Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir
The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) experience Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Conversations about mental health Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15–17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: “interested”, “foot in the door”, “respect for authority”, “careful”, and “not my topic”. Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: “engaged”, “initially hesitant”, “cautious”, “eager to please”, or “disengaged”. We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along
Frabutt, James M.
One in five youth in the United States is a child of an immigrant and children of immigrants are the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18. Consequently, there is a great need to better understand the psychosocial impact of immigration on children's mental health and adjustment. It is striking, however, that research on…
Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir
Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15-17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: "interested", "foot in the door", "respect for authority", "careful", and "not my topic". Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: "engaged", "initially hesitant", "cautious", "eager to please", or "disengaged". We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along better with some of the youth. These modes of interaction were categorized under: "favoritism", "familiarity", "frustration
Full Text Available There is growing recognition of the important role that eHealth Literacy strategies play in promoting mental health among youth populations. At the same time, youth engagement in mental health literacy initiatives is increasingly seen as a promising practice for improving health literacy and reducing stigma. The Health Literacy Team at BC Children’s Hospital uses a variety of strategies to engage youth in the development, implementation and dissemination of eMental Health Literacy resources. This paper reviews the evidence that supports the use of eHealth strategies for youth mental health promotion; describes the methods used by the Team to meaningfully engage youth in these processes; and evaluates them against three popular frameworks for youth participation and empowerment. The findings suggest that the Team is successfully offering opportunities for independent youth involvement, positively impacting project outcomes, and fostering youth empowerment. The Team could further contribute to the positive development of youth by creating more opportunities for youth-adult collaboration on eHealth Literacy initiatives.
Russell, Stephen T.; Fish, Jessica N.
Today’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified. PMID:26772206
Russell, Stephen T; Fish, Jessica N
Today's lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified.
Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge
Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…
Keyes, Corey L M
A continuous assessment and a categorical diagnosis of the presence of mental health, described as flourishing, and the absence of mental health, characterized as languishing, are proposed and applied to data from the second wave of the Child Development Supplement (CDS-II) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in which a comprehensive set of subjective well-being items were administered to a sample of 1,234 youth ages 12-18. Flourishing was the most prevalent diagnosis among youth ages 12-14; moderate mental health was the most prevalent diagnosis among youth ages 15-18. Depressive symptoms decreased as mental health increased. Prevalence of conduct problems (arrested, skipped school, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use) also decreased and measures of psychosocial functioning (global self-concept, self-determination, closeness to others, and school integration) increased as mental health increased. Findings suggest the importance of positive mental health in future research on adolescent development. 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Wilson, Jon; Clarke, Tim; Lower, Rebecca; Ugochukwu, Uju; Maxwell, Sarah; Hodgekins, Jo; Wheeler, Karen; Goff, Andy; Mack, Robert; Horne, Rebecca; Fowler, David
Young people attempting to access mental health services in the United Kingdom often find traditional models of care outdated, rigid, inaccessible and unappealing. Policy recommendations, research and service user opinion suggest that reform is needed to reflect the changing needs of young people. There is significant motivation in the United Kingdom to transform mental health services for young people, and this paper aims to describe the rationale, development and implementation of a novel youth mental health service in the United Kingdom, the Norfolk Youth Service. The Norfolk Youth Service model is described as a service model case study. The service rationale, national and local drivers, principles, aims, model, research priorities and future directions are reported. The Norfolk Youth Service is an innovative example of mental health transformation in the United Kingdom, comprising a pragmatic, assertive and "youth-friendly" service for young people aged 14 to 25 that transcends traditional service boundaries. The service was developed in collaboration with young people and partnership agencies and is based on an engaging and inclusive ethos. The service is a social-recovery oriented, evidence-based and aims to satisfy recent policy guidance. The redesign and transformation of youth mental health services in the United Kingdom is long overdue. The Norfolk Youth Service represents an example of reform that aims to meet the developmental and transitional needs of young people at the same time as remaining youth-oriented. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
de Haan, A.M.; Boon, A.E.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.
Objectives. There is an overall underutilization of youth mental health care (YMHC). It is unknown whether underutilization differs per ethnic group. Therefore, this study is aimed at gaining insight into the effects of ethnicity, age and gender on this utilization. Design. The sample consisted of
Poor mental health was perceived as a form of madness or insanity and it was associated with a loss of basic life necessities, such as access to food, education or shelter. The youths also identified factors that promote more successful orphans. The findings of this study suggest that Western terminologies and symptom ...
Burriss, F Antoinette; Breland-Noble, Alfiee M; Webster, Joe L; Soto, Jose A
Juvenile mental health courts for adjudicated youth. To describe the role of psychiatric nurses in reducing mental health disparities for adjudicated youth via juvenile mental health courts. ISI Web of Knowledge; Sage Journals Online; HighWire; PubMed; Google Scholar and Wiley Online Library and websites for psychiatric nursing organizations. Years included: 2000-2010. Juvenile mental health courts may provide a positive and effective alternative to incarceration for youth with mental health problems with psychiatric nurses playing a key role in program implementation. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gadeberg, A. K.; Montgomery, Edith; Frederiksen, H. W.
Background: It is estimated that children below 18 years constitute 50% of the refugee population worldwide, which is the highest figure in a decade. Due to conflicts like the Syrian crises, children are continuously exposed to traumatic events. Trauma exposure can cause mental health problems...... of the validated screening and measurement tools available for assessment of trauma and mental health among refugee children and youth. Methods: We systematically searched the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and PILOTS. The search yielded 913 articles and 97 were retained for further investigation. In accordance...... with the PRISMA guidelines two authors performed the eligibility assessment. The full text of 23 articles was assessed and 9 met the eligibility criteria. Results: Only nine studies had validated trauma and mental health tools in refugee children and youth populations. A serious lack of validated tools...
Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K
To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alan P. Bailey
Full Text Available An evidence–practice gap is well established in the mental health field, and knowledge translation is identified as a key strategy to bridge the gap. This study outlines a knowledge translation strategy, which aims to support clinicians in using evidence in their practice within a youth mental health service (headspace. We aim to evaluate the strategy by exploring clinicians’ experiences and preferences. The translation strategy includes the creation and dissemination of evidence translation resources that summarize the best available evidence and practice guidelines relating to the management of young people with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 youth mental health clinicians covering three topics: experiences with evidence translation resources, preferences for evidence presentation, and suggestions regarding future translation efforts. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes were both predetermined by interview topic and identified freely from the data. Clinicians described their experiences with the evidence translation resources as informing decision making, providing a knowledge base, and instilling clinical confidence. Clinicians expressed a preference for brief, plain language summaries and for involvement and consultation during the creation and dissemination of resources. Suggestions to improve the dissemination strategy and the development of new areas for evidence resources were identified. The knowledge translation efforts described support clinicians in the provision of mental health services for young people. The preferences and experiences described have valuable implications for services implementing knowledge translation strategies.
Yang, Julie; Kurdyak, Paul; Guttmann, Astrid
When the Government of Ontario launched a comprehensive mental health and addictions strategy, the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) was tasked with developing a scorecard for ongoing monitoring of the child and youth mental health system. Using existing administrative and survey-based healthcare and education data, researchers at ICES developed a scorecard consisting of 25 indicators that described at-risk populations, child and youth mental healthcare and relevant outcomes. This scorecard is the first in Canada to report on performance indicators for the child and youth mental health system and provides a model for monitoring child and youth mental health using routinely collected administrative data.
Broad, Kathleen L; Sandhu, Vijay K; Sunderji, Nadiya; Charach, Alice
Adolescence and young adulthood is a vulnerable time during which young people experience many development milestones, as well as an increased incidence of mental illness. During this time, youth also transition between Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS). This transition puts many youth at risk of disengagement from service use; however, our understanding of this transition from the perspective of youth is limited. This systematic review aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of youth experiences of transition from CAMHS to AMHS, through a qualitative thematic synthesis of the extant literature in this area. Published and unpublished literature was searched using keywords targeting three subject areas: Transition, Age and Mental Health. Studies were included if they qualitatively explored the perceptions and experiences of youth who received mental health services in both CAMHS and AMHS. There were no limitations on diagnosis or age of youth. Studies examining youth with chronic physical health conditions were excluded. Eighteen studies, representing 14 datasets and the experiences of 253 unique service-users were included. Youth experiences of moving from CAMHS and AMHS are influenced by concurrent life transitions and their individual preferences regarding autonomy and independence. Youth identified preparation, flexible transition timing, individualized transition plans, and informational continuity as positive factors during transition. Youth also valued joint working and relational continuity between CAMHS and AMHS. Youth experience a dramatic culture shift between CAMHS and AMHS, which can be mitigated by individualized and flexible approaches to transition. Youth have valuable perspectives to guide the intelligent design of mental health services and their perspectives should be used to inform tools to evaluate and incorporate youth perspectives into transitional service improvement
Burns, Barbara J; Phillips, Susan D; Wagner, H Ryan; Barth, Richard P; Kolko, David J; Campbell, Yvonne; Landsverk, John
This study assessed the relationship between the need for and use of mental health services among a nationally representative sample of children who were investigated by child welfare agencies after reported maltreatment. Data were collected at study entry into the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and were weighted to provide population estimates. Nearly half (47.9%) of the youths aged 2 to 14 years (N = 3,803) with completed child welfare investigations had clinically significant emotional or behavioral problems. Youths with mental health need (defined by a clinical range score on the Child Behavior Checklist) were much more likely to receive mental health services than lower scoring youth; still, only one fourth of such youths received any specialty mental health care during the previous 12 months. Clinical need was related to receipt of mental health care across all age groups (odds ratio = 2.7-3.5). In addition, for young children (2-5 years), sexual abuse (versus neglect) increased access to mental health services. For latency-age youths, African-American race and living at home significantly reduced the likelihood of care. Adolescents living at home were also less likely to receive services, whereas having a parent with severe mental illness increased (odds ratio = 2.4) the likelihood of service use. Routine screening for mental health need and increasing access to mental health professionals for further evaluation and treatment should be a priority for children early in their contact with the child welfare system.
Haan, Anna Marte de
This thesis focuses on differences between ethnic groups in youth mental health care (YMHC). Three subjects are elaborated: utilization of YMHC, given diagnoses in YMHC, and premature termination (dropout) of therapy in YMHC. The utilization of YMHC services is unequally distributed over different
Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J
Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Illback, Robert J; Bates, Tony
Young people in the Republic of Ireland do not have access to appropriate mental health services and supports, necessitating transformational change in delivery systems. Describe ongoing development and change efforts facilitated by Headstrong--The National Centre for Youth Mental Health. Discusses findings from a national needs assessment, core strategies within the change initiative, progress in system-building, and preliminary descriptive and outcome data. Five demonstration sites comprised of four counties and a city neighbourhood are operational and preliminary data are promising with respect to implementation and outcomes. Effective change initiatives require vision and leadership, competence- and capacity-building, participative planning and engagement, adequate and thoughtfully deployed resources, and a comprehensive change management approach. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Amminger, G Paul; Berger, Maximus; Rice, Simon M; Davey, Christopher G; Schäfer, Miriam R; McGorry, Patrick D
Adverse effects and lack of efficacy in a significant number of patients limit pharmaceutical interventions in youth psychiatry. This is exemplified by the fact that no medication is currently approved for the treatment of non-OCD anxiety disorders or major depressive disorder in young people younger than 18 years of age in Australia. Here, emerging biological therapies for youth with mental health problems are discussed. There is an urgent need for more research into biological interventions with acceptable risk-benefit balances. Omega-3 fatty acids, cannabidiol and N-acetylcysteine are currently being evaluated. If initial findings are confirmed, they may offer alternatives with more benign side-effect profiles than existing treatments.
Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Kernsmith, Poco D.
Introduction Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Results Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. Conclusions These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. PMID:27743623
Davis, Alaina M; Rubinstein, Tamar B; Rodriguez, Martha; Knight, Andrea M
Youth with rheumatologic diseases have a high prevalence of comorbid mental health disorders. Individuals with comorbid mental health disorders are at increased risk for adverse outcomes related to mental health as well as their underlying rheumatologic disease. Early identification and treatment of mental health disorders has been shown to improve outcomes, but current systems of care fall short in providing adequate mental health services to those in need. Pediatric rheumatologists are uniquely positioned to provide mental health screening and intervention for youth with rheumatologic diseases due to the frequency of patient encounters and ongoing therapeutic relationship with patients and families. However, additional training is likely required for pediatric rheumatologists to provide effective mental health care, and focusing efforts on providing trainees with mental health education is key to building competency. Potential opportunities for improved mental health education include development of clinical guidelines regarding mental health screening and management within pediatric rheumatology settings and incorporation of mental health didactics, workshops, and interdisciplinary clinic experiences into pediatric rheumatology fellowship curricula. Additional steps include mental health education for patients and families and focus on system change, targeting integration of medical and mental health care. Research is needed to better define the scope of the problem, determine effective strategies for equipping pediatric rheumatologists with skills in mental health intervention, and develop and implement sustainable systems for delivery of optimal mental health care to youth with rheumatologic diseases.
Boydell, Katherine M.; Pong, Raymond; Volpe, Tiziana; Tilleczek, Kate; Wilson, Elizabeth; Lemieux, Sandy
Context: There is insufficient literature documenting the mental health experiences and needs of rural communities, and a lack of focus on children in particular. This is of concern given that up to 20% of children and youth suffer from a diagnosable mental health problem. Purpose: This study examines issues of access to mental health care for…
Lori E Ross
Full Text Available Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 20 was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS ≥ 8 was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C ≥ 50 was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT ≥ 5 was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16-24 reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2% compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden.
DeWit, David J; Wells, Samantha; Elton-Marshall, Tara; George, Julie
We compared the mentoring experiences and mental health and behavioral outcomes associated with program-supported mentoring for 125 Aboriginal (AB) and 734 non-Aboriginal (non-AB) youth ages 6-17 participating in a national survey of Big Brothers Big Sisters community mentoring relationships. Parents or guardians reported on youth mental health and other outcomes at baseline (before youth were paired to a mentor) and at 18 months follow-up. We found that AB youth were significantly less likely than non-AB youth to be in a long-term continuous mentoring relationship. However, AB youth were more likely than non-AB youth to be in a long-term relationship ending in dissolution. AB youth were also more likely than non-AB youth to have been mentored by a female adult. AB youth were significantly more likely than non-AB youth to report a high quality mentoring relationship, regular weekly contact with their mentor, and monthly mentoring activities. Structural equation model results revealed that, relative to non-mentored AB youth, AB youth with mentors experienced significantly fewer emotional problems and symptoms of social anxiety. These relationships were not found for non-AB youth. Our findings suggest that mentoring programs may be an effective intervention for improving the health and well-being of AB youth.
Adkins, Elizabeth C; Zalta, Alyson K; Boley, Randy A; Glover, Angela; Karnik, Niranjan S; Schueller, Stephen M
Homelessness has serious consequences for youth that heighten the need for mental health services; however, these individuals face significant barriers to access. New models of intervention delivery are required to improve the dissemination of mental health interventions that tailor these services to the unique challenges faced by homeless youth. The purpose of this study was to better understand homeless youths' use of technology, mental health experiences and needs, and willingness to engage with technology-supported mental health interventions to help guide the development of future youth-facing technology-supported interventions. Five focus groups were conducted with 24 homeless youth (62.5% female) in an urban shelter. Youth were 18- to 20-years-old with current periods of homelessness ranging from 6 days to 4 years. Transcripts of these focus groups were coded to identify themes. Homeless youth reported using mobile phones frequently for communication, music, and social media. They indicated a lack of trust and a history of poor relationships with mental health providers despite recognizing the need for general support as well as help for specific mental health problems. Although initial feelings toward technology that share information with a provider were mixed, they reported an acceptance of tracking and sharing information under certain circumstances. Based on these results, we provide recommendations for the development of mental health interventions for this population focusing on technology-based treatment options. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Veale, Jaimie F.; Watson, Ryan J.; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
Objectives This study documents the prevalence of mental health concerns among Canadian transgender youth and makes comparisons with cisgender or mostly-cisgender population-based studies. This study also compares gender identity subgroups (transgender girls/women, boys/men, and non-binary) and age subgroups (14–18 year olds and 19–25 year olds) on mental health outcomes. Methods A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from across Canada completed a bilingual online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, healthcare settings, social media, and the researchers’ networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Results Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episode, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Risk ratios ranged from 3.8 to 16.1. Transgender boys/men and non-binary youth were most likely to report self-harm and non-binary youth also reported lower overall mental health. Rates of self-harm and suicide were lower in the 19–25 age group than the 14–18 age group, but reported overall mental health was the same across these age groups. Conclusions Although a notable minority of transgender youth reported good mental health, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Policy Implications These findings underscore the need for policies and laws protecting transgender people from discrimination, training for transgender competency for mental healthcare providers, providers, and further development of transgender-specific interventions to promote positive mental health and reduce mental health problems among transgender youth. PMID:28007056
Kidd, Sean A; Gaetz, Stephen; O'Grady, Bill
This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population. This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators. Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]). This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.
Alicea, Stacey; Pardo, Gisselle; Conover, Kelly; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary
African American and Latino youth who reside in inner-city communities are at heightened risk for compromised mental health, as their neighborhoods are too often associated with serious stressors, including elevated rates of poverty, substance abuse, community violence, as well as scarce youth-supportive resources, and mental health care options. Many aspects of disadvantaged urban contexts have the potential to thwart successful youth development. Adolescents with elevated mental health needs may experience impaired judgment, poor problem-solving skills, and conflictual interpersonal relationships, resulting in unsafe sexual behavior and drug use. However, mental health services are frequently avoided by urban adolescents who could gain substantial benefit from care. Thus, the development of culturally sensitive, contextually relevant and effective services for urban, low-income African American and Latino adolescents is critical. Given the complexity of the mental health and social needs of urban youth, novel approaches to service delivery may need to consider individual (i.e., motivation to succeed in the future), family (i.e., adult support within and outside of the family), and community-level (i.e., work and school opportunities) clinical components. Step-Up, a high school-based mental health service delivery model has been developed to bolster key family, youth and school processes related to youth mental health and positive youth development. Step-Up (1) intervenes with urban minority adolescents across inner-city ecological domains; (2) addresses multiple levels (school, family and community) in order to target youth mental health difficulties; and (3) provides opportunities for increasing youth social problem-solving and life skills. Further, Step-Up integrates existing theory-driven, evidence-based interventions. This article describes Step-Up clinical goals, theoretical influences, as well as components and key features, and presents preliminary data on
Wetterlin, Felicia M; Mar, Marissa Y; Neilson, Erika K; Werker, Gregory R; Krausz, Michael
Background Due to the high prevalence of psychological disorders and the lack of access to care among Canadian youth, the development of accessible services is increasingly important. eMental Health is an expanding field that may help to meet this need through the provision of mental health care using technology. Objective The primary goals of the study are to explore youth experiences with traditional and online mental health resources, and to investigate youth expectations for mental health...
O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey
The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…
Rhoades, Harmony; Rusow, Joshua A; Bond, David; Lanteigne, Amy; Fulginiti, Anthony; Goldbach, Jeremy T
LGBTQ youth experience increased risks of homelessness, mental health disorder symptoms, and suicidality. Utilizing data from LGBTQ youth contacting a suicide crisis services organization, this study examined: (a) rates of homelessness among crisis services users, (b) the relationship between disclosure of LGBTQ identity to parents and parental rejection and homelessness, and (c) the relationship between homelessness and mental health disorder outcomes and suicidality. A nationwide sample of LGBTQ youth was recruited for a confidential online survey from an LGBTQ-focused crisis services hotline. Overall, nearly one-third of youth contacting the crisis services hotline had experienced lifetime homelessness, and those who had disclosed their LGBTQ identity to parents or experienced parental rejection because of LGBTQ status experienced higher rates of homelessness. Youth with homelessness experiences reported more symptoms of several mental health disorders and higher rates of suicidality. Suggestions for service providers are discussed.
Perceptions of Recidivism Among Incarcerated Youth: The Relationship Between Exposure to Childhood Trauma, Mental Health Status, and the Protective Effect of Mental Health Services in Juvenile Justice Settings
Jamie R. Yoder
Full Text Available Research suggests that youth involved the juvenile justice system have trauma histories that are two times higher than the general youth population. Juvenile justice-involved youth also have high rates of mental health symptoms. Fewer studies have examined how trauma links to mental health symptoms among youth offenders, and even less research focuses on how mental health status and service delivery can impact their perceived likelihood for success. This study examines the effects of mental health screening and service delivery on perceived future criminal justice interactions— arrest and incarceration—among adjudicated youth (n=7,073 housed in correctional facilities. Secondary data were used to examine trauma histories, mental health needs, and mental health screening and service delivery. Significant relationships between traumatic events and mental health problems were found, along with relationships between mental health problems and mental health screening and service delivery. Most interestingly, results pointed to the strong inverse relationship between mental health service delivery and youth’s perceived likelihood for recidivism. These findings show the promise of juvenile justice systems appropriately responding to the mental health concerns of youth.
Merrill, Brett M; Warren, Jared S; Garcia, Darren J; Hardy, Sam A
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between youth motivation and psychotherapy outcomes in routine community mental health settings. One hundred fifty youth, ages 12-17, from three community mental health clinics completed the Youth Outcome Questionnaire and Treatment Support Measure at frequent intervals over the course of treatment. Increases in motivation followed a curvilinear trajectory. On average, youth motivation significantly increased over the course of therapy according to both self- and parent reports (p motivation over the course of therapy was negatively associated with the slope for mental health symptoms (p motivation did not predict overall change or the rate of change in symptoms. However, there was significant individual variability in patterns of youth motivation. Our findings demonstrate that youth show increases in motivation over the course of therapy with most gains occurring in the first few sessions. Because increases in motivation over the course of therapy were related to decreases in mental health symptoms, further research is needed to examine how treatment interventions or other factors such as parent motivation may moderate this relationship. Additional research examining the likely complex relationship between initial youth motivation and treatment outcomes in community mental health settings is needed.
Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Mondragon, Sasha A.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Burlingame, Gary M.
Objective: The authors compared symptom change trajectories and treatment outcome categories in children and adolescents receiving routine outpatient mental health services in a public community mental health system and a private managed care organization. Method: Archival longitudinal outcome data from parents completing the Youth Outcome…
Lee, Bethany R.; Lindsey, Michael A.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of the North Carolina Family Assessment Scale (NCFAS) among families involved with youth mental health services. Methods: Using NCFAS data collected by child mental health intake workers with 158 families, factor analysis was conducted to assess factor structure, and…
Moskos, Michelle A.; Olson, Lenora; Halbern, Sarah R.; Gray, Doug
Forty-nine suicide cases were drawn from an original sample of 151 consecutive youth suicide deaths. We used information from 270 interviews with parents and other survivors to evaluate mental health treatment sought for and by the decedent and barriers to mental health treatment. Participants reported the same primary barriers for the decedent:…
Beamish, Nicola; Cannan, Philippa; Fujiyama, Hakuei; Matthews, Allison; Spiranovic, Caroline; Briggs, Kate; Kirkby, Kenneth; Mobsby, Caroline; Daniels, Brett
This article presents results of an evaluation of an online Youth Ambassador (YA) program designed to promote internet resources for mental health in an adolescent population. Results suggest that an online YA program delivered in school is useful in improving mental health awareness for workshop participants. (Contains 1 table.)
Cox, Nele; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Dewaele, Alexis; Vincke, John
In this article, we examine the impact of acculturation strategies on minority stress and mental health in lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) youth in Flanders, Belgium. Building on previous identity minority studies and on the social stress model, we investigate how LGB youth acculturate within both the LGB subculture and mainstream society and how…
Hughes, Frank; Hebel, Lisa; Badcock, Paul; Parker, Alexandra G
Guiding principles are arguably central to the development of any health service. The aim of this article is to report on the outcomes of a youth mental health (YMH) community of practice (CoP), which identified a range of guiding principles that provide a clear point of comparison for the only other set of principles for YMH service delivery proposed to date. A YMH CoP was established in 2010 as part of the Victorian State Government approach to improving YMH care. An initial literature search was undertaken to locate articles on YMH service delivery. A number of common themes were identified, which the YMH community of practice (YMHCoP) members then elaborated upon by drawing from their collective experience of the YMH sector. The resultant themes were then refined through subsequent group discussions to derive a definitive set of guiding principles. These principles were then augmented by a second literature search conducted in July 2015. Fifteen key themes were derived from the initial literature search and YMH CoP discussions. These were refined by the YMH CoP to produce 10 guiding principles for YMH service development. These are discussed through reference to the relevant literature, using the only other article on principles of YMH service delivery as a notable point of comparison. The 10 principles identified may be useful for quality improvement and are likely to have international relevance. We suggest the timely pursuit of an international consensus on guiding principles for service delivery under the auspices of a peak body for YMH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Ng, Lauren; Kanyanganzi, Fredrick; Kirk, Catherine; Bizimana, Justin; Cyamatare, Felix; Mushashi, Christina; Kim, Taehoon; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Betancourt, Theresa S
In Rwanda, significant progress has been made in advancing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among youth. As availability of ART increases, adherence is critical for preventing poor clinical outcomes and transmission of HIV. The goals of the study are to (1) describe ART adherence and mental health problems among youth living with HIV aged 10 to 17; and (2) examine the association between these factors among this population in rural Rwanda. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted that examined the association of mental health status and ART adherence among youth (n = 193). ART adherence, mental health status, and related variables were examined based on caregiver and youth report. Nonadherence was defined as ever missing or refusing a dose of ART within the past month. Multivariate modeling was performed to examine the association between mental health status and ART adherence. Approximately 37% of youth missed or refused ART in the past month. In addition, a high level of depressive symptoms (26%) and attempt to hurt or kill oneself (12%) was observed in this population of youth living with HIV in Rwanda. In multivariate analysis, nonadherence was significantly associated with some mental health outcomes, including conduct problems (odds ratio 2.90, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.43) and depression (odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.04), according to caregiver report. A marginally significant association was observed for youth report of depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that mental health should be considered among the factors related to ART nonadherence in HIV services for youth, particularly for mental health outcomes, such as conduct problems and depression. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Ortega, Alexander N; Goodwin, Renee D; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Canino, Glorisa
Previous research documents an association of poor parental mental health with asthma in children. This study aims to determine whether the associations between parental mental health problems and childhood asthma attacks persist after controlling for childhood anxiety and depression and other confounding factors. A community household sample of youth ages 4 to 17 years and their primary caregivers from the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was studied to determine the associations between parental mental health and childhood asthma attacks. Regression models that predicted asthma attacks in youth controlled for parental mental health problems, childhood anxiety and depression, zone of residence, and parents' age, education, and perception of poverty. After adjusting for children's depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other important confounders, associations between parental depression, suicide attempts, ataque de nervios, and history of mental health treatment and asthma attacks in offspring, by parental report, persisted. Additionally, the frequency of parental mental health problems was associated with children's asthma attacks. Parents with mental health problems were more likely to report histories of asthma attacks in their children compared with parents without mental health problems in Puerto Rico. These associations were not attributable to internalizing disorders in youth but persisted independent of childhood psychopathology and other confounding factors. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the relations between poor parental mental health and childhood asthma and explore the potential role of family psychosocial and behavioral factors related to the manifestation of the disease.
McConnell, Elizabeth A; Birkett, Michelle A; Mustanski, Brian
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth show increased risk for a number of negative mental health outcomes, which research has linked to minority stressors such as victimization. Further, social support promotes positive mental health outcomes for LGBT youth, and different sources of social support show differential relationships with mental health outcomes. However, little is known about how combinations of different sources of support impact mental health. In the present study, we identify clusters of family, peer, and significant other social support and then examine demographic and mental health differences by cluster in an analytic sample of 232 LGBT youth between the ages of 16 and 20 years. Using k-means cluster analysis, three social support cluster types were identified: high support (44.0% of participants), low support (21.6%), and non-family support (34.5%). A series of chi-square tests were used to examine demographic differences between these clusters, which were found for socio-economic status (SES). Regression analyses indicated that, while controlling for victimization, individuals within the three clusters showed different relationships with multiple mental health outcomes: loneliness, hopelessness, depression, anxiety, somatization, general symptom severity, and symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Findings suggest the combinations of sources of support LGBT youth receive are related to their mental health. Higher SES youth are more likely to receive support from family, peers, and significant others. For most mental health outcomes, family support appears to be an especially relevant and important source of support to target for LGBT youth.
Lal, Shalini; Daniel, Winnie; Rivard, Lysanne
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are increasingly recognized as having an important role in the delivery of mental health services for youth. Recent studies have evaluated young people's access and use of technology, as well as their perspectives on using technology to receive mental health information, services, and support; however, limited attention has been given to the perspectives of family members in this regard. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of family members on the use of ICTs to deliver mental health services to youth within the context of specialized early intervention for a first-episode psychosis (FEP). Six focus groups were conducted with family members recruited from an early intervention program for psychosis. Twelve family members participated in the study (target sample was 12-18, and recruitment efforts took place over the duration of 1 year). A 12-item semistructured focus group guide was developed to explore past experiences of technology and recommendations for the use of technology in youth mental health service delivery. A qualitative thematic analysis guided the identification and organization of common themes and patterns identified across the dataset. Findings were organized by the following themes: access and use of technology, potential negative impacts of technology on youth in recovery, potential benefits of using technology to deliver mental health services to youth, and recommendations to use technology for (1) providing quality information in a manner that is accessible to individuals of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, (2) facilitating communication with health care professionals and services, and (3) increasing access to peer support. To our knowledge, this is among the first (or the first) to explore the perspectives of family members of youth being treated for FEP on the use of technology for mental health care. Our results highlight the importance of considering diverse experiences
Kretschmar, Jeff M.; Flannery, Daniel J.
This article examined the relationship between suicide behaviors and displacement, as defined by out-of-home placement, in a sample of juvenile-justice-involved youth with mental health issues. Participants included boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 18 who were enrolled in a juvenile justice diversion program for children with mental or…
Ferrari, Manuela; Suzanne, Archie
Family practitioners face many challenges providing mental healthcare to youth. Digital technology may offer solutions, but the products often need to be adapted for primary care. This study reports on family physicians' perspectives on the relevance and feasibility of a digital knowledge translation (KT) tool, a set of video games, designed to raise awareness about psychosis, marijuana use, and facilitate access to mental health services among youth. As part of an integrated knowledge translation project, five family physicians from a family health team participated in a focus group. The focus group delved into their perspectives on treating youth with mental health concerns while exploring their views on implementing the digital KT tool in their practice. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis to identify patterns, concepts, and themes in the transcripts. Three themes were identified: (a) challenges in assessing youth with mental health concerns related to training, time constraints, and navigating the system; (b) feedback on the KT tool; and, (c) ideas on how to integrate it into a primary care practice. Family practitioners felt that the proposed video game KT tool could be used to address youth's mental health and addictions issues in primary care settings.
Hamilton, Matthew P; Hetrick, Sarah E; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Baker, David; Browne, Vivienne; Chanen, Andrew M; Pennell, Kerryn; Purcell, Rosemary; Stavely, Heather; McGorry, Patrick D
To explore the potential utility of clinical stage and mental disorder categories as a basis for determining which attributes of youth mental health care should be offered to which groups of young people. In June 2017, we conducted an online survey of youth mental health clinicians that collected information on the participants' background and areas of expertise, then presented vignettes describing young people with different stages of six mental disorders (disorder-based vignettes were matched to participants' area of expertise). For each vignette, participants were asked to give a quantitative estimate of the proportion of young people with similar mental health problems they thought would clinically benefit from each of twelve attributes of mental health care (other than pharmacological or individual psychological therapies). Survey results were analysed as independent, disorder-based samples, using standard statistical tests of significance, and as a stratified sample using mixed-effects models. A total of 412 clinicians working in 32 countries participated in both parts of the survey. Respondents represented a broad range of clinical disciplines, settings and areas of expertise. Their estimated proportions of young people who would benefit from the mental health care attributes varied by clinical stage and disorder (eg, a mean of 93% [interquartile range (IQR), 90%-100%] of young people with Stage 2 psychosis were estimated to benefit from case management with a multidisciplinary team; while only 15% [IQR, 1%-25%] of young people with Stage 1b generalised anxiety disorder were estimated to benefit from collection and processing of biological samples). Neither the background of the respondents nor the sex of the characters in the vignettes significantly influenced the results. A combination of clinical stage and disorder information might be an appropriate basis for ensuring that the right attributes of early intervention mental health care are provided to the
Fullagar, Simone; Rich, Emma; Francombe-Webb, Jessica; Maturo, Antonio
In this paper, we offer a new conceptual approach to analyzing the interrelations between formal and informal pedagogical sites for learning about youth mental (ill) health with a specific focus on digital health technologies. Our approach builds on an understanding of public pedagogy to examine the pedagogical modes of address (Ellsworth 1997) that are (i) produced through ‘expert’ discourses of mental health literacy for young people; and (ii) include digital practices created by young peop...
Kalb, Luther G; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Mandell, David S; Olfson, Mark; Vasa, Roma A
This study compared management by child psychiatrists of mental health crises among youths with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A custom online mental health crisis services survey was administered to members of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The survey probed three domains of crisis management: willingness to work with youths with a history of mental health crisis, comfort level in managing a mental health crisis, and availability of external resources during a crisis. Child psychiatrists reporting on management of youths with ASD (N=492) and without ASD (N=374) completed the survey. About 75% of psychiatrists in both groups were willing to accept a child with a history of a mental health crisis in their practice. During a crisis, psychiatrists caring for youths with ASD had less access to external consultation resources, such as a crisis evaluation center or other mental health professionals, compared with those caring for youths without ASD. Psychiatrists also expressed concerns about the ability of emergency department professionals and emergency responders to manage mental health crises among youths in a safe and developmentally appropriate manner, particularly among those with ASD. Child psychiatrists are in need of more external resources to manage youths with ASD who are experiencing a mental health crisis. There is also a need to develop best practice procedures for emergency responders who are working with youths experiencing a mental health crisis.
Beiser, Morton; Hou, Feng
This report examines the role of pre- and post-migration trauma in explaining differences in refugee and immigrant mental health. Data were derived from mother-youth refugee and immigrant dyads from six countries of origin who were living in Canada at the time of the study. Youth reports of emotional problems (EP) and aggressive behavior (AB) were the mental health outcomes. EP and AB were regressed on predictor blocks: a) status (refugee versus immigrant), visible minority, and gender; b) premigration trauma and postmigration discrimination; c) parent and youth human and social capital; d) poverty, neighborhood, and schools. Refugees suffered higher levels of EP and AB, premigration traumas, and discrimination. Postmigration perception of discrimination predicted both EP and AB and explained immigrant versus refugee differences in EP. Antirefugee discrimination net of discrimination based on immigrant or visible minority status has deleterious mental health consequences.
Ferrari, Manuela; Suzanne, Archie
Objective Family practitioners face many challenges providing mental healthcare to youth. Digital technology may offer solutions, but the products often need to be adapted for primary care. This study reports on family physicians’ perspectives on the relevance and feasibility of a digital knowledge translation (KT) tool, a set of video games, designed to raise awareness about psychosis, marijuana use, and facilitate access to mental health services among youth. Method As part of an integrated knowledge translation project, five family physicians from a family health team participated in a focus group. The focus group delved into their perspectives on treating youth with mental health concerns while exploring their views on implementing the digital KT tool in their practice. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis to identify patterns, concepts, and themes in the transcripts. Results Three themes were identified: (a) challenges in assessing youth with mental health concerns related to training, time constraints, and navigating the system; (b) feedback on the KT tool; and, (c) ideas on how to integrate it into a primary care practice. Conclusions Family practitioners felt that the proposed video game KT tool could be used to address youth’s mental health and addictions issues in primary care settings. PMID:29056980
Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf
Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. I...
Wilson, Erin C.; Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Raymond, H. Fisher; McFarland, Willi
Significant health disparities exist for transgender female (trans*female) youth. We assessed differences in mental health outcomes based on exposure to discrimination among transgender female youth in the San Francisco Bay Area aged 16–24 years. Youth were recruited using a combination of respondent driven sampling with online and social media methods. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for the mental health outcomes, comparing levels of discrimination and levels of...
Langer, David A; Jensen-Doss, Amanda
The shared decision-making (SDM) model is one in which providers and consumers of health care come together as collaborators in determining the course of care. The model is especially relevant to youth mental health care, when planning a treatment frequently entails coordinating both youth and parent perspectives, preferences, and goals. The present article first provides the historical context of the SDM model and the rationale for increasing our field's use of SDM when planning psychosocial treatments for youth and families. Having established the potential utility of SDM, the article then discusses how to apply the SDM model to treatment planning for youth psychotherapy, proposing a set of steps consistent with the model and considerations when conducting SDM with youth and families.
Ronis, Scott T; Slaunwhite, Amanda K; Malcom, Kathryn E
This paper reviews how child and youth mental health care services in Canada, the United States, and the Netherlands are organized and financed in order to identify systems and individual-level factors that may inhibit or discourage access to treatment for youth with mental health problems, such as public or private health insurance coverage, out-of-pocket expenses, and referral requirements for specialized mental health care services. Pathways to care for treatment of mental health problems among children and youth are conceptualized and discussed in reference to health insurance coverage and access to specialty services. We outline reforms to the organization of health care that have been introduced in recent years, and the basket of services covered by public and private insurance schemes. We conclude with a discussion of country-level opportunities to enhance access to child and youth mental health services using existing health policy levers in Canada, the United States and the Netherlands.
Kotte, Amelia; Hill, Kaitlin A; Mah, Albert C; Korathu-Larson, Priya A; Au, Janelle R; Izmirian, Sonia; Keir, Scott S; Nakamura, Brad J; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K
This study examines implementation facilitators and barriers of a statewide roll-out of a measurement feedback system (MFS) in a youth public mental health system. 76 % of all state care coordinators (N = 47) completed interviews, which were coded via content analysis until saturation. Facilitators (e.g., recognition of the MFS's clinical utility) and barriers (e.g., MFS's reliability and validity) emerged paralleling the Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment framework outlined by Aarons et al. (Adm Policy Mental Health Mental Health Serv Res, 38:4-23, 2011). Sustainment efforts may leverage innovation fit, individual adopter, and system related facilitators.
Clarke, Aleisha M; Kuosmanen, Tuuli; Barry, Margaret M
The rapid growth in the use of online technologies among youth provides an opportunity to increase access to evidence-based mental health resources. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a narrative synthesis of the evidence on the effectiveness of online mental health promotion and prevention interventions for youth aged 12-25 years. Searching a range of electronic databases, 28 studies conducted since 2000 were identified. Eight studies evaluating six mental health promotion interventions and 20 studies evaluating 15 prevention interventions were reviewed. The results from the mental health promotion interventions indicate that there is some evidence that skills-based interventions presented in a module-based format can have a significant impact on adolescent mental health, however, an insufficient number of studies limits this finding. The results from the online prevention interventions indicate the significant positive effect of computerized cognitive behavioral therapy on adolescents' and emerging adults' anxiety and depression symptoms. The rates of non-completion were moderate to high across a number of studies. Implementation findings provide some evidence that participant face-to-face and/or web-based support was an important feature in terms of program completion and outcomes. Additional research examining factors affecting exposure, adherence and outcomes is required. The quality of evidence across the studies varied significantly, thus highlighting the need for more rigorous, higher quality evaluations conducted with more diverse samples of youth. Although future research is warranted, this study highlights the potential of online mental health promotion and prevention interventions in promoting youth wellbeing and reducing mental health problems.
Dang, Michelle T
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore social connectedness and self-esteem as predictors of resilience among homeless youth with histories of maltreatment. Connectedness variables included family connectedness, school connectedness, and affiliation with prosocial peers. The sample included 150 homeless youth aged 14 to 21 (mean age = 18 years) with the majority being an ethnic minority. Participants completed surveys using audio-CASI. Results revealed that youth with higher levels of social connectedness and self-esteem reported lower levels of psychological distress. When all predictor variables were controlled in the analysis, self-esteem remained significant for predicting better mental health.
Hilario, Carla T; Vo, Dzung X; Johnson, Joy L; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
The relationships between mental health, protective factors and acculturation among Southeast Asian youth were examined in this study using a gender-based analysis. Population-based data from the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey were used to examine differences in extreme stress and despair by acculturation. Associations between emotional distress and hypothesized protective factors were examined using logistic regression. Stratified analyses were performed to assess gender-related differences. Recent immigrant youth reported higher odds of emotional distress. Family connectedness and school connectedness were linked to lower odds of extreme stress and despair among girls. Family connectedness was associated with lower odds of extreme stress and despair among boys. Higher cultural connectedness was associated with lower odds of despair among boys but with higher odds of extreme stress among girls. Findings are discussed in relation to acculturation and gender-based patterns in protective factors for mental health among Southeast Asian immigrant youth.
Mental illness left untreated in adolescence and young adulthood can readily become a chronic illness in adulthood, seriously hampering the capacity of individuals to become healthy contributing members of society. Mental health challenges are of paramount importance to the health and well-being of Canadian adolescents and young adults, with 18% of Canadian youth, ages 15-24, reporting a mental illness (Leitch 2007). However, it is unlikely that this statistic accounts for those invisible youth (Rachlis et al. 2009) who are disconnected from families and caregivers, bereft of stable housing and familial support - in other words, youth who are street-involved. Mental health risk is amplified in street-involved youth and, as such, must be recognized as a priority for policy development that commits to accessible mental health programming, in order to realize the potential of these vulnerable youth.
Goforth, Anisa N.; Nichols, Lindsey M.; Stanick, Cameo F.; Shindorf, Zachary R.; Holter, Olivia
Arab Americans are a culturally, linguistically, and religiously diverse group. Although there are an estimated 3.6 million Arab Americans in the USA, there is little discussion about how to best provide culturally responsive school-based mental health supports to Arab American youths. The purpose of this article is to (1) briefly describe the…
Hansen, Andrea; Heath, Melissa Allen; Williams, Marleen; Fox, Jay; Hudnall, Gregory A.; Bledsoe, Catherine
Commonly used in clinical and medical settings, no-suicide contracts (NSCs) solicit commitment from suicidal individuals not to attempt suicide. The prevalence of community and school-based Mental Health Professionals' (MHPs) use of NSCs with suicidal youth (SY) is unknown. Additionally, minimal feedback is available regarding MHPs' current…
Han, Hahrie; Nicholas, Alexandra; Aimer, Margaret; Gray, Jonathon
To examine whether being an organizer in a community organizing program improves personal agency and self-reported mental health outcomes among low-income Pacific Island youth in Auckland, New Zealand. Counties Manukau Health initiated a community organizing campaign led and run by Pacific Island youth. We used interviews, focus groups and pre- and post-campaign surveys to examine changes among 30 youths as a result of the campaign. Ten youths completed both pre- and post-campaign surveys. Eleven youths participated in focus groups, and four in interviews. Overall, youths reported an increased sense of agency and improvements to their mental health. Community organizing has potential as a preventive approach to improving mental health and developing agency over health among disempowered populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Dunne, Tom; Bishop, Lisa; Avery, Susan; Darcy, Stephen
The majority of adult mental health and substance use (MH&SU) conditions emerge in adolescence. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment programs targeting this age group have a unique opportunity to significantly impact the well-being of the future generation of adults. At the same time, youth are reluctant to seek treatment and have high rates of dropout from interventions. An emphasis on youth engagement in prevention and treatment interventions for MH&SU results in better health outcomes for those youth. This literature review was undertaken to evaluate opportunities to improve youth engagement in MH&SU programs. The intent was to determine best practices in the field that combined community-level improvement in clinical outcomes with proven strategies in engagement enhancement to inform program development at a local level. The results discuss 40 studies, reviews, and program reports demonstrating effective youth engagement. These have been grouped into six themes based on the underlying engagement mechanism: youth participation in program development, parental relationships, technology, the health clinic, school, and social marketing. A broad range of tools are discussed that intervention developers can leverage to improve youth engagement in prevention or treatment programs. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Brennan, Robert T
Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics - social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth - in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in postconflict Sierra Leone. A total of 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively covaried with youths' externalizing and internalizing scores - indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p mental health outcomes was nonsignificant (p > .05). This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the postconflict social context plays in shaping the mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a 4-year period of follow-up. These results underscore the importance of the postconflict social environment and the need to develop postconflict interventions that address community-level processes in addition to the needs
Harvey A. Whiteford
Full Text Available The 2011 Australian federal budget included a large investment in youth mental health and early intervention services. In this article, we focus on the critical role of agenda setting in the preceding 4 years to examine how and why these services were given such a high priority at this time. We undertook a systematic review of relevant literature, including parliamentary Hansard transcripts from the House of Representatives and Senate, the final reports of all available parliamentary committees, government policy documents, other pertinent documents held by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aging, and media reports from five widely circulated Australian publications/news outlets. We used Kingdon’s multiple streams framework to structure analysis. We highlight three factors that were influential in getting youth mental health issues onto the policy agenda: (a the strategic use of quantitative evidence to create a publicly visible “problem,” (b the marshalling of the “public” to create pressure on government, and (c the role of serendipity. Overall, we found the decision to prioritize youth mental health resulted from a combination of advocacy for a well-articulated policy solution by high-profile, influential policy entrepreneurs, and political pressure caused by an up swell of national support for mental health reform. Our findings highlight the socio-political factors that influence agenda setting and health policy formulation. They raise important ethical and strategic issues in utilizing research evidence to change policy.
Sinha, Atreyee; Ram, Faujdar
In South Asian countries like India, family system lays a strong foundation in societies and therefore, the context and consequences of single parent family structures are markedly different from that of the West. In these societies single parenthood is mainly an outcome of untimely death of any one of the parents. This study tried to examine the influence of parents' survival status on the mental health of youth in India. "Youth in India: situation and Needs (2006-2007)" survey data was used in the present study. We compared two groups of unmarried young population aged 15-24 y (n = 28 637): one having both parents alive and another having only one parent alive. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to analyze the data. Results revealed that around 11% of the unmarried youth belonged to single parent families. Findings underscored a significant association between parent's survival and mental health of youth; respondents from single parent families were more likely to report metal health problems Moreover, effects of parents' survival were significant on females' mental health rather than males'. Policies must focus on reducing stress of young people growing up in single parent families through enhanced educational and employment opportunities.
Gretton, Heather M; Clift, Robert J W
The purpose of the study was to identify the current prevalence of mental disorders and mental health needs among incarcerated male and female youths in Canada, and to present these data in the context of rates found in other jurisdictions. One hundred forty male and 65 female incarcerated young offenders in British Columbia were screened with the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument Version 2 (MAYSI-2); provisional psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV); abuse history and aggressive symptoms of Conduct Disorder (CD) were coded from file information. Nearly all youths (91.9% of males and 100% of females) met the criteria for at least one mental disorder. Substance abuse and dependence disorders were highly prevalent (85.5% of males and 100% of females). Aggressive forms of CD were common (72.9% of males and 84.3% of females), as were exposure to physical abuse (60.8% of males and 54.3% of females) and sexual abuse (21.2% of males and 42.4% of females). Female youths had significantly higher odds of presenting with: (1) substance abuse/dependence disorders; (2) current suicide ideation; (3) sexual abuse; (4) PTSD; (5) symptoms of depression and anxiety; (6) Oppositional Defiant Disorder; and (7) multiple mental disorder diagnoses. Male youths had significantly higher odds of presenting with aggressive symptoms of CD. Overall, rates of mental disorder among this sample of serious and violent young offenders were higher than rates previously reported for incarcerated youths - both in Canada and in other jurisdictions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Ehrensaft, Diane; Vetters, Ralph; Forcier, Michelle; Austin, S Bryn
Transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGN) youth are at increased risk for adverse mental health outcomes, but better family functioning may be protective. This study describes TGN youth's mental health and associations with family functioning in a community-based sample. Participants were from 33 families (96 family members) and included 33 TGN youth, ages 13 to 17 years; 48 cisgender (non-transgender) caregivers; and 15 cisgender siblings. Participants completed a survey with measures of family functioning (family communication, family satisfaction) and mental health of TGN youth (suicidality, self-harm, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, resilience). TGN youth reported a high risk of mental health concerns: suicidality (15% to 30%), self-harm (49%), clinically significant depressive symptoms (61%); and moderate self-esteem (M = 27.55, SD = 7.15) and resiliency (M = 3.67, SD = 0.53). In adjusted models, better family functioning from the TGN youth's perspective was associated with better mental health outcomes among TGN youth (β ranged from -0.40 to -0.65 for self-harm, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms, and 0.58 to 0.70 for self-esteem and resiliency). Findings from this study highlight the importance of considering TGN youth's perspectives on the family to inform interventions to improve family functioning in families with TGN youth.
Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specifi...
Veale, Jaimie F.; Peter, Tracey; Travers, Robb; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
Abstract Purpose: We aimed to assess the Minority Stress Model which proposes that the stress of experiencing stigma leads to adverse mental health outcomes, but social supports (e.g., school and family connectedness) will reduce this negative effect. Methods: We measured stigma-related experiences, social supports, and mental health (self-injury, suicide, depression, and anxiety) among a sample of 923 Canadian transgender 14- to 25-year-old adolescents and young adults using a bilingual online survey. Logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the relationship between these risk and protective factors and dichotomous mental health outcomes among two separate age groups, 14- to 18-year-old and 19- to 25-year-old participants. Results: Experiences of discrimination, harassment, and violence (enacted stigma) were positively related to mental health problems and social support was negatively associated with mental health problems in all models among both age groups. Among 14–18 year olds, we examined school connectedness, family connectedness, and perception of friends caring separately, and family connectedness was always the strongest protective predictor in multivariate models. In all the mental health outcomes we examined, transgender youth reporting low levels of enacted stigma experiences and high levels of protective factors tended to report favorable mental health outcomes. Conversely, the majority of participants reporting high levels of enacted stigma and low levels of protective factors reported adverse mental health outcomes. Conclusion: While these findings are limited by nonprobability sampling procedures and potential additional unmeasured risk and protective factors, the results provide positive evidence for the Minority Stress Model in this population and affirm the need for policies and programs to support schools and families to support transgender youth. PMID:29279875
Full Text Available Background: There has been growing interest in the stalled transition to adulthood in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA and its consequences for young people's socioeconomic outcomes. However, little is known about how important life transitions relate to youth psychosocial well-being in the region. Objective: Drawing on a life course framework, we estimate the associations between making transitions in education, employment, and marriage with changes in mental health among young people in Egypt. Methods: We descriptively analyze mental health scores, measured via the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 and disaggregated by gender, for a panel of young people first surveyed in 2009 at ages 13-29 and followed up in late 2013 and early 2014. We regress change in mental health scores against indicators of making different transitions. Results: Young women experience worse mental health than young men overall. Lower school achievement was associated with poorer mental health; being out of the labor force was an additional risk factor for young men. While average mental health scores improved over time, over a quarter of the sample experienced worsening mental health, related to failure to marry and find a job among older men, and failure to finish schooling among younger women. Conclusions: Mental health is an important but often overlooked component of youth well-being during the transition to adulthood in MENA, and potentially other low- and middle-income countries. Contribution: This is the first paper to empirically examine the relationship between psychosocial well-being and achieving important socioeconomic milestones among a nationally representative cohort of young people in MENA.
Full Text Available In this paper, we offer a new conceptual approach to analyzing the interrelations between formal and informal pedagogical sites for learning about youth mental (ill health with a specific focus on digital health technologies. Our approach builds on an understanding of public pedagogy to examine the pedagogical modes of address (Ellsworth 1997 that are (i produced through ‘expert’ discourses of mental health literacy for young people; and (ii include digital practices created by young people as they seek to publicly address mental ill health through social media platforms. We trace the pedagogic modes of address that are evident in examples of digital mental health practices and the creation of what we call therapeutic publics. Through an analysis of mental health apps, we examine how these modes of address are implicated in the affective process of learning about mental (ill health, and the affective arrangements through which embodied distress is rendered culturally intelligible. In doing so, we situate the use of individual mental health apps within a broader digital ecology that is mediated by therapeutic expertise and offer original contributions to the theorization of public pedagogy.
Choi, Chris; Ferro, Mark A
This study compared levels of self-concept among youth who were currently receiving inpatient versus outpatient mental health services. Forty-seven youth were recruited from the Child & Youth Mental Health Program at McMaster Children's Hospital. Self-concept was measured using the Self-Perception Profile for Children and Adolescents. The mean age was 14.5 years and most participants were female (70.2%). ANOVAs comparing self-concept with population norms showed large significant effects (d = 0.77 to 1.93) indicating compromised self-concept among youth receiving mental health services. Regression analyses controlling for patient age, sex, family income, and diagnoses of major depressive disorder, generalized social phobia, and generalized anxiety showed that the inpatient setting was a significant predictor of lower global self-worth (β=-.26; p=.035). Compared to outpatients, inpatients generally reported lower self-concept, but differences were significant only for global self-worth. Future research replicating this finding and assessing its clinical significance is encouraged.
Thompson, Sanna J; Cochran, Gerald; Barczyk, Amanda N
This study examined the direct effects of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, poor family communication and worries concerning family relationships, depression, anxiety, and dissociation on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Runaway youth were recruited from emergency youth shelters in New York and Texas. Interviews were completed with 350 youth who averaged 15 years of age. Structural equation modeling was used to examine family functioning, maltreatment, depression, dissociation, and anxiety in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results indicated that direct effects of family relationship worry to dissociation, β = .77, p family communication and youth dissociation, β = .42, p stress symptoms, but depression was not. Findings underscore the critical role of family relationships in mental health symptoms experienced by runaway adolescents. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Aebi, Marcel; Kuhn, Christine; Banaschewski, Tobias
were used to predict any problems/disorders, emotional problems/disorders and behavioural problems/disorders in a community sample (n = 252) and in a clinic sample (n = 95). RESULTS: The findings were strikingly similar in both samples. Parent and youth SDQ scales were related to any problem/disorder......BACKGROUND: Discrepancies between multiple informants often create considerable uncertainties in delivering services to youth. The present study assessed the ability of the parent and youth scales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to predict mental health problems/disorders....... Youth SDQ symptom and impact had the strongest association with emotional problems/disorder and parent SDQ symptom score were most strongly related to behavioural problems/disorders. Both the SDQ total and the impact scores significantly predicted emotional problems/disorders in males whereas...
Scorza, Pamela; Duarte, Cristiane S; Stevenson, Anne; Mushashi, Christine; Kanyanganzi, Fredrick; Munyana, Morris; Betancourt, Theresa S
Prevention of mental disorders worldwide requires a greater understanding of protective processes associated with lower levels of mental health problems in children who face pervasive life stressors. This study aimed to identify culturally appropriate indicators of individual-level protective factors in Rwandan adolescents where risk factors, namely poverty and a history of trauma, have dramatically shaped youth mental health. The sample included 367 youth aged 10-17 in rural Rwanda. An earlier qualitative study of the same population identified the constructs "kwihangana" (patience/perseverance) and "kwigirira ikizere" (self-esteem) as capturing local perceptions of individual-level characteristics that helped reduce risks of mental health problems in youth. Nine items from the locally derived constructs were combined with 25 items from an existing scale that aligned well with local constructs-the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). We assessed the factor structure of the CD-RISC expanded scale using exploratory factor analysis and determined the correlation of the expanded CD-RISC with depression and functional impairment. The CD-RISC expanded scale displayed high internal consistency (α = 0.93). Six factors emerged, which we labeled: perseverance, adaptability, strength/sociability, active engagement, self-assuredness, and sense of self-worth. Protective factor scale scores were significantly and inversely correlated with depression and functional impairment (r = -0.49 and r = - 0.38, respectively). An adapted scale displayed solid psychometric properties for measuring protective factors in Rwandan youth. Identifying culturally appropriate protective factors is a key component of research associated with the prevention of mental health problems and critical to the development of cross-cultural strength-based interventions for children and families.
Williams, Kelly A.; Chapman, Mimi V.
Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs…
Briggs, Harold Eugene; McBeath, Bowen
The lack of culturally appropriate health and mental health care has contributed to the large number of African American youth and families involved in the child welfare system. This article reviews the consequences of the insufficient access to culturally sensitive, evidence-supported interventions for African American foster youth. The authors…
Howe, Deborah; Batchelor, Samantha; Coates, Dominiek; Cashman, Emma
Historically, the Australian health system has failed to meet the needs of young people with mental health problems and mental illness. In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) Health allocated considerable funds to the reform agenda of mental health services in NSW to address this inadequacy. Children and Young People's Mental Health (CYPMH), a service that provides mental health care for young people aged 12-24 years, with moderate to severe mental health problems, was chosen to establish a prototype Youth Mental Health (YMH) Service Model for NSW. This paper describes nine key principles developed by CYPMH to guide the development of YMH Service Models in NSW. A literature review, numerous stakeholder consultations and consideration of clinical best practice were utilized to inform the development of the key principles. Subsequent to their development, the nine key principles were formally endorsed by the Mental Health Program Council to ensure consistency and monitor the progress of YMH services across NSW. As a result, between 2008 and 2012 YMH Services across NSW regularly reported on their activities against each of the nine key principles demonstrating how each principle was addressed within their service. The nine key principles provide mental health services a framework for how to reorient services to accommodate YMH and provide a high-quality model of care. [Corrections added on 29 November 2013, after first online publication: The last two sentences of the Results section have been replaced with "As a result, between 2008 and 2012 YMH Services across NSW regularly reported on their activities against each of the nine key principles demonstrating how each principle was addressed within their service."]. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth M; Biegel, David E; Min, Meeyoung O; Munson, Michelle R
Nationwide, there is a growing concern in understanding mental health service engagement among transition age youth. The ecological perspective suggests that there are multiple barriers to service engagement which exist on varying levels of the ecosystem. Based on the socio-technical theory and organizational culture theory, this study examined the impact of organization-level characteristics on perceived service engagement and the moderating role of organizational culture on practitioner-level characteristics affecting youth service engagement. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to address the research questions. The data were collected from 279 practitioners from 27 mental health service organizations representing three major metropolitan areas in Ohio. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to address a nested structure. Findings revealed that location of organization, service setting, and organizational culture had significant effects on the continuation of services. In addition, the relationship between service coordination and resource knowledge and service engagement was moderated by organizational culture.
Deutsch, Stephanie A; Lynch, Amy; Zlotnik, Sarah; Matone, Meredith; Kreider, Amanda; Noonan, Kathleen
Youth in foster care represent a unique population with complex mental and behavioral health, social-emotional, and developmental needs. For this population with special healthcare needs, the risk for adverse long-term outcomes great if needs go unaddressed or inadequately addressed while in placement. Although outcomes are malleable and effective interventions exist, there are barriers to optimal healthcare delivery. The general pediatrician as advocate is paramount to improve long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
D'Alfonso, Simon; Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Rice, Simon; Wadley, Greg; Lederman, Reeva; Miles, Christopher; Gleeson, John; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
Introduction: Benefits from mental health early interventions may not be sustained over time, and longer-term intervention programs may be required to maintain early clinical gains. However, due to the high intensity of face-to-face early intervention treatments, this may not be feasible. Adjunctive internet-based interventions specifically designed for youth may provide a cost-effective and engaging alternative to prevent loss of intervention benefits. However, until now online interventions...
Gloppen, Kari; McMorris, Barbara; Gower, Amy; Eisenberg, Marla
Bullying involvement as a victim or perpetrator is associated with depression and suicidality, and American Indian (AI) youth experience a disproportionately high rate of these mental health issues. This study assessed whether AI young people involved in bullying were more likely to experience negative mental health problems than AI youth who were not involved in bullying, and identified protective factors that might support this particularly vulnerable population. Data come from 1,409 8th, 9th, and 11th Grade AI students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression models estimated associations between bullying involvement and internalizing symptoms and suicidality. Selected protective factors (internal assets, empowerment, positive student-teacher relationships, and feeling safe at school) were also examined as independent variables. All forms of bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with increased risk for mental health problems (odds ratio [OR]: 1.57-2.87). AI youth who reported higher levels of protective factors were less likely to report internalizing symptoms and suicidality even in the presence of bullying involvement. For example, AI youth who reported high levels of internal assets had half the odds of reporting internalizing symptoms compared with those with low levels of internal assets (OR = 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.38, 0.74). Findings suggest that, similar to a general sample of students, bullying-involved AI students are significantly more likely to experience mental health problems. Promoting school as a safe place and incorporating culturally relevant programming to promote internal assets such as positive identity, social competence, and empowerment among AI students could help reduce the negative effects of bullying involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Petrasek MacDonald, Joanna; Ford, James D.; Cunsolo Willox, Ashlee; Ross, Nancy A.
Objectives To review the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. Study design A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed English-language research was conducted to systematically examine the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. Methods This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-An...
Simmons, Magenta Bender; Batchelor, Samantha; Dimopoulos-Bick, Tara; Howe, Deb
In youth mental health services, consumer participation is essential, but few implementation strategies exist to engage young consumers. This project evaluated an intervention implemented in an Australian youth mental health service that utilized peer workers to promote shared decision making via an online tool. All new clients ages 16-25 were invited to participate in this nonrandomized comparative study, which used a historical comparison group (N=80). Intervention participants (N=149) engaged with a peer worker and used the online tool before and during their intake assessment. Pre- and postintake data were collected for both groups; measures included decisional conflict, perceived shared decision making, and satisfaction. A series of paired t tests, analyses of variance, and multiple regressions were conducted to assess differences in scores across intervention and comparison groups and pre- and postintake assessments. Ratings of perceived shared decision making with intake workers were higher in the intervention group than in the comparison group (p=.015). In both groups, decisional conflict scores were significantly lower after the intake assessment (pdecision making and lower decisional conflict were associated with satisfaction (pdecision making reported feeling more involved in their assessment. Feeling involved and having lower decisional conflict after seeing an intake worker were important for client satisfaction. These findings demonstrate the importance of both peer work and shared decision making for promoting optimal outcomes in youth mental health services.
Boydell, Katherine M; Hodgins, Michael; Pignatiello, Antonio; Teshima, John; Edwards, Helen; Willis, David
To conduct a scoping review on the use of technology to deliver mental health services to children and youth in order to identify the breadth of peer-reviewed literature, summarize findings and identify gaps. A literature database search identified 126 original studies meeting criteria for review. Descriptive numerical summary and thematic analyses were conducted. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Studies were characterized by diverse technologies including videoconferencing, telephone and mobile phone applications and Internet-based applications such as email, web sites and CD-ROMs. The use of technologies plays a major role in the delivery of mental health services and supports to children and youth in providing prevention, assessment, diagnosis, counseling and treatment programs. Strategies are growing exponentially on a global basis, thus it is critical to study the impact of these technologies on child and youth mental health service delivery. An in-depth review and synthesis of the quality of findings of studies on effectiveness of the use of technologies in service delivery are also warranted. A full systematic review would provide that opportunity.
Full Text Available Benjamin Kwan,1 Debra J Rickwood,1,2 Nic R Telford2 1Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT, 2headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Purpose: Routine outcome measures are now being designed for session-by-session use, with emphasis on clinically meaningful items and sensitivity to change. Despite an increasing mental health service focus for young people aged 12–25 years, there is a lack of outcome measures that are designed to be used across this age group. Consequently, MyLifeTracker (MLT was developed as a brief mental health outcome measure designed for young people for routine use. It consists of the following five items targeting areas of importance to young people: general well-being, day-to-day activities, relationships with friends, relationships with family, and general coping. Participants and methods: The measure was tested with 75,893 young people aged 12–25 years attending headspace centers across Australia for mental health-related issues. Results: MLT showed a robust unidimensional factor structure and appropriate reliability. It exhibited good concurrent validity against well-validated measures of psychological distress, well-being, functioning, and life satisfaction. The measure was further demonstrated to be sensitive to change. Conclusion: MLT provides a psychometrically sound mental health outcome measure for young people. The measure taps into items that are meaningful to young people and provides an additional clinical support tool for clinicians and clients during therapy. The measure is brief and easy to use and has been incorporated into an electronic system that routinely tracks session-by-session change and produces time-series charts for the ease of use and interpretation. Keywords: MyLifeTracker, youth mental health, routine outcome measure, routine outcome monitoring, adolescent and young adult
Grimes, Katherine E; Schulz, Margaret F; Cohen, Steven A; Mullin, Brian O; Lehar, Sophie E; Tien, Shelly
Mental health advocates seek to expand children's services, noting widespread failure to meet the needs of public sector youth suffering from serious emotional disturbance (SED). However, state and national budgets face deepening cuts, with rising health care costs taking the blame. As the gap between needs and finances widens, identification of cost-effective treatments that will benefit children with SED and their families is of increasing importance. Community-based interventions for this population, such as the wraparound approach and systems-of-care, are being disseminated but literature is scant regarding effects on expense. The Mental Health Services Program for Youth (MHSPY) model is aligned philosophically with wraparound and systems-of-care but unique in blending public agency dollars to deliver integrated medical, mental health and social services. MHSPY's linked clinical and expense data is useful to study community-based treatment cost-effectiveness. To examine the cost-effectiveness of an intensively integrated, family and community-based clinical intervention for youth with mental health needs in comparison to "usual care.'' Study and reference populations were matched on age, gender, community, psychiatric diagnosis, morbidity and insurance type. Claims analyses included patterns of service utilization and medical expense for both groups. Using propensity score matching, results for study youth are compared with results for the population receiving "usual care.'' Clinical functioning was measured for the intervention group at baseline and 12 months. The intervention group used lower intensity services and had substantially lower claims expense (e.g. 32% lower for emergency room, 74% lower for inpatient psychiatry) than their matched counterparts in the "usual care'' group. Intervention youth were consistently maintained in least restrictive settings, with over 88% of days spent at home and showed improved clinical functioning on standard measures
Strandh, Mattias; Nilsson, Karina; Nordlund, Madelene; Hammarström, Anne
Recent findings suggest that the mental health costs of unemployment are related to both short- and long-term mental health scars. The main policy tools for dealing with young people at risk of labor market exclusion are Active Labor Market Policy programs for youths (youth programs). There has been little research on the potential effects of participation in youth programs on mental health and even less on whether participation in such programs alleviates the long-term mental health scarring caused by unemployment. This study compares exposure to open youth unemployment and exposure to youth program participation between ages 18 and 21 in relation to adult internalized mental health immediately after the end of the exposure period at age 21 and two decades later at age 43. The study uses a five wave Swedish 27-year prospective cohort study consisting of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in Sweden initiated in 1981. Of the original 1083 participants 94.3% of those alive were still participating at the 27-year follow up. Exposure to open unemployment and youth programs were measured between ages 18-21. Mental health, indicated through an ordinal level three item composite index of internalized mental health symptoms (IMHS), was measured pre-exposure at age 16 and post exposure at ages 21 and 42. Ordinal regressions of internalized mental health at ages 21 and 43 were performed using the Polytomous Universal Model (PLUM). Models were controlled for pre-exposure internalized mental health as well as other available confounders. Results show strong and significant relationships between exposure to open youth unemployment and IMHS at age 21 (OR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.60) as well as at age 43 (OR = 1.71, CI = 1.20-2.43). No such significant relationship is observed for exposure to youth programs at age 21 (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.72-1.26) or at age 43 (OR = 1.23, CI = 0.93-1.63). A considered and consistent active labor
Brown, Larry K; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R; DiClemente, Ralph J; Lescano, Celia; Lang, Delia M; Crosby, Richard; Barker, David; Oster, Danielle
The study examined the efficacy of family-based and adolescent-only HIV prevention programs in decreasing HIV risk and improving parental monitoring and sexual communication among youths in mental health treatment. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 721 adolescents (ages 13-18 years) and their caregivers from mental health settings in three U.S. cities were randomly assigned to one of three theory-based, structured group interventions: family-based HIV prevention, adolescent-only HIV prevention, and adolescent-only health promotion. Interventions were delivered during an all-day workshop. Assessments were completed at baseline and three months postintervention. Compared with those in the health intervention, adolescents in the HIV prevention interventions reported fewer unsafe sex acts (adjusted rate ratio=.49, p=.01), greater condom use (adjusted relative change=59%, p=.01), and greater likelihood of avoiding sex (adjusted odds ratio=1.44, p=.05). They also showed improved HIV knowledge (pprevention interventions reduced sexual risk behavior over three months in a large, diverse sample of youths in mental health treatment and that the family-based intervention improved parental monitoring and communication with teens about sex. These interventions show promise.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L
Psychological research on stigma has focused largely on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and their interpersonal interactions with the nonstigmatized. This work has been critical in documenting many of the ways in which stigma operates to harm those who are targeted. However, this research has also tended to overlook broader structural forms of stigma, which refer to societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies and practices that constrain the lives of the stigmatized. In this article I describe the emerging field of research on structural stigma and review evidence documenting the harmful consequences of structural stigma for the mental/behavioral health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. This research demonstrates that structural stigma represents an important, but thus far largely underrecognized, mechanism underlying mental health disparities related to sexual orientation among youth. I offer several suggestions to advance research in this area, including (a) adopting a life-course approach to the study of structural stigma; (b) developing novel measures of structural stigma; (c) expanding both the range of methods used for studying structural stigma and the sequelae of structural stigma that are evaluated; (d) identifying potential mediators and moderators of the structural stigma-health relationship; (e) examining intersectionalities; and (f) testing generalizability of structural stigma across other groups, with a particular focus on transgender youth. The implications of this research for preventive interventions and for public policy are also discussed.
Wetterlin, Felicia M; Mar, Marissa Y; Neilson, Erika K; Werker, Gregory R; Krausz, Michael
Due to the high prevalence of psychological disorders and the lack of access to care among Canadian youth, the development of accessible services is increasingly important. eMental Health is an expanding field that may help to meet this need through the provision of mental health care using technology. The primary goals of the study are to explore youth experiences with traditional and online mental health resources, and to investigate youth expectations for mental health websites. A Web-based survey containing quantitative and qualitative questions was delivered to youth aged 17-24 years. Participants were surveyed to evaluate their use of mental health resources as well as their preferences for various components of a potential mental health website. A total of 521 surveys were completed. Most participants (61.6%, 321/521) indicated that they had used the Internet to seek information or help for feelings they were experiencing. If they were going through a difficult time, 82.9% (432/521) of participants were either "somewhat likely" or "very likely" to use an information-based website and 76.8% (400/521) reported that they were either "somewhat unlikely" or "very unlikely" to visit social media websites for information or help-seeking purposes during this time. Most (87.7%, 458/521) participants rated their online privacy as very important. Descriptions of interventions and treatments was the most highly rated feature to have in a mental health-related website, with 91.9% (479/521) of participants regarding it as "important" or "very important". When presented a select list of existing Canadian mental health-related websites, most participants had not accessed any of the sites. Of the few who had, the Canadian Mental Health Association website was the most accessed website (5.8%, 30/521). Other mental health-related websites were accessed by only 10.9% of the participants (57/521). The findings suggest that despite interest in these tools, current eMental Health
Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Gupta, Taveeshi
Asians and Latinos are the 2 fastest growing immigrant populations in the United States. In this 3-year longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of mental health symptoms (withdrawn/depressed and somatic symptoms) among 163 first- and second-generation Asian (n = 76) and Latino (n = 97) adolescents. The focus of the study was to examine how ethnic identity and U.S. identity, as 2 separate processes of identity development, affect mental health symptoms, and whether these relationships are moderated by ethnic group, Asian or Latino. Participants were recruited when they entered 10th grade, and 2 additional waves of data were gathered at 12-month intervals. Results revealed that somatic and depressed symptoms decreased over time for both groups. Similarly, for both groups, U.S. identity and ethnic identity increased over time. Ethnic identity was associated with lower levels of withdrawn/depressed symptoms for both Latino and Asian youth. Ethnic identity was associated with lower levels of somatic symptoms for Asian youth, but not for Latino youth. U.S. identity was not associated with reduced levels of somatic or withdrawn/depressed symptoms for either group. Implications for clinicians are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Hower, Heather; Case, Brady G.; Hoeppner, Bettina; Yen, Shirley; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin; Birmaher, Boris; Weinstock, Lauren; Topor, David; Hunt, Jeffrey; Strober, Michael; Ryan, Neal; Axelson, David; Gill, Mary Kay; Keller, Martin B.
Objectives There is concern that treatment of serious mental illness in the United States declines precipitously following legal emancipation at age 18 years and transition from specialty youth clinical settings. We examined age transition effects on treatment utilization in a sample of youth with bipolar disorder. Methods Youth with bipolar disorder (N = 413) 7–18 years of age were assessed approximately twice per year (mean interval 8.2 months) for at least 4 years. Annual use of any individual, group, and family therapy, psychopharmacology visits, and hospitalization at each year of age, and monthly use from ages 17 through 19 years, were examined. The effect of age transition to 18 years on monthly visit probability was tested in the subsample with observed transitions (n = 204). Putative sociodemographic moderators and the influence of clinical course were assessed. Results Visit probabilities for the most common modalities—psychopharmacology, individual psychotherapy, and home-based care— generally fell from childhood to young adulthood. For example, the annual probability of at least one psychopharmacology visit was 97% at age 8, 75% at age 17, 60% at age 19, and 46% by age 22. Treatment probabilities fell in transition-age youth from age 17 through 19, but a specific transition effect at age 18 was not found. Declines did not vary based on sociodemographic characteristics and were not explained by changing severity of the bipolar illness or functioning. Conclusions Mental health treatment declined with age in this sample of youth with bipolar disorder, but reductions were not concentrated during or after the transition to age 18 years. Declines were unrelated to symptom severity or impairment. PMID:24241500
Multani, Amanpreet; Hynie, Michaela; Shakya, Yogendra; McKenzie, Kwame
Objectives This qualitative study set out to understand the mental health challenges and service access barriers experienced by South Asian youth populations in the Peel Region of Toronto, Canada. Setting In-depth semistructured interviews were carried out with South Asian youth living in Peel Region (Mississauga, Brampton and Caledon), a suburb of Toronto, Canada, home to over 50% of Ontario’s South Asian population. Participants South Asian youth (n=10) engaged in thoughtful, candid dialogue about their mental health and service access barriers. Primary and secondary outcome measures Qualitative interview themes related to mental health stressors and mental health service access barriers experienced by youth living in Peel Region were assessed using thematic analysis. Results South Asian youth face many mental health stressors, from intergenerational and cultural conflict, academic pressure, relationship stress, financial stress and family difficulties. These stressors can contribute to mental health challenges, such as depression and anxiety and drug use, with marijuana, alcohol and cigarettes cited as the most popular substances. South Asian youth were only able to identify about a third (36%) of the mental health resources presented to them and did not feel well informed about mental health resources available in their neighbourhood. Conclusions They offered recommendations for improved youth support directed at parents, education system, South Asian community and mental health system. Institutions and bodies at all levels of the society have a role to play in ensuring the mental health of South Asian youth. PMID:29101148
Cook, Mekeila C; Barnert, Elizabeth; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Ports, Kayleen; Bath, Eraka
The study sought to: 1) describe the mental health and substance use profiles among participants of a specialty trafficking court program (the Succeed Though Achievement and Resilience Court); 2) describe youths' mental health and substance use treatment prior to participating in the program; and 3) examine whether abuse influences report of mental health problems and/or substance use. Retrospective case review of court files was performed on commercially sexually exploited youth who volunteered to participate in the court from 2012 to 2014 (N = 184). All participants were female. Mental health problems and report of substance use was high among this population. Substance use differed at statistically significant levels between youth with a documented abuse history compared to those with no abuse history. Substance use also differed by report of mental health problems. Unexpected findings included the high rate of hospitalization for mental health problems and relatively low substance use treatment prior to STAR Court participation. Opportunities for improvement in critical points of contact to identify commercially sexually exploited youth and address their health needs are discussed.
Eustache, Eddy; Gerbasi, Margaret E; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Fils-Aimé, J Reginald; Severe, Jennifer; Raviola, Giuseppe J; Legha, Rupinder; Darghouth, Sarah; Grelotti, David J; Thérosmé, Tatiana; Pierre, Ermaze L; Affricot, Emmeline; Alcindor, Yoldie; Becker, Anne E
The mental health treatment gap for youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is substantial; strategies for redress are urgently needed to mitigate the serious health and social consequences of untreated mental illness in youth. To estimate the burden of major depressive episode (MDE) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as utilization of care among Haitian youth in order to describe the mental health treatment gap in a LMIC setting. We estimated the point prevalence of MDE, PTSD, and subthreshold variants in a school-based sample of youth ( n = 120, ages 18-22 years) using a modified Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID)-based interview and examined treatment utilization among those receiving one of these diagnoses. We assessed additional psychopathology with self-report measures to examine validity of study diagnostic assignments. The combined prevalence of full-syndrome or subthreshold MDE or PTSD was high (36.7%). A large majority of affected individuals (88.6%) had accessed no mental health services in the health sector, and 36.4% had accessed no care of any kind in either the health or folk sectors in the past year. Findings demonstrate a high mental health burden among Haiti's youth and that many youth with MDE and PTSD are not accessing mental health care.
de Haan, Anna M; Boon, Albert E; de Jong, Joop T V M; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
A large proportion of treatments in youth mental health care are prematurely terminated by the patient. Treatment dropout can have severe consequences. Since ethnic minority youth are treated less often for mental disorders than other youth, it is important to analyse their risk for dropout and to determine if there are ethnicity-specific determinants. This review aimed to provide an overview of the findings from empirical studies on child and adolescent therapy dropout by ethnic minority and to determine if there were ethnicity-specific dropout determinants. An extensive literature search was performed to locate relevant journal articles. Identified articles were inspected for relevant references and these articles were then included in the meta-analysis. A total of 27 studies were accepted for analysis. The results showed that ethnic minority patients have a higher risk of treatment dropout than ethnic majority patients and that dropout rates are ethnically specific. Several differences in dropout predictors among the ethnic groups were found. In spite of diverse results, review limitations, and the lack of several key variables in the available research, some clinical recommendations are made. The review indicates that to prevent dropout, therapists should pay attention to variables such as ethnic background, therapist-patient ethnic match, and the quality of the therapeutic relationship.
Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.
Pepler, Antonio; Boydell, Katherine M; Teshima, John; Volpe, Tiziana; Braunberger, Peter G; Minden, Debbie
Live interactive videoconferencing and other technologies offer innovative opportunities for effective delivery of specialized child and adolescent mental health services. In this article, an example of a comprehensive telepsychiatry program is presented to highlight a variety of capacity-building initiatives that are responsive to community needs and cultures; these initiatives are allowing children, youth and caregivers to access otherwise-distant specialist services within their home communities. Committed, enthusiastic champions, adequate funding and infrastructure, creativity and a positive attitude represent key elements in the adaptation of this demonstrated user-friendly modality.
ABSTRACT: Background: Economic recessions pose significant risks to individuals’ mental health and well-being. Common mental disorders are already highly prevalent in Europe, and more so in Portugal. Thus, changes in macroeconomic conditions are likely to aggravate this scenario. The exponential and rapid increase of unemployment is a particular consequence of the economic recession that has been proven to have a detrimental effect on mental health and well-being at both individual and popula...
MacDonald, Joanna Petrasek; Ford, James D; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo; Ross, Nancy A
To review the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed English-language research was conducted to systematically examine the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, with elements of a realist review. From 160 records identified in the initial search of 3 databases, 15 met the inclusion criteria and were retained for full review. Data were extracted using a codebook to organize and synthesize relevant information from the articles. More than 40 protective factors at the individual, family, and community levels were identified as enhancing Indigenous youth mental health. These included practicing and holding traditional knowledge and skills, the desire to be useful and to contribute meaningfully to one's community, having positive role models, and believing in one's self. Broadly, protective factors at the family and community levels were identified as positively creating and impacting one's social environment, which interacts with factors at the individual level to enhance resilience. An emphasis on the roles of cultural and land-based activities, history, and language, as well as on the importance of social and family supports, also emerged throughout the literature. More than 40 protective factors at the individual, family, and community levels were identified as enhancing Indigenous youth mental health. These included practicing and holding traditional knowledge and skills, the desire to be useful and to contribute meaningfully to one's community, having positive role models, and believing in one's self. Broadly, protective factors at the family and community levels were identified as positively creating and impacting one's social
Youth mental health disorders are rising across the world. Mindful Parenting could be a potential tool to promote youth mental health. The primary distinction between Mindful Parenting programs and other behavioral parenting programs is the focus on emotional literacy and compassion. However, this emerging field has gaps in its theory and evidence. In order to objectively evaluate the impact of Mindful Parenting, it is important to identify how it promotes change. This theoretical paper aims to articulate the key change processes of Mindful Parenting that promote positive outcomes. A literature review was conducted to synthesize the change processes outlined by different authors in the field. Key processes argued to promote Mindful Parenting were aligned with five main categories, namely attention, intention, attitude, attachment and emotion. More specifically the change processes were listening, emotional awareness, emotional regulation, attentional regulation, attunement, attention to variability, intentionality, reperceiving, compassion and non-judgmental acceptance. This preliminary analysis attempted to understand how Mindful Parenting fosters change and transformation. Whilst there are numerous change processes, the essence of Mindful Parenting appears to be the ability to be responsive to a child's needs. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Lyon, Aaron R.; Whitaker, Kelly; French, William P.; Richardson, Laura P.; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; McCauley, Elizabeth
Collaborative Care is an innovative approach to integrated mental health service delivery that focuses on reducing access barriers, improving service quality, and lowering healthcare expenditures. A large body of evidence supports the effectiveness of Collaborative Care models with adults and, increasingly, for youth. Although existing studies examining these models for youth have focused exclusively on primary care, the education sector is also an appropriate analog for the accessibility that primary care offers to adults. Collaborative Care aligns closely with the practical realities of the education sector and may represent a strategy to achieve some of the objectives of increasingly popular multi-tiered systems of supports frameworks. Unfortunately, no resources exist to guide the application of Collaborative Care models in schools. Based on the existing evidence for Collaborative Care models, the current paper (1) provides a rationale for the adaptation of Collaborative Care models to improve mental health service accessibility and effectiveness in the education sector; (2) presents a preliminary Collaborative Care model for use in schools; and (3) describes avenues for research surrounding school-based Collaborative Care, including the currently funded Accessible, Collaborative Care for Effective School-based Services (ACCESS) project. PMID:28392832
Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Kernsmith, Poco D
Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc.
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
This presentation and training aid provides a brief overview and discussion of the nature and scope of youth suicide, what prevention programs try to do, a framework for a public health approach, guides to programs and more. This material can be used for both handouts and as overheads for use with presentations. (GCP)
Rickwood, Debra J; Telford, Nic R; Parker, Alexandra G; Tanti, Chris J; McGorry, Patrick D
To provide the first national profile of the characteristics of young people (aged 12-25 years) accessing headspace centre services - the Australian Government's innovation in youth mental health service delivery - and investigate whether headspace is providing early service access for adolescents and young adults with emerging mental health problems. Census of all young people accessing a headspace centre across the national network of 55 centres comprising a total of 21 274 headspace clients between 1 January and 30 June 2013. Reason for presentation, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, stage of illness, diagnosis, functioning. Young people were most likely to present with mood and anxiety symptoms and disorders, self-reporting their reason for attendance as problems with how they felt. Client demographic characteristics tended to reflect population-level distributions, although clients from regional areas and of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander background were particularly well represented, whereas those who were born outside Australia were underrepresented. headspace centres are providing a point of service access for young Australians with high levels of psychological distress and need for care in the early stages of the development of mental disorder.
Joanna Petrasek MacDonald
Full Text Available Objectives . To review the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. Study design . A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed English-language research was conducted to systematically examine the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. Methods . This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines, with elements of a realist review. From 160 records identified in the initial search of 3 databases, 15 met the inclusion criteria and were retained for full review. Data were extracted using a codebook to organize and synthesize relevant information from the articles. Results . More than 40 protective factors at the individual, family, and community levels were identified as enhancing Indigenous youth mental health. These included practicing and holding traditional knowledge and skills, the desire to be useful and to contribute meaningfully to one's community, having positive role models, and believing in one's self. Broadly, protective factors at the family and community levels were identified as positively creating and impacting one's social environment, which interacts with factors at the individual level to enhance resilience. An emphasis on the roles of cultural and land-based activities, history, and language, as well as on the importance of social and family supports, also emerged throughout the literature. Conclusions . Healthy communities and families foster and support youth who are resilient to mental health challenges and able to adapt and cope with multiple stressors, be they social, economic, or environmental. Creating opportunities and environments where youth can successfully navigate challenges and enhance their resilience can in turn contribute to fostering healthy Circumpolar communities. Looking at the
Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Cook, Mekeila; Barnert, Elizabeth S; Gaboian, Shushanik; Bath, Eraka
Mental health providers are frequently at the forefront of addressing the multifaceted needs of commercially sexually exploited youth. This article provides an overview of the definition of commercial sexual exploitation of children and relevant legislation including the shift toward decriminalization of commercially sexually exploited youth. To provide clinicians with tools needed to deliver competent care to this population, a review of risk factors for commercial sexual exploitation of children and the role of the clinician in identification, assessment, and treatment of commercially sexually exploited youth are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf
Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven school-based mental health care professionals and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Participants reported that they relied on a reactive strategy by responding to youths who were in crisis. They were challenged by a lack of support from faculty staff, lack of access to resources, and heavy caseloads. Findings highlight the need for a proactive and collaborative approach to suicide prevention among mental health care professionals, teachers and parents in South African schools and improved training and supervision.
Full Text Available Introduction: Benefits from mental health early interventions may not be sustained over time, and longer-term intervention programs may be required to maintain early clinical gains. However, due to the high intensity of face-to-face early intervention treatments, this may not be feasible. Adjunctive internet-based interventions specifically designed for youth may provide a cost-effective and engaging alternative to prevent loss of intervention benefits. However, until now online interventions have relied on human moderators to deliver therapeutic content. More sophisticated models responsive to user data are critical to inform tailored online therapy. Thus, integration of user experience with a sophisticated and cutting-edge technology to deliver content is necessary to redefine online interventions in youth mental health. This paper discusses the development of the moderated online social therapy (MOST web application, which provides an interactive social media-based platform for recovery in mental health. We provide an overview of the system's main features and discus our current work regarding the incorporation of advanced computational and artificial intelligence methods to enhance user engagement and improve the discovery and delivery of therapy content.Methods: Our case study is the ongoing Horyzons site (5-year randomized controlled trial for youth recovering from early psychosis, which is powered by MOST. We outline the motivation underlying the project and the web application's foundational features and interface. We discuss system innovations, including the incorporation of pertinent usage patterns as well as identifying certain limitations of the system. This leads to our current motivations and focus on using computational and artificial intelligence methods to enhance user engagement, and to further improve the system with novel mechanisms for the delivery of therapy content to users. In particular, we cover our usage of natural
D'Alfonso, Simon; Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Rice, Simon; Wadley, Greg; Lederman, Reeva; Miles, Christopher; Gleeson, John; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
Introduction: Benefits from mental health early interventions may not be sustained over time, and longer-term intervention programs may be required to maintain early clinical gains. However, due to the high intensity of face-to-face early intervention treatments, this may not be feasible. Adjunctive internet-based interventions specifically designed for youth may provide a cost-effective and engaging alternative to prevent loss of intervention benefits. However, until now online interventions have relied on human moderators to deliver therapeutic content. More sophisticated models responsive to user data are critical to inform tailored online therapy. Thus, integration of user experience with a sophisticated and cutting-edge technology to deliver content is necessary to redefine online interventions in youth mental health. This paper discusses the development of the moderated online social therapy (MOST) web application, which provides an interactive social media-based platform for recovery in mental health. We provide an overview of the system's main features and discus our current work regarding the incorporation of advanced computational and artificial intelligence methods to enhance user engagement and improve the discovery and delivery of therapy content. Methods: Our case study is the ongoing Horyzons site (5-year randomized controlled trial for youth recovering from early psychosis), which is powered by MOST. We outline the motivation underlying the project and the web application's foundational features and interface. We discuss system innovations, including the incorporation of pertinent usage patterns as well as identifying certain limitations of the system. This leads to our current motivations and focus on using computational and artificial intelligence methods to enhance user engagement, and to further improve the system with novel mechanisms for the delivery of therapy content to users. In particular, we cover our usage of natural language analysis
Hackett, Christina L; Mulvale, Gillian; Miatello, Ashleigh
Although high quality mental health care for children and youth is a goal of many health systems, little is known about the dimensions of quality mental health care from users' perspectives. We engaged young people, caregivers and service providers to share experiences, which shed light on quality dimensions for youth mental health care. Using experience-based co-design, we collected qualitative data from young people aged 16-24 with a mental disorder (n = 19), identified caregivers (n = 12) and service providers (n = 14) about their experiences with respect to youth mental health services. Experience data were collected using multiple approaches including interviews, a suite of online and smartphone applications (n = 22), and a co-design event (n = 16) and analysed to extract touch points. These touch points were used to prioritize and co-design a user-driven prototype of a questionnaire to provide feedback to service providers. Young people, caregiver and service provider reports of service experiences were used to identify aspects of care quality at eight mental health service contact points: Access to mental health care; Transfer to/from hospital; Intake into hospital; Services provided; Assessment and treatment; Treatment environment; and Caregiver involvement in care. In some cases, low quality care was harmful to users and their caregivers. Young people co-designed a prototype of a user-driven feedback questionnaire to improve quality of service experiences that was supported by service providers and caregivers at the co-design event. By using EBCD to capture in-depth data regarding experiences of young people, their caregivers and service providers, study participants have begun to establish a baseline for acceptable quality of mental health care for young people. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Eustache, Eddy; Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Severe, Jennifer; Fils-Aimé, J. Reginald; Smith Fawzi, Mary C.; Raviola, Giuseppe J.; Darghouth, Sarah; Boyd, Kate; Thérosmé, Tatiana; Legha, Rupinder; Pierre, Ermaze L.; Affricot, Emmeline; Alcindor, Yoldie; Grelotti, David J.; Becker, Anne E.
Background Task-sharing with teachers to promote youth mental health is a promising but underdeveloped strategy in improving care access in low-income countries. Aims To assess feasibility, acceptability, and utility of the teacher accompaniment phase of a school-based teacher accompagnateur pilot study (TAPS) in Haiti. Methods We assigned student participants, ages 18–22 (n=120) to a teacher participant (n=22) within four Haitian schools; we instructed participants to arrange meetings with their assigned counterparts to discuss mental health treatment, academic skills, and/or well-being. We measured student and teacher perceived feasibility, acceptability, and utility of meetings with self-report Likert-style questions. We examined overall program feasibility by the percentage of students with a documented meeting, acceptability by a composite measure of student satisfaction, and utility by the percentage with identified mental health need who discussed treatment with a teacher. Results Favorable ratings support feasibility, acceptability, and utility of teacher-accompagnateur meetings with students. The majority of students (54%) met with a teacher. Among students with an identified mental disorder, 43.2% discussed treatment during a meeting. Conclusions This accompaniment approach to mental health task-sharing with teachers provided a school-based opportunity for students with mental health need to discuss treatment and has potential relevance to other low-income settings. PMID:28367718
Eustache, Eddy; Gerbasi, Margaret E; Severe, Jennifer; Fils-Aimé, J Reginald; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Raviola, Giuseppe J; Darghouth, Sarah; Boyd, Kate; Thérosmé, Tatiana; Legha, Rupinder; Pierre, Ermaze L; Affricot, Emmeline; Alcindor, Yoldie; Grelotti, David J; Becker, Anne E
Task-sharing with teachers to promote youth mental health is a promising but underdeveloped strategy in improving care access in low-income countries. To assess feasibility, acceptability and utility of the teacher accompaniment phase of a school-based Teacher- Accompagnateur Pilot Study (TAPS) in Haiti. We assigned student participants, aged 18-22 years ( n = 120), to teacher participants ( n = 22) within four Haitian schools; we instructed participants to arrange meetings with their assigned counterparts to discuss mental health treatment, academic skills, and/or well-being. We measured student and teacher perceived feasibility, acceptability and utility of meetings with self-report Likert-style questions. We examined overall program feasibility by the percentage of students with a documented meeting, acceptability by a composite measure of student satisfaction and utility by the percentage with identified mental health need who discussed treatment with a teacher. Favorable ratings support feasibility, acceptability and utility of teacher- accompagnateur meetings with students. The majority of students (54%) met with a teacher. Among students with an identified mental disorder, 43.2% discussed treatment during a meeting. This accompaniment approach to mental health task-sharing with teachers provided a school-based opportunity for students with mental health need to discuss treatment and has potential relevance to other low-income settings.
Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.
Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to assess whether the Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity (ARC) organizational intervention improved youth outcomes in community based mental health programs. The second objective was to assess whether programs with more improved organizational social contexts following the 18-month ARC…
Farahmand, Farahnaz K.; Duffy, Sophia N.; Tailor, Megha A.; Dubois, David L.; Lyon, Aaron L.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Zarlinski, Jennifer C.; Masini, Olivia; Zander, Keith J.; Nathanson, Alison M.
A meta-analytic review of 33 studies and 41 independent samples was conducted of the effectiveness of community-based mental health and behavioral programs for low-income urban youth. Findings indicated positive effects, with an overall mean effect of 0.25 at post-test. While this is comparable to previous meta-analytic intervention research with…
Tucker, Anita R.; Javorski, Steve; Tracy, Julie; Beale, Bobbi
Background: There is an increasing need to identify effective mental health treatment practices for children and adolescents in community-based settings, due to current mixed findings of existing interventions. This study looked at adventure therapy (AT) as a viable option to meet this need. Objective: Using a sample of 1,135 youth from a…
Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah
Using a sample of 284 sexual minority youth and young adults, this paper examines the relationships between mental health variables, the absence or presence of a gay-straight alliance, and membership status in a gay-straight alliance. The results suggest that the presence of a gay-straight alliance in a school or college, rather than actual…
Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.
The enduring impact of exposure to the 911 terrorist attacks on mental health and sociopolitical attitudes was examined in a sample of 427 adolescents (M = 16.20 years) and their mothers residing in New York City. Direct exposure to the terrorist attack was associated with youth depression symptoms and with mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder…
Schmidt, Robert C.
Mental health practitioners working within school or community settings may at any time find themselves working with youth presenting with suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Although always well intended, practitioners are making significant clinical decisions that have high potential for influencing a range of outcomes, including very negative…
Mendoza-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis
In this study, we explored the role of sex as an effect-modifying variable in the association between sexual orientation and mental health in Mexican youth. In addition, we tested if violent experiences in the family and the school and attitudes toward homosexuality could act as mediating variables in such association. Data from three representative surveys performed in 2007, 2009, and 2013 among Mexican high school students were analyzed. Two dimensions of sexual orientation were evaluated: romantic partnership and sexual behavior. The outcomes were negative and positive mood, suicidal ideation and intent, self-concept, and self-esteem. There were differences by gender because in males, there were more disparities in mental health associated with sexual orientation (suicidal ideation and attempt, negative and positive mood, negative self-concept, and family-related self-esteem) than in females (suicidal ideation and negative mood). Experiences of school violence were mediators in the relationship between sexual orientation and most health outcomes in males.
Wilson, Erin C; Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Raymond, H Fisher; McFarland, Willi
Significant health disparities exist for transgender female (trans*female) youth. We assessed differences in mental health outcomes based on exposure to discrimination among transgender female youth in the San Francisco Bay Area aged 16-24 years. Youth were recruited using a combination of respondent driven sampling with online and social media methods. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for the mental health outcomes, comparing levels of discrimination and levels of resiliency promoting protective factors among sexually active youth in the sample (N = 216). High transgender-based discrimination was significantly associated with greater odds of PTSD (AOR, 2.6; 95 % CI 1.4-5.0), depression (AOR, 2.6; 95 % CI 1.2-5.9), and stress related to suicidal thoughts (AOR 7.7, 95 % CI 2.3-35.2). High racial discrimination was significantly associated with greater odds of psychological stress (AOR 3.6; 95 % CI 1.2-10.8), PTSD (AOR 2.1; 95 % CI 1.1-4.2) and stress related to suicidal thoughts (AOR 4.3, 95 % CI 1.5-13.3). Parental closeness was related to significantly lower odds of all four mental health outcomes measured, and intrinsic resiliency positively reduced risk for psychological stress, PTSD, and stress related to suicidal thoughts. Transgender and racial discrimination may have deleterious effects on the mental health of trans*female youth. Interventions that address individual and intersectional discrimination and build resources for resiliency and parental closeness may have success in preventing mental health disorders in this underserved population.
Veale, Jaimie; Watson, Ryan J; Adjei, Jones; Saewyc, Elizabeth
While little research has been conducted into the reproductive experiences of transgender people, available evidence suggests that like cisgender people, most transgender people endorse a desire for these experiences. This study explores the pregnancy experiences and related health factors among transgender and gender-diverse 14-25 year olds using a national Canadian sample ( N = 923). Results indicated that 26 (5%) transgender youth reported a pregnancy experience in the past and the prevalence among 14-18 year olds was comparable to population-based estimates using the same question in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey. Transgender youth with a history of pregnancy involvement reported a diverse range of gender identities, and this group did not differ from the remainder of the sample on general mental health, social supports, and living in felt gender. This group did report over six times greater likelihood of having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection by a doctor (19%), but did they not differ in reported contraception use during last sexual intercourse. These findings suggest that pregnancy involvement is an issue that should not be overlooked by health professionals working with transgender youth and that this group has particular sexual health needs.
Ravindran, Arun V; Herrera, Andres; da Silva, Tricia L; Henderson, Joanna; Castrillo, Magda Esther; Kutcher, Stan
High rates of mental illness and addictions are well documented among youth in Nicaragua. Limited mental health services, poor mental health knowledge and stigma reduce help-seeking. The Mental Health Curriculum (MHC) is a Canadian school-based program that has shown a positive impact on such contributing factors. This pilot project evaluated the impact of the MHC on mental wellness and functioning among youth in Leon, Nicaragua. High school and university students (aged 14-25 years) were assigned to intervention (12-week MHC; n = 567) and control (wait-list; n = 346) groups in a non-randomized design. Both groups completed measures of mental health knowledge, stigma and function at baseline and 12 weeks. Multivariate analyses and repeated measures analyses were used to compare group outcomes. At baseline, intervention students showed higher substance use (mean difference [MD] = 0.24) and lower perceived stress (MD = -1.36) than controls ( p mental health knowledge (MD = 1.75), lower stigma (MD = 1.78), more adaptive coping (MD = 0.82), better lifestyle choices (MD = 0.06) and lower perceived stress (MD = -1.63) ( p mental health knowledge, small to moderate for stigma and modest for the other variables. Substance use also decreased among intervention students to similar levels as controls (MD = 0.03) ( p > 0.05). This pilot investigation demonstrates the benefits of the MHC in a low-and-middle-income youth population. The findings replicate results found in Canadian student populations and support its cross-cultural applicability.
Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating
Rose, Theda; Lindsey, Michael A; Xiao, Yunyu; Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Joe, Sean
Disproportionately lower educational achievement, coupled with higher grade retention, suspensions, expulsions, and lower school bonding make educational success among Black adolescents a major public health concern. Mental health is a key developmental factor related to educational outcomes among adolescents; however, traditional models of mental health focus on absence of dysfunction as a way to conceptualize mental health. The dual-factor model of mental health incorporates indicators of both subjective wellbeing and psychopathology, supporting more recent research that both are needed to comprehensively assess mental health. This study applied the dual-factor model to measure mental health using the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a representative cross-sectional survey. The sample included 1170 Black adolescents (52% female; mean age 15). Latent class analysis was conducted with positive indicators of subjective wellbeing (emotional, psychological, and social) as well as measures of psychopathology. Four mental health groups were identified, based on having high or low subjective wellbeing and high or low psychopathology. Accordingly, associations between mental health groups and educational outcomes were investigated. Significant associations were observed in school bonding, suspensions, and grade retention, with the positive mental health group (high subjective wellbeing, low psychopathology) experiencing more beneficial outcomes. The results support a strong association between school bonding and better mental health and have implications for a more comprehensive view of mental health in interventions targeting improved educational experiences and mental health among Black adolescents.
Brimblecombe, Nicola; Knapp, Martin; Murguia, Silvia; Mbeah-Bankas, Henrietta; Crane, Steve; Harris, Abi; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Ardino, Vittoria; Iemmi, Valentina; King, Derek
This study aims to evaluate the outcomes and economic case for a UK innovative youth-specific mental health service for 16-25 year olds. A pre-, during- and post-treatment comparative design for 20 young people at high risk of developing psychosis who received 2 years' treatment with the service, using outcomes that concurred with the service aims: changes in mental health, employment rates and service use. Forty-five percent of those at risk and with symptoms of serious mental illness commencing treatment were not receiving mental health services at baseline. Compared with service use prior to treatment at the youth-specific service, hospital admissions, Accident and Emergency, and criminal justice system use appear to decrease over the 2 years of treatment and the year after treatment, with potential cost differences of £473 000. Mental health improved or stayed the same, compared with baseline. Employment rates improved, although the sample size for this is very small. Potential cost differences associated with service users moving into employment over the 2 years are £148 000. The estimated cost over 2 years of providing the youth-specific mental health service to these young people was £106 000. Given the extensive long-term negative consequences and high costs of untreated mental illness in the 16-25 age group and the documented problems young people have in receiving appropriate services, this youth-specific, age-appropriate service model appears to be successful, with improved outcomes and cost differences in the short-term, and with encouraging implications for the longer term. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Weisman, Hannah L.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Lippincott, Ann; Taylor, Zachary; Zheng, Jimmy
Background: Researchers have emphasized the importance of integrating mental health education with academic curriculum. The focus of the current studies was "Mental Health Matters" (MHM), a mental health curriculum that is integrated with English language arts. It is taught by trained community member volunteers and aims to increase…
Gamble, Brandon E.; Lambros, Katina M.
This article provides results from a qualitative study on the efforts of school-based mental health providers (SBMHPs) who serve students in urban, suburban, and ethnically diverse settings to help families access quality mental health services. School-based mental health plays a key role in the provision of direct and indirect intervention…
O'Mara, Linda; Lind, Candace
There are numerous studies of school mental health promotion and primary prevention and many reviews of these studies; however, no clear consensus statement has emerged regarding school mental health promotion other than that child mental health is an important area that should be addressed in schools. This integrative review seeks to address this…
Gadeberg, A K; Montgomery, E; Frederiksen, H W; Norredam, M
: It is estimated that children below 18 years constitute 50% of the refugee population worldwide, which is the highest figure in a decade. Due to conflicts like the Syrian crises, children are continuously exposed to traumatic events. Trauma exposure can cause mental health problems that may in turn increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Tools such as questionnaires and interview guides are being used extensively, despite the fact that only a few have been tested and their validity confirmed in refugee children and youth. : Our aim was to provide a systematic review of the validated screening and measurement tools available for assessment of trauma and mental health among refugee children and youth. : We systematically searched the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and PILOTS. The search yielded 913 articles and 97 were retained for further investigation. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines two authors performed the eligibility assessment. The full text of 23 articles was assessed and 9 met the eligibility criteria. Results : Only nine studies had validated trauma and mental health tools in refugee children and youth populations. A serious lack of validated tools for refugee children below the age of 6 was identified. : There is a lack of validated trauma and mental health tools, especially for refugees below the age of 6. Detection and treatment of mental health issues among refugee children and youth should be a priority both within the scientific community and in practice in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, among children and adolescents requires the use of validated, culturally sensitive, and developmentally appropriate screening instruments. The Arab region has a high proportion of youth, yet Arabic-language screening instruments for mental disorders among this age group are virtually absent. Methods We carried out construct and clinical validation on the recently-developed Arab Youth Mental Health (AYMH scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety. The scale was administered with 10-14 year old children attending a social service center in Beirut, Lebanon (N = 153. The clinical assessment was conducted by a child and adolescent clinical psychiatrist employing the DSM IV criteria. We tested the scale's sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency. Results Scale scores were generally significantly associated with how participants responded to standard questions on health, mental health, and happiness, indicating good construct validity. The results revealed that the scale exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86 and specificity (79%. However, it exhibited moderate sensitivity for girls (71% and poor sensitivity for boys (50%. Conclusions The AYMH scale is useful as a screening tool for general mental health states and a valid screening instrument for common mental disorders among girls. It is not a valid instrument for detecting depression and anxiety among boys in an Arab culture.
Orlowski, Simone; Lawn, Sharon; Matthews, Ben; Venning, Anthony; Jones, Gabrielle; Winsall, Megan; Antezana, Gaston; Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Musiat, Peter
The merits of technology-based mental health service reform have been widely debated among academics, practitioners, and policy makers. The design of new technologies must first be predicated on a detailed appreciation of how the mental health system works before it can be improved or changed through the introduction of new products and services. Further work is required to better understand the nature of face-to-face mental health work and to translate this knowledge to computer scientists and system designers responsible for creating technology-based solutions. Intensive observation of day-to-day work within two rural youth mental health services in South Australia, Australia, was undertaken to understand how technology could be designed and implemented to enhance young people's engagement with services and improve their experience of help seeking. Data were analysed through a lens of complexity theory. Results highlight the variety of professional roles and services that can comprise the mental health system. The level of interconnectedness evident in the system contrasted with high levels of service self-organization and disjointed information flow. A mental health professional's work was guided by two main constructs: risk and engagement. Most clients presented with a profile of disability, disadvantage, and isolation, so complex client presentations and decision-making were core practices. Clients (and frequently, their families) engaged with services in a crisis-dependent manner, characterized by multiple disengagements and re-engagements over time. While significant opportunities exist to integrate technology into existing youth mental health services, technologies for this space must be usable for a broad range of medical, psychological and cognitive disability, social disadvantage, and accommodate repeat cycles of engagement/disengagement over time. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Webber, Kristina C
Mental health functioning in American Indian youth is an understudied topic. Given the increased rates of depression and anxiety in this population, further research is needed. Using multiple group structural equation modeling, the current study illuminates the effect of ethnic identity on anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior in a group of Lumbee adolescents and a group of Caucasian, African American, and Latino/Hispanic adolescents. This study examined two possible pathways (i.e., future optimism and self-esteem) through which ethnic identity is associated with adolescent mental health. The sample (N = 4,714) is 28.53% American Indian (Lumbee) and 51.38% female. The study findings indicate that self-esteem significantly mediated the relationships between ethnic identity and anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups (i.e., the total sample). Future optimism significantly mediated the relationship between ethnic identity and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups and was a significant mediator between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms for American Indian youth only. Fostering ethnic identity in all youth serves to enhance mental health functioning, but is especially important for American Indian youth due to the collective nature of their culture.
Ho, Frederick Ka Wing; Louie, Lobo Hung Tak; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Chow, Chun Bong; Ho, Walter; Wong, William; Chan, Meanne; Chen, Eric Yu Hai; Cheung, Yiu Fai; Ip, Patrick
To assess the effectiveness of a positive youth development (PYD)-based sports mentorship program on the physical and mental well-being of adolescents recruited in a community setting. This is a randomized controlled trial in which we recruited students from 12 secondary schools in Hong Kong, China. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to an intervention or a control arm after stratification for school from October 2013 to June 2014. Participants were not blinded to allocation because of the nature of the intervention. Students in the intervention arm received an after-school, PYD-based sports mentorship for 18 weeks. Each weekly session lasted 90 minutes. Students in the control arm received exclusive access to a health education Web site. Six hundred and sixty-four students (mean age 12.3 years [SD 0.76]; 386 girls [58.1%]) completed baseline and postintervention assessments. The intervention improved students' mental well-being (Cohen's d , 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10 to 0.40; P = .001), self-efficacy (Cohen's d , 0.22; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.37; P = .01), resilience (Cohen's d , 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.34; P = .02), physical fitness (flexibility [Cohen's d , 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.43; P = .02], lower limb muscle strength [Cohen's d , 0.18; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.33; P = .03], and dynamic balance [Cohen's d , 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.37; P = .01]), and physical activity levels (Cohen's d , 0.39; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.55; P sports mentorship intervention improved healthy adolescents' mental well-being, psychological assets, physical fitness, and physical activity levels. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The primary objective was to use isotemporal substitution models to estimate whether replacing time spent in sedentary video games (SVGs) and active outdoor play (AOP) with active video games (AVGs) would be associated with changes in youth's mental health. A representative sample of 20,122 Canadian youth in Grades 6-10 was studied. The exposure variables were average hours/day spent playing AVGs, SVGs, and AOP. The outcomes consisted of a negative and internalizing mental health indicator (emotional problems), a positive and internalizing mental health indicator (life satisfaction), and a positive and externalizing mental health indicator (prosocial behavior). Isotemporal substitution models estimated the extent to which replacing time spent in SVGs and AOP with an equivalent amount of time in AVGs had on the mental health indicators. Replacing 1 hour/day of SVGs with 1 hour/day of AVGs was associated with a 6% (95% confidence interval: 3%-9%) reduced probability of high emotional problems, a 4% (2%-7%) increased probability of high life satisfaction, and a 13% (9%-16%) increased probability of high prosocial behavior. Replacing 1 hour/day of AOP with 1 hour/day of AVGs was associated with a 7% (3%-11%) increased probability of high emotional problems, a 3% (1%-5%) reduced probability of high life satisfaction, and a 6% (2%-9%) reduced probability of high prosocial behavior. Replacing SVGs with AVGs was associated with more preferable mental health indicators. Conversely, replacing AOP with AVGs was associated with more deleterious mental health indicators. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Durwood, Lily; McLaughlin, Katie A; Olson, Kristina R
Social transitions are increasingly common for transgender children. A social transition involves a child presenting to other people as a member of the "opposite" gender in all contexts (e.g., wearing clothes and using pronouns of that gender). Little is known about the well-being of socially transitioned transgender children. This study examined self-reported depression, anxiety, and self-worth in socially transitioned transgender children compared with 2 control groups: age- and gender-matched controls and siblings of transgender children. As part of a longitudinal study (TransYouth Project), children (9-14 years old) and their parents completed measurements of depression and anxiety (n = 63 transgender children, n = 63 controls, n = 38 siblings). Children (6-14 years old; n = 116 transgender children, n = 122 controls, n = 72 siblings) also reported on their self-worth. Mental health and self-worth were compared across groups. Transgender children reported depression and self-worth that did not differ from their matched-control or sibling peers (p = .311), and they reported marginally higher anxiety (p = .076). Compared with national averages, transgender children showed typical rates of depression (p = .290) and marginally higher rates of anxiety (p = .096). Parents similarly reported that their transgender children experienced more anxiety than children in the control groups (p = .002) and rated their transgender children as having equivalent levels of depression (p = .728). These findings are in striking contrast to previous work with gender-nonconforming children who had not socially transitioned, which found very high rates of depression and anxiety. These findings lessen concerns from previous work that parents of socially transitioned children could be systematically underreporting mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Mental health is considered as an integral and essential component of overall health. Its determinants and related factors are one of the most important research priorities, especially in adolescents and young people. Using a qualitative approach, the present study aimed to identify factors affecting the mental health of youth in Iran. Methods: In 2017, following content analysis principles, and using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we conducted a qualitative study exploring the opinions of young people about mental health. A targeted sampling method was used, and participants were young volunteers aged 18 to 30 who were selected from Tehran province, Iran. Inclusion criteria for participants was willingness to participate in the study, and ability to express their experiences. Data collection was done with individual in-depth interviews. According to the explanatory model, the interviews were directed toward the concept of mental health and path of causality and auxiliary behaviors. Results: 21 young adults participated, who met the study inclusion criteria, of whom 12 participants were male. Their mean age was 24.4 ± 0.41 years and their education varied from primary school to Master’s degree. Mental health was considered as mental well-being and a sense of satisfaction and efficacy, not only the presence of a disease or mental disorder. Based on the opinions of the interviewees, three factors of personal characteristics, family and society are involved in mental health. Individual factors were associated with behavioral and physical problems. One of the most important issues was revealed as tensions in societal and family conflicts. Economic problems and unemployment of young people were also extracted from the social factor. Conclusion: In Iran, social factors such as jobs for the unemployed and job security are considered as important determinants in the mental health of young people.
Ujsara Prasertsin; Prapimparn Suvarnakuta
The purpose of the research was to study the behavior of children and youth related to using the internet. The sample consisted of 1,584 children and youths in Bangkok. The Canonical Correlation Analysis statistics method was applied to analyze the data. The research results revealed that using the internet for entertainment purposes exerted good effects on mental health at 0.52%; meanwhile, it negatively affected mental health at 6251%. Using the internet for education and business displayed...
Petrasek MacDonald, Joanna; Cunsolo Willox, Ashlee; Ford, James D; Shiwak, Inez; Wood, Michele
The Canadian Arctic is experiencing rapid changes in climatic conditions, with implications for Inuit communities widely documented. Youth have been identified as an at-risk population, with likely impacts on mental health and well-being. This study identifies and characterizes youth-specific protective factors that enhance well-being in light of a rapidly changing climate, and examines how climatic and environmental change challenges these. In-depth conversational interviews were conducted with youth aged 15-25 from the five communities of the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, Canada: Nain, Hopedale, Postville, Makkovik, and Rigolet. Five key protective factors were identified as enhancing their mental health and well-being: being on the land; connecting to Inuit culture; strong communities; relationships with family and friends; and staying busy. Changing sea ice and weather conditions were widely reported to be compromising these protective factors by reducing access to the land, and increasing the danger of land-based activities. This study contributes to existing work on Northern climate change adaptation by identifying factors that enhance youth resilience and, if incorporated into adaptation strategies, may contribute to creating successful and effective adaptation responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley
Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…
Measuring the Effectiveness of a Professional Development Workshop on Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills of Mental Health Professionals in Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth
McGravey, Katie Ann
Although LGBTQ youth are at risk for peer rejection, substance abuse, mental health disorders, and dropping out of school, research shows that most mental health training programs do not include a course on working with this population (Carroll & Gilroy,2001; Matthews, 2005; McCabe & Rubinson, 2008;Sherry, Whilde, & Patton, 2005;…
Sharma, Manasi; Fine, Shoshanna L; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S
This study explored how coping with war-related traumatic events in Sierra Leone impacted mental health outcomes among 529 youth (aged 10-17 at baseline; 25% female) using longitudinal data from three time points (Time 1 in 2002, Time 2 in 2004, and Time 3 in 2008). We examined two types of coping items (approach and avoidance); used multiple regression models to test their relations with long-term mental health outcomes (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive/prosocial behaviors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms); and used mediation analyses to test whether coping explained the relation between previous war exposures (being raped, death of parent(s), or killing/injuring someone during the war) and those outcomes. We found that avoidance coping items were associated with lower internalizing and posttraumatic stress behaviors at Time 3, and provided some evidence of mediating the relation between death of parent(s) during the war and the two outcomes mentioned above. Approach coping was associated with higher Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors, whereas avoidance coping was associated with lower Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors. Avoidance coping may be a protective factor against mental illness, whereas approach coping may be a promotive factor for adaptive/prosocial behaviors in war-affected societies. This study has important implications for designing and implementing mental health interventions for youth in postconflict settings.
Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.
This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Weisman, Hannah L; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Lippincott, Ann; Taylor, Zachary; Zheng, Jimmy
Researchers have emphasized the importance of integrating mental health education with academic curriculum. The focus of the current studies was Mental Health Matters (MHM), a mental health curriculum that is integrated with English language arts. It is taught by trained community member volunteers and aims to increase knowledge and decrease stigma toward individuals with mental health disorders. In Study 1, 142 sixth graders participated in MHM and completed pre- and postprogram measures of mental health knowledge, stigma, and program acceptability. Teachers also completed ratings of acceptability. Study 2 (N = 120 seventh graders) compared participants who had participated in MHM the previous year with those who had not using the same measures. Sixth grade students and teachers rated the program as highly acceptable. Participants significantly increased their knowledge and decreased their levels of stigma. Seventh graders who had participated in MHM had significantly more mental health knowledge than peers who had not, but there were no differences in stigma. The model appears to be acceptable to students and teachers. Future research is needed to assess the long-term effectiveness of integrating mental health education with other academic curriculum such as language arts or science. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Edwards, C. A.; Britton, M. L.; Jenkins, L.; Rickwood, D. J.; Gillham, K. E.
Young people have higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) than the general population. Research has shown that there is a clear link between emotional distress, depression, substance abuse and sexual risk taking behaviours in young people. "headspace" is a youth mental health early intervention service operating in more…
Bowen, Daniel J; Neill, James T; Crisp, Simon J R
Adventure therapy offers a prevention, early intervention, and treatment modality for people with behavioural, psychological, and psychosocial issues. It can appeal to youth-at-risk who are often less responsive to traditional psychotherapeutic interventions. This study evaluated Wilderness Adventure Therapy (WAT) outcomes based on participants' pre-program, post-program, and follow-up responses to self-report questionnaires. The sample consisted of 36 adolescent out-patients with mixed mental health issues who completed a 10-week, manualised WAT intervention. The overall short-term standardised mean effect size was small, positive, and statistically significant (0.26), with moderate, statistically significant improvements in psychological resilience and social self-esteem. Total short-term effects were within age-based adventure therapy meta-analytic benchmark 90% confidence intervals, except for the change in suicidality which was lower than the comparable benchmark. The short-term changes were retained at the three-month follow-up, except for family functioning (significant reduction) and suicidality (significant improvement). For participants in clinical ranges pre-program, there was a large, statistically significant reduction in depressive symptomology, and large to very large, statistically significant improvements in behavioural and emotional functioning. These changes were retained at the three-month follow-up. These findings indicate that WAT is as effective as traditional psychotherapy techniques for clinically symptomatic people. Future research utilising a comparison or wait-list control group, multiple sources of data, and a larger sample, could help to qualify and extend these findings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Javdani, Shabnam; Abdul-Adil, Jaleel; Suarez, Liza; Nichols, Sara R; Farmer, A David
Previous research suggests that community violence impacts mental health outcomes, but much of this research has not (a) distinguished between different types of community violence, (b) examined gender differences, and (c) focused on youth living in urban poverty. The current study addresses these questions. Participants were 306 youth (23 % girls) and one parent/guardian receiving outpatient psychiatric services for disruptive behavior disorders in a large urban city. Youth and parents reported on youth's experience of different types of community violence (being a direct victim, hearing reports, and witnessing violence), and whether violence was directed toward a stranger or familiar. Outcomes included youth externalizing, internalizing, and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed via parent and youth reports. Being a direct victim of violence accords risk for all mental health outcomes similarly for both boys and girls. However, gender differences emerged with respect to indirect violence, such that girls who hear reports of violence against people they know are at increased risk for all assessed mental health outcomes, and girls who witness violence against familiars are at increased risk for externalizing mental health symptoms in particular. There are gender differences in violence-related mental health etiology, with implications for intervention assessment and design.
Examining the Links between Challenging Behaviors in Youth with ASD and Parental Stress, Mental Health, and Involvement: Applying an Adaptation of the Family Stress Model to Families of Youth with ASD
Schiltz, Hillary K.; McVey, Alana J.; Magnus, Brooke; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey; Carson, Audrey M.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan
Raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) poses unique challenges that may impact parents' mental health and parenting experiences. The current study analyzed self-report data from 77 parents of youth with ASD. A serial multiple mediation model revealed that parenting stress (SIPA) and parental mental health (BAI and BDI-II) appears to…
British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2015
The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) has taken an active role in addressing both youth and teacher mental health issues in recent years, and will continue to do so. The BCTF is a participant in the British Columbia (BC) School-Based Mental Health Collaborative, has a web page with resources to support teachers in understanding mental…
Thern, Emelie; de Munter, Jeroen; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Rasmussen, Finn
Ill health is a risk factor and a consequence of unemployment, which might vary depending on the national rate of unemployment. We investigated the long-term effect of youth unemployment on mental health and explored the possible interaction during periods of high (economic crisis) and low (non-crisis) unemployment rates. A register-linked population-based cohort study was conducted including individuals aged 17-24 years. The crisis cohort (n=6410) took part in the Labour Force Survey during the economic crisis (1991-1994) in Sweden and the non-crisis cohort (n=8162) took part in the same survey before the crisis (1983-1986). Follow-up was 19 years. Adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for an inpatient care discharge mental diagnosis with employed people as the reference group were calculated by Cox regressions models. In fully adjusted models, 6 months (2.70; 1.71 to 4.28) of unemployment were associated with increased risks of getting a mental diagnosis in the crisis cohort. In the non-crisis cohort the risks were: 1.92; 1.40 to 2.63, 2.60; 1.72 to 3.94 and 3.33; 2.00 to 5.57, respectively. No interactions between labour force status and level of unemployment were found. Youth unemployment is related to mental health problems, independent of the overall national rate of unemployment, which is important as the youth unemployment rates are currently at stable high level. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Cruwys, Tegan; Saeri, Alexander K; Radke, Helena R M; Walter, Zoe C; Crimston, Daniel; Ferris, Laura J
Mass gatherings are well-documented for their public health risks; however, little research has examined their impact on mental health or focused on young people specifically. This study explores risk and protective factors for mental health at mass gatherings, with a particular focus on characterising attendees with high levels of psychological distress and risk taking. Data collection was conducted in situ at "Schoolies", an annual informal week-long mass gathering of approximately 30,000 Australian school leavers. Participants were 812 attendees of Schoolies on the Gold Coast in 2015 or 2016 (74% aged 17 years old). In both years, attendee mental health was found to be significantly better than population norms for their age peers. Identification with the mass gathering predicted better mental health, and this relationship became stronger across the course of the mass gathering. Attendees with high levels of psychological distress were more likely to be male, socially isolated, impulsive, and in a friendship group where risk taking was normative. Mass gatherings may have a net benefit for attendee mental health, especially for those attendees who are subjectively committed to the event. However, a vulnerable subgroup of attendees requires targeted mental health support.
Veale, Jaimie F.; Peter, Tracey; Travers, Robb; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
Abstract Purpose: We aimed to assess the Minority Stress Model which proposes that the stress of experiencing stigma leads to adverse mental health outcomes, but social supports (e.g., school and family connectedness) will reduce this negative effect. Methods: We measured stigma-related experiences, social supports, and mental health (self-injury, suicide, depression, and anxiety) among a sample of 923 Canadian transgender 14- to 25-year-old adolescents and young adults using a bilingual onli...
Glisson, Charles; Williams, Nathaniel J; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Proctor, Enola; Green, Philip
Clinician EBT exploration and preparation behavior is essential to the ongoing implementation of new EBTs. This study examined the effect of the ARC organizational intervention on clinician EBT exploration and preparation behavior and assessed the mediating role of organizational culture as a linking mechanism. Fourteen community mental health agencies that serve youth in a major Midwestern metropolis along with 475 clinicians who worked in those agencies, were randomly assigned to either the three-year ARC intervention or control condition. Organizational culture was assessed with the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure at baseline and follow-up. EBT exploration and preparation behavior was measured as clinician participation in nine separate community EBT workshops held over a three-year period. There was 69 percent greater odds (OR = 1.69, p organizational culture mediated the positive effect of the ARC intervention on clinicians' workshop attendance (a × b = .21; 95% CI:LL = .05, UL = .40). Organizational interventions that create proficient mental health agency cultures can increase clinician EBT exploration and preparation behavior that is essential to the ongoing implementation of new EBTs in community youth mental health settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boydell, Katherine M; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Addington, Jean
This paper aims to identify the ways in which youth at ultra high risk for psychosis access mental health services and the factors that advance or delay help seeking, using the Revised Network Episode Model (REV NEM) of mental health care. A case study approach documents help-seeking pathways, encompassing two qualitative interviews with 10 young people and 29 significant others. Theoretical propositions derived from the REV NEM are explored, consisting of the content, structure and function of the: (i) family; (ii) community and school; and (iii) treatment system. Although the aspects of the REV NEM are supported and shape pathways to care, we consider rethinking the model for help seeking with youth at ultra high risk for psychosis. The pathway concept is important to our understanding of how services and supports are received and experienced over time. Understanding this process and the strategies that support positive early intervention on the part of youth and significant others is critical. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Burns, John R; Rapee, Ronald M
Epidemiological studies indicate that as many as 1 in 5 young people will develop a mental health problem in any given year. Early detection and intervention are needed to reduce the impact that these conditions have-both for the young person and for the communities in which they live. This study reports the development of a new instrument aimed at helping identify students at risk of developing mental health difficulties. Rather than asking about the presence of symptoms of mental health conditions, the RADAR screening tool assesses a student's balance of risk and protective factors associated with the development of mental health problems. The RADAR was evaluated with a sample of 838 participants in high school Years 7-12. A robust internal factor structure was revealed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was satisfactory for each subscale, ranging from .73 to .90 while the reliability for the total scale was .91. Retest stability, measured over a 12 month period, was found to be strong (r = .72). Convergent validity was demonstrated with reference to standard measures of depression and behavioral problems. It is concluded that the RADAR is a promising measure for helping mental health professionals and educators decide which students may be at risk of developing mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Graaf, Genevieve; Snowden, Lonnie
To assist families of youth with serious emotional disturbance in financing youth's comprehensive care, some states have sought and received Medicaid waivers. Medicaid waivers waive or relax the Medicaid means test for eligibility to provide insurance coverage to nonpoor families for expensive, otherwise out-of-reach treatment for youth with Serious Emotional Disturbance (SED). Waivers promote treatment access for the most troubled youth, and the present study investigated whether any of several Medicaid waiver options-and those that completely omit the means test in particular-are associated with higher state-wide public sector treatment penetration rates. The investigators obtained data from the U.S. Census, SAMHSA's Uniform Reporting System, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Analysis employed random intercept and random slope linear regression models, controlling for a variety of state demographic and fiscal variables, to determine whether a relationship between Medicaid waiver policies and state-level public sector penetration rates could be observed. Findings indicate that, whether relaxing or completely waiving Medicaid's qualifying income limits, waivers increase public sector penetration rates, particularly for youth under age 17. However, completely waiving Medicaid income limits did not uniquely contribute to penetration rate increases. States offering Medicaid waivers that either relax or completely waive Medicaid's means test to qualify for health coverage present higher public sector treatment rates for youth with behavioral health care needs. There is no evidence that restricting the program to waiving the means test for accessing Medicaid would increase treatment access. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Harris Meredith G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection and treatment of mental disorders in adolescents and young adults can lead to better health outcomes. Mental health literacy is a key to early recognition and help seeking. Whilst a number of population health initiatives have attempted to improve mental health literacy, none to date have specifically targeted young people nor have they applied the rigorous standards of population health models now accepted as best practice in other health areas. This paper describes the outcomes from the application of a health promotion model to the development, implementation and evaluation of a community awareness campaign designed to improve mental health literacy and early help seeking amongst young people. Method The Compass Strategy was implemented in the western metropolitan Melbourne and Barwon regions of Victoria, Australia. The Precede-Proceed Model guided the population assessment, campaign strategy development and evaluation. The campaign included the use of multimedia, a website, and an information telephone service. Multiple levels of evaluation were conducted. This included a cross-sectional telephone survey of mental health literacy undertaken before and after 14 months of the campaign using a quasi-experimental design. Randomly selected independent samples of 600 young people aged 12–25 years from the experimental region and another 600 from a comparison region were interviewed at each time point. A series of binary logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association between a range of campaign outcome variables and the predictor variables of region and time. Results The program was judged to have an impact on the following variables, as indicated by significant region-by-time interaction effects (p Conclusion We believe this is the first study to apply the rigorous standards of a health promotion model including the use of a control region to a mental health population intervention. The
Christie, Grant; Merry, Sally; Robinson, Elizabeth
We aimed to describe and compare the self-reported substance use, psychopathology and psychosocial morbidity in adolescents attending two adolescent outpatient services, a triage-based mental health service and an engagement-focused addiction service in Auckland, New Zealand. A naturalistic cross-section of 131 (addiction service = 67, mental health service = 64) 14-18-year-old boys and girls attending each service completed a standardised screening and assessment instrument, the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised. The Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised measures self-reported problems across 10 domains of functioning, including substance use, behaviour, psychiatric symptoms and school and family functioning. Descriptive statistics were used to provide an overview of the self-reported morbidity in each group and t-tests were used to determine differences between the two groups. Adolescents attending the addiction service reported significantly more problems with substance use, school performance and peer relationships than those attending the mental health service. There was no significant difference in reported psychiatric symptoms, behavioural problems, social competency, health problems, family problems, difficulties in work functioning or leisure time between the two groups. Young people presenting to engagement-focused substance use services report similar difficulties to those at mental health services across most areas of psychosocial functioning. Addiction services may require equivalent staffing expertise and workforce development to that in mental health to effectively meet young people's needs.
Wright, Annemarie; McGorry, Patrick D; Harris, Meredith G; Jorm, Anthony F; Pennell, Kerryn
Background Early detection and treatment of mental disorders in adolescents and young adults can lead to better health outcomes. Mental health literacy is a key to early recognition and help seeking. Whilst a number of population health initiatives have attempted to improve mental health literacy, none to date have specifically targeted young people nor have they applied the rigorous standards of population health models now accepted as best practice in other health areas. This paper describes the outcomes from the application of a health promotion model to the development, implementation and evaluation of a community awareness campaign designed to improve mental health literacy and early help seeking amongst young people. Method The Compass Strategy was implemented in the western metropolitan Melbourne and Barwon regions of Victoria, Australia. The Precede-Proceed Model guided the population assessment, campaign strategy development and evaluation. The campaign included the use of multimedia, a website, and an information telephone service. Multiple levels of evaluation were conducted. This included a cross-sectional telephone survey of mental health literacy undertaken before and after 14 months of the campaign using a quasi-experimental design. Randomly selected independent samples of 600 young people aged 12–25 years from the experimental region and another 600 from a comparison region were interviewed at each time point. A series of binary logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association between a range of campaign outcome variables and the predictor variables of region and time. Results The program was judged to have an impact on the following variables, as indicated by significant region-by-time interaction effects (p awareness of mental health campaigns, self-identified depression, help for depression sought in the previous year, correct estimate of prevalence of mental health problems, increased awareness of suicide risk, and a reduction
Loeber, R; Farrington, D P; Stouthamer-Loeber, M; Moffitt, T E; Caspi, A; Lynam, D
This paper reviews key findings on juvenile mental health problems in boys, psychopathy, and personality traits, obtained in the first 14 years of studies using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. This is a study of 3 samples, each of about 500 boys initially randomly drawn from boys in the 1st, 4th, and 7th grades of public schools in Pittsburgh. The boys have been followed regularly, initially each half year, and later at yearly intervals. Currently, the oldest boys are about 25 years old, whereas the youngest boys are about 19. Findings are presented on the prevalence and interrelation of disruptive behaviors, ADHD, and depressed mood. Results concerning risk factors for these outcomes are reviewed. Psychological factors such as psychopathy, impulsivity, and personality are described. The paper closes with findings on service delivery of boys with mental health problems.
Geraghty, Kerry; McCann, Karen; King, Robert; Eichmann, Kathryn
Caring for a child or adolescent affected by mental illness has been identified as imposing stresses and burdens in excess of those usually associated with child rearing. Peer support has been identified as one means by which these stresses and burdens can be reduced. This study investigated the work of a peer support service provided by Mater Child and Youth Mental Health Service in Brisbane, Australia. The study took the form of a content analysis of records of consultations between consumer consultants and 50 families/carers of children admitted into the acute inpatient unit during the period May 2006-April 2008. The content analysis identified four key themes or domains: experience of service provision, emotions and feelings associated with the admission, need for information, and coping with challenges. The findings from the study affirm the role of consumer consultants in child and adolescent inpatient services. Some families value a peer perspective and the opportunity to seek advice and information around a wide variety of topics from people not directly involved in the treatment of their child. © 2011 Mater Health Services. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Aakre, Jennifer M; Lucksted, Alicia; Browning-McNee, Lea Ann
Youth Mental Health First Aid USA (YMHFA) is a manualized training program designed to educate members of the public on common emotional problems and psychological disorders among youth and to provide trainees with tools anyone can use to assist young people in psychological distress. The present study used a pre versus post design to assess the ability of social service employees to generate appropriate strategies to use in hypothetical situations featuring a young person in distress, before versus after participation in the 8-hr YMHFA training. Trainee responses demonstrated significant overall improvement (M = 1.32, SD = 0.80 pretraining vs. M = 1.87, SD = 1.1 posttraining, t = 6.6, p psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
... well Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself Other mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. For a good description ...
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Full Text Available In April 2015 the Yukon Government released a new child and youth mental health and addictions framework (CYMHAF to improve territory-wide access to basic mental health care and coordination of services for children and families. Yukon’s limited resource base and dispersed population challenges delivery of child and youth mental health and addictions services to small rural communities where needs are often high as a legacy of residential school policies. The objective of CYMHAF is to improve outcomes by identifying and capitalizing on current strengths, and reallocating existing resources to better meet the mental health needs of Yukon youth and families. Access, coordination and quality problems associated with existing services, growing public awareness of mental health issues, and a new national policy framework designed to assist provinces and territories, led Yukon policy makers to partner with researchers to capitalize on a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR strategic grant initiative. CYMHAF was based on extensive stakeholder engagement, best evidence and advice from key informants in other jurisdictions, and offers a cascading model of service delivery through which basic mental health care can be provided by existing health and human service workers in communities. These workers will be trained in child and youth mental health competencies, and will have electronic linkages and support to integrated teams of primary care providers who will be located in regional hubs once fully implemented, and to specialists in Whitehorse and out of Territory. Implementation is underway with some training of front line Health and Social Service and First Nations workers, a new mental wellness strategy for Yukon founded on CYMHAF scheduled for release in spring 2016, and may be accelerated by federal government promises of a new Health Accord and a new relationship with indigenous people.
Antaramian, Susan P; Scott Huebner, E; Hills, Kimberly J; Valois, Robert F
Traditional mental health models focus on psychological problems and distress; accordingly, health is viewed as the absence of illness or disability. In contrast, a dual-factor model of mental health incorporates both indicators of positive subjective well-being (SWB) and measures of psychopathological symptoms to comprehensively determine an individual's psychological adjustment. This study used such a dual-factor model to measure the mental health status of young adolescents. A total of 764 middle school students were classified into one of four distinct groups based on having high or low psychopathology and high or low SWB. Furthermore, group differences in student engagement, academic achievement, and environmental support for learning were investigated. Results demonstrated the existence of a traditionally neglected group of adolescents (low SWB and low psychopathology) who are nonetheless at risk for academic and behavior problems in school and who performed no better than the most troubled group of adolescents. Overall, both the presence of positive well-being and the absence of symptoms were necessary for ensuring the most advantageous school performance. These results highlight the importance of incorporating positive indicators of well-being along with traditional negative factors in more fully understanding relationships between individuals' mental health and educational outcomes. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Booth, Richard G; Allen, Britney N; Bray Jenkyn, Krista M; Li, Lihua; Shariff, Salimah Z
Despite the uptake of mass media campaigns, their overall impact remains unclear. Since 2011, a Canadian telecommunications company has operated an annual, large-scale mental health advocacy campaign (Bell Let's Talk) focused on mental health awareness and stigma reduction. In February 2012, the campaign began to explicitly leverage the social media platform Twitter and incented participation from the public by promising donations of Can $0.05 for each interaction with a campaign-specific username (@Bell_LetsTalk). The intent of the study was to examine the impact of this 2012 campaign on youth outpatient mental health services in the province of Ontario, Canada. Monthly outpatient mental health visits (primary health care and psychiatric services) were obtained for the Ontario youth aged 10 to 24 years (approximately 5.66 million visits) from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015. Interrupted time series, autoregressive integrated moving average modeling was implemented to evaluate the impact of the campaign on rates of monthly outpatient mental health visits. A lagged intervention date of April 1, 2012 was selected to account for the delay required for a patient to schedule and attend a mental health-related physician visit. The inclusion of Twitter into the 2012 Bell Let's Talk campaign was temporally associated with an increase in outpatient mental health utilization for both males and females. Within primary health care environments, female adolescents aged 10 to 17 years experienced a monthly increase in the mental health visit rate from 10.2/1000 in April 2006 to 14.1/1000 in April 2015 (slope change of 0.094 following campaign, Pcampaign, Pcampaign (slope change of 0.005, P=.02; slope change of 0.003, P=.005, respectively). For young adults aged 18 to 24 years, females who used primary health care experienced the most significant increases in mental health visit rates from 26.5/1000 in April 2006 to 29.2/1000 in April 2015 (slope change of 0.17 following
Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie
There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…
Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bos, H.M.W.; Collier, K.L.; Metselaar, M.
Objectives. We examined whether structural elements of the school environment, in particular cultural pluralism and consistency and clarity of school rules and expectations of students, could mitigate the risk for mental health problems among young sexual minority adolescents. Methods. Data were
Stewart, Shannon L.; Klassen, Janell; Hamza, Chloe
Previous research linking school disruption with mental health problems has largely relied on assessments of academic achievement to measure school disruption. Early disruptive classroom behaviour (e.g., conflict with school staff, negative attitudes toward school), however, may precipitate poor academic performance and may stem from emerging…
Morsi Magdi M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent corpus of research suggests that psychiatric disorders amongst adolescents and youths are an emerging global challenge, but there is paucity of studies exploring health services utilization by this age group in Arab region. Aim This study focus on the health services utilization and the barriers among school going adolescents and youths with DSM IV disorders in the country Oman, whose population is predominantly youthful. Methods Representative sample of secondary school Omani adolescents and youths were concurrently interviewed for the (i presence of DSM IV mental disorders using the face-to-face interview, World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI, (ii tendency for health care utilization and (iii predictors of utilization with clinical and demographic background. Results The proportions of lifetime cases having ever made treatment contact are low, being 5.2% for any anxiety disorder and 13.2% for any mood disorder category. None of these anxiety cases made treatment contact in the year of onset of the disorder, and the median delay when they eventually made treatment contact is about 14 years. In any mood disorders category only 3.6% made contact within the 1st year of onset with the median delay in initial treatment contact is two years for the Bipolar disorder (broad, four years for Any Mood disorder and nine years for the Major Depressive Disorder group. Male gender is significantly associated with less likelihood of making treatment contact when suffering from Social phobia (p = 0.000, Major Depressive Disorder (p = 0.000 and Bipolar Disorder (p = 0.000. The younger cohorts of 14-16 years and 17-18 years of Social phobic made significantly less lifetime any treatment contact (p = 0.000. The 14-16 year olds were significantly less likely to make lifetime any treatment contact for Bipolar Mood disorder (p = 0.000, while the 17-18 group were 1.5 times more likely to do so. Over past
Volpe, T; Boydell, K M; Pignatiello, A
This study examines the delivery of psychiatric consultation services using videoconferencing technology to health and mental health workers in the Nunavut territory of Canada. The research provides insights into the TeleLink Mental Health Program and the delivery of professional-to-professional program consultations and continuing education seminars. Participant observation of 12 program consultations and four continuing education sessions was conducted. Individual interviews were conducted with the consulting psychiatrist and the lead program coordinator in Nunavut. As well, a focus group was held with Nunavut workers who participated in the televideo sessions. The study found a number of factors that facilitated or hindered the process and content of a consultation-based telepsychiatry program and its effect on building capacity among frontline staff. Four main themes emerged related to the delivery of psychiatric services via televideo: gaining access, ensuring culturally appropriate services, providing relevant continuing education, and offering stable and confidential technology. Live interactive videoconferencing technology is an innovative and effective way of delivering specialized mental health services to professionals working in remote areas of Nunavut. Study results provide important strategies for expanding this approach to other jurisdictions in Nunavut and other Inuit regions.
Meier, Madeline H; Hill, Melanie L; Small, Phillip J; Luthar, Suniya S
There is a hypothesis that low socioeconomic status (SES) may explain the link between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. A key question, therefore, is whether adolescent cannabis use is associated with poorer academic performance and mental health in high SES communities where there is reduced potential for confounding. Youth (n=254) from an upper middle class community were followed prospectively through the four years of high school (from age 14/15 to age 17/18). Past-year frequency of cannabis use was assessed annually. Official school records of academic performance and self-reported mental health symptoms (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) were assessed in grades 9 and 12. Persistent cannabis use across the four years of high school was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.18, p=.006), lower Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (β=-0.13, p=.038), and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.29, pgrade, but not with greater internalizing symptoms (β=0.04, p=.53). Moreover, persistent cannabis use was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.13, p=.014) and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.24, p=.002) in 12th grade, even after controlling for 9th grade levels of these outcomes. Similar associations were observed for persistent alcohol and tobacco use. Effects for persistent cannabis use became non-significant after controlling for persistent alcohol and tobacco use, reflecting the difficulties of disentangling effects of cannabis from effects of alcohol and tobacco. Low SES cannot fully explain associations between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jabbour, Mona; Reid, S; Polihronis, C; Cloutier, P; Gardner, W; Kennedy, A; Gray, C; Zemek, R; Pajer, K; Barrowman, N; Cappelli, M
While the emergency department (ED) is often a first point of entry for children and youth with mental health (MH) concerns, there is a limited capacity to respond to MH needs in this setting. Child MH systems are typically fragmented among multiple ministries, organizations, and providers. Communication among these groups is often poor, resulting in gaps, particularly in transitions of care, for this vulnerable population. The evidence-based Emergency Department Mental Health Clinical Pathway (EDMHCP) was created with two main goals: (1) to guide risk assessment and disposition decision-making for children and youth presenting to the ED with MH concerns and (2) to provide a streamlined transition to follow-up services with community MH agencies (CMHAs) and other providers. The purpose of this paper is to describe our study protocol to implement and evaluate the EDMHCP. This mixed methods health services research project will involve implementation and evaluation of the EDMHCP in four exemplar ED-CMHA dyads. The Theoretical Domains Framework will be used to develop a tailored intervention strategy to implement the EDMHCP. A multiple baseline study design and interrupted time-series analysis will be used to determine if the EDMHCP has improved health care utilization, medical management of the MH problems, and health sector coordination. The primary process outcome will be the proportion of patients with MH-specific recommendations documented in the health record. The primary service outcome will be the proportion of patients receiving the EDMHCP-recommended follow-up at 24-h or at 7 days. Data sources will include qualitative interviews, health record audits, administrative databases, and patient surveys. A concurrent process evaluation will be conducted to assess the degree of variability and fidelity in implementation across the sites. This paper presents a novel model for measuring the effects of the EDMHCP. Our development process will identify how the EDMHCP
Reid, Sophie C; Kauer, Sylvia D; Hearps, Stephen J C; Crooke, Alexander H D; Khor, Angela S; Sanci, Lena A; Patton, George C
differences in GP-patient rapport nor in pathways to care. We conducted the first RCT of a mobile phone application in the mental health assessment and management of youth mental health in primary care. This study suggests that mobiletype has much to offer GPs in the often difficult and time-consuming task of assessment and management of youth mental health problems in primary care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00794222.
Edidin, Jennifer P.; Ganim, Zoe; Hunter, Scott J.; Karnik, Niranjan S.
Youth homelessness is a growing concern in the United States. Despite difficulties studying this population due to inconsistent definitions of what it means to be a youth and homeless, the current body of research indicates that abuse, family breakdown, and disruptive family relationships are common contributing factors to youth homelessness.…
Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Aber, J Lawrence; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A
The enduring impact of exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks on mental health and sociopolitical attitudes was examined in a sample of 427 adolescents (M = 16.20 years) and their mothers residing in New York City. Direct exposure to the terrorist attack was associated with youth depression symptoms and with mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. There was no evidence of reciprocal effects of mother exposure on youth or of youth exposure on mothers. Although mothers reported engaging in more emotional processing coping assistance with their children, coping assistance was not associated with youth's symptomatology. Media exposure was found to be a strong predictor of youth's and mothers' sociopolitical attitudes about issues such as prejudice toward immigrants, social mistrust, and current events.
Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek
Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for…
Bailin, Abby; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Sale, Rafaella
Clinical supervision is an element of quality assurance in routine mental health care settings serving children; however, there is limited scientific evaluation of its components. This study examines the format and microskills of routine supervision. Supervisors (n = 13) and supervisees (n = 20) reported on 100 supervision sessions, and trained coders completed observational coding on a subset of recorded sessions (n = 57). Results indicate that microskills shown to enhance supervisee competency in effectiveness trials and experiments were largely absent from routine supervision, highlighting potential missed opportunities to impart knowledge to therapists. Findings suggest areas for quality improvement within routine care settings.
... Myths and Facts Recovery Is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...
Lewis Stephen P
Full Text Available Abstract Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI content and related e-communication have proliferated on the Internet in recent years. Research indicates that many youth who self-injure go online to connect with others who self-injure and view others’ NSSI experiences and share their own through text and videos platforms. Although there are benefits to this behaviour in terms of receiving peer support, these activities can introduce these young people to risks, such as NSSI reinforcement through the sharing of stories and strategies, as well as, risks for triggering of NSSI urges. Due to the nature of these risks mental health professionals need to know about these risks and how to effectively assess adolescents’ online activity in order to adequately monitor the effects of the purported benefits and risks associated with NSSI content. This article offers research informed clinical guidelines for the assessment, intervention, and monitoring of online NSSI activities. To help bridge the gap between youth culture and mental health culture, these essentials include descriptions of Community, Social Networking, and Video/Photo Sharing websites and the terms associated with these websites. Assessment of these behaviours can be facilitated by a basic Functional Assessment approach that is further informed using specific recommended online questions tailored to NSSI online and an assessment of the frequency, duration, and time of day of the online activities. Intervention in this area should initially assess readiness for change and use motivational interviewing to encourage substitution of healthier online activities for the activities that may currently foster harm.
Benjamin Ian Perry
Full Text Available 2016 will mark as the year when commercially available virtual reality headsets first become available across the world. This is set to be a landmark development and will revolutionize the way we interact with technology, which is already eating up more and more of our time, and is now inextricable from day-to-day life. Adolescents, at a critical stage in both physical and psychological development, are often the first to adopt advances in technology, and therefore also any associated impact on health. We discuss some of the current and important research on the positive and negative implications of technology on the mental health of children and adolescents, and briefly outline how future technological advances may further affect how we diagnose, monitor, and manage our young patients in the psychiatric clinic.
Daniel T.L. Shek
Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.
Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the behavior of children and youth related to using the internet. The sample consisted of 1,584 children and youths in Bangkok. The Canonical Correlation Analysis statistics method was applied to analyze the data. The research results revealed that using the internet for entertainment purposes exerted good effects on mental health at 0.52%; meanwhile, it negatively affected mental health at 6251%. Using the internet for education and business displayed effects on physical health only at 650%. In the second part of the research, section one used in-depth interviews with five children and youths, and section two used a personal interview of four executives and experts specifically chosen. From all of the research results, the children and the majority of youths derived more benefits than bad effects. However, using too much internet either positively or negatively would cause some physical and mental health effects. Recommended internet media controls include the following: 1 the government must be part in blocking improper internet and promoting the good internet media; 2 the communities must take part in monitoring bad internet media, both content and images; 3 parents and families must take care and keep an eye on their children; and 4 the mass communication organizations must promote good media and screen the bad media sites.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Limited educational and job opportunities for youth has led to a phenomenon termed NEET (not in education, employment or training. The objective is to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, substance use and suicidal behavior in youth classified as NEET and to compare with those who study only, work only or do both. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 3 005 12-to-17 year-olds in Mexico City were evaluated in 2005 with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses considered the multistage weighted sample design. RESULTS: NEET youth as well as those who work only or study and work simultaneously have greater odds of psychiatric disorder, substance use and suicidal behavior compared to those who study exclusively even after controlling for social disadvantage. CONCLUSION: Vulnerability is not circumscribed to NEET adolescents, but to all teens who are not exclusive students. Supporting youth to continue studying exclusively may buffer negative mental health outcomes.OBJETIVO: Oportunidades educativas y laborales limitadas para los jóvenes han dado lugar al fenómeno de adolescentes que no estudian ni trabajan (NINIs. El objetivo es estimar la prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos, consumo de sustancias y conducta suicida en adolescentes NINIs y compararlos con adolescentes que estudian exclusivamente, trabajan exclusivamente y quienes estudian y trabajan. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: 3 005 adolescentes entre 12 y 17 años de edad fueron evaluados en 2005 con la Entrevista Internacional Psiquiátrica Compuesta en una encuesta multietápica, estraficada y representativa del Distrito Federal y municipios conurbados. RESULTADOS: Los NINIs, quienes trabajan, y quienes estudian y trabajan tienen mayor riesgo de trastornos psiquiátricos, consumo de sustancias y conducta suicida en comparación con aquellos que estudian exclusivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La vulnerabilidad no se circunscribe a los NINIs sino
Salerno, John P.
Background: Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and low mental health literacy have been identified as links to social adversity, and barriers to seeking and adhering to treatment among adolescents suffering from mental illness. Prior research has found that it is possible to improve these outcomes using school-based mental health…
Lagerveld, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.
The article will describe factors of influence on return to work RTW and evidence-based interventions that enhance return to work (RTW) after sick leave due to common mental health disorders (CMD). First the concepts of both RTW and CMD are outlined. Second, the sense of urgency for effective RTW
McMartin, Seanna E; Kuhle, Stefan; Colman, Ian; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J
To examine the association between diet quality and the diagnosis of an internalizing disorder in children and adolescents. A prospective study examining the relationship between diet quality and mental health. FFQ responses of 3757 children were used to calculate a composite score for diet quality and its four components: variety, adequacy, moderation and balance. Physicians' diagnoses on internalizing disorders were obtained by linking the children's dietary information to administrative health data. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between diet quality and diagnosis of an internalizing disorder. The Canadian province of Nova Scotia. A provincially representative sample of grade 5 students (age 10-11 years). Diet quality was not found to be associated with internalizing disorder in a statistically significant manner (incidence rate ratio = 1.09; 95 % CI 0.73, 1.63). However, relative to children with little variety in their diets, children with greater variety in their diet had statistically significant lower rates of internalizing disorder in subsequent years (incidence rate ratio = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.25, 0.82). These findings suggest the importance of variety in children's diet and opportunities in the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety.
Tobler, Amy L; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Staras, Stephanie A S; O'Mara, Ryan J; Livingston, Melvin D; Komro, Kelli A
We examined perceived frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and associations with high-risk behaviors/conditions among adolescents. With surveys from 2490 racial/ethnic minority adolescents primarily with low socioeconomic status, we used regression analysis to examine associations between racial/ethnic discrimination and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol use, marijuana use, physical aggression, delinquency, victimization, depression, suicidal ideation, and sexual behaviors). Most adolescents (73%) experienced racial/ethnic discrimination and 42% of experiences were 'somewhat-' or 'very disturbing.' Adolescents reporting frequent and disturbing racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk of all measured behaviors, except alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who experienced any racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk for victimization and depression. Regardless of intensity, adolescents who experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at least occasionally were more likely to report greater physical aggression, delinquency, suicidal ideation, younger age at first oral sex, unprotected sex during last intercourse, and more lifetime sexual partners. Most adolescents had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination due to their race/ethnicity. Even occasional experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination likely contribute to maladaptive behavioral and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Prevention and coping strategies are important targets for intervention.
Muzdalifah M. Rahman
of mental health, especially mental health needs to be developed with an Islamic perspective various studies and research, especially the development of mental health recovery means Islamic perspective.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851
McConnell, Elizabeth A; Clifford, Antonia; Korpak, Aaron K; Phillips, Gregory; Birkett, Michelle
The rise of social networking sites (SNSs) has created new contexts within which lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth and young adults manage their social identities and relationships. On one hand, SNSs provide important social support; on the other, they comprise another realm for victimization and discrimination. Context collapse refers to the ways diverse subgroups (e.g., family, co-workers) are often united in Facebook networks, which presents unique challenges related to outness. In this study, we examine the Facebook contexts of a cohort of LGBTQ youth and young adults with regard to outness, victimization, social support, and psychological distress by first examining descriptive statistics and correlations, and then testing a series of multiple regressions in an analytic sample of 175 ( M age = 24.02 years) LGBTQ youth. Participants reported levels of daily Facebook use comparable to other samples of non-LGBTQ youth; however, they reported greater use of security controls, which may function as a tool for managing outness. Participants reported slightly lower outness across relational subgroups on Facebook, and associations between outness to relational subgroups were slightly stronger on Facebook, illustrating the potential impact of context collapse. Regression results showed that great victimization, cyberbullying, and the offering of support online were positively associated with psychological distress. Study findings illuminate how LGBTQ youth use and manage their identities on Facebook and highlight the importance of online contexts in shaping wellbeing for LGBtQ outh and young adults.
Hughes, Elizabeth; Rawlings, Victoria; McDermott, Elizabeth
Young people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) experience higher levels of suicidality compared to heterosexual or cisgender peers, and face significant barriers accessing mental health services including prejudice from staff. In a cross-sectional survey, mental health staff who reported receiving LGBT awareness training were significantly more likely to report in relation to working with LGBT youth that they routinely discussed issues of sexuality and gender (χ 2 =8.782, df=2, p LGBTQ awareness, and these findings indicate that awareness training could impact positively on practice.
Sherrill, Joel T
This commentary underscores the importance and potential of the research approaches and intervention strategies described in the JCCAP special issue on the Science of Adaptive Treatment Strategies in Child and Adolescent Mental Health for addressing the widely observed heterogeneity in response to even our most promising research-informed interventions. First, the commentary briefly summarizes the advantages of these approaches and highlights how these programs of research are responsive to widely agreed-upon calls for more personalized, prescriptive interventions. Next, the commentary briefly discusses key common challenges and gaps in our knowledge that might be addressed to advance the development, testing, and implementation of adaptive intervention strategies. For example, research to identify robust moderators that might serve as potential tailoring variables for initial assignment and sequencing of interventions, efforts to operationalize surrogate endpoints for early identification of individuals who are unlikely to respond to first-line interventions, and research that helps define what constitutes an adequate exposure (i.e., dose) or response threshold (e.g., response that suggests the need to intensify, switch, or augment interventions) would inform decision rules for adaptive algorithms. The commentary concludes with a discussion of potential strategies and current initiatives that might ultimately help facilitate research on more targeted, prescriptive approaches to intervening, including efforts to encourage investigators to use common data elements, to share and integrate data across trials, and to employ a more mechanism-based approach to intervention development and testing.
Andrew J. Lewis
Full Text Available Background. This paper presents findings derived from consumer feedback, following a multicentre randomised controlled trial for adolescent mental health problems and substance misuse. The paper focuses on the implementation of a family-based intervention, including fidelity of delivery, family members’ experiences, and their suggestions for program improvements. Methods. Qualitative and quantitative data (n=21 were drawn from the Deakin Family Options trial consumer focus groups, which occurred six months after the completion of the trial. Consumer focus groups were held in both metropolitan and regional locations in Victoria, Australia. Findings. Overall reductions in parental isolation, increases in parental self-care, and increased separation/individuation were the key therapeutic features of the intervention. Sharing family experiences with other parents was a key supportive factor, which improved parenting confidence and efficacy and potentially reduced family conflict. Consumer feedback also led to further development of the intervention, with a greater focus on aiding parents to engage adolescents in services and addressing family factors related to adolescent’s mood and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions. Participant feedback provides valuable qualitative data, to monitor the fidelity of treatment implementation within a trial, to confirm predictions about the effective mechanisms of an intervention, and to inform the development of new interventions.
Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar
Research relating to minority stressors generally explores mental health outcomes, with limited focus on the physical dimension. In addition, minority stress research is conducted mainly in Christian-oriented societies. To address these pitfalls we used Web sampling targeting Israeli participants ages 12 to 30 (N = 952; 28 percent heterosexuals, 78 percent lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] adolescents and young adults) to assess their mental health, physical and sexual risk behaviors, minority stressors, and coping resources. Results indicate that young LGBs had lower levels of mental and physical health than heterosexuals. Among LGB participants, high levels of minority stressors and low levels of coping resources predicted lower levels of mental health, and lower levels of mental health predicted lower levels of physical health. These results emphasize that minority stressors should be recognized as risk factors for poorer mental health, as well as for physical and sexual risk behaviors.
Yap, Marie B; Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony F
The aim of this paper is to examine whether Australian young people's awareness of beyondblue is associated with better recognition of depression and anxiety disorders, and better quality of beliefs about possible interventions and first-aid actions for these problems. In 2011, a telephone interview was conducted with a national sample of 3021 Australians aged between 15 and 25 years. Participants were presented with a vignette portraying depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder or psychosis in a young person. They were then asked about recognition of the disorder portrayed, their beliefs about the helpfulness or harmfulness of various interventions and first-aid actions, and their awareness of beyondblue. The quality of youths' beliefs was scored against health professionals' ratings of the same list of interventions and first-aid actions. Beyondblue awareness was associated with more accurate recognition of the disorder portrayed in all vignettes except social phobia. It was also associated with beliefs about the helpfulness of first-aid actions that were more closely aligned with professional ratings for the depression, psychosis and social phobia vignettes. However, it was associated with beliefs about interventions for the psychosis vignette only. Overall, the associations of beyondblue awareness with better mental health literacy were not specific to depression and anxiety disorders, which are their main focus. Beyondblue awareness is mostly unrelated to treatment beliefs, but seems to have non-specific associations with recognition of disorders and first-aid beliefs.
Peiper, Nicholas; Illback, Robert J; O'Reilly, Aileen; Clayton, Richard
Significant overlap and comorbidity has been demonstrated among young people with mental health problems. This paper examined demographic characteristics, heterogeneity of need descriptors and services provided among young people (12-25 years) engaging in brief interventions at Jigsaw in the Republic of Ireland. Between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013, a total of 2571 young people sought help from 1 of 10 Jigsaw sites. Of these, 1247 engaged in goal-focused brief interventions, typically consisting of one to six face-to-face sessions. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize social and demographic factors. Latent class analysis was used to cluster young people into relevant typologies of presenting issues. Multinomial logistic regression was then performed to determine significant predictors of class membership. The most common age of young people was 16. More women (59.6%) than men engaged in brief interventions, 56% attended school, 74% lived with their family of origin or with one parent, and 54.2% came from families where parents were married. Using established fit criteria, four relevant typologies emerged: Developmental (26.8%), Comorbid (15.8%), Anxious (42.7%) and Externalising (14.6%). Predictors varied by class membership, but general family problems and lack of adult support emerged as the strongest predictors for all classes. This study demonstrated that the mental health needs of young people in Ireland are significant and diverse. Because Jigsaw favours a more descriptive approach to problem identification, the four typologies suggest a need to determine program capacity in engaging youth with heterogeneous presenting issues and to tailor brief interventions to each group's clinical profiles. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kohrt, Brandon A; Yang, Minyoung; Rai, Sauharda; Bhardwaj, Anvita; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D
Preventing involuntary conscription and voluntary recruitment of youth into armed groups are global human rights priorities. Pathways for self-reported voluntary recruitment and the impact of voluntary recruitment on mental health have received limited attention. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for voluntarily joining armed groups, as well as the association of conscription status and mental health. In Nepal, interviews were conducted with 258 former child soldiers who participated in a communist (Maoist) revolution. Eighty percent of child soldiers joined 'voluntarily'. Girls were 2.07 times as likely to join voluntarily (95% CI, 1.03-4.16, p =0.04). Among girls, 51% reported joining voluntarily because of personal connections to people who were members of the armed group, compared to 22% of boys. Other reasons included escaping difficult life situations (36%), inability to achieve other goals in life (28%), and an appealing philosophy of the armed group (32%). Poor economic conditions were more frequently endorsed among boys (22%) than girls (10%). Voluntary conscription was associated with decreased risk for PTSD among boys but not for girls. Interventions to prevent voluntary association with armed groups could benefit from attending to difficulties in daily life, identifying non-violent paths to achieve life goals, and challenging the political philosophy of armed groups. Among boys, addressing economic risk factors may prevent recruitment, and prevention efforts for girls will need to address personal connections to armed groups, as it has important implications for preventing recruitment through new methods, such as social media.
Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Ramírez, Rafael; Prelip, Michael; Martin, Molly; Ortega, Alexander N
Island Puerto Rican (PR) youth experience disproportionately high asthma and obesity rates compared with other racial/ethnic groups on the U.S. mainland. Previous research has demonstrated associations of chronic disease with psychiatric disorders. We examined the relationship among anxiety/depressive disorders, asthma, and obesity in an epidemiologic community sample of youth. The sample (n = 656) was derived from the second wave of an island-wide probabilistic representative household sample of PR youth stratified and based on whether or not they had a diagnosis of asthma and/or depressive/anxiety disorder. For this study, we used the subpopulation ages 10-19 years. Asthma and obesity were significantly related to higher odds of depressive/anxiety disorders in youth. Obesity moderated the relationship between asthma attacks and depressive/anxiety disorders. The relationship between asthma attack and higher odds for depressive/anxiety disorders was only present in the non-obese group. Among the obese, females show a significant increase from 11% to 36% in the prevalence of anxiety/depressive disorders. Asthma and obesity were highly prevalent and a significant association was found between asthma attack and depressive/anxiety disorders. The effects of asthma and obesity were not additive; the prevalence for psychiatric disorder for those having both conditions did not increase above the prevalence associated having only one of the conditions. Future studies should consider including longitudinal designs and examine the extent to which important variables not included in this study, such as body image dissatisfaction (particularly among females), teasing, and discrimination may moderate the relationship among obesity and depressive and anxiety disorders in youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Le, Victory; Arayasirikul, Sean; Chen, Yea-Hung; Jin, Harry; Wilson, Erin C
Transfemale youth (TFY) are an underserved and understudied population at risk for numerous poor physical and mental health outcomes, most notably HIV. Research suggests that parental acceptance and social support may serve as protective factors against HIV and other risks for TFY; however, it is unclear whether TFY receive primary social support from parents with or without parental acceptance of their gender identity. This study examines differences in parental acceptance, mental health and the HIV risk factors of history of sex work, age at sexual debut and engagement in condomless anal intercourse between TFY with two types of primary social support - non-parental primary social support (NPPSS) and parental primary social support (PPSS). Cross-sectional data collected from 301 TFY from 2012 to 2014 in the San Francisco Bay Area were analyzed to determine differences in parental acceptance, mental health and HIV risk factors between youth with and without PPSS. Univariate statistics and chi-squared tests were conducted to determine if parental acceptance and health outcomes were correlated with type of social support. Two-hundred fifty-one participants (83.7%) reported having NPPSS, and 49 (16.3%) reported PPSS. Significantly more youth with PPSS reported affirmative responses on parental acceptance items than their NPPSS counterparts. For example, 87.8% of youth with PPSS reported that their parents believed they could have a happy future as a trans adult, compared with 51.6% of youth with NPPSS (pparental acceptance of their gender identity may be more likely to reach out to their parents as their primary source of social support. Interventions focused on parental acceptance of their child's gender identity may have the most promise for creating parental social support systems in the lives of TFY.
Lindsey, Michael A; Chambers, Kerri; Pohle, Cara; Beall, Peggy; Lucksted, Alicia
Black adolescents with mental health problems are less likely than non-Black adolescents with mental health problems to receive treatment, primarily for non-financial reasons including negative perceptions of services and providers, and self-stigma associated with experiencing mental health problems. To better understand these obstacles, 16 adolescents and 11 caregivers, recruited from two K-8th grade elementary-middle schools, participated in four focus groups guided by the unified theory of behavior to explore mental health help-seeking behaviors and perceptions of mental health services. In the focus groups, caregivers acknowledged more positive attitudes about seeking mental health services than adolescents, but both expected the experience of actually doing so to be negative. Adolescents and caregivers also acknowledged social norms that inhibit their mental health help-seeking. Therefore, we conclude that interventions targeting expectancies and social norms might increase the connection of urban, under-resourced Black adolescents and their families to mental health services, and be particularly important given the long-term consequences of untreated mental health problems for this group.
Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. © 2014 The Author(s).
Petering, Robin; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Dent, David; Rice, Eric
Insane Clown Posse is a musical duo whose fans are known as Juggalos. Many homeless youths (HY) identify as Juggalos, most likely because the group's music embraces poverty and being an outsider in mainstream society. Juggalos are stereotyped as being violent, undereducated, poor, racist, crime-committing youth, and in 2011 the FBI officially labeled Juggalos as a gang. However, little is known about the intersection of HY and Juggalos. A convenience sample of Los Angeles-area, drop-in service-seeking HY completed a self-administered questionnaire (N = 495). In the sample, 15 % of HY identified as Juggalos. Juggalo-identifying youth were more likely to have experienced childhood trauma, including physical and sexual abuse and witnessing community violence. Multivariable models revealed that identifying as a Juggalo was associated with increased odds of recent methamphetamine use, ecstasy use, chronic marijuana use, and prescription drug misuse. Juggalos were also more likely to experience suicidal ideation, attempt suicide, recently engage in interpersonal violence, become injured during a fight, and have unprotected sex. In conclusion, Juggalos constitute a unique subpopulation of HY. Implications for Juggalo-specific trauma-informed services, rather than punitive, are discussed as well as the potential for future research regarding resiliency associated with Juggalo identification.
Henderson, Joanna L; Cheung, Amy; Cleverley, Kristin; Chaim, Gloria; Moretti, Myla E; de Oliveira, Claire; Hawke, Lisa D; Willan, Andrew R; O'Brien, David; Heffernan, Olivia; Herzog, Tyson; Courey, Lynn; McDonald, Heather; Grant, Enid; Szatmari, Peter
Among youth, the prevalence of mental health and addiction (MHA) disorders is roughly 20%, yet youth are challenged to access evidence-based services in a timely fashion. To address MHA system gaps, this study tests the benefits of an Integrated Collaborative Care Team (ICCT) model for youth with MHA challenges. A rapid, stepped-care approach geared to need in a youth-friendly environment is expected to result in better youth MHA outcomes. Moreover, the ICCT approach is expected to decrease service wait-times, be more youth-friendly and family-friendly, and be more cost-effective, providing substantial public health benefits. In partnership with four community agencies, four adolescent psychiatry hospital departments, youth and family members with lived experience of MHA service use, and other stakeholders, we have developed an innovative model of collaborative, community-based service provision involving rapid access to needs-based MHA services. A total of 500 youth presenting for hospital-based, outpatient psychiatric service will be randomised to ICCT services or hospital-based treatment as usual, following a pragmatic randomised controlled trial design. The primary outcome variable will be the youth's functioning, assessed at intake, 6 months and 12 months. Secondary outcomes will include clinical change, youth/family satisfaction and perception of care, empowerment, engagement and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Intent-to-treat analyses will be used on repeated-measures data, along with cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, to determine intervention effectiveness. Research Ethics Board approval has been received from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, as well as institutional ethical approval from participating community sites. This study will be conducted according to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. Participants will provide informed consent prior to study participation and data confidentiality will be ensured. A data
Garcia, Antonio R; Greeson, Johanna K P; Kim, Minseop; Thompson, Allison; DeNard, Christina
Racial and ethnic disparities in delinquency among child welfare-involved youth are well documented. However, less is known about the mechanisms through which these disparities occur. This study explores the extent to which sets of variables predict the occurrence of juvenile delinquency and whether race/ethnicity moderates the strength of the relationships between (1) social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems and delinquency and (2) mental health service use and delinquency. We used a nationally representative sample of 727 African American, Caucasian, and Latino youth between the ages of 12-17 who were referred to the child welfare system. Controlling for age, gender, placement instability, maltreatment history, poverty, and urbanicity, linear regression analyses revealed that African American and Latino youth engaged in more delinquent acts than Caucasian youth did. However, service use decreased the likelihood of engaging in more delinquent acts for African Americans. Additional efforts are needed to illuminate and address the contextual and organizational barriers to delivering effective mental health services as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in delinquent behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitley, Jessica; Gooderham, Suzanne
Mental health issues continue to present barriers for Canadian children, in terms of both psychological and academic outcomes. Growing numbers of students are placed "at risk" as a result. A mental health promotion approach suggests that students can develop a number of skills and competencies, namely those related to social-emotional…
Cook, Clayton R.; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Zhang, Yanchen
Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to…
BACKGROUND Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and low mental health literacy have been found to be barriers to seeking help for mental health related issues in adolescents. Prior research has found that it is possible to improve these outcomes using school-based mental health interventions. The purpose of this study was to review empirical literature pertaining to universal interventions addressing mental health among students enrolled in US K-12 schools, especially related to health disparities in vulnerable populations. METHODS PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, PUBMED, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for K-12 school-based mental health awareness interventions in the US. Universal studies that measured knowledge, attitudes, and/or help-seeking pertinent to mental health were included. RESULTS A total of 15 studies were selected to be part of the review. There were 7 pretest/posttest case series, 5 non-randomized experimental trial, 1 Solomon 4-groups, and 2 randomized controlled trial designs (RCT). Nine studies measuring knowledge, 8 studies measuring attitudes, and 4 studies measuring help-seeking, indicated statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS Although results of all studies indicated some level of improvement, more research on implementation of universal school-based mental health awareness programs is needed using RCT study designs, and long-term follow up implementation. PMID:27866385
Using Medicaid To Increase Funding for Home- and Community-Based Mental Health Services for Children and Youth with Severe Emotional Disturbances. A Report on a CASSP Workshop (Bethesda, Maryland, September 14-15, 1988).
This report highlights the major issues discussed during a 2-day workshop on Medicaid funding for community-based mental health services for children and youth with severe emotional disturbances. The report opens with a brief description of the service needs of children and youth with severe emotional disturbances and the system of care that can…
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.
This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…
Woolderink, Marla; Bindels, Jill A P M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Onno C P
preventive intervention Kopstoring. It also sheds light on the process of the online provision of Kopstoring and the accompanying RCT. The findings of this study may partly explain dropout rates when delivering online interventions. The change in the (financial) structure of the youth mental health care system in the Netherlands has financial implications for the delivery of prevention programs for youth. Lastly, there are few RCTs that assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of online prevention programs in the field of (youth) mental health care and not many process evaluations of these programs exist. This hampers a good comparison between online interventions and the expectations and experiences of the participants and providers. Nederlands Trial Register: NTR1982; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1982 (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6d8xYDQbB).
GPs, as healthcare professionals with whom young people commonly interact, have a central role in early intervention for mental health problems. However, successfully fulfilling this role is a challenge, and this is especially in deprived urban areas.
Virtanen, Pekka; Hammarström, Anne; Janlert, Urban
Earlier research shows that there is an association between unemployment and poor mental health, and that recovery from the damages to mental health obtained during unemployment remains incomplete over a long period of time. The present study relates this 'mental health scarring' to the trade cycle, exploring if those exposed to youth unemployment during boom differ from those exposed during recession with respect to mental health in the middle age. The sample consists of two cohorts from the same industrial town in Northern Sweden: the cohort born in 1965 and the cohort born in 1973 included all pupils attending the last grade of compulsory school, respectively, in 1981 and in 1989. Their depressiveness and anxiousness were assessed by questionnaires at age 21 and again at age 43/39. Mental health at follow-up was related to exposure to unemployment during age years 21-25. Statistical significance of the cohort*exposure interactions from binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess the cohort differences in the mental health between Cohort65 and Cohort73, entering the labour market, respectively, during a boom and a recession. Compared to the unexposed, high exposure to unemployment at the age from 21 to 25 was associated to increased probability of poor mental health in the middle age in both in Cohort65 (odds ratio 2.19 [1.46-3.30] for anxiousness and 1.85 [1.25-2.74]for depressiveness) and in Cohort73 (odds ratio 2.13 [1.33-3.39] for anxiousness and 1.38 [0.89-2.14] for depressiveness). The differences between the cohorts also turned out as statistically non-significant. The scars of unemployment exposure onto future health seem to be rather insensitive to economic trades. Thus, at the population level this would mean that the long-term health costs that can be attributed to youth unemployment are more widespread in the generation that suffers of recession around the entry to the work life.
Petersen, Inge; Swartz, Leslie; Bhana, Arvin; Flisher, Alan J
In order to achieve sustainable development and a consequent reduction in levels of poverty, a multisectoral response to development incorporating pro-poor economic policies in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) is required. An important aspect is strengthening the human capital asset base of vulnerable populations. This should include the promotion of mental health, which can play an important role in breaking the intergenerational cycle of poverty and mental ill-health through promoting positive mental health outcomes within the context of risk. For each developmental phase of early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence, this article provides: (i) an overview of the critical risk influences and evidence of the role of mental health promotion initiatives in mediating these influences; (ii) a background to these risk influences in South Africa; and (iii) a review of mental health promotion initiatives addressing distal upstream influences at a macro-policy level in South Africa, as well as evidence-based micro- and community-level interventions that have the potential to be scaled up. From this review, strengths and gaps in existing micro- and community-level evidence-based mental health promotion interventions as well as macro-policy-level initiatives are identified, and recommendations made for South Africa that may also have applicability for other LMICs.
Kutcher, Stan; Bagnell, Alexa; Wei, Yifeng
"Mental health literacy is an integral component of health literacy and has been gaining increasing attention as an important focus globally for mental health interventions. In Canada, youth mental health is increasingly recognized as a key national health concern and has received more focused attention than ever before within our health system. This article outlines 2 unique homegrown initiatives to address youth mental health literacy within Canadian secondary schools." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muzdalifah M. Rahman
The purpose of this paper was to explain the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, describes the mental health of an Islamic perspective and describes how mental health recovery. The theory used is the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, and the concept of mental health perspective Islamic Psychology Writing is writing method using qualitative research methods. Mental health is avoiding an Islamic perspective of all symptoms, complaints and...
Who cares about health care in prisons? You do if you have a son or a granddaughter in prison. Maybe you care anyway if you have had to wait a long time to see a doctor or if you could not have the treatment you needed because it cost too much. Maybe you have run into the attitude, "You ain't bleedin', you ain't needin'." Maybe you have found it hard to face the future with little or no hope that you could ever be in a better place. Or maybe you, like some older prisoners, have been able to develop new interests, new skills, to review your life and review it, and to redefine what matters.
Huen, Jenny My; Lai, Eliza Sy; Shum, Angie Ky; So, Sam Wk; Chan, Melissa Ky; Wong, Paul Wc; Law, Y W; Yip, Paul Sf
Digital game-based learning (DGBL) makes use of the entertaining power of digital games for educational purposes. Effectiveness assessment of DGBL programs has been underexplored and no attempt has been made to simultaneously model both important components of DGBL: learning attainment (ie, educational purposes of DGBL) and engagement of users (ie, entertaining power of DGBL) in evaluating program effectiveness. This study aimed to describe and evaluate an Internet-based DGBL program, Professor Gooley and the Flame of Mind, which promotes mental health to adolescents in a positive youth development approach. In particular, we investigated whether user engagement in the DGBL program could enhance their attainment on each of the learning constructs per DGBL module and subsequently enhance their mental health as measured by psychological well-being. Users were assessed on their attainment on each learning construct, psychological well-being, and engagement in each of the modules. One structural equation model was constructed for each DGBL module to model the effect of users' engagement and attainment on the learning construct on their psychological well-being. Of the 498 secondary school students that registered and participated from the first module of the DGBL program, 192 completed all 8 modules of the program. Results from structural equation modeling suggested that a higher extent of engagement in the program activities facilitated users' attainment on the learning constructs on most of the modules and in turn enhanced their psychological well-being after controlling for users' initial psychological well-being and initial attainment on the constructs. This study provided evidence that Internet intervention for mental health, implemented with the technologies and digital innovations of DGBL, could enhance youth mental health. Structural equation modeling is a promising approach in evaluating the effectiveness of DGBL programs.
Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Winsall, Megan; Jones, Gabrielle M; Wyld, Kaisha; Damarell, Raechel A; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Smith, David; Collin, Philippa; Bidargaddi, Niranjan
Background Despite the potential of technology-based mental health interventions for young people, limited uptake and/or adherence is a significant challenge. It is thought that involving young people in the development and delivery of services designed for them leads to better engagement. Further research is required to understand the role of participatory approaches in design of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Objective To investigate consumer involvement processes and associated outcomes from studies using participatory methods in development of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Methods Fifteen electronic databases, using both resource-specific subject headings and text words, were searched describing 2 broad concepts-participatory research and mental health/illness. Grey literature was accessed via Google Advanced search, and relevant conference Web sites and reference lists were also searched. A first screening of titles/abstracts eliminated irrelevant citations and documents. The remaining citations were screened by a second reviewer. Full text articles were double screened. All projects employing participatory research processes in development and/or design of (ICT/digital) technology-based youth mental health and well-being interventions were included. No date restrictions were applied; English language only. Data on consumer involvement, research and design process, and outcomes were extracted via framework analysis. Results A total of 6210 studies were reviewed, 38 full articles retrieved, and 17 included in this study. It was found that consumer participation was predominantly consultative and consumerist in nature and involved design specification and intervention development, and usability/pilot testing. Sustainable participation was difficult to achieve. Projects reported clear dichotomies around designer/researcher and consumer assumptions of effective and acceptable
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
... How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the Latino Community? Common mental health disorders among Latinos are generalized anxiety disorder , major ... quality care. Lack of Information and Misunderstanding about Mental Health Overall, the Latino community does not talk about mental health issues. There ...
Dzhambov, Angel; Hartig, Terry; Markevych, Iana; Tilov, Boris; Dimitrova, Donka
Urban greenspace can benefit mental health through multiple mechanisms. They may work together, but previous studies have treated them as independent. We aimed to compare single and parallel mediation models, which estimate the independent contributions of different paths, to several models that posit serial mediation components in the pathway from greenspace to mental health. We collected cross-sectional survey data from 399 participants (15-25 years of age) in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Objective "exposure" to urban residential greenspace was defined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, tree cover density within the 500-m buffer, and Euclidean distance to the nearest urban greenspace. Self-reported measures of availability, access, quality, and usage of greenspace were also used. Mental health was measured with the General Health Questionnaire. The following potential mediators were considered in single and parallel mediation models: restorative quality of the neighborhood, neighborhood social cohesion, commuting and leisure time physical activity, road traffic noise annoyance, and perceived air pollution. Four models were tested with the following serial mediation components: (1) restorative quality → social cohesion; (2) restorative quality → physical activity; (3) perceived traffic pollution → restorative quality; (4) and noise annoyance → physical activity. There was no direct association between objectively-measured greenspace and mental health. For the 500-m buffer, the tests of the single mediator models suggested that restorative quality mediated the relationship between NDVI and mental health. Tests of parallel mediation models did not find any significant indirect effects. In line with theory, tests of the serial mediation models showed that higher restorative quality was associated with more physical activity and more social cohesion, and in turn with better mental health. As for self
Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.
Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…
Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward F.
Objective: Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at high risk for exhibiting symptoms of psychopathology by virtue of their exposure to numerous risk factors. Research examining cumulative risk has consistently found that the accumulation of risk factors increases the likelihood of mental health problems. The goal of the current study…
It is possible to merge datasets from school level to an individual level register data. The merged big data offers new possibilities to study questions related to the prevalence of mental health problems. The new linked data can be further analyzed to hierarchical model.
Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Acri, Mary; Morrissey, Meghan; Peth-Pierce, Robin
To systematically review experimental evidence regarding animal-assisted therapies (AAT) for children or adolescents with or at risk for mental health conditions, we reviewed all experimental AAT studies published between 2000-2015, and compared studies by animal type, intervention, and outcomes. Studies were included if used therapeutically for…
Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R
The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.
Veltro, Franco; Ialenti, Valentina; Iannone, Claudia; Bonanni, Emiliana; Morales García, Manuel Alejandro
School is potentially one of the most important and effective agencies for the promotion of mental health. For this reason, in Italy, the Mental Health Department of The National Health Institute has developed an intervention based on a structured handbook. The aim of this intervention is to promote the psychological well-being of the students. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of this intervention through a quasi-experimental study design of four classes (two were control) of secondary education, including 79 students aged 14 to 16 years (15.35 ± 0.68). Assessments were administered before and after the intervention. The results showed improvement in perceived self-efficacy (p ≤ .001), emotional coping (p = .003), and overall well-being (p usefulness was also increased (p skills, problem solving, and goal definition training is recommended with the use of a revised handbook. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Preyde, Michele; Cameron, Gary; Frensch, Karen; Adams, Gerald
This report stems from a larger study on the outcomes of children and youth who accessed residential treatment or a home-based alternative. In this report an analysis of family descriptive information, the nature of family relationships, and indicators of family functioning for children and youth who have participated in children's mental health…
Kidman, Rachel; Violari, Avy
As perinatal HIV-infected youth become sexually active, the potential for onward transmission becomes an increasing concern. In other populations, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for HIV acquisition. We build on this critical work by studying the role of IPV in facilitating onward transmission among HIV-infected youth-an important step toward effective intervention. Soweto, South Africa. Self-report surveys were completed by 129 perinatal HIV-infected female youth (aged 13-24 years). We calculated the IPV prevalence and used logistic models to capture the association between IPV and health outcomes known to facilitate onward HIV transmission (eg, risky sex, poor medication adherence, depression, and substance abuse). A fifth of perinatal HIV-infected participants reported physical and/or sexual IPV in the past year; one-third reported lifetime IPV. Childhood adversity was common and positively associated with IPV. Past-year physical and/or sexual IPV was positively correlated with high-risk sex [odds ratio (OR) = 8.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78 to 28.90], pregnancy (OR = 6.56; 95% CI: 1.91 to 22.54), poor medication adherence to antiretroviral therapy (OR = 5.37; 95% CI: 1.37 to 21.08), depression (OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.64 to 11.00), and substance abuse (OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 1.42 to 11.86). Neither past-year nor lifetime IPV was associated with viral load or HIV status disclosure to a partner. We find that IPV may increase risk for onward HIV transmission in perinatal HIV-infected youth by both increasing engagement in risky sexual behaviors and lowering medication adherence. HIV clinics should consider integrating primary IPV prevention interventions, instituting routine IPV screening, and collocating services for victims of violence.
Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…
Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Jorm, Anthony Francis
Little is known about whether mental health first aid knowledge and beliefs of young people actually translate into actual behavior. This study examined whether young people's first aid intentions and beliefs predicted the actions they later took to help a close friend or family member with a mental health problem. Participants in a 2006 national survey of Australian youth (aged 12-25 years) reported on their first aid intentions and beliefs based on one of four vignettes: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, psychosis, and social phobia. At a two-year follow-up interview, they reported on actions they had taken to help any family member or close friend with a problem similar to the vignette character since the initial interview. Of the 2005 participants interviewed at follow-up, 608 reported knowing someone with a similar problem. Overall, young people's first aid intentions and beliefs about the helpfulness of particular first aid actions predicted the actions they actually took to assist a close other. However, the belief in and intention to encourage professional help did not predict subsequent action. Findings suggest that young people's mental health first aid intentions and beliefs may be valid indicators of their subsequent actions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In mental health settings, feedback from clients and carers is central to service evaluation, development and delivery. Increasingly, client and carer feedback is considered an integral part of service planning, and recognized as a critical element of the provision of recovery oriented service. This paper outlines the findings of a qualitative evaluation of a Youth Mental Health (YMH) service from the perspective of discharged clients and their parents. The service researcher conducted telephone interviews with 39 parents of discharged clients, and 17 young people themselves. Participants reported positive or mixed experiences with the service. In addition to more generic positive statements about the service, analysis identified two key themes: the importance of 'family inclusive practice' and the importance of 'working with client preferences'. Young people and their parents want to be actively engaged in treatment and have their treatment preferences considered in treatment planning. Participants expressed the importance of "a good fit" between the client and the worker in terms of the clinician's gender, personality and treatment style/modality. While for some participants these themes were raised in the context of service strengths, others identified them as limitations or opportunities for service improvement. The extent to which clients and their parents felt engaged and heard by their allocated clinician is critical to their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the service, depending on their unique experience. As an outcome of this evaluation, a range of service improvement strategies have been recommended. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Rousseau, Cécile; Beauregard, Caroline; Daignault, Katherine; Petrakos, Harriet; Thombs, Brett D.; Steele, Russell; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Hechtman, Lily
Objectives The aim of this cluster randomized trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based theatre intervention program for immigrant and refugee youth in special classes for improving mental health and academic outcomes. The primary hypothesis was that students in the theatre intervention group would report a greater reduction in impairment from symptoms compared to students in the control and tutoring groups. Methods Special classrooms in five multiethnic high schools were randomly assigned to theater intervention (n = 10), tutoring (n = 10) or control status (n = 9), for a total of 477 participants. Students and teachers were non-blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was impairment from emotional and behavioural symptoms assessed by the Impact Supplement of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the adolescents. The secondary outcomes were the SDQ global scores (teacher and youth reports), impairment assessed by teachers and school performance. The effect of the interventions was assessed through linear mixed effect models which incorporate the correlation between students in the same class, due to the nature of the randomization of the interventions by classroom. Results The theatre intervention was not associated with a greater reduction in self-reported impairment and symptoms in youth placed in special class because of learning, emotional and behavioural difficulties than a tutoring intervention or a non-active control group. The estimates of the different models show a non-significant decrease in both self-reported and impairment scores in the theatre intervention group for the overall group, but the impairment score decreased significantly for first generation adolescents while it increased for second generation adolescents. Conclusion The difference between the population of immigrant and refugee youth newcomers studied previously and the sample of this trial may explain some of the differences
Lindstrom, David; Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lachat, Carl; Verstraeten, Roos; De Cock, Nathalie; Kolsteren, Patrick
Background Although the consequences of food insecurity on physical health and nutritional status of youth living have been reported, its effect on their mental health remains less investigated in developing countries. The aim of this study was to examine the pathways through which food insecurity is associated with poor mental health status among youth living in Ethiopia. Methods We used data from Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth (JLFSY) collected in 2009/10. A total of 1,521 youth were included in the analysis. We measured food insecurity using a 5-items scale and common mental disorders using the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Structural and generalized equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation method was used to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of common mental disorders was 30.8% (95% CI: 28.6, 33.2). Food insecurity was independently associated with common mental disorders (β = 0.323, Pinsecurity on common mental disorders was direct and only 8.2% of their relationship was partially mediated by physical health. In addition, poor self-rated health (β = 0.285, Pinsecurity is directly associated with common mental disorders among youth in Ethiopia. Interventions that aim to improve mental health status of youth should consider strategies to improve access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food. PMID:27846283
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...
School nurses address mental health issues of youth on a daily basis. These mental health issues include substance abuse, anxiety, depression, and even suicidal ideation. Mental health first aid is a process that seeks to help medical professionals and laypeople recognize and address someone that is having a mental health or substance abuse crisis. This article will describe an experience with a student having suicidal ideations and how the mental health action plan was used.
of mental health needs of America's youth, with 1 ... health services to children and adolescents in the primary ... Conclusion: The establishment of the Pediatric residency with a dedicated curriculum to address mental health ... However, there are few young patients being evaluated ... mental health care without stigma.
Khan, Nusrat N; Yahya, Badi'ah; Abu Bakar, Abd Kadir; Ho, Roger C
The Malaysian Mental Health Act 2001 did not come into effect until the Mental Health Regulations 2010 came into force. The Act provides a framework for the delivery of comprehensive care, treatment, control, protection and rehabilitation of those with mental disorders. The Act governs the establishment of private and government psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric nursing homes and community mental health centres. This paper outlines the provisions of the Act and the Regulations.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Waters, Allison M; Groth, Trisha A; Sanders, Mary; O'Brien, Rosanne; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
Clinical scientists are calling for strong partnerships in the provision of evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems in real-world contexts. In the present study, we describe the implementation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to address grade 5 children's anxiety symptoms. The CBI arose from a long-standing partnership between University and Education Department stakeholders. The partnership integrates school-based, evidence-informed treatment delivery with clinical education, and also supports a school-based psychology clinic to provide assessment and treatment services to children attending schools within the catchment area and clinical training for university graduate students. Children in the active condition (N=74) completed the CBI during regular class time, while children in the control condition (N=77) received the standard classroom curriculum. Children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, threat interpretation biases (perceived danger and coping ability), and perceptions of their social skills were assessed before and after condition. Children in the active condition reported significant improvements in self-reported anxiety symptoms, and perceptions of their social skills and coping ability, whereas no significant differences were observed for children in the control condition from pre- to post-assessment. For a subset of children assessed 12 months after the CBI (n=76), symptom improvement remained stable over time and estimates of danger and coping ability showed even greater improvement. Results demonstrate the value of strong stakeholder partnerships in innovative youth mental health services, positive child outcomes, and clinical education. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth ... PPD) Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health Mental Health: ...
McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David
Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with
Cairns, Alice J; Kavanagh, David J; Dark, Frances; McPhail, Steven M
This investigation aims to identify if correlates of not working or studying were also correlated with part-time vocational participation. Demographic and vocational engagement information was collected from 226 participant clinical charts aged 15 to 25 years accessing a primary youth health clinic. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine potential correlates no and part-time vocational engagement compared to those full-time. A total of 33% were not working or studying and 19% were part-time. Not working or studying was associated with secondary school dropout and a history of drug use. These associations were not observed in those participating part-time. This result suggests that the markers of disadvantage observed in those not working or studying do not carry over to those who are part-time. Potentially, those who are part-time are less vulnerable to long-term disadvantage compared to their unemployed counterparts as they do not share the same indicators of disadvantage. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
... and Well-Being 1 - Stress - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Health and Well-Being ... Well-Being 2 - Mental Health - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center What Is Mental Distress - ...
Weist, Mark D.; Bruns, Eric J.; Whitaker, Kelly; Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stanley; Larsen, Torill; Holsen, Ingrid; Cooper, Janice L.; Geroski, Anne; Short, Kathryn H.
All around the world, partnerships among schools and other youth-serving systems are promoting more comprehensive school-based mental health services. This article describes the development of international networks for school mental health (SMH) including the International Alliance for Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Schools (INTERCAMHS)…
Youth transitioning out of foster care face significant medical and mental health care needs. Unfortunately, these youth rarely receive the services they need because of lack of health insurance. Through many policies and programs, the federal government has taken steps to support older youth in foster care and those aging out. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L No. 110-354) requires states to work with youth to develop a transition plan that addresses issues such as health insurance. In addition, beginning in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub L No. 111-148) makes youth aging out of foster care eligible for Medicaid coverage until age 26 years, regardless of income. Pediatricians can support youth aging out of foster care by working collaboratively with the child welfare agency in their state to ensure that the ongoing health needs of transitioning youth are met.
... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... signs and symptoms of depression in men. More Mental Health Services Research Conference Register now for the nation’s ...
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Thompson, Ronald
Empowerment has been established as an important factor in resilience in adolescence. It has also been deemed critical for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders to achieve successful outcomes across academic, social, and behavioral domains, especially during a major transition. There is currently one measure used to evaluate empowerment in…
Valéria Garcia Caputo
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de problemas de saúde mental em adolescentes primigestas e comparar seu perfil de saúde mental com o daquelas sexualmente ativas que nunca engravidaram. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, comparativo entre dois grupos de adolescentes de 13 a 17 anos, em Marília, Estado de São Paulo, 2003-2004. A amostra incluiu 207 primigestas atendidas em programas de pré-natal de serviços públicos municipais urbanos e 308 estudantes de escolas estaduais, sexualmente ativas, que nunca engravidaram. Foram aplicados um instrumento de rastreamento para problemas de saúde mental em adolescentes (versão brasileira do Youth Self-Report e um questionário sobre fatores de risco para gravidez na adolescência. A análise estatística incluiu testes de qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher, U de Mann Whitney e modelos de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Adolescentes grávidas e não-grávidas não diferiram quanto à prevalência do total de problemas de saúde mental (24,6% vs. 27,3%; p=0,50. Comparado às adolescentes não-grávidas, o grupo das primigestas apresentou maior prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade/depressão (24,2% vs. 15,3%; p=0,01 e sintomas de retraimento/depressão (13,0% vs, 4,5%; pOBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of mental health problems in primiparous adolescents and to compare their mental health profile with the profile of sexually active adolescents who have never gotten pregnant. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that compared two groups of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from a city in Southern Brazil, 2003-2004. The sample included 207 primiparous who attended prenatal care programs in urban public services, and 308 sexually active students from state public schools who had never gotten pregnant. A screening instrument to identify mental health problems in adolescents (Brazilian version of the Youth Self-Report was applied to the participants together with a questionnaire on risk factors for
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B.; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel A.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan A.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J.
Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model, parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use ...
Baazova Fields, Anna
Within the California K-12 education setting, Latino students make up 53% of the child population, totaling over 3.3 million students (California Department of Education, 2016). Many of these Latino immigrant youth face challenges, including living in poverty, exposure to violence, and acculturation stress, all of which lead to a need for mental…
Frankel, Anne S.; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Patterson, Freda; Dai, Ting; Brown, Deanna
Background: Sexting, the sharing of sexually suggestive photos, may be a gateway behavior to early sexual activity and increase the likelihood of social ostracism. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 6021) data from 2015 among Pennsylvania 9th-12th grade students were used to examine associations between consensual and nonconsensual sexting…
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, ... is doing to improve access to care. Children’s Mental Health: What's New Article: U.S. Children with Diagnosed Anxiety ...
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
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Mulusew G Jebena
Full Text Available Although the consequences of food insecurity on physical health and nutritional status of youth living have been reported, its effect on their mental health remains less investigated in developing countries. The aim of this study was to examine the pathways through which food insecurity is associated with poor mental health status among youth living in Ethiopia.We used data from Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth (JLFSY collected in 2009/10. A total of 1,521 youth were included in the analysis. We measured food insecurity using a 5-items scale and common mental disorders using the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Structural and generalized equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation method was used to analyze the data.The prevalence of common mental disorders was 30.8% (95% CI: 28.6, 33.2. Food insecurity was independently associated with common mental disorders (β = 0.323, P<0.05. Most (91.8% of the effect of food insecurity on common mental disorders was direct and only 8.2% of their relationship was partially mediated by physical health. In addition, poor self-rated health (β = 0.285, P<0.05, high socioeconomic status (β = -0.076, P<0.05, parental education (β = 0.183, P<0.05, living in urban area (β = 0.139, P<0.05, and female-headed household (β = 0.192, P<0.05 were associated with common mental disorders.Food insecurity is directly associated with common mental disorders among youth in Ethiopia. Interventions that aim to improve mental health status of youth should consider strategies to improve access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food.
Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...
Heck, Nicholas C
This article describes the results of a pilot study to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a mental health promotion program that was developed to address minority stressors and promote coping skills among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. It was hypothesized that the program would be feasible to implement within the context of a gay-straight alliance (GSA) and that GSA members would find the program acceptable (e.g., educational, enjoyable, helpful, and relevant). Participants included ten members of a high school GSA in the northeastern United States. The program sessions were delivered during GSA meetings. The first session emphasized the identification of minority and general stressors, which was followed by a discussion of coping strategies. The remaining sessions emphasized the development of cognitive coping, affect regulation, and problem-solving skills. After each session, participants completed a 13-item feedback form. Ten items assessed acceptability and three open-ended items allowed participants to provide constructive feedback. Although the program was feasible to implement within the GSA setting, attendance at the sessions was variable. Those who attended the sessions reported them to be enjoyable, informative, relevant to their lives, and potentially helpful for other LGBTQ students. After revising the program, future research is needed to investigate its dissemination potential and determine whether the program can disrupt the minority stress-psychiatric distress relationship.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.
Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…
Sælid, Gry Anette; Nordahl, Hans M
Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) is effective in reducing distress in several target groups. No other study has tested the mental health effects on adolescents in a high school setting while expanding a Cognitive Behaviour-based therapy, REBT, into the concept of mental health literacy. The format of the ABC model, which is an important element of REBT, functioned as a working manual in and between three sessions. This study tested whether knowledge and practical use of the ABC model increased self-esteem and hope, and reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, and dysfunctional thinking. Sixty-two high school students with subclinical levels of anxiety and depression were randomly allocated into three groups; three individual REBT sessions, or three individual attentional placebo (ATP) sessions or no sessions (control). However, dysfunctional thinking, self-esteem and hope were not measured in the control group. Repeated measures with ANOVA and t-tests were conducted. Both REBT and ATP significantly reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, but only REBT was significantly different from the control group at the six-month follow-up. Only REBT significantly reduced dysfunctional thinking, and both REBT and ATP significantly increased self-esteem and hope. REBT had both an immediate and a long-term effect. The findings show the potential positive effects of educating well-documented psychological techniques as ordinary education in school. Further research might contribute to decide whether or not to change the school system by enclosing mental health literacy classes for all students.
... social networks While there are drawbacks to small communities when it comes to mental health, there are positives as well. The close-knit ... to refer patients to facilities outside of the community. The Substance Abuse and Mental ... Administration (SAMHSA) maintains the 2016 National Directory ...
Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Weist, Mark; Kataoka, Sheryl; Adelsheim, Steven; Mills, Carrie
The New Freedom Commission has called for a transformation in the delivery of mental health services in this country. The commission's report and recommendations have highlighted the role of school mental health services in transforming mental health care for children and adolescents. This article examines the intersection of school mental health programs and the commission's recommendations in order to highlight the role of school mental health in the transformation of the child and adolescent mental health system. Schools are uniquely positioned to play a central role in improving access to child mental health services and in supporting mental health and wellness as well as academic functioning of youths. The New Freedom Commission report articulated several goals related to school mental health: reducing stigma, preventing suicide, improving screening and treating co-occurring disorders, and expanding school mental health programs. The authors suggest strategies for change, including demonstrating relevance to schools, developing consensus among stakeholders, enhancing community mental health-school connections, building quality assessment and improvement, and considering the organizational context of schools.
... for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress ... public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy and security of drugs (medications), biological products, medical devices, our ...
Independent, family-owned veterinary group White Cross Vets has been focusing on wellbeing. One of its clinic directors, Rob Reid, joined a group from the practice for some training in mental health awareness. British Veterinary Association.
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…
Riana E. Anderson
Full Text Available Black American youth are vulnerable to the consequences of repeated exposure to racial discrimination, particularly through hampered coping abilities and greater internalizing and externalizing problems. One way in which Black American parents have protected their children from these deleterious consequences is through racial socialization, or communication regarding aspects of racialized experiences and contexts. Less is known, however, about the potential therapeutic benefits of racial socialization via clinical intervention. The five-week Engaging, Managing, and Bonding through Race (EMBRace racial socialization intervention was developed to enhance coping strategies for parents and adolescents and reduce adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. The purpose of this study is to describe a case study of one family through a mixed methods approach. Variables of interest included racial discrimination, racial socialization, coping, and psychological well-being. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed two weeks prior to and one week after the implementation of EMBRace, with qualitative data collected throughout the intervention. Results indicate a developing sense of coping for the adolescent and parent and reduced adolescent psychosocial problems despite increased racialized stress. Results will be used to further investigate the hypotheses proposed in the pilot with a powered sample, and future studies will explore how sociodemographic and biopsychosocial variables relate to policy recommendations, program implementation, and psychosocial outcomes.
Schwean, Vicki; Rodger, Susan
Although the importance of healthy mental development in children and youth is not disputed, the mental health needs of far too many Canadian children are being ignored. Within the context of recent federal and provincial calls for systemic reform of the mental health care systems for children and youth, we underscore the necessity for ongoing…
Notarianni, Maryann; Sundar, Purnima; Carter, Charles
Using the best available evidence to inform decision making is important for the design or delivery of effective health-related services and broader public policy. Several studies identify barriers and facilitators to evidence-informed decision making in Canadian health settings. This paper describes how the Ontario Centre of Excellence for Child…
Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija
Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Reid, Sophie C; Kauer, Sylvia D; Hearps, Stephen J C; Crooke, Alexander H D; Khor, Angela S; Sanci, Lena A; Patton, George C
Over 75% of mental health problems begin in adolescence and primary care has been identified as the target setting for mental health intervention by the World Health Organisation. The mobiletype program is a mental health assessment and management mobile phone application which monitors mood, stress, coping strategies, activities, eating, sleeping, exercise patterns, and alcohol and cannabis use at least daily, and transmits this information to general practitioners (GPs) via a secure website in summary format for medical review. We conducted a randomised controlled trial in primary care to examine the mental health benefits of the mobiletype program. Patients aged 14 to 24 years were recruited from rural and metropolitan general practices. GPs identified and referred eligible participants (those with mild or more mental health concerns) who were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (where mood, stress, and daily activities were monitored) or the attention comparison group (where only daily activities were monitored). Both groups self-monitored for 2 to 4 weeks and reviewed the monitoring data with their GP. GPs, participants, and researchers were blind to group allocation at randomisation. Participants completed pre-, post-, and 6-week post-test measures of the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale and an Emotional Self Awareness (ESA) Scale. Of the 163 participants assessed for eligibility, 118 were randomised and 114 participants were included in analyses (intervention group n = 68, comparison group n = 46). Mixed model analyses revealed a significant group by time interaction on ESA with a medium size of effect suggesting that the mobiletype program significantly increases ESA compared to an attention comparison. There was no significant group by time interaction for depression, anxiety, or stress, but a medium to large significant main effect for time for each of these mental health measures. Post-hoc analyses suggested that participation in the RCT
Reid Sophie C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 75% of mental health problems begin in adolescence and primary care has been identified as the target setting for mental health intervention by the World Health Organisation. The mobiletype program is a mental health assessment and management mobile phone application which monitors mood, stress, coping strategies, activities, eating, sleeping, exercise patterns, and alcohol and cannabis use at least daily, and transmits this information to general practitioners (GPs via a secure website in summary format for medical review. Methods We conducted a randomised controlled trial in primary care to examine the mental health benefits of the mobiletype program. Patients aged 14 to 24 years were recruited from rural and metropolitan general practices. GPs identified and referred eligible participants (those with mild or more mental health concerns who were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (where mood, stress, and daily activities were monitored or the attention comparison group (where only daily activities were monitored. Both groups self-monitored for 2 to 4 weeks and reviewed the monitoring data with their GP. GPs, participants, and researchers were blind to group allocation at randomisation. Participants completed pre-, post-, and 6-week post-test measures of the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale and an Emotional Self Awareness (ESA Scale. Results Of the 163 participants assessed for eligibility, 118 were randomised and 114 participants were included in analyses (intervention group n = 68, comparison group n = 46. Mixed model analyses revealed a significant group by time interaction on ESA with a medium size of effect suggesting that the mobiletype program significantly increases ESA compared to an attention comparison. There was no significant group by time interaction for depression, anxiety, or stress, but a medium to large significant main effect for time for each of these mental health measures. Post
Gray, Andrew Paul; Richer, Faisca; Harper, Sam
Following the onset of intensive colonial intervention and rapid social change in the lives of Inuit people, youth in Nunavik have experienced high rates of mental health problems and suicide. Inuit people describe a broad range of contextual influences on mental wellness based on lived experience, but most epidemiological studies have focused on individual risk factors and pathologies. This study aimed to assess the influence of multiple determinants of mental wellness among Inuit youth in Nunavik, including culturally meaningful activities, housing and community social characteristics. Mental wellness was measured in the form of two primary outcomes: self-esteem and suicidal ideation. Using cross-sectional data from the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey and multilevel regression modelling, we estimated associations between these two outcomes and various independent individual- and community-level explanatory factors among Inuit youth. All variables were selected to reflect Inuit perspectives on determinants of mental wellness. The study design and interpretation of results were validated with Inuit community representatives. Pride in Inuit identity, traditional activities, community-level social support and community-level socio-economic status were found to be protective. Barriers to participating in traditional activities, household crowding and high community rates of violence were risk factors. These findings support Inuit perspectives, expand the scope of epidemiological analysis of Inuit mental wellness and reinforce the need for locally informed, community-wide approaches to mental wellness promotion for Inuit youth.
Atkins, Melanie-Anne; Rodger, Susan
Pre-service teacher education in mental health and mental health literacy is essential to creating the conditions necessary to support the mental health and wellness of children and youth in schools. Many teachers report never having received any education about mental health, but recognize the importance of this knowledge in meeting the needs of…
The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.
Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Lai, Yuen-Liang; Chang, Chia-Ming; Kao, Ching-Chiu; Shyu, Meei-Ling; Lee, Ming-Been
The primary objective of this study was to explore gender and age differences in the use of medical services during the year preceding suicide. Data were obtained from the mortality dataset of Department of Health and National Health Insurance Database. Included in the sample were 862 persons aged 12-24 years who committed suicide in Taiwan between 2001 and 2004. We compared the records of medical service utilization of adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with young adults (ages 19-24 years). Persons in both age groups contacted general practitioners more often than other types of medical providers in the year preceding suicide, with the exception of the month before suicide. Females made greater use of medical services than males in both age groups. Suicide prevention strategies should increase the emphasis in training non-psychiatric medical practitioners to identify and treat young persons at suicide risk.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Lefkowitz, Ayla R F; Mannell, Jenevieve
Transgender youth often face difficulties when accessing sexual health services. However, few studies investigate health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth, and fewer focus on sexual health. To fill this gap, our study draws on social representations theory to examine sexual health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth and how this influences the provision of health services for this marginalised population in England. A thematic analysis of 20 semi-structured interviews with service providers, conducted between March and June 2014, resulted in five main themes centred on: binary representations of transgender; transgender as homosexuality; uncertain bodies; unstable mental states; and too young to know. Of the service providers interviewed, many understood transgender within a male/female binary, and perceived being transgender to be synonymous with being gay. There was confusion among service providers regarding transgender youths' sexual organs, and most of those interviewed saw transgender youth as mentally unstable and confused. Finally, many service providers perceived that transgender youth are too young to know that they are transgender and make decisions about their body. Some of these representations were potentially stigmatising and many conflicted with transgender youths' representations of themselves. Training by transgender people is recommended to help address these misunderstandings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Knight, Andrea M; Vickery, Michelle E; Fiks, Alexander G; Barg, Frances K
Untreated mental health problems may result in poor outcomes for youth with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). We investigated perceptions, barriers and facilitators for mental healthcare of these youth. We conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with 16 outpatient youth with SLE/MCTD, ages 11-22 years, and their parents. We used purposive sampling to deliberately obtain the experiences of youth screened during a previous study for depression and anxiety with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Disorders, respectively. We recruited 6 youth with previous positive screens and 10 with negative screens. We assessed interim mental health history, and qualitatively examined perceptions, barriers and facilitators for mental healthcare. Youth with a mental health history increased from 6 (38%) at initial screening to 9 (56%) at interview (mean follow-up = 2.1 years). Youth receiving mental health treatment increased from 33 to 67%. Youth and parents identified rheumatologists as primary physicians and found mental health screening in rheumatology acceptable. Barriers to mental healthcare included: stigma; fear; uncertainty about getting help; parental emotional burden; minimization by doctors; and limited mental healthcare access. Facilitators included: strong clinician relationships; clinician initiative, sincerity and normalization in discussing mental health; and increased patient/family awareness of mental health issues in SLE/MCTD. Youth with SLE/MCTD and their parents perceive pediatric rheumatologists as a preferred source for mental health screening, guidance and referral. Interventions addressing barriers and enhancing facilitators may improve mental healthcare for youth with SLE/MCTD.
Research has estimated that the percentage of children and adolescents experiencing significant mental health difficulties is as high as 20% of all youth, and that only one-fourth of these students receive therapeutic services outside of school. Given this gap between the need and availability of mental health services, schools often become the…
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
Full Text Available Background: Emotional distress and chronic diseases are the highest contributors of Year Life with Disability (YLD in Indonesia. Youth age 15–24 comprised of 14% Indonesian population. It is important to have information on their mental health status and the magnitude of chronic disease they experience. The information is useful as inputs for estimating the disease burden in the years to come. Objective: Obtain information on the magnitude of emotional distress and chronic diseases among Indonesian youth. The information can be used as inputs for the health sector in designing health service for youth. Method: Emotional distress and chronic diseases data from 2007 Riskesdas were analysed using frequency to obtain the prevalence of emotional distress and several chronic diseases. Cross tabulation was performed to obtain theprevalence of emotional distress among youth with asthma, heart, diabetic, joint and stroke defined as ever diagnosed or having the symptoms. Emotional distress is defined as having score of more than 5 in the Self Report Questionnaire. Inclusion criteria was those age 15–24 years. Results: Nine out of ten Indonesian youth were free of emotional distress orchronic disease as defined. Only one out of ten youth experienced the condition. Emotional distress prevalence among youtwith chronic disease is higher among those with chronic disease, the highest is in those with co-morbidity. Conclusion: It istime for health sector to give more attention for mental health especially youth with chronic diseases. Recommendation:In addition to prioritize on prevention and promotion, youth health service should also provide information, expert and resources as well as guidance on youth care.
McCann, Terence V; Mugavin, Janette; Renzaho, Andre; Lubman, Dan I
Many young migrants and their parents are reluctant to seek help for mental health and substance use problems. Help-seeking delays can result in longer duration of untreated problems and poorer outcomes. In this study, we aimed to identify the help-seeking barriers and facilitators for anxiety, depression and alcohol and drug use problems in young people from recently established sub-Saharan African migrant communities. A qualitative study, incorporating individual, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, was undertaken in Melbourne, Australia. Twenty-eight young sub-Saharan African migrants participated in the individual interviews, and 41 sub-Saharan African-born parents and key community leaders participated in 4 focus groups. All participants were aged 16 years or over. A thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Themes and related sub-themes were abstracted from the data, reflecting the young people's, parents' and key community leaders' beliefs about barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for mental health and substance use problems. Four help-seeking barriers were identified: stigma of mental illness, lack of mental health literacy in parents and young people, lack of cultural competency of formal help sources, and financial costs deterring access. Five help-seeking facilitators were abstracted: being open with friends and family, strong community support systems, trustworthiness and confidentiality of help-sources, perceived expertise of formal help-sources, increasing young people's and parents' mental health literacy. Programs that identify and build on help-seeking facilitators while addressing help-seeking barriers are needed to address mental health issues among young sub-Saharan African migrants. Strategies to address help-seeking barriers should consider counteracting stigma and increasing mental health literacy in sub-Saharan African communities, increasing health providers' cultural competency and perceived trustworthiness, and
Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula
PURPOSE. We explored the meaning and outcomes of a 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners participating in a Community of Practice. METHOD. A one-group (N = 117) mixed-methods design using a pretest–posttest survey and qualitative analysis of written reflections was used to explore the meaning and outcomes of the building capacity process. RESULTS. Statistically significant improvements (p occupational therapy’s role in addressing children’s mental health. PMID:26565099
Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Huber, Brenda J.; Austen, Julie M.; Tobin, Renée M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Shelvin, Kristal H.; Wells, Michael
A large, Midwestern county implemented a four-tiered public health model of children's mental health with an interconnected systems approach involving education, health care, juvenile justice and community mental health sectors. The community sought to promote protective factors in the lives of all youth, while improving the capacity,…
Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel
The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.
Towns, Kathryn; And Others
Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta; Carli, Vladimir; Sarchiapone, Marco; Al-Halabí, Susana; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Cosman, Doina; Farkas, Luca; Feldman, Dana; Fischer, Gloria; Graber, Nadja; Haring, Christian; Herta, Dana Cristina; Iosue, Miriam; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Klug, Katja; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Tubiana-Potiez, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Ziberna, Janina; Poštuvan, Vita
The Awareness program was designed as a part of the EU-funded Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) intervention study to promote mental health of adolescents in 11 European countries by helping them to develop problem-solving skills and encouraging them to self-recognize the need for help as well as how to help peers in need. For this descriptive study all coordinators of the SEYLE Awareness program answered an open-ended evaluation questionnaire at the end of the project implementation. Their answers were synthesized and analyzed and are presented here. The results show that the program cultivated peer understanding and support. Adolescents not only learned about mental health by participating in the Awareness program, but the majority of them also greatly enjoyed the experience. Recommendations for enhancing the successes of mental health awareness programs are presented. Help and cooperation from schools, teachers, local politicians and other stakeholders will lead to more efficacious future programs.
Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P
With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Atkinson, M; Hornby, G
This text provides information on a range of mental health problems that confront teachers and discusses their underlying causes. It considers what schools can do to help pupils and reflects on the role of the mental health services.
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
... teenage mothers, and out-of-school youths, in both rural and urban settings. ... They showed awareness of a two-way interaction between HIV/AIDS and mental ... that the latter can increase thoughts of suicide and HIV risk-taking behaviour. ... of mental health provision within HIV prevention, education and care initiatives.
hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...... that emerged in the course of the study. It discusses the particular challenges involved in negotiating access in a hierarchical and conflict-ridden setting with tangible power differences between professionals and patients. I pay particular attention to the positions that became available to the researcher...
van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W; Treffers, Philip D A
In this study socio-demographic, deafness-related and diagnostic characteristics of hearing impaired children and adolescents referred to a national mental health service for deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents were examined. Socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics were compared to corresponding characteristics of hearing referred peers with identified mental health problems. The difference in characteristics between them and hearing referred peers with identified mental health problems was analyzed. A total of 389 deaf and hard of hearing and 3361 hearing children and adolescents was extracted from a database, all first referrals of patients of a center for child and adolescent psychiatry over a 15-year period. With deaf and hard of hearing patients we found higher rates of environmental stress, as indicated by conditions such as more one parent families (38.6% versus 25.8%), and more parents with a low educational level (44.2% versus 31.1%). Moreover, deaf and hard of hearing patients were older at their first referral (10.8 versus 9.4 years) and had higher rates of pervasive developmental disorders (23.7% versus 12.3%) and mental retardation (20.3% versus 3.9%). Within the target group of deaf and hard of hearing patients, most patients were deaf (68.9%; 22.3% was severely hard of hearing), relatively few (13.7%) had a non-syndromal hereditary hearing impairment, and more (21.3%) had a disabling physical health condition, especially those with a pervasive developmental disorder (42.6%). These findings illustrate both the complexity of the problems of deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents referred to specialist mental health services, and the need for preventive interventions aimed at early recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S
While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.
Prochaska, Judith J; Fromont, Sebastien C; Wa, Christina; Matlow, Ryan; Ramo, Danielle E; Hall, Sharon M
Youth with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of tobacco use. Outpatient mental health settings have received little investigation for delivering tobacco treatment. This study obtained formative data to guide development of a tobacco cessation program for transitional age youth with co-occurring psychiatric disorders with a focus on outpatient mental health settings. Applying qualitative methods, we analyzed transcripts from interviews with 14 mental health clients (aged 16-23) and 8 mental health providers. The youth identified internal (nicotine addiction and mood), social, parental, and media influences to their use of tobacco. Providers' viewed youth tobacco use as a normative developmental process, closely tied to management of psychiatric symptoms, supported by parents, and of lower priority relative to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Youth and providers believed that clinicians can do more to address tobacco use in practice and emphasized nonjudgmental support and nondirective approaches. Top recommended quitting strategies, however, differed notably for the youth (cold turkey, support from friends, physical activity, hobbies) and providers (cessation pharmacotherapy, cessation groups, treatment referrals). Mental health providers' greater prioritization of other substances and view of youth smoking as developmentally normative and a coping strategy for psychopathology are likely contributing to the general lack of attention to tobacco use currently. Integrating care within mental health settings would serve to reach youth in an arena where clinical rapport is already established, and study findings suggest receptivity for system improvements. Of consideration, however, is the apparent disconnect between provider and youth recommended strategies for supporting cessation.
Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.
Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.
The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear
van Gastel, W.A.
Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…
... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... Use of Selected Nonmedication Mental Health Services by Adolescent Boys and Girls With Serious Emotional or Behavioral ...
Snowshoe, Angela; Crooks, Claire V; Tremblay, Paul F; Hinson, Riley E
We explored the interrelationships among components of cultural connectedness (i.e., identity, traditions, and spirituality) and First Nations youth mental health using a brief version of the original Cultural Connectedness Scale. Participants included 290 First Nations youth (M age = 14.4) who were recruited from both urban and rural school settings in Saskatchewan and Southwestern Ontario. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the Cultural Connectedness Scale-Short Version (CCS-S) items to investigate the factor stability of the construct in our sample. We examined the relationships between the CCS-S subscales and self-efficacy, sense of self (present and future), school connectedness, and life satisfaction using hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses to establish the validity of the abbreviated measure. The results revealed that cultural connectedness, as measured by the 10-item CCS-S, had strong associations with the mental health indicators assessed and, in some cases, was associated with First Nations youth mental health above and beyond other social determinants of health. Our results extend findings from previous research on cultural connectedness by elucidating the meaning of its components and demonstrate the importance of culture for positive youth development.
Dowshen, Nadia; D'Angelo, Lawrence
There are ~1 million people in the United States living with HIV/AIDS, and >50,000 new infections occur each year. With an estimated 13% of all new infections occurring among young people aged 13 to 24 years and an increasing number of perinatally infected youth surviving to adulthood, there is now an increasing need to transition both perinatally and behaviorally infected youth to the adult health care setting. Recently, pediatric providers and professional societies have prioritized the development of transition programs for adolescents with chronic disease to address the many challenges these youth face in the process. Although multiple position papers have called for continuous, coordinated, culturally appropriate, compassionate, family-centered transition programs for youth with special health care needs and have recognized the need for evidence-based models, few data exist on what strategies are most effective. To date, published data on health care transition for HIV-positive youth are limited and include only 2 studies, which considered behaviorally infected youth. In this state-of-the-art review, we discuss the unique transition challenges to consider for this population, including socioeconomic and health insurance status, the special role of the pediatric or adolescent provider as family, stigma and disclosure issues, cognitive development and mental health issues, medication adherence, and sexual, reproductive, and gender health concerns. Future research will need to include the experiences of transition in low-resource settings and examine clinical outcomes and factors that may predict success or failure of the transition process.
Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda
Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.
Ecker, Andrew Joseph
Approximately 20% of youth in the U.S. are experiencing a mental health challenge; a rate that is said to increase by more than 50% by 2020. Schools are the largest provider of mental health services to youth, yet two of schools' most efficacious evidence-based systems, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and school mental health…
Treating mental illness should be a top national priority, especially as proven psychological therapies effectively cost nothing. Richard Layard explains how CEP research has led to a new deal for mental health - but much remains to be done. Mental illness has much greater economic costs than physical illness - but evidence-based ways of treating mental health problems have no net cost to the Exchequer.
Rice, Eric; Ray, Diana; Kurzban, Seth
Although social integration tends to have positive effects on the mental health of housed adolescents, the role of homeless adolescents’ social networks is more ambiguous. Social network data were collected from 136 homeless adolescents in Hollywood, California to examine how network ties are associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Face-to-face relationships with street-based peers were a risk factor for both anxiety and depression, while contacting home-based friends through soci...
Smith, A P
The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.
Background The Awareness program was designed as a part of the EU-funded Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) intervention study to promote mental health of adolescents in 11 European countries by helping them to develop problem-solving skills and encouraging them to self-recognize the need for help as well as how to help peers in need. Methods For this descriptive study all coordinators of the SEYLE Awareness program answered an open-ended evaluation questionnaire at the end of the project implementation. Their answers were synthesized and analyzed and are presented here. Results The results show that the program cultivated peer understanding and support. Adolescents not only learned about mental health by participating in the Awareness program, but the majority of them also greatly enjoyed the experience. Conclusions Recommendations for enhancing the successes of mental health awareness programs are presented. Help and cooperation from schools, teachers, local politicians and other stakeholders will lead to more efficacious future programs. PMID:22971152
Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Jorm, Anthony Francis
Young people are an important source of first aid for mental health problems in people they are close to, but their first aid skills remain inadequate. Research into the factors that influence mental health first aid skills are required to reveal targets for improving these skills. This study examined the influence of stigma on first aid actions taken by young people to help someone close to them with a mental health problem. Participants in a national telephone survey of Australian youth (aged 12-25 years) reported on their stigmatising attitudes based on one of three disorders in vignettes: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, and social phobia. At a two-year follow-up interview, they were asked if they knew a family member or close friend with a problem similar to the vignette character since the initial interview, and those who did reported on the actions taken to help the person. Of the 1520 participants interviewed at follow up, 507 reported knowing someone with a similar problem. Young people's stigmatising attitudes (weak-not-sick, social distance and dangerousness/unpredictability) influenced their first aid actions. Social desirability could have affected the assessment of stigma, we could not assess the severity of the first aid recipient's problem or the benefit derived from the first aid provided, and the proportion of variance explained was modest. Reducing stigma may help to improve the first aid that people with mental health problems can receive from young people who are close to them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hoffman, Steven; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Nevarez, Lucinda; Porta, Maria
Health literacy (HL) is recognized as an important health construct that is correlated with various health-related outcomes, but outside of the United States there is limited HL research available, particularly among youth. This study looked at the HL and harmful health behavior (i.e., substance use) of 210 youth across 10 schools in Guatemala City. Based on results from the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) HL assessment, fewer than one third of youth sampled had adequate HL. Training/education to improve adolescent HL is needed in Guatemala City, and the unique skillset of social workers could be an idea method of reaching at-risk youth.
Villarreal, Victor; Castro-Villarreal, Felicia
Schools have played an increasingly central role in providing mental health services to youth, but there are limitations to the services that are available through school-based mental health professionals. Thus, collaboration with non-school-based community mental health providers is oftentimes necessary. As collaboration can address limitations…
Vaughn, Wanda M; Bunde, Paula K; Remick-Erickson, Kara; Rebeck, Shelby; Denny, Darla
Five Johnson and Johnson fellows validated the lack of communication regarding students with mental/behavioral health issues and took a leadership position within their school district to address the problem. An open-ended survey revealed inconsistent and fragmented support given to students with mental/behavioral health concerns. A multidisciplinary task force was formed consisting of stakeholders including district and nondistrict community members. The procedure for district staff to address students' behavioral/mental health concerns was adapted by representatives from all stakeholders and was distributed district wide and uploaded to the district's staff website for general access. Training of district employees in Youth Mental Health First Aid has provided the foundation for communicating and implementing a standardized approach for identifying, responding, and referring students with mental/behavioral health concerns. Open dialog, better communication and understanding of disciplines, and more initiatives aimed at improving the mental health of all students has resulted from the collaboration started with this initiative.
Doré, Isabelle; Caron, Jean
Objectives This article aims to situate the concept of mental health in a historical perspective. This article presents the most commonly used measurement tools in Canada and elsewhere in the world to assess specific and multiple dimensions of mental health; when available, psychometric properties are discussed. Finally, research findings on quality of life and mental health determinants are presented.Methods A literature review of concepts, measurement and determinants of mental health is presented in this paper. The selection of measurement scales presented is based on the findings of the research reports conducted by the second author, an expert on mental health measures, for Health Canada and Statistics Canada.Results Mental health is more than the absence of mental illness; rather it is a state of complete well-being, which refers to our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face. Accordingly, mental health and mental illness are not extremes of the same continuum, but distinct yet correlated concepts. The traditional conceptualization suggesting that mental health represents simply the absence of mental illness has been replaced, in the last few decades, by a more holistic characterization, which directly concerns public health. The components of mental health include emotional well-being/quality of life (QOL) and psychological and social well-being. Mental health influences the personal and social functioning of individuals, justifying the importance of intervening upstream to promote mental health. Specific scales are relevant for obtaining a detailed measure of one aspect of well-being in particular (emotional/quality of life, psychological or social well-being); however, to account for the global mental health status, measurement tools that integrate all three forms of well-being (emotional, psychological and social) should be privileged. A diversity of determinants at the individual, social and neighbourhood levels influence quality of
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy
Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278
VanderVoort, Debra J
The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.
Edwards, R B
Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.
Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.
Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
information on mental health care outcome, to do a cost analysis and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate a cost ... clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training ... (d) describe the demographic and clinical profile of HIV positive ..... accommodate the differentiated but integrated care of.
Objective: This is the third of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). The study reviewed existing South African standards for mental health care facilities. Architectural principles and implications for the use of space were deducted from recent legislation. Objectives were to ...
Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...
Adrian, Molly; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Becker, Linda
The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 health behavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior.
Full Text Available Jane Burns, Emma Birrell Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre, Abbotsford, VIC, Australia Abstract: International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence
Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet
Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257
Gesouli-Voltyraki –E.; Charisi E.; Papastergiou D.; Κostopoulou S.; Borou A.; Alverti V.; Avlakiotis K.; Spanos S.
Introduction: Educational environment has a serious impact on students’ mental health. Few data are available on mental health of Physiotherapy students. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the mental heath of students in a tertiary Physiotherapy Department during the 3rd years of studies. Material and methods: 80 males and females physiotherapy students of the 5th and 6th semester of a tertiary Physiotherapy Department filled in the GHQ-28 questionnaire. Comparisons between groups w...
Ferguson, Kristin M
Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach.
Eklund, Katie; Meyer, Lauren; Way, Samara; Mclean, Deija
As one out of five children in the United States demonstrate some type of mental or behavioral health concern warranting additional intervention, federal policies have emphasized the need for school-based mental health (SBMH) services and an expansion of Medicaid reimbursement for eligible children and families. Most youth access mental health…
McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary
Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…
Implementation of the Enhanced Moderated Online Social Therapy (MOST+) Model Within a National Youth E-Mental Health Service (eheadspace): Protocol for a Single Group Pilot Study for Help-Seeking Young People.
Rice, Simon; Gleeson, John; Leicester, Steven; Bendall, Sarah; D'Alfonso, Simon; Gilbertson, Tamsyn; Killackey, Eoin; Parker, Alexandra; Lederman, Reeva; Wadley, Greg; Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Pryor, Ingrid; Mawren, Daveena; Ratheesh, Aswin; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
There is a substantial need for youth electronic mental health (e-mental health) services. In addressing this need, our team has developed a novel moderated online social therapy intervention called enhanced moderated online social therapy (MOST+). MOST+ integrates real-time, clinician-delivered Web chat counseling, interactive user-directed online therapy, expert and peer moderation, and private and secure peer-to-peer social networking. MOST+ has been designed to give young people immediate, 24-hour access to anonymous, evidence-based, and short-term mental health care. The primary aims of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of the intervention. Secondary aims were to assess prepost changes in key psychosocial outcomes and collect qualitative data for future intervention refinement. MOST+ will be embedded within eheadspace, an Australian youth e-mental health service, and will be evaluated via an uncontrolled single-group study. Approximately 250 help-seeking young people (16-25 years) will be progressively recruited to the intervention from the eheadspace home page over the first 4 weeks of an 8-week intervention period. All participants will have access to evidence-based therapeutic content and integrated Web chat counseling. Additional access to moderated peer-to-peer social networking will be granted to individuals for whom it is deemed safe and appropriate, through a three-tiered screening process. Participants will be enrolled in the MOST+ intervention for 1 week, with the option to renew their enrollment across the duration of the pilot. Participants will complete a survey at enrollment to assess psychological well-being and other mental health outcomes. Additional assessment will occur following account deactivation (ie, after participant has opted not to renew their enrollment, or at trial conclusion) and will include an online survey and telephone interview assessing psychological well-being and experience of
... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...
Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...
Goodkind, Jessica; LaNoue, Marianna; Lee, Christopher; Freeland, Lance; Freund, Rachel
An important predictor of youth well-being and resilience is the presence of nurturing adults in a youth's life. Parents are ideally situated to fulfill this role but often face challenges and stressors that impede their ability to provide adequate support and guidance. American Indian parents may also be affected by intergenerational transmission…
Vona, Pamela L.; Santostefano, Antonella M.; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D.
Abstract Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034
Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K
India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this
Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda
Mobile applications or 'apps' have significant potential for use in mental health interventions with adolescents. However, there is a lack of research exploring end users' needs from such technologies. The aim of this study was to explore adolescents' needs and concerns in relation to mental health mobile apps. Five focus groups were conducted with young people aged 15-16 years (N = 34, 60% male). Participants were asked about their views in relation to the use of mental health mobile technologies and were asked to give their responses to a mental health app prototype. Participants identified (1) safety, (2) engagement, (3) functionality, (4) social interaction, (5) awareness, (6) accessibility, (7) gender and (8) young people in control as important factors. Understanding end users' needs and concerns in relation to this topic will inform the future development of youth-oriented mental health apps that are acceptable to young people. © The Author(s) 2014.
Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...
... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...
McCann Terence V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the emergence of mental health problems during adolescence and early adulthood, many young people encounter difficulties accessing appropriate services. In response to this gap, the Australian Government recently established new enhanced primary care services (headspace that target young people with emerging mental health problems. In this study, we examine the experience of young people with depression accessing one of these services, with a focus on understanding how they access the service and the difficulties they encounter in the process. Method Individual, in-depth, audio-recorded interviews were used to collect data. Twenty-six young people with depression were recruited from a headspace site in Melbourne, Australia. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Four overlapping themes were identified in the data. First, school counsellors as access mediators, highlights the prominent role school counsellors have in facilitating student access to the service. Second, location as an access facilitator and inhibitor. Although the service is accessible by public transport, it is less so to those who do not live near public transport. Third, encountering barriers accessing the service initially. Two main service access barriers were experienced: unfamiliarity with the service, and delays in obtaining initial appointments for ongoing therapy. Finally, the service’s funding model acts as an access facilitator and barrier. While the model provides a low or no cost services initially, it limits the number of funded sessions, and this can be problematic. Conclusions Young people have contrasting experiences accessing the service. School counsellors have an influential role in facilitating access, and its close proximity to public transport enhances access. The service needs to become more prominent in young people’s consciousness, while the appointment system would benefit from
McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I
Despite the emergence of mental health problems during adolescence and early adulthood, many young people encounter difficulties accessing appropriate services. In response to this gap, the Australian Government recently established new enhanced primary care services (headspace) that target young people with emerging mental health problems. In this study, we examine the experience of young people with depression accessing one of these services, with a focus on understanding how they access the service and the difficulties they encounter in the process. Individual, in-depth, audio-recorded interviews were used to collect data. Twenty-six young people with depression were recruited from a headspace site in Melbourne, Australia. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Four overlapping themes were identified in the data. First, school counsellors as access mediators, highlights the prominent role school counsellors have in facilitating student access to the service. Second, location as an access facilitator and inhibitor. Although the service is accessible by public transport, it is less so to those who do not live near public transport. Third, encountering barriers accessing the service initially. Two main service access barriers were experienced: unfamiliarity with the service, and delays in obtaining initial appointments for ongoing therapy. Finally, the service's funding model acts as an access facilitator and barrier. While the model provides a low or no cost services initially, it limits the number of funded sessions, and this can be problematic. Young people have contrasting experiences accessing the service. School counsellors have an influential role in facilitating access, and its close proximity to public transport enhances access. The service needs to become more prominent in young people's consciousness, while the appointment system would benefit from providing more timely appointments with therapists. The service's funding
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Woolderink, Marla; Bindels, Jill A. P. M.; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; Paulus, Aggie T. G.; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.
Background: Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction.
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J
Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
acute care, treatment and rehabilitation as a 72-hour assessment unit in a .... resemble prisons, such as unnecessary bars on windows and one-way glass. ..... model to consider design solutions for other acute mental health care settings.
Caldarella, Paul; Chan, Peter; Christensen, Lynnette; Lin, Xiuyun; Liu, Yan
Background: With over 222 million youth below the age of 15 in China, the need for psychological services in schools is receiving increasing attention. School mental health education has been developing over the past 20 years to meet this need, and evidence shows it is being implemented, particularly in urban areas. However, no empirical studies…
Schools have become the primary setting for mental health service among youth. However, school-based providers are sometimes limited by lack of time, training, and other resources. Furthermore, problem-solving models emphasize the importance of developing partnerships with other professionals and agencies. Thus, it is critical to engage in…
Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia
Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. We conducted a secondary analysis on surveys of students who participated in a classroom mental health course taught by their usual teachers. Evaluation of students' mental health literacy (knowledge/attitudes) was completed before and after classroom implementation and at 2-month follow-up. We used paired-samples t-tests and Cohen's d value to determine the significance and impact of change. There were 265 students who completed all surveys. Students' knowledge significantly improved between pre- and post-tests (p mental health. This is the first study to demonstrate the positive impact of a curriculum-based mental health literacy program in a Canadian high school population.
... that are not there Extremely high and low moods Aches, headaches, or digestive problems without a clear cause Irritability Social withdrawal Thoughts of suicide Mental disorders can be treated : If you are unsure where ...
PCTs are likely to miss the national target on employment of graduate mental health workers. Pilots are showing success in reducing referrals. Managers must address career progression problems and define roles more clearly.
Glozah, Franklin N; Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Kugbey, Nuworza
Parental involvement in physical activity and dietary habits have been found to play a substantial role in the mental health of young people. However, there is little evidence about the associations between parental involvement, health behaviours and mental health among Ghanaian youth. This study sought to examine the role of parental involvement in the association between physical activity, dietary habits and mental health among Ghanaian youth. Data were obtained from the 2012 Ghana Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). The study population consisted of 1,984 school going youth in high schools with a median age of 15 years old, (53.7%) males. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression statistical models using complex samples method were performed. The prevalence of mental distress was 18.1%, 16.6% and 23% for loneliness, feeling worried and suicidal ideation respectively. Younger students were more likely to feel lonely, worried and have suicidal ideation than older students. Students from low socio-economic backgrounds were significantly more likely to report loneliness, worry and suicidal ideation. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, some physical activity and eating habits were associated with experiencing loneliness, worry and suicidal ideation but after introducing parental involvement, there was a decrease in the likelihood of some health behaviour factors in both physical activity and dietary habits to be associated with loneliness, worry and suicidal ideation. Physical inactivity and poor dietary habits could have a negative effect on mental distress, however, parental involvement could mitigate the impact of these lifestyle habits on mental distress and should therefore be taken into consideration in efforts aimed at encouraging positive lifestyle habits for good mental health among Ghanaian youth.
Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Mõttus, René; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J
Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing. The impact of Neuroticism on both wellbeing and life satisfaction was largely indirect through susceptibility to psychological distress and physical health problems. Personality dispositions in youth have enduring influence on wellbeing assessed about forty years later. PMID:24563560
Rondón, Marta B.
The concept of health is reviewed to argue that the mental component as inherent to the integral wellbeing, since mental and physical health are closely related. The relationship between depression and events of the reproductive cycle is described, especially concerning the risk posed by unwanted pregnancy, a risk factor for postpartum depression as reported in studies conducted in various parts of the world. Consequently, women with depression risk factors (history of previous depressive ail...
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
Townsend, Lisa; Musci, Rashelle; Stuart, Elizabeth; Ruble, Anne; Beaudry, Mary B.; Schweizer, Barbara; Owen, Megan; Goode, Carly; Johnson, Sarah L.; Bradshaw, Catherine; Wilcox, Holly; Swartz, Karen
Background: Although school climate is linked with youth educational, socioemotional, behavioral, and health outcomes, there has been limited research on the association between school climate and mental health education efforts. We explored whether school climate was associated with students' depression literacy and mental health stigma beliefs.…
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Yuxuan Cai, Stefanie; Shuen Sheng Fung, Daniel
Mental health services for youths in Singapore were challenged by accessibility and resource constraints. A community-based mental health program working with schools and other partners was developed to address the population needs. To describe the formation of a community-based mental health program and evaluate the program in terms of its outcome and the satisfaction of the users of this program. Based on needs analyses, a community multidisciplinary team was set up in 15 schools to pilot a new model of care for youths. Implemented progressively over five years, networks of teams were divided into four geographic zones. Each zone had clusters of 10 to 15 schools. These teams worked closely with school counselors. Teams were supported by a psychiatrist and a resident. Interventions were focused on empowering school-based personnel to work with students and families, with the support of the teams. 4,184 students were served of whom 10% were seen by the school counselors and supported by the community team. Only 0.15% required referral to tertiary services. Outcome measured by counselor and teacher ratings showed improvements in the Clinical Global Impression scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. These included reductions in conduct problems, emotional problems, hyperactive behaviors and peer problems. Furthermore, prosocial behavior also significantly improved. Preliminary cost effectiveness analyses suggest that community treatments are superior to clinic interventions.
Parameshvara Deva, M
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be
Hewitt, J L
Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.
Evans, Steven W; Randy Koch, J; Brady, Christine; Meszaros, Peggy; Sadler, Joanna
Youth with learning and behavioral problems are at elevated risk for substance use during adolescence. Although evidence-based substance use prevention and screening practices are described in the literature, the extent with which these are provided to these youth is unclear. Mental health professionals in schools and community mental health centers are in an ideal position to conduct substance use screening and prevention practices since they have frequent contact with this high risk group. In order to determine whether these mental health professionals were using evidence based substance use screening and prevention programs with these youth, we analyzed 345 completed surveys from mental health professionals in schools and community clinics throughout a mid-Atlantic state. Results indicated that a large portion of the respondents were unfamiliar with evidence based practices and they were infrequently used. Implications for the division of labor at schools and community mental health centers are discussed in relation to time allotment and priority for these procedures.
Holloway, Evan D; Cruise, Keith R; Downs, Sarah M; Monahan, Patrick O; Aalsma, Matthew C
Justice-involved youth endorse high rates of mental health problems. Juvenile probation is the most common disposition in the justice system and juvenile probation officers (JPOs) are crucial for connecting justice-involved youth with appropriate care. We examined the role of mental health competency on the use of self-report case management strategy types (deterrence, restorative justice, and treatment) by JPOs and whether jurisdiction-level differences were relevant. Results suggest that mental health competency predicted use of restorative justice and treatment strategies and all three strategy types varied at the county level. The role of mental health competency in use of treatment strategies is relevant to connecting justice-involved youth to mental health care. Furthermore, a substantial amount of the variance predicting the use of all three strategies was accounted for at the county level.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Tsui, Emma; Bylander, Kim; Cho, Milyoung; Maybank, Aletha; Freudenberg, Nicholas
Research indicates that insufficient emphasis on community collaboration and partnership can thwart innovative community-driven work on the social determinants of health by local health departments. Appreciating the importance of enhancing community participation, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) helped lead the development of the Health Equity Project (HEP), an intervention aimed at increasing the capacity of urban youth to identify and take action to reduce food-related health disparities. DOHMH partnered with the City University of New York School of Public Health and several local youth organizations to design and implement the intervention. HEP was conducted with 373 young people in 17 cohorts at 14 unique sites: six in Brooklyn, six in the Bronx, and two in Harlem. Partnered youth organizations hosted three stages of work: interactive workshops on neighborhood health disparities, food environments, and health outcomes; food-focused research projects conducted by youth; and small-scale action projects designed to change local food environments. Through these activities, HEP appears to have been successful in introducing youth to the social, economic, and political factors that shape food environments and to the influence of food on health outcomes. The intervention was also somewhat successful in providing youth with community-based participatory research skills and engaging them in documenting and then acting to change their neighborhood food environments. In the short term, we are unable to assess how successful HEP has been in building young leaders who will continue to engage in this kind of activism, but we suspect that more extended interactions would be needed to achieve this more ambitious goal. Experiences at these sites suggest that youth organizations with a demonstrated capacity to engage youth in community service or activism and a commitment to improving food or other health-promoting community resources make the
Asare, Mavis; Danquah, Samuel A
Background Research development is needed in physical activity and sedentary behaviour and their associations with mental health in young people. In Western countries the weather is a key contributing factor of sedentary behaviour in youth. The likely contributing factor of sedentary behaviour among African youth has not been explored. This study examined the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health in African young people. Methods Participants were 296 adolescents (150 males...
Vreeman, Rachel C; McCoy, Brittany M; Lee, Sonia
Mental health is a critical and neglected global health challenge for adolescents infected with HIV. The prevalence of mental and behavioural health issues among HIV-infected adolescents may not be well understood or addressed as the world scales up HIV prevention and treatment for adolescents. The objective of this narrative review is to assess the current literature related to mental health challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV, including access to mental health services, the role of mental health challenges during transition from paediatric to adult care services and responsibilities, and the impact of mental health interventions. For each of the topics included in this review, individual searches were run using Medline and PubMed, accompanied by scans of bibliographies of relevant articles. The topics on which searches were conducted for HIV-infected adolescents include depression and anxiety, transition from paediatric to adult HIV care and its impact on adherence and mental health, HIV-related, mental health services and interventions, and the measurement of mental health problems. Articles were included if the focus was consistent with one of the identified topics, involved HIV-infected adolescents, and was published in English. Mental and behavioural health challenges are prevalent in HIV-infected adolescents, including in resource-limited settings where most of them live, and they impact all aspects of HIV prevention and treatment. Too little has been done to measure the impact of mental health challenges for adolescents living with HIV, to evaluate interventions to best sustain or improve the mental health of this population, or to create healthcare systems with personnel or resources to promote mental health. Mental health issues should be addressed proactively during adolescence for all HIV-infected youth. In addition, care systems need to pay greater attention to how mental health support is integrated into the care management for HIV
Woodward, Jason F; Swigonski, Nancy L; Ciccarelli, Mary R
To assess the health, functional characteristics, and health care service needs of youth and young adults with special health care needs attending a comprehensive, noncategorical transition program. A self-administered survey was developed from national health surveys and clinical experience to assess concepts identified as important for successful transition to adulthood. Surveys were mailed to 198 parents of youth and young adults with special health care needs attending the transition clinic. Parents were asked about the youth's health, functional status, and health care services needed. The clinical database provided demographic and patient health characteristics. Results were compared against the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Forty-four percent of surveys were returned. Average age of youth was 17.5 (11-22) years old and diagnoses included cerebral palsy (36%), spina bifida (10%), developmental delay or Down syndrome (17%), and autism (6%). Most youth needed assistance with personal care (69%) and routine needs (91%) and used assistive devices (59%). Compared with the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, parents reported higher needs for all services except mental health care and tobacco or substance use counseling. Forty three percent reported at least one unmet health need. Few parents reported the need for counseling on substance use (1%), sexual health screening (16%), nutrition (34%), and exercise (41%). Youth attending our transition program had more functional limitations, poorer reported health status, different diagnosis distribution, and higher levels of needed health services. Few parents identified needs for other recommended adolescent preventive services. Transition programs should assess patient health characteristics and service needs to design effective patient-centered services. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Ramchand, Rajeev; Griffin, Beth Ann; Harris, Katherine M.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Morral, Andrew R.
This study examined suicide ideation, attempts, and subsequent mental health service among a sample of 948 youth from substance abuse treatment facilities across the U.S. Youth were surveyed at intake and every three months for a one year period. Thirty percent of youth reported ideating in at least one interview and 12% reported attempting suicide; almost half reported receiving outpatient mental health treatment at least once and close to one-third reported being on prescription drugs for a...
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis
such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...
Palma, Jessica Anne
While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...
Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...
... events and children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Child Mental Health ... in childhood Traumatic events and children Related Health Topics Bullying Child Behavior Disorders Mental Disorders Mental Health ...
Mellins, Claude A; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Leu, Cheng Shiun; Valentin, Cidna; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L
To examine the effect of maternal HIV infection, as well as other individual, family, and contextual factors on the mental health of inner-city, ethnic minority early adolescents. Participants included 220 HIV-negative early adolescents (10-14 years) and their mothers, half of whom were HIV-infected. Individual interviews were conducted regarding youth depression, anxiety, externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems, as well as a range of correlates of youth mental health guided by a modified version of Social Action Theory, a theoretical model of behavioral health. Although the HIV status of mothers alone did not predict youth mental health, youth knowledge of mother's HIV infection and mother's overall health were associated with worse youth mental health outcomes, as were contextual, self-regulation, and family interaction factors from our theoretical model. There is a need for family-based mental health interventions for this population, particularly focusing on parent-child relationships, disclosure, and youth self-esteem.
Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba
This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is
Strandh, Mattias; Winefield, Anthony; Nilsson, Karina; Hammarström, Anne
There has been little research on the long-term relationship between unemployment experiences and mental health over the life course. This article investigates the relationship between youth unemployment as well as that of unemployment experiences during later periods and mental health at ages 16, 21, 30 and 42 years. The study makes use of the 'Northern Swedish Cohort' (NSC), a 27-year prospective cohort study. The cohort, investigated at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42 years, consisted of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in Sweden. Of the original 1083 participants, 94.3% of those still alive were still participating at the 27-year follow up. Mental health, measured through a three-item index of nervous symptoms, depressive symptoms and sleeping problems, was analysed using a repeated measures linear mixed models approach using ages 16, 21, 30 and 43 years. Unemployment exposure was measured as exposure to at least a 6-month spell during three periods; 18-21, 21-30 and 30-42 years. Youth unemployment was shown to be significantly connected with poorer mental health at all three target ages, 21, 30 and 42 years. Later singular unemployment experiences did not appear to have the same long-term negative effects. There was however an accumulation in poorer mental health among respondents with unemployment experiences during two, and even more so three, of the periods. There are long-term mental health scarring effects of exposure to youth unemployment and multiple exposure to unemployment during the life course. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Garrido, Sandra; Saarikallio, Suvi
There is a diverse literature that explores the relationship between youth, music, and mental health, with few attempts at systematic synthesis. This critical interpretive review included 33 studies published between 2000 and 2012 investigating the relationship between music and the mental health of young people, particularly targeting depression.…
Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…
Green, Jennifer Greif; Johnson, Renee M.; Dunn, Erin C.; Lindsey, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Zaslavsky, Alan M.
Background: Violence-exposed youth rarely receive mental health services, even though exposure increases risk for academic and psychosocial problems. This study examines the association between violence exposure and mental health service contact. The 4 forms of violence exposure were peer, family, sexual, and witnessing. Methods: Data are from…
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251
Pang, Shirlene; Liu, Jianlin; Mahesh, Mithila; Chua, Boon Yiang; Shahwan, Shazana; Lee, Siau Pheng; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Objectives Stigma against mental illnesses is one of the significant obstacles faced by mental health service users and providers. It can develop at a young age and is also influenced by culture. Youths in Southeast Asian countries are under-represented in mental health research, thus this study aims to explore the dimensions of stigma and social tolerance and examine its correlates in the younger, multiethnic population of Singapore. Design An online survey collected data with sociodemograph...
Palmquist, Lucianne; Patterson, Sue; O'Donovan, Analise; Bradley, Graham
Policies internationally endorse the recovery paradigm as the appropriate foundation for youth mental health services. However, given that this paradigm is grounded in the views of adults with severe mental illness, applicability to youth services and relevance to young people is uncertain, particularly as little is known about young people's views. A comprehensive understanding of the experiences and expectations of young people is critical to developing youth mental health services that are acceptable, accessible, effective and relevant. To inform development of policy and youth services, the study described in this protocol aims to develop a comprehensive account of the experiences and expectations of 12-17 year olds as they encounter mental disorders and transition through specialist mental health services. Data will be analysed to model recovery from the adolescents' perspective. This grounded theory study will use quantitative and qualitative data collected in interviews with 12-17 year olds engaged with specialist Child/Youth Mental Health Service in Queensland, Australia. Interviews will explore adolescents' expectations and experiences of mental disorder, and of services, as they transition through specialist mental health services, including the meaning of their experiences and ideas of 'recovery' and how their experiences and expectations are shaped. Data collection and analysis will use grounded theory methods. Adolescents' experiences will be presented as a mid-range theory. The research will provide tangible recommendations for youth-focused mental health policy and practice. Findings will be disseminated within academic literature and beyond to participants, health professionals, mental health advocacy groups and policy and decision makers via publications, research summaries, conferences and workshops targeting different audiences. Ethical and research governance approvals have been obtained from relevant Human Research Ethics committees and all
Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Understanding what's considered normal mental health can be tricky. See how feelings, thoughts and behaviors determine mental health and how to recognize if you or a ...
Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...
Javier, Joyce R; Supan, Jocelyn; Lansang, Anjelica; Beyer, William; Kubicek, Katrina; Palinkas, Lawrence A
Filipino Americans are the second largest immigrant population and second largest Asian ethnic group in the U.S. Disparities in youth behavioral health problems and the receipt of mental health services among Filipino youth have been documented previously. However, few studies have elicited perspectives from community stakeholders regarding how to prevent mental health disparities among Filipino youth. The purpose of the current study is to identify intervention strategies for implementing mental health prevention programs among Filipino youth. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n=33) with adolescents, caregivers, advocates, and providers and focus groups (n=18) with adolescents and caregivers. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a methodology of "coding consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison" and was rooted in grounded theory. Four recommendations were identified when developing mental health prevention strategies among Filipino populations: address the intergenerational gap between Filipino parents and children, provide evidence-based parenting programs, collaborate with churches in order to overcome stigma associated with mental health, and address mental health needs of parents. Findings highlight the implementation of evidence-based preventive parenting programs in faith settings as a community-identified and culturally appropriate strategy to prevent Filipino youth behavioral health disparities.
Immunization Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits coalitions statewide. Visit the AOPTF Website to learn more. Childhood Trauma Costs All Alaskans What we
Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness. To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted. In many countries, especially in those who have no MHL, people do not have access to basic mental health care and treatment they require. One of the major aims of MHL is that all people with mental disorders should be provided with treatment based on the integration of mental health care services into the primary healthcare (PHC). In addition, MHL plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, the provision of care of high quality, the improvement of access to care at community level. Community-based mental health care further improves access to mental healthcare within the city, to have better health and mental health outcomes, and better quality of life, increase acceptability, reduce associated social stigma and human rights abuse, prevent chronicity and physical health comorbidity will likely to be detected early and managed. Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.
Naughton, Michael F A; Maybery, Darryl J; Goodyear, Melinda
Nearly 50% of all mental illnesses begin in childhood before the age of 14 years, and over 20% of parents have a mental illness. Few studies have examined the co-occurrence of mental illnesses in parents and children. In the present study, we examined the extent of mental illness within families of 152 clients attending an Australian regional child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS). A cross-sectional study design was employed involving a case record review and clinician-completed questionnaire of the children and youth attending a CAMHS. It was found that 79% of these children were living with a parent with mental illness. The predominant diagnosis of both child and parent was an anxiety or mood disorder, and many families had co-occurring risk factors of domestic violence and limited social supports. The findings in this Australian cohort are similar to those of other international research. While novel in nature, the present study has highlighted the extent of both mental illness and scarce supports for both children and parents in the same family. The findings indicate the need for a coordinated multiservice delivery of appropriate and consistent family-focussed interventions, responding to both mental illness and social supports for children and parents. Further research should examine specific components of family need and support, as seen through the eyes of the child and their parent. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Weinstein, Henry C.
Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…
May 8, 2003 ... grated approach to mental health care provision and the safety of the public. .... In the case of an application for assisted care the practitioners must establish whether ..... people be found to work on Review Boards? Consider ...
Denny, Simon; Farrant, Bridget; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Clark, Terryann
Despite numerous calls to improve training in adolescent health, there is little known about the prevalence or effectiveness of specialized training in adolescent health. A two-stage random sampling cluster design was used to collect nationally representative data from 8,500 students from 91 high schools. Student data were linked to data from a survey of school health clinicians from participating schools on their level of training in youth health. Multilevel models accounting for demographic characteristics of students were used to estimate the association between nurses and physicians training in youth health and health outcomes among students. Almost all nurses and physicians reported some training in youth health, either having attended lectures or study days in youth health (n = 60, 80%) or completed postgraduate papers in youth health (n = 13, 17.3%). Students in schools where the nurses and physicians had received postgraduate training in youth health were less likely than students from schools with clinicians having attended lectures or study days in youth health to report emotional and behavior difficulties (11.8 vs. 12.7, p = .002) and binge drinking (19.6% vs. 24.9%, p = .03). There were no significant associations between depressive symptoms, suicide risk, cigarette, marijuana, contraception use, or motor vehicle risk behaviors among students and level of training among clinicians in their schools' health service. Postgraduate training in youth health among nurses and physicians in school health services is associated with fewer students reporting mental health difficulties and binge alcohol use. These findings support specialized training in youth health for clinicians working predominantly with young people. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859].Results. The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions. The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health
Laura Lynne Armstrong
Full Text Available Mental illnesses are rapidly escalating on university and college campuses. It is well known that postsecondary institutions are not doing enough to address mental health concerns: this represents a significant gap in our attempts to meet the mental health needs of young people. Deficits in mental health knowledge are now proposed as a major contributing factor to both stigma and low service access, but little research as explored this issue. There is also little research to date concerning what young people want to know about mental health and how best to disseminate mental health knowledge. Without such information, knowledge may not be shared in a person-centred, meaningful manner that youth will use. We explored these issues in the present study. First year postsecondary students (N = 271; n = 183 females; n = 85 males; n = 3 other from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada participated in the online survey. Almost half of the postsecondary youth participants, particularly males, had difficulty recognizing common mental illnesses, such as anxiety, eating disorders, and psychosis. Youth held inaccurate beliefs and stigma, as well as attitudes not in favour of help-seeking. They primarily wanted to know about symptoms of mental illnesses as well as how to cope with stress. Post-secondary students wanted to learn about mental health issues through public presentations, the Internet, and media. The present research suggests the need for an awareness and acknowledgement among policy-makers of first year post-secondary students' knowledge gaps and youth appropriate knowledge sharing. Assessing mental health knowledge, what post-secondary students want to know about mental health, and knowledge transfer preferences could aid in the development of a framework to address the significant gap in the mental health needs of post-secondary students in a person centred manner.
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
Conclusion: Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can pro...
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
mental health and the guiding factors for wider media coverage of mental health issues in .... involvement could make a bigger impact in society. Some of the .... Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1998;8(3):213-28.
Editorial: Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan – a. Vision for the Future. Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably .... minus one or both parents. ... There he taught and inspired child health professionals from all over.
Rider, G Nicole; McMorris, Barbara J; Gower, Amy L; Coleman, Eli; Eisenberg, Marla E
Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) adolescents have difficulty accessing and receiving health care compared with cisgender youth, yet research is limited by a reliance on small and nonrepresentative samples. This study's purpose was to examine mental and physical health characteristics and care utilization between youth who are TGNC and cisgender and across perceived gender expressions within the TGNC sample. Data came from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey, which consisted of 80 929 students in ninth and 11th grade ( n = 2168 TGNC, 2.7%). Students self-reported gender identity, perceived gender expression, 4 health status measures, and 3 care utilization measures. Chi-squares and multiple analysis of covariance tests (controlling for demographic covariates) were used to compare groups. We found that students who are TGNC reported significantly poorer health, lower rates of preventive health checkups, and more nurse office visits than cisgender youth. For example, 62.1% of youth who are TGNC reported their general health as poor, fair, or good versus very good or excellent, compared with 33.1% of cisgender youth (χ 2 = 763.7, P presentation was perceived as very congruent with their birth-assigned sex were less likely to report poorer health and long-term mental health problems compared with those with other gender presentations. Health care utilization differs between TGNC versus cisgender youth and across gender presentations within TGNC youth. With our results, we suggest that health care providers should screen for health risks and identify barriers to care for TGNC youth while promoting and bolstering wellness within this community. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Lai, Karen; Guo, Sisi; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Puffer, Maryjane; Kataoka, Sheryl H.
Objective School-based health centers (SBHCs) reduce mental health access-to-care barriers and improve educational outcomes for youth. This qualitative study evaluates the innovations and challenges of a unique network of SBHCs in a large, urban school district, as they attempt to integrate health, mental health, and educational services. Methods The 43 participants sampled included mental health providers, primary care providers, and care coordinators at 14 SBHCs. Semi-structured interviews with each participant were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified and coded using Atlas.ti 5.1, and collapsed into three domains: Operations, Partnership, and Engagement. Results Interviews revealed provider models ranging from single agencies offering both health and mental health services to co-located services. Sites with the Health Agency providing at least some mental health services reported more mental health screenings. Many sites utilized SBHC coordinators and coordination team meetings to facilitate relationships between schools and Health Agency and Community Mental Health Clinic providers. Partnership challenges included confidentiality policies and staff turnover. Participants also highlighted student and parent engagement, through culturally sensitive services, peer health advocates, and “drop-in” lunches. Conclusions Staffing and operational models are critical in the success of health-mental health-education integration. Among the provider models observed, the combined health and mental health provider model offered the most integrated services. Despite barriers, providers and schools have begun to implement novel solutions for operational problems and family engagement in mental health services. Implications for future SBHCs as an integrated model are described. PMID:27417895
BeLue, Rhonda; Francis, Lori Ann; Colaco, Brendon
In this study we examined the relation between mental health problems and weight in a population-based study of youth aged 12 to 17 years and whether the association between mental health problems and weight is moderated by race and ethnicity. We used 2003 National Survey on Children's Health data. Logistic regression was used to arrive at adjusted odds ratios showing the relation between BMI and mental health problems. Compared with their nonoverweight counterparts, both white and Hispanic youth who were overweight were significantly more likely to report depression or anxiety, feelings of worthlessness or inferiority, behavior problems, and bullying of others. Odds ratios relating mental health problems and BMI in black subjects were not statistically significant except for physician diagnosis of depression. Our results suggest that, when addressing youth overweight status, mental health problems also need to be addressed. Given that the relationship between mental health problems and youth overweight differs according to race/ethnic group, public health programs that target overweight youth should be cognizant of potential comorbid mental health problems and that race/ethnicity may play a role in the relationship between mental health and overweight status.
Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H
Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.
This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the
Crowther, Andrew; Kemp, Michael
To determine how attitudes of rural mental health nurses differ across generations. Survey. Mental health services in rural New South Wales. Practising mental health nurses. Survey responses. Survey response rate 44%. A total of 89 mental health nurses, clustered in inpatient units and community health centres, responded. Of these nurses, 4 were veterans, 52 baby boomers, 17 Generation X and 5 Generation Y. There are significant differences in how mental health nurses from different generations view their work, and in what is expected from managers. Managers need to modify traditional working styles, allowing greater flexibility of employment. They must also accept lower staff retention rates, and facilitate the development of younger staff.
Fitzgerald, Monica M; Torres, Marcela M; Shipman, Kimberly; Gorrono, Jessica; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Dorsey, Shannon
Youth in the child welfare system (CWS) have substantially higher rates of mental health needs compared to the general population, yet they rarely receive targeted, evidence-based practices (EBPs). Caseworkers play the critically important role of "service broker" for CWS youth and families. This study examines preliminary caseworker-level outcomes of Project Focus Colorado (PF-C), a training and consultation program designed to improve access to EBPs for CWS youth. PF-C evaluation occurred in four child welfare offices (two intervention [n = 16 caseworkers] vs. two practice-as-usual, wait-list control [WLC; n = 12 caseworkers]). Receipt of PF-C was associated with significantly increased caseworker knowledge of (a) EBPs, (b) child mental health problems, (c) evidence-based treatment components targeting mental health problem areas, and (d) mental health screening instruments, compared to WLC. Dose of training and consultation was associated with greater ability to correctly classify mental health problems and match them to EBPs. These preliminary results suggest that targeted training and consultation help to improve caseworker knowledge of children's mental health needs, EBPs for mental health, and mental health screening instruments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Allden, K; Jones, L; Weissbecker, I; Wessells, M; Bolton, P; Betancourt, T S; Hijazi, Z; Galappatti, A; Yamout, R; Patel, P; Sumathipala, A
The Working Group on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support was convened as part of the 2009 Harvard Humanitarian Action Summit. The Working Group chose to focus on ethical issues in mental health and psychosocial research and programming in humanitarian settings. The Working Group built on previous work and recommendations, such as the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. The objective of this working group was to address one of the factors contributing to the deficiency of research and the need to develop the evidence base on mental health and psychosocial support interventions during complex emergencies by proposing ethical research guidelines. Outcomes research is vital for effective program development in emergency settings, but to date, no comprehensive ethical guidelines exist for guiding such research efforts. Working Group members conducted literature reviews which included peer-reviewed publications, agency reports, and relevant guidelines on the following topics: general ethical principles in research, cross-cultural issues, research in resource-poor countries, and specific populations such as trauma and torture survivors, refugees, minorities, children and youth, and the mentally ill. Working Group members also shared key points regarding ethical issues encountered in their own research and fieldwork. The group adapted a broad definition of the term "research", which encompasses needs assessments and data gathering, as well as monitoring and evaluation. The guidelines are conceptualized as applying to formal and informal processes of assessment and evaluation in which researchers as well as most service providers engage. The group reached consensus that it would be unethical not to conduct research and evaluate outcomes of mental health and psychosocial interventions in emergency settings, given that there currently is very little good evidence base for such interventions
Commentary: Advancing an implementation science agenda on mental health and psychosocial responses in war-affected settings: comment on trials of a psychosocial intervention for youth affected by the Syrian crisis - by Panter-Brick et al. (2018).
Betancourt, Theresa S; Fazel, Mina
Syria's civil conflict has created the largest humanitarian disaster of our time, causing massive population displacement, tremendous exposure to trauma, and loss. Advancing the mental health and psychosocial responses of war-affected populations both during acute humanitarian emergencies and in post-conflict transition is imperative in forging a constructive implementation agenda. This study makes an important contribution in building evidence toward effective interventions to advance the mental health and well-being of those affected by the Syrian crisis. Using an innovative approach, this work demonstrates that a thoughtful, ethical, and scientifically valid trial can be carried out in the midst of mass displacement. Further research is urgently needed on the effectiveness of interventions for vulnerable populations, with a growing need to embed studies of evidence-based mental health interventions within humanitarian responses. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Rock, Amelia; Barrington, Clare; Abdoulayi, Sara; Tsoka, Maxton; Mvula, Peter; Handa, Sudhanshu
Extensive research documents that social network characteristics affect health, but knowledge of peer networks of youth in Malawi and sub-Saharan Africa is limited. We examine the networks and social participation of youth living in extreme poverty in rural Malawi, using in-depth interviews with 32 youth and caregivers. We describe youth's peer networks and assess how gender and the context of extreme poverty influence their networks and participation, and how their networks influence health. In-school youth had larger, more interactive, and more supportive networks than out-of-school youth, and girls described less social participation and more isolation than boys. Youth exchanged social support and influence within their networks that helped cope with poverty-induced stress and sadness, and encouraged protective sexual health practices. However, poverty hampered their involvement in school, religious schools, and community organizations, directly by denying them required material means, and indirectly by reducing time and emotional resources and creating shame and stigma. Poverty alleviation policy holds promise for improving youth's social wellbeing and mental and physical health by increasing their opportunities to form networks, receive social support, and experience positive influence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011
Childhood exposure to traumatic events is a major public health problem in the United States. Traumatic events can include witnessing or experiencing physical or sexual abuse, violence in families and communities, loss of a loved one, refugee and war experiences, living with a family member whose caregiving ability is impaired, and having a…
Clarke, Aleisha M.; Chambers, Derek; Barry, Margaret M.
The increasing role of online technologies in young people's lives has significant implications for professionals' engagement with technologies to promote youth mental health and well-being. However, relatively little is known about professionals' views on the role of technologies in supporting youth mental health. This article outlines key…
Powers, Joelle D
Legislation has been passed that holds schools increasingly accountable for the proficiency of all students, including those with mental health problems. A critical obstacle impeding the ability of schools to effectively support students is the lack of access to quick, pre-screened, and organized information about scientifically-supported interventions that effectively address youth mental health problems. A new mental health best practices database was developed and made available online that provides access to free and user-friendly information about evidence-based interventions for use in schools. School staff will be better able to meet accountability demands of legislation and to effectively respond to student mental health problems.
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.
Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather
Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.
Full Text Available Škerbinek writes about life-long education and its influence on the quality of life. Through education, people assume a different attitude towards health, and above all develop an awareness that they are themselves responsible for their health and general well-being. The majority of mental disorders spring from prolonged psychological pressures. Psychiatrists believe in the principle » Prevention is better than cure«, and it is therefore understandable that strong emphasis should be put on education, particularly education leading to formation in the emotional sphere, resistance to consumerism, healthy productivity motivation, and a balanced and healthy life.
... Trichotillomania (Nemours Foundation) Health Check Tools How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz) (Nemours Foundation) Statistics and Research Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) ...
Vaillant, George E
SEVEN MODELS FOR CONCEPTUALIZING POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH ARE REVIEWED: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health.
Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B
The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.
Keuroghlian, Alex S.; Shtasel, Derri; Bassuk, Ellen L.
A disproportionate number of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth experience homelessness each year in the United States. LGBT youth who are homeless have particularly high rates of mental health and substance use problems, suicidal acts, violent victimization, and a range of HIV risk behaviors. Given the intense needs of LGBT youth experiencing homelessness, it is imperative that we understand their unique experiences and develop responsive practices and policies. The range and severity of health risks vary across subgroups of all homeless LGBT youth, and since the population is nonhomogeneous their particular needs must be identified and addressed. Thus the purpose of this article is to review the causes of homelessness among LGBT youth, discuss the mental health and victimization risks faced by this population, address differences among homeless LGBT subgoups, and recommend effective interventions and best practices. We conclude by discussing promising future research and public policy directions. PMID:24826829
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette
analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...
Culture is important to how populations understand the cause of mental disorder, a variable that has implications for treatment-seeking behaviour. Asian populations underutilize professional mental health treatment partly because of their endorsement of supernatural causation models to explain mental disorders, beliefs that stem from their religious backgrounds. This study sought to understand the dimensions of explanatory models used by three groups of Singaporean Chinese youth (n = 842)--Christian, Chinese religionist, no religion--and examined their responses to an instrument that combined explanations from psychological and organic perspectives on mental disorder with approaches from Asian and Western religious traditions. Factor analysis revealed five factors. Two were psychological corresponding to the humanistic and cognitive-behavioural perspectives respectively. Another two, which were supernatural in nature, dealt with karmaic beliefs popular among Asian religionists and more classical religious explanations common in monotheistic religions. The remaining factor was deemed a physiological model although it incorporated an item that made it consistent with an Asian organic model. While groups differed in their endorsement of supernatural explanations, psychological perspectives had the strongest endorsement among this population. Regression analysis showed that individuals who endorsed supernatural explanations more strongly tended to have no exposure to psychology courses and heightened religiosity.
Demissie, Zewditu; Brener, Nancy
Background: Mental health conditions among youth are a major concern. Schools can play an important role in supporting students affected by these conditions. This study examined district-level school health policies related to mental health and social services to determine if they varied by district demographic characteristics. Methods: The School…
Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender
Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738
Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…
Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…
White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H
We present an integrated model for understanding Mexican American youth mental health within family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts. We combined two common perspectives on neighborhood effects to hypothesize that (a) parents' perceptions of neighborhood risk would negatively impact their children's mental health by disrupting key parenting and family processes, and (b) objective neighborhood risk would alter the effect parent and family processes had on youth mental health. We further incorporated a cultural perspective to hypothesize that an ethnic minority group's culture-specific values may support parents to successfully confront neighborhood risk. We provided a conservative test of the integrated model by simultaneously examining three parenting and family process variables: maternal warmth, maternal harsh parenting, and family cohesion. The hypothesized model was estimated prospectively in a diverse, community-based sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers (N = 749) living in the southwestern United States. Support for specific elements of the hypothesized model varied depending on the parenting or family process variable examined. For family cohesion results were consistent with the combined neighborhood perspectives. The effects of maternal warmth on youth mental health were altered by objective neighborhood risk. For harsh parenting, results were somewhat consistent with the cultural perspective. The value of the integrated model for research on the impacts of family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts on youth mental health are discussed, as are implications for preventive interventions for Mexican American families and youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
We present an integrated model for understanding Mexican American youth mental health within family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts. We combined two common perspectives on neighborhood effects to hypothesize that (a) parents’ perceptions of neighborhood risk would negatively impact their children’s mental health by disrupting key parenting and family processes, and (b) objective neighborhood risk would alter the effect parent and family processes had on youth mental health. We further incorporated a cultural perspective to hypothesize that an ethnic minority group’s culture-specific values may support parents to successfully confront neighborhood risk. We provided a conservative test of the integrated model by simultaneously examining three parenting and family process variables: maternal warmth, maternal harsh parenting, and family cohesion. The hypothesized model was estimated prospectively in a diverse, community-based sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers (N = 749) living in the Southwestern, U.S. Support for specific elements of the hypothesized model varied depending on the parenting or family process variable examined. For family cohesion results were consistent with the combined neighborhood perspectives. The effects of maternal warmth on youth mental health were altered by objective neighborhood risk. For harsh parenting results were somewhat consistent with the cultural perspective. The value of the integrated model for research on the impacts of family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts on youth mental health are discussed, as are implications for preventive interventions for Mexican American families and youth. PMID:22866932
Spears, Barbara A; Taddeo, Carmel M; Daly, Anthony L; Stretton, Alexander; Karklins, Larisa T
To examine the relationship between young Australians' cyberbullying experiences, their help-seeking practices and associated mental well-being and social connectedness, with a view to informing national health and well-being agendas. An online survey was administered to young people aged 12-18 years (n = 2,338), recruited across Australia in year 2 of a larger 4-year study. Youth with no experience of cyberbullying had better well-being profiles and mental health overall. Conversely, cyberbully victims, had poorer well-being and mental health and tended not to engage with online support services, in spite of being more likely to be online after 11 pm. Parents and peers were identified as key sources of help for most young people when dealing with problems. Cyberbullying is a public health issue particularly for vulnerable youth whose mental health and well-being is impacted more than those not involved. As youth are spending increasing time in the 24/7 online environment, there is a need to develop initiatives that engage young people and encourage help-seeking online, whilst concomitantly building capacity of parents and peers to support their well-being.
Pang, Shirlene; Liu, Jianlin; Mahesh, Mithila; Chua, Boon Yiang; Shahwan, Shazana; Lee, Siau Pheng; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Stigma against mental illnesses is one of the significant obstacles faced by mental health service users and providers. It can develop at a young age and is also influenced by culture. Youths in Southeast Asian countries are under-represented in mental health research, thus this study aims to explore the dimensions of stigma and social tolerance and examine its correlates in the younger, multiethnic population of Singapore. An online survey collected data with sociodemographic questions, the Attitudes Towards Serious Mental Illness (Adolescent version) Scale, Social Tolerance Scale and an open-text question on words or phrases participants associated with the term 'mental illness'. Principal component analysis and multiple regression models were conducted to investigate the factor structure of the attitudes and social tolerance scales and their sociodemographic correlates. Participants included 940 youths aged 14-18 years old who were residing in Singapore at the time of the survey and were recruited through local schools. About a quarter of the students (22.6%) reported participating in mental health awareness campaigns while nearly half (44.5%) associated pejorative words and phrases with the term mental illness. The Attitudes Towards Serious Mental Illness (Adolescent version) Scale yielded five factors while the Social Tolerance Scale yielded two. Ethnicity, gender and nationality were significantly correlated with factors of both scales. Chinese youths showed higher sense of 'physical threat' and lower 'social tolerance' than those of other ethnicities. Females showed more 'wishful thinking', 'social concern' and 'social responsibility' towards the mentally ill than males. The dimensions of stigma and social tolerance are different in Asian cultures compared with Western cultures. Sociodemographic differences in attitudes towards the mentally ill were found among youths living in Singapore. Misconceptions and negative attitudes towards mental illness are
Lai, Karen; Guo, Sisi; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Puffer, Maryjane; Kataoka, Sheryl H
School-based health centers (SBHCs) reduce access barriers to mental health care and improve educational outcomes for youths. This qualitative study evaluated the innovations and challenges of a unique network of SBHCs in a large, urban school district as the centers attempted to integrate health, mental health, and educational services. The 43 participants sampled included mental health providers, primary care providers, and care coordinators at 14 SBHCs. Semistructured interviews with each participant were audio recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified and coded by using Atlas.ti 5.1 and collapsed into three domains: operations, partnership, and engagement. Interviews revealed provider models ranging from single agencies offering both primary care and mental health services to colocated services. Sites where the health agency provided at least some mental health services reported more mental health screenings. Many sites used SBHC wellness coordinators and coordination team meetings to facilitate relationships between schools and health agency and community mental health clinic providers. Partnership challenges included confidentiality policies and staff turnover. Participants also highlighted student and parent engagement through culturally sensitive services, peer health advocates, and "drop-in" lunches. Staffing and operational models are critical in the success of integrating primary care, mental health care, and education. Among the provider models observed, the combined primary care and mental health provider model offered the most integrated services. Despite barriers, providers and schools have begun to implement novel solutions to operational problems and family engagement in mental health services.
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
Conceptual framework linking mental health to HIV and IPV. This open access article is distributed under. Creative Commons licence ... mental disorders compromise quality of life and functional outcomes in HIV-positive individuals.
Background: There is a wide spectrum of mental health/behavioural problems ... Less than half of those found to be affected by mental illness are opportune to receive ... training module and immediately thereafter had a knowledge post-test.
Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen
Background Despite the widespread proliferation of consumer health information provision, little is known about information needs or information‐seeking behaviour in mental health. A qualitative study was therefore undertaken to explore these issues for mental health service users.
Lucenko, Barbara A; Sharkova, Irina V; Huber, Alice; Jemelka, Ron; Mancuso, David
This study aimed to measure the relative contribution of adverse experiences to adolescent behavioral health problems using administrative data. Specifically, we sought to understand the predictive value of adverse experiences on the presence of mental health and substance abuse problems for youth receiving publicly funded social and health services. Medicaid claims and other service records were analyzed for 125,123 youth age 12-17 and their biological parents. Measures from administrative records reflected presence of parental domestic violence, mental illness, substance abuse, criminal justice involvement, child abuse and/or neglect, homelessness, and death of a biological parent. Mental health and substance abuse status of adolescents were analyzed as functions of adverse experiences and other youth characteristics using logistic regression. In multivariate analyses, all predictors except parental domestic violence were statistically significant for substance abuse; parental death, parental mental illness, child abuse or neglect and homelessness were statistically significant for mental illness. Odds ratios for child abuse/neglect were particularly high in both models. The ability to identify risks during childhood using administrative data suggests the potential to target prevention and early intervention efforts for children with specific family risk factors who are at increased risk for developing behavioral health problems during adolescence. This study illustrates the utility of administrative data in understanding adverse experiences on children and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
THERE COULD be no better time for a review of mental health nursing. It is 11 years since the last one, which in itself suggests change must be overdue if professional practice is to keep pace with health service reforms. As the largest professional group in mental health care, nurses will be relied on to deliver the reforms outlined in the Mental Health Bill, as well as the measures to improve race equality in the service. Nurses will also be promoting good mental health as outlined in last autumn's public health white paper. All these initiatives can only benefit from the chance to take stock.
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.
Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…
Barnes, Andrew J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Resnick, Michael D
Chronic conditions may be associated with suicide risk. This study aimed to specify the extent to which youth chronic conditions are at risk for suicidality and self-harm. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in 10- to 19-year-olds with and without chronic physical and/or mental health conditions. Independent of race, socioeconomic status, absent parent, special education status, substance use, and emotional distress, youth with co-occurring chronic physical and mental conditions (n = 4099) had significantly higher odds of self-harm (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5 [99% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-2.8), suicidal ideation (OR: 2.5 [99% CI: 2.3-2.8), and suicide attempts (OR: 3.5 [99% CI: 3.1-3.9]) than healthy peers (n = 106,967), as did those with chronic mental conditions alone (n = 8752). Youth with chronic physical conditions alone (n = 12,554) were at slightly elevated risk for all 3 outcomes. Findings were similar among male and female youth, with a risk gradient by grade. Chronic physical conditions are associated with a slightly elevated risk for self-harm, suicidal thinking, and attempted suicide; chronic mental conditions are associated with an increased risk for all 3 outcomes. Co-occurring chronic physical and mental conditions are associated with an increased risk for self-harm and suicidal ideation that is similar to the risk in chronic mental conditions and with an attempted suicide risk in excess of that predicted by the chronic mental health conditions alone. Preventive interventions for these youth should be developed and evaluated.
Johannsen, Gundi Schrötter; Elstad, Toril
pointed out how people with mental illness protect their identities through consealment in order to avoid stigmatisation. Changes in the organisation of mental health services, from a mainly hospital-based psychiatry towards mental health work in local communities, have highlited issues of participation......, social incluison and integration for people who live with mental health problems. Aiming to support people in daily life, community mental health services that facilitate active participation are encouraged internationally (WHO 2001b, 2005,2013). From these perspectives, we will present our studies from...... a Danish ond Norwegian community mental health service, and relate our findings and the discussion of them to the overall themes of participation, social identity and mental helath....
... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...
White, J H
Eating disorders are prevalent health problems for women today. The traditional biomedical or psychiatric approaches offer a narrow perspective of the problem, its courses, and its treatment. Analyzing disordered eating from a feminist perspective, this article discusses cultural, political, and social phenomena that have had a significant impact on the development of these disorders. Parallels of eating disorders and other women's mental illnesses and the medicalization of their symptoms is explored. A "new view" of disordered eating in women is proposed that can be advanced only through feminist research.
Weine, Stevan Merrill
In refugee resettlement, positive psychosocial outcomes for youth and adults depend to a great extent on their families. Yet refugee families find few empirically based services geared toward them. Preventive mental health interventions that aim to stop, lessen, or delay possible negative individual mental health and behavioral sequelae through improving family and community protective resources in resettled refugee families are needed. This paper describes 8 characteristics that preventive mental health interventions should address to meet the needs of refugee families, including: Feasibility, Acceptability, Culturally Tailored, Multilevel, Time Focused, Prosaicness, Effectiveness, and Adaptability. To address these 8 characteristics in the complex environment of refugee resettlement requires modifying the process of developmental research through incorporating innovative mental health services research strategies, including: resilience framework, community collaboration, mixed methods with focused ethnography, and the comprehensive dynamic trial. A preventive intervention development cycle for refugee families is proposed based on a program of research on refugees and migrants using these services research strategies. Furthering preventive mental health for refugee families also requires new policy directives, multisystemic partnerships, and research training. 2011 © FPI, Inc.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...
Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia
African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.
sunmi cho; yunmi shin
Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10&am...
McClanahan, Kimberly K.; Huff, Marlene B.; Omar, Hatim A.
Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate publi...
Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian
Background Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition – Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. Design The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Results Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. Conclusions The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings. PMID:26689456
Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian
Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition - Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings.
Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E
Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.
Full Text Available The community mental health model implies a bio‐psycho‐social perspective of mental health/illness issues, as well as a set of values that advocate equity in service access, community treatment, respect for human rights, a recovery vision, promotion of independent living, social integration and user and family participation. In accordance with the priorities set by the European Union, mental health services must guarantee that these principles are applied in the prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and promotion of mental health. Inter‐sector cooperation is an essential part of developing transversal policies that ensure society’s involvement in mental health promotion. Advances in community mental health in‐ dicate the relevance of considering human rights both in policy development and in practice, of the recovery perspective and of the need to promote the participation of user and carer organizations.
Dokecki, Paul R.
Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…
Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mental health issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mental health services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe illness. A whole prison approach to health and, specifically, mental health will offer the greatest likelihood that offenders will thrive, benefit from imprisonment, and lead law-abiding lives after release. Public awareness of the scale and commitment of prisons to mental health and illness, and understanding of prisons' role in society, are necessary developments that would protect and enhance public mental health, as well as creating a healthier and safer society. This article draws on recent reviews, information and statements to set out a public health agenda for mental health in prisons.
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.
Four of the six leading causes of years lived with disability are due to neuropsychiatric disorders (depression, alcohol- use disorders ... In addition to the health and social costs, those suffering from mental illnesses are also victims of ... int/mental_health/media/investing_mnh.pdf (accessed 25 Feb 2017). 2. Ministry of Health ...
The health impacts of climate change are being increasingly recognized, but mental health is often excluded from this discussion. In this issue we feature a collection of articles on climate change and mental health that highlight important directions for future research.
Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Omech, Bernard
Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and mental health problems were assessed in a sample of war-affected youth in Northern Uganda. Univariable and multivariable regression models were fitted to assess the influence of CERS on mental health problems. Maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., rumination) were significantly associated with more mental health problems while adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., putting into perspective) were associated with reporting fewer symptoms of mental health problems. The youth with significant scores on mental health problems (scores ≥ 85th percentile) reported more frequent use of maladaptive than adaptive strategies. Interventions to reduce mental health problems should focus on enhancing the use of adaptive strategies.
.... Exploring issues covering psychological, social, and cultural aspects of mental health problems, it looks at epidemiological data that shows increased frequency in different clinical aspects of many...
Onnela, A M; Vuokila-Oikkonen, P; Hurtig, T; Ebeling, H
The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory action research process on the development of a professional practice model of mental health nurses in mental health promotion in a comprehensive school environment in the city of Oulu, Finland. The developed model is a new method of mental health promotion for mental health nurses working in comprehensive schools. The professional practice model has been developed in workshops together with school staff, interest groups, parents and students. Information gathered from the workshops was analysed using action research methods. Mental health promotion interventions are delivered at three levels: universal, which is an intervention that affects the whole school or community; selective, which is an intervention focusing on a certain group of students; and indicated, which is an individually focused intervention. All interventions are delivered within the school setting, which is a universal setting for all school-aged children. The interventions share the goal of promoting mental health. The purposes of the interventions are enhancing protective factors, reducing risk factors relating to mental health problems and early identification of mental health problems as well as rapid delivery of support or referral to specialized services. The common effect of the interventions on all levels is the increase in the experience of positive mental health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia
Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of Knowle......Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web...
White, Ross; Sashidharan, S.P.
In an attempt to address inequalities and inequities in mental health provision in low\\ud and middle-income countries the WHO commenced the Mental Health Gap Action\\ud Programme (mhGAP) in 2008. Four years on from the commencement of this\\ud programme of work, the WHO has recently adopted the Comprehensive Mental\\ud Health Action Plan 2013-2020. This article will critically appraise the strategic\\ud direction that the WHO has adopted to address mental health difficulties across the\\ud globe. ...
... psychiatric disorders, the biological and endocrinological concomitants of mental health, and eating disorders, perinatal psychiatric disorders, and the long term effects of abuse - helping readers...
Shernoff, Elisa S.; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Kratochwill, Thomas R.
School psychologists are uniquely positioned to support the delivery of evidence-based mental health practices (EBMHPs) to address the overwhelming mental health needs of children and youth. Graduate training programs can promote EBMHPs in schools by ensuring school psychologists enter the workplace prepared to deliver and support high-quality,…
Palmquist, Lucianne; Patterson, Sue; O'Donovan, Analise; Bradley, Graham
Introduction Policies internationally endorse the recovery paradigm as the appropriate foundation for youth mental health services. However, given that this paradigm is grounded in the views of adults with severe mental illness, applicability to youth services and relevance to young people is uncertain, particularly as little is known about young people’s views. A comprehensive understanding of the experiences and expectations of young people is critical to developing youth mental health services that are acceptable, accessible, effective and relevant. Aim To inform development of policy and youth services, the study described in this protocol aims to develop a comprehensive account of the experiences and expectations of 12–17 year olds as they encounter mental disorders and transition through specialist mental health services. Data will be analysed to model recovery from the adolescents’ perspective. Method and analysis This grounded theory study will use quantitative and qualitative data collected in interviews with 12–17 year olds engaged with specialist Child/Youth Mental Health Service in Queensland, Australia. Interviews will explore adolescents’ expectations and experiences of mental disorder, and of services, as they transition through specialist mental health services, including the meaning of their experiences and ideas of ‘recovery’ and how their experiences and expectations are shaped. Data collection and analysis will use grounded theory methods. Ethics and dissemination Adolescents’ experiences will be presented as a mid-range theory. The research will provide tangible recommendations for youth-focused mental health policy and practice. Findings will be disseminated within academic literature and beyond to participants, health professionals, mental health advocacy groups and policy and decision makers via publications, research summaries, conferences and workshops targeting different audiences. Ethical and research governance approvals
Piko, Bettina F
Previous research suggests that youth's life satisfaction may be influenced by health and certain socioeconomic/sociocultural factors, which may be important in a post-socialist country like Hungary. We investigated the relationship between youth's life satisfaction, materialism and their psychosocial health in a sample of secondary school students (N = 1114) in Hungary. Findings show that youth's psychosocial health may play an important role in their levels of life satisfaction, particularly depressive and psychosomatic symptoms and health behaviors (e.g. diet control and smoking). SES self-assessment and materialistic success were positively, while materialistic happiness was negatively related to youth's life satisfaction.
Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala
To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on
Larson, S; Chapman, S; Spetz, J; Brindis, CD
Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities.Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if rese...
McGorry, Patrick D; Goldstone, Sherilyn D; Parker, Alexandra G; Rickwood, Debra J; Hickie, Ian B
Mental ill health is now the most important health issue facing young people worldwide. It is the leading cause of disability in people aged 10-24 years, contributing 45% of the overall burden of disease in this age group. Despite their manifest need, young people have the lowest rates of access to mental health care, largely as a result of poor awareness and help-seeking, structural and cultural flaws within the existing care systems, and the failure of society to recognise the importance of this issue and invest in youth mental health. We outline the case for a specific youth mental health stream and describe the innovative service reforms in youth mental health in Australia, using them as an example of the processes that can guide the development and implementation of such a service stream. Early intervention with focus on the developmental period of greatest need and capacity to benefit, emerging adulthood, has the potential to greatly improve the mental health, wellbeing, productivity, and fulfilment of young people, and our wider society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Betancourt, Theresa S; Yudron, Monica; Wheaton, Wendy; Smith-Fawzi, Mary C
To examine the role of caregiver mental health and risk and protective factors in influencing levels of internalizing and externalizing emotional and behavioral symptoms over time among a sample of refugee adolescents. Prospective study of 153 Kunama refugee adolescents receiving an emergency education intervention while living in a camp in Ethiopia. Surveys were collected in 2001 (T1) and 2002 (T2). Adolescent and caregiver mental health were assessed using a Kunamenga adaptation of the Youth Self Report; caregiver mental health was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Attitudes toward education, satisfaction with education programming, socioeconomic status, and perceptions of access to services were also explored as variables potentially influencing adolescent mental health at follow-up. Caregiver distress was significantly associated with youth externalizing behavior symptoms (β = 8.34, p effect on externalizing behaviors (β = -7.54, p effect on internalizing symptoms. In terms of modifying effects, among youth with distressed caregivers, those who were satisfied with the International Rescue Committee education intervention had a lower internalizing score (β = -6.34, p refugee displacement. Results suggest that programs targeting mental health in refugee children should consider children within the larger family system, including caregiver influence on child and adolescent mental health adjustment over time. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Every woman, man, youth and child has the human right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, without discrimination of any kind. This is enshrined in the Indian Constitution and the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. Enjoyment of the human right to health is vital to all aspects of a person's life and well-being,…
Xia, Guohua; Qian, Mingyi
Results of this investigation with 127 youths from China supported the associations of recalled parent's styles with adolescents' self-evaluated health status. Many psychosomatic symptoms and lower scores on indexes of general mental health were significantly related to higher levels of parental rejection, denial, and over involvement, and to…
Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....
Stanojević Dragana Z.
Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .
Ryan, Brigid; Goding, Margaret; Fenner, Patricia; Percival, Steven; Percival, Wendy; Latai, Leua; Petaia, Lisi; Pulotu-Endemann, Fuimaono Karl; Parkin, Ian; Tuitama, George; Ng, Chee
To pilot an art and mental health project with Samoan and Australian stakeholders. The aim of this project was to provide a voice through the medium of art for people experiencing mental illness, and to improve the public understanding in Samoa of mental illness and trauma. Over 12 months, a series of innovative workshops were held with Samoan and Australian stakeholders, followed by an art exhibition. These workshops developed strategies to support the promotion and understanding of mental health in Samoa. Key stakeholders from both art making and mental health services were engaged in activities to explore the possibility of collaboration in the Apia community. The project was able to identify the existing resources and community support for the arts and mental health projects, to design a series of activities aimed to promote and maintain health in the community, and to pilot these programs with five key organizations. This project demonstrates the potential for art and mental health projects to contribute to both improving mental health and to lowering the personal and social costs of mental ill health for communities in Samoa. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available Donna Sabella, Theresa Fay-Hillier College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: The current mental health care system in the US continues to struggle with providing adequate care and services to all that require it due to limited resources, biases from both other professions and the public, and the complexities of treatment of many of those individuals or populations that suffer from mental illness. Mental health nurses, also referred to as psychiatric nurses, are impacted by those same biases, limited resources, and complexities in their role. This paper provides a brief history of mental health nursing and a discussion of the current challenges faced within the profession. It will also include how the public's perception of both those who have mental illness and those who treat it is based on the sensationalism of those who are violent, and misunderstanding of current treatments. It is imperative that mental health nurses continue to define and educate other health care professionals as well as the general public of the role of the mental health nurse and those who suffer from mental illness. Unfortunately, some of the same bias that was present in the 1930s remains today, but perhaps with perseverance and education it will not continue into the future. Keywords: mental health, psychiatric nursing, pre- licensure, post-licensure challenges, professional obstacles, public perception
Finger, William, Comp.; Tipton, Margaret, Comp.
As a sequel to YouthLens No. 1, New Resources Available on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention (July 2002), this YouthLens summarizes major reports and resources that have appeared since July 2002. The resources are organized by overview reports, reproductive health resources, and HIV/AIDS resources. [YouthLens is an activity of YouthNet,…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010
This report to Congress provides critical information about the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program (CMHI), including the characteristics of children, youth, and families as they enter the CMHI; the outcomes attained for children and youth, and their caregivers and families after entry into the…