able to reduce the volume, degrading the resins and increasing the load capacity of this material. This paper is about a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Fenton's reagent. The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic and anionic resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25 to 80 mM), with and without external heat. The time of reaction was two hours. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%. The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of CaCO 3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ca(OH) 2 and the CO 2 from the resin degradation. It was possible to degrade the resins without external heating. The calcium carbonates showed no correlation with the residual resin mass. (author)

  10. 4-META opaque resin--a new resin strongly adhesive to nickel-chromium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Nagata, K; Takeyama, M; Atsuta, M; Nakabayashi, N; Masuhara, E

    1981-09-01

    1) A new adhesive opaque resin containing a reactive monomer, 4-methacryloxy-ethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), was prepared, and its application to thermosetting acrylic resin veneer crowns was studied. 2) The 4-META opaque resin was applied to a variety of nickel-chromium dental alloy specimens which had undergone different treatment, and endurance tests were conducted to evaluate the durability of adhesion. 3) Stable adhesion against water penetration was achieved with metal surfaces first etched with HCl and then oxidized with HNO3. A bond strength of 250 kg/cm2 was maintained even after immersion in water at 37 degrees C for 30 wk or at 80 degrees C for ten wk. Furthermore, this value did not decrease even after the specimens were subjected to 500 thermal cycles. 4) The 4-META opaque resin studied can eliminate the necessity for retention devices on metal castings. 5) The smooth 4-META opaque resin should have no adverse effects on gingivae.

  11. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resin systems, 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.; Huang, Joan Y. Z.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study on the changes of chemorheological properties has been conducted and analyzed on commercial Hercules 3501-6 resin system cured under several isothermal conditions between 375 and 435 K. For the cure temperatures equal to or greater than 385 K, the storage modulus curing curves, G prime (t), exhibited abrupt changes in slope which occurred at various times depending on the curing temperatures and were attributed to the onset of gelation reactions. The crossover points between G prime (t) and G double prime (t) curves were observed for curing temperatures equal to or greater than 400 K. The gelation and the crossover points obtained from the chemorheological measurements, therefore, defined two characteristic resin states during cure. Approximately the same value for the degree of cure was reached by the advancement of the reaction at each of these states. The temperature dependency of the viscosities for the characteristic resin states and the rate constants of increase in moduli at different stages of curing were analyzed. Various G prime (t) and G double prime (t) isothermal curing curves were also shown to be capable of being superimposed on one another by the principle of time-temperature superposition. The resultant shift factors a sub t(t) and a Eta(T) were shown to follow the Arrhenius type relationship. Values of the activation energy suggested that the reaction kinetics, instead of the diffusion mechanism, was the limiting step in the overall resin advancement for the cure at temperatures equal to or greater than 385 K.

  12. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Progar, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  13. Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

    2013-10-01

    Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

  14. Sequestration Resins for Accelerating Removal of Radioactive Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattini, Paul-L.; Wells, Daniel-M.; Garcia, Susan-E.; Richard, Kohlmann; Asay, Roger; Yengoyan, Leon

    2012-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is developing sequestration resins that can be used in the treatment of nuclear plant water streams for the enhanced removal of ionic cobalt. EPRI is focusing on three key areas of success: 1. Plant safety. The resins that are synthesized must be fully tested to determine that no leachable species or decomposition products (in the event of a resin bed failure) would be introduced to the plant. 2. Acceptable system performance. The resins are currently being synthesized in a powdered form for use in the reactor water clean-up and fuel pool clean-up systems that utilize pre-coatable filter elements. The resins must have effective flocking behavior; uniform application over the underlay resin and efficient removal from the septa elements after use. Bead type resins are also under development. 3. Enhanced cobalt removal. The resins are expected to out-perform the currently used ion exchange resins in the removal of ionic cobalt. During nuclear plant maintenance or refueling outages, current ion exchange resins may require several days to reduce concentrations of cobalt (for example, radio-cobalt 60 Co and 58 Co) and other activated corrosion products to safe levels in reactor coolant streams. This performance limitation often delays key maintenance activities. EPRI's resins are expected to provide at least a three-fold increase in removal capacity in light water reactor coolants. These resins also offer the potential for higher overall removal efficiencies reducing occupational exposures and waste management costs. This paper addresses issues from the range of novel resin development for radio-cobalt removal from synthesis at the bench-top level through scale-up to demonstration of use in an actual operating nuclear power plant. (authors)

  15. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor oil with melamine resin, has been studied by DSC method with programmed heating and in isothermal mode. The results determined from dynamic DSC curves were mathematically transformed using the Ozawa isoconversional method for obtaining the isothermal data. These results, degree of curing versus time, are in good agreement with those determined by the isothermal DSC experiments. By applying the Ozawa method it is possible to calculate the isothermal kinetic parameters for the alkyd/melamine resin mixtures curing using only calorimetric data obtained by dynamic DSC runs. Depending on the alkyd resin type and ratio in mixtures the values of activation energies of curing process of resin mixtures are from 51.3 to 114 kJ mol-1. The rate constant of curing increases with increasing the content of melamine resin in the mixture and with curing temperature. The reaction order varies from 1.12 to 1.37 for alkyd based on dehydrated castor oil/melamine resin mixtures and from 1.74 to 2.03 for mixtures with alkyd based on castor oil. Based on the results obtained, we propose that dehydrated castor oil alkyd/melamine resin mixtures can be used in practice (curing temperatures from 120 to 160°C.

  16. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  17. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  18. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    A new analytical model for chemoviscosity variation during cure of thermosetting resins was developed. This model is derived by modifying the widely used WLF (Williams-Landel-Ferry) Theory in polymer rheology. Major assumptions involved are that the rate of reaction is diffusion controlled and is linearly inversely proportional to the viscosity of the medium over the entire cure cycle. The resultant first order nonlinear differential equation is solved numerically, and the model predictions compare favorably with experimental data of EPON 828/Agent U obtained on a Rheometrics System 4 Rheometer. The model describes chemoviscosity up to a range of six orders of magnitude under isothermal curing conditions. The extremely non-linear chemoviscosity profile for a dynamic heating cure cycle is predicted as well. The model is also shown to predict changes of glass transition temperature for the thermosetting resin during cure. The physical significance of this prediction is unclear at the present time, however, and further research is required. From the chemoviscosity simulation point of view, the technique of establishing an analytical model as described here is easily applied to any thermosetting resin. The model thus obtained is used in real-time process controls for fabricating composite materials.

  19. Method of processing spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhide; Tamada, Shin; Kikuchi, Makoto; Matsuda, Masami; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of radioactive spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants, etc and process them into stable inorganic compounds through heat decomposition. Method: Spent ion exchange resins are heat-decomposed in an inert atmosphere to selectively decompose only ion exchange groups in the preceeding step while high molecular skeltons are completely heat-decomposed in an oxidizing atmosphere in the succeeding step. In this way, gaseous sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are generated in the preceeding step, while gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrogen requiring no discharge gas procession are generated in the succeeding step. Accordingly, the amount of discharged gases requiring procession can significantly be reduced, as well as the residues can be converted into stable inorganic compounds. Further, if transition metals are ionically adsorbed as the catalyst to the ion exchange resins, the ion exchange groups are decomposed at 130 - 300 0 C, while the high molecular skeltons are thermally decomposed at 240 - 300 0 C. Thus, the temperature for the heat decomposition can be lowered to prevent the degradation of the reactor materials. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

  1. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  2. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  3. Correlations of norbornenyl crosslinked polyimide resin structures with resin thermo-oxidative stability, resin glass transition temperature and composite initial mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.

    1988-01-01

    PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) methodology was used to prepare 70 different polyimide oligomeric resins and 30 different unidirectional graphite fiber/polyimide composites. Monomeric composition as well as chain length between sites of crosslinks were varied to examine their effects on resin thermo-oxidative stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured/postcured resins. A linear correlation of decreasing 316 C resin weight loss/surface area versus (1) decreasing aliphatic content, or (2) increasing benzylic/aliphatic content stoichiometry ratio over a wide range of resin compositions was observed. An almost linear correlation of Tg versus molecular distance between the crosslinks was also observed. An attempt was made to correlate Tg with initial composite mechanical properties (flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength). However, the scatter in mechanical strength data prevented obtaining a clear correlation. Instead, only a range of composite mechanical properties was obtained at 25, 288, and 316 C. Perhaps more importantly, what did become apparent during the correlation study was (1) the PMR methodology could be used to prepare composites from resins containing a wide variety of monomer modifications, (2) that these composites almost invariably provided satisfactory initial mechanical properties as long as the resins formulated exhibited satisfactory processing flow, and (3) that PMR resins exhibited predictable rates of 316 C weight loss/surface area based on their benzylic/aliphatic stoichiometery ratio.

  4. Resin Poliester Tak Jenuh Untuk Imobilisasi Resin Bekas Pengolahan Simulasi Limbah Radioaktif Cair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlan Martono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang imobilisasi resin bekas pengolah limbah trans-uranium denganresin poliester tak jenuh untuk mengetahui kualitas blok polimer-limbah sebagai fungsi kandunganlimbah. Polimerisasi dilakukan dengan mencampurkan resin poliester tak jenuh dengan katalisdengan perbandingan katalis 1% dari jumlah resin poliester tak jenuh yang digunakan, kemudianditambahkan limbah cair transuranium simulasi. blok polimer-limbah yang terjadi diukur densitas,kuat tekan dengan alat Paul Weber, dan laju pelindihan dengan alat soxhlet pada 100 0C dan 1 atmselama 6 jam. Blok polimer dibuat dengan kandungan limbah 10, 20, 30, 40, dan 50 % berat. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar kandungan limbah maka kuat tekan blok polimerlimbahsemakin kecil, sedangkan laju pelindihannya semakin besar. Berdasarkan kuat tekan dan lajupelindihan, maka hasil terbaik diperoleh untuk blok-polimer dengan kandungan limbah 20 % dan 30%.

  5. Chemical modification of protein a chromatography ligands with polyethylene glycol. II: Effects on resin robustness and process selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Justin; Zhang, Shaojie; Kirkby, Allison; Shachar, Enosh; Carta, Giorgio; Przybycien, Todd

    2018-04-20

    We have proposed chemical modification of Protein A (ProA) chromatography ligands with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) as a strategy to increase the resin selectivity and robustness by providing the ligand with a steric repulsion barrier against non-specific binding. Here, we report on robustness and selectivity benefits for Repligen CaptivA PriMAB resin with ligands modified with 5.2 kDa and 21.5 kDa PEG chains, respectively. PEGylation of ProA ligands allowed the resin to retain a higher percentage of static binding capacity relative to the unmodified resin upon digestion with chymotrypsin, a representative serine protease. The level of protection against digestion was independent of the PEG molecular weight or modification extent for the PEGylation chemistry used. Additionally, PEGylation of the ligands was found to decrease the level of non-specific binding of fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates to the surface of the resin particles as visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The level of aggregate binding decreased as the PEG molecular weight increased, but increasing the extent of modification with 5.2 kDa PEG chains had no effect. Further examination of resin particles via CLSM confirmed that the PEG chains on the modified ligands were capable of blocking the "hitchhiking" association of BSA, a mock contaminant, to an adsorbed mAb that is prone to BSA binding. Ligands modified with 21.5 kDa PEG chains were effective at blocking the association, while ligands modified with 5.2 kDa PEG chains were not. Finally, ligands with 21.5 kDa PEG chains increased the selectivity of the resin against host cell proteins (HCPs) produced by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells by up to 37% during purification of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) from harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) using a standard ProA chromatography protocol. The combined work suggests that PEGylating ProA chromatography media is a viable pathway for

  6. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  7. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a ... found in citrus fruits, other fruits, and some vegetables. Food companies might also list the amounts of other ...

  8. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  9. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  10. Effects of layering technique on the shade of resin overlays and the microhardness of dual cure resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Sang Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the color of layered resin overlays and to test the early microhardness of dual cure resin cement (DCRC light cured through the layered resin overlays. Resin overlays of 1.5 mm thickness were fabricated with the A3 shade of Z350 (Group 1L, the A3B and A3E shades of Supreme XT (Group 2L, and the A3, E3, and T1 shades of Sinfony (Group 3L using one, two, and three layers, respectively (n = 7. Each layer of the resin overlays was set in equal thickness. The color of the resin overlays was measured with a colorimeter and compared with an A3 shade resin denture tooth. DCRC was light cured through the resin overlays, and the early microhardness of the DCRC was measured. The ΔE value between the denture tooth and the resin overlays and the Vickers hardness number (VHN of the DCRC were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test. The color differences were 8.9 ± 0.5, 5.3 ± 1.0, and 7.3 ± 0.5 and the VHNs were 19.4 ± 1.1, 21.1 ± 0.9, and 29.3 ± 0.6 for Groups 1L, 2L, and 3L, respectively. Therefore, to match the designated tooth color of resin inlays and to increase the early microhardness of DCRC, layered resin inlays are more appropriate than single-dentin-layer resin inlays. However, the translucent layer should be used cautiously because the color difference of resin inlays with a translucent layer was affected more than those without a translucent layer.

  11. Uptake of actinides by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin from acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaya Mohandas; Srinivasa Rao, V.; Vijayakumar, N.; Kumar, T.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of uranium and americium from nitric acid solutions by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin has been investigated. The capacity of the sulphonated resin exceeds the capacities of phosphinic acid resin and commercial cation exchange resin. Other advantages of the sulphonated resin for uranium and americium removal include reduced sensitivity to acidity and inert salt concentration. (author)

  12. Kinetic study of ion exchange in phosphoric acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    Uranium may be recovered as a by product of wet phosphoric acid using a method based on specific ion exchange resins. These resins called chelates contain amino-phosphonic functional groups. The resin studied in this work is a purolite S-940; uranium may be loaded on this resin from 30% P2O5 phosphoric acid in its reduced state. The influence of different parameters on the successive steps of the process have been studied in batch experiments: uranium reduction, loading and oxydation. Uranium may be eluted with ammonium carbonate and the resin regeneration may be done with hydrochloric acid.Ferric ions reduce the effective resin capacity considerably and inert fixation conditions are proposed to enhance uranium loading

  13. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables

  14. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.A.; Story, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  15. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  16. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... raising of animals, such as ``no antibiotics administered'' or ``vegetarian fed''; (4) instructional or... Standards and Labeling Policy Book includes animal production claims; omega fatty acid guidance; allergen... inclusion of Country of Origin Labeling on all labels; the production and sale of labels by USDA; developing...

  17. Analytical applications of resins containing amide and polyamine functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orf, G.M.

    1977-12-01

    A dibutyl amide resin is used for the separation of uranium(VI), thorium(IV), and zirconium(IV) from each other and several other metal ions. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) are determined in the presence of large excesses of foreign metal ions and anions. A practical application of the amide resin is studied by determining uranium in low grade uranium ores. The amide resin is also used for the selective concentration of gold(III) from sea water

  18. Analytical applications of resins containing amide and polyamine functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orf, Gene Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1977-12-01

    A dibutyl amide resin is used for the separation of uranium(VI), thorium(IV), and zirconium(IV) from each other and several other metal ions. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) are determined in the presence of large excesses of foreign metal ions and anions. A practical application of the amide resin is studied by determining uranium in low grade uranium ores. The amide resin is also used for the selective concentration of gold(III) from sea water.

  19. Analytical applications of resins containing amide and polyamine functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orf, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    Resins are prepared by chemically bonding N,N-dialkylamides and polyamine functional groups to Amberlite XAD-4. These resins are applied to the concentration of metal ions from dilute aqueous solution and the rapid separation of metal ions by high-speed liquid chromatography with continuous on-line detection of the eluent stream. A dibutyl amide resin is used for the separation of uranium(VI), thorium(IV), and zirconium(IV) from each other and several other metal ions. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) are determined in the presence of large excesses of foreign metal ions and anions. A practical application of the amide resin is studied by determining uranium in low grade uranium ores. The amide resin is also used for the selective concentration of gold(III) from seawater. A triethylenetetramine resin is used for the separation of copper(II) from equal molar amounts and large excesses of nickel(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), iron(III) and aluminum(III). Copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cobalt(II) and cadmium(II) are determined in the presence of large excesses of calcium(II) and magnesium(II). The resin was found to be selective for silver(I) and mercury(II) at low pH values and a rapid separation of equal molar amounts of copper(II) and silver(I) was performed. The resin was also found to have an affinity for anionic metal complexes such as iron(III)-tartrate when the resin is in the hydrogen form. A study of the retention of the anions chromium(III)-tartrate and dichromate at various pH values was performed to better understand the anion exchange properties of the resin. Triethylenetetramine resins were also prepared from polystyrene gel to make a resin with higher capacities for copper

  20. Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed.

  1. PEG-related polymer resins as synthetic supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial chemistry has become a significant part of the discovery and optimization process for novel drugs,affinity ligands,and catalysts.The polymeric supports play a key role in combinatory chemistry.Therefore,various kinds of functional polymer resins have been exploited as supports,reagents,and catalysts in organic synthesis.In comparison to the conventional Merrifield resins,the poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-related polymer resins have advantages including good compatibilities with polar solvents,good solvent absorbency and swelling properties.This review focuses primarily on the more recent work in the field of developing PEG-related polymer resins as supports for organic synthesis.

  2. Maleimido substituted cyclotriphosphazene resins for fire and heat resistant composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A new class of fire- and heat-resistant matrix resins have been synthesized by the thermal polymerization of maleimido substituted phenoxycyclotriphosphazenes. The resins have exhibited a char yield of 82 percent at 800 C in nitrogen and 81 percent at 700 C in air. Graphite-fabric laminates based on a resin of this class have shown a limiting oxygen index of 100 percent even at 300 C. Details of the fabrication of the resins and the composites and testing procedures are discussed.

  3. Low activity resin processing and disposal options review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, F.

    1996-01-01

    New processing options for low activity resin processing and disposal are available. This presentation reviews the economics and technical requirements associated with the following low activity resin processing options. (1) Bulk release resin. (2) Direct disposal. (3) Decontamination and bulk release of cleaned resin. New processing and disposal options have been developed during 1995. Commercial experience with each of these options will be reviewed and the economics associated with the processing method described in detail. Technical requirements for each option will be identified specifying the activity limits and operational requirements for implementation

  4. Spherical powder for retaining thermosetting acrylic resin veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Atsuta, M; Uchiyama, Y; Nakabayashi, N; Masuhara, E

    1978-03-01

    1. Nine different sizes of spherical powder were prepared, and their effectiveness as retentive devices was evaluated against those available commercially. 2. Smaller-diameter spherical powder (No. 5) gave the best results of all retaining devices tested. 3. The physical properties of the resins play an important role in the retentive strength with No. 5 retention beads. The retentive strength was reduced when brittle resin was used. 4. The retentive strength of the resin veneer was greatly affected by the angle of stress at the incisal resin. The retentive strength increased as the angle between the longitudinal axis of the specimen and the direction of stress decreased.

  5. Retrofitting Trojan Nuclear Plant's spent resin transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The spent resin slurry transport system at the Trojan Nuclear Plant operated by Portland General Electric Company is one of the most advanced systems of its type in the nuclear industry today. The new system affords the plant's operators safe remote sonic indication for spent resin and cover water levels, manual remote dewatering and watering capability to establish desirable resin-to-water volumetric ratios, reliable non-mechanical resin agitation utilizing fixed spargers, and controllable process flow utilizing a variable speed recessed impeller pump

  6. Resins characterization strategy at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenoy, A.; González, R.; Molleda, P.; Sánchez, L.; Herrera, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Consortium ENSA- Gas Natural Fenosa Engineering has a contract with Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) for the retrieval and conditioning of the resins. Before that, the project deals with resins characterization to verify the fulfillment the Bulgarian authorities’ requirements. The project includes all the resins generated during the operation of the BACKGROUND Resins characterization strategy at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant units 1, 2, 3 and 4, which were stored into six big dimensions tanks: four low tanks and two intermediate tanks. They only have a manhole above for tanks access. The methodology and the progress of the work are presented

  7. Treatment method for stabilization of radioactive exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideo, Oni; Takashi, Miyake; Hitoshi, Miyamoto; Toshio, Funakoshi; Yuzo, Inagaki.

    1988-01-01

    This is a method for eluting radioactive nuclides from a radioactive ion exchange resin in which it has been absorbed. First, the Cs in this resin is extracted using a neutral salt solution which contains Na + . The Cs that has been transferred to the neutral salt solution is absorbed and expelled by inorganic ion exchangers. Then the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr in said resin are eluted using an acidic solution; the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr that have been transferred to the acidic solution are separated from that solution by means of a diffusion dialysis vat. This process is a unique characteristic of this ion exchange resin treatment method. 1 fig

  8. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.)

  9. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.).

  10. Electro regeneration of iodide loaded resin. Contributed Paper RD-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Kumar, T.; Sree Kumar, B.; Seshadri, K.S.; Paul, Biplob

    2014-01-01

    Spent resins generated in the nuclear reactor contain essentially cationic activities due to Cesium, Strontium, Cobalt, and anionic activities due to Iodide, Iodate etc with activity loading to the extent of 0.1 Cim -3 and a surface dose of the order of 5 R. It is necessary to convert the spent resin into innocuous, reusable forms. An attempt has been made to regenerate Iodide containing spent resin into OH - electrolytically by using the OH - produced at the cathode compartment of an electrolytic cell. Results show that the regeneration of the spent resin containing Iodide could be completely accomplished electrolytically more efficiently than by addition of alkali. (author)

  11. Zinc and resin bonded NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.; Kaszuwara, W.

    2002-01-01

    Zinc and resin bonded NdFeB magnets were processed. Basic magnetic parameters as well as compressive strength were evaluated versus annealing temperature and volume fraction of the bonding agent. For the zinc bonded magnets phase composition was investigated. The additional NdZn 5 phase was found in the Zn bonded magnets after annealing. Comparison of the Zn and resin bonded magnets reveals higher remanence for the former and higher coercivity for the latter. For the Zn and resin bonded magnets, 15 wt.% Zn / 370 o C and 7-10 wt.% resin were chosen as the optimal processing parameters. (author)

  12. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Modified ion exchange resins - synthesis and properties. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, F.; Klein, J.; Pohl, F.; Widdecke, H.

    1982-01-22

    Sulfomethylated resins are prepared by polymer analogous reactions, starting from macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrices. Different reaction paths are discussed and used in the synthesis. Sulfomethylation can be achieved by reaction of a chloromethylated resin with dimethyl sulfide and sodium sulfonate or alternatively by oxidation of polymer-bound thiol groups. Both methods give high conversions as shown by IR spectra and titration of the sulfonic acid groups. Poly(1-(4-hydroxysulfomethylphenyl)ethylene) (3) is obtained by reaction of poly(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene) (2) resin with formaldehyde/sodium sulfonate. The thermal stability, catalytic activity, and ion exchange equilibria of the sulfomethylated resin are investigated.

  14. Emission and Mechanical Evaluations of Vinyl-Ester Resin Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James

    2003-01-01

    Vinyl-ester resins (VE) are frequently used in liquid molding of composite materials for several applications including naval and army structures, commercial boat manufacturing, and building construction...

  15. Development of amino resins for emulsion paint formulation: effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Mirmohseni and Hassanzadeh, 2000). The resins were ... of absorption, slight changes occurred. ..... Urethane-Modified Alumina – Filled Polyesteramide Anticorrosive ... of Polyurethanes Using Ammonium Polyphosphate. J. Appl.

  16. Effect of repair resin type and surface treatment on the repair strength of polyamide denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Mustafa; Yanikoglu, Nuran; Bayindir, Funda; Ciftci, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different repair resins and surface treatments on the repair strength of a polyamide denture base material. Polyamide resin specimens were prepared and divided into nine groups according to the surface treatments and repair materials. The flexural strengths were measured with a 3-point bending test. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the post-hoc Tukey test (α=0.05). The effects of the surface treatments on the surface of the polyamide resin were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The repair resins and surface treatments significantly affected the repair strength of the polyamide denture base material (p0.05). The flexural strength of the specimens repaired with the polyamide resin was significantly higher than that of those repaired with the heat-polymerized and autopolymerizing acrylic resins.

  17. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  18. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  19. Carbon-13 Labeling Used to Probe Cure and Degradation Reactions of High- Temperature Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Johnston, J. Christopher

    1998-01-01

    High-temperature, crosslinked polyimides are typically insoluble, intractible materials. Consequently, in these systems it has been difficult to follow high-temperature curing or long-term degradation reactions on a molecular level. Selective labeling of the polymers with carbon-13, coupled with solid nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), enables these reactions to be followed. We successfully employed this technique to provide insight into both curing and degradation reactions of PMR-15, a polymer matrix resin used extensively in aircraft engine applications.

  20. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  1. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  2. Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ''Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program'' (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels

  3. Radioembolization using yttrium-90 microspheres as bridging and downstaging treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma before liver transplantation: initial single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, M R; Al-Sebayel, M; Broering, D; Alsuhaibani, H

    2015-03-01

    HCC is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and is the third most common cause of cancer related mortality. Moreover, the incidence of HCC is increasing. Surgical treatments for HCC including resection and/or transplantation provide the best curative outcomes in early stages. Unfortunately, many patients present at an advanced stage. Currently, locoregional therapies have an emerging role in the management of HCC for bridging to liver transplantation and for downstaging the disease to within transplant criteria. Radioembolization is among commonly used locoregional therapies. To describe our initial experience with the use of Therasphere® as bridging or downstaging modality before liver transplantation, including our institutional indications, technique and outcome. We retrospectively examined our database for liver transplantation after the use of Therasphere®. Nine patients were identified and reported. They were 5 females and 4 males. Their current age range is 40-72 years with a mean of 53.8 ± 9.5 years. Three patients had Therasphere® as downstaging treatment to our institutional transplantation criteria. Our institution is using UCSF criteria as a cut off limit for liver transplantation as primary treatment modality. The other 6 patients had Therasphere® as bridging for liver transplantation especially when other modalities are not possible. None of these lesions were treated by any other locoregional treatment before or after Therasphere®. Follow-up after liver transplantation ranged between 3.7 and 60.1 months (mean of 15.8 ± 17.7 months). All patients are still living, no retransplantation was done and none of them showed evidence of disease recurrence (100% graft, patient and disease free survival). Our initial experience showed that Therasphere® is a promising therapeutic tool for both downstaging and bridging of HCC before liver transplant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epoxy-resin adhesive and method for bonding using such an epoxy resin adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.; Poulis, J.A.; Benedictus, R.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an epoxy resin adhesive comprising a dotation of nano-substances, wherein the nano- substances are selected from the group comprising carbon-fibre nanotubes, carbon nano-fibres, silicate nano powders, and wherein the nano-substances are dispersed in the adhesive with a

  5. Evaluating resin-enamel bonds by microshear and microtensile bond strength tests: effects of composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mello de Andrade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of resin composite (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow Z350 and adhesive system [(Solobond Plus, Futurabond NR (VOCO and Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE] on the microtensile (μTBS and microshear bond strength (μSBS tests on enamel, and to correlate the bond strength means between them. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six extracted human molars were sectioned to obtain two tooth halves: one for μTBS and the other one for μSBS. Adhesive systems and resin composites were applied to the enamel ground surfaces and light-cured. After storage (37(0C/24 h specimens were stressed (0.5 mm/min. Fracture modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. RESULTS: The correlation between tests was estimated with Pearson's product-moment correlation statistics (α =0.05. For both tests only the main factor resin composite was statistically significant (p<0.05. The correlation test detected a positive (r=0.91 and significant (p=0.01 correlation between the tests. CONCLUSIONS: The results were more influenced by the resin type than by the adhesives. Both microbond tests seem to be positive and linearly correlated and can therefore lead to similar conclusions.

  6. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-01-01

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit

  7. Polymerization shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements – What do we need to know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José SOARES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polymerization shrinkage stress of resin-based materials have been related to several unwanted clinical consequences, such as enamel crack propagation, cusp deflection, marginal and internal gaps, and decreased bond strength. Despite the absence of strong evidence relating polymerization shrinkage to secondary caries or fracture of posterior teeth, shrinkage stress has been associated with post-operative sensitivity and marginal stain. The latter is often erroneously used as a criterion for replacement of composite restorations. Therefore, an indirect correlation can emerge between shrinkage stress and the longevity of composite restorations or resin-bonded ceramic restorations. The relationship between shrinkage and stress can be best studied in laboratory experiments and a combination of various methodologies. The objective of this review article is to discuss the concept and consequences of polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements. Literature relating to polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress generation, research methodologies, and contributing factors are selected and reviewed. Clinical techniques that could reduce shrinkage stress and new developments on low-shrink dental materials are also discussed.

  8. Polymerization shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements - What do we need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Rodrigues, Monise de Paula; Vilela, Andomar Bruno Fernandes; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2017-08-28

    Polymerization shrinkage stress of resin-based materials have been related to several unwanted clinical consequences, such as enamel crack propagation, cusp deflection, marginal and internal gaps, and decreased bond strength. Despite the absence of strong evidence relating polymerization shrinkage to secondary caries or fracture of posterior teeth, shrinkage stress has been associated with post-operative sensitivity and marginal stain. The latter is often erroneously used as a criterion for replacement of composite restorations. Therefore, an indirect correlation can emerge between shrinkage stress and the longevity of composite restorations or resin-bonded ceramic restorations. The relationship between shrinkage and stress can be best studied in laboratory experiments and a combination of various methodologies. The objective of this review article is to discuss the concept and consequences of polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements. Literature relating to polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress generation, research methodologies, and contributing factors are selected and reviewed. Clinical techniques that could reduce shrinkage stress and new developments on low-shrink dental materials are also discussed.

  9. Microwave Assisted Regioselective Bromomethoxylation of Alkenes Using Polymer Supported Bromine Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Kasinath, Viswanathan; Singh, N. D. Pradeep; Krishnan, V. P. Santhana; Solomon, K. Anand; Rajan, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    A facile regio- and chemoselective bromomethoxylation of alkenes under microwave irradiation conditions employing a new polymer supported brominechloride resin is reported. The resin is prepared from the commercially available chloride resin by a simple one step procedure.

  10. Microwave Assisted Regioselective Bromomethoxylation of Alkenes Using Polymer Supported Bromine Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Rajan

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile regio- and chemoselective bromomethoxylation of alkenes under microwave irradiation conditions employing a new polymer supported brominechloride resin is reported. The resin is prepared from the commercially available chloride resin by a simple one step procedure.

  11. Radiopharmaceutical labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop methods of attaching radionuclides to monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments for use in tumor imaging and internal radiation therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are of interest because they enable the selective targeting of tumors. The labeled antibodies could be employed as carriers to transport radioisotopes to tumors, thus minimizing total-body radiation dose and radiation damage to normal tissue. Because the time required for labeled antibodies to find the tumor antigen and deliver the dose to the tumor is estimated to be about 1-3 days, radionuclides with a l- to 3-day half-life would be optimum for this purpose. Two of the radionuclides produced at LAMPF, 67 Cu and 77 Br, have the suitable half-life and nuclear-decay properties for use in tumor imaging or therapy with radiolabeled antibodies. These radionuclides and the efforts to prepare radiolabeled antibodies with them are described. We have used three different approaches to meet this objective of labeling antibodies: (1) labeling chelating agents with metal radionuclides, then conjugating the labeled chelating agents to antibodies; (2) conjugating activated chelating agents to antibodies, followed by metalation with metal radionuclides; and (3) radiobrominating small molecules that can be conjugated to antibodies

  12. SHALLOW SHELL RESIN VERSUS TRADITIONAL RESIN: A CASE STUDY FOR Cu(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Arar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on Cu2+ removal by shallow shell resin (Purolite SST 60 and traditional strongly acidic cation exchange resin (Purolite PFC 100 was performed. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of  resin  dosage and  solution pH and contact time. Ion exchange reaction showed a pH depended feature.  Maximum removal of Cu2+ achieved  pH  from 2 to 5. Sorption isothermal data is well interpreted by the Langmuir equation. Additionally, kinetic experiments showed that the pseudo first-order model was suitable for such resins. The regeneration performance of shallow shell technology (SST resin is better than PFC 100.  A solution of 2M H2SO4 performed well in regenerationof SST 60 resin. On the other han maximum regeneration reached 80% for PFC 100 resin.Özet: Bu çalışmada, klasik iyon değiştirici reçine (Purolite PFC 100 ve  sığ kabuk  reçine (Purolite SST 60  ile Cu2+ giderilmesi incelenmiştir. Yapılan kesikli çalışmalarla Cu2+ giderilmesine, reçine miktarı, çözelti pH`ı ve temas süresinin etkisi incelenmiştir. Çözelti pH`ının 2 ile 5 arasında olduğu durumda Cu2+ iyonları tamamen giderilmiştir. Denge çalışmalarında elde edilen sonuçlar Langmuir izoterm modeline daha uygun olmuştur. Kinetik çalışmalarda elde edilen sonuçlar yalancı birinci mertebe kinetik modeline uygunluk göstermişir. SST 60 reçinesinin rejenerasyon verimi PFC 100 reçinesinden daha yüksektir. 2M H2SO4 ile SST 60 reçinesi tamamen rejenere edilmiştir.

  13. Electroactive polymer gels based on epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, A. B.; Jayakumar, S.; Jayalakshmi, C. G.; Pandey, K.; Sivaraman, P.

    2007-04-01

    Five types of epoxy gels have been synthesized from common epoxy resins and hardeners. Fumed silica and nanoclay, respectively, were used as fillers and butyl methacrylate/acrylamide were used as monomer(s) for making interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) in three compositions. Swelling study, tensile property evaluation, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and electroactive property evaluation were done. The gels have sufficient mechanical strength and the time taken for bending to 20° was found to be 22 min for forward bias whereas it was just 12 min for reverse bias.

  14. Epoxy resin-inspired reconfigurable supramolecular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Balkenende Diederik; Olson Rebecca; Balog Sandor; Weder Christoph; Montero de Espinosa Lucas

    2016-01-01

    With the goal to push the mechanical properties of reconfigurable supramolecular polymers toward those of thermoset resins we prepared and investigated a new family of hydrogen bonded polymer networks that are assembled from isophthalic acid terminated oligo(bisphenol A co epichlorohydrin) and different bipyridines. These materials display high storage moduli of up to 3.9 GPa can be disassembled upon heating to form melts with a viscosity of as low as 2.1 Pa·s and fully reassemble upon coolin...

  15. Isothermal aging effects on PMR-15 resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of PMR-15 polyimide neat resin were aged in air at temperatures of 288, 316, and 343 C. Weight losses and dimensional changes were monitored during the course of the exposure time. Physical changes were also observed by optical and electron microscopy. It was found that polyimide polymer degradation occurred within a thin surface layer that developed and grew during thermal aging. The cores of the polymer specimens were protected from oxidative degradation, and they were relatively unchanged by the thermal treatment. Surface cracking was observed at 343 C and was probably due to an interaction between voids and stresses that developed in the surface layer.

  16. Epoxy resin systems for FGD units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brytus, V.; Puglisi, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research work which is directed towards epoxy resins and curing agents which are designed to withstand aggressive environments. This work includes not only a chemical description of the materials involved, but the application testing necessary to verify the usefulness of these systems. It demonstrates that new high performance epoxy systems are superior to those which traditionally come to mind when one thinks epoxy. Finally, it discusses the results of testing designed specifically to screen candidates for use in FGD units

  17. Solidification of radioactive wastes with thermosetting resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Okamoto, O.; Kagawa, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Irie, H.; Matsuura, H.; Yasumura, K.; Nakayama, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Dried simulated radioactive wastes were solidified with thermosetting resin and their properties were investigated with laboratory scale and real scale products through extensive testings, such as mechanical resistance, resistance to leaching and swelling in water, radiation resistance, fire resistance and resistance to temperature cycling. The typical results were as follows: over 600 kg/cm 2 of compressive strength, diffusion constant of approx. 10 - 5 cm 2 /day for 137 Cs leaching from solidified waste products, no significant change was found for up to 5 x 10 8 RAD irradiation, and damages were limited to the surface of the products after the thermal test and dropping impact test. 7 figures, 4 tables

  18. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  19. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin - 12088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Rinehart, D.E.; Brown, G.N.; Peterson, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing Cs-137. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50 deg. C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow at elevated temperature (45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg., 65 deg., 75 deg. C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45 deg. C. Above 60 deg. C the resin appears to not load at all. It was observed that the resin disintegrated at 75 deg. C until not much was left and partially disintegrated at 65 deg. C, which caused the column to plug in both tests after ∼336 hours. The results indicate that WTP will lose resin loading capacity if the ion exchange process is performed above 25 deg. C, and the resin will disintegrate above 65 deg. C. Therefore, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures to perform the ion exchange process with this resin. PNNL and WTP are currently evaluating the operating limits of the resin in further detail. Aging in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} also caused the resin to lose capacity above 25 deg. C and to completely dissolve at 55 deg. C. Again, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures when eluting the resin with nitric acid in order to maintain resin loading capacity and avoid disintegration of the resin

  20. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  1. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  2. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  3. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  4. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  5. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60??ppm range of solid-state 13C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000??cm- 1) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH2) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both 13C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition in the soil for as little as 1000??years. The Morwell

  6. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Paul C. [Lyons and Associates Consultants, 206 Amber Road, Middleboro, MA 02346 (United States); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60 ppm range of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH{sub 2}) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition

  7. 21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 12,000, as determined by gel permeation chromatography in comparison with polystyrene standards, and... calorimetry. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic resins identified in paragraph (a) may contain... percent by weight as a residual solvent in the finished basic resin. (c) Extractive limitations. The...

  8. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornavoi, Denise Cremonezzi; Agnelli, José Augusto Marcondes; Panzeri, Heitor; Dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the color change of composite resins used in dentistry. Three composite resins were evaluated: Two microhybrids and one hybrid of higher viscosity, with different amounts and sizes of filler particles, shades C2 and B2. A total of 54 specimens were obtained (18 for each composite resin), made of a Teflon matrix (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height). The color measurements were obtained with a Spectrophotometer, (PCB 6807 BYK Gardner) before and after AAA. Data were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α >0.05), ANOVA and Tukey test (α 3). Considering the variable ∆E, it was observed that the color tone C2 was already statistically different for the microhybrid composite resin prior to AAA (P aging the composite resin hybrid of higher viscosity B2 showed the highest color variation rate and microhybrid with zirconium/silica C2 showed the lowest. All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2) and after (B2). It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  9. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents a preliminary study on obtaining and characterization of phenolic resin-based com- posites modified with nanometric silicon carbide. The nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating nanometric silicon carbide (nSiC) into phenolic resin at 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% contents using ultrasonication to ...

  10. Chemical tools: epoxic resins; Herramientas quimicas: resinas epoxidicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, S.; Pazos, M.; Prendes, P.

    1998-10-01

    Epoxy resins are very useful products for different applications in different fields. Due to the fact that they are a highly versatile products they can be considered as chemical tools. However the epoxy resins must be correctly formulated in order to obtain the final properties. In this article an easy and reliable method to optimise the energy formulation is presented. (Author)

  11. 21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., distilled water and 10 percent ethanol, when, following washing and pretreatment of the resin in accordance... paragraph (a)(18) of this section is used to treat aqueous sugar solutions subject to the condition that the temperature of the sugar solution passing through the resin bed is maintained at 82 °C (179.6 °F) or less and...

  12. Oligosilylarylnitrile: The Thermoresistant Thermosetting Resin with High Comprehensive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingcun; Ning, Yi

    2018-04-11

    One of the highest thermoresistant thermosetting resins ever studied so far, oligosilylarylnitrile resin, was investigated first in this study. Oligosilylarylnitrile was synthesized by lithium-reduced Wurtz-Fittig condensation reaction, and the prepared viscous resin exhibited moderate rheological behaviors while heated purely or together with 20% polysilazane as a cross-linking agent. The thermal curing temperatures were found by differential scanning calorimetry at 268 °C (pure) and 158 °C (with the polysilazane cross-linking agent), which is comparably close to that of polysilylarylacetylene resin (normally at 220-250 °C) but much lower than those of polyimide and phthalonitrile resins (normally >300 °C), indicating the admirable material processability of oligosilylnitrile. The cured oligosilylarylnitrile resins have extremely high thermal resistance, indicated by the results of thermogravimetric analysis (the mass residue at 800 °C is >90% under N 2 ) and dynamic mechanical analysis (the glass-transition temperature is >420 °C). The mechanical property of the oligosilylarylnitrile-matrixed silica-cloth reinforced laminate is comparably close to those of polyimide and phthalonitrile but much higher than that of polysilylarylacetylene, indicating the enviable thermal and mechanical properties of oligosilylnitrile. Thus, among the high-temperature resins ever studied so far, the oligosilylarylnitrile resin was found to have the almost best comprehensive characteristics of processability and properties.

  13. Mercuric iodide semiconductor detectors encapsulated in polymeric resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao F. Trencher; Santos, Robinson A. dos; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Oliveira, Adriano S.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M., E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disch, Christian; Fiederle, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg - UniFreibrug, Freiburg Materials Research Center - FMF, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The development of new semiconductor radiation detectors always finds many setback factors, such as: high concentration of impurities in the start materials, poor long term stability, the surface oxidation and other difficulties discussed extensively in the literature, that limit their use. In this work was studied, the application of a coating resin on HgI2 detectors, in order to protect the semiconductor crystal reactions from atmospheric gases and to isolate electrically the surface of the crystals. Four polymeric resins were analyzed: Resin 1: 50% - 100%Heptane, 10% - 25% methylcyclohexane, <1% cyclohexane; Resin 2: 25% - 50% ethanol, 25% - 50% acetone, <2,5% ethylacetate; Resin 3: 50% - 100% methylacetate, 5% - 10% n-butylacetate; Resin 4: 50% - 100% ethyl-2-cyanacrylat. The influence of the polymeric resin type used on the spectroscopic performance of the HgI{sub 2} semiconductor detector is, clearly, demonstrated. The better result was found for the detector encapsulated with Resin 3. An increase of up to 26 times at the stability time was observed for the detectors encapsulated compared to that non-encapsulated detector. (author)

  14. 21 CFR 177.2450 - Polyamide-imide resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2450 Polyamide-imide resins. Polyamide-imide resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as components of articles intended for... Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College...

  15. Branched polymeric media: Perchlorate-selective resins from hyperbranched polyethyleneimine

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Dennis P.; Yu, Changjun; Chang, ChingYu; Wan, Yanjian; Frechet, Jean; Goddard, William A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2012-01-01

    prohibitive when treating groundwater with higher concentration of ClO4 - (e.g., 100-1000 ppb). In this article, we describe a new perchlorate-selective resin with high exchange capacity. This new resin was prepared by alkylation of branched polyethyleneimine

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Dracaena cinnabari resin from Soqotra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Few studies showed that Dracaena cinnabari resin, collected from Soqotra Island, Yemen, has antimicrobial activity. This study is the first to investigate antimicrobial activity of the resin on both antibiotic multi-resistant human pathogens and on poly-microbial culture. Material and Methods: Antimicrobial activity ...

  17. Resin-Bonded Bridges in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Johannes Hilbrandt van der

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis in vitro and in vivo studies on the clinical application of resin-bonded bridges are described and discussed. The development of different types of resin-bonded bridges is described in chapter 1. The bridges are often made by boding a cast metal retainer fitted with and artificial

  18. Effect of photoactivation on the reduction of composite resin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Natalia A; Girotto, Luiza P S; Leite, Françoise H S; Mario, Débora N

    2017-06-01

    Composite resins are predominantly marketed in developing countries in tube form, and the contents of the tube may be used in numerous procedures for different patients. This represents a problem because of the risk of cross-contamination. This study aimed to evaluate contamination in vitro of the internal contents of composite resin tubes in the dental clinics of a higher-education institution, as well as the effect of photoactivation on the level of contamination. Twenty-five tubes containing composite resin were randomly chosen (by lottery). From each tube, two samples of approximately 2 mm of composite resin were removed, and then one sample, but not the other, was photoactivated. These samples were plated on Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI), Sabouraud and MacConkey agars, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24-48 h. Colony counting and Gram staining were performed for subsequent microscopic identification of fungi and bacteria. The non-photoactivated composite resin group presented significantly higher microbial contamination in relation to the photoactivated composite resin group. The photoactivation of camphorquinone present in composite resin produces reactive oxygen species, which might promote cell death of contaminant microorganisms. Thus, although the same tube of composite resin may be used for a number of different patients in the dental clinics of developing countries, the photoactivation process potentially reduces the risk of cross-contamination. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically

  20. Determination of degradation conditions of exchange resins containing technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera S, A.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.

    2014-10-01

    The quantification of Tc-99 in spent exchange resins, coming from nuclear power plants, is indispensable to define their administration. The Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter of 210000 years of half-life, volatile and of a high mobility in water and soil. For this reason, the objective of this work is to establish a digestion method of ionic exchange resins containing technetium that retains more than 95% of this radioisotope. Mineralization tests were carried out of a resin Amberlite IRN-150 by means of an oxidation heat, in acid medium, varying the resin mass, the medium volume, the media type, the temperature and the digestion time. The digested samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to estimate the grade of their degradation. The 99m Tc was used as tracer to determine the technetium percentage recovered after mineralizing the resin. The digestion process depends on the temperature and the resin mass. At higher temperature better mineralization of samples and to greater resin mass to a constant temperature, less degradation of the resin. The spectra beta of the 99m Tc and 99 Tc are presented. (Author)

  1. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shembish, F.A.; Tong, H.; Kaizer, M.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. METHODS: Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava

  2. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS) Resin with Polyester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    cobalt amine (accelerator), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst) to develop two sets of ... shell liquid (CNSL) resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. ... permit diffusion of water, this function is often not adequately ... When designed ... blades in gas turbine engines, wing leading edges and flaps.

  3. Method of heat decomposition for chemical decontaminating resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To make resin wastes into non-deleterious state, discharge them into a resin waste storage tank of existent radioactive waste processing facility and store and dispose them. Constitution: In the processing of chemical decontaminating resin wastes, iron exchange resins adsorbing chemical decontaminating agents comprising a solution of citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and EDTA alone or as a mixture of them are heated to dry, thermally decomposed and then separated from the ion exchange resins. That is, the main ingredients of the chemical decontaminating agents are heat-decomposed when heated and dried at about 250 deg C in air and converted into non-toxic gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 or H 2 O. Further, since combustion or carbonization of the basic materials for the resin is not caused at such a level of temperature, the resin wastes removed with organic acid and chelating agents are transferred to an existent resin waste storage tank and stored therein. In this way, facility cost and radiation exposure can remarkably be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Fiber-reinforced Composite Resin Prosthesis to Restore Missing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fiber-reinforced composite inlay-onlay FPD was used for a single posterior tooth replacement in a patient refusing implant for psychological reasons. The FRC-FPD was made of pre-impregnated E-glass fibers (everStick, StickTeck, Turku, Finland) embedded in a resin matrix (Stick Resin, StickTeck, Turku, Finland).

  5. Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

    Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

  6. Embedding of radioactive wastes by thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, A.; Traxler, A.; Limongi, A.; Thiery, D.

    The process for embedding radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins perfected and applied at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Center and its application to the treatment of radioactive wastes from Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants (PWR and BWR) are presented. The various types of wastes are enumerated and their activities and quantities are estimated: evaporator concentrates, ion exchange resins, filtration sludges, filters, various solid wastes, etc. The authors review the orientations of the research performed and indicate, for each type of waste considered, the cycle of treatment operations from rendering the radioelements insoluble to drying the concentrates to final embedding. The operational safety of the process and the safety of transport and storage of the embedded wastes are investigated. The essential technical features concerning the safety of the installation and of the final product obtained are presented. In particular, results are presented from tests of resistance to fire, irradiation, leaching, etc., these being characteristics which represent safety criteria. The economic aspects of the process are considered by presenting the influences of the reduction of volume and weight of wastes to be stored, simplicity of installations and cost of primary materials

  7. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolitetrademark NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900trademark, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material

  8. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  9. Removal of Uranium by Exchanger Resins from Soil Washing Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on AM-resin resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a batch-type washing with a 60 .deg. C heated 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions. If the uranium selectively removed from the waste solution, a very small amount of the 2nd waste would be generated. Thus, selective sorption of uranium by ion exchange resins was examined in this study.

  10. Impregnation of soft biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hagens, G

    1979-06-01

    A new method for impregnation of biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers is described. The method has the advantage that the original relief of the surface is retained. The impregnation is carried out by utilizing the difference between the high vapor tension of the intermedium (e.g., methylene chloride) and the low vapor tension of the solution to be polymerized. After impregnation, the specimen is subject to polymerization conditions without surrounding embedding material. The optical and mechanical properties can be selected by proper choice from various kinds of resins and different procedures, for example, by complete or incomplete impregnation. Acrylic resins, polyester resins, epoxy resins, polyurethanes and silicone rubber have been found suitable for the method. Excellent results have been obtained using transparent silicone rubber since after treatment the specimens are still flexible and resilient, and have retained their natural appearance.

  11. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... separation of the asphaltene constituents as a separate phase. Indeed, the absence of the resin fraction (produced by a variety of methods) from the maltenes influences the ability of the de-resined maltenes to accommodate the asphaltenes either in solution or as a stable part of a colloidal system. In spite....... Suggestions are also made regarding current thoughts of the role of these constituents on the structure and stability of petroleum....

  12. Synthesis of adhesive radiohardenable resins of the modified polyepoxide type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquacalda, J.-M.

    1972-01-01

    Eight adhesive radiohardenable resins of the modified epoxide type have been synthesized. Four were obtained from commercial resins: EPON 812, 827, 871 and ARALDITE 106. The synthesis of the four others required the development of analytical techniques to characterize of the reagents beforehand and then to identify the resins themselves. From a study of behavior under irradiation it seems that all the compounds obey a law of acrylic double bond disappearance with the logarithm of irradiation dose for which it is hard to find a detailed theoretical interpretation. The fracture of irradiated adhesive assemblies and their comparison has shown that for acceptable irradiation doses the synthesized resins, especially the product of Bisphenol A condensation on glycidyl acrylate, behave quite as well as polyepoxide resins without possessing the disadvantages inherent to the incorporation of standard chemical hardeners [fr

  13. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial orthodontic resin containing silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Min; Lee, Donghyun; Han, Seungheui; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Lim, Ho-Nam; Kwon, Il Keun

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we developed a hybrid dental resin containing silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) to eliminate periodontal disease causing bacteria such as streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus). The silver nanoparticles enables the resin to prevent oral pathogen growth during orthodontic therapy. First, AgNPs were directly synthesized in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent with a capping agent. Second, pure orthodontic primer was mixed with the synthesized AgNPs solvent-slurry followed by photocuring. The resultant material was characterized by physicochemical characterization. Finally, an in vitro antimicrobial test was carried out. The results showed that the AgNPs were fully synthesized and clearly embedded in dental resin. In the bacterial test, the dental resin containing AgNPs showed potent antimicrobial activity against two kinds of bacteria. In conclusion, our methodology may allow for the generation of a wide range of dental resin and composite products which inhibit periodontitis causing bacteria.

  14. Bio-phenolic resin from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zuhaili; Zakaria, Sarani; Roslan, Rasidi; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Amran, Umar Adli

    2018-04-01

    Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) in the production of bio-phenolic resin is an alternative way to reduce the dependency of petroleum-based phenol. In this study, resol type bio-phenolic resin (BPR) was synthesized from EFB fibers using sulfuric acid as the catalyst to produce liquefied empty fruit bunches (LEFB) followed by resinification reaction with formaldehyde in alkaline condition. The SEM image of LEFB residue showed separation of fiber bundles into individual fibers. This indicate that lignin was destroyed during the liquefaction process. The increased of formaldehyde/LEFB molar ratio has resulted an increase of viscosity, solid content and pH of the resin. The obtained FTIR spectra confirmed that functional groups of BPR resins was almost similar with commercial resin.

  15. Resin bleed improvement on surface mount semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoo, Indra Kumar; Tahir, Suraya Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Resin bleed is a transparent layer of epoxy compound which occurs during molding process but is difficult to be detected after the molding process. Resin bleed on the lead on the unit from the focused package, SOD123, can cause solderability failure at end customer. This failed unit from the customer will be considered as a customer complaint. Generally, the semiconductor company has to perform visual inspection after the plating process to detect resin bleed. Mold chase with excess hole, split cavity & stepped design ejector pin hole have been found to be the major root cause of resin bleed in this company. The modifications of the mold chase, changing of split cavity to solid cavity and re-design of the ejector pin proposed were derived after a detailed study & analysis conducted to arrive at these solutions. The solutions proposed have yield good results during the pilot run with zero (0) occurrence of resin bleed for 3 consecutive months.

  16. Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  17. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  18. The Language of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The author describes how the language of labels and her own cultural biases affect how she approaches teaching her students with disabilities. The author examines how the mythopoetic narratives of our past force us to examine the underlying assumptions of our culture that are expressed within our language and how understanding our own linguistic…

  19. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  20. A randomized controlled three year evaluation of "bulk-filled" posterior resin restorations based on stress decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    -hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono) layer. In the second cavity, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 3 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated...

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  2. Evaluation of ferrocyanide anion exchange resins regarding the uptake of Cs+ ions and their regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Hui Jun; Mooon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Chung, Won Yang

    2008-01-01

    Ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was prepared and the prepared ion exchange resins were tested on the ability to uptake Cs + ion. The prepared ion exchange resins were resin-KCoFC, resin-KNiFC, and resin-KCuFC. The three tested ion exchange resins showed ion exchange selectivity on the Cs + ion of the surrogate soil decontamination solution, and resin- KCoFC showed the best Cs + ion uptake capability among the tested ion exchange resins. The ion exchange behaviors were explained well by the modified Dubinin-Polanyi equation. A regeneration feasibility study of the spent ion exchange resins was also performed by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The desorption of the Cs + ion from the ion exchange resin satisfied the electroneutrality condition in the oxidation step; the desorption of the Fe 2+ ion in the reduction step could also be reduced by adding the K + ion

  3. Development, design, and preliminary operation of a resin-feed processing facility for resin-based HTGR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Drago, J.P.; Million, D.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel kernels for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. Resin-feed processing was developed and a facility was designed, installed, and operated to control the kernel size, shape, and composition by processing the resin before adding uranium. The starting materials are commercial cation exchange resins in the sodium form. The size separations are made by vibratory screening of resin slurries in water. After drying in a fluidized bed, the nonspherical particles are separated from spherical particles on vibratory plates of special design. The sized, shape-separated spheres are then rewetted and converted to the hydrogen form. The processing capacity of the equipment tested is equivalent to about 1 kg of uranium per hour and could meet commercial recycle plant requirements without scale-up of the principal process components

  4. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  5. Environmentally Compliant Vinyl Ester Resin (VER) Composite Matrix Resin Derived from Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    polycar- bonate and polyacrylate thermoplastic resins. Annual production of phenol in the United States (Dow) exceeds 650 million pounds with virtually...second method reacted glycidol with methyl methacrylate in the presence of 2, 4- dimethyl-6-tert.butyl phenol and potassium cyanide [24]. The mixture...presence of DCC and the second reacted glycidol with methyl methacrylate in the presence of potassium cyanide and 2, 4-dimethyl-6-tert.butyl phenol

  6. Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2014-03-25

    The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

  7. Evaluating resin-enamel bonds by microshear and microtensile bond strength tests: effects of composite resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de ANDRADE, Andrea Mello; MOURA, Sandra Kiss; REIS, Alessandra; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro Dourado; GARCIA, Eugenio Jose; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of resin composite (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow Z350) and adhesive system [(Solobond Plus, Futurabond NR (VOCO) and Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE)] on the microtensile (µTBS) and microshear bond strength (µSBS) tests on enamel, and to correlate the bond strength means between them. Material and methods Thirty-six extracted human molars were sectioned to obtain two tooth halves: one for µTBS and the other one for µSBS. Adhesive systems and resin composites were applied to the enamel ground surfaces and light-cured. After storage (37ºC/24 h) specimens were stressed (0.5 mm/ min). Fracture modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results The correlation between tests was estimated with Pearson's product-moment correlation statistics (α =0.05). For both tests only the main factor resin composite was statistically significant (padhesives. Both microbond tests seem to be positive and linearly correlated and can therefore lead to similar conclusions. PMID:21308290

  8. Characterization of monolith block of spent resin cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Endro-Kismolo; Isman MT

    1996-01-01

    Spent resin immobilization process with cement was done to prevent release of radionuclide in the ultimate storage or disposal. The varied Composition of water/cement ratio in the cementation process were 0.3; 0.4; 0.5 and the various weight of resin waste are 25 g, 37.5 g and 50 gram. The compressive strength of the various water/cement ratio without spent resin was bigger than 0.3. This investigation proved that the compressive strength of Tiga Roda cement was bigger than those of Gresik cement or Nusantara cement. The compressive of the cement block of were the spent resin cementation was influenced by the water/cement ratio and the total spent resin addition. The best condition reached at the water/cement ratio of 0.3 and 25 gram spent resin, was compressive strength of 17.86 N/mm 2 . Leaching rate of the various weight composition of spent resin cementation for 91 days were between 10 -2 - 10 -4 gram.cm -2 .day -1

  9. Phosphorus-containing imide resins - Modification by elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    The syntheses and general features of addition-type maleimide resins based on bis(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide and tris(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide have been reported previously. These resins have been used to fabricate graphite cloth laminates having excellent flame resistance. These composites did not burn even in pure oxygen. However, these resins were somewhat brittle. This paper reports the modification of these phosphorus-containing resins by an amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN) and a perfluoroalkylene diaromatic amine elastomer (3F). An approximately two-fold increase in short beam shear strength and flexural strength was observed at 7 percent ATBN concentration. The tensile, flexural, and shear strengths were reduced when 18 percent ATBN was used. Anaerobic char yields of the resins at 800 C and the limiting oxygen indexes of the laminates decreased with increasing ATBN concentration. The perfluorodiamine (3F) was used with both imide resins at 6.4 percent concentration. The shear strength was doubled in the case of the bisimide with no loss of flammability characteristics. The modified trisimide laminate also had improved properties over the unmodified one. The dynamic mechanical analysis of a four-ply laminate indicated a glass transition temperature above 300 C. Scanning electron micrographs of the ATBN modified imide resins were also recorded.

  10. Purification of degraded TBP solvent using macroreticular anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Kutty, P.V.E.; Janaradanan, C.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with a suitable diluent is commonly used for solvent extraction in Purex process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuels. This solvent gets degraded due to various factors, the main degradation product being dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). A solvent cleanup step is generally incorporated in the process for removing the degradation products from the used solvent. A liquid-liquid cleanup system using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution is routinely used. Considering certain advantages, like the possibility of loading the resin almost to saturation capacity and the subsequent disposal of the spent resin by incineration and the feasibility of adopting it to the process, a liquid-solid system has been tried as an alternate method, employing various available macroreticular anion exchange resins in OH - form for the sorption of HDBP from TBP. After standardizing the various conditions for the satisfactory removal of HDBP from TBP using synthetic mixtures, resins were tested with process solvent in batch contacts. The parameters studied were (1) capacity of different resins for HDBP sorption (2) influence of acidity, uranium and HDBP on the sorption behaviour of the latter (3) removal of fission products from the solvent by the resin and (4) regeneration and recycling of the resin. (author). 2 figs., 13 tabs., 17 refs

  11. Resin infusion of large composite structures modeling and manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, A.C. [Michigan State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The resin infusion processes resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI) and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are cost effective techniques for the fabrication of complex shaped composite structures. The dry fibrous preform is placed in the mold, consolidated, resin impregnated and cured in a single step process. The fibrous performs are often constructed near net shape using highly automated textile processes such as knitting, weaving and braiding. In this paper, the infusion processes RTM, RFI and VARTM are discussed along with the advantages of each technique compared with traditional composite fabrication methods such as prepreg tape lay up and autoclave cure. The large number of processing variables and the complex material behavior during infiltration and cure make experimental optimization of the infusion processes costly and inefficient. Numerical models have been developed which can be used to simulate the resin infusion processes. The model formulation and solution procedures for the VARTM process are presented. A VARTM process simulation of a carbon fiber preform was presented to demonstrate the type of information that can be generated by the model and to compare the model predictions with experimental measurements. Overall, the predicted flow front positions, resin pressures and preform thicknesses agree well with the measured values. The results of the simulation show the potential cost and performance benefits that can be realized by using a simulation model as part of the development process. (au)

  12. Application of THOR-Technology on resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Lindberg, M.

    2003-01-01

    The THermal Organic Reduction (THOR) process, developed and patented by studsvik utilises pyrolysis / steam reforming technology. The THOR-process provides a reliable and safe method for treating a wide variety of LLW in a unique, fluidised bed treatment system at moderate temperature. This technology is suitable for processing hazardous, mixed and dry active LLW with appropriate waste feed modifications. Both solid and liquid LLRW and ILRW streams including ion exchange resins, activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 4 Sv/hr can be processed. Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its facility at Erwin, Tennessee, USA. During this period studsvik has processed more than 1,5 thousand tons of radioactive ion exchange bead resins. powdered filter media and active carbon, with a cumulative total radioactivity of about 7 (E+8) MBq. Operations have demonstrated consistent, reliable, robust operating characteristics. Due to the widely varying characteristics of the incoming waste streams various efficiencies and volume reductions have been experienced. Input waste has varied in total inorganic content from 90%. A substantial element of this variability has been the ''soluble salt'' content of the input waste streams. Final reformed residue comprises a non-dispersible, granular solid which is suitable for long-term storage or direct burial in a qualified container. Special containers, THOR-liners, are available from studsvik for the transport of waste from the customer to the Erwin facility and HICs (high integrity containers) for transport of the residues to Barnwell. The paper will give an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing LLRW from commercial nuclear power plans. (orig.)

  13. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  14. Biocompatibility of acrylic resin after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijatini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylic resin as basic material for denture will stay on oral mucosa for a very long time. The polymerization of acrylic resin can be performed by conventional method and microwave, both produce different residual monomer at different toxicity. Acrylic resin can absorb solution, porous and possibly absorb disinfectantt as well, that may have toxic reaction with the tissue. Sodium Hypochlorite as removable denture disinfectant can be expected to be biocompatible to human body. The problem is how biocompatible acrylic resin which has been processed by conventional method and microwave method after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite solution. Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand in vitro biocompatibility of acrylic resin which has polimerated by conventional method and microwave after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite using tissue culture. Methods: Four groups of acrylic resin plate were produced, the first group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration and soaked in sodium hypochlorite, the second group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration but not soaked, the thirdwas one with conventional method and soaked and the last group was one with conventional method but not soaked, and in 1 control group. Each group consists of 7 plates. Biocompatibility test was performed in-vitro on each material using fibroblast tissue culture (BHK-21 cell-line. Result: The percentage between living cells and dead cells from materials which was given acrylic plate was wounted. The data was analyzed statistically with T test. Conclusion: The average value of living cells is higher in acrylic resin poimerization using microwave method compared to conventional method, in both soaked and non soaked (by sodium hypochlorite group. This means that sodium hypochlorite 0.5% was biocompatible to the mouth mucosa as removable denture disinfectant for 10 minutes soaking and washing afterwards.

  15. Preparation of extractive resins for producing terbium-161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cruz B, C. C.; Monroy G, F.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a methodology for extractive resins preparation to base of HDEHP, which allows to separation of Tb from Gd generating an own technology of preparation of these resins. The study included the extractive resins preparation from 6 different supports: kieselguhr Dg, alumina, red volcanic rock, chiluca, quarry and fluorite; two treatment types of of supports and varied concentrations of HDEHP extractant (di(2-etil hexyl) orthophosphoric acid), in order to determine which resin has improved efficiency of Gd and Tb separation, and radionuclide purity of 161 Tb. Resins were prepared to base of kieselguhr to determine the most appropriate silicon deposition process. Two silicon deposition treatments were realized: treatment I , by contact with silicon deposition solution (dimethyldichlorosilane / heptane 1:30) and treatment II by contact with vapors of dimethyldichlorosilane in vacuum. The extractant retention was carried out to different concentrations of HDEHP / acetone: 1:4, 1:8, 1:15, 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40. According to the results, there is not direct relation of HDEHP concentration used in extractive resins preparation to base of kieselguhr over the efficiency of Gd and Tb separation and of radionuclide purity of 161 Tb. The effect of support in the efficiency of Gd and Tb separation was studied to prepare resins with the supports kieselguhr, alumina, quarry, chiluca, volcanic rock and fluorite, using the silicon deposition treatment II for the supports and a concentration of HDEHP / acetone 1:20, for extractant retention. Only resins based on kieselguhr could separate to Gd from Tb quantitatively, the resin at a concentration of HDEHP / Acetone 1:20 was the best results obtained in Gd and Tb separation, achieving a separation efficiency greater than 90% and a radionuclide purity higher than 99%. (Author)

  16. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  17. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  18. EB curable wetting resins for magnetic media coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, L.; Ansel, R.E.; Murray, K.P.; Schmid, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic media industry is studying means to improve the recording density, durability, product uniformity and production efficiency and to reduce wetting agent migration in the magnetic film. The use of electron beam curable resin binders for magnetic coatings is one of the approaches being studied for this. This paper compares the wetting efficiencies of several electron beam curable systems with a conventional resin and a conventional wetting agent. In this study it has been demonstrated that EB resins can be designed to effect proper magnetic pigment dispersion

  19. Immobilization of ion-exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions, can be achieved using organic ion-exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilized in cement-based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres, giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. 26 tabs., 22 figs., 29 refs

  20. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% Ordinary Portland Cement 84% gg Blast Furnace Slag, 6% Microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This information was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)