WorldWideScience

Sample records for youth exiting foster

  1. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  2. Maltreatment histories of foster youth exiting out-of-home care through emancipation: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about maltreatment among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. Multiple entries into out-of-home care and unsuccessful attempts at reunification may nevertheless reflect extended exposure to chronic maltreatment and multiple types of victimization. This study used administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services to identify all unduplicated allegations of maltreatment in a cohort of 801 foster youth transitioning to adulthood in the state of Illinois. A latent variable modeling approach generated profiles of maltreatment based on substantiated and unsubstantiated reports of maltreatment taken from state administrative data. Four indicators of maltreatment were included in the latent class analysis: multiple types of maltreatment, predominant type of maltreatment, chronicity, and number of different perpetrators. The analysis identified four subpopulations of foster youth in relation to maltreatment. Study findings highlight the heterogeneity of maltreatment in the lives of foster youth transitioning to adulthood and draw attention to a need to raise awareness among service providers to screen for chronic maltreatment and multiple types of victimization. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Transition Planning for Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, Sarah J.; Powers, Laurie E.

    2006-01-01

    The study evaluated the IEPs/Individualized Transition Plans of 45 students who were in special education and foster care, and compared them to the plans of 45 students who were in special education only. Results indicate that the transition plans of foster youth with disabilities were poor in quality, both in absolute terms and in comparison to…

  4. Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

  5. Antipsychotic treatment among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosreis, Susan; Yoon, Yesel; Rubin, David M; Riddle, Mark A; Noll, Elizabeth; Rothbard, Aileen

    2011-12-01

    Despite national concerns over high rates of antipsychotic medication use among youth in foster care, concomitant antipsychotic use has not been examined. In this study, concomitant antipsychotic use among Medicaid-enrolled youth in foster care was compared with disabled or low-income Medicaid-enrolled youth. The sample included 16 969 youths younger than 20 years who were continuously enrolled in a Mid-Atlantic state Medicaid program and had ≥1 claim with a psychiatric diagnosis and ≥1 antipsychotic claim in 2003. Antipsychotic treatment was characterized by days of any use and concomitant use with ≥2 overlapping antipsychotics for >30 days. Medicaid program categories were foster care, disabled (Supplemental Security Income), and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Multicategory involvement for youths in foster care was classified as foster care/Supplemental Security Income, foster care/TANF, and foster care/adoption. We used multivariate analyses, adjusting for demographics, psychiatric comorbidities, and other psychotropic use, to assess associations between Medicaid program category and concomitant antipsychotic use. Average antipsychotic use ranged from 222 ± 110 days in foster care to only 135 ± 101 days in TANF (P foster care only and 24% in foster care/adoption compared with youths in the foster care system.

  6. In search of connection: The foster youth and caregiver relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Storer, Heather L.; Barkan, Susan E.; Stenhouse, Linnea L.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Mallillin, Anastasia; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    Placement instability is an ongoing challenge for the 125,000 foster youth aged 14 – 18 that are living in foster care, with youth living in approximately 3 placements before aging out of the system. Despite the importance caring adult relationships can play in promoting positive youth development and resiliency, there has been limited inquiry into the characteristics of the foster youth and caregiver relationship. The goal of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the foster youth...

  7. Therapeutic mentoring: reducing the impact of trauma for foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B; Pryce, Julia M

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized secondary data analysis to examine therapeutic mentoring (TM) as a service intervention in helping to reduce trauma symptoms in foster youth. Outcomes were compared for mentored (n = 106) and non-mentored (n = 156) foster youth related to experience and symptoms of trauma. Results showed that mentored youth improved significantly in the reduction of trauma symptoms relative to non-mentored youth, suggesting that TM shows promise as an important treatment intervention for foster youth with trauma experiences.

  8. Engaging Adolescent Youth in Foster Care through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Girvin, Heather; Primak, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Older youth in foster care are particularly vulnerable because they are poorly prepared for the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. Interventions designed to assist in this transition rarely engage youth directly; plans are made for youth rather than with them. Photographs can serve as an externalised medium for the expression of…

  9. Educational Experiences of Emancipated Foster Youth: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunkard, Cynthia Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The data obtained in this qualitative study focused on the educational experiences of youth formerly in foster care after graduation from high school from the viewpoint of the youth. Data were gathered from interviews from 10 participants. Themes included: (a) How do youth emancipated from foster care perceive their educational experiences? (b)…

  10. Health care of youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care face significant medical and mental health care needs. Unfortunately, these youth rarely receive the services they need because of lack of health insurance. Through many policies and programs, the federal government has taken steps to support older youth in foster care and those aging out. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L No. 110-354) requires states to work with youth to develop a transition plan that addresses issues such as health insurance. In addition, beginning in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub L No. 111-148) makes youth aging out of foster care eligible for Medicaid coverage until age 26 years, regardless of income. Pediatricians can support youth aging out of foster care by working collaboratively with the child welfare agency in their state to ensure that the ongoing health needs of transitioning youth are met.

  11. In search of connection: The foster youth and caregiver relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L.; Barkan, Susan E.; Stenhouse, Linnea L.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Mallillin, Anastasia; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Placement instability is an ongoing challenge for the 125,000 foster youth aged 14 – 18 that are living in foster care, with youth living in approximately 3 placements before aging out of the system. Despite the importance caring adult relationships can play in promoting positive youth development and resiliency, there has been limited inquiry into the characteristics of the foster youth and caregiver relationship. The goal of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the foster youth and caregiver relationship, and explore what qualities and experiences foster youth desire from their caregivers. Qualitative data were gathered from 9 focus groups. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis approaches. Foster youth, caregivers, and child welfare staff described relationships lacking in formative bonds and connection, where youth didn’t “fit in”, and chaotic homes marked by reactivity and judgment. Characteristics of supportive foster homes include a sense of belonging, structure, guidance, and consistency. This research underscores the important role positive relationships can play in foster youth’s feelings of well-being and points to the need for foster parent training to include tangible strategies to develop stronger bonds. PMID:26052173

  12. Underserved parents, underserved youth: Considering foster parent willingness to foster substance-using adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Kathleen; Kaynak, Övgü; Clements, Irene; Bresani, Elena; White, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents involved with foster care are five times more likely to receive a drug dependence diagnosis when compared to adolescents in the general population. Prior research has shown that substance use is often hidden from providers, negating any chance for treatment and almost guaranteeing poor post-foster care outcomes. There are virtually no studies that examine the willingness (and its determinants) to foster youth with substance abuse problems. The current study conducted a nationally-distributed survey of 752 currently licensed foster care parents that assessed willingness to foster youth overall and by type of drug used, and possible correlates of this decision (e.g., home factors, system factors, and individual foster parent factors such as ratings of perceived difficulty in fostering this population). Overall, willingness to foster a youth involved with alcohol and other drugs (AOD) was contingent upon the types of drugs used. The odds that a parent would foster an AOD-involved youth were significantly increased by being licensed as a treatment foster home, having fostered an AOD-involved youth in the past, having AOD-specific training and past agency-support when needed, and self-efficacy with respect to positive impact. Surprisingly, when religion played a large part in the decision to foster any child, the odds of willingness to foster an AOD-involved youth dropped significantly. These results suggest that a large proportion of AOD-involved youth who find themselves in the foster care system will not have foster families willing to parent them, thereby forcing placement into a variety of congregate care facilities (e.g., residential treatment facilities, group homes). Specific ways in which the system can address these issues to improve placement and permanency efforts is provided. PMID:25878368

  13. Hopes & Hurdles: California Foster Youth and College Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Deborah Frankle; Szabo-Kubitz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This report examines why former foster youth in California are not receiving the aid they are likely eligible for, from inadequate or poorly targeted information about college costs and financial aid to structural obstacles within the aid process and programs. While many of this report's findings and recommendations are specific to foster youth,…

  14. Moral, Conventional, and Personal Rules: The Perspective of Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, David; Tisak, Marie S.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-five foster youth (9-13 year old and 14-17 year olds) were asked to evaluate moral, conventional, and personal rules and violations by providing judgments and reasons. The results suggest that foster youths' judgments distinguished between the moral, conventional, and personal domains. However, in providing reasons to support their judgments…

  15. Foster Care and College: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the Foster Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Chris M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Nilsen, Corinne; Colvin, Deltha Q.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an overall increase in college attendance, low-income youth and particularly those in the foster care system are less likely to attend college (Wolanin, 2005). Although youth in foster care report high educational aspirations, as little as 4% obtain a 4-year college degree (Nixon & Jones, 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore…

  16. Foster Youth Who Have Succeeded in Higher Education: Common Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitt, Thomas; Emerson, John

    2009-01-01

    All young people, including foster youth and youth with disabilities, can succeed academically given adequate support and advocacy from educators, professionals, and their caregivers. Casey Family Programs (www.casey.org), a Seattle-based national operating foundation that has served children, youth, and families in the child welfare system since…

  17. Enhancing the Empowerment of Youth in Foster Care: Supportive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sandra J.; Skolnik, Louise; Turnbull, Ayme

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the research on youth empowerment in seven child welfare programmatic areas. A lack of studies specifically focused on the empowerment of youth in foster care was found. Conceptual perspectives and existing data, however, suggest that the empowerment of youth in and transitioning out of care is essential and should be overtly…

  18. Health risk behavior of youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie B; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Many adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore, identification of risk behavior is critical. Data from a larger study were analyzed to investigate the health risk behavior of 56 youth in foster care using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition. Data indicated that youth in foster care had some increased risk behavior when compared with a normative adolescent population. Younger adolescents and those in relative placement had less risky behavior. Risk behavior was increased for youth in foster care when they were in group homes, had experienced a parental death, or had a history of physical or emotional abuse or attempted suicide. These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability for youth in foster care and suggest areas for clinicians and caregivers of these adolescents to focus interventions towards harm reduction and enhancement of resiliency.

  19. Positive change following adversity and psychological adjustment over time in abused foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathways to Preventing Substance Use Among Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K; Buchanan, Rohanna; Price, Joseph M

    2017-07-01

    Substance use problems are highly prevalent among youth in foster care. Such problems in adolescence have long-lasting implications for subsequent adjustment throughout adulthood and even across generations. Although several programs have demonstrated positive results in reducing substance use in at-risk youth, few studies have systemically examined how such programs work for foster youth and whether they are effective for both genders. This study examined the efficacy of KEEP SAFE, a family-based and skill-focused program designed to prevent substance use and other related health risking behaviors among youth in foster care. We hypothesized that improving the caregiver-youth relationship would lead to later reductions in youths' involvement with deviant peers, which subsequently would lead to less substance use, and that this mechanism would work comparably for both genders. A sample of 259 youth (154 girls, ages 11-17 years) in foster care and their caregivers participated in a randomized controlled trial and was followed for 18 months post-baseline. Results indicated that the intervention significantly reduced substance use in foster youth at 18 months post-baseline and that the intervention influenced substance use through two processes: youths' improved quality of relationships with caregivers at 6 months post-baseline and fewer associations with deviant peers at 12 months post-baseline. This suggests that these two processes may be fruitful immediate targets in substance use prevention programs for foster youth. We also found little gender differences in direct and mediating effects of the intervention, suggesting KEEP SAFE may be effective for both genders in foster care.

  1. Foster Youth Evaluate the Performance of Group Home Services in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rex S.; Ellis, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 foster youth employed by a foster youth advocacy organization suggested that an evaluation of group home services to foster youth be conducted in Alameda County, California. This report presents the development and conduct of this evaluation study; how funding was obtained; and how foster youth were hired, trained, and employed to produce…

  2. Improving the Postsecondary Educational Attainment of Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines what we know about the disparity in postsecondary educational attainment between youth in foster care and their non-foster care peers, the reasons for it, and the policies and programs that have been developed to address that disparity. It also discusses the unique role that community colleges can play in reducing this…

  3. Independent Living Services and the Educational Motivation of Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriamiatoe, Osarumen Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the components of independent living training and services to determine their effectiveness in preparing foster youth in Tennessee for adulthood, and whether the youth's perceived effectiveness of these services affected their educational motivation. Support factors (i.e., family, financial,…

  4. Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in Foster Care: Assessing Disproportionality and Disparities in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Bianca DM; Cooper, Khush; Kastanis, Angeliki; Nezhad, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    LGBTQ foster youth are twice as likely to report poor treatment and more likely to live in group homes and to have more foster care placements. Approximately 1 in 5, or 1,400 foster youth in Los Angeles County, home to the nation’s largest population of foster youth, identify as LGBTQ. The finding is twice the estimated percentage of youth not in foster care who are LGBTQ. Generally, LGBTQ foster youth mirror the racial/ethnic demographic of all foster youth in Los Angeles County. The majorit...

  5. Perspectives of Youth in Foster Care on Essential Ingredients for Promoting Self-determination and Successful Transition to Adult Life: My Life Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Laurie E; Fullerton, Ann; Schmidt, Jessica; Geenen, Sarah; Oberweiser-Kennedy, Molly; Dohn, JoAnn; Nelson, May; Iavanditti, Rosemary; Blakeslee, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    Research clearly documents the serious challenges and poor outcomes experienced by many young people exiting foster care, as well as compounded disparities for the high percentage of youth in care who are identified with disabilities and/or mental health challenges. However, very little research has been conducted to specify or validate effective models for improving the transition trajectories of youth exiting care. Evidence suggests the My Life self-determination enhancement model offers a promising approach for supporting youths' self-determined and positive transition to adulthood. The model includes youth-directed, experientially oriented coaching in the application of self-determination skills to achieve youth-identified transition goals, coupled with peer mentoring workshops that provide opportunities for learning, networking and fun. This in depth qualitative study of 10 youth who completed the My Life intervention focused on investigating coaching and mentoring elements and processes that youth participants identify as most important to their success, with the intention of informing the further development of youth-directed approaches to supporting young people who are transitioning to adulthood. Themes emerged around the centrality of youth self-direction, important processes in the coaching relationship, the essential value of experiential activities and self-determination skill development, and peer mentoring experiences that youth identified as fostering their success. Implications are discussed for research and practice in supporting youth exiting foster care.

  6. Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Julie M; Safer, Daniel J; Sai, Devadatta; Gardner, James F; Thomas, Diane; Coombes, Phyllis; Dubowski, Melissa; Mendez-Lewis, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Studies have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate > 3 times that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. Systematic data on patterns of medication treatment, particularly concomitant drugs, for youth in foster care are limited. The purpose of this work was to describe and quantify patterns of psychotropic monotherapy and concomitant therapy prescribed to a randomly selected, 1-month sample of youth in foster care who had been receiving psychotropic medication. METHODS. Medicaid data were accessed for a July 2004 random sample of 472 medicated youth in foster care aged 0 through 19 years from a southwestern US state. Psychotropic medication treatment data were identified by concomitant pattern, frequency, medication class, subclass, and drug entity and were analyzed in relation to age group; gender; race or ethnicity; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, psychiatric diagnosis; and physician specialty. Of the foster children who had been dispensed psychotropic medication, 41.3% received > or = 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004, and 15.9% received > or = 4 different classes. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.8%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55.9%), and antipsychotic agents (53.2%). The use of specific psychotropic medication classes varied little by diagnostic grouping. Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication dispensed to youth in foster care. The use of > or = 2 drugs within the same psychotropic medication class was noted in 22.2% of those who were given prescribed drugs concomitantly. Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety.

  7. Resiliency in Children and Youth in Kinship Care and Family Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jed

    2008-01-01

    This study examined self-concept, resiliency and social support in 107 children and youth placed in foster care in New York City. Of the children and youth, 55 were placed in family foster care, while the remaining 52 children and youth were placed in a kinship foster home. Significantly more of mothers of the kinship foster care children and…

  8. A Critical Reflection: Foster Care Youth Experiences at a Four Year Postsecondary Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Renada D.

    2016-01-01

    Foster care youth face significant challenges to postsecondary educational success, especially while enrolled at four-year institutions. Foster care youth are absent of family support that their non-foster peers receive throughout the college experience. Without family support, foster care youth encounter greater challenges to persevere through…

  9. The Power of Community: How Foster Parents, Teachers, and Community Members Support Academic Achievement for Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Foster children have been identified as one of the most high-risk groups for academic failure in schools today. However, a small number of foster youth are beating the odds by achieving academically. How are they able to overcome tremendous barriers and succeed? This phenomenological study reports the findings of former foster youth and their P-12…

  10. Getting Foster Youth to and through College: Successes and Challenges of the New Jersey Foster Care Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Maia; Losey, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of the New Jersey Foster Care Scholars program is a testament to its importance. Typical college students rely on parents for financial assistance and emotional support. Youth aging out of foster care often are on their own. The scholarship program offers an opportunity for higher education that many foster youth thought they would…

  11. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  12. Conceptualizing the Step-Down for Foster Youth Approaching Adulthood: Perceptions of Service Providers, Caseworkers, and Foster Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy; McMillen, J. Curtis; Fedoravicius, Nicole; McNelly, David; Robinson, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Studies find considerable movement between residential treatment and less restrictive foster home settings, with approximately half of foster youth who are stepped down eventually returning to a higher level of care. Very little is known about the step down for foster youth who are approaching adulthood in locked residential facilities. A qualitative study of stepping down a small sample of foster youth, as perceived by team members delivering a model of treatment foster care, is presented. These findings reveal the dimensions of stepping down foster youth at the onset of adulthood, and highlight the importance of providing foster youth with developmental opportunities to engage in the social roles and tasks of late adolescence and/or early adulthood. Implications for further refining the concept of stepping down from a developmental perspective are discussed. PMID:23878410

  13. Strategies for fostering basic psychological needs support in high quality youth leadership programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Corliss; Harlow, Meghan; Kendellen, Kelsey

    2017-04-01

    Youth leadership programming has become an increasingly common context to foster basic psychological needs and promote youth development. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore strategies involved in fostering youth needs support within six leadership programs. Two leaders and 30 youth participated in semi-structured interviews to better understand the strategies used to foster needs support. Findings revealed that leaders were able to foster a sense of relatedness among youth through building trusting adult-youth relationships and nurturing an inclusive environment. Maximizing choice and negotiating youth voice helped to foster youth's autonomy. Finally, creating a task-oriented climate and providing intentional opportunities for skill-building helped to foster youth's competence. Findings suggest that training for leaders is critical in understanding what, and how strategies should be employed to help foster youth needs support in leadership programming. Limitations and future directions are outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fostering Entrepreneurship Development among Youth for Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Development: The Case of Zanzibar Technology and Business Incubator. ... Elders, Youth, Women and children in collaboration with COSTECH, Dar es Salaam ... start up business and incubating start up business to increase their success ...

  15. The Influence of Social and Family Backgrounds on College Transition Experiences of Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Joaquin; Durdella, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Familial and social experiences shape college transitions of first-year, first-generation college students who are foster youth. This chapter describes these experiences and offers recommendations to enhance support for foster youth in college.

  16. Supporting Youth Aging Out of Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Over 400,000 children are in foster care in the United States, and more than 100,000 of them are waiting to be adopted. Yet many will age out of foster care into adulthood without an adoptive family. Teens and young adults aging out of foster care, even those with preparation and training for the transition, often do not fare well in young adulthood. Many face challenges in areas of education, employment, homelessness, finances, the criminal justice system, and meeting health and mental healthcare needs. Research demonstrates what only makes sense: teens with tangible support from meaningful adult relationships fare better than those without. This article describes an innovative program that connects teens in foster care with supportive adults through social events that can lead to meaningful long-term teen-adult connections - including friendships, mentoring, and even, in some cases, adoption. Pediatric nurses, aware of the challenges these teens face adjusting to adulthood, can begin to explore referral and support options for such teens in their own locales using the resources herein.

  17. Educational Policy and Foster Youths: The Risks of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Nora; MacEachron, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent child welfare legislation requires agencies to address the educational well-being of foster youths. Schools face new accountability standards through No Child Left Behind and the Obama "Blueprint for Reform" as they move toward the goal of ensuring that all children receive a quality education. Both of these pieces of legislation…

  18. Prior Trauma Exposure for Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Burns, Barbara J.; Southerland, Dannia G.; Cox, Julia Revillion; Wagner, H. Ryan; Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Very little research has focused on rates of trauma exposure for youth in treatment foster care (TFC). Available research has utilized record review for assessing exposure, which presents limitations for the range of trauma types examined, as records are predominantly focused on abuse and neglect. The current study examines exposure rates and…

  19. A Growth Curve Analysis of Housing Quality among Transition-Aged Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrell, Fanita A.; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Procuring safe housing is a salient developmental task during emerging adulthood, one that is especially challenging for emancipated foster youth. Yet, little is known about factors that influence foster youths' housing experiences. Objective: This investigation documented changes in foster youth's housing quality during the first…

  20. Increasing College Access: A Look at College Readiness from the Experiences of Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Demetrees Lee

    2017-01-01

    Fewer than 50% of all foster youth in the United States graduate from high school by the age of 18 and only 20% of those high school graduates attend college. There are many barriers that impact the college-going rates of foster youth. Past studies on college attendance among foster youth rarely look at college readiness experiences from the…

  1. Beating the Odds: Applying the Positive Deviance Framework to Address the Academic Underachievement of Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized the theory of positive deviance to explore the challenges and success factors for foster youth who have attained a postsecondary education. To accomplish this, twelve interviews were conducted. Six interviews were conducted with college-going foster youth and six adults who served as mentors for the foster youth participants…

  2. The Lived Experience of Foster Youth as Community-College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what life is like for foster youth pursuing postsecondary education. At a time when few foster youth are pursuing and completing higher education, this study attempted to gain an understanding from foster youth about 1) the reason(s) for their success in pursuing postsecondary education, 2) how they were…

  3. "Couch Surfing" of Latino Foster Care Alumni: Reliance on Peers as Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Beatrix F.; Romo, Harriett D.

    2011-01-01

    Youth exiting foster care often experience difficulties transitioning into adulthood. This paper focuses on Latino foster care youth in a major southwestern U.S. city and addresses the importance of peer networks as a crucial form of social capital as youth leave foster care. Case studies illustrate experiences of foster care alumni ranging in age…

  4. Empowerment Foster Children Youth Education Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Szafrańska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth Educational Centers (YEC are open social rehabilitation institutions for socially maladjusted adolescents who are placed in such centres by court order. The wards who become self-dependent and return to their usual destructive upbringing environments give cause for concern. There is a risk that various social rehabilitation and educational measures taken in the center will be undone. If a person is to function well, they need to be provided with necessary assistance during the so-called self-empowerment process that will prepare them to function in society. This article is to draw attention to the impact of the YEC aiming at the self-empowerment of wards, exampled by the “Trampolina” project by the Orionist Farthers (YEC, Barska Street in Warsaw and the project of forming and running the “Damy radę” (We will manage empowerment group at the YEC in Radzionków.

  5. An Examination of the Protective Factors That Facilitate Motivation and Educational Attainment among Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are approximately 400,000 foster youth. The state of California accounts for approximately 20% percent of youth placed in the foster care system. As a whole, this population is exposed to a multitude of risk factors while placed in the foster care system and as they emancipate. Re-victimization is not uncommon as youth…

  6. Linking Structure, Process, and Outcome to Improve Group Home Services for Foster Youth in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rex S.; Ellis, Peter T.

    2007-01-01

    The California Youth Connection obtained funding from two foundations to evaluate the performance of group homes serving foster youth in Alameda County, California, in order to inform state policy-making. The evaluation team initially included 14 foster youth that personally experienced group home living. Three inter-related aspects of service…

  7. Foster Youth and Social Support: The First RCT of Independent Living Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Johanna K. P.; Garcia, Antonio R.; Kim, Minseop; Courtney, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Conduct secondary data analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of Massachusetts' Adolescent Outreach Program for Youths in Intensive Foster Care (Outreach) for increasing social support (SS) among enrolled youth. Participants: 194 youth in intensive foster care under the guardianship of the Massachusetts Department of Children and…

  8. The Role of Therapeutic Mentoring in Enhancing Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B.; Pryce, Julia M.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Effective service interventions greatly enhance the well-being of foster youth. A study of 262 foster youth examined one such intervention, therapeutic mentoring. Results showed that mentored youth improved significantly in the areas of family and social functioning, school behavior, and recreational activities, as well as in the reduction of…

  9. Comparisons of substance abuse, high-risk sexual behavior and depressive symptoms among homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare prevalence of substance use, high-risk sexual behaviors, and depression symptoms between homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement. Approximately 26,000 young persons exit foster care annually in the United States. Once they 'age out' of foster care, however, many young persons do not have access to comprehensive health care. They also are at risk for substance abuse, homelessness, or mental illness. Because persons with a history of foster care are at risk for negative psycho-social outcomes, it is unclear if these young people might be different than homeless youth without this history. The design is descriptive and cross-sectional. A total of 156 homeless young persons, of whom 44 had a history of foster care placement, were recruited from a drop-in center that caters to homeless youth and young adults. The sample was majority male and white; ages were 16-25. Significantly higher proportion of homeless former foster youth used methamphetamine within the last six months compared to non-fostered homeless youth p = 0.03). Homeless former foster youth were significantly older (p = 0.02) and less educated (p = 0.02) than their homeless counterparts without a history of foster care placement. Prevalence of using tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, crack cocaine, and powder cocaine were similar for both groups. Although not significant, a higher proportion of homeless former foster youth reported trading sex for money or drugs compared to non-fostered, homeless youth (19% versus 12% [trading sex for money], and 26% versus 14% [trading sex for drugs], respectively. Findings from this study show that, in general, homelessness is a negative outcome, irrespective of having a foster care history. However, those with that history need continued support when transitioning to independent living, such as access to health care, and encouragement to further their education. It is important that nurses, who serve homeless

  10. Fostering marginalized youths' political participation: longitudinal roles of parental political socialization and youth sociopolitical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the roles of parental political socialization and the moral commitment to change social inequalities in predicting marginalized youths' (defined here as lower-SES youth of color) political participation. These issues are examined by applying structural equation modeling to a longitudinal panel of youth. Because tests of measurement invariance suggested racial/ethnic heterogeneity, the structural model was fit separately for three racial/ethnic groups. For each group, parental political socialization: discussion predicted youths' commitment to produce social change and for two groups, longitudinally predicted political participation. This study contributes to the literature by examining civic/political participation among disparate racial/ethnic groups, addresses an open scholarly question (whether youths' commitment to create social change predicts their "traditional" participation), and emphasizes parents' role in fostering marginalized youths' civic and political participation.

  11. Reaching everyone: Promoting the inclusion of youth with disabilities in evaluating foster care outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Quest, A. Del; Powers, Jennifer; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Nelson, May; Dalton, Lawrence D.; McHugh, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to evaluate foster care outcomes must avoid systematic exclusion of particular groups. Although often unrecognized as such, youth with disabilities are highly overrepresented in the U.S. foster care system, and yet youth with some disabilities, including those with intellectual, serious emotional, and physical impairments may be underrepresented in research and evaluation studies evaluating foster care outcomes. The recruitment and retention of youth with various disabilities in such ...

  12. 'To talk or not to talk?' : Foster youth's experiences of sharing stories about their past and being in foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Grietens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Sharing stories about the past and about being in care, can help adolescents placed in foster families to make meaning of their experiences and connect with their conversation partner. However, what obstacles and opportunities for sharing stories are experienced by foster youth has not been

  13. Employment of Former Foster Youth as Young Adults: Evidence from the Midwest Study. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Jennifer L.; Courtney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this issue brief, the authors explore how former foster youth in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa are faring in the labor market and what explains the variability in employment outcomes for these youth. First, they describe trends in former foster youths' employment from age 17 to 24. Then, they consider how former foster youths' characteristics…

  14. Reaching everyone: Promoting the inclusion of youth with disabilities in evaluating foster care outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Quest, A. Del; Powers, Jennifer; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Nelson, May; Dalton, Lawrence D.; McHugh, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to evaluate foster care outcomes must avoid systematic exclusion of particular groups. Although often unrecognized as such, youth with disabilities are highly overrepresented in the U.S. foster care system, and yet youth with some disabilities, including those with intellectual, serious emotional, and physical impairments may be underrepresented in research and evaluation studies evaluating foster care outcomes. The recruitment and retention of youth with various disabilities in such studies can be impeded by under-identification of disability and relatively high placement and school mobility. Furthermore, youth with various disabilities may experience more disappointing outcomes than foster youth overall, underscoring the importance of including these youth in outcome tracking efforts. This is especially relevant given the recent implementation of the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD), which requires that state child welfare agencies gather baseline information about youth in foster care at age 17, and then survey outcomes at 19 and 21. To promote the full participation of foster youth with disabilities in such outcome evaluation, this paper describes successful strategies for identifying and retaining participants that were used in three separate longitudinal intervention studies. These strategies include the systematic recruitment of foster youth by special education status, and creative use of validated tracking and retention strategies incorporating minor accommodations as needed. PMID:24273364

  15. Assessing and Addressing the Needs of Former Foster Youth in a College Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Misty Glasgow

    2017-01-01

    Research indicated that former foster youth encounter unique challenges in pursuit of degree completion in higher education. Degree completion has the potential to promote self-sufficiency skills for former foster youth, decrease dependency on social services, and increase the likelihood of successful transition into adulthood roles. By aiding…

  16. Moving In, Moving Through, and Moving Out: The Transitional Experiences of Foster Youth College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Sara I.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the transitional experiences of foster youth college students. The study explored how foster youth experienced moving into, moving through, and moving out of the college environment and what resources and strategies they used to thrive during their college transitions. In addition, this study…

  17. Pathways to College for Former Foster Youth: Understanding Factors that Contribute to Educational Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdinger, Joan M.; Hines, Alice M.; Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Wyatt, Paige

    2005-01-01

    This article presents early descriptive findings from the Pathways to College study, a multimethod and multiphase study of emancipated foster youth. Results based on a sample of 216 emancipated foster youth attending a four-year university indicate that many of their experiences are characteristic of individuals manifesting resilience in the face…

  18. Understanding Foster Youth Outcomes: Is Propensity Scoring Better than Traditional Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study seeks to examine the relationship between foster care and outcomes using multiple comparison methods to account for factors that put foster youth at risk independent of care. Methods: Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, matching, propensity scoring, and comparisons to the general population are used to…

  19. Former foster youth's perspectives on independent living preparation six months after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loring P

    2014-01-01

    Research findings have developed a troubling narrative of youth leaving foster care. Congress attempted to address the post-discharge difficulties of foster youth by passing the Independent Living Initiative in 1986, which mandated that the states develop services that would prepare youth for life after foster care. However, it is unclear what effect these programs have on post-foster care trajectories. This largely qualitative study examined the perceptions of a sample of discharged foster six months after leaving care. Most youth felt prepared for life and foster care. They were also for the most part were satisfied with their independent living program, but had significant dissatisfactions with elements of the program. These satisfactions and dissatisfactions are reported along with suggestions for improvement. The policy and practice implications of these suggestions are considered.

  20. A Critical Analysis of Foster Youth Advisory Boards in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forenza, Brad; Happonen, Robin G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The enactment of the John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Act brought welcome attention to young people aging out of foster care, and sought to include them in both case planning and policy dialog. Foster Youth Advisory Boards help to promote such inclusion, though the implementation of those boards has not been formally analyzed.…

  1. Seeing the Whole Picture: Views from Diverse Participants on Barriers to Educating Foster Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetlin, Andrea G.; Weinberg, Lois A.; Shea, Nancy M.

    2006-01-01

    Many children in the foster care system are at great risk of academic difficulties and school failure. The purpose of this study was to bring together individuals within the foster care system to discuss the challenges to obtaining an appropriate education for foster youths and how best to provide the supports and structures needed for educational…

  2. Development and piloting of a treatment foster care program for older youth with psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, J Curtis; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Robinson, Debra; Havlicek, Judy; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Bertram, Julie; McNelly, David

    2015-01-01

    Older youth in out-of-home care often live in restrictive settings and face psychiatric issues without sufficient family support. This paper reports on the development and piloting of a manualized treatment foster care program designed to step down older youth with high psychiatric needs from residential programs to treatment foster care homes. A team of researchers and agency partners set out to develop a treatment foster care model for older youth based on Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC). After matching youth by mental health condition and determining for whom randomization would be allowed, 14 youth were randomized to treatment as usual or a treatment foster home intervention. Stakeholders were interviewed qualitatively at multiple time points. Quantitative measures assessed mental health symptoms, days in locked facilities, employment and educational outcomes. Development efforts led to substantial variations from the MTFC model and a new model, Treatment Foster Care for Older Youth was piloted. Feasibility monitoring suggested that it was difficult, but possible to recruit and randomize youth from and out of residential homes and that foster parents could be recruited to serve them. Qualitative data pointed to some qualified clinical successes. Stakeholders viewed two team roles - that of psychiatric nurse and skills coaches - very highly. However, results also suggested that foster parents and some staff did not tolerate the intervention well and struggled to address the emotion dysregulation issues of the young people they served. Quantitative data demonstrated that the intervention was not keeping youth out of locked facilities. The intervention needed further refinement prior to a broader trial. Intervention development work continued until components were developed to help address emotion regulation problems among fostered youth. Psychiatric nurses and skills coaches who work with youth in community settings hold promise as important

  3. Career mentoring needs of youths in foster care: voices for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2013-05-01

    Adolescents with a history of foster care placement are more likely to become homeless, have mental illness, become parents too early in life, or become incarcerated within the juvenile justice/prison system. In addition, a low percentage of young adults, who formerly were in foster care, complete vocational training or higher education. This was a qualitative study, using focus group methodology. Four focus group sessions were conducted with youth living in foster care. The purpose was to obtain their perceptions about mentoring. Focus groups comprised six to eight youths per group and were guided by a semi-structured interview guide. A total of 27 youth in foster care participated in focus group interviews. Mean age was 16.4 (SD = 0.68) years. Youth participants were very knowledgeable about mentoring programs for at-risk youth, along with negative psychosocial outcomes experienced by former foster youth. However, they remarked that they are given few opportunities for career mentoring. The overall themes that emerged from narrative data were needing and finding authority figures, hooking up with a career mentor, and deserving the good life. Career mentoring is an affordable and feasible intervention for child welfare agencies. This could lead to more motivated and prepared youth living in foster care for vocational training or higher education. Learning opportunities from a career mentor may be a lifeline for preventing negative psychosocial outcomes for foster youth, reward achievement goals, and improve overall quality of life in emerging adulthood. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Understanding the Barriers to College Access for Former Foster Youth at the Los Angeles Community College District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, John Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Generally referred to as aged-out youth, approximately 20,000 former foster youth leave foster care each year, with very few enrolling into the community college system. Many enroll into a college system without a clear understanding of the system. Unable to maneuver, most former foster youth will drop out. The current exploratory, comparative…

  5. City Kids in the Wilderness: A Pilot-Test of Outward Bound for Foster Care Group Home Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert L.; Attah, E. B.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined perceptions of a 7-day Outward Bound program among 23 urban youths, foster parents, and foster care workers from group homes in Atlanta (Georgia). Foster parents reported improved self-esteem and behavior among the teens, but foster care workers reported worse behavior. Negative program impressions lessened among male youths but…

  6. Emerging versus Emancipating: The Transition to Adulthood for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Singer, Erin; Hokanson, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood has been defined as a distinct developmental stage in which youth experience opportunities for identity development and transition toward independence. While this period has been examined for youth in the general population, less is known about how foster youth experience this transition. This study uses qualitative interviews…

  7. Where do youth in foster care receive information about preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Validating office-based screening for psychosocial strengths and difficulties among youths in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Nilsen, Wendy; Toth, Sheree; Baldwin, Constance D; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of social-emotional screening in the primary care setting for youths in foster care. The setting was a primary care practice for all youth in home-based foster care in 1 county. Subjects were youths, aged 11 to 17 years, and their foster parents; both completed a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at well-child visits. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is a previously validated 25-item tool that has 5 domains: emotional symptoms; conduct problems; hyperactivity/inattention; peer problems; and prosocial behaviors and an overall total difficulties score. We first compared youth versus parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores and then assessed the accuracy of these Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores by comparing them in a subsample of youths (n = 50) with results of home-based structured clinical interviews using the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes. Of 138 subjects with both youth and parent reports, 78% had prosocial behaviors (strengths), and 70% had 1 or more social-emotional problems. Parents reported significantly more conduct problems (38% vs 16%; P youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire had better agreement with the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (n = 50) for any Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-identified problem for combined youth and foster-parent reports (93%), compared with youth report alone (54%) or parent report alone (71%). Although most youths in foster care have social-emotional problems, most have strengths as well. Youth and foster-parent perspectives on these problems differ. Systematic social-emotional screening in primary care that includes both youth and parent reports can identify youths who may benefit from services.

  9. 489 Music Education: A Vehicle for Fostering Positive Youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the outcome of youth's participation in music programs. The paper argues that .... decoding which is necessary for child's development. Involvement with music is ... in whichever way it involves some sort of movement. Youth. Youth is the time ...

  10. Youth transitioning out of foster care: an evaluation of a Supplemental Security Income policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Rukh-Kamaa, Aneer

    2013-01-01

    Youths with disabilities face numerous challenges when they transition to adulthood. Those who are aging out of foster care face the additional challenge of losing their foster care benefits, although some will be eligible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments after foster care ceases. However, the time needed to process SSI applications exposes those youths to a potential gap in the receipt of benefits as they move between foster care and SSI. We evaluate the effects of a 2010 Social Security Administration policy change that allows such youths to apply for SSI payments 60 days earlier than the previous policy allowed. The change provides additional time for processing claims before the applicant ages out of the foster care system. We examine administrative records on SSI applications from before and after the policy change to determine if the change has decreased the gap between benefits for the target population.

  11. Challenges in the Transition to Higher Education for Foster Care Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Megan Hayes

    2018-01-01

    This chapter acknowledges the contextual considerations in preparation and success in higher education and establishes a foundation of knowledge for researchers, educators, and practitioners to support foster youth in community college settings.

  12. Trauma-Informed Care for Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Carolyn M

    2016-06-01

    For decades, evidence has shown an undeniable connection between childhood trauma and chronic adverse reactions across the lifespan (Bilchik & Nash, 2008; Perry, 2001; Perry, 2006). Childhood traumatic experiences are associated with serious and persistent, long-term physical, psychological, and substance abuse issues. In addition to adverse effects on physical health, research indicates that early childhood trauma has particularly adverse effects on adolescent self-esteem, coping skills, school performance, self-regulation, critical thinking, self-motivation, and the ability to build healthy relationships (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). A traumatic event is a dangerous or distressing experience, outside the range of usual human experience that overwhelms the capacity to cope and frequently results in intense emotional and physical reactions, feelings of helplessness and terror, and threatens serious injury or death (The National Child Traumatic Stress Network [NCTSNET], 2014). Approximately five million children each year in the United States experience some type of traumatic experience (Perry, 2006). Nationwide community studies estimate between 25% and 61% of children and adolescents have a history of at least one exposure to a potentially traumatic event and 38.5% of American adults claim to have experienced at least one traumatic event before the age of 13 (Briggs et al., 2012; Gerson & Rappaport, 2013). According to results of a 2002-2003 survey of 900 New York City adolescents, 24% reported a history of witnessing someone being shot, 12% reported exposure to someone being killed, and 51% reported witnessing someone being beaten or mugged (O'Connell et al., 2009). Each year, 2-3 million children are victims of maltreatment, a type of trauma, including physical and/or sexual abuse (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014; Perry, 2006). Compared to the general population, youth in foster care are significantly more likely to have experienced

  13. Associations Between Maltreatment History and Severity of Substance Use Behavior in Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Brown, Shaquanna

    2016-09-22

    Substance use (SU) in youth remains a significant public health concern and a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in adolescents. The present study offers examination of the association between severity and chronicity of maltreatment history and SU in youth in foster care. Two hundred and ten (48% female) foster youth with a mean age of 12.71 years (SD = 2.95 years) completed surveys using an audio-computer-assisted self-interview program. Results revealed 31% of participants reported past-year SU, and substance users had a mean CRAFFT score of 3.43 (SD = 1.90). Reported age of SU onset was 11.08 years (SD = 2.21 years). The SU measurement model demonstrated excellent fit in this sample. Accounting for both youth age and youth placement type, the structural model with maltreatment predicting SU severity demonstrated strong model fit with a significant path between maltreatment and SU. Youth in residential facilities and older youth had higher rates of use than those residing in traditional foster home environments and younger youth. Findings provide additional support for the link between maltreatment experiences and SU severity in foster youth and suggest the need for screening and intervention services appropriate for this high-risk population. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Transactional Sex in Youth Aging out of Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. Methods: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants…

  15. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  16. Helping Former Foster Youth Graduate From College: Campus Support Programs in California and Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Perez, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The economic benefits of a college education are well documented; however, data from studies of young people transitioning out of foster care indicate that the college graduation rate for this population is very low. The child welfare system has traditionally done a poor job of encouraging foster youth to pursue postsecondary education. Although…

  17. Tuition Assistance Programs for Foster Youth Pursuing Postsecondary Education. 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Emily; Sarubbi, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Many students have concerns about the affordability of college, which may interfere with their potential success. However, foster care alumni have unique needs when making the transition into postsecondary enrollment. Compared to completion rates for the general population, postsecondary education outcomes for youth with foster care experience lag…

  18. Child Welfare-Involved Youth with Intellectual Disabilities: Pathways into and Placements in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…

  19. Successful Adaptation among Sudanese Unaccompanied Minors: Perspectives of Youth and Foster Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree; Bates, Laura; Rana, Meenal; Lee, Jung Ah

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the adaptation of unaccompanied Sudanese refugee minors resettled in the US. Seven years after resettlement, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 Sudanese youths and 20 foster parents regarding factors that contributed to successful adaptation. The youths emphasized personal agency and staying focused on getting an…

  20. Creating Access to Opportunities for Youth in Transition from Foster Care. An AYPF Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet

    2014-01-01

    What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…

  1. Emancipated Foster Youth's Transition from Care to Virginia Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shylan E.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was the experience of students who had successfully achieved the transition from foster care to enrollment in Virginia Community Colleges. The following questions guided the inquiry: How do students who are emancipating from foster care describe their transition to enrollment at one of the Virginia Community Colleges? What…

  2. Kinship foster care among African American youth: Interaction effects at multiple contextual levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufa, Anne K.; Fowler, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of kinship foster care on mental health outcomes among African American youth. Longitudinal data were used from a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents who were the subject of child protective services investigation from 1999 to 2000 (n=5,501). The secondary analyses focused on African American youth (n=225) placed into foster care. In structured interviews, current caregivers reported on youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors immediately following placement into out-of-home care and 18-months later. Path analysis tested a theoretical model that compared placements with kin to other formal out-of-home arrangements in context of setting characteristics, including aspects of caregiver and neighborhood disorder. Results suggested significant increases in internalizing symptoms over time for youth with more baseline mental health problems, as well as those placed in more distressed neighborhoods. Increased externalizing symptoms occurred among youth with greater baseline behavior problems, those placed in more problematic neighborhoods, and youth who experienced a placement change between assessments. Additionally, a combination of placement characteristics predicted increases in externalizing problems; youth placed in kinship foster care with older caregivers in poorer health exhibited greater increases in externalizing problems. Findings highlighted important contextual considerations for out-of-home placement among African American youth. PMID:26924865

  3. Timely Health Service Utilization of Older Foster Youth by Insurance Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Angelique; Curtis, Amy; Paul, Rajib; Allotey, Prince Addo; Crosby, Shantel

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a policy change for older foster care youth from a fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid program to health maintenance organization (HMO) providers on the timeliness of first well-child visits (health care physicals). A three-year retrospective study using linked administrative data collected by the Michigan Departments of Human Services and Community Health of 1,657 youth, ages 10-20 years, who were in foster care during the 2009-2012 study period was used to examine the odds of receiving a timely well-child visit within the recommended 30-day time frame controlling for race, age, days from foster care entry to Medicaid enrollment, and number of foster care placements. Youth entering foster care during the HMO period were more likely to receive a timely well-child visit than those in the FFS period (odds ratio, 2.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.84-3.29; p foster care during the FFS period to 29 days for the HMO period. Among the other factors examined, more than 14 days to Medicaid enrollment, being non-Hispanic black and having five or more placements were negatively associated with receipt of a timely first well-child visit. Those youth who entered foster care during the HMO period had significantly greater odds of receiving a timely first well-child visit; however, disparities in access to preventive health care remain a concern for minority foster care youth, those who experience delayed Medicaid enrollment and those who experienced multiple placements. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Foster care, externalizing disorders, and antipsychotic use among Medicaid-enrolled youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwerker, Lauren; Akincigil, Ayse; Olfson, Mark; Gerhard, Tobias; Neese-Todd, Sheree; Crystal, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which clinical diagnoses of externalizing disorders explain higher rates of antipsychotic use by foster care youths. Medicaid claims data from 44 states for 2009 for youths in foster care (N=301,894) and those not in foster care (N=5,092,574) were analyzed, excluding those with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, and major depressive disorder. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between foster care, externalizing disorders, and antipsychotic use. Foster care youths had higher rates of externalizing disorders than the comparison group (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, 17.3% versus 6.5%; disruptive behavior disorder, 7.2% versus 2.5%; conduct disorder, 2.3% versus .5%) and greater antipsychotic use (7.4% versus 1.4%). Foster care remained a significant predictor of antipsychotic use after control for demographic and diagnostic covariates, including externalizing disorders (adjusted odds ratio=2.59, 95% confidence interval=2.54-2.63). High rates of externalizing disorder diagnoses only partially explained elevated levels of antipsychotic use in this vulnerable population.

  5. Supporting the Dream: How California Community Colleges Are Responding to the Needs of Foster Youth on Their Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Laura Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation closely examines the experience of foster youth attending California community colleges and how campuses are responding to their educational needs. Foster youth have the least successful educational outcomes of any population of young Americans. They also represent one of the most vulnerable and academically at-risk populations…

  6. Maltreatment, Coping, and Substance Use in Youth in Foster Care: Examination of Moderation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Huffhines, Lindsay; Stone, Katie

    2018-05-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with negative outcomes such as substance use (SU). This study tested relations among maltreatment history, coping behavior, and SU behavior in youth residing in foster care. Participants were 210 youth ( M age = 12.71 years; SD = 2.95) in foster care who completed self-report measures through an audio computer-assisted self-interview program. Using a structural equation modeling framework and latent measurement constructs, positive associations were identified between maltreatment at baseline and coping behavior outcomes as well as SU behavior outcome approximately 4.5 months later. Specifically, greater severity and chronicity of maltreatment was associated with greater SU behavior as well as indirect action, prosocial, and asocial coping behavior. Maltreatment was not significantly related to direct action coping behavior. In moderation tests, only asocial coping provided a significant interaction effect for SU behavior outcomes; SU behavior did not moderate pathways between maltreatment and coping behavior. For youth in foster care, the coping approach may be varied and relate differentially to SU behavior outcomes, with asocial approaches to coping acting as a buffer for the maltreatment/SU relation. Additionally, SU remains an important target for intervention and prevention in youth residing in foster care.

  7. A Trauma-Informed Care Approach to Supporting Foster Youth in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Westland, Melinda A.; Mo, Elaine

    2018-01-01

    This chapter describes the ways that the trauma of childhood frames the academic, social, and personal lives of many foster youth as they navigate higher education. In particular, we focus on the role of homelessness, social network fragmentation, and abuse and neglect.

  8. Foster Youth Who Have Succeeded in Higher Education: Common Themes. Information Brief. Volume 7, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitt, Thomas; Emerson, John

    2008-01-01

    The publication is based on interviews conducted by Casey Family Programs with eight foster youth who graduated from college to learn their perspectives on going to college and obtaining a degree despite numerous barriers. This report presents fifteen major themes concerning college success and their general outlook on life. Their accomplishments…

  9. Building Policy Momentum for Foster Youth Support in Postsecondary Education. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarubbi, Molly; Parker, Emily; Sisneros, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Former foster youth pursuing a postsecondary credential have tended to be an often-overlooked student population. However, across the country, policymakers at the federal, state and institutional levels are creating policies to increase their access to higher education. Four states in particular--Colorado, Iowa, Oregon and Texas--have demonstrated…

  10. Barriers to Academic Achievement for Foster Youth: The Story behind the Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the perceptions of former and current foster youth about the barriers they encountered during their K-12 education, and to learn how they overcame these obstacles and achieved academic success. The study included in-depth interviews of 11 participants, all of whom were current or former…

  11. Educational Supports for Middle School Youths Involved in the Foster Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyre, Ashli D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite our knowledge of poor educational outcomes for youths in foster care, the literature on methods or models for addressing the needs of this vulnerable group of students remains extremely limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to describe a school-based educational support model that provides advocacy, tutoring, and…

  12. Mentoring and Social Skills Training: Ensuring Better Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Youth in foster care face significant life challenges that make it more likely that they will face negative outcomes (i.e., school failure, homelessness, and incarceration). While the reason(s) for out-of-home placement (i.e., family violence, abuse, neglect and/or abandonment) provide some context for negative outcomes, such negative outcomes…

  13. A pilot randomized trial teaching mindfulness-based stress reduction to traumatized youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Swanson, Dena; Gallegos, Autumn; Hilliard, Cammie; Blumkin, Aaron; Cunningham, Kendall; Heinert, Sara

    2015-08-01

    This article presents a pilot project implementing a mindfulness-based stress reduction program among traumatized youth in foster and kinship care over 10 weeks. Forty-two youth participated in this randomized controlled trial that used a mixed-methods (quantitative, qualitative, and physiologic) evaluation. Youth self-report measuring mental health problems, mindfulness, and stress were lower than anticipated, and the relatively short time-frame to teach these skills to traumatized youth may not have been sufficient to capture significant changes in stress as measured by electrocardiograms. Main themes from qualitative data included expressed competence in managing ongoing stress, enhanced self-awareness, and new strategies to manage stress. We share our experiences and recommendations for future research and practice, including focusing efforts on younger youth, and using community-based participatory research principles to promote engagement and co-learning. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: Protocol Registration System ID NCT01708291. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maltreatment histories of aging out foster youth: A comparison of official investigated reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy; Courtney, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    This study compared official investigated reports of child maltreatment with retrospective self-reports prior to and during out-of-home care for a sample of foster youth who reached the age of majority in out-of-home care in Illinois. Using matched administrative and self-reported data for 474 youth who completed a baseline interview in the Midwest Evaluation of Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (i.e. the Midwest study) at ages 17-18, and 386 youth who completed a follow up interview at age 19, this study finds that official reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care differ significantly. Findings from this study add insight into measurement discrepancies, and help to inform understanding of the extent of maltreatment experienced by this sub-sample of young people exiting out-of-home care in adulthood. Study findings have implications for independent living policy and practice in child welfare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Music Education: A Vehicle for Fostering Positive Youth Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the contemporary Nigerian society, many youths are faced with various challenges. The inability of these young people to cope with these challenges result in all-risk behavior such as lack of confidence, low self-esteem, low motivation, etc. Over the years, indulging in music program has proved to yield positive results in ...

  16. Measurement of Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes of Youth in Foster Care: Investigation of the Roles of Age and Placement Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Brown, Shaquanna

    2015-09-01

    The Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) is used to assess behavioral and emotional outcomes for youth. Research providing evidence for use of the BASC-2 parent-report form historically has included biological parents reporting on their children (Reynolds and Kamphaus 2004). For youth residing in out-of-home placements through enrollment in foster care, caregivers reporting on their functioning may include foster parents or residential staff. Given the significant adverse mental health outcomes for youth in foster care and the need to adequately assess adjustment in foster care, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the measurement properties of caregivers' report on the parent report form (PRS) of the BASC-2 in foster care youth. Using 479 respondents, a measurement model was fit to the data demonstrating adequate fit across Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Adaptive Skills. Further, a comparison of measurement properties across child and adolescent groups and groups of youth residing in residential facilities versus foster homes was conducted. Factorial invariance and latent means also were assessed. The BASC-2 PRS was found to be an adequate assessment of psychological outcomes for youth in foster care when completed by foster parents or residential facility staff.

  17. Celebrity endorsed music videos: innovation to foster youth health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Mukisa, R

    2018-06-11

    There are calls for innovation in health promotion and for current issues to be presented in new and exciting ways; in addition to creating engaging messages, novel ways to deliver health messaging are needed, especially where youth are the key target audience. When pupils in WHO Health Promoting Schools were asked what health messages would resonate with them, they also identified celebrities as the 'messengers' they would be particularly likely to listen to. Expanding on these discussions, the pupils quoted celebrity-recorded music videos containing health and lifestyle messaging as an example of where they had learned from celebrities. Their ability to sing phrases from the songs and repeat key health messages they contained indicated the videos had commanded attention and provided knowledge and perspectives that had been retained. We located on YouTube the video titles the pupils identified and evaluated the content, messaging and production concepts these celebrity-recorded music videos incorporated. All are good examples of the health promotion genre known as education entertainment, where educational content is intentionally included in professionally produced entertainment media to impart knowledge, create favorable attitudes and impact future behaviors. The importance of this genre is growing in parallel with the burgeoning influence of social media. Music videos resonate with youth, and celebrity recordings combine young people's love of music with their fascination for the aura of celebrity. Hence, producing videos that combine an effective health message with celebrity endorsement offers potential as an innovative conduit for health promotion messaging among youth.

  18. Child welfare caseworkers as service brokers for youth in foster care: findings from project focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Trupin, Eric W; Conover, Kate L; Berliner, Lucy

    2012-02-01

    Youth in the foster care system have substantially higher rates of mental health needs compared to the general population, yet they rarely receive targeted, evidence-based practices (EBPs). Increasingly emerging in the literature on mental health services is the importance of "brokers" or "gateway providers" of services. For youth in foster care, child welfare caseworkers often play this role. This study examines caseworker-level outcomes of Project Focus, a caseworker training and consultation model designed to improve emotional and behavioral outcomes for youth in foster care through increased linkages with EBPs. Project Focus was tested through a small, randomized trial involving four child welfare offices. Caseworkers in the Project Focus intervention group demonstrated an increased awareness of EBPs and a trend toward increased ability to identify appropriate EBP referrals for particular mental health problems but did not have significantly different rates of actual referral to EBPs. Dose of consultation was associated with general awareness of EBPs. Implications for practice and outcomes for youth are discussed.

  19. From Foster Care to College: The Seita Scholars Program at Western Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrau, Yvonne A.

    2011-01-01

    More than 32,000 young people in the United States exit the foster care system in a typical year by aging out to independence (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2011). Despite available financial support for post-secondary education through the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999, only 20% of college-qualified foster youth attend college and…

  20. Characteristics of the Social Support Networks of Maltreated Youth: Exploring the Effects of Maltreatment Experience and Foster Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; James, Adam; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the social support networks of maltreated youth or how youth in foster care may compare with those who remain with their parent(s). Social network characteristics and perceived social support were examined between (1) maltreated and comparison youth, (2) maltreated youth who remained with their biological parent, those with a foster parent, or a those with a kin caregiver, and (3) youth in stable placements and those who have changed placements. Data came from a sample of 454 adolescents (241 boys, 9-13 years old at enrollment) who took part in a longitudinal study of child maltreatment. Participants completed three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Results showed that on average, maltreated adolescents named significantly fewer people in their network than comparison adolescents. At Time 2, comparison adolescents reported more same-aged friends. In the maltreatment group, youth with a foster parent reported significantly more older friends than maltreated youth with a kin caregiver. Fewer maltreated youth named a biological parent on the social support questionnaire at all three time points. More youth in kinship care described their caregiver as supportive than those in foster care. These findings indicate that despite heterogeneous placement histories, social support networks among maltreated youth were very similar.

  1. Extended Foster Care for Transition-Age Youth: An Opportunity for Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Hammond, Ivy; Eastman, Andrea Lane; McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Webster, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This analysis examined California county birth rate variations among girls in foster care. The objective was to generate data to assess potential intervention points tied to federal legislation extending foster care beyond age 18 years. Child protection records for all adolescent girls in foster care at age 17 years between 2003 and 2007 (N = 20,222) were linked to vital birth records through 2011. The cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth by age 21 years was calculated by county and race/ethnicity. One in three (35.2%) adolescent girls in foster care had given birth at least once before age 21 years. Although significant birth rate variations emerged, even at the low end of the county range, more than one in four girls had given birth by age 21 years. Child welfare systems are now charged with coordinating transitional services for foster youth beyond age 18 years. Extended foster care provides new opportunities for pregnancy prevention work and targeted parenting support. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mental Health, Behavioral and Developmental Issues for Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Stephanie A; Lynch, Amy; Zlotnik, Sarah; Matone, Meredith; Kreider, Amanda; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Youth in foster care represent a unique population with complex mental and behavioral health, social-emotional, and developmental needs. For this population with special healthcare needs, the risk for adverse long-term outcomes great if needs go unaddressed or inadequately addressed while in placement. Although outcomes are malleable and effective interventions exist, there are barriers to optimal healthcare delivery. The general pediatrician as advocate is paramount to improve long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Phenomenological Study: The Lived Experience of Former Foster Youth Attending a Four-Year College in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dora Yiu Lam

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the lived experience of eight individuals attending a four-year college who were all part of a campus support program for former foster youth. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand and explore the lived experiences of these unique college students that have gone through the foster care system.…

  4. Extending Foster Care to Age 21: Weighing the Costs to Government against the Benefits to Youth. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Clark M.; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.; Pollack, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 allows states to claim federal reimbursement for the costs of caring for and supervising Title IV-E eligible foster youth until their 21st birthday. This issue brief provides preliminary estimates of what the potential costs to government and the benefits to young people…

  5. Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care. Issue Brief 1: Education Programs. OPRE Report No. 2014-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Smithgall, Cheryl; Courtney, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care and into adulthood need many supports to navigate the challenges they face. Over the past three decades, federal child welfare policy has significantly increased the availability of those supports. In 1999, the Foster Care Independence Act amended Title IV-E of the Social Security Act to create the Chafee…

  6. NikeGO: a Corporate-Sponsored Program to Increase Physical Activity and Foster Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Levin Martin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available NikeGO was initiated in 2002 by the Nike US Community Affairs Division to address a growing need: to provide youth a safe environment in which to be physically active. Nike collaborated with several organizations across the country and offered an array of programs to foster developmentally appropriate physical activity among youth through their influencers (e.g., teachers, coaches. These programs reached youth in underserved areas ranging from urban inner cities to rural Native lands through various channels and settings including schools, Boys and Girls Clubs, YMCA’s, youth sports organizations, and others. Objective and subjective measures were used to determine the reach of the program, the dose of physical activity, the “fun” level of the activities, changes in youths’ self-esteem and self-concept, and the likelihood of continued participation. Many older youth gained leadership skills in the process. Overall, the programs have been successful in reaching “hard to reach” youth and engaging them in the positive, developmentally sensitive, health behaviors.

  7. Infusing Culture into Practice: Developing and Implementing Evidence-Based Mental Health Services for African American Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; McBeath, Bowen

    2010-01-01

    The lack of culturally appropriate health and mental health care has contributed to the large number of African American youth and families involved in the child welfare system. This article reviews the consequences of the insufficient access to culturally sensitive, evidence-supported interventions for African American foster youth. The authors…

  8. Factors Influencing Risk of Homelessness among Youth in Transition from Foster Care in Oklahoma: Implications for Reforming Independent Living Services and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Brandon L; McDaniel, Jacqueline; Moxley, David; Salehezadeh, Zohre; Cahill, Alisa West

    Research suggests that youth aging out of foster care may be at higher risk of experiencing homelessness than other youth. Among this already at-risk population there may be certain characteristics that further exacerbate the risk. This paper uses data collected from various local and state agencies to further examine significant predictors of homelessness among youth who have aged out of foster care.

  9. The Use of Expressive Therapies and Social Support with Youth in Foster Care: The Performing Arts Troupe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra Holmes Greene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Performing Arts Troupe is a program that provides youth in foster care and youth from low income neighborhoods with expressive therapies and social support. The program is designed to assist youth in addressing the effects of trauma and developing competencies as they prepare to transition to adulthood. The article discusses the literature base for the program, the program activities and describes the impact of the program on youth through preliminary evaluations and case studies. The program offers an innovative combination of expressive therapies and social supports that has effectively met the needs of vulnerable youth.

  10. Labeling and the effect of adolescent legal system involvement on adult outcomes for foster youth aging out of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-09-01

    This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Using GIS to enhance programs serving emancipated youth leaving foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsche, Catherine J; Reader, Steven

    2012-02-01

    This article describes a GIS prototype designed to assist with the identification and evaluation of housing that is affordable, safe, and effective in supporting the educational goals and parental status of youth transitioning from foster care following emancipation. Spatial analysis was used to identify rental properties based on three inclusion criteria (affordability, proximity to public transportation, and proximity to grocery stores), three exclusion criteria (areas of high crime, prostitution, and sexual predator residence), and three suitability criteria (proximity to health care, mental health care, and youth serving organizations). The results were applied to four different scenarios to test the utility of the model. Of the 145 affordable rental properties, 27 met the criteria for safe and effective housing. Of these, 19 were located near bus routes with direct service to post-secondary education or vocational training programs. Only 6 were considered appropriate to meet the needs of youth who had children of their own. These outcomes highlight the complexities faced by youth when they attempt to find affordable and suitable housing following emancipation. The LEASE prototype demonstrates that spatial analysis can be a useful tool to assist with planning services for youth making the transition to independent living. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Longitudinal Assessment of Self-Harm Statements of Youth in Foster Care: Rates, Reporters, and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Hambrick, Erin P; Tunno, Angela M; Jackson, Yo; Spangler, Amanda; Kanine, Rebecca M

    2015-12-01

    Self-harm in youth is a risk factor related to mental health and future morbidity, yet, relatively little is known about the rates and course of self-harm in youth residing in foster care. This study examined self-harm talk in foster youth based on caregiver and child report for 135 children between the ages of 8- and 11-years old. Longitudinal data on course of self-harm talk from both youth and caregivers also are provided. Caregivers identified that 24% of youth participants had disclosed a desire to die or to hurt themselves. Youth self-report revealed that 21% of children indicated a desire for self-harm, and rates of self-harm from both reporters decreased over time. While overall rates were similar across reporters, findings show discrepancies between youth self-report and caregiver report within individuals. Also, caregivers for youth in residential facilities were more likely to report youth self-harm talk than caregivers from foster home settings.

  13. Development and feasibility of a sibling intervention for youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H; McBeath, Bowen; Lamson-Siu, Emilie; Webb, Sara Jade; Sorenson, Paul; Bowen, Hannah; Waid, Jeff; Bank, Lew

    2014-12-01

    Due to their ubiquity and possible influence on youth mental health, academic, and other outcomes, sibling-focused intervention strategies may be important for the development and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare. However, there is no rigorous evidence as to either the best methods for, or feasibility of, incorporating the sibling link within existing clinical treatments for foster youth. This paper applies the literature on evidence-based practices (EBP) and implementation research in child welfare to sibling-focused intervention; and presents data concerning the development, delivery, cost, and feasibility of a novel sibling-focused intervention program, Supporting Siblings in Foster Care (SIBS-FC). Results suggest that despite the challenges and costs involved with delivering SIBS-FC, the program catered to the diverse needs of pre-adolescent and adolescent siblings living together and apart, was viewed positively by youth, and was implemented with a high degree of fidelity. These findings underscore the importance of attending to the early-stage development of psychosocial interventions in child welfare and highlight the role of interagency collaboration, program planning, staff training and supervision, and fidelity tracking for EBP development in child welfare. Implications for prevention research and sibling-focused intervention programming in child welfare are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trajectories of depressive symptoms in foster youth transitioning into adulthood: the roles of emotion dysregulation and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Bailey, Brenda E; Santuzzi, Alecia M; Lilly, Michelle M

    2014-01-01

    Foster youth often experience considerable adversity both in and out of foster care, including histories of abuse and/or neglect, and further stressors within the foster system. These adverse experiences often occur at key developmental periods that can compromise emotional functioning and lead to posttraumatic symptomatology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotion dysregulation. In the face of difficult histories and ongoing mental health challenges, youth transitioning into adulthood may be particularly vulnerable to increases in depressive symptoms. We explored the trajectory of depressive symptoms in foster youth from age 17 to 19 using a piecewise linear growth model, examining the effects of PTSD and emotion dysregulation on youth's depressive symptoms over time. Results revealed depressive symptoms decreased from age 17 to 18 but increased from 18 to 19. PTSD and emotion dysregulation predicted greater baseline depressive symptoms and decreases in symptoms from age 17 to 18, whereas only PTSD predicted increases in depressive symptoms from 18 to 19. Females reported higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to males. Additionally, emotion dysregulation was a stronger predictor of depressive symptoms for females than males. Implications for service delivery for foster youth transitioning into adulthood are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Laboratory-Diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infections in Former Foster Youth Compared With Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.; McCarty, Carolyn; Simoni, Jane; Katon, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between having resided in foster care and risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) during young adulthood. METHODS Multiple regression analyses were performed by using Waves I to III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2002) to evaluate the association between foster care status and STI biomarkers and risk behaviors. Female (N = 7563) and male participants (N = 6759) were evaluated separately. Covariates in all models included baseline age, race, ethnicity, parental education level, parental income level, and average neighborhood household income level. RESULTS Female participants who had been in foster care were more likely to have Trichomonas (odds ratio [OR]: 3.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45–7.23) but not gonorrhea or chlamydia and reported increased sexual risk behaviors compared with nonfostered peers. Male participants who had been in foster care were more likely to have both gonorrhea (OR: 14.28 [95% CI: 2.07–98.28]) and chlamydia (OR: 3.07 [95% CI: 1.36–6.96]) but not Trichomonas and did not report a higher risk for most sexual risk behaviors than nonfostered peers. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest that individuals who have been in foster care are at increased risk for STIs during young adulthood. The pattern of exposure may differ between male and female individuals. If findings are confirmed, they suggest that health care providers who work with these youth should adjust their STI screening practices. Child welfare agencies should also consider targeted interventions to reduce STI risk in this population. PMID:20547646

  16. Mental health beliefs and barriers to accessing mental health services in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk for Arrest: The Role of Social Bonds in Protecting Foster Youth Making the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Gretchen Ruth; Havlicek, Judy R.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a sample of foster youth at the onset of the transition to adulthood and explores how social bonds are related to the risk of arrest during adulthood. Drawing from official arrest records, event history models are used to examine the time to arrest. Because individuals may be at risk for different types of crime, competing risk regression models are used to distinguish among arrests for drug-related, nonviolent, or violent crimes. Between the ages of 17–18 and 24, 46% of former foster youth experience an arrest. Arrests were evenly distributed across drug, nonviolent, and violent crimes columns. Although findings fail to support the significance of social bonds to interpersonal domains, bonds to employment and education are associated with a lower risk for arrest. Child welfare policy and practice implications for building connections and protections around foster youth are discussed. PMID:22239390

  18. Lives in Motion: A Review of Former Foster Youth in the Context of their Experiences in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy

    2011-01-01

    In light of the poor prospects facing many former foster youth during the transition to adulthood, it is surprising that so little attention has been given to substitute care contexts during child welfare system involvement. A review of child welfare research finds that many former foster youth go through an alarming number of placement changes and report a high rate of placement into congregate care settings and other unplanned events. Future research should take explicit account of substitute care contexts in designing and carrying out studies examining the adult outcomes of aging out foster care populations. Interventions intended to circumvent high rates of movement in foster care should also be broadened to target multiple aspects of substitute care contexts. PMID:21643470

  19. Association between childhood sexual abuse and transactional sex in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P; Courtney, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants were, on average, 17 years of age. Our outcome variables were self-report of having transactional sex ever and in the past year, when participants were an average age of 19 years. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA variables and transactional sex variables. Initial analyses were performed on both genders; exploratory analyses were then performed evaluating each gender separately. Total N=732; 574 were included in the main analyses. History of sexual molestation was significantly associated with increased odds of having transactional sex, both ever and in the past year (OR [95% CI]: 3.21 [1.26-8.18] and 4.07 [1.33, 12.52], respectively). History of rape was also significantly associated with increased odds of having had transactional sex ever and in the past year (ORs [95% CI]: 3.62 [1.38-9.52] and 3.78 [1.19, 12.01], respectively). Odds ratios in female-only analyses remained significant and were larger in magnitude compared with the main, non-stratified analyses; odds ratios in male-only analyses were non-significant and smaller in magnitude when compared with the main analyses. Both CSA variables were associated with increased likelihood of transactional sex. This association appears to vary by gender. Our results suggest that policymakers for youth in foster care should consider the unique needs of young women with histories of CSA when developing programs to support healthy relationships. Health care providers should also consider adapting screening and counseling practices to reflect the increased risk of transactional sex for female youth in foster care with a history

  20. An intervention to improve sibling relationship quality among youth in foster care: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H; McBeath, Bowen; Sorenson, Paul; Bank, Lew; Waid, Jeff; Webb, Sara Jade; Steele, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Sibling programming is an important part of a prevention framework, particularly for youth in foster care. After children are removed from their families and placed into foster care in the aftermath of maltreatment, the sibling relationship is often the most viable ongoing relationship available to the child, and may be critical to a youth's sense of connection, emotional support, and continuity. The promise of dyadic sibling programming in particular rests on the ability of interventions to enhance the quality of sibling relationships; yet little research exists that suggests that sibling interventions can improve relationship quality among foster youth. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a specific dyadic sibling-focused intervention for older and younger siblings on sibling relationship quality. One hundred sixty four dyads (328 youth) participated in the study, with each dyad consisting of an older sibling between 11 and 15 years of age at baseline and a younger sibling separated in age by less than 4 years. Hierarchical linear models were applied to self-reported, observer-reported and observational data over the 18-month study period. Findings suggest that the sibling intervention holds promise for improving sibling relationship quality among youth in foster care. Implications and future directions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Nations Children Teaching Self-Advocacy: An Exploration of Three Female Foster Youth's Perceptions regarding Their Preparation to Act as Self-Advocates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Emancipated foster youth must have real world opportunities to learn to become participating citizens through self-advocacy to create educational justice. Emancipation for foster youth occurs between the ages of 18-22 and it is a state's responsibility to provide continuous support through direct instruction in self-advocacy. The aim of states and…

  2. Foster Youth and Post-Secondary Education: A Study of the Barriers and Supports That Led to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the perceptions of former and current foster youth on the barriers, supports, helps, and strategies they encountered during their K-12 education, and to learn how these contributed to their ability to enroll in post-secondary education. The study included in-depth interviews of 11…

  3. Meaning-Making Dynamics of Emancipated Foster Care Youth Transitioning into Higher Education: A Constructivist-Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Jacob O.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored college transition meaning-making dynamics of emancipated foster care youth and the role campus environments play in that process. It adds to the college student development theoretical base by acknowledging the needs, goals, and values of disenfranchised college students transitioning into higher education. Emancipated foster…

  4. An Employment Training and Job Placement Program for Foster Youth Making the Transition to Adulthood in Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Havlicek, Judy

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study that used administrative data to better understand the need for employment-related services and supports among youth in foster care and how one community-based employment training and job placement program in Chicago is trying to address those needs. Among other things, the report describes the…

  5. "It's like pay or don't have it and now I'm doing without": the voice of transitional uninsured former foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszka, Bonnie J; Lindell, Deborah; Killion, Cheryl; Criss, Sam

    2012-02-01

    Twenty-four thousand American youth lose Medicaid entitlements after discharge from foster care annually. The circumstance of being uninsured is a formidable barrier to health care that leaves the youth vulnerable to unmet health care needs. Given that foster youth often develop physical and/or mental health problems as a result of abuse or neglect, continuous access to health care is especially important. This descriptive phenomenology study explores the lived experience of transitional uninsured former foster youth. Nine uninsured former foster youth were recruited from a nonprofit community organization in an urban county and interviewed using semistructured interviews. Four themes identified from the analysis were (a) "Surviving the real world": emancipation without essential documentation; (b) "It's not always going to be fine": managing mental and physical health without health care insurance; (c) "Roadblocks": barriers to securing health care insurance; and (d) "Just not knowing": Medicaid eligible albeit without health care insurance.

  6. Insights in public health: Building support for an evidence-based teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention program adapted for foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tamara; Clark, Judith F; Nigg, Claudio R

    2015-01-01

    Hawai'i Youth Services Network (HYSN) was founded in 1980 and is incorporated as a 501(c) (3) organization. HYSN plays a key role in the planning, creation, and funding of local youth services. One of HYSN's focuses is teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention among foster youth. Foster youth are at a greater risk for teen pregnancy and STI due to a variety of complex factors including instability, trauma, and emancipation from the foster care system. This article highlights how HYSN is leveraging both federal and local funding, as well as other resources, in order to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy and STI prevention program adapted for foster youth.

  7. Higher Education: Actions Needed to Improve Access to Federal Financial Assistance for Homeless and Foster Youth. Report to the Ranking Member, Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. GAO-16-343

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Homeless youth and youth in foster care are often unprepared for the transition to adulthood. Given the economic benefits of college, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to examine the college experiences of these vulnerable youth. GAO examined: (1) college enrollment and completion for foster and homeless youth; (2) the extent to…

  8. Preparing for a "Next Generation" Evaluation of Independent Living Programs for Youth in Foster Care: Project Overview. OPRE Report No. 2014-71

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Marla; Courtney, Mark E.; Pergamit, Michael R.; Lowenstein, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care and into adulthood need multiple supports to navigate the challenges they face. Over the past three decades, federal child welfare policy has significantly increased the availability of those supports. In 1999, the Chafee Foster Care Independence Program was created, increasing the amount of funds potentially…

  9. The Difficult Transition to Adulthood for Foster Youth in the US: Implications for the State as Corporate Parent. Social Policy Report. Volume XXIII, Number I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Although they make up a relatively small proportion of all children in the U.S. foster care system, foster youth approaching adulthood have over the years attracted considerable attention from policymakers. Three times in the past 25 years the Social Security Act has been amended to try to better support the transition to adulthood for foster…

  10. How do foster youth experience the impact of adverse childhood events?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Grietens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Foster children have been disproportionately exposed to traumatic events (Turney & Wildeman, 2017), which are perceived as important factors contributing to problems and specific needs they experience (Berrick & Skivenes, 2012; Bruskas, 2008). Despite the growing interest in the stories of foster

  11. Use of a brief standardized screening instrument in a primary care setting to enhance detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Halterman, Jill S; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Alpert-Gillis, Linda; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether systematic use of a validated social-emotional screening instrument in a primary care setting is feasible and improves detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care. Before-and-after study design, following a practice intervention to screen all youth in foster care for psychosocial problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a validated instrument with 5 subdomains. After implementation of systematic screening, youth aged 11 to 17 years and their foster parents completed the SDQ at routine health maintenance visits. We assessed feasibility of screening by measuring the completion rates of SDQ by youth and foster parents. We compared the detection of psychosocial problems during a 2-year period before systematic screening to the detection after implementation of systematic screening with the SDQ. We used chart reviews to assess detection at baseline and after implementing systematic screening. Altogether, 92% of 212 youth with routine visits that occurred after initiation of screening had a completed SDQ in the medical record, demonstrating high feasibility of systematic screening. Detection of a potential mental health problem was higher in the screening period than baseline period for the entire population (54% vs 27%, P youth had 2 or more significant social-emotional problem domains on the SDQ. Systematic screening for potential social-emotional problems among youth in foster care was feasible within a primary care setting and doubled the detection rate of potential psychosocial problems. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct Subgroups of Former Foster Youth during Young Adulthood: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Mark E.; Hook, Jennifer L.; Lee, JoAnn S.

    2012-01-01

    The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 ("Fostering Connections Act") fundamentally changed the nature of federal support for young people in state care by extending entitlement funding under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act to age 21 beginning in FY2011. While the Fostering Connections Act provides…

  13. Assessing Restrictiveness: A Closer Look at the Foster Care Placements and Perceptions of Youth With and Without Disabilities Aging Out of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Miranda; Dalton, Lawrence D.; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Orozco, Claudia Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the experience of restrictiveness among transition-aged youth with disabilities in foster care. Utilizing a sample of 207 youth, placement types were explored for differences in disability status, race and sex. Further, youth perceptions of restriction around communication, movement around one’s home, and access to the community were examined for youth receiving special education services (SPED), youth receiving developmental disability services (DD), and youth without disabilities. Youth with disabilities were more likely to be placed in more restrictive placement types and had significantly higher levels of perceived restriction around communication, movement, and community when compared to youth without disabilities. Additionally, males with disabilities experienced higher levels of restrictiveness, particularly those who received DD services, while White youth with disabilities also experienced greater community restrictiveness. PMID:24489523

  14. The Blind Men and the Elephant: Identification of a Latent Maltreatment Construct for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Tunno, Angela M.; Hambrick, Erin P.

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a major public health concern due to its impact on developmental trajectories and consequences across mental and physical health outcomes. Operationalization of child maltreatment has been complicated, as research has used simple dichotomous counts to identification of latent class profiles. This study examines a latent measurement model assessed within foster youth inclusive of indicators of maltreatment chronicity and severity across four maltreatment types: physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, and neglect. Participants were 500 foster youth with a mean age of 12.99 years (SD = 2.95 years). Youth completed survey questions through a confidential audio computer-assisted self-interview program. A two-factor model with latent constructs of chronicity and severity of maltreatment revealed excellent fit across fit indices; however, the latent constructs were correlated .972. A one-factor model also demonstrated excellent model fit to the data (χ2 (16, n = 500) =28.087, p =.031, RMSEA (0.012 – 0.062) =.039, TLI =.990, CFI =.994, SRMR =.025) with a nonsignificant chi-square difference test comparing the one- and two-factor models. Invariance tests across age, gender, and placement type also were conducted with recommendations provided. Results suggest a single-factor latent model of maltreatment severity and chronicity can be attained. Thus, the maltreatment experiences reported by foster youth, though varied and complex, were captured in a model that may prove useful in later predictions of outcome behaviors. Appropriate identification of both the chronicity and severity of maltreatment inclusive of the range of maltreatment types remains a high priority for future research. PMID:28254690

  15. “Getting out of downtown”: a longitudinal study of how street-entrenched youth attempt to exit an inner city drug scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban drug “scenes” have been identified as important risk environments that shape the health of street-entrenched youth. New knowledge is needed to inform policy and programing interventions to help reduce youths’ drug scene involvement and related health risks. The aim of this study was to identify how young people envisioned exiting a local, inner-city drug scene in Vancouver, Canada, as well as the individual, social and structural factors that shaped their experiences. Methods Between 2008 and 2016, we draw on 150 semi-structured interviews with 75 street-entrenched youth. We also draw on data generated through ethnographic fieldwork conducted with a subgroup of 25 of these youth between. Results Youth described that, in order to successfully exit Vancouver’s inner city drug scene, they would need to: (a secure legitimate employment and/or obtain education or occupational training; (b distance themselves – both physically and socially – from the urban drug scene; and (c reduce their drug consumption. As youth attempted to leave the scene, most experienced substantial social and structural barriers (e.g., cycling in and out of jail, the need to access services that are centralized within a place that they are trying to avoid, in addition to managing complex individual health issues (e.g., substance dependence. Factors that increased youth’s capacity to successfully exit the drug scene included access to various forms of social and cultural capital operating outside of the scene, including supportive networks of friends and/or family, as well as engagement with addiction treatment services (e.g., low-threshold access to methadone to support cessation or reduction of harmful forms of drug consumption. Conclusions Policies and programming interventions that can facilitate young people’s efforts to reduce engagement with Vancouver’s inner-city drug scene are critically needed, including meaningful

  16. Psychosocial pathways to sexually transmitted infection risk among youth transitioning out of foster care: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-10-01

    To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included (1) historical abuse and foster care experiences; (2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence; and (3) STI risk in young adulthood. We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race, and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual of .026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than five partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 years decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Interventions/policies that (1) address externalizing trauma sequelae; (2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships; and (3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exit-strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Palm, Anne-Mette; Sys Møller-Andersen, Camilla

    different empirical sources. To develop and extend an "exit-prototype" about conditions of importance for moving beyond a gang/criminal position, we have analyzed documents (from newspapers and books), involved ex-gang members, social workers and experts as co-researchers in interviews, "gang......This paper is about exit-strategies, constructing a theoretical and empirical informed analysis of current societal conditions that influence motor cycle gangs such as Hells Angels or Bandidos and other ‘wild' youth' possibilities and limitations for moving beyond criminal activities. We especially...... focus on the involved communities in the current Danish gang-conflict, which escalated with deadly killings in 2008, and thereby became a so called "gang-war". We will start out presenting different practice notions of exit, and we will extend and discuss understandings of "exit-strategies" by analyzing...

  18. Systems theory as a framework for examining a college campus-based support program for the former foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbe, Lisa; Randolph, Karen A; Yelick, Anna; Cheatham, Leah P; Groton, Danielle B

    2018-01-01

    Increased attention to former foster youth pursuing post-secondary education has resulted in the creation of college campus based support programs to address their need. However, limited empirical evidence and theoretical knowledge exist about these programs. This study seeks to describe the application of systems theory as a framework for examining a college campus based support program for former foster youth. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 program stakeholders including students, mentors, collaborative members, and independent living program staff. Using qualitative data analysis software, holistic coding techniques were employed to analyze interview transcripts. Then applying principles of extended case method using systems theory, data were analyzed. Findings suggest systems theory serves as a framework for understanding the functioning of a college campus based support program. The theory's concepts help delineate program components and roles of stakeholders; outline boundaries between and interactions among stakeholders; and identify program strengths and weakness. Systems theory plays an important role in identifying intervention components and providing a structure through which to identify and understand program elements as a part of the planning process. This study highlights the utility of systems theory as a framework for program planning and evaluation.

  19. Fostering Friendships: Supporting Relationships among Youth with and without Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer; Moss, Colleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are important not only to youth development but also to the growth and expansion of social networks. Although there has long been acknowledgment of this importance for youth, such relationships can be especially elusive for transition-age students with autism, intellectual disability, and other developmental disabilities. This article…

  20. Safeguarding children and youth in residential and foster care: Supporting healthy sexual development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Grandal*, Niels

    (in 2012) to report on sexual and physical violence, that raised awareness on the subject. The investigations showed that professionals perceive very few of the cases of sexual abuse in residential and foster care and in many cases the perpetrators turn out to be peers. This drew attention......In The Netherlands, Denmark and Scotland special awareness on the subject of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation was raised by national investigations on the prevalence and content of sexual abuse in residential and foster care. In Flanders (Belgium) it was the start of the so called Helpline 1712...... to a central issue: the incapability of professionals to support a healthy sexual development and discuss sexual behaviour with children and young people, their (foster) parents and other professionals. Sex is a subject that is not easily talked about and most professionals feel insecure about. Moreover...

  1. The Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Former Foster Youth Entering Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe to what degree foster care students perceive that the elements of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect their academic performance in postsecondary education. In addition, it was the purpose of this study to identify the perceived impacts of internal and external influences on…

  2. Exit Prostitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Theresa Dyrvig; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Christensen, Gunvor

    2015-01-01

    Dette midtvejsnotat omhandler projektet ”Exit prostitution”. Exit-projektet blev påbegyndt i april 2012 og løber til udgangen af 2015 og befinder sig i øjeblikket midtvejs i projektets afprøvningsfase. I projektet anvendes metoden Critical Time Intervention (CTI), der er en evidensbaseret...... til det. Exit-projektet er dermed en central socialpolitisk indsats overfor borgere i prostitution i det danske samfund. I dette notat belyser vi midtvejsresultater for, hvordan udviklingen er for de borgere, der er nået halvt igennem et CTI-forløb. I den afsluttende evaluering af projektet i 2015 vil...

  3. Architects, Captains, and Dreamers: Creating Advisor Roles that Foster Youth-Adult Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dana; Lewis, Tiffanie; Sanders, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    While research has documented the many ways in which student voice can enable educational change, the process of how adults can help to enable student voice is less clear. This article examines how adults new to working as advisors of student voice initiatives begin to develop partnerships with young people. Using a Youth-Adult Partnership…

  4. Untangling the relative contribution of maltreatment severity and frequency to type of behavioral outcome in foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yo; Gabrielli, Joy; Fleming, Kandace; Tunno, Angela M; Makanui, P Kalani

    2014-07-01

    Within maltreatment research, type, frequency, and severity of abuse are often confounded and not always specifically documented. The result is samples that are often heterogeneous in regard to maltreatment experience, and the role of the different components of maltreatment in predicting outcome is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify and test the potential unique role of type, frequency, and severity of maltreatment to elucidate each variable's role in predicting outcome behavior. Data from 309 youth in foster care (ages 8-22) and their caregivers were collected using the Modified Maltreatment Classification System and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC2), to measure maltreatment exposure and behavioral outcome respectively. A measurement model of the BASC2 was completed to determine model fit within the sample data. A second confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was completed to determine the unique contributions of frequency and severity of maltreatment across four types of abuse to externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behavior. The result of the CFA determined good fit of the BASC2 to the sample data after a few modifications. The result of the second CFA indicated that the paths from severity to externalizing behavior and adaptive behavior (reverse loading) were significant. Paths from frequency of abuse were not predictive of behavioral outcome. Maltreatment is a complex construct and researchers are encouraged to examine components of abuse that may be differentially related to outcome behavior for youth. Untangling the multifaceted nature of abuse is important and may have implications for identifying specific outcomes for youth exposed to maltreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Housing Trajectories for Youth Transitioning from Foster Care: Gender Differences from 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Robert G Iii; Reynolds, Andrew D; Crea, Ihomas M

    This study focuses on longitudinal housing trends for males and females among transitional youth who were participants of a transitional living program (2010 to 2014). Results indicate that young women were more likely to transition to secure independent housing than young men. Demographic characteristics, education, and employment predicted time to secure independent housing. Additionally, results indicate that more highly educated young women transitioned to independence at a faster rate than young men with lower education status.

  6. Exit prostitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Line; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Amilon, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Dette statusnotat for projektet ”Exit Prostitution” belyser de foreløbige resultater og tendenser for projektet. Exit Prostitution løb oprindeligt fra april 2012 til udgangen af 2015, men med en nylig forlængelse løber projektet til udgangen af 2016. Projektet befinder sig således i slutningen af...... afprøvet med succes i forhold til hjemløshed både nationalt og internationalt. Målet med anvendelsen af metoden i forhold til målgruppen for Exit Prostitution er, at borgere med prostitutionserfaring, som ønsker at ophøre med salg af seksuelle ydelser eller ønsker at opleve en forbedring af deres...

  7. Perspective: fostering biomedical literacy among America's youth: how medical simulation reshapes the strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James A; Oriol, Nancy E

    2008-05-01

    Medicine is a uniquely powerful platform for teaching science and ethics, technology and humanity, life and death. Yet, society has historically limited medical education to a select few, and only after an advanced course of premedical studies. In an era when biomedical literacy is increasingly viewed as a national imperative, the authors hypothesized that advanced instruction in medicine could be intellectually transformative among a broad range of young people. Using high-fidelity patient simulators, a group of college and high school students was immersed in a weeklong course designed to replicate the practice of modern medicine. On the basis of the students' reported experiences, the authors feel that patient simulation can foster forceful interest in the life sciences at an early age. Such efforts could catalyze a significant expansion of interest in biomedical science among students nationwide.

  8. 75 FR 23557 - National Foster Care Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... America A Proclamation Nearly a half-million children and youth are in foster care in America, all... promise of children and youth in foster care, as well as former foster youth. We also celebrate the professionals and foster parents who demonstrate the depth and kindness of the human heart. Children and youth...

  9. Child Maltreatment, Trauma, and Physical Health Outcomes: The Role of Abuse Type and Placement Moves on Health Conditions and Service Use for Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yo; Cushing, Christopher C; Gabrielli, Joy; Fleming, Kandace; O'Connor, Bridget M; Huffhines, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relations between abuse types, non-maltreatment-related trauma, and health service utilization in a sample of youth in foster care with and without chronic medical conditions. A total of 213 youth, aged 8-21 years, provided self-report of general trauma and abuse exposure. Medicaid claims for each child were collected from official state databases. Exposure to sexual abuse, neglect, or general trauma but not exposure to physical abuse or psychological abuse increased the rates of medical visits, while only general trauma increased medical hospitalizations.  Trauma types are not equally predictive of health care utilization for youth with chronic health conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Case file coding of child maltreatment: Methods, challenges, and innovations in a longitudinal project of youth in foster care☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffhines, Lindsay; Tunno, Angela M.; Cho, Bridget; Hambrick, Erin P.; Campos, Ilse; Lichty, Brittany; Jackson, Yo

    2016-01-01

    State social service agency case files are a common mechanism for obtaining information about a child’s maltreatment history, yet these documents are often challenging for researchers to access, and then to process in a manner consistent with the requirements of social science research designs. Specifically, accessing and navigating case files is an extensive undertaking, and a task that many researchers have had to maneuver with little guidance. Even after the files are in hand and the research questions and relevant variables have been clarified, case file information about a child’s maltreatment exposure can be idiosyncratic, vague, inconsistent, and incomplete, making coding such information into useful variables for statistical analyses difficult. The Modified Maltreatment Classification System (MMCS) is a popular tool used to guide the process, and though comprehensive, this coding system cannot cover all idiosyncrasies found in case files. It is not clear from the literature how researchers implement this system while accounting for issues outside of the purview of the MMCS or that arise during MMCS use. Finally, a large yet reliable file coding team is essential to the process, however, the literature lacks training guidelines and methods for establishing reliability between coders. In an effort to move the field toward a common approach, the purpose of the present discussion is to detail the process used by one large-scale study of child maltreatment, the Studying Pathways to Adjustment and Resilience in Kids (SPARK) project, a longitudinal study of resilience in youth in foster care. The article addresses each phase of case file coding, from accessing case files, to identifying how to measure constructs of interest, to dealing with exceptions to the coding system, to coding variables reliably, to training large teams of coders and monitoring for fidelity. Implications for a comprehensive and efficient approach to case file coding are discussed. PMID

  11. Psychosocial Pathways to Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Risk Among Youth Transitioning Out of Foster Care: Evidence from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to STI risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included: 1) historical abuse and foster care experiences, 2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence, and 3) STI risk in young adulthood. Methods We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Results Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual of 0.026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than 5 partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Conclusions Interventions/policies that: 1) address externalizing trauma sequelae, 2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships, and 3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. PMID:23859955

  12. The Educational Professional: The Educational Experiences that Enhanced and Impeded the Academic Outcome of Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    A child in foster care is often categorized as a student at risk for school failure. However, children in foster care face a unique challenge in that most have been involuntarily separated from their biological parent and/or family. The schools must work in collaboration with the child to provide the necessary supports to achieve better…

  13. After Foster Care and Juvenile Justice: A Preview of the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Ravett, Sara; Jacobs, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Young people who are leaving the foster care and juvenile justice systems often experience a difficult transition to adulthood that is characterized by a number of troubling outcomes, including poverty, low levels of education and employment, and housing instability. While some services are available for these populations, there is little evidence…

  14. Listening to the Voices of Children in Foster Care: Youths Speak out about Child Welfare Workforce Turnover and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Kollar, Sharon; Trinkle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare workforce turnover rates across private and public child welfare agencies are concerning. Although research about the causes of child welfare workforce turnover has been plentiful, empirical studies on the effects of turnover on child outcomes are sparse. Furthermore, the voices and experiences of youths within the system have been…

  15. Fostering Cultural Humility among Pre-Service Teachers: Connecting with Children and Youth of Immigrant Families through Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Darren; Lianne, Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article documents a community-initiated service-learning project within a teacher education program. A social justice model guided the initiative to raise critical awareness on power and privilege while countering deficit-model thinking. Partnering with community agencies serving immigrant children and youth, the faculty researcher worked…

  16. Thinking about a reader's mind: fostering communicative clarity in the compositions of youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Michael; Peskin, Joan; San Juan, Valerie

    2013-10-01

    A critical component of effective communication is the ability to consider the knowledge state of one's audience, yet individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty representing the mental states of others. In the present study, youth with high-functioning ASD were trained to consider their reader's knowledge states in their compositions using a novel computer-based task. After two training trials, participants who received visual feedback from a confederate demonstrated significantly greater communicative clarity on the training measure compared to a control group. The improvements from training transferred to similar and very different tasks, and were maintained approximately 6 weeks post-intervention. These results provide support for the sustained efficacy of a rapid and motivating communication intervention for youth with high-functioning ASD.

  17. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care as a Preventive Intervention to Promote Resiliency Among Youth in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Fisher, Philip A.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Demographic trends indicate that a growing segment of families is exposed to adversity such as poverty, drug use problems, caregiver transitions, and domestic violence. Although these risk processes and the accompanying poor outcomes for children have been well-studied, little is known about why some children develop resilience in the face of such adversity, particularly when it is severe enough to invoke child welfare involvement. This paper describes a program of research involving families in the child welfare system. Using a resiliency framework, evidence from four randomized clinical trials that included components of the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program is presented. Future directions and next steps are proposed. PMID:19807861

  18. Fostering accurate HIV/AIDS knowledge among unmarried youths in Cameroon: do family environment and peers matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsala Dimbuene, Zacharie; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy

    2011-05-19

    The last three decades have seen a series of HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. However, youths still have a mixture of correct and incorrect HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Previous studies have identified parents and peers as the most important socializing agents for youths. This paper assesses the relationships between family structure, family/peer communication about sexuality and accurate knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Data were drawn from the Cameroon Family Life and Health Survey (CFHS) conducted in 2002. The CFHS collected information on a representative sample of 4950 people aged 10 years and over nested within 1765 selected households from the 75 localities forming the administrative prefecture of Bandjoun, using detailed questionnaires about family, HIV/AIDS/STDs knowledge, sexual behaviors, contraception, health, media exposure, household assets and neighborhood characteristics. The survey cooperation rates were high (97%). For the purpose of this study, a sub-sample of 2028 unmarried youths aged 12-29 years was utilized. Overall, 42% of respondents reported accurate knowledge of documented HIV transmission routes whereas 21% of them had inaccurate knowledge such as AIDS can be transmitted through mosquito bites or casual contact with an infected person. Only 9% of respondents were knowledgeable about all HIV prevention strategies. Multivariate analyses showed that family structure, communication with parents/guardians and peers about sexual topics were significantly associated with accurate HIV knowledge. Additionally, age, education, sexual experience and migration had significant effects on accurate knowledge. Finally, living in poor households and disadvantaged neighborhoods significantly increased inaccurate knowledge of HIV transmission modes and prevention strategies. This paper evidenced the limited effects of HIV interventions/programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, few

  19. Fostering accurate HIV/AIDS knowledge among unmarried youths in Cameroon: Do family environment and peers matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuate Defo Barthelemy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last three decades have seen a series of HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. However, youths still have a mixture of correct and incorrect HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Previous studies have identified parents and peers as the most important socializing agents for youths. This paper assesses the relationships between family structure, family/peer communication about sexuality and accurate knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Methods Data were drawn from the Cameroon Family Life and Health Survey (CFHS conducted in 2002. The CFHS collected information on a representative sample of 4 950 people aged 10 years and over nested within 1 765 selected households from the 75 localities forming the administrative prefecture of Bandjoun, using detailed questionnaires about family, HIV/AIDS/STDs knowledge, sexual behaviors, contraception, health, media exposure, household assets and neighborhood characteristics. The survey cooperation rates were high (97%. For the purpose of this study, a sub-sample of 2 028 unmarried youths aged 12 - 29 years was utilized. Results Overall, 42% of respondents reported accurate knowledge of documented HIV transmission routes whereas 21% of them had inaccurate knowledge such as AIDS can be transmitted through mosquito bites or casual contact with an infected person. Only 9% of respondents were knowledgeable about all HIV prevention strategies. Multivariate analyses showed that family structure, communication with parents/guardians and peers about sexual topics were significantly associated with accurate HIV knowledge. Additionally, age, education, sexual experience and migration had significant effects on accurate knowledge. Finally, living in poor households and disadvantaged neighborhoods significantly increased inaccurate knowledge of HIV transmission modes and prevention strategies. Conclusions This paper evidenced the limited

  20. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  1. Exit or revival?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The answer given by the international representative at the colloquium:'nuclear: exit or revival? ' was tending towards the revival. The international, democratic, ecological and of energy policy stakes are tackled. (N.C.)

  2. An Examination of Differences between Promotion Rates of Third Grade Youth in Foster Care: A Study on One-to-One Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Josette R.

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative research study analyzed archival data to determine if there was a significant difference in promotion rates from third to fourth grade between students in foster care who received one-to-one tutoring and those students in foster care who did not receive one-to-one tutoring over two school years. This study also analyzed student…

  3. 45 CFR 1356.71 - Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE... foster care and the eligibility of foster care providers in title IV-E programs. 1356.71 Section 1356.71... § 1356.71 Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

  4. Health care quality measures for children and adolescents in Foster Care: feasibility testing in electronic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C; Nacion, Kristine M; Leonhart, Karen; Cooper, Jennifer N; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2018-02-22

    Preventive quality measures for the foster care population are largely untested. The objective of the study is to identify healthcare quality measures for young children and adolescents in foster care and to test whether the data required to calculate these measures can be feasibly extracted and interpreted within an electronic health records or within the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System. The AAP Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care served as the guideline for determining quality measures. Quality measures related to well child visits, developmental screenings, immunizations, trauma-related care, BMI measurements, sexually transmitted infections and depression were defined. Retrospective chart reviews were performed on a cohort of children in foster care from a single large pediatric institution and related county. Data available in the Ohio Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System was compared to the same population studied in the electronic health record review. Quality measures were calculated as observed (received) to expected (recommended) ratios (O/E ratios) to describe the actual quantity of recommended health care that was received by individual children. Electronic health records and the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System data frequently lacked important information on foster care youth essential for calculating the measures. Although electronic health records were rich in encounter specific clinical data, they often lacked custodial information such as the dates of entry into and exit from foster care. In contrast, Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System included robust data on custodial arrangements, but lacked detailed medical information. Despite these limitations, several quality measures were devised that attempted to accommodate these limitations. In this feasibility testing, neither the electronic health records at a single institution nor the county level Statewide

  5. Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E; Snyder, Anastasia R; Jang, Bohyun Joy

    2015-06-01

    Young adults commonly exit from and return to the parental home, yet few studies have examined the motivation behind these exits and returns using a life course framework. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the authors examined associations between mental health problems and economic characteristics and exits from (n = 8,162), and returns to (n = 6,530), the parental home during the transition to adulthood. The average age of the respondents was 24 years. The authors found evidence that mental health and economic characteristics were related to home leaving and returning. Emotional distress was associated with earlier exits from, and returns to, the parental home; alcohol problems were associated with earlier returns to the parental home. The findings regarding economic resources were unexpectedly mixed. Greater economic resources were linked to delayed exits from, and earlier returns to, the parental home. The implications of these findings for young adults are discussed.

  6. Entry and Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    1. Introduction R Analyses of industrial competition have attained a new vigor with the application of game -theoretic methods. The process of... competition is represented in models that reflect genuine struggles for entry, market power, and continuing survival. Dynamics and informational effects are...presents a few of the models developed recently to study competitive processes that affect a firm’s entry into a market , and the decision to exit. The

  7. Health insurance coverage and use of family planning services among current and former foster youth: implications of the health care reform law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-04-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population.

  8. Exit by Afghanisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Hasse

    USA’s exit-strategi fra Afghanistan har båret præg af et italesat hovedmål om overdragelse af ansvar til de nationale myndigheder i landet. Exit-strategien udmærker sig ved sin lighed med USA’s afvikling af sit engagement i Vietnam for snart et halvt århundrede siden, hvor begrebet Vietnamisation...... om national selvbestemmelse. Den amerikanske opinion spillede en afgørende rolle og afslutningen af engagementet i Vietnam kan i lige så høj grad ses som en reaktion på den massive folkelige modstand mod krigen. Omtrent 40 år efter kan Obama-administrationen notere sig en lignende negativ trend i...... Kissinger vidste, at krigen i Vietnam var tabt. Vietnamisation havde i høj grad til formål at slutte USA’s engagement på en måde, der tog hensyn til USA’s internationale renomme. Spørgsmålet er så om de mange strategiske ligheder kan overføres til samme konklusion: krigen er tabt. Briefet har til hensigt...

  9. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  10. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  11. Exit Polls and Voter Turnout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Jensen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    After the 2009 referendum on a proposed change to the Danish Law of Succession, it was widely claimed that the early publication of exit poll results changed the rate of turnout and eventually the outcome. We investigate this claim and contribute to the wider debate on the implications of exit...... polls by setting up and analyzing a formal model. We find that the introduction of an exit poll influences the incentive to vote both before and after the poll is published, but the signs of the effects are generally ambiguous. The observation that exit polls influence the incentive to vote even before...

  12. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  13. Perceived social environment and adolescents' well-being and adjustment: Comparing a foster care sample with a matched sample

    OpenAIRE

    Farruggia, SP; Greenberger, E; Chen, C; Heckhausen, J

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that former foster care youth are at risk for poor outcomes (e.g., more problem behaviors, more depression, lower self-esteem, and poor social relationships). It is not clear, however, whether these findings reflect preemancipation developmental deficits. This study used 163 preemancipation foster care youth and a matched sample of 163 comparison youth. Results showed that foster-care youth did not differ from the comparison sample on measures of well-being,...

  14. Parental Perceptions of Participation in 4-H Beef, Sheep and Swine Livestock Projects and the Fostering of Life Skill Development in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Heavner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Beef, sheep and swine 4-H youth livestock projects have a great deal of hands-on learning opportunities for members. However, what are parents’ perceptions about livestock projects and the development of life skills? The purpose of this research effort was to determine the life skill development gained by 4-H members participating in 4-H beef, sheep or swine projects in West Virginia. A total of 207 caregivers offered insight into the study and answered life skill development questions. These questions were related to decision making, relating to others, developing and maintaining records, accepting responsibility, building positive self esteem, self motivation, knowledge of the livestock industry, developing organizational skills, problem solving, developing oral communication skills, setting goals, developing self-discipline, and working in teams. The findings of this study provide positive insights into the relationship between the development of valuable life skills and 4-H beef, sheep and swine projects.

  15. 77 FR 4336 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment on the Study of: Housing for Youth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment on the Study of: Housing for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care AGENCY... information: Title of Proposal: Housing for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care. OMB Control Number: XXXX-pending... serving youth aging out of foster care, and why or why not; and for those PHAs that are serving youth, to...

  16. Fostering excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, William; Kendall, Claire; Muggah, Elizabeth; Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Ziebell, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed A key priority in primary health care research is determining how to ensure the advancement of new family physician clinician investigators (FP-CIs). However, there is little consensus on what expectations should be implemented for new investigators to ensure the successful and timely acquisition of independent salary support. Objective of program Support new FP-CIs to maximize early career research success. Program description This program description aims to summarize the administrative and financial support provided by the C.T. Lamont Primary Health Care Research Centre in Ottawa, Ont, to early career FP-CIs; delineate career expectations; and describe the results in terms of research productivity on the part of new FP-CIs. Conclusion Family physician CI’s achieved a high level of research productivity during their first 5 years, but most did not secure external salary support. It might be unrealistic to expect new FP-CIs to be self-financing by the end of 5 years. This is a career-development program, and supporting new career FP-CIs requires a long-term investment. This understanding is critical to fostering and strengthening sustainable primary care research programs. PMID:24522688

  17. Can Mentors Channeling Youthful Minority and Female Students into Optical Sciences be Funded and Fostered by Use of Mc Leod's Patent-pending Naturoptics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Beatriz; Ferreira, Nadja; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-04-01

    We wish to begin the repair of impaired youthful vision, using methods taught by Roger D. Mc Leod, to his adult associates for their own, restricted, personal use. Certain nations could benefit if we are able extend the development of franchise-protected and pending patent-protected methods around the globe. We prefer concentrating our initial efforts among young minority and female students, particularly those involving some indigenous heritage. This approach will be using applied optics/Naturoptics and other applied mathematics/sciences as corrective and financially motivational driving tools. Funding, accessible without time-consuming red tape, could be from money generated by Naturoptics , at a rate, for initially visually-impaired mentors, who will learn the method, free, as they are repaired. Mentored teaching will earn an equivalent of half the usual rate of 95 per individual initial 25-minute session, provided that there are satisfactory non-disclosure agreements. Improvements are guaranteed, on Snellen charts, or other equivalent vision charts, of one line per session, after the beginning visit, or the session is free. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.3

  18. The Fostering Academics Mentoring Excellence Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Angelique; Riebschleger, Joanne; Wen, Jiebing

    2018-01-01

    Precollege outreach programs improve college access for underrepresented students; however, information on foster youth engagement in precollege programs is virtually nonexistent. This chapter describes the impact of a precollege program on two- and four-year college enrollment and completion rates.

  19. Improving Educational Outcomes for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christina; Kabler, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Recent statistics estimate that there are 783,000 children living in foster care in the United States. This vulnerable population is at risk for academic failure as well as internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Compared to their peers, foster youth face significant educational difficulties, including lower levels of academic…

  20. 29 CFR 1917.122 - Employee exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee exits. 1917.122 Section 1917.122 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.122 Employee exits. (a) Employee exits shall be clearly marked. (b) If an employee exit is not visible from employees' work stations, directional signs...

  1. The Multiple Roles that Youth Development Program Leaders Adopt with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kathrin C.

    2011-01-01

    The roles that program leaders establish in their relationships with youth structure how leaders are able to foster youth development. This article examines the complex roles program leaders create in youth programs and investigates how they balanced multiple roles to most effectively respond to the youth they serve. Analyses of qualitative data…

  2. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export, and market exit is typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. We show that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework...

  3. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  4. Exit Planning At Joost El

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case focuses on an owner-manager's considerations regarding his exit. Carsten Joost established Joost El in 2005. It currently employs 10 people. He has two sons but no intention to hand over the business to them. Rather, he hopes that his key employee eventually...

  5. 45 CFR 1356.30 - Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive home providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... licensing file for that foster or adoptive family must contain documentation which verifies that safety... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive... ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND...

  6. Information and Exit: Do Accountability Ratings Help Families Choose Schools? Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 09-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Does public information about school quality lead parents to sort their children out of schools with relatively poor performance? Use of this exit option in response to information about school quality has the potential to indirectly foster school responsiveness to quality concerns. To determine whether this information affects student exit, I…

  7. 77 FR 26565 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing for Youth Aging Out of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care AGENCY: Office of the... providing housing for youth aging out of foster care. A survey will be administered to all public housing... or not their program is currently serving youth aging out of foster care, and why or why not; and for...

  8. Planning a mentorship initiative for foster parents: Does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay Miller, J; Benner, Kalea; Thrasher, Shawndaya; Pope, Natalie; Dumas, Tamikia; Damron, Larry J; Segress, Melissa; Niu, Chunling

    2017-10-01

    Despite the use of mentoring programs in fields such as business, career training, and youth development, little is known about how mentoring can be used to train and support new foster parents. This paper describes how Concept Mapping was used with current foster parents to develop a conceptual framework suitable to plan a foster parent mentor program. A secondary aim of this study was to explore priority differences in the conceptualization by self-reported gender (foster mothers vs. foster fathers). Participant data was collected via three qualitative brainstorming sessions, and analyzed using non-metric multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. Findings indicate that foster parents participating in this study conceptualized effective mentor programs via a seven cluster solution. Study results also showed no significant differences in cluster ratings by gender. Implications for practice and program planning are identified, as well as areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fostering Verbal and Non-Verbal Social Interactions in a 3D Collaborative Virtual Learning Environment: A Case Study of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders Learning Social Competence in iSocial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhui; Laffey, James; Xing, Wanli; Galyen, Krista; Stichter, Janine

    2017-01-01

    This case study describes the verbal and nonverbal social interaction of 11 youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a 3D Collaborative Virtual Learning Environment-iSocial. The youth were developing social competence through participation in a social competence intervention curriculum implemented online so as to provide access to high quality…

  10. Exit From the High Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bly, Sarah; Gwozdz, Wencke; Reisch, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    by focusing on a previously under-researched group of consumers – ‘sustainable fashion consumption pioneers’ who actively engage and shape their own discourse around the notion of sustainable fashion consumption. These pioneers actively create and communicate strategies for sustainable fashion behaviour...... of sustainable fashion including such key behaviours as purchasing fewer garments of higher quality, exiting the retail market, purchasing only second-hand fashion goods and sewing or upgrading their own clothing. Central to much of these behaviours is the notion that personal style, rather than fashion, can...... bridge the potential disconnect between sustainability and fashion while also facilitating a sense of well-being not found in traditional fashion consumption. As such, our research suggests that for these consumers sustainability is as much about reducing measurable environmental or social impacts...

  11. Firm Exit, Technological Progress and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in the new heterogeneous-firms trade literature. In fact, several of the predictions on firm survival and exit stemming from this new class of models are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productiv......The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in the new heterogeneous-firms trade literature. In fact, several of the predictions on firm survival and exit stemming from this new class of models are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher...... productivity firms survive longer, most firm closures are young firms, higher productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export compared to less productive exporters and market exits as well as firm closures are typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. The present paper shows...... liberalization on export market exit and firm closure....

  12. Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp; Lindskog, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it is easy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are run by independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous. In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attac...

  13. Can Medicaid Claims Validly Ascertain Foster Care Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Brown, Derek S; Allaire, Benjamin T

    2017-08-01

    Medicaid claims have been used to identify populations of children in foster care in the current literature; however, the ability of such an approach to validly ascertain a foster care population is unknown. This study linked children in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being-I to their Medicaid claims from 36 states using their Social Security numbers. Using this match, we examined discordance between caregiver report of foster care placement and the foster care eligibility code contained in the child's Medicaid claims. Only 73% of youth placed in foster care for at least a year displayed a Medicaid code for foster care eligibility. Half of all youth coming into contact with child welfare displayed discordance between caregiver report and Medicaid claims. Children with emergency department utilization, and those in primary care case management health insurance arrangements, had the highest odds of accurate ascertainment. The use of Medicaid claims to identify a cohort of children in foster care results in high rates of underascertainment. Supplementing administrative data with survey data is one way to enhance validity of ascertainment.

  14. Read full report, Youth employment in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But the quality of formal education in Tanzania is poor. Less than 12 percent ... NGOs offer a broad range of services and training for youth, including fostering ..... Service workers. 20.6 ..... customer/market validation training provided by profes-.

  15. Wealthy and Wise? Influence of Socioeconomic Status on the Community Adjustment of Previously Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Trent; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of the community adjustment of 531 youth exiting Oregon's juvenile justice system focused on youth categorized as being in either low or high socioeconomic status (SES) groups. The team gathered data before participants exited the corrections system and afterwards by telephone interviews. The study found no statistical…

  16. The psychosocial needs of children in foster care with a history of sexual abuse: Are they recognized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; Ellingsen, Ingunn; van der Steen, Stephanie; Grietens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Youth in family foster care who have experienced sexual abuse have specific psychosocial needs. However, youth themselves are rarely asked about their needs, and it is unknown if caretakers recognize these needs as such. Using Q-methodology, this study aimed to describe what youth consider their

  17. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

  18. Youth in Community Decision-Making: A Study of Youth-Adult Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Murdock

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Involving youth in community and organizational decision-making is widely believed to lead to stronger communities. A promising strategy to foster decision-making is youth-adult partnerships in which youth and adults work collaboratively, sharing their strengths, collective knowledge, and decision-making power. A qualitative study of eight youth organizations showed that those organizations employing youth-adult partnership strategies were most effective in increasing youth's contributions to their communities. This article explores the elements of youth-adult partnership that were evident among successful organizations including: mutual respect, meaningful roles for youth, unique contributions of adults and youth, and shared decision-making and implications for youth development programs.

  19. Exit selection strategy in pedestrian evacuation simulation with multi-exits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Hao; Zhang Bin-Ya; Shao Chun-Fu; Xing Yan

    2014-01-01

    A mixed strategy of the exit selection in a pedestrian evacuation simulation with multi-exits is constructed by fusing the distance-based and time-based strategies through a cognitive coefficient, in order to reduce the evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of exits or pedestrian layout, to find a critical density to distinguish whether the strategy of exit selection takes effect or not, and to analyze the exit selection results with different cognitive coefficients. The strategy of exit selection is embedded in the computation of the shortest estimated distance in a dynamic parameter model, in which the concept of a jam area layer and the procedure of step-by-step expending are introduced. Simulation results indicate the characteristics of evacuation time gradually varying against cognitive coefficient and the effectiveness of reducing evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of pedestrian or exit layout. It is found that there is a critical density to distinguish whether a pedestrian jam occurs in the evacuation and whether an exit selection strategy is in effect. It is also shown that the strategy of exit selection has no effect on the evacuation process in the no-effect phase with a low density, and that evacuation time and exit selection are dependent on the cognitive coefficient and pedestrian initial density in the in-effect phase with a high density. (general)

  20. Mentoring for Young People Leaving Foster Care: Promise and Potential Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Renee; Collins, Mary Elizabeth; Ward, Rolanda; Smashnaya, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Mentoring for youths transitioning out of the foster care system has been growing in popularity as mentoring programs have enjoyed unprecedented growth in recent years. However, the existing empirical literature on the conditions associated with more effective youth mentoring relationships and the potential for harm in their absence should give us…

  1. Dissuasive exit signage for building fire evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Joakim; Ronchi, Enrico; Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Nilsson, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    This work presents the result of a questionnaire study which investigates the design of dissuasive emergency signage, i.e. signage conveying a message of not utilizing a specific exit door. The work analyses and tests a set of key features of dissuasive emergency signage using the Theory of Affordances. The variables having the largest impact on observer preference, interpretation and noticeability of the signage have been identified. Results show that features which clearly negate the exit-message of the original positive exit signage are most effective, for instance a red X-marking placed across the entirety of the exit signage conveys a clear dissuasive message. Other features of note are red flashing lights and alternation of colour. The sense of urgency conveyed by the sign is largely affected by sensory inputs such as red flashing lights or other features which cause the signs to break the tendencies of normalcy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exit channels of autoionization resonances in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    In many-electron atoms with open shells strong autoionization resonances occur when an electron from an inner, weakly bound subshell is excited. Usually, the resonance state lies above several ionization thresholds and, hence, will decay into more than one exit or continuum channel. Several cases are discussed in which the resonance state is induced by synchrotron radiation, and the exit channels are differentiated and characterized by the analysis of the ejected electrons

  3. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  4. "How Can You Know? You're Not a Foster Child":

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, H.

    2006-01-01

    to give voice to foster children so that their knowledge about "the life as a child in foster care" could find its way to social workers and foster parents as well as politicians, thus influencing, democratizing and qualifying social work with children and youth in foster care. "Børneting" was established......Based on Axel Honneth's Theoty of Recognition and an empirical action research project entitled "Børnetinget" (Children's Parliament), conducted in Denmark by the author, this article discuss dilemmas and possibilities of giving voice to children in foster care. The Børnetinget project aimed...... with a core group of 15 foster children, aged 10-13, and a web-based "foster children's public forum". This article focuses on learning about participation from the Børnetinget experience, both as a model of participatory research practice and for the insights it provides in relation to how we understand...

  5. Multidimension Treatment Foster Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Hansen, Helle; Deding, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Dette notat er en kort opsamling af den nyeste forskning af effekterne af Multidimension Treatment Foster Care (herefter MTFC). SFI lavede i 2010 en oversigt over forskningen om effekterne af MTFC i forbindelse med udarbejdelsen af en projektbeskrivelse. Dette notat sammenfatter den nyeste...

  6. Exit from Synchrony in Joint Improvised Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assi Dahan

    Full Text Available Motion synchrony correlates with effective and well-rated human interaction. However, people do not remain locked in synchrony; Instead, they repeatedly enter and exit synchrony. In many important interactions, such as therapy, marriage and parent-infant communication, it is the ability to exit and then re-enter synchrony that is thought to build strong relationship. The phenomenon of entry into zero-phase synchrony is well-studied experimentally and in terms of mathematical modeling. In contrast, exit-from-synchrony is under-studied. Here, we focus on human motion coordination, and examine the exit-from-synchrony phenomenon using experimental data from the mirror game paradigm, in which people perform joint improvised motion, and from human tracking of computer-generated stimuli. We present a mathematical mechanism that captures aspects of exit-from-synchrony in human motion. The mechanism adds a random motion component when the accumulated velocity error between the players is small. We introduce this mechanism to several models for human coordinated motion, including the widely studied HKB model, and the predictor-corrector model of Noy, Dekel and Alon. In all models, the new mechanism produces realistic simulated behavior when compared to experimental data from the mirror game and from tracking of computer generated stimuli, including repeated entry and exit from zero-phase synchrony that generates a complexity of motion similar to that of human players. We hope that these results can inform future research on exit-from-synchrony, to better understand the dynamics of coordinated action of people and to enhance human-computer and human-robot interaction.

  7. Psychological impact of fostering on biological children of foster parents.

    OpenAIRE

    TÁBOROVÁ, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    Foster care is currently being discussed a great deal, in particular in connection with the planned shutdown of infant care centres. Currently it is preferred to place a child in foster care rather than in institutional care. However, attention should not only be paid to the children placed in foster families. The families that receive the children should also be given a lot of attention. Within a family, one cannot only consider the adults who will become foster parents for the placed childr...

  8. Kinship foster care and foster care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, J.; Zandberg, Tj.; Van der Meulen, B.F.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the similarities and differences between foster parents and kinship foster parents in the Netherlands. Both parents and caseworkers have filled out questionnaires for the purpose of this study. No evidence has been found to support the argument that kinship foster care holds

  9. A Social Semiotic Mapping of Voice in Youth Media: The Pitch in Youth Video Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Damiana Gibbons

    2017-01-01

    An ethics of youth media production is the interplay of identities, media literacy, and modality that shape the environment within which young people produce media, yet how "voice" is fostered and/or constrained in these environments could still be explored more fully. This paper stems from a larger qualitative study of how youth created…

  10. Lithuania 1940 / Herbert Foster Anderson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Foster Anderson, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Stseenid Leedu ennesõjaaegsest pealinnast Kaunasest briti ärimehe H. Foster Andersoni silme läbi 1940. aastal. Lühikokkuvõte raamatust: Foster Anderson, Herbert. Borderline Russia. London : Cresset press, 1942

  11. Tritium in Exit Signs | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Many exit signs contain tritium to light the sign without batteries or electricity. Using tritium in exit signs allows the sign to remain lit if the power goes out. Tritium is most dangerous when it is inhaled or swallowed. Never tamper with a tritium exit sign. If a tritium exit sign is broken, leave the area immediately and notify the building maintenance staff.

  12. Exploring the Reasons and Ways to Exit: The Entrepreneur Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parastuty, Zulaicha; Breitenecker, Robert J.; Schwarz, Erich J.; Harms, Rainer; Bögenhold, Dieter; Bonnet, Jean; Dejardin, Marcus; Garcia Perez de Lema, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurial exit has received growing attention recently, attributing to the importance of exit in the entrepreneurial process. Yet, the complex phenomena of exit render the research scattered in the field. This research is aimed at understanding entrepreneurial exit at the

  13. Jet Exit Rig Six Component Force Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Wolter, John; Woike, Mark; Booth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A new six axis air balance was delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center. This air balance has an axial force capability of 800 pounds, primary airflow of 10 pounds per second, and a secondary airflow of 3 pounds per second. Its primary use was for the NASA Glenn Jet Exit Rig, a wind tunnel model used to test both low-speed, and high-speed nozzle concepts in a wind tunnel. This report outlines the installation of the balance in the Jet Exit Rig, and the results from an ASME calibration nozzle with an exit area of 8 square-inches. The results demonstrated the stability of the force balance for axial measurements and the repeatability of measurements better than 0.20 percent.

  14. Engaging Foster Parents in Treatment: A Randomized Trial of Supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Evidence-based Engagement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D.; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and ...

  15. The Political Economy of Early Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... in the tradable sector, against a more traditional class-based logic of welfare state policy-making. Quantitative analysis of employment outcomes in 21 countries shows that the political economy of early exit clearly rests on the sectoral politics of cost-shifting.......Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... It is unclear, however, why early exit became so much more prevalent in some countries than in others and why such differences remain, despite a recent shift back towards higher employment rates and ‘active ageing’. We test a logic of sectoral cost-shifting politics involving cross-class alliances...

  16. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section and related to emergency evacuation provided by the certificate holder in printed or graphic form... include on passenger information cards, presented in the language in which briefings and oral commands are... passenger information cards, at each exit seat— (1) In the primary language in which emergency commands are...

  17. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency evacuation provided by the certificate holder in printed or graphic form or the ability to... accordance with this section. (d) Each certificate holder shall include on passenger information cards.... (e) Each certificate holder shall include on passenger information cards, at each exit seat— (1) In...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4530 - Exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... a sufficient number of exits to permit prompt escape in case of fire. ...

  19. Epigenetics as a First Exit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, E.; Sneppen, K.

    2002-01-01

    We develop a framework to discuss the stability of epigenetic states as first exit problems in dynamical systems with noise. We consider in particular the stability of the lysogenic state of the λ prophage. The formalism defines a quantitative measure of robustness of inherited states.

  20. The Impact of Student Services on First Year Persistence from Emancipated Foster Care Community College Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ralph Frederick, II

    2016-01-01

    The abysmal persistence to completion rate for at-risk student populations is a concern for higher education leaders; especially, emancipated foster care community college students. Multiple data sources indicate foster care youth are more likely to enroll at community colleges than four-year universities. For this reason, the first-year…

  1. Fostering Integrity in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    The responsible conduct of research requires that all involved in the research enterprise - researchers, sponsors, reviewers, publishers, and communicators - adhere to a set of integrity principles to protect the public's investment. Given the increasing complexity and globalization of the research enterprise, the National Academies recently re-examined and updated its integrity recommendations for researchers in the report Fostering Integrity in Research, with sponsorship from the National Science Foundation. Major departures from the previous recommendations 25-years earlier are the recognition that practices that were previously classified as merely questionable are indeed detrimental to the responsible conduct of research. Furthermore, the report concludes that there has been insufficient effort to respond to the threats that lapses in research integrity pose to the quality of research products and the reputation of researchers as deserving of the public trust. It recommends the creation of an independent, non-profit entity dedicated to promoting research integrity by serving as a resource and clearing house for expertise, advice, materials, and best practices on fostering research integrity and responding to allegations of research misconduct.

  2. Gamification in Fostering Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze gamification, as the method for fostering creativity.Design/methodology/approach – Author analyses the precognitions, which allowed gamification to attract mainstream attention, the diversity of understandings about the phenomenon, and the possible relations between usage of gamified platform and the development of creativity. The paper is based on the comparative analysis of scientific literature and related sources from sociology, business, and entertainment. The engagement is analyzed through the theories of self-determination and the “flow”. Creativity is understood as “any act, idea, or product that changes an existing domain, or that transforms an existing domain into a new one” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996. Gamification is analyzed as “use of game design elements in non-game context” (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, and Nacke (2011. Findings – Although the gamification is gaining more public attention, there is a lack of studies which would reveal its relations in fostering creativity. One of the main goals of any gamified platform is to raise the engagement of the participant while keeping subject interested in the process or activity. In some cases, there is a relation between “flow” and creativity. However, the strength of this relationship depends from the users of gamified content and the domain of interest.Research limitations / implications – There are very few empirical studies which would support correlation between experiencing the “flow” state and a raise of creativity. This issue requires more surveys, which would ground the idea.Practical implications – By developing further research in usage of gamification while fostering creativity it is possible to determine, whether or not the “creative domains” should apply more measures of gamification in their activities.Value – The article emphasizes on theoretical analysis of gamification and its applicability in fostering creativity

  3. Growing Plants and Scientists: Fostering Positive Attitudes toward Science among All Participants in an Afterschool Hydroponics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants…

  4. FOSTERING ADOLESCENTS' INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. ..... communication problems (Akinade, 1988, Aremu, 1998, Ojekunle, 1999, .... Restructuring on the Enhancement of Self Esteem of Visually Impaired.

  5. Turbine-missile casing exit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Sliter, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plant designers are required to provide safety-related components with adequate protection against hypothetical turbine-missile impacts. In plants with a ''peninsula'' arrangement, protection is provided by installing the turbine axis radially from the reactor building, so that potential missile trajectories are not in line with the plant. In plants with a ''non-peninsula'' arrangement (turbine axis perpendicular to a radius), designers rely on the low probability of a missile strike and on the protection provided by reinforced concrete walls in order to demonstrate an adequate level of protection USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.115). One of the critical first steps in demonstrating adequacy is the determination of the energy and spin of the turbine segments as they exit the turbine casing. The spin increases the probability that a subsequent impact with a protective barrier will be off-normal and therefore less severe than the normal impact assumed in plant designs. Two full-scale turbine-missile casing exit tests which were conducted by Sandia Laboratories at their rocket-sled facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are described. Because of wide variations in turbine design details, postulated failure conditions, and missile exit scenarios, the conditions for the two tests were carefully selected to be as prototypical as possible, while still maintaining the well-controlled and well-characterized test conditions needed for generating benchmark data

  6. Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  7. Fostering collective intelligence education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Meza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New educational models are necessary to update learning environments to the digitally shared communication and information. Collective intelligence is an emerging field that already has a significant impact in many areas and will have great implications in education, not only from the side of new methodologies but also as a challenge for education. This paper proposes an approach to a collective intelligence model of teaching using Internet to combine two strategies: idea management and real time assessment in the class. A digital tool named Fabricius has been created supporting these two elements to foster the collaboration and engagement of students in the learning process. As a result of the research we propose a list of KPI trying to measure individual and collective performance. We are conscious that this is just a first approach to define which aspects of a class following a course can be qualified and quantified.

  8. 14 CFR 25.809 - Emergency exit arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... moveable door or hatch in the external walls of the fuselage, allowing an unobstructed opening to the... event of failure of the primary system. Manual operation of the exit (after failure of the primary... during flight. (i) Each emergency exit must have a means to retain the exit in the open position, once...

  9. Youth and social change in Jordan and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Petersen, Marie Juul

    2007-01-01

    The Middle East has recently witnessed the rise of Muslim youth movements with an activist agenda. This article shows that these movements prove particularly attractive to urban upper middle class youth for whom religious engagement is about fostering the collective good as well as about self-emp...

  10. Predictors of Early Childbirth Among Female Adolescents in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bryn; Van Wert, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010. Rates of childbirth among girls in foster care after their 10th birthday were generated. Chi-square tests assessed differences and survival models were specified to determine the rate of childbearing across key characteristics. Among the 30,339 girls who spent time in foster care as adolescents, 18.3% (5,567) gave birth for the first time before their 20th birthday. At a bivariate level, significant differences (p foster care placement experiences. In the fully adjusted survival model, the highest birth rates were observed among girls who entered care between ages 13 and 16 years; had been in care for relatively short periods of time; lived in congregate care at the estimated date of conception; had a history of running away; and were Latina, black, or Native American. The results suggest that there are identifiable risk factors associated with early childbirth among girls in foster care, which can help determine the timing and location of reproductive health services to minimize unintended pregnancy and maximize adolescent health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Despair: Identifying the Precursors to Indian Youth Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy; Tomren, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Discusses suicide among American Indian youth. Examines Indian youth suicide rates, general characteristics of Indian suicides, behavioral characteristics and environmental stresses, guidelines for planning interventions, the use of American Indian culture to engage at-risk youth, and the high risk status of Indian foster children in non-Indian…

  12. Long-Term Mentors' Perceptions of Building Mentoring Relationships with At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy Ann; Newman-Thomas, Cathy; Stormont, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Youth mentoring, defined within this study, as the pairing of a youth at risk with a caring adult, is an intervention that is often used for youth at risk for academic and social failure. We sought to understand mentors' perspectives of the fundamental elements that foster positive mentor--mentee relationships that build resiliency and increase…

  13. Empowering youth sport environments: Implications for daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A.M. Fenton

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Fostering more empowering youth sport environments may hold implications for the prevention of excess adiposity, through encouraging higher habitual MVPA engagement. Findings may inform the optimal design of youth sport settings for MVPA promotion, and contribute towards associated healthy weight maintenance amongst youth active in this context. Longitudinal and intervention studies are required to confirm these results.

  14. Foster home integration as a temporal indicator of relational well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waid, Jeffrey; Kothari, Brianne H; McBeath, Bowen M; Bank, Lew

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to identify factors that contribute to the relational well-being of youth in substitute care. Using data from the [BLIND] study, youth responded to a 9-item measure of positive home integration, a scale designed to assess the relational experiences of youth to their caregivers and their integration into the foster home. Data were collected from youth in six month intervals, for an 18-month period of time. Latent growth curve modeling procedures were employed to determine if child, family, and case characteristics influenced youth's home integration trajectories. Results suggest stability in youth reports of home integration over time; however, children who were older at the time of study enrollment and youth who experienced placement changes during the period of observation experienced decreased home integration during the 18-month period. Results suggest youth's perspectives of home integration may in part be a function of the child's developmental stage and their experiences with foster care placement instability. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  15. Cultivating Resilience in Families Who Foster: Understanding How Families Cope and Adapt Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Cynthia A; Julien-Chinn, Francie J; Geiger, Jennifer M; Hayes Piel, Megan

    2016-12-01

    Families who foster offer essential care for children and youth when their own parents are unable to provide for their safety and well-being. Foster caregivers face many challenges including increased workload, emotional distress, and the difficulties associated with health and mental health problems that are more common in children in foster care. Despite these stressors, many families are able to sustain fostering while maintaining or enhancing functioning of their unit. This qualitative study applied an adaptational process model of family resilience that emerged in previous studies to examine narratives of persistent, long-term, and multiple fostering experiences. Data corroborated previous research in two ways. Family resilience was again described as a transactional process of coping and adaptation that evolves over time. This process was cultivated through the activation of 10 family strengths that are important in different ways, during varied phases. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  16. A Foster Care Alumna’s Past and Present Technological Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesia Roche

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on technology use and access among youth raised in non-traditional family structures indicates that the youth’s experiences are different from individuals raised in traditional family structures. Foster care represents a non-traditional family structure that warrants research attention in terms of technology. Using a multicultural feminist framework, the present study explores the past and present technological experience of a woman (30 years old who was raised in the foster care system. The results are presented as a case study documenting her technological experience in foster care, as she transitioned out of the foster care system, and as she has taken on the roles of wife and mother. Results indicated that the participant had limited access to technology while in the foster care system, and this limited technology access related to her current use and perceptions of technology. Directions for future research are provided.

  17. A smooth exit from eternal inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The usual theory of inflation breaks down in eternal inflation. We derive a dual description of eternal inflation in terms of a deformed Euclidean CFT located at the threshold of eternal inflation. The partition function gives the amplitude of different geometries of the threshold surface in the no-boundary state. Its local and global behavior in dual toy models shows that the amplitude is low for surfaces which are not nearly conformal to the round three-sphere and essentially zero for surfaces with negative curvature. Based on this we conjecture that the exit from eternal inflation does not produce an infinite fractal-like multiverse, but is finite and reasonably smooth.

  18. Growth-promoting relationships with children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Renée; Rhodes, Jean E

    2014-12-01

    At the heart of afterschool programs are the relationships that form between the children and youth who participate in these programs and the adults who lead them. To be effective, adults working in afterschool settings must be able to engage youth in growth-promoting relationships. This article identifies and describes four foundational ways of interacting with youth that foster the development of such relationships-engaging in warm and emotionally supportive connections, providing developmentally appropriate structure and support, cultivating and responding to youth initiative, and scaffolding and propelling youth learning and skill development. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  19. Fostering employee involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, G P

    1997-11-01

    Every year, the ODA's Economics of Practice Committee, with the help of an independent consulting firm, carries out the Cost of Practice Monitor which tracks the various costs of running a dental practice in Ontario. This article is the result of a joint ODA-Arthur Andersen initiative to provide members with detailed information from the Monitor. Over the next year, there will be a series of articles published under the heading "Best practises for Ontario's Dental Practices." The article featured in this issue focuses on wage expenses in dental practices and how to foster employee involvement as a means of addressing cost-productivity issues. Furthermore, information relating to wage expenses may be used by practitioners to benchmark their practice against the average Ontario dental practice. Appendix C was developed for this purpose. Through benchmarking, the practitioner may gain insight into ways of evaluating their practice and in addressing issues that could improve the management of the practice. For a long time, concepts of best business practises were applied only to manufacturing organizations or large multi-national corporations but experience has demonstrated that these activities are universal to all organizations, including service companies, schools, government and not-for-profit organizations.

  20. Creating Programs for Africa's Urban Youth : The Challenge of Marginalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sommers, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Urban youth constitute the vanguard of Africa's twinned demographic transformations. Sub-Saharan Africa's youth population growth rate is the highest of any world region (North Africa's rate is also high). In addition, Africa's urban growth rate is the world's highest. Taken together, the need to provide adequate, effective support for urban youth is critical to fostering Africa's development – and its political, social and economic stability. This article is designed to help address this nee...

  1. Probability evolution method for exit location distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinjie; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Xianbin

    2018-03-01

    The exit problem in the framework of the large deviation theory has been a hot topic in the past few decades. The most probable escape path in the weak-noise limit has been clarified by the Freidlin-Wentzell action functional. However, noise in real physical systems cannot be arbitrarily small while noise with finite strength may induce nontrivial phenomena, such as noise-induced shift and noise-induced saddle-point avoidance. Traditional Monte Carlo simulation of noise-induced escape will take exponentially large time as noise approaches zero. The majority of the time is wasted on the uninteresting wandering around the attractors. In this paper, a new method is proposed to decrease the escape simulation time by an exponentially large factor by introducing a series of interfaces and by applying the reinjection on them. This method can be used to calculate the exit location distribution. It is verified by examining two classical examples and is compared with theoretical predictions. The results show that the method performs well for weak noise while may induce certain deviations for large noise. Finally, some possible ways to improve our method are discussed.

  2. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  3. Do Video Games Promote Positive Youth Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    We argue that video game play may meet Larson's (2000) criteria for fostering initiative in youth, and thus, may be related to positive outcomes such as flow, cooperation, problem solving, and reduced in-group bias. However, developmental and social psychologists examining adolescent video game use have focused heavily on how video games are…

  4. Psychosocial Needs of Children in Foster Care and the Impact of Sexual Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Annemarie; Ellingsen, Ingunn; van der Steen, Stephanie; Grietens, Hans

    Children in family foster care, especially those who have experienced sexual abuse, require a safe and nurturing environment in which their psychosocial needs are met. However, there is limited knowledge on how youth prioritize various needs and what impact previous experiences have on these needs.

  5. "Making Kind Cool": Parents' Suggestions for Preventing Cyber Bullying and Fostering Cyber Kindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Wanda; Brown, Karen; Jackson, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Cyber bullying among youth is rapidly becoming a global phenomenon, as educators, parents and policymakers grapple with trying to curtail this negative and sometimes devastating behavior. Since most cyber bullying emanates from the home computer, parents can play an important role in preventing cyber bullying and in fostering a kinder online…

  6. A Functional Approach to Reducing Runaway Behavior and Stabilizing Placements for Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hewitt B.; Crosland, Kimberly A.; Geller, David; Cripe, Michael; Kenney, Terresa; Neff, Bryon; Dunlap, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Teenagers' running from foster placement is a significant problem in the field of child protection. This article describes a functional, behavior analytic approach to reducing running away through assessing the motivations for running, involving the youth in the assessment process, and implementing interventions to enhance the reinforcing value of…

  7. Factors Affecting Youth Voice in Decision-Making Processes within Youth Development Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Tarifa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of a study aimed at determining the factors affecting the level of inclusiveness of youth voice in the decision-making process of the 4-H youth development program are discussed in this paper. State and field level 4-H professionals identified potential factors which affect youth voice in the decision-making process. The information gathered was utilized to identify the degree to which youth voice was incorporated in the decision-making process, to better understand how to suit youth’s needs, identify promising practices, and diagnose barriers towards fostering youth voice within the 4-H youth development program. This feature article presents the findings of the study, and discusses potential ramifications and remedies.

  8. Adversity, emotion recognition, and empathic concern in high-risk youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi A Quas

    Full Text Available Little is known about how emotion recognition and empathy jointly operate in youth growing up in contexts defined by persistent adversity. We investigated whether adversity exposure in two groups of youth was associated with reduced empathy and whether deficits in emotion recognition mediated this association. Foster, rural poor, and comparison youth from Swaziland, Africa identified emotional expressions and rated their empathic concern for characters depicted in images showing positive, ambiguous, and negative scenes. Rural and foster youth perceived greater anger and happiness in the main characters in ambiguous and negative images than did comparison youth. Rural children also perceived less sadness. Youth's perceptions of sadness in the negative and ambiguous expressions mediated the relation between adversity and empathic concern, but only for the rural youth, who perceived less sadness, which then predicted less empathy. Findings provide new insight into processes that underlie empathic tendencies in adversity-exposed youth and highlight potential directions for interventions to increase empathy.

  9. Spatial signals link exit from mitosis to spindle position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jill Elaine; Tsuchiya, Dai; Verdaasdonk, Jolien; Lacefield, Soni; Bloom, Kerry; Amon, Angelika

    2016-05-11

    In budding yeast, if the spindle becomes mispositioned, cells prevent exit from mitosis by inhibiting the mitotic exit network (MEN). The MEN is a signaling cascade that localizes to spindle pole bodies (SPBs) and activates the phosphatase Cdc14. There are two competing models that explain MEN regulation by spindle position. In the 'zone model', exit from mitosis occurs when a MEN-bearing SPB enters the bud. The 'cMT-bud neck model' posits that cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT)-bud neck interactions prevent MEN activity. Here we find that 1) eliminating cMT- bud neck interactions does not trigger exit from mitosis and 2) loss of these interactions does not precede Cdc14 activation. Furthermore, using binucleate cells, we show that exit from mitosis occurs when one SPB enters the bud despite the presence of a mispositioned spindle. We conclude that exit from mitosis is triggered by a correctly positioned spindle rather than inhibited by improper spindle position.

  10. Towards A Model of Identity and Role Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S. Milne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Explanations of role exit often focus on how factors associated with a specific role that affect whether the individual will exit a role or not. Other research explains how identities affect our performance in a role. However, no one has yet to demonstrate the connection between role-set factors and identities, and role exit. Using data from a survey of 940 current and former soccer referees, this paper provides a model of role exit that involves a complex of processes that include role-set factors (structural and cultural factors associated with a specific role and identity processes. Specifically, this paper demonstrates that, other than role conflict, identity processes explain the relationship between role-set factors and role exit. The model provides a beginning method for understanding the connection between identities and role exit.

  11. An Identity Theory of Role Exit among Soccer Referees

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Jason Syme

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how identity processes affect role exit. I test a model of role exit that situates the identity processes of cognitive processes (reflected appraisals and social comparisons), rewards and costs related to the role, commitment to the role, and identity centrality as mediating factors between role-set and social characteristic background factors, and role exit. Using a sample of 940 current and former soccer referees in Virginia and the District of Columbia, the results s...

  12. How the biological children of foster parents accept their new foster siblings and fostering of their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Kristýna

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis discusses how the biological children of foster parents accept their new foster siblings and fostering of their parents from the view of the foster parents. The aim of this work is to find out if and how the biological children accept their new foster siblings, what are their relationships like, what are the problematic aspects of these relationships and how to prevent them.

  13. Understanding international exit from a non-economic and emotional perspective: the case of Taiwanese entrepreneurs exit China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yangpei

    2015-01-01

    I investigate why Taiwanese entrepreneurs who have invested in China exit. Viewed from the non-economic perspective, there are three main themes in this thesis. Theme A focuses on the non-economic variables in international exit. Theme B examines how incident-generated emotions shape entrepreneur’s actions in internationalization. Theme C presents an overview of the decision-making of international exit, summarizing the finding in Theme A and Theme B and revisiting the theor...

  14. Personal Perspectives on Providing Services to Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Kenyon L.

    2018-01-01

    Utilizing an academic capital framework and student perspectives, this chapter provides insight into the ways that programs and services can help students develop the skills needed to succeed in college.

  15. Strengthening Policies for Foster Youth Postsecondary Attainment. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarubbi, Molly; Parker, Emily; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary education in the United States has historically been the bedrock of individual social mobility and collective economic growth. Toward that end, policies at the state and federal levels have for decades sought to expand the reach of postsecondary education so as to provide individuals and communities with pathways to prosperity.…

  16. Analysis of unexpected exits using the Fokker - Planck equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herwaarden, van O.A.

    1996-01-01


    In this thesis exit problems are considered for stochastic dynamical systems with small random fluctuations. We study exit from a domain in the state space through a boundary, or a specified part of the boundary, that is unattainable in the underlying deterministic system. We analyze

  17. Going, Going, Gone. Innovation and Exit in Manufacturing Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Cefis (Elena); O. Marsili (Orietta)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the effect of innovation on the risk of exit of a firm, distinguishing between different modes of exits. Innovation represents a resource and a capability that helps a firm to build competitive advantage and remain in the market. At the same time, the resources and

  18. Exit and Voice: Organizational Loyalty and Dispute Resolution Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares workplace dispute resolution strategies (exit, voice and toleration) in matched pairs of conventional and worker-owned cooperative organizations operating in three industries--coal mining, taxicab driving and organic food distribution. Building on Hirschman's classic exit, voice and loyalty thesis, this research demonstrates…

  19. Core exit thermocouple upgrade at Zion station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulinski, T.M.; Ferg, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Three Mile Island accident, the ability of the core exit thermocouple (CET) system to monitor reactor core conditions and core cooling status became a requirement of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Since the thermocouple system at Zion station was not originally required for postaccident monitoring, Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) committed to upgrading the CET system and to installing a subcooling margin monitoring (SMM) system. The significance of this commitment was that CECo proposed to accomplish the upgrade effort using internal resources and by developing the required in-house expertise instead of procuring integrated packages from several nuclear steam supply system vendors. The result was that CECo was able to demonstrate a number of new capabilities and unique design features with a significant cost savings. These included a qualified connector with an integral thermocouple cold-reference junction temperature compensation; the design, assembly, testing, and installation of a seismically qualified class 1E microprocessor; a commercial-grade dedication/upgrade process for safety-related hardware; a human factors review capability, and a verification and validation program for safety-related software. A discussion of these new capabilities and details of the design features is presented in this paper

  20. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.

  1. Exit examinations, peer academic climate, and adolescents' developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D

    2013-02-01

    Implications of high school exit examination performance were examined with a sample of 672 racial/ethnic minority students. Exit examination failure in the 10th grade was negatively linked to subsequent grade point average, school engagement, and school belonging one year later, controlling for outcomes prior to taking the examination. Academically incongruent students-those who failed the exit examination but were in schools where their same-race/ethnicity peers were performing well academically-seemed to be at particular risk for struggling grades and poorer socioemotional well-being (e.g., experiencing greater depressive symptoms and loneliness). Findings contribute to the limited research base on exit examinations and highlight the links between exit examination performance and developmental outcomes beyond the oft-studied academic domain. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Is the publication of exit poll results morally permissible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    This article is about exit polls. It addresses the question of whether or not it is morally permissible to publish exit poll results. The conclusion of the article is that an affirmative answer should be given to this question. In section 2, the master argument in favor of the moral permissibility...... of the publication of exit poll results is introduced. This is a strong argument. It is, however, argued that it might be the case that the conclusion of this argument should be rejected if there are other, and weightier, arguments against the idea that the publication of exit poll results is morally permissible....... In section 3, the strongest arguments against the moral permissibility of the publication of exit poll results are outlined and discussed. The conclusion of this section is that all these arguments fail in their intended purpose. The conclusion of the article is therefore justified....

  3. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    results suggest that different exit modes can be predicted by business owners’ entry route. Furthermore, different exit modes exhibit different duration dependence patterns according to the entry mode. Additionally, the paper shows that businesses started after a displacement episode are not necessarily......This paper reports a comprehensive study on the dynamics of nascent business owners using a unique longitudinal matched employer–employee dataset. We follow over 157,000 individuals who leave paid employment and become business owners during the period 1992–2007. The contributions of this paper...... are twofold. First, we analyze both entry and exit, identifying and characterizing different profiles of individuals leaving paid employment to become business owners, and distinguishing exits by dissolution from exits by ownership transfer. Second, we provide new evidence on how particular experiences...

  4. Reported Hyperphagia in Foster Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demb, Janet M.

    1991-01-01

    Foster children (age 0-14, n=190) referred for mental health evaluations were compared to a subsample of 10 children identified as hyperphagic. These children displayed hyperactivity and poor impulse control, interpersonal skills, and communication skills. Mothers exhibited a high incidence of drug/alcohol abuse. Hyperphagia should alert…

  5. Homelessness: The Foster Care Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    Roughly 600,000 families are homeless today in America, while over 2.7 million children are in foster care or out-of-home placements. Few policymakers have examined these issues together, or understood that they are interrelated and must be addressed jointly to break the cycle of family disintegration, violence, and poverty. A recent survey by the…

  6. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  7. Fostering Creativity through Personalized Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Mika; Vaidya, Ashwin

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the philosophy of creativity and its enhancement through an undergraduate research experience. In this paper we offer suggestions for infusing the undergraduate mathematics and science curriculum with research experiences as a way of fostering creativity in our students. We refer to the term "research" broadly,…

  8. Child welfare services involvement among the children of young parents in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high rate of early parenthood among youth in foster care as well as the increased risk of child maltreatment among children whose adolescent parents have been neglected or abused, very little is known about child welfare services involvement among children whose parents were in foster care when they were born. This study uses administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) to examine the occurrence of child abuse and neglect investigations, indicated reports and out of home care placements among the children of youth in foster. Thirty-nine percent of the children were the subject of at least one CPS investigation, 17 percent had at least one indicated report and 11 percent were placed in out of home care at least once before their 5th birthday. Cox proportional hazard models are also estimated to identify characteristics of parenting foster youth and their placement histories associated with the risk of child welfare services involvement. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceived benefits and proposed solutions for teen pregnancy: qualitative interviews with youth care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustani, Maya Mroué; Frazier, Stacy L; Hartley, Chelsey; Meinzer, Michael; Hedemann, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine youth care workers' perceptions of the specific and unique sexual health needs of youth at risk for foster care. Semistructured interviews were conducted with youth care workers (N = 10) at a shelter for youth in or at risk for foster care. Youth care workers perceive that youth have unique experiences and needs related to sexual health programming and pregnancy prevention. Reflecting a great deal of family dysfunction, 3 themes emerged that revealed perceived benefits of teen pregnancy: youths' effort to prove themselves as adults, opportunity to secure their relationship with a partner, and desire to create an emotional connection with a baby. Lack of knowledge and accumulation of risk factors were viewed as most problematic. Current pregnancy prevention programs assume teen pregnancies are unwanted and emphasize the costs of sexual risk taking. Current findings suggest that sexual health programming for youth in or at risk for foster care should account for 3 perceived benefits of teen pregnancy. New opportunities for improving the reach and effectiveness of intervention for youth in or at risk for foster care are discussed.

  10. 29 CFR 1910.36 - Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... construction requirements for exit routes. (a) Basic requirements. Exit routes must meet the following design... your workplace, consult NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code. (c) Exit discharge. (1) Each exit discharge... route must be adequate. (1) Exit routes must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor...

  11. The sexuality of young women with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A neglected focus in the American foster care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballan, Michelle S; Freyer, Molly Burke

    2017-07-01

    Youths with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) are overrepresented in the American foster care system and experience heightened rates of pregnancy compared to their nondisabled peers. Yet limited information is known about sexually active or pregnant young women with ID/DD in foster care. Consequently, important healthcare needs of this population are not adequately addressed. This article explores sexuality education and sexual healthcare for female adolescents in foster care with ID/DD and recommends practice guidelines to support and prepare their emergent sexual development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Planned and unplanned terminations of foster care placements in the Netherlands: Relationships with characteristics of foster children and foster placements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, F.; Maaskant, A.; Weijers, I.; Weijers, D.; Hermanns, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of placement and child characteristics in the unplanned termination of foster placements. Data were used from 169 foster children aged 0 to 20. Results showed that 35% of all foster placement terminations were unplanned. Outcomes of logistic regression analyses

  13. The determinants of firm exit in the French food industries

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Pierre; Mathieu, Claude

    2012-01-01

    A semi-parametric approach is used to estimate firm propensity to exit. The unobserved individual productivity of a firm is first estimated using the Ackerberg et al. (2006) approach and then introduced as a determinant of firm exit in conjunction with other variables that may serve as barriers to exit, including the firm’s level of sunk costs and the industry concentration. Using an unbalanced panel of data for 5,849 firms in French food industries from 1996 to 2002, we find a signifi...

  14. IPO as an Exit startegy in Management Buyouts

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth, Vidhi Chetan

    2008-01-01

    The basic subject to this research project is,IPO as an exit strategy in management buyouts. The paper provides with an understanding of the various characteristics and factors that have an impact on a buyout exit through an IPO. Discussions on the issues like the IPO versus other exit strategies, performance of a company's pre-IPO as well as post-IPO, the trends in the buyout and the IPO market, etc are done. For a better understanding and an in-depth knowledge about the topic, we have analy...

  15. How youth get engaged: grounded-theory research on motivational development in organized youth programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed

    2011-01-01

    For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were conducted with 100 ethnically diverse youth (ages 14–21) in 10 urban and rural arts and leadership programs. Qualitative analysis focused on narrative accounts from the 44 youth who reported experiencing a positive turning point in their motivation or engagement. For 38 of these youth, this change process involved forming a personal connection. Similar to processes suggested by self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), forming a personal connection involved youth's progressive integration of personal goals with the goals of program activities. Youth reported developing a connection to 3 personal goals that linked the self with the activity: learning for the future, developing competence, and pursuing a purpose. The role of purpose for many youth suggests that motivational change can be driven by goals that transcend self-needs. These findings suggest that youth need not enter programs intrinsically engaged--motivation can be fostered--and that programs should be creative in helping youth explore ways to form authentic connections to program activities.

  16. Youth Awareness on Youth Development Law

    OpenAIRE

    Yeon, Asmah Laili; Azhar, Alias; Ayub, Zainal Amin; Abdullah, Siti Alida John; Arshad, Rozita; Suhaimi, Safiah

    2016-01-01

    Lack of awareness and understanding of youth development law amongst youth and policy makers is quite significant. Among the reasons that have been identified to be the root cause of this weakness is due to the failure or less priority given by the youth societies and related organization which are responsible in providing quality programmes for youth. In light of the above gap, the paper examines youth awareness on youth development law from the perspective of policy makers and youth themse...

  17. Fostering Creative Thinking in the Institutional Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    organizational structure, training, leadership development and education, personnel, facilities, and policies foster creative thinking ? These questions will be...in fostering creative thinking at the organizational level across the US Army. This assumption justifies researching if CGSOC fosters creative...creative thinking . Doctrine and policy and organizational structure and personnel will also be grouped to consolidate analysis. While the researcher will

  18. Shored gunshot wound of exit. A phenomenon with identity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J C

    1983-09-01

    Shored gunshot wound of exit is produced when the outstretched skin is impaled, sandwiched, and crushed between the outgoing bullet and the unyielding object over the exit site, thus leaving an abrasion collar on the wound margin. Proper coaptation of the wound margin is impossible because of the loss of skin just like those observed in entrance wounds. In contrast to the entrance wound, the supported exit wound shows a scalloped or punched-out abrasion collar and sharply contoured skin in between the radiating skin lacerations marginating the abrasion (Fig. 1). Should gunpowder be observed around the exit site, it is often unevenly distributed, and is not associated with searing, gunpowder stippled abrasion, tatooing, and deposition of soot.

  19. Exit, voice and loyalty in Kenya's French bean industry: What ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    response affected their continued participation in the supermarket business. It applies Hirschman's concept of exit, voice and loyalty to assess the strategies used by ... This strategy of compliance with IFSS has since become the model in

  20. Exit, punishment and rewards in commons dilemmas: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    Full Text Available Commons dilemmas are interaction situations where a common good is provided or exploited by a group of individuals so that optimal collective outcomes clash with private interests. Although in these situations, social norms and institutions exist that might help individuals to cooperate, little is known about the interaction effects between positive and negative incentives and exit options by individuals. We performed a modified public good game experiment to examine the effect of exit, rewards and punishment, as well as the interplay between exit and rewards and punishment. We found that punishment had a stronger effect than rewards on cooperation if considered by itself, whereas rewards had a stronger effect when combined with voluntary participation. This can be explained in terms of the 'framing effect', i.e., as the combination of exit and rewards might induce people to attach higher expected payoffs to cooperative strategies and expect better behaviour from others.

  1. A Diversity Exit Interview/Survey for the Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knouse, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    The exit interview and survey are means for identifying organizational problems, including diversity issues, through individuals separating from the organization, who are in a unique position to supply candid feedback...

  2. Foster Creative Engineers by PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Kolmos, Anette

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) has been employed by a growing number of educational institutions to foster creative engineers. This paper aims to explore how PBL can develop creativity in engineering education. Accordingly, a qualitative case study was carried out...... with a student satellite project (AAUSAT3) in the department of electronic systems at Aalborg University in Denmark. Multiple methods including interviews and observation were employed. The analysis of the empirical data leads to the findings and discussions that PBL can foster creative engineers by providing...... conditions of problem analysis and solving, the shift from teaching to learning and team based projects. This research therefore contributes to both theory and practice in the PBL setting of engineering education....

  3. International Competition and Small-Firm Exit in US Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M Feinberg

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes both the determinants of small firm exit rates in US manufacturing over the 1989–2004 period, especially the reaction of domestic firms to the nature of foreign competition as measured by industry-specific real exchange rate movements (interacted with import penetration by industry). These international pressures seem to lead to increased rates of smallest-firm exit in manufacturing, though the magnitudes of these effects are smaller than sometimes discussed. However, high...

  4. Comparison of exit time moment spectra for extrinsic metric balls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Ana; Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    We prove explicit upper and lower bounds for the $L^1$-moment spectra for the Brownian motion exit time from extrinsic metric balls of submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian spaces $N^n$. We assume that $P$ and $N$ both have controlled radial curvatures (mean curvature and sectional curvature...... obtain new intrinsic comparison results for the exit time spectra for metric balls in the ambient manifolds $N^n$ themselves....

  5. Tunneling time, exit time and exit momentum in strong field tunnel ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeny, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. It is still an open question when does the electron tunnel ionize and how long is the duration of tunneling. In this work we solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in one and two dimensions and use ab initio quantum calculations in order to answer these questions. Additionally, we determine the exit momentum of the tunnel ionized electron from first principles. We find out results that are different from the assumptions of the commonly employed two-step model, which assumes that the electron ionizes at the instant of electric field maximum with a zero momentum. After determining the quantum final momentum distribution of tunnel ionized electrons we show that the two-step model fails to predict the correct final momentum. Accordingly we suggest how to correct the two-step model. Furthermore, we determine the instant at which tunnel ionization starts, which turns out to be different from the instant usually assumed. From determining the instant at which it is most probable for the electron to enter the tunneling barrier and the instant at which it exits we determine the most probable time spent under the barrier. Moreover, we apply a quantum clock approach in order to determine the duration of tunnel ionization. From the quantum clock we determine an average tunneling time which is different in magnitude and origin with respect to the most probable tunneling time. By defining a probability distribution of tunneling times using virtual detectors we relate both methods and explain the apparent discrepancy. The results found have in general an effect on the interpretation of experiments that measure the spectra of tunnel ionized electrons, and specifically on the calibration of the so called attoclock experiments, because models with imprecise assumptions are usually employed in order to interpret experimental results.

  6. Tunneling time, exit time and exit momentum in strong field tunnel ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeny, Nicolas

    2016-10-18

    Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. It is still an open question when does the electron tunnel ionize and how long is the duration of tunneling. In this work we solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in one and two dimensions and use ab initio quantum calculations in order to answer these questions. Additionally, we determine the exit momentum of the tunnel ionized electron from first principles. We find out results that are different from the assumptions of the commonly employed two-step model, which assumes that the electron ionizes at the instant of electric field maximum with a zero momentum. After determining the quantum final momentum distribution of tunnel ionized electrons we show that the two-step model fails to predict the correct final momentum. Accordingly we suggest how to correct the two-step model. Furthermore, we determine the instant at which tunnel ionization starts, which turns out to be different from the instant usually assumed. From determining the instant at which it is most probable for the electron to enter the tunneling barrier and the instant at which it exits we determine the most probable time spent under the barrier. Moreover, we apply a quantum clock approach in order to determine the duration of tunnel ionization. From the quantum clock we determine an average tunneling time which is different in magnitude and origin with respect to the most probable tunneling time. By defining a probability distribution of tunneling times using virtual detectors we relate both methods and explain the apparent discrepancy. The results found have in general an effect on the interpretation of experiments that measure the spectra of tunnel ionized electrons, and specifically on the calibration of the so called attoclock experiments, because models with imprecise assumptions are usually employed in order to interpret experimental results.

  7. Investing in Youth Work: Learning from Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Denissen Cunnien

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes key elements for a system of support for youth workers to develop their professional skills and capabilities by using a human development approach.  The article argues that narrowed and bureaucratic approaches to professional development can ignore the complex dynamics of human development that support engaged learning and continuous growth and improvement.  The author suggests a more dynamic system where professional development in grounded by practice; employs reflection, mentorship and coaching; and supports healthy organizational culture to foster high quality youth work.

  8. Embedded in a context : the adaptation of immigrant youth

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    With rising levels of immigration comes a need to know what fosters positive adaptation for the youth growing up in a new culture of settlement.The issue is increasingly studied; however, little of the research conducted has combined a developmental with a contextual approach. The aim of this dissertation was to explore the adaptation of immigrant youth on the basis of developmental theories and models which put emphasis on setting or contextual conditions. This entailed viewing immigrant you...

  9. Contributions of Qualitative Research to Understanding Savings for Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherraden, Margaret; Peters, Clark; Wagner, Kristen; Guo, Baorong; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores contributions of qualitative research to saving theory for children, youth, and parents in children's development account (CDAs) programs. It brings together findings from three studies: (1) elementary school age children saving for college, (2) youth transitioning from foster care saving for education and other purposes, and…

  10. Supportive Social Services for LGBT Youth: Lessons from the Safe Schools Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    How do social services professionals identify and design supportive environments that promote the positive development of LGBT youth? Although there are extraordinary examples of individuals and programs that exist for the purpose of supporting LGBT youth and fostering their development, the work of documenting and empirically analyzing what works…

  11. Voices of Youth: Podcasting as a Means for Inquiry-Based Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Bertram; Lin, Ching-Chiu

    2009-01-01

    A youth community informatics (YCI) research project intersected an inquiry learning model with the making of audiovisual podcasts to foster personal growth and community engagement in a group of Mexican American youth enrolled in an afterschool program. Specifically, the article describes the cycle of inquiry together with the development of a…

  12. Hollywood, Race, and the Demonization of Youth: The "Kids" Are Not "Alright." Movie Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1996-01-01

    The sexually charged "Kids" was one of the most controversial films about teenage sexuality and youth of 1995. The pessimism and one-dimensionality of the film foster a conservative pedagogy and politics that fail to break dominant discourse about subordinate youth in this country. (SLD)

  13. "Young Rebels Flee Psychology": Individual Intelligence, Race and Foster Children in Cleveland, Ohio between the World Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines foster child case records to understand how intelligence testing was used by guidance counsellors and social workers to negotiate welfare resources with poor youths in the early twentieth century. Psychological testing justified racial hierarchy in a scientific language suited for a rational professional bureaucracy. Yet, it…

  14. Cumulative life events, traumatic experiences, and psychiatric symptomatology in transition-aged youth with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Gotham, Katherine O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-occurring mood and anxiety symptomatology is commonly observed among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence and adulthood. Yet, little is known about the factors that might predispose youth with ASD to mood and anxiety problems. In this study, we focus on the role of cumulative stressful life events and trauma in co-occurring psychopathology among youth with ASD who are preparing to exit high school. Specifically, we examined the distribution of cumulative...

  15. Exit interviews to reduce turnover amongst healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Flint, Anndrea

    2014-08-19

    Exit interviews are widely used in healthcare organisations to identify reasons for staff attrition, yet their usefulness in limiting turnover is unclear. To determine the effectiveness of various exit interview strategies in decreasing turnover rates amongst healthcare professionals. We searched the Cochrane EPOC Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 11, 2012; MEDLINE, Ovid (1950- ); EMBASE, Ovid (1947- ); CINAHL, EbscoHost (1980- ), and PsycINFO, OVID (1806-) between October 31 and November 6, 2012. We also screened the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews; and searched trial registries for planned and on-going studies. We did not restrict searches by language or publication date. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies comparing turnover rates between healthcare professionals who had undergone one form of exit interview with another form of exit interview or with no interview. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The original search identified 1560 citations, of which we considered 19 potentially relevant. The two authors independently reviewed the abstracts of these studies and retrieved the full texts of eight studies. We excluded all eight following independent assessment; they were either interviews, commentaries on how to do an exit interview or descriptive studies about reasons for leaving. We found no studies that matched our inclusion criteria. For this first update, we screened 2220 citations and identified no new studies. Evidence about the effectiveness of exit interviews to reduce turnover is currently not available. However, exit interviews may provide useful information about the work environment which, in turn, may be useful in the development of interventions to reduce turnover.

  16. Fostering Communicative Competence through Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Sipra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the use of technology in EFL classes to promote communicative competence. It elucidates communicative competence and explicates obstructions in communicative tasks. Moreover, it interprets the use of technology in fostering and supporting the development of communicative competence and explains how it is pragmatic in maintaining learners’ level of motivation and interest in learning a foreign language. The present article identifies the significance and use of mobile phone, camera, computer and internet, tape recorder, projector, and language labs in EFL classes. Besides, it discusses the use of technology as an educational tool in language teaching and learning.

  17. Evaluation of a multi-site program designed to strengthen relational bonds for siblings separated by foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waid, Jeffrey; Wojciak, Armeda Stevenson

    2017-10-01

    Sibling relationships in foster care settings have received increased attention in recent years. Despite growing evidence regarding the protective potential of sibling relationships for youth in care, some sibling groups continue to experience foster care related separation, and few programs exist to address the needs of these youth. This study describes and evaluates Camp To Belong, a multi-site program designed to provide short-term reunification to separated sibling groups through a week-long summer camp experience. Using a pre-test post-test survey design, this paper examines changes in youth ratings of sibling conflict and sibling support across camps located in six geographically distinct regions of the United States. The effects of youth age, number of prior camp exposures, and camp location were tested using multilevel modeling procedures. Findings suggest that participation in Camp To Belong may reduce sibling conflict, and improvements in sibling support are noted for youth who have had prior exposure to the camp's programming. Camp-level variance in the sibling support outcome highlight the complex nature of relationships for siblings separated by foster care, and suggest the need for additional research. Lessons learned from this multi-site evaluation and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Collective behavior of mice passing through an exit under panic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Xuelin; Huang, Shenshi; Li, Changhai; Lu, Shouxiang

    2018-04-01

    Collective movement of animal in emergency condition has attracted growing attentions among researchers. However, many rules still need to be confirmed with adequate explanation. Study of collective behavior of mice can improve our understanding about the dynamics of pedestrian movement. However, its rules still need to be confirmed with adequate explanation. In this paper, collective behavior of mice passing through an exit under panic was investigated. The results showed that the total evacuation time decreased with exit width increasing in a certain range. Based on the different tendency of the curve in temporal evolution, the process of mice flow was divided into three stages. The density of mice near the exit peaks at a certain horizontal offset and starts to decrease over time. With the increase of the exit width, the duration of the higher density state decreased. We found that the frequency of time intervals obeyed a lognormal distribution or an exponential decay for different exit widths. In addition, the relationship between the group size and the group flow rate in different scenarios was analyzed. The phenomena found in our experiments show the collective behavioral characteristic of mice under panic. Our analysis in this paper will deepen our understanding of crowd dynamics in emergency condition.

  19. Does Business Cycle Have an Impact on Entrants and Exits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Sterev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The role of entrants and exits has enlarged indisputably over recent years. The basic explanation is connected to the deepening of innovation's influence on industrial growth. Furthermore, new businesses have to be more effective, and based on products, technological or organizational innovations, and exits have to be ineffective (respectively unprofitable, based on denoted products or technology. Design/methodology/approach: According to the above-mentioned prerequisites, policymakers need to manage the role (respectively the impact that entrants (new start-up companies and exits play in industrial growth. Nevertheless, this impact is not a cornerstone of the Bulgarian National Strategy, or the Europe 2020 Strategy. Findings: The paper tries to answer the following two questions: 1 Do new start-up companies and exits have any role and influence on economic growth in Bulgaria? and 2 Does the role (respectively the impact of entrants and exits in industrial growth change according to economic cycle? Research limitations/implications: In addition, according to the Lisbon Strategy, as well as the European Union's (EU Strategy 2020, the current economic policy supports entrepreneurship and innovations. Thus, the establishment of innovative companies, as well as the development of innovative, incumbent business are core issues of EU economic policy for the past decade. Originality/value: The paper builds on the industrial dynamic methodology and on the understanding of how business decisions (entrepreneurship, innovations, and R&D on micro level correspond to macro level (GDP growth and innovation policy.

  20. The After School Activity Initiative: Youth Helping Youth in a Community in Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Robertson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Youth experience considerable free time, the use of which can foster active healthy lifestyles or facilitate engagement in activities that are detrimental to self and or to society. In order for the former to occur, specific knowledge, attitudes, and skills must be acquired. This research explores an initiative in which older youth served as leaders in an after school initiative in an economically challenged community where little attention was being paid to the provision of free time opportunities for youth. Not only were positive developmental outcomes experienced by the participants (the ability to find ways to spend free time; an appreciation for the outcomes that can accrue from engagement in positive activities; and the ability to communicate effectively, but the same was true for the older youth who served as leaders (understanding the meaning of success, appreciating the power of interpersonal relationships, and becoming a role model.

  1. Exploring the Relationship of Exit Flow and Jam Density in Panic Scenarios Using Animal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, A.; Sarvi, M.; Duives, D.C.; Ejtemai, O.; Aghabayk, K.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies investigating crowd dynamics in panic situations. They used measures such as exit flow rate to explore the exit performance in evacuation scenarios. However, there is limited research exploring the relationship of exit flow rate and density behind the exit for panic scenarios.

  2. Youth engagement in eMental health literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene King

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition of the important role that eHealth Literacy strategies play in promoting mental health among youth populations. At the same time, youth engagement in mental health literacy initiatives is increasingly seen as a promising practice for improving health literacy and reducing stigma. The Health Literacy Team at BC Children’s Hospital uses a variety of strategies to engage youth in the development, implementation and dissemination of eMental Health Literacy resources. This paper reviews the evidence that supports the use of eHealth strategies for youth mental health promotion; describes the methods used by the Team to meaningfully engage youth in these processes; and evaluates them against three popular frameworks for youth participation and empowerment. The findings suggest that the Team is successfully offering opportunities for independent youth involvement, positively impacting project outcomes, and fostering youth empowerment. The Team could further contribute to the positive development of youth by creating more opportunities for youth-adult collaboration on eHealth Literacy initiatives.

  3. Comparison of sources of exit fluence variation for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Joseph K; Gordon, J James; Wang Song; Siebers, Jeffrey V; Clews, Luke; Greer, Peter B

    2009-01-01

    The fluence exiting a patient during beam delivery can be used as treatment delivery quality assurance, either by direct comparison with expected exit fluences or by backprojection to reconstruct the patient dose. Multiple possible sources of measured exit fluence deviations exist, including changes in the beam delivery and changes in the patient anatomy. The purpose of this work is to compare the deviations caused by these sources. Machine delivery-related variability is measured by acquiring multiple dosimetric portal images (DPIs) of several test fields without a patient/phantom in the field over a time period of 2 months. Patient anatomy-related sources of fluence variability are simulated by computing transmission DPIs for a prostate patient using the same incident fluence for 11 different computed tomography (CT) images of the patient anatomy. The standard deviation (SD) and maximum deviation of the exit fluence, averaged over 5 mm x 5 mm square areas, is calculated for each test set. Machine delivery fluence SDs as large as 1% are observed for a sample patient field and as large as 2.5% for a picket-fence dMLC test field. Simulations indicate that day-to-day patient anatomy variations induce exit fluence SDs as large as 3.5%. The largest observed machine delivery deviations are 4% for the sample patient field and 7% for the picket-fence field, while the largest difference for the patient anatomy-related source is 8.5%. Since daily changes in patient anatomy can result in substantial exit fluence deviations, care should be taken when applying fluence back-projection to ensure that such deviations are properly attributed to their source. (note)

  4. Criticality safety analysis of a calciner exit chute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haught, C.F.; Basoglu, B.; Brewer, R.W.; Hollenback, D.F.; Wilkinson, A.D.; Dodds, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Calcination of uranyl nitrate into uranium oxide is part of normal operations of some enrichment plants. Typically, a calciner discharges uranium oxide powder (U 3 O 8 ) into an exit chute that directs the powder into a receiving can located in a glove box. One possible scenario for a criticality accident is the exit chute becoming blocked with powder near its discharge. The blockage restricts the flow of powder causing the exit chute to become filled with the powder. If blockage does occur, the height of the powder could reach a level that would not be safe from a criticality point of view. In this analysis, the subcritical height limit is examined for 98% enriched U 3 O 8 in the exit chute with full water reflection and optimal water moderation. The height limit for ensuring criticality safety during such an accumulation is 28.2 cm above the top of the discharge pipe at the bottom of the chute. Chute design variations are also evaluated with full water reflection and optimal water moderation. Subcritical configurations for the exit chute variation are developed, but the configurations are not safe when combined with the calciner. To ensure criticality safety, modifications must be made to the calciner tube or safety measures must be implemented if these designs are to be utilized with 98% enriched material. A geometrically safe configuration for the exit chute is developed for a blockage of 20% enriched powder with full water reflection and optimal water moderation, and this configuration is safe when combined with the existing calciner

  5. STIMULATION METHODS IMPROVEMENT OF EXIT ROUTE ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Verlan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the article is to assess the costs, which are redistributed in the system «shipper−railroad−consignee» during routing of rail transportation and the development of tariff simulation methods of shippers to the exit routes formation. Methodology. Using economic and mathematical analysis the distribution of costs among the various participants of transportation process during the exit routes formation is investigated in the article. Findings. For implementation of the tariff simulation methods of exit routes and retention of the existing tariff structure it is proposed to provide in the «Tariff catalogue for freight transportation by railway transport of Ukraine» the discount, differentiated from haulage distance. A new method for determining the fees amount for cars supply and removal on approach tracks by train locomotives was also offered. Originality. As a result of the research a new method for determination of the exit rout efficiency that, unlike the existing one, takes into account the various interests of the individual participants in the transportation process was proposed. The dependence of the correction factors to the tariff for freight transportation in their own cars by direct exit routes from distance haulage was obtained. Implementation of these coefficients provides an approximation of railway tariffs to the traffic handling costs. A method for determination the rate of fees for cars supply and removal on approach tracks by train locomotives was offered. Practical value. InUkraine creation of the tariff discounts system for freight transportation by exit routes consistent with international practice and allows bringing the tariff to the real traffic handling cost. This change on the one hand will provide stimulation for private capital investments in infrastructure development and shunting means of approach tracks, on the other – it will fix the shippers to the railroads and stop their outflow

  6. Effects of injection nozzle exit width on rotating detonation engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Shijie; Lin, Zhiyong; Cai, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    A series of numerical simulations of RDE modeling real injection nozzles with different exit widths are performed in this paper. The effects of nozzle exit width on chamber inlet state, plenum flowfield and detonation propagation are analyzed. The results are compared with that using an ideal injection model. Although the ideal injection model is a good approximation method to model RDE inlet, the two-dimensional effects of real nozzles are ignored in the ideal injection model so that some complicated phenomena such as the reflected waves caused by the nozzle walls and the reversed flow into the nozzles can not be modeled accurately. Additionally, the ideal injection model overpredicts the block ratio. In all the cases that stabilize at one-wave mode, the block ratio increases as the nozzle exit width gets smaller. The dual-wave mode case also has a relatively high block ratio. A pressure oscillation in the plenum with the same main frequency with the rotating detonation wave is observed. A parameter σ is applied to describe the non-uniformity in the plenum. σ increases as the nozzle exit width gets larger. Under some condition, the heat release on the interface of fresh premixed gas layer and detonation products can be strong enough to induce a new detonation wave. A spontaneous mode-transition process is observed for the smallest exit width case. Due to the detonation products existing in the premixed gas layer before the detonation wave, the detonation wave will propagate through reactants and products alternately, and therefore its strength will vary with time, especially near the chamber inlet. This tendency gets weaker as the injection nozzle exit width increases.

  7. Measuring Social Capital among Youth: Applications in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Kalbacker, Leigh; Stedman, Richard C.; Russ, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Although critiqued for circular reasoning and lack of definitional and analytic clarity, social capital has garnered widespread interest in two areas relevant to environmental education (EE): the impact of family and community-level social capital on positive youth development and of community-level social capital in fostering collective action to…

  8. Impact of the parenting style of foster parents on the behaviour problems of foster children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M J; Salas, M D; Bernedo, I M; García-Martín, M A

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have analysed the effects of the parenting style used by foster carers on children's behaviour problems. This study examines the role played by the quality of the emotional relationship with foster carers and the kind of discipline they use as regard internalizing and externalizing problems among foster children. Participants were 104 foster children (56 boys and 48 girls) and their respective foster families. The Child Behaviour Checklist, the Affect and Communication Scale, and the Rules and Demands Scale were completed by foster parents. A series of linear regression analyses were performed using the stepwise method. The main findings were as follows: an authoritarian parenting style explained the internalizing problems presented by foster children (11% of the variance); criticism/rejection, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting explained externalizing problems (37% of the variance); and criticism/rejection and authoritarian parenting explained total problems (29% of the variance). These results indicate that criticism/rejection on the part of foster parents, as well as the use of inappropriate parenting styles (authoritarian and permissive), has an important effect in relation to the behaviour problems of foster children. This highlights the key role that foster carers play in terms of tackling the behaviour problems that foster children present. The findings also suggest that preparation for fostering should focus especially on ways of helping foster parents both to acquire positive parenting strategies and to avoid authoritarian and permissive parenting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. EXIT Chart Analysis of Binary Message-Passing Decoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Binary message-passing decoders for LDPC codes are analyzed using EXIT charts. For the analysis, the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. For the special case of a hard decision channel, this leads to the well know Gallager B algorithm, while the analysis can...... be extended to channels with larger output alphabets. By increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to four symbols, a gain of more than 1.0 dB is achieved using optimized codes. For this code optimization, the mixing property of EXIT functions has to be modified to the case of binary message......-passing decoders....

  10. Entrance, exit, and reentrance of one shot with a shotgun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmann, C; Hougen, H P

    1999-01-01

    The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region, and ther......The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region...

  11. Exits from Temporary Jobs in Europe: A Competing Risks Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Addio, Anna Christina; Rosholm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different specificat......We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different...

  12. Intervening to Improve Outcomes for Siblings in Foster Care: Conceptual, Substantive, and Methodological Dimensions of a Prevention Science Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H.; Blakeslee, Jennifer; Lamson-Siu, Emilie; Bank, Lew; Linares, L. Oriana; Waid, Jeffrey; Sorenson, Paul; Jimenez, Jessica; Pearson, Eva; Shlonsky, Aron

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the child welfare field has devoted significant attention to siblings in foster care. Policymakers and practitioners have supported efforts to connect siblings via shared foster placements and visitation while researchers have focused on illuminating the empirical foundations of sibling placement and sibling intervention in child welfare. The current paper synthesizes literature on sibling relationship development and sibling issues in child welfare in the service of presenting a typology of sibling-focused interventions for use with foster youth. The paper provides two examples of current intervention research studies focused on enhancing sibling developmental processes and understanding their connection to child welfare outcomes. The paper concludes by presenting an emerging agenda informing policy, practice, and research on siblings in foster care. PMID:24634558

  13. Parenting the Poorly Attached Teenager. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; Faust, Timothy Philip

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module explores the attachment process and the long-term effects of attachment difficulties in the first years of a child's life. The module's learning objectives address: (1) ways of identifying the basic concepts…

  14. Mitigating Barriers to Civic Engagement for Low-Income, Minority Youth Ages 13-18: Best Practices from Environmental Youth Conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haco Hoang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that there is a civic engagement gap for low-income, minority youth even though they reside in communities grappling with deteriorating social, environmental and economic conditions. Using the annual Environmental Youth Conference (EYC in Los Angeles as a case study, this article offers best practices for identifying: 1 factors that foster civic engagement among low-income, minority youth ages 13-18, and 2 strategies to mobilize the targeted youth populations on environmental issues. Los Angeles is a useful case study because it is a large and demographically diverse city facing extreme environmental challenges due to its significant agricutlural and industrial sectors.

  15. Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Fish, Jessica N.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified. PMID:26772206

  16. Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Fish, Jessica N

    2016-01-01

    Today's lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified.

  17. LGBT Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in schools without LGB support groups. 8 A recent study found that LGB students had fewer suicidal thoughts ... factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the ... Youth and Family Studies 2014;1:89‒112. Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM. ...

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Foster Care Alumni: The Role of Race, Gender, and Foster Care Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lovie J.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult alumni of foster care and its demographic and contextual correlates. This is one of the first studies to report on racial/ethnic and gender differences and the influence of foster care experiences (i.e., revictimization during foster care, placement change rate,…

  19. the life experiences of foster parents who nurture foster children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this important caregiving role and enhance practice and policy imperatives. ... By contributing and making a positive change on the lives of needy children, foster ... depression. ... children including their physical, social, emotional, psychological, cultural and ..... evidence base of training for foster and treatment foster parents.

  20. Engaging foster parents in treatment: a randomized trial of supplementing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with evidence-based engagement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen et al., 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and one of their foster parents. Attendance, engagement, and clinical outcomes were assessed 1 month into treatment, end of treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. Youth and foster parents who received TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies were more likely to be retained in treatment through four sessions and were less likely to drop out of treatment prematurely. The engagement strategies did not appear to have an effect on the number of canceled or no-show sessions or on treatment satisfaction. Clinical outcomes did not differ by study condition, but exploratory analyses suggest that youth had significant improvements with treatment. Strategies that specifically target engagement may hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and for increasing likelihood of treatment completion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SEC16 in COPII coat dynamics at ER exit sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Joep; Rabouille, Catherine

    Protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the first step in protein transport through the secretory pathway, is mediated by coatomer protein II (COPII)-coated vesicles at ER exit sites. COPII coat assembly on the ER is well understood and the conserved large hydrophilic protein Sec16

  2. Estimation of exit temperatures in the isentropic compression of real ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the estimation of exit temperatures in the isentropic compression of real gases based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state and entropy balance method. The methods were applied to Ar, N2, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Data obtained revealed that isentropic exponent method provides useful results ...

  3. 49 CFR 238.113 - Emergency window exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., electrical locker, or kitchen); and (B) There are no more than eight seats in the seating area. (4) Cars with...), a bathroom, kitchen, or locomotive cab is not considered a “compartment.” (b) Ease of operability. On or after November 8, 1999, each emergency window exit shall be designed to permit rapid and easy...

  4. After exit: Academic achievement patterns of former English language learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester J. de Jong

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available With few exceptions, accountability systems for programs for English language learners (ELLs have focused on the achievement patterns of ELLs who are still considered “limited English proficient” and program evaluations have been unable to answer the question whether ELLs actually catch up with English proficient peers after attending a bilingual or English as a Second Language (ESL program. Disaggregating data for former ELLs can therefore provide important information for long-term district and program accountability. The study was concerned with the achievement patterns in English language arts, Math, and Science of former ELLs who attended a bilingual and a English as a Second Language (ESL program. It also explored whether length of program participation and grade level exited played a significant role in predicting academic achievement patterns for these exited students. Results indicate that 4th grade students more closely paralleled non- ELL students’ achievement patterns than 8th grade students, particularly for the BE students. While length of program participation is not a significant predictor of former ELLs’ academic success, exit grade does emerge as an important variable to take into consideration in setting exit guidelines.

  5. Control of the mitotic exit network during meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attner, Michelle A.; Amon, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The mitotic exit network (MEN) is an essential GTPase signaling pathway that triggers exit from mitosis in budding yeast. We show here that during meiosis, the MEN is dispensable for exit from meiosis I but contributes to the timely exit from meiosis II. Consistent with a role for the MEN during meiosis II, we find that the signaling pathway is active only during meiosis II. Our analysis further shows that MEN signaling is modulated during meiosis in several key ways. Whereas binding of MEN components to spindle pole bodies (SPBs) is necessary for MEN signaling during mitosis, during meiosis MEN signaling occurs off SPBs and does not require the SPB recruitment factor Nud1. Furthermore, unlike during mitosis, MEN signaling is controlled through the regulated interaction between the MEN kinase Dbf20 and its activating subunit Mob1. Our data lead to the conclusion that a pathway essential for vegetative growth is largely dispensable for the specialized meiotic divisions and provide insights into how cell cycle regulatory pathways are modulated to accommodate different modes of cell division. PMID:22718910

  6. 14 CFR 23.805 - Flightcrew emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency exit must be located to allow rapid evacuation of the crew and have a size and shape of at least a... than six feet from the ground, an assisting means must be provided. The assisting means may be a rope...

  7. Stor forskel på kommuners bande-exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2015-01-01

    DEBAT: Kommunerne har meget forskellige exit-tilbud til bande- og rockermedlemmer. Der er brug for mere indgående forskning, så vi ved, hvad der virker bedst, skriver Line Lerche Mørck, lektor i pædagogisk psykologi....

  8. Some Features of Aerodynamics of Cyclonic Chamber with Free Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Orekhov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper cites results of an experimental research in aerodynamics of a cyclonic chamber with a free exit that has a large relative length. Distributions of aerodynamic stream characteristics depending on geometry of working volume of the cyclonic chamber are given in the paper. Calculative dependences are proposed in the paper.

  9. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a) Any native mammal, native bird, or native plants taken within Antarctica that are imported into or... Orleans, Louisiana. (7) New York, New York. (8) Seattle, Washington. (9) Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. (10...

  10. Forthcoming EU Rules on Exit Taxes for Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Rules on exit taxation for the EU as a whole are under construction at European Council level. Formally, the work on this piece of EU tax legislation is part of the controversial Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB). But it is also thinkable that even without a CCCTB being established in

  11. Embracing the Exit: Assessment, Trust, and the Teaching of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Historically, the Composition Program at Eastern Washington University (EWU), a comprehensive university in Cheney, WA, required a single essay sample from each composition student as the final exit exam; in practice, a student passed or failed the course based on an in-class argumentative essay, written in three consecutive class periods. Such a…

  12. Fostering Passion among First Year Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2010-01-01

    Engineering is a complex field of study. Declining enrollment in engineering programs in the United States is of concern and understanding the various factors that contribute to this decline is in order. Fostering a higher level of student engagement with the content may foster passion towards engineering which could increase academic competency…

  13. Laboratory Screening for Children Entering Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Mary V; Beal, Sarah J; Nause, Katie; Staat, Mary Allen; Dexheimer, Judith W; Scribano, Philip V

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of medical illness detected by laboratory screening in children entering foster care in a single, urban county. All children entering foster care in a single county in Ohio were seen at a consultation foster care clinic and had laboratory screening, including testing for infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis as well as for hemoglobin and lead levels. Over a 3-year period (2012-2015), laboratory screening was performed on 1977 subjects entering foster care in a consultative foster care clinic. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis were all found to be <1%. There were no cases of HIV. Seven percent of teenagers entering foster care tested positive for Chlamydia . A secondary finding was that 54% of subjects were hepatitis B surface antibody-negative, indicating an absence of detected immunity to the hepatitis B virus. Routine laboratory screening for children entering foster care resulted in a low yield. Targeted, rather than routine, laboratory screening may be a more clinically meaningful approach for children entering foster care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Ahlstroem Pyropower sold to Foster Wheeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Representatives of Foster Wheeler Corporation and A. Ahlstroem Oy have signed in the 3rd of October 1995 a contract which transfers the majority of the shares in Ahlstroem Pyropower to the American company Foster Wheeler at a price of some 200 million dollars. The final price will depend on the result of Ahlstroem Pyropower at the end of 1995. (1 fig.)

  15. Congenital Cervical Teratoma: Anaesthetic Management (The EXIT Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruh Bilgin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT is a procedure performed during caesarean section with preservation of fetal-placental circulation, which allows the safe handling of fetal airways with risk of airways obstruction. This report aimed at describing a case of anaesthesia for EXIT in a fetus with cervical teratoma. A 30-year-old woman, 70 kg, 160 cm, gravida 2, para 1, was followed because of polyhydramniosis diagnosed at 24 weeks′ gestation. During a routine ultrasonographic examination at 35 weeks′ gestation, it was noticed that the fetus had a tumoral mass on the anterior neck, the mass had cystic and calcified components and with a size of was 10 x 6 x5 cm. The patient with physical status ASA I, was submitted to caesarean section under general anaesthesia with mechanically controlled ventilation for exutero intrapartum treatment (EXIT. Anaesthesia was induced in rapid sequence with fentanyl, propofol and rocuronium and was maintained with isoflurane in 2.5 at 3 % in O 2 and N 2 O (50%. After hysterotomy, fetus was partially released assuring uterus-placental circulation, followed by fetal laryngoscopy and tracheal intuba-tion. The infant was intubated with an uncuffed, size 2.5 endotracheal tube. Excision of the mass was performed under general anaesthesia. After surgical intervention, on the fourth postoperative day, the infant was extubated and the newborn was discharged to the pediatric neonatal unit and on the seventh day postoperatively to home without complications. Major recommendations for EXIT are maternal-fetal safety, uterine relaxation to maintain uterine volume and uterus-placental circulation, and fetal immobility to help airway handling. We report one case of cervical teratoma managed successfully with EXIT procedure.

  16. Breastfeeding of a medically fragile foster child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2005-02-01

    A case is presented in which a medically fragile baby was breastfed by her foster mother. As a result, the child's physical and emotional health were improved. The mechanisms whereby human milk improves health are well known. The act of breastfeeding may also have an analgesic and relaxant effect as a result of hormonal influences and skin-to-skin contact. Many foster babies may benefit from human milk or breastfeeding. However, the risk of disease transmission must be minimized. Provision of human milk to all medically fragile foster babies is desirable. Breastfeeding by the foster mother may be applicable in cases in which the child is likely to be in long-term care, the child has been previously breastfed, or the child's mother expresses a desire that the infant be breastfed. However, social barriers must be overcome before breastfeeding of foster babies can become more common.

  17. Promoting Resilience in Youth Experiencing Homelessness through Implementation of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Elysia; Hess, Robyn S.; Strear, Molly M.; Rue, Lisa; Rizzolo, Sonja; Henninger, Janessa

    2018-01-01

    This Consensual Qualitative Research study explored experiences of youth, families, and homeless liaisons to better understand how educational environments can foster resilience among youth experiencing homelessness. The purpose of the study was to provide educational stakeholders with guidance on how to actualize the McKinney-Vento Homeless…

  18. Depressive symptom trajectories among girls in the juvenile justice system: 24-month outcomes of an RCT of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Harold, Gordon T; Kerr, David C R; van Ryzin, Mark; DeGarmo, David S; Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-01-01

    Youth depression is a significant and growing international public health problem. Youth who engage in high levels of delinquency are at particularly high risk for developing problems with depression. The present study examined the impact of a behavioral intervention designed to reduce delinquency (Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care; MTFC) compared to a group care intervention (GC; i.e., services as usual) on trajectories of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls in the juvenile justi...

  19. Assessment of exit block following pulmonary vein isolation: far-field capture masquerading as entrance without exit block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Dandamudi, Gopi; Naperkowski, Angela; Oren, Jess; Storm, Randle; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2012-10-01

    Complete electrical isolation of pulmonary veins (PVs) remains the cornerstone of ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation. Entrance block without exit block has been reported to occur in 40% of the patients. Far-field capture (FFC) can occur during pacing from the superior PVs to assess exit block, and this may appear as persistent conduction from PV to left atrium (LA). To facilitate accurate assessment of exit block. Twenty consecutive patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation referred for ablation were included in the study. Once PV isolation (entrance block) was confirmed, pacing from all the bipoles on the Lasso catheter was used to assess exit block by using a pacing stimulus of 10 mA at 2 ms. Evidence for PV capture without conduction to LA was necessary to prove exit block. If conduction to LA was noticed, pacing output was decreased until there was PV capture without conduction to LA or no PV capture was noted to assess for far-field capture in both the upper PVs. All 20 patients underwent successful isolation (entrance block) of all 76 (4 left common PV) veins: mean age 58 ± 9 years; paroxysmal atrial fibrillation 40%; hypertension 70%, diabetes mellitus 30%, coronary artery disease 15%; left ventricular ejection fraction 55% ± 10%; LA size 42 ± 11 mm. Despite entrance block, exit block was absent in only 16% of the PVs, suggesting persistent PV to LA conduction. FFC of LA appendage was noted in 38% of the left superior PVs. FFC of the superior vena cava was noted in 30% of the right superior PVs. The mean pacing threshold for FFC was 7 ± 4 mA. Decreasing pacing output until only PV capture (loss of FFC) is noted was essential to confirm true exit block. FFC of LA appendage or superior vena cava can masquerade as persistent PV to LA conduction. A careful assessment for PV capture at decreasing pacing output is essential to exclude FFC. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relation of Visual Signs In The Narrative Structure of MTV Exit Human Trafficking Campaign Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Gunarti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a violation of the human rights. One of the campaign to fight against this crime takes the form of a digital campaign that aired on television and internet.   This study discusses the narrative structure of human trafficking campaign video from non-profit organization MTV Exit in 2012. This video campaign combines art collage and graphic art in its narrative structure. Nonverbal visual elements displayed in the form of a digital photo collage with animated illustrations setting. We consider this video campaign quite interesting as it is visually inform the public about the importance of safe migration through the visual signs in the narrative structure. This study analyzes qualitatively the relation of nonverbal visual signs in the narrative collage and illustration. Denotative and connotative analysis with structural semiotics approach is needed to understand the meaning of visual signs in the context of humans as cultural beings in their communities. This study is expected to be a model example of visual communication campaigns that can foster public awareness of the issue of human trafficking, especially for young women and children as young generation.

  1. Regional Innovation System Strengthening Program (SIDa as an Exit Strategy National Community Development Program (PNPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Narutomo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the PNPM program and follow the program with SIDA Strengthening Program. The research method used is a qualitative method approach of this research through the evaluation research design that builds on the CIPP evaluation model (Context-Input-Process-Product. Since the failure of theories and models of development are too glorifies growth, makes many people turn to focus on people development, which includes requiring optimization of local resources, participation, and empowerment. Since then, "empowerment" which was introduced in Indonesia has been anesthetized and made many hopes among many parties. In 2007 started the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM which continue Kecamatan Development Program (KDP. PNPM 2014 which is part of the United Indonesia Cabinet Volume 2 is going to end. For that we need to look for an exit strategy program that can maintain sustainability of PNPM. Regional Innovation Systems Strengthening Program (SIDA is a program of the whole process in one system to foster innovation made between government institutions, local governments, research institutions, educational institutions, innovation support institutions, businesses, and communities in areas that have been implemented since the 2012 SIDA program is an empowerment program as well, both to the public and even empowering to all elements such as academia, private industry, government and society.

  2. Predictors of foster parents' satisfaction and intent to continue to foster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, R; Rindfleisch, N; Bean, G

    1999-03-01

    The United States General Accounting Office (United States General Accounting Office [USGAO], 1989) report on out-of-home care affirmed that the foster care system is in crisis. To shed light on some factors that influence retention, the study reported here asked "What factors influence the satisfaction of foster parents?" and "What factors influence the intent of licensed foster parents to continue to foster?" A sample of 539 foster parents in eight urban counties in a large Midwestern state completed questionnaires aimed at addressing these questions. Some of the factors exerting the strongest influence on satisfaction were: feeling competent to handle the children who were placed; wanting to take in children who needed loving parents; no regrets about investment in foster children; foster mother's age; and agency social worker providing information and showing approval for a job well done. An example of factors exerting influence on intent to continue to foster include overall satisfaction, readiness to phone the social worker, number of foster boys in the home, being treated like one needed help oneself, and agency affiliation (private). Efforts to increase the supply of foster homes through recruitment is not enough. The support, training, and professional regard given to parents after they have begun the fostering task is of greater need. Based on analysis of the findings, implications for practice, programming, and policy are offered.

  3. The wellbeing of foster children and their relationship with foster parents and biological parents : a child’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Dutch foster children live permanently in foster families. It is often assumed that foster children have ambivalent loyalties and attachments to their birth parents and foster parents and are torn between the two. In this study 59 children between 10 and 18 years placed in long term foster care

  4. Youth and Tourism Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Kalantari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.

  5. Customer Protest: Exit, Voice or Negative Word of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvang, B. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the three forms of protest the propensity of word of mouth (WOM seems to be the most common, and the most exclusive form of protest seems to be exit. The propensity for voice lies in between. The costs linked to voice influence the propensity for WOM. The customers seem to do an evaluation between the three forms of protest, yet the rational picture of the customers should be moderated.Leaders should improve their treatment of the customers making complaints. The more they can treat customer complaints in an orderly and nice way the less informal negative word of mouth activity they will experience and they will reduce the exit propensity and lead the customers to the complain organisation. They should also ensure that their customers feel they get equal treatment by the staff.

  6. Nuclear energy - no thanks. The long way to the exit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternstein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movement is one of the most successful social movements of the recent history of Germany and firmly anchored in huge parts of the population. After a struggle lasting more than forty years it has nearly reached its aims: The exit from nuclear energy and a rethinking in direction of alternative energy concepts. Decisive for the nuclear exit of the Federal government were thereby less the nuclear accidents of Harrisburg (1979), Chernobyl (1986), and Fukushima (2011) but rather the decades-long, stubborn commitment of numerous citizens as well as of citizen's initiatives. ''Nuclear energy - no thanks.'' is the analysis of the citizen's movement from Wyhl until Gorleben. The nonviolent activist and peace researcher Sternstein was there from the beginning and reports about anger and indignation that has been condensed to the social movement with political objectives. Extremely helpful are thereby the methods and strategies of nonviolent actions described by him.

  7. The exit-time problem for a Markov jump process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, N.; D'Elia, M.; Lehoucq, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the exit-time problem for a finite-range Markov jump process, i.e, the distance the particle can jump is bounded independent of its location. Such jump diffusions are expedient models for anomalous transport exhibiting super-diffusion or nonstandard normal diffusion. We refer to the associated deterministic equation as a volume-constrained nonlocal diffusion equation. The volume constraint is the nonlocal analogue of a boundary condition necessary to demonstrate that the nonlocal diffusion equation is well-posed and is consistent with the jump process. A critical aspect of the analysis is a variational formulation and a recently developed nonlocal vector calculus. This calculus allows us to pose nonlocal backward and forward Kolmogorov equations, the former equation granting the various moments of the exit-time distribution.

  8. Youth Entrepreneurship in Visegrad Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Holienka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our paper is to analyse the entrepreneurial activity drivers of youth and young adults in Visegrad countries, considering the opportunity/necessity motivation dichotomy. Research Design & Methods: We employ the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for young individuals (18 to 34 years from V4 countries for years 2011 to 2013. We use the binomial logistic regression modelling with logit transformation. Separate models are constructed for youth and young adults, as well as for opportunity- and necessity-driven entrepreneurial activity. Findings: We found common drivers and distinctive attributes affecting involvement of young people in business start-up according to its motivation. Self-confidence and access to networks are universally important factors. In most examined cases, fear of failure and being a female reduces chance of business start-up. Especially among youth, being a student significantly inhibits involvement in enterprising efforts. Implications & Recommendations: In order to support youth entrepreneurship, an emphasis should be put on education and training to build skills and knowledge required to business start-up, together with capacity to spot opportunities, and reduce fear of failure.  Also, formal and informal networking plays an important role. Contribution & Value Added: Based on empirical analysis, our findings point out the key drivers of entrepreneurial activity among young people in V4 countries. We show directions for policy makers aiming to foster entrepreneurship within young generation as both way to exploit available business opportunities, as well as reaction to necessity situations.

  9. Explicit solutions for exit-only radioactive decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Ding; Kernan, Warnick

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we extended Bateman's [Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 15, 423 (1910)] original work for solving radioactive decay chains and explicitly derived analytic solutions for generic exit-only radioactive decay problems under given initial conditions. Instead of using the conventional Laplace transform for solving Bateman's equations, we used a much simpler algebraic approach. Finally, we discuss methods of breaking down certain classes of large decay chains into collections of simpler chains for easy handling

  10. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, P.; Tirole, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  11. Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescents in Foster Care: A Gender-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpiegel, Svetlana; Sussman, Steve; Sherman, Scott E; El Shahawy, Omar

    2017-09-19

    Adolescents in foster care are at high risk for cigarette smoking. However, it is not clear how their smoking behaviors vary by gender. The present study examined lifetime and current smoking among males and females, and explored gender-specific risk factors for engagement in smoking behaviors. Data from the Multi Site Evaluation of Foster Youth Programs was used to evaluate patterns of smoking among adolescents aged 12-18 years (N = 1121; 489 males, 632 females). Males and females did not differ significantly in rates of lifetime and current smoking, or in the age of smoking initiation and number of cigarettes smoked on a typical day. Gender-based analyses revealed that older age and placement in group homes or residential treatment facilities were associated with heightened risk of smoking among males. In contrast, sexual minority status (i.e., nonheterosexual orientation) and increased childhood victimization were associated with heightened risk of smoking among females. A history of running away was linked to smoking in both genders. Gender should be considered when designing intervention programs to address cigarette smoking among foster youth, as the stressors associated with smoking may differ for males and females.

  12. A shifting paradigm: Teachers' beliefs and methods for fostering ecological literacy in two public charter schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Evan P.

    Ecological literacy is measured by a person's ability to understand the natural systems that make life on earth possible and how to live in accordance with those systems. The emergence of the pedagogies of place- and community-based education during the past two decades provides a possible avenue for fostering ecological literacy in schools. This thesis explores the following research questions: 1) How is ecological literacy fostered in two Alaskan public charter schools? 2) What are teachers' beliefs in these two schools about the way children and youth develop ecological literacy? 3) What are effective teaching methods and what are the challenges in engaging students in ecological literacy? Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six K--12 teachers in two public charter schools in Alaska in order to investigate these questions, and relevant examples of student work were collected for study as well. Qualitative data analysis revealed several emergent themes: the need for real-world connections to curriculum; the necessity of time spent outdoors at a young age; the long-term and holistic nature of ecological literacy development; and the importance of family and community role models in developing connections with the natural world. Based upon the research findings, several recommendations are made to support the efforts of teachers in these schools and elsewhere for fostering ecological literacy in children and youth.

  13. First exit times of harmonically trapped particles: a didactic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S

    2015-01-01

    We revise the classical problem of characterizing first exit times of a harmonically trapped particle whose motion is described by a one- or multidimensional Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. We start by recalling the main derivation steps of a propagator using Langevin and Fokker–Planck equations. The mean exit time, the moment-generating function and the survival probability are then expressed through confluent hypergeometric functions and thoroughly analyzed. We also present a rapidly converging series representation of confluent hypergeometric functions that is particularly well suited for numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the governing Fokker–Planck operator. We discuss several applications of first exit times, such as the detection of time intervals during which motor proteins exert a constant force onto a tracer in optical tweezers single-particle tracking experiments; adhesion bond dissociation under mechanical stress; characterization of active periods of trend-following and mean-reverting strategies in algorithmic trading on stock markets; relation to the distribution of first crossing times of a moving boundary by Brownian motion. Some extensions are described, including diffusion under quadratic double-well potential and anomalous diffusion. (topical review)

  14. Youth and the Cult of Youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Smolík, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This text deals with one of the neglected topics of contemporary social pedagogy which extends to developmental psychology and sociology. This topic is so-called cult of youth which is often mentioned in the academic literature, but has not been precisely conceptualized. This text was therefore focused on the definition of basic category, i.e. youth, and then discussed the relationship to the cult of youth and the individual elements that helps to form it. The cult of youth is associate...

  15. Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling affects survival and early .... bird may subsequently direct its sexual attention to those humans on whom it was imprinted (Bubier et al., ..... The mind through chicks' eyes: memory,.

  16. Lingering illness or sudden death? Pre-exit employment developments in German establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Fackler, Daniel; Schnabel, Claus; Wagner, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Using a large administrative dataset for Germany, this paper compares employment developments in exiting and surviving establishments. For both West and East Germany we find a clear 'shadow of death' effect reflecting lingering illness: establishments shrink dramatically already several years before closure, employment growth rates differ strongly between exiting and surviving establishments, and this difference becomes stronger as exit approaches. We further show that prior to exit the workf...

  17. The Importance of Audience and Agency for Representation: A Case Study of an Urban Youth Media Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Urban youths' agency to represent their realities through media has been largely unexplored in the youth development literature. In this qualitative case study of an after-school youth media program in the Bay Area, expressions of youth agency and the role of audiences are explored during the process of producing videos for public consumption. METHODOLOGY: As participant observer of 14 ethnically diverse youth participants aged between 15 and 18 years over 18 months, I documented (a) the kind of agencies participants engaged in and (b) the impact of live and imagined future audiences on youths' creative processes. Analyses of field notes, semi-structured interviews, and media projects were conducted using thematic analysis to inductively generate emerging categories. FINDINGS: Themes included an agentive sense of self-efficacy, commitment, and responsibility, as well as perceived contributions to local audiences and an emerging collective identity. The youth demonstrated their increased sense of a social or civic duty to realistically represent youth of color to familiar and unfamiliar audiences. IMPLICATIONS: This case study demonstrated how one youth media organization fostered agency through youth authorship, production, distribution, and local community dialogue. By documenting the impact of audiences from conception to public reception, this study provides valuable insight into the agentive process of publicly "performing" a commitment to complete a social change video project. CONTRIBUTION: This chapter underscores the value of performance within youth development programs and the critical component of audiences as one form of authentic assessment in order to foster individual and collective agency.

  18. Fostering Ethical Integrity in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Ruth A; Hartley, Patricia Lynn; Hodges, Patricia J; Hoffpauir, Rebecca Baldwin

    Nursing students bring an array of morals, values, and ethics that may be inconsistent with ethical integrity. This study explored nurse educator perceptions of student ethical integrity and how educators can foster an ethical foundation in students and novice educators. Four major themes influencing ethical integrity emerged: the learning environment, behaviors, ethical principles, and a toolbox of strategies. Strategies for fostering ethical integrity included: modeling ethical integrity, effective communication, grading accuracy, faculty perceptions, and faculty peer mentoring.

  19. 24 CFR 3280.106 - Exit facilities; egress windows and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exit facilities; egress windows and... § 3280.106 Exit facilities; egress windows and devices. (a) Every room designed expressly for sleeping purposes, unless it has an exit door (see § 3280.105), shall have at least one outside window or approved...

  20. Formal procedures of the exit from a community for a university social media agency

    OpenAIRE

    Peleschyshyn, Andriy; Peleschyshyn, Oksana; Korzh, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to consider the process of exiting of a university from an online community. The importance of performing the task of exiting in a proper way is proved. Preconditions and risks of the process are investigated. All the stages of the suggested algorithm for exiting from online community are scrutinized.

  1. Applied electro-optics educational and training program with multiple entrance and exit pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Patricia; Zhou, Feng; Zilic, Dorothy

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents an innovative hands-on training program designed to create a pipeline of highly-skilled technical workers for today's workforce economy. The 2+2+2 Pennsylvania Integrated Workforce Leadership Program in Electro-Optics prepares students for a career in this new high-tech field. With seamless transition from high school into college, the program offers the versatility of multiple entrance and exit pathways. After completion of each educational level, students can exit the program with various skill levels, including certificates, an associate's degree, or a bachelor's degree. Launched by Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) in partnership with Lenape Vocational School (Lenape), the 2+2+2 educational pathway program was implemented to promote early training of high-school students. During the first level, students in their junior and/or senior year enroll in four Electro-Optics courses at Lenape. Upon completion of these courses and an Advanced Placement Equivalency course with an appropriate exam score, students can earn a certificate from Lenape for the 15+ credits, which also can be articulated into IUP's associate degree program in Electro-Optics. During the second level, students can earn an associate's degree in Electro-Optics, offered only at the IUP Northpointe Campus. After completion of the Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.), students are prepared to enter the workforce as senior technicians. During the third level, students who have completed the Associate of Science (A.S.) in Electro-Optics have the opportunity to matriculate at IUP's Indiana Campus to earn a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in Applied Physics with a track in Electro-Optics. Hence, the name 2+2+2 refers to getting started in high school, continuing the educational experience with an associate's degree program, and optionally moving on to a bachelor's degree. Consequently, students move from one educational level to the next with advanced credits toward the next

  2. 〈Articles〉Using LEGO® Serious Play® to Foster Communication in Intercultural English Problem-Solving Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Robert; Adamson, Calum; Thorpe, Todd

    2017-01-01

    [Abstract]Many people have fond memories of playing with LEGO® in their youth. Increasingly recognised as offering significant educational advantages to young children that go far beyond enjoyable play-time, LEGO® has been claimed to boost fine motor skill development (Haga, 2008); to teach three-dimensional thinking (Welch, 1998); to foster planning, problem solving, and organizational abilities (Shakir, 2006); to improve creativity; and to teach systematization through the following of inst...

  3. Accuracy synthesis of T-shaped exit fixed mechanism in a double-crystal monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqin; Cao Chongzhen; Wang Jidai; Li Yushan; Gao Xueguan

    2007-01-01

    It is a key performance requirement for a double-crystal monochromator that the exit is fixed, and in order to improve the height accuracy of the exit in T-shaped exit fixed mechanism, the expression between the height of the exit and various original errors was put forward using geometrical analysis method. According to the independent action principle of original errors, accuracy synthesis of T-shaped exit fixed mechanism was studied by using the equal accuracy method, and the tolerance ranges of original errors were obtained. How to calculate the tolerance ranges of original errors was explained by giving an example. (authors)

  4. We Care for Kids: A Handbook for Foster Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield.

    This handbook outlines essential information for foster parents under these basic headings: (1) legal rights and responsibilities of children, parents and foster parents; (2) recruitment, licensing, training, and evaluation of foster homes; (3) placement and removal of foster children; (4) payments and expenses; (5) medical care; (6)…

  5. Identifying Divergent Foster Care Careers for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care...

  6. Repressive histone methylation regulates cardiac myocyte cell cycle exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nachef, Danny; Oyama, Kyohei; Wu, Yun-Yu; Freeman, Miles; Zhang, Yiqiang; Robb MacLellan, W

    2018-05-22

    Mammalian cardiac myocytes (CMs) stop proliferating soon after birth and subsequent heart growth comes from hypertrophy, limiting the adult heart's regenerative potential after injury. The molecular events that mediate CM cell cycle exit are poorly understood. To determine the epigenetic mechanisms limiting CM cycling in adult CMs (ACMs) and whether trimethylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3), a histone modification associated with repressed chromatin, is required for the silencing of cell cycle genes, we developed a transgenic mouse model where H3K9me3 is specifically removed in CMs by overexpression of histone demethylase, KDM4D. Although H3K9me3 is found across the genome, its loss in CMs preferentially disrupts cell cycle gene silencing. KDM4D binds directly to cell cycle genes and reduces H3K9me3 levels at these promotors. Loss of H3K9me3 preferentially leads to increased cell cycle gene expression resulting in enhanced CM cycling. Heart mass was increased in KDM4D overexpressing mice by postnatal day 14 (P14) and continued to increase until 9-weeks of age. ACM number, but not size, was significantly increased in KDM4D expressing hearts, suggesting CM hyperplasia accounts for the increased heart mass. Inducing KDM4D after normal development specifically in ACMs resulted in increased cell cycle gene expression and cycling. We demonstrated that H3K9me3 is required for CM cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in ACMs. Depletion of H3K9me3 in adult hearts prevents and reverses permanent cell cycle exit and allows hyperplastic growth in adult hearts in vivo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Measurements of temperature profiles at the exit of small rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, M; Harshbarger, F C

    1966-02-01

    The sodium line reversal technique was used to determine the reversal temperature profile across the exit of small rockets. Measurements were made on one 73-kg thrust rocket, and two 23-kg thrust rockets with different injectors. The large rocket showed little variation of reversal temperature across the plume. However, the 23-kg rockets both showed a large decrease of reversal temperature from the axis to the edge of the plume. In addition, the sodium line reversal technique of temperature measurement was compared with an infrared technique developed in these laboratories.

  8. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MONETARY AND FISCAL EXIT STRATEGIES FROM THE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VASILESCU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis and all unusual monetary and fiscal policy reactions have stressed the importance to be given to understand macroeconomic consequences of policy interventions and their interactions. This profound crisis has led to both nonstandard policy actions of various authorities around the globe, but it has also revealed limitations of traditional modeling tools to guide policymakers’ actions until nowadays. The delicate state of governments’ accounts in many countries is a consequence of the strong fiscal policy reactions, giving rise to risks of a potential fiscal crisis. Issues regarding monetary and fiscal policy decisions interactions are, therefore, the key element for successful exit strategies from the crisis.

  9. Do specialists exit the firm outsourcing its R&D?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wenjing

    Do specialists exit the firm increasingly outsourcing its research and development (R&D) work? Although this question is critical in understanding how R&D outsourcing links to innovation performance, the answer is not yet clear. This paper proposes that the optimal level of firm's internal...... employment of R&D specialists decreases with the deepening of R&D outsourcing but increases with the broadening of R&D outsourcing. These relations can be inferred from previous empirical studies as well as our theoretical analysis, and are supported by the empirical evidence from estimations of correlated...

  10. "Kicked out": LGBTQ youths' bathroom experiences and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Carolyn M; Gower, Amy L; Mehus, Christopher J; Yu, Xiaohui; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2017-04-01

    Attention toward who can use which gender binary, multi-stall bathroom has brought to the forefront, once again, the ways in which youth are supported or marginalized. No study has documented sexual and gender minority youths' experiences with and perspectives about bathrooms. We collected qualitative data in 2014-2015. Participants were 25 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth, aged 14-19, in the United States and Canada. Their comments describe first- and second-hand bathroom experiences, identify advocacy efforts, and highlight the roles of peers and adults in making bathrooms safe (or not). Youth emphasized the importance of gender-neutral bathrooms in fostering a sense of safety and inclusivity. Adult support and gay-straight alliances (GSAs) were important contributors to a welcoming environment and fostered advocacy efforts for gender-neutral bathrooms. We encourage purposeful inclusivity of youths' voices when enacting bathroom-specific policies and legislation that directly influence their health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  12. Social capital and youth development: toward a typology of program practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Mary

    2013-06-01

    As part of our inquiry into how youth development and 4-H programming can affect the development of social capital for youth and for the community, we engaged youth in ripple mapping. Based on this information, we provide a typology of participation structures in youth development activities and the expected bridging and bonding social capital outcomes for each type. This article outlines the key factors underlying the typology and discusses strategies for using the typology to expand the impact of youth development and 4-H programming on young people and communities. It also outlines potential implications for increasing opportunities for fostering social capital leading to a spiraling-up effect for youth, volunteers, and the community. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  13. the life experiences of foster parents who nurture foster children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The affected children are placed in the care of related or unrelated .... if they were part of the decision for the removal of the child (Pickin et al, 2011; Samrai .... Foster parents described denial and guilt when a foster child is removed from them.

  14. Perspectives of Foster Parents and Social Workers on Foster Placement Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian J.; McQuillan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The potential human and financial costs of foster placement disruption for the children, families, professionals and agencies involved are widely accepted. This service evaluation identified and described perspectives of foster parents and social workers regarding placement disruptions in order to identify the main issues of concern and to derive…

  15. Placement breakdown in foster care: Reducing risks by a foster parent training program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis started by focusing on Dutch foster children’s well-being, emotional and behavioral functioning and placement stability. Subsequently, we attempted to identify how foster families who are considered to be at a high risk of placement breakdown could be given effective support. The

  16. Helping Foster Children in School: A Guide for Foster Parents, Social Workers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, John

    2015-01-01

    "Helping Foster Children in School" explores the challenges that foster children face in schools and offers positive and practical guidance tailored to help the parents, teachers and social workers supporting them. Children in care often perform poorly at school both in terms of their behavior and their academic performance, with many…

  17. Youth Violence Prevention and Safety: Opportunities for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2015-10-01

    Violence involvement remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for youth and young adults in the United States. The impact of adverse childhood experiences on violence involvement can be translated to the cellular level, including alterations in brain structure and function responsible for stress reactivity and coping. This knowledge is counterbalanced by a growing understanding of what works in the realm of youth violence prevention. Incorporating a resilience framework, with its focus on building developmental assets and resources at individual, family, and community levels, offers a renewed approach to fostering healthy behaviors and coping strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an Intervention for Foster Parents of Young Foster Children with Externalizing Behavior: Theoretical Basis and Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoonlandt, Femke; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Van Holen, Frank; De Maeyer, Skrallan

    2012-01-01

    Foster parents are often faced with serious externalizing behaviors of their foster child. These behavioral problems may induce family stress and are related to less effective parenting and often increase. Foster children with behavioral problems are also more at risk of placement breakdown. An intervention to support foster parents of young…

  19. Optimizing foster family placement for infants and toddlers : A randomized controlled trial on the effect of the Foster Family Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, Hans; Post, Wendy; Jansen, Lucres; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Knorth, Erik; Grietens, Hans

    The relationship between foster children and their foster carers comes with many risks and may be very stressful both for parents and children. We developed an intervention (foster family intervention [FFI]) to tackle these risks. The intervention focuses on foster children below the age of 5 years.

  20. Optimizing foster family placement for infants and toddlers: A randomized controlled trial on the effect of the foster family intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, H. Van; Post, W.; Janssen, L.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Knorth, E.; Grietens, H.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between foster children and their foster carers comes with many risks and may be very stressful both for parents and children. We developed an intervention (foster family intervention [FFI]) to tackle these risks. The intervention focuses on foster children below the age of 5 years.

  1. Analysis and modeling of electronic portal imaging exit dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistorius, S.; Yeboah, C.

    1995-01-01

    In spite of the technical advances in treatment planning and delivery in recent years, it is still unclear whether the recommended accuracy in dose delivery is being achieved. Electronic portal imaging devices, now in routine use in many centres, have the potential for quantitative dosimetry. As part of a project which aims to develop an expert-system based On-line Dosimetric Verification (ODV) system we have investigated and modelled the dose deposited in the detector of a video based portal imaging system. Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulate gamma and x-ray beams in homogeneous slab phantom geometries. Exit doses and energy spectra were scored as a function of (i) slab thickness, (ii) field size and (iii) the air gap between the exit surface and the detector. The results confirm that in order to accurately calculate the dose in the high atomic number Gd 2 O 2 S detector for a range of air gaps, field sizes and slab thicknesses both the magnitude of the primary and scattered components and their effective energy need to be considered. An analytic, convolution based model which attempts to do this is proposed. The results of the simulation and the ability of the model to represent these data will be presented and discussed. This model is used to show that, after training, a back-propagation feed-forward cascade correlation neural network has the ability to identify and recognise the cause of, significant dosimetric errors

  2. Diving, Jumping and Drinking: instabilities during water entry and exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    All organisms interact with fluids in one way or another, and some have presumably adapted their behaviors or features in response to fluid-mechanical forces. Particularly, fluid forces are of great importance when organisms or their body parts move in and out of water. In this talk, I will discuss three problems in which fluid mechanics principles affect form and function of animals. The first problem is how several seabirds (e.g. Gannets and Boobies) dive into water at up to 24 m/s without any injuries. This study examines the effects of their beak shape and dense feathers during water entry to reduce or spread the impact force on the body. The second problem is how animals jump out of water, from plankton to whales. Some aquatic animals generate enough force to exit the water surface as an effective method of capturing prey or escaping from predators. Finally, I will discuss about lapping animals (e.g. dog and cat) as a combined water entry and exit. During the tongue-lapping, associated fluid forces and pinch-off instability will be discussed.

  3. The Right of Exit in the Context of Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria D'Ávila Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n71p155 The terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in the United States provoked heated discussions about the need to limit and control the performance of some cultural minorities, as well as to create mechanisms to protect members of these minorities against the decisions taken by the group. In this context, this paper aims to analyze the possibilities and limits of the right of exit in the context of Multiculturalism. To this end, a literature research was performed in national and foreign doctrine. After analyzing the data, it was found that the right to exit is a valuable mechanism for protecting members of cultural minorities, however, there are situations, especially in cases where the values of the group are internalized by the members, in which this right is insufficient and should be supplemented by other human rights.

  4. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, James Michael; Tesh, Stephen William

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  5. The Effects of a Nutrition Media Literacy Intervention on Parents' and Youths' Communication about Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Austin, Bruce W; French, Brian F; Cohen, Marilyn A

    2018-01-01

    Interventions addressing links between media exposure and obesity risk for school-age youth have not explicitly addressed the role of family communication about media. Youths' influence attempts on parents to purchase advertised foods can create conflict and negatively affect parental food choices. This study tested whether a family-based media literacy curriculum improves parents' media management skills and decreases youths' susceptibility to appealing but unrealistic food marketing. A matched-group pretest/posttest field experiment of parent-youth dyads with control group (N = 100 dyads, youth M = 11 years of age) tested the six-session curriculum. Hypotheses were analyzed using a Bayesian structural equation model. The curriculum increased parents' active negative mediation to foster youths' critical thinking about food marketing, b* = 0.35, 95% CCI [0.17, 0.50], increased parent Efficacy for making healthy dietary changes for their families, b* = 0.59, 95% CCI [0.41, 0.75], and fostered family discussion about nutrition labels (total effect = 0.22). Additionally, cumulative influences of Perceived Desirability and Wishful Identification on youths' requests for marketed foods were reduced (total effect = 0.04). Media literacy education can empower parents and improve youths' critical thinking to reduce effects of food marketing on families and improve use of media to obtain nutrition information.

  6. Family foster care: a protective alternative for children and adolescents / Acolhimento familiar: uma alternativa de proteção para crianças e adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rosa do Amaral Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foster care of children and adolescents who have had their rights violated is being discussed both in the scientific literature and in agencies involved in the development of public policies. Such discussions, which aim to define some guidelines to guarantee the right to family and community inclusion, expose a field under change. This paper focuses on foster care in the Brazilian context and presents it as one of the possible alternatives for children and adolescents in risk situations. The (misleading influences of some theoretical perspectives that deal with affective bonds in foster care are also discussed. It is argued that a new foster culture requires changes in the conceptions of infancy and youth, in the meanings of affectionate bonds, and in welfare policies for children and adolescents.

  7. Fostering Elite Athlete Development and Recreational Sport Participation: a Successful Club Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rafaela Galatti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this article was to present a positive case study about how a sport club can foster both elite athlete development in parallel with offering a diverse range of sport activities to attract and maintain a greater number of children and youth for continued participation in a long term sport program.  To this end, an in-depth case study was conducted of a model Spanish Basketball Club, considered an example of success in achieving consistent level of performance and high rates of participation among their youth. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with administrators, setting observation, and analysis of current and archived club documents. The results show that the club has created changes over the years that have led to a clear organizational structure with a philosophy that connects its youth development teams and elite teams. An increase focus on youth development, the addition of recreational activities, and the implementation of a coach education program have been linked to enhanced participation rate and performance.

  8. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Bachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.

  9. Photovoice and Youth Empowerment in Environmental Justice Research: A Pilot Study Examining Woodsmoke Pollution in a Pacific Northwest Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickle, Mattie B; Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Woodsmoke pollution is an environmental justice issue for youth living in certain Pacific Northwest cities. Participatory methods such as Citizen Science and Photovoice are effective ways to involve youth in environmental justice research. Little is understood about how youth may be empowered to address woodsmoke issues in their communities. We examined youth empowerment in a citizen science study on woodsmoke, using Photovoice methodology. Ten diverse youth collected and analyzed indoor air samples and photos, then presented their findings to the community and policy makers. Entrance and exit surveys revealed an increased sense of empowerment to take action on woodsmoke pollution. Youth also expressed increased optimism and a resolve to become scientists to combat environmental injustices.

  10. TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Xinghua Cancer Hospital, Xinghua, Jiangsu 225700 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment

  11. TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment systems

  12. Catholic Media and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Stephen A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the impact of media on youth and suggests some possible directions for the Catholic media, especially in the areas of textbooks, magazines, television, movies, and radio, in responding to the needs of youth. (Author/FM)

  13. Introduction: Ideologies of Youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... target all age groups in their youth-oriented programmes. If the donor- ... van Dijk, de Bruijn, Cardoso, Butter: Introduction – Ideologies of Youth ...... Toward a Theory of Vital Conjunctures', American Anthropologist, vol. 104,.

  14. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  15. Fostering rigour in accounting for social sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, B.; Unerman, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates how a journal and its editor can initiate and foster a stream of high quality and influential research in a novel area. It does this by analysing Accounting, Organizations and Society's (AOS's) and Anthony Hopwood's nurturing of research into key aspects of accounting for

  16. Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the present study indicates that improvements can be made by adopting alternative approaches. Further studies are needed to ascertain how foster parenting and imprinting may be utilized to optimize chick performance, including the long-term consequences of these practices. Keywords: Parental care, Struthio camelus, ...

  17. Strategies for Fostering Creativity Among Business Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study reveal that the respondents agreed that the 20 creativity skill-items are needed by business education graduates. Furthermore, the study also show a no significant difference between the mean rating of opinion of male and female business educators on the strategies for fostering creativity among ...

  18. Fostering Adolescents' Interpersonal Behaviour: An Empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of enhanced thinking skills (ETS) and social skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. A pre- and post-test experimental-control group design with a 3x2 factorial matrix was employed for the study. Gender which was used as a moderator variable ...

  19. An Inside Track: Fostering Mathematical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheister, Kelley; Jackson, Christa; Taylor, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Classroom teachers may not initially consider games as opportunities for students to engage in deep mathematical thinking. However, this article reveals how a second grade veteran teacher used Attribute Trains, a game adapted from NCTM Illuminations, to foster his students' thinking related to key ideas within the Standards for Mathematical…

  20. Fostering Self-Regulation in Distributed Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Krista P.; Doolittle, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Although much has been written about fostering self-regulated learning in traditional classroom settings, there has been little that addresses how to facilitate self-regulated learning skills in distributed and online environments. This article will examine some such strategies by specifically focusing on time management. Specific principles for…

  1. Creative Stories: A Storytelling Game Fostering Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourikos, Antonis; Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Panagopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The process of identifying techniques for fostering creativity, and applying these theoretical constructs in real-world educational activities, is, by nature, multifaceted and not straightforward, pertaining to several fields such as cognitive theory and psychology. Furthermore, the quantification of the impact of different activities on…

  2. Understanding the Black Foster Child through Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1979-01-01

    Sheds light on the difficulties of one of the most problem-ridden segments of our society's young people--minority foster children--and suggests ways to improve the help that these children receive. Results indicate that a satisfactory rapport could be established with these children with moderate effort and that rewarding therapeutic…

  3. Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Verpoorten, Dominique; Ternier, Stefaan; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Tabuenca, B., Verpoorten, D., Ternier, S., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2012). Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies. In A. Moore, V. Pammer, L. Pannese, M. Prilla, K. Rajagopal, W. Reinhardt, Th. D. Ullman, & Ch. Voigt (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and

  4. Dr. Andrew Foster: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Often compared to Laurent Clerc, Thomas Gallaudet, and Alexander Graham Bell, Dr. Andrew Foster was a deaf African American who founded 32 schools for the deaf in 13 African nations. The 60th anniversary of his arrival in Liberia and Ghana and the 30th anniversary of his tragic death in a Rwanda airplane accident both occur in 2017. Renewed…

  5. How Can Science Education Foster Students' Rooting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    The question of how to foster rooting in science education points towards a double challenge; efforts to "prevent" (further) uprooting and efforts to "promote" rooting/re-rooting. Wolff-Michael Roth's paper discusses the uprooting/rooting pair of concepts, students' feeling of alienation and loss of fundamental sense of the…

  6. Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Fostering Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of mindfulness training in fostering tobacco cessation among undergraduates in a Nigerian university. It also observed the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the causal link between mindfulness training and tobacco cessation. Participants were 57 students randomly assigned to ...

  7. Inflation with a graceful exit in a random landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedro, F.G.; Westphal, A.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a stochastic description of small-field inflationary histories with a graceful exit in a random potential whose Hessian is a Gaussian random matrix as a model of the unstructured part of the string landscape. The dynamical evolution in such a random potential from a small-field inflation region towards a viable late-time de Sitter (dS) minimum maps to the dynamics of Dyson Brownian motion describing the relaxation of non-equilibrium eigenvalue spectra in random matrix theory. We analytically compute the relaxation probability in a saddle point approximation of the partition function of the eigenvalue distribution of the Wigner ensemble describing the mass matrices of the critical points. When applied to small-field inflation in the landscape, this leads to an exponentially strong bias against small-field ranges and an upper bound N<<10 on the number of light fields N participating during inflation from the non-observation of negative spatial curvature.

  8. Inflation with a graceful exit in a random landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, F.G. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Westphal, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2016-11-15

    We develop a stochastic description of small-field inflationary histories with a graceful exit in a random potential whose Hessian is a Gaussian random matrix as a model of the unstructured part of the string landscape. The dynamical evolution in such a random potential from a small-field inflation region towards a viable late-time de Sitter (dS) minimum maps to the dynamics of Dyson Brownian motion describing the relaxation of non-equilibrium eigenvalue spectra in random matrix theory. We analytically compute the relaxation probability in a saddle point approximation of the partition function of the eigenvalue distribution of the Wigner ensemble describing the mass matrices of the critical points. When applied to small-field inflation in the landscape, this leads to an exponentially strong bias against small-field ranges and an upper bound N<<10 on the number of light fields N participating during inflation from the non-observation of negative spatial curvature.

  9. Real-time multi-function entry / exit management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyama, Kazuhisa; Kurosawa, Akihiko; Asano, Norikazu; Onoue, Ryuji; Eguchi, Shohei; Hanawa, Nobuhiro; Hori, Naohiko; Ueda, Hisao; Kanda, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent radiation accident and its expansion, more integrated management system is required to safety management for radiation workers in the nuclear facilities. Therefore, JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and HAM (Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd) have developed innovative real-time multi-function entry/exit management system which managed worker's exposed dose and position under the joint developed patent. This system is sharing worker's data among workers and server manager who is inside of or outside of building, such as worker's positing, health condition and exposed dose. It consists of mobile equipments, receivers, LAN, and servers system. This report summarizes the system to be installed in the JMTR. (author)

  10. Spanish exit polls. Sampling error or nonresponse bias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavía, Jose M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Countless examples of misleading forecasts on behalf of both pre-election and exit polls can be found all over the world. Non-representative samples due to differential nonresponse have been claimed as being the main reason for inaccurate exit-poll projections. In real inference problems, it is seldom possible to compare estimates and true values. Electoral forecasts are an exception. Comparisons between estimates and final outcomes can be carried out once votes have been tallied. In this paper, we examine the raw data collected in seven exit polls conducted in Spain and test the likelihood that the data collected in each sampled voting location can be considered as a random sample of actual results. Knowing the answer to this is relevant for both electoral analysts and forecasters as, if the hypothesis is rejected, the shortcomings of the collected data would need amending. Analysts could improve the quality of their computations by implementing local correction strategies. We find strong evidence of nonsampling error in Spanish exit polls and evidence that the political context matters. Nonresponse bias is larger in polarized elections and in a climate of fearExiste un gran número de ejemplos de predicciones inexactas obtenidas a partir tanto de encuestas pre-electorales como de encuestas a pie de urna a lo largo del mundo. La presencia de tasas de no-respuesta diferencial entre distintos tipos de electores ha sido la principal razón esgrimida para justificar las proyecciones erróneas en las encuestas a pie de urna. En problemas de inferencia rara vez es posible comparar estimaciones y valores reales. Las predicciones electorales son una excepción. La comparación entre estimaciones y resultados finales puede realizarse una vez los votos han sido contabilizados. En este trabajo, examinamos los datos brutos recogidos en siete encuestas a pie de urna realizadas en España y testamos la hipótesis de que los datos recolectados en cada punto

  11. Atypical Exit Wound in High-Voltage Electrocution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakkattil, Jamshid; Kandasamy, Shanmugam; Das, Siddhartha; Devnath, Gerard Pradeep; Chaudhari, Vinod Ashok; Shaha, Kusa Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Electrocution fatality cases are difficult to investigate. High-voltage electrocution burns resemble burns caused by other sources, especially if the person survives for few days. In that case, circumstantial evidence if correlated with the autopsy findings helps in determining the cause and manner of death. In addition, the crime scene findings also help to explain the pattern of injuries observed at autopsy. A farmer came in contact with a high-voltage transmission wire and sustained superficial to deep burns over his body. A charred and deeply scorched area was seen over the face, which was suggestive of the electric entry wound. The exit wound was present over both feet and lower leg and was atypical in the form of a burnt area of peeled blistered skin, charring, and deep scorching. The injuries were correlated with crime scene findings, and the circumstances that lead to his electrocution are discussed here.

  12. Being Indigenous in the Bureaucracy: Narratives of Work and Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lahn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s civil service has had some success in attracting substantial numbers of Indigenous employees. But significant numbers also regularly exit the bureaucracy. Retaining Indigenous employees is recognised as an ongoing difficulty for government. This research with former and current Indigenous civil servants outlines factors they identify as contributing to decisions to leave the bureaucracy. A key finding involves their general sense of being underutilised and undervalued— that forms of experience and understanding as Indigenous people go largely unrecognised within government, which in turn constrains their potential to meaningfully contribute to improving government relations with Indigenous Australians or to enhancing the effectiveness of the bureaucracy more broadly. Work as an Indigenous civil servant emerges as a space of contestation with the possibilities and limits of statecraft.

  13. Destruction and Reallocation of Skills Following Large Company Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Olesen, Thomas Roslyng

    , skill destruction. This study is based on the closure of four shipyards in Denmark from 1987-2000. The analysis is based on detailed longitudinal micro data from a matched employer-employee dataset that allow us to follow the mobility of the laid-off employees in great detail. The analysis shows......What happens to redundant skills and workers when a large company closes down in a region? The knowledge embodied in firms is lost when firms exit. However, the skills, competences and knowledge embodied in the displaced employees are suddenly released and can become channels of knowledge transfer...... for other firms that hire them. This process can be very disruptive. For instance, when a large, old and well-renowned company closes down displacing thousands of workers over a short period of time, then it may be a shock to the regional economy and lead to unemployment and skill destruction. The question...

  14. Thermal IR exitance model of a plant canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Smith, J. A.; Link, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal IR exitance model of a plant canopy based on a mathematical abstraction of three horizontal layers of vegetation was developed. Canopy geometry within each layer is quantitatively described by the foliage and branch orientation distributions and number density. Given this geometric information for each layer and the driving meteorological variables, a system of energy budget equations was determined and solved for average layer temperatures. These estimated layer temperatures, together with the angular distributions of radiating elements, were used to calculate the emitted thermal IR radiation as a function of view angle above the canopy. The model was applied to a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) canopy over a diurnal cycle. Simulated vs measured radiometric average temperatures of the midcanopy layer corresponded with 2 C. Simulation results suggested that canopy geometry can significantly influence the effective radiant temperature recorded at varying sensor view angles.

  15. Using an electronic portal imaging device for exit dose measurements in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganowicz, M.; Wozniak, B.; Bekman, A.; Maniakowski, Z.

    2003-01-01

    To present a method of determining the exit dose with the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). The device used was the Portal Vision LC250 (Varian). The EPID signals on the central beam axis have been related to the exit dose. The exit dose measurements were performed with the ionisation chamber in the slab phantom at the distance of dose maximum from the exit surface of the phantom. EPID reading was investigated as a function of field size, phantom thickness and source-detector distance. The relation between dose rate and the EPID reading is described with empirical functions applicable to the obtained data. The exit dose is calculated from the EPID reading as a product of the calibration factor and appropriate correction factors. The determination of the exit dose rate from the EPID signal requires the knowledge of many parameters and earlier determination of essential characteristics. (author)

  16. Modelling guidelines for core exit temperature simulations with system codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freixa, J., E-mail: jordi.freixa-terradas@upc.edu [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain); Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Martínez-Quiroga, V., E-mail: victor.martinez@nortuen.com [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain); Zerkak, O., E-mail: omar.zerkak@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Reventós, F., E-mail: francesc.reventos@upc.edu [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Core exit temperature is used in PWRs as an indication of core heat up. • Modelling guidelines of CET response with system codes. • Modelling of heat transfer processes in the core and UP regions. - Abstract: Core exit temperature (CET) measurements play an important role in the sequence of actions under accidental conditions in pressurized water reactors (PWR). Given the difficulties in placing measurements in the core region, CET readings are used as criterion for the initiation of accident management (AM) procedures because they can indicate a core heat up scenario. However, the CET responses have some limitation in detecting inadequate core cooling and core uncovery simply because the measurement is not placed inside the core. Therefore, it is of main importance in the field of nuclear safety for PWR power plants to assess the capabilities of system codes for simulating the relation between the CET and the peak cladding temperature (PCT). The work presented in this paper intends to address this open question by making use of experimental work at integral test facilities (ITF) where experiments related to the evolution of the CET and the PCT during transient conditions have been carried out. In particular, simulations of two experiments performed at the ROSA/LSTF and PKL facilities are presented. The two experiments are part of a counterpart exercise between the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 and OECD/NEA PKL-2 projects. The simulations are used to derive guidelines in how to correctly reproduce the CET response during a core heat up scenario. Three aspects have been identified to be of main importance: (1) the need for a 3-dimensional representation of the core and Upper Plenum (UP) regions in order to model the heterogeneity of the power zones and axial areas, (2) the detailed representation of the active and passive heat structures, and (3) the use of simulated thermocouples instead of steam temperatures to represent the CET readings.

  17. Generating Youth Interest in Science Careers Through 4-H Health Science Explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hutson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health Science Explorations is a Maryland 4-H Program for youth ages ten and older. Hospital-based multi-day summer sessions and clubs that meet regularly, enable youth to interact with health care professionals in authentic medical settings. The program introduces youth to local health career opportunities, fosters science literacy and interest in science careers, and teaches healthy lifestyle practices. The authors share strategies to guide other educators through the process of developing their own science career exploration programs.

  18. An Overview of Quality Programs that Support Transition-Aged Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kalinyak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a concise overview of several programs that deliver services to transition-aged youth, ages 14–29. Included are family support, the Assisting Unaccompanied Children and Youth program, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration services, the wraparound approach, intensive home-based treatment, multisystemic therapy, foster care, independent living, mentoring, the Steps to Success program, the Jump on Board for Success program, the Options program, the Positive Action program, the Transition to Success model, and the Transition to Independence Program. Primary focus is placed upon the usefulness of each of the programs in facilitating successful outcomes for transition-aged youth.

  19. “Understanding exit from the founder’s business in family firms”

    OpenAIRE

    C. Salvato; F. Chirico; P. Sharma

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the role of family-specific factors in facilitating or constraining business exit in family firms. Family business literature seems to have an implicit bias towards continuity and persistence in the founder’s business. This is explained by heavy emotional involvement and development of path-dependent core competences over generations. However, several long-lived family firms were able to successfully exit the founder’s business. Exit allowed them to free signifi...

  20. Youth Development: Maori Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Felicity; Walsh-Tapiata, Wheturangi

    2010-01-01

    Despite the innovative approach of the Youth Development Strategy Aotearoa and the applicability of its Rangatahi Development Package, the diverse realities and experiences of Maori youth are still presenting unique challenges to national policy in Aotearoa New Zealand. A Maori youth research approach that utilised a combination of action research…

  1. Youth minimum wages and youth employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median

  2. Impact of a Supportive Housing Program on Housing Stability and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Young Adults in New York City Who Were Aging Out of Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Singh, Tejinder P; Gwynn, R Charon

    2017-08-01

    Former foster youth are at increased risk of housing instability and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during the transitional period following foster care. We measured housing stability using sequence analysis and assessed whether a supportive housing program in New York, New York, was effective in improving housing stability and reducing STIs among former foster youth. Matched administrative records identified 895 former foster youth who were eligible for the housing program during 2007-2010. The main outcomes included housing stability (as determined from episodes of homelessness, incarceration, hospitalization, and residence in supportive housing) and diagnosed STI case rates per 1,000 person-years during the 2 years after baseline. Marginal structural models were used to assess impacts of the program on these outcomes. Three housing stability patterns (unstable housing, stable housing, and rare institutional dwelling patterns) were identified. The housing program was positively associated with a pattern of stable housing (odds ratio = 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 2.9, 6.8), and negatively associated with diagnosed STI rates (relative risk = 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 0.7). These positive impacts on housing stability and STIs highlight the importance of the supportive housing program for youths aging out of foster care and the need for such programs to continue. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Arab Youth: A Contained Youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Gertel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Young people in the Arab world increasingly have to struggle with economic hardship and difficulties to start their own lives, although the majority is better educated than ever before. The problematic labor market situation combined with weak public schemes to support young careers force large sections of young people to postpone their ambitions to marry. This period of delayed marriage is captured as 'waithood'. I will argue that this term is misleading. Two points of critique apply: The social dimension of waiting exceeds the status of remaining inactive until something expected happens; the ever-changing present continuously generates new realities. Simultaneously uncertainties and insecurities have dramatically expanded since 2011 and further limit livelihood opportunities and future perspectives, particularly of the youth. Young people are hence becoming both, increasingly frustrated and disadvantaged the longer they "wait", and even more dependent on parents and kin networks. This hinders them to develop their personality – they rather have to accommodate with values that are not always suitable to master the present requirements of a globalizing world. In this paper I will inquire, in how far young people of the Arab world have thus to be considered as a “contained youth”.

  4. Influence of drill helical direction on exit damage development in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Jia, Z. Y.; Wang, F. J.; Fu, R.; Guo, H. B.; Cheng, D.; Zhang, B. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Drilling is inevitable for CFRP components’ assembling process in the aviation industry. The exit damage frequently occurs and affects the load carrying capacity of components. Consequently, it is of great urgency to enhance drilling exit quality on CFRP components. The article aims to guide the reasonable choice of drill helical direction and effectively reduce exit damage. Exit observation experiments are carried out with left-hand helical, right-hand helical and straight one-shot drill drilling T800S CFRP laminates separately. The development rules of exit damage and delamination factor curves are obtained. Combined with loading conditions and fracture modes of push-out burrs, and thrust force curves, the influence of drill helical direction on exit damage development is derived. It is found that the main fracture modes for left-hand helical, right-hand helical, and straight one-shot drill are mode I, extrusive fracture, mode III respectively. Among them, mode III has the least effect on exit damage development. Meanwhile, the changing rate of thrust force is relative slow for right-hand helical and straight one-shot drill in the thrust force increasing phase of stage II, which is disadvantaged for exit damage development. Therefore, straight one-shot drill’s exit quality is the best.

  5. Tapping New Pools of Talent: Preparing Opportunity Youth to Help Fill the Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs For the Future, 2015

    2015-01-01

    More than 6 million young people in the United States are out of school, out of work, and, often it seems, out of luck. That's 17 percent of Americans between the ages of 16 and 24. This population includes dropouts and high school graduates, former foster children and juveniles in court custody; youth caring for siblings and teens cycling in and…

  6. Media: A Catalyst for Resilience in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Shelley L.; McInroy, Lauren; McCready, Lance T.; Alaggia, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth have the potential for considerable resilience. Positive media representations may mediate negative experiences and foster self-esteem, yet the relationship between resilience and both traditional offline and new online media remains underaddressed for this population. This…

  7. Juventude, intelectualidade e política: a ativação do "legado" de André Forster e a consagração de uma geração Youth, intellectuals and politics: the activation of André Foster's "legacy" and the acclamation of a generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana dos Reis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da temática referente às dinâmicas de construções geracionais e ao trabalho de memória, ativados por determinados agentes sobre um momento histórico específico. Para tanto, propõe-se, num primeiro momento, uma breve discussão bibliográfica sobre as noções de «geração» e «memória», principalmente sobre o potencial heurístico destas. No momento seguinte, o empreendimento recai na análise de um conjunto de narrativas e homenagens centradas na mobilização política da juventude de esquerda do MDB gaúcho na «luta contra a ditadura» (especialmente o exame de um Grande Expediente realizado na Assembléia Legislativa do RS em homenagem póstuma ao sociólogo e líder político André C. Forster. Com estes dois momentos pretende-se discutir o uso operacional de determinadas categorias para a compreensão dos movimentos históricos e dos personagens que os animam.This article deals with the themes related to the construction of generational dynamics and the memory work activated by certain agents on a specific historical moment. In order to do that, a brief bibliographical discussion is firstly proposed on the notions of "generation" and "memory", specially on their heuristic potential. Afterwards, an analysis is developed of a group of narratives and tributes centered on the leftist youth's mobilization within Rio Grande de Sul's MDB (Brazilian Democratic Movement in the "struggle against the dictatorship" (specially the examination of state parliament special session as a posthumous tribute to sociologist and political leader André C. Forster. Based on thos e two moments we intend to discuss the operational use of some categories to understand historical moments and the characters that animate them.

  8. Re-Imagining Language, Culture, and Family in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Victoria I.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half a million children in the United States are currently being served by the foster care system. Infants and toddlers represent the largest single group entering foster care. While these very young children are at the greatest peril for physical, mental health, and developmental issues and tend to spend the longest time in the foster care…

  9. Broadening the Bounds of Youth Development: Youth as Engaged Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Inca A.; Wheeler, Wendy

    This report focuses on leadership development, especially on efforts that promote youth engagement as a youth development strategy. Part 1 is an edited version of the publication, "Youth Leadership for Development: Civic Activism as a Component of Youth Development Programming." It provides an overview of youth development theory, including an…

  10. Fostering Creative Problem Solvers in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2016-01-01

    to meet such challenges. This chapter aims to illustrate how to understand: 1) complexity as the nature of professional practice; 2) creative problem solving as the core skill in professional practice; 3) creativity as interplay between persons and their environment; 4) higher education as the context......Recent studies have emphasized issues of social emergence based on thinking of societies as complex systems. The complexity of professional practice has been recognized as the root of challenges for higher education. To foster creative problem solvers is a key response of higher education in order...... of fostering creative problem solvers; and 5) some innovative strategies such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and building a learning environment by Information Communication Technology (ICT) as potential strategies of creativity development. Accordingly, this chapter contributes to bridge the complexity...

  11. Fostering Nautical Tourism in the Balearic Islands

    OpenAIRE

    María J. Moreno; F. Javier Otamendi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine pillars for fostering nautical tourism based on the beliefs and attitudes that professionals in the sector have towards the particularities and difficulties that the market is going through. To achieve these goals, in-depth interviews structured around 37 questions were carried out with agents of associations and nautical firms, public institutions, and the Chamber of Commerce. The qualitative analysis program NVIVO 11 was used to analyze the content of t...

  12. Fostering hope in the patient with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichwala, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    When a patient is diagnosed with cancer, feelings such as fear, anxiety, and hopelessness can negatively affect a person's frame of mind. Hope can help a patient decrease anxiety and increase quality of life. Nurses should assess hope, provide interventions, be empathetic, listen, and treat patients with dignity to help improve hope and quality of life. This article features how hope can have a positive impact and provides specific information about how nurses can promote and foster hope in patients with cancer.

  13. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM) demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal…

  14. Toward 3D structural information from quantitative electron exit wave analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B; Moldovan, Grigore; Kirkland, Angus I; Wang, Amy; Van Dyck, Dirk; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Simulations show that using a new direct imaging detector and accurate exit wave restoration algorithms allows nearly quantitative restoration of electron exit wave phase, which can be regarded as only qualitative for conventional indirect imaging cameras. This opens up a possibility of extracting accurate information on 3D atomic structure of the sample even from a single projection.

  15. 30 CFR 57.4530 - Exits for surface buildings and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exits for surface buildings and structures. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4530 Exits for surface buildings and structures. Surface buildings or structures in which persons work shall have a sufficient number...

  16. Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Alejandro; Serrano, Miguel; Olmos, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions. (author)

  17. Ecologies of ideologies : Explaining party entry and exit in European parliaments, 1945-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wardt, Marc; Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly

  18. Ecologies of Ideologies : Explaining Party Entry and Exit in West-European Parliaments, 1945-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wardt, M.; Berkhout, J.; Vermeulen, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly

  19. Door locking and exit security measures on acute psychiatric admission wards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Haglund, K.; Muir-Cochrane, E.; Simpson, A.; Merwe, M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Locking the exit doors of psychiatric wards is believed to reduce the risk of patients absconding. The aims of the study were to investigate both the prevalence of door locking and other exit security measures on UK admission wards, as well as whether door locking appears to be effective in keeping

  20. Do spouses coordinate their work exits? A combined survey and register analysis from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Astri; Solem, Per Erik; Ugreninov, Elisabeth; Mykletun, Reidar; Furunes, Trude

    2014-09-01

    Research on spouses' joint work exits is scarce, although household factors such as spouses' work status, marital quality, and caregiving burdens are likely to affect seniors' work engagement. We therefore examine whether the work exit probability of one spouse affects that of the other. Discrete-time hazard regression analyses of survey data linked to later registry information including all gainfully employed married respondents aged 50-74 with a working spouse (N = 1,764) were used to assess subsequent work exits. A spouse's work exit is a strong predictor of a respondent's work exit (hazard ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval [2.5, 4.0]). Educational attainment, poor marital quality, and spouses' health and care needs do not predict work exits. Surprisingly, no gender differences are observed. Research on larger survey samples to distinguish different work exit routes and reasons for spouses' joint work exits appears warranted. To account for cultural and welfare state characteristics, cross-national studies ought to be undertaken. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Exit interviews administered to patients participating in the COSTOP placebo controlled randomised trial in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nunn

    2016-08-01

    Discussion: The exit interview demonstrated that there was some evidence of open label drug being taken by the participants. However, the results from the interview do not suggest that the trial results would have been seriously compromised. We would recommend the exit interview as a valuable way of assessing adherence to trial procedures.

  2. Drink Specials and the Intoxication Levels of Patrons Exiting College Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Dodd, Virginia; Porkorny, Steven B.; Omli, Morrow R.; O'Mara, Ryan; Webb, Monica C.; Lacaci, Diana M.; Werch, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether drink specials independently increase patrons' risk of achieving a high level of intoxication upon exiting drinking establishments. Methods: In a campus community, data were collected from exiting patrons (N=291) via sidewalk interviews and breath tests on 6 nights of 2 consecutive semesters. Results: A…

  3. Efficiency, Leverage and Exit: The Role of Information Asymmetry in Concentrated Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siyahhan, Baran

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a real options model of imperfect competition with asymmetric information that analyzes firms’ exit decisions. Optimal exit decision is linked to firm characteristics such as financial leverage and efficiency. The model shows that informational asymmetries can lead more...

  4. Efficiency, Leverage and Exit: The Role of Information Asymmetry in Concentrated Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siyahhan, Baran

    This paper develops a real options model of imperfect competition with asymmetric information that analyzes firms’ exit decisions. Optimal exit decision is linked to firm characteristics such as financial leverage and efficiency. The model shows that informational asymmetries can lead more...

  5. Visual Barriers to Prevent Ambulatory ALzheimer's Patients from Exiting through an Emergency Door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Kevan H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conducted study on Alzheimer's unit to test seven different visual barrier conditions for reducing patient exits. Findings indicated that exiting was eliminated under two conditions. Results suggest visual agnosia, the inability to interpret what the eye sees, may be used as tool in managing wandering behavior of Alzheimer's patients. (Author/NB)

  6. Critical heat flux and exit film flow rate in a flow boiling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Tatsuhiro; Isayama, Yasushi

    1981-01-01

    The critical heat flux in a flowing boiling system is an important problem in the evaporating tubes with high thermal load such as nuclear reactors and boilers, and gives the practical design limit. When the heat flux in uniformly heated evaporating tubes is gradually raised, the tube exit quality increases, and soon, the critical heat flux condition arises, and the wall temperature near tube exit rises rapidly. In the region of low exit quality, the critical heat flux condition is caused by the transition from nucleating boiling, and in the region of high exit quality, it is caused by dry-out. But the demarcation of both regions is not clear. In this study, for the purpose of obtaining the knowledge concerning the critical heat flux condition in a flowing boiling system, the relation between the critical heat flux and exit liquid film flow rate was examined. For the experiment, a uniformly heated vertical tube supplying R 113 liquid was used, and the measurement in the range of higher heating flux and mass velocity than the experiment by Ueda and Kin was carried out. The experimental setup and experimental method, the critical heat flux and exit quality, the liquid film flow rate at heating zone exit, and the relation between the critical heat flux and the liquid film flow rate at exit are described. (Kako, I.)

  7. Entrance and Exit CSR Impedance for Non-Ultrarelativistic Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui; Tsai, Cheng Ying [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    For a high-brightness electron beam being transported through beamlines involving bending systems, the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and longitudinal space charge (LSC) interaction could often cause microbunching instability. The semi-analytical Vlasov solver for microbunching gain* depends on the impedances for the relevant collective effects. The existing results for CSR impedances are usually obtained for the ultrarelativistic limit. To extend the microbunching analysis to cases of low energies, such as the case of an ERL merger, or to density modulations at extremely small wavelength, it is necessary to extend the impedance analysis to the non-ultrarelativistic regime. In this study, we present the impedance analysis for the transient CSR interaction in the non-ultrarelativistic regime, for transients including both entrance to and exit from a magnetic dipole. These impedance results will be compared to their ultra-relativistic counterparts**, and the corresponding wakefield obtained from the impedance for low-energy beams will be compared with the existing results of transient CSR wakefield for general beam energies***.

  8. Exit Noise Summer Fest: Explaining the audience in ethnographic discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić-Krstanović Miroslava M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ethnology, studying festivals is a relevant activity since it could enlighten a number of complex cultural and social processes. The festivals represent public events, public ceremonies, cluster of rituals and produce many symbols, and as such, they are in fact a creative reflection of a society. In this paper, we analyze the Exit Noise Summer Fest, the biggest music festival in SE Europe. The aim of the analysis is to gain understanding of the cultural event of this kind and its protagonists, namely, the audience. Shedding a light to a music spectacle, from a standpoint of social and symbolic communication, directs to a different perspective in reading of rituals, communities zones, and semantic constructions of noise and body in the center of ritual behaviors. The research shows that the music experience and atmosphere of the celebration, though having somewhat unclear ritual borderline and zone, are compatible with the daily culture and social processes, in which the event is created and further reflects itself through various mediums.

  9. Hearing loss and disability exit: Measurement issues and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Vibeke Tornhøj; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2017-02-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common conditions related to aging, and previous descriptive evidence links it to early exit from the labor market. These studies are usually based on self-reported hearing difficulties, which are potentially endogenous to labor supply. We use unique representative data collected in the spring of 2005 through in-home interviews. The data contains self-reported functional and clinically-measured hearing ability for a representative sample of the Danish population aged 50-64. We estimate the causal effect of hearing loss on early retirement via disability benefits, taking into account the endogeneity of functional hearing. Our identification strategy involves the simultaneous estimation of labor supply, functional hearing, and coping strategies (i.e. accessing assistive devices at work or informing one's employer about the problem). We use hearing aids as an instrument for functional hearing. Our main empirical findings are that endogeneity bias is more severe for men than women and that functional hearing problems significantly increase the likelihood of receiving disability benefits for both men and women. However, relative to the baseline the effect is larger for men (47% vs. 20%, respectively). Availability of assistive devices in the workplace decreases the likelihood of receiving disability benefits, whereas informing an employer about hearing problems increases this likelihood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring of Persons at the Exit from Bohunice NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaizer, J.; Svitek, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: IAEA defines the principal requirement 'defence in depth' as a multilayer system in its authorised document - International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation, Safety Series No. 115. The principle of the multilayer system is: a failure at one zone is compensated or corrected at subsequent zones. The main argument why Bohunice NPP modernised its monitoring system at the exit from NPP was the implementation of the principle 'defence in depth'. Several instruments PM7 (Eberline) equipped with the plastic scintillation detectors had been bought because of the modernisation. The instruments had to be integrated into overall security system NPP without any restriction to the number of passing people. The supplier had to modify the basic instrument operation. NPP required a 'dynamic' monitoring version, this means the operation without stopping of a person within the instrument. After the modification the value of the RDA (Reliable Detectable Activity) of the instruments PM7 was within the interval 9.25-10.4 kBq for 137 Cs (dotted source in the middle of the instrument). RDA for the mix of activation products was 2-3 times lower. In conclusion of our paper the results of the monitoring are presented within tree years as well as a discussion about these results. Maximum values of contaminations measured were very low (several kBq) that represented very low risk from potential exposure. (author)

  11. POD- Mapping and analysis of hydroturbine exit flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Finstad, Pal Henrik

    2012-11-01

    Pairwise radial dynamic measurements of the swirling draft tube flow have been made at the 25 MW Svorka power plant in Surnadal operating at 48% load at 6 radial and 7 angular positions. The data is analyzed with traditional methods as well as with POD. The measurements were made in the turbine draft tube/exit flow in an axial measurement plane about 1200mm downstream the turbine runner. The draft tube diameter in the measurement plane is about 1300mm. The flow rate during measurements was close to 5.8m3/s. Two probes were used; both of length Le=700 mm and made of stainless steel with an outer diameter of Do=20 mm and inner diameter Di=4mm. At the end of each probe a full bridge cylindrical KULITE xcl152, 0-3.5, was mounted. 90 seconds samples at 10 kS/s were taken. The POD analysis largely follows that of Tutkun et al. (see e.g. AIAA J., 45,5,2008). The analysis shows that 26% of the pressure pulsation energy can be addressed to azimuthal mode 1. The work has been supported by Energy Norway.

  12. Core compressor exit stage study. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdsall, E. A.; Canal, E., Jr.; Lyons, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aspect ratio on the performance of core compressor exit stages was demonstrated using two three stage, highly loaded, core compressors. Aspect ratio was identified as having a strong influence on compressors endwall loss. Both compressors simulated the last three stages of an advanced eight stage core compressor and were designed with the same 0.915 hub/tip ratio, 4.30 kg/sec (9.47 1bm/sec) inlet corrected flow, and 167 m/sec (547 ft/sec) corrected mean wheel speed. The first compressor had an aspect ratio of 0.81 and an overall pressure ratio of 1.357 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.3% with an average diffusion factor or 0.529. The aspect ratio of the second compressor was 1.22 with an overall pressure ratio of 1.324 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.7% with an average diffusion factor of 0.491.

  13. Studi Kasus Yayasan X: Analisa Hasil Exit Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Junita Santosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This case study on the X Foundation aims to provide an overview and analysis of questionnaire results of exit interviews of employees who came out in 2009 and 2010. This case study was conducted on the basis of the importance of seeing the dimensions or factors that exist, particularly with regard to the factors of satisfaction or dissatisfaction in the employee working within the Organization. The study was conducted using quantitative methods with retrieval of primary data on the X Foundation, the descriptive method. Subjects were 63 employees who came out in 2009 and 125 employees that came out in 2010 at differing position, level and status. The results generally showed that there are two factors that should motivate employees to be the opposite that is causing dissatisfaction in the employee, and there are two factors also confirm the reasons why an employee becomes dissatisfied and decided to leave the organization. The suggestions put forward to conduct further research to further deepen the analysis of descriptive statistics, so the depiction becomes more profound; and can provide accurate advice to the organization. 

  14. Inflation with a graceful exit in a random landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, F.G. [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Westphal, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Theory Group,D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-03-30

    We develop a stochastic description of small-field inflationary histories with a graceful exit in a random potential whose Hessian is a Gaussian random matrix as a model of the unstructured part of the string landscape. The dynamical evolution in such a random potential from a small-field inflation region towards a viable late-time de Sitter (dS) minimum maps to the dynamics of Dyson Brownian motion describing the relaxation of non-equilibrium eigenvalue spectra in random matrix theory. We analytically compute the relaxation probability in a saddle point approximation of the partition function of the eigenvalue distribution of the Wigner ensemble describing the mass matrices of the critical points. When applied to small-field inflation in the landscape, this leads to an exponentially strong bias against small-field ranges and an upper bound N≪10 on the number of light fields N participating during inflation from the non-observation of negative spatial curvature.

  15. AIDS Impact special issue 2009: HIV prevention through sport: the case of the Mathare Youth Sport Association in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Sport has become a popular tool for HIV prevention, based on claims that it can foster life skills that are necessary to translate knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions into actual behaviour. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of sport-based HIV prevention programmes is, however, sorely lacking. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey assessing sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof among 454 youth of the Mathare Youth Sport Association (MYSA)...

  16. Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2015-07-21

    Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application, including: identifying a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute the parallel application; selecting one compute node in the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; initiating execution of the parallel application on the subset of compute nodes; receiving an exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes, where the exit status for each compute node includes information describing execution of some portion of the parallel application by the compute node; aggregating each exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes; and sending an aggregated exit status for the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer.

  17. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  18. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia; Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  19. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  20. How to make a graceful exit from the merchant function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.

    1998-01-01

    The impact that deregulation and convergence has had on local distribution companies (LDCs) was discussed. LDCs are getting out of a whole range of business activities, or are turning some of them into new entities while transferring others to affiliates. At the other end of the spectrum, Consumers Gas, Canada's largest LDC, has moved from a gas distribution and an oil pipeline company to becoming a total energy provider. The changes at Consumers Gas began with the Halloween agreement which was based on the following four basic principles: (1) better access for Canadian buyers to gas supply, (2) better access for Canadian producers to gas markets, (3) protection for Canadian consumers for reasonable, foreseeable gas requirements, and (4) a commitment to create a competitive natural gas market in Canada. At the same time, several small niche market players have entered the retail market to compete with large producers such as Sunoco and Shell. Ontario also saw the arrival of large marketers such as Enron, and the development of an active direct purchase market. Today, 65 per cent of the volume of natural gas transport is on behalf of direct purchase customers. The next phase of deregulation was also looked at, focusing primarily on the growing problems with the current regulated local distribution companies' gas supply options and the resulting price volatility and uncertainty due to an increase of direct purchase activity. Various possible ways to resolve this problem are explored, including exiting the merchant function, i.e. to change from an obligation to supply gas to an obligation to deliver gas, all the while ensuring that the consumer is protected. Other problems, such as convergence, unbundling and rebundling will also have to be dealt with in the next phase of deregulation

  1. Mean exit time and survival probability within the CTRW formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, M.; Masoliver, J.

    2007-05-01

    An intense research on financial market microstructure is presently in progress. Continuous time random walks (CTRWs) are general models capable to capture the small-scale properties that high frequency data series show. The use of CTRW models in the analysis of financial problems is quite recent and their potentials have not been fully developed. Here we present two (closely related) applications of great interest in risk control. In the first place, we will review the problem of modelling the behaviour of the mean exit time (MET) of a process out of a given region of fixed size. The surveyed stochastic processes are the cumulative returns of asset prices. The link between the value of the MET and the timescale of the market fluctuations of a certain degree is crystal clear. In this sense, MET value may help, for instance, in deciding the optimal time horizon for the investment. The MET is, however, one among the statistics of a distribution of bigger interest: the survival probability (SP), the likelihood that after some lapse of time a process remains inside the given region without having crossed its boundaries. The final part of the manuscript is devoted to the study of this quantity. Note that the use of SPs may outperform the standard “Value at Risk" (VaR) method for two reasons: we can consider other market dynamics than the limited Wiener process and, even in this case, a risk level derived from the SP will ensure (within the desired quintile) that the quoted value of the portfolio will not leave the safety zone. We present some preliminary theoretical and applied results concerning this topic.

  2. Fostering Collaborations towards Integrative Research Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Valentine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The complex problems associated with global change processes calls for close collaboration between science disciplines to create new, integrated knowledge. In the wake of global change processes, forests and other natural environments have been rapidly changing, highlighting the need for collaboration and integrative research development. Few tools are available to explore the potential for collaborations in research ventures that are just starting up. This study presents a useful approach for exploring and fostering collaborations between academics working in research teams and organizations comprising multiple science disciplines (i.e., multi-disciplinary. The research aim was to reveal potential barriers, common ground, and research strengths between academics working in a new centre focused on forest and climate change research. This aim was based on the premise that raising awareness and working with this acquired knowledge fosters collaborations and integrative research development. An email survey was deployed amongst the academics to obtain: (i their understanding of common themes (e.g., climate change, scale of investigation, woodland/forest health/decline; (ii descriptions of the spatial and temporal scales of their research; and (iii their approach and perceived contributions to climate change research. These data were analysed using a semi-quantitative content analysis approach. We found that the main potential barriers were likely to be related to differences in understanding of the common research themes, whilst similarities and disciplinary strengths provided critical elements to foster collaborations. These findings were presented and discussed amongst the centre academics to raise awareness and create a dialogue around these issues. This process resulted in the development of four additional research projects involving multiple disciplines. The approach used in this study provides a useful methodology of broader benefit to

  3. Water-Exit Process Modeling and Added-Mass Calculation of the Submarine-Launched Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process that the submarine-launched missile exits the water, there is the complex fluid solid coupling phenomenon. Therefore, it is difficult to establish the accurate water-exit dynamic model. In the paper, according to the characteristics of the water-exit motion, based on the traditional method of added mass, considering the added mass changing rate, the water-exit dynamic model is established. And with help of the CFX fluid simulation software, a new calculation method of the added mass that is suit for submarine-launched missile is proposed, which can effectively solve the problem of fluid solid coupling in modeling process. Then by the new calculation method, the change law of the added mass in water-exit process of the missile is obtained. In simulated analysis, for the water-exit process of the missile, by comparing the results of the numerical simulation and the calculation of theoretical model, the effectiveness of the new added mass calculation method and the accuracy of the water-exit dynamic model that considers the added mass changing rate are verified.

  4. The use of the exit interview to reduce turnover amongst healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Anndrea; Webster, Joan

    2011-01-19

    Exit interviews are widely used in healthcare organisations to identify reasons for staff attrition, yet their usefulness in limiting turnover is unclear. To determine the effectiveness of various exit interview strategies in decreasing turnover rates amongst healthcare professionals. We used a comprehensive search strategy including an electronic search of the following databases: DARE, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC (search date: 7 September 2010) and EPOC Specialised Register (search date: 30 September 2009). We also screened the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies comparing turnover rates between healthcare professionals who had undergone one form of exit interview with another form of exit interview or with no interview. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The search identified 1560 citations of which we considered 19 potentially relevant. The two authors independently reviewed the abstracts of these studies and retrieved the full texts of eight studies. We excluded all eight following independent assessment. They were either interviews, commentaries on how to do an exit interview or descriptive studies about reasons for leaving. We found no trials that matched our inclusion criteria. Evidence about the effectiveness of exit interviews to reduce turnover is currently not available. However, exit interviews may provide useful information about the work environment which, in turn, may be useful in the development of interventions to reduce turnover.

  5. Transgenic C. elegans dauer larvae expressing hookworm phospho null DAF-16/FoxO exit dauer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Gelmedin

    Full Text Available Parasitic hookworms and the free-living model nematode Caenorhabtidis elegans share a developmental arrested stage, called the dauer stage in C. elegans and the infective third-stage larva (L3 in hookworms. One of the key transcription factors that regulate entrance to and exit from developmental arrest is the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FoxO. During the dauer stage, DAF-16 is activated and localized in the nucleus. DAF-16 is negatively regulated by phosphorylation by the upstream kinase AKT, which causes DAF-16 to localize out of the nucleus and the worm to exit from dauer. DAF-16 is conserved in hookworms, and hypothesized to control recovery from L3 arrest during infection. Lacking reverse genetic techniques for use in hookworms, we used C. elegans complementation assays to investigate the function of Ancylostoma caninum DAF-16 during entrance and exit from L3 developmental arrest. We performed dauer switching assays and observed the restoration of the dauer phenotype when Ac-DAF-16 was expressed in temperature-sensitive dauer defective C. elegans daf-2(e1370;daf-16(mu86 mutants. AKT phosphorylation site mutants of Ac-DAF-16 were also able to restore the dauer phenotype, but surprisingly allowed dauer exit when temperatures were lowered. We used fluorescence microscopy to localize DAF-16 during dauer and exit from dauer in C. elegans DAF-16 mutant worms expressing Ac-DAF-16, and found that Ac-DAF-16 exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Surprisingly, Ac-DAF-16 with mutated AKT phosphorylation sites also exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Our results suggest that another mechanism may be involved in the regulation DAF-16 nuclear localization during recovery from developmental arrest.

  6. Market entry and exit by biotech and device companies funded by venture capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton R; Housman, Michael G; Robinson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Start-up companies in the biotechnology and medical device sectors are important sources of health care innovation. This paper describes the role of venture capital in supporting these companies and charts the growth in venture capital financial support. The paper then uses longitudinal data to describe market entry and exit by these companies. Similar factors are associated with entry and exit in the two sectors. Entries and exits in one sector also appear to influence entry in the other. These findings have important implications for developing innovative technologies and ensuring competitive markets in the life sciences.

  7. Different sizes, similar challenges: Out of home care for youth in Germany and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek T. Harder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While there is a large difference in the number of young inhabitants in the Netherlands and Germany, their child protection frameworks are quite similar. In both countries, child protection services are mainlyfocused on youth aged 0 to 18 and regulations are aimed at clients' responsibility and their active involvement during care. Youth care services consist of community-based services, day treatment and outof-home care services, which include foster care and residential care. The history of out-of-home care services in both countries is characterized by similar developments. Over the last four decades, similar trends in residential care, towards more small-scale forms of residential care, smaller residential group sizes, and increasing professionalization of staff have emerged. Over the last two decades, a comparable trend towards increasing professionalization can be seen in the context of foster care in both countries. In addition, the number of youths in out-of-home care increased in both countries over the last decade, specifically in foster care. Over the last decade, more studies have been conducted in residential care than in foster care in both countries. Despite similar trends and developments in out-of-home care practice, research mainly shows differences in applied topics and methods between Germany and the Netherlands.

  8. Treatment Foster Care Pre-Service Trainings: Changes in Parenting Attitudes and Fostering Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Amy; Trunzo, Annette C.; Kaelin, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pre-service training of treatment parents is a requirement for all foster care models to ensure safety and well-being of children in care. Researchers theorize treatment parents benefit more from enhanced pre-service trainings; however, no rigorous studies exist indicating the effectiveness of these trainings for treatment parents.…

  9. Association Between Health Plan Exit From Medicaid Managed Care and Quality of Care, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumele, Chima D; Schpero, William L; Schlesinger, Mark J; Trivedi, Amal N

    2017-06-27

    State Medicaid programs have increasingly contracted with insurers to provide medical care services for enrollees (Medicaid managed care plans). Insurers that provide these plans can exit Medicaid programs each year, with unclear effects on quality of care and health care experiences. To determine the frequency and interstate variation of health plan exit from Medicaid managed care and evaluate the relationship between health plan exit and market-level quality. Retrospective cohort of all comprehensive Medicaid managed care plans (N = 390) during the interval 2006-2014. Plan exit, defined as the withdrawal of a managed care plan from a state's Medicaid program. Eight measures from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set were used to construct 3 composite indicators of quality (preventive care, chronic disease care management, and maternity care). Four measures from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems were combined into a composite indicator of patient experience, reflecting the proportion of beneficiaries rating experiences as 8 or above on a 0-to-10-point scale. Outcome data were available for 248 plans (68% of plans operating prior to 2014, representing 78% of beneficiaries). Of the 366 comprehensive Medicaid managed care plans operating prior to 2014, 106 exited Medicaid. These exiting plans enrolled 4 848 310 Medicaid beneficiaries, with a mean of 606 039 beneficiaries affected by plan exits annually. Six states had a mean of greater than 10% of Medicaid managed care recipients enrolled in plans that exited, whereas 10 states experienced no plan exits. Plans that exited from a state's Medicaid market performed significantly worse prior to exiting than those that remained in terms of preventive care (57.5% vs 60.4%; difference, 2.9% [95% CI, 0.3% to 5.5%]), maternity care (69.7% vs 73.6%; difference, 3.8% [95% CI, 1.7% to 6.0%]), and patient experience (73.5% vs 74.8%; difference, 1.3% [95% CI, 0.6% to 1

  10. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  11. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  12. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  13. Youth Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs For the Future, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Youth unemployment has been a cause for concern in the United States for years. Youth unemployment costs society--through the loss of talent and costs of social supports and subsidies. Jobless young people are more vulnerable to a range of challenges, including the ills already plaguing their communities: high rates of unplanned pregnancy,…

  14. Participation of Youth

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides examples that investors, civil society, and governments can follow to engage youth in participating in agriculture. Young people can be the driving force for the inclusive rural transformation needed to address the many challenges posed by growing populations, urbanization, and youth unemployment. Yet, many young people are frustrated by the lifestylesand opportunities a...

  15. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  16. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  17. Alliance in Youth Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linda Rothman; H. Pijnenburg; Rinie van Rijsingen

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of alliance in youth care. The concept of (therapeutic) alliance originates in adult psychotherapy and related research. Alliance refers to the working relationship between youth care workers and their clients. Within this concept, personal (emotional) and task

  18. Local youth policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilsing

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the

  19. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  20. 'Youth' making us fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This article problematizes the construction of youth as a ‘driving force’ in the contemporary configuration of the European Union (EU) as an educational and political space. The study draws empirical nourishment out of documents that are central to the ongoing formation of the Union, be it White...... Papers, scripts or memos concerning political arenas such as youth and education policies and the Bologna process. Theoretically the article draws on insights from post-Foucauldian traditions with a focus on mentalities, subject constructions, technologies and practices operating within the ongoing...... governmentalization of Europe. Central questions are ‘who’ and ‘what’ the problematization of youth as political technology is about. Drawing on homologies in the coding of citizen, independent of age, the authors claim that problematization of youth is directed to all of us. We are all, in the name of youth...

  1. Mental and Physical Health of Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Each year, nearly 1% of US children spend time in foster care, with 6% of US children placed in foster care at least once between their birth and 18th birthday. Although a large literature considers the consequences of foster care placement for children's wellbeing, no study has used a nationally representative sample of US children to compare the mental and physical health of children placed in foster care to the health of children not placed in foster care. We used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized children in the United States, and logistic regression models to compare parent-reported mental and physical health outcomes of children placed in foster care to outcomes of children not placed in foster care, children adopted from foster care, children across specific family types (eg, single-mother households), and children in economically disadvantaged families. We find that children in foster care are in poor mental and physical health relative to children in the general population, children across specific family types, and children in economically disadvantaged families. Some differences are explained by adjusting for children's demographic characteristics, and nearly all differences are explained by also adjusting for the current home environment. Additionally, children adopted from foster care, compared with children in foster care, have significantly higher odds of having some health problems. Children in foster care are a vulnerable population in poor health, partially as a result of their early life circumstances. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Different Pathways to Juvenile Delinquency: Characteristics of Early and Late Starters in a Sample of Previously Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alltucker, Kevin W.; Bullis, Michael; Close, Daniel; Yovanoff, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We examined the differences between early and late start juvenile delinquents in a sample of 531 previously incarcerated youth in Oregon's juvenile justice system. Data were analyzed with logistic regression to predict early start delinquency based on four explanatory variables: foster care experience, family criminality, special education…

  3. NAD+ Is a Food Component That Promotes Exit from Dauer Diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Mylenko

    Full Text Available The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its development to the availability of food. When food is scarce and population density is high, worms enter a developmentally arrested non-feeding diapause stage specialized for long-term survival called the dauer larva. When food becomes available, they exit from the dauer stage, resume growth and reproduction. It has been postulated that compound(s present in food, referred to as the "food signal", promote exit from the dauer stage. In this study, we have identified NAD+ as a component of bacterial extract that promotes dauer exit. NAD+, when dissolved in alkaline medium, causes opening of the mouth and ingestion of food. We also show that to initiate exit from the dauer stage in response to NAD+ worms require production of serotonin. Thus, C. elegans can use redox cofactors produced by dietary organisms to sense food.

  4. Exit, voice, and loyalty in the Italian public health service: macroeconomic and corporate implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Adelaide; Impagliazzo, Cira; Zoccoli, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses how customers of public health organizations can express their dissatisfaction for the services offered to them. The main aim is to evaluate the effects that possible dissatisfaction of Italian public health service customers can have on public health organizations. We adopted the methodological scheme developed by Hirschman with exit, voice, and loyalty, considering the macroeconomic and corporate implications that it causes for Italian public health organizations. The study investigated the effects developed by exit of the patients on the system of financing of local health authorities considering both the corporate level of analysis and the macroeconomic level. As a result, local health authority management is encouraged to pay greater attention to the exit phenomena through the adoption of tools that promote loyalty, such as the promotion of voice, even if exit is not promoting, at a macroeconomic level, considerable attention to this phenomenon.

  5. Monitoring of activity of the persons and vehicles at the exit from the NPP Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobis, L.; Kaizer, J.; Svitek, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the technical description of the monitoring of activity of the persons and vehicles at the exit from the NPP Bohunice as well as the results of monitoring during last six months are described

  6. All rights reserved and www.bioline.org.br/ja Estimation of exit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Estimation of exit temperatures in the isentropic compression of real gases. 1 ..... other thermodynamic properties can be calculated within the framework of ... of negative compressibility) has no physical significance.

  7. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty in the Italian Public Health Service: Macroeconomic and Corporate Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impagliazzo, Cira; Zoccoli, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses how customers of public health organizations can express their dissatisfaction for the services offered to them. The main aim is to evaluate the effects that possible dissatisfaction of Italian public health service customers can have on public health organizations. We adopted the methodological scheme developed by Hirschman with exit, voice, and loyalty, considering the macroeconomic and corporate implications that it causes for Italian public health organizations. The study investigated the effects developed by exit of the patients on the system of financing of local health authorities considering both the corporate level of analysis and the macroeconomic level. As a result, local health authority management is encouraged to pay greater attention to the exit phenomena through the adoption of tools that promote loyalty, such as the promotion of voice, even if exit is not promoting, at a macroeconomic level, considerable attention to this phenomenon. PMID:24348148

  8. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: An Alternative to Residential Treatment for High Risk Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Fisher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program (MTFC, an evidence based approach for providing psychotherapeutic treatment for very troubled children and adolescents that is an alternative to residential care. Versions of the MTFC program have been developed and validated for young children with a history of maltreatment as well as for older children and adolescents who are involved with the youth justice system. In the paper we describe the development of the MTFC program and its foundations in the social learning model that originated at the Oregon Social Learning Center in the 1960's and 70's. We present information about program elements. We then review the research that has been conducted on MTFC.

  9. 76 FR 25519 - National Foster Care Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... people in foster care. Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, we have significantly... Agriculture child nutrition programs. Additionally, beginning in 2014, the Affordable Care Act will require...

  10. Reducing sibling conflict in maltreated children placed in foster homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N = 22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n = 13) or a comparison (n = 9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5-11 years placed together in a foster home. The siblings, parent, and joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73 %. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre- and postintervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At postintervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p conflict during play (p conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p conflict and promote parental mediation, which together may reduce sibling aggression in the foster home.

  11. High resolution electron exit wave reconstruction from a diffraction pattern using Gaussian basis decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B; Kirkland, Angus I

    2014-01-01

    We describe an algorithm to reconstruct the electron exit wave of a weak-phase object from single diffraction pattern. The algorithm uses analytic formulations describing the diffraction intensities through a representation of the object exit wave in a Gaussian basis. The reconstruction is achieved by solving an overdetermined system of non-linear equations using an easily parallelisable global multi-start search with Levenberg-Marquard optimisation and analytic derivatives

  12. Ecologies of Ideologies: Explaining Party Entry and Exit in West-European Parliaments, 1945-2013

    OpenAIRE

    van de Wardt, M.; Berkhout, J.; Vermeulen, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our exp...

  13. [Mental health of preschool foster care children: How do foster families influence the way children cope with trauma?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz

    2017-08-15

    Parents and other significant persons have an important role when preschool children develop or cope with psychological symptoms following traumatic experiences. The underlying mechanisms of the interaction between traumatic experiences and influences of the foster family are still unclear. This study investigates foster parents’ stress levels and parenting styles as moderators or mediators in the context of traumatic experiences. Foster parents of 286 children between three and seven years participated in an online or paper-and-pencil survey. The results suggest a connection between the traumatic experiences of foster children and the stress levels as well as the parenting styles of their foster parents. While verbosity and laxness as parenting styles moderated the impact of traumatic experiences on externalising symptoms, stress levels mediated the impact of traumatic experiences on children’s internalising and externalising symptoms. The results underscore the necessity of standardized preparation of and support for foster parents in order to avoid deterioration of psychological symptoms following traumatic Events.

  14. Civic Engagement in Adolescents: Engendering Civic Awareness Through a University Youth Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Parker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A weeklong residential Youth Leadership Institute Project was conducted at USC Upstate to promote essential skills deemed necessary for future civic engagement and political identity. The program and curriculum followed a framework that suggests that underlying civic skills are necessary to foster civic engagement among youth. Building on this theory, this reported study illustrates that civic engagement requires a developmental and educational process. Adolescence is a primary time for identity exploration and formation, which makes this stage an optimal time to engender civic awareness. A diverse group of 49 youth ranging in age from 14 to 17 participated. Results from the project demonstrate that when evaluating the significance and success of youth civic engagement programs, an account must be made for both the developmental and educational capacities. In pursuing projects such as ours on university campuses and beyond, psychologists and political scientists should work together to measure their outcomes in terms of these variables.

  15. Do youth sports prevent pediatric obesity? A systematic review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F; Stovitz, Steven D; Thomas, Megan; LaVoi, Nicole M; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Sport is a promising setting for obesity prevention among youth, but little is known about whether it prevents obesity. We reviewed research comparing sport participants with nonparticipants on weight status, physical activity, and diet. Among 19 studies, we found no clear pattern of association between body weight and sport participation. Among 17 studies, we found that sport participants are more physically active than those who do not participate. We found seven studies that compared the diet of sport participants with non-participants. These studies reported that youth involved in sport were more likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk, and also more likely to eat fast food and drink sugar-sweetened beverages and consume more calories overall. It is unclear from these results whether sports programs, as currently offered, protect youth from becoming overweight or obese. Additional research may foster understanding about how sport, and youth sport settings, can help promote energy balance and healthy body weight.

  16. The Effect of Exit Strategy on Optimal Portfolio Selection with Birandom Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to use a birandom variable to denote the stock return selected by some recurring technical patterns and to study the effect of exit strategy on optimal portfolio selection with birandom returns. Firstly, we propose a new method to estimate the stock return and use birandom distribution to denote the final stock return which can reflect the features of technical patterns and investors' heterogeneity simultaneously; secondly, we build a birandom safety-first model and design a hybrid intelligent algorithm to help investors make decisions; finally, we innovatively study the effect of exit strategy on the given birandom safety-first model. The results indicate that (1 the exit strategy affects the proportion of portfolio, (2 the performance of taking the exit strategy is better than when the exit strategy is not taken, if the stop-loss point and the stop-profit point are appropriately set, and (3 the investor using the exit strategy become conservative.

  17. Revisit the faster-is-slower effect for an exit at a corner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun Min; Lin, Peng; Wu, Fan Yu; Li Gao, Dong; Wang, Guo Yuan

    2018-02-01

    The faster-is-slower effect (FIS), which means that crowd at a high enough velocity could significantly increase the evacuation time to escape through an exit, is an interesting phenomenon in pedestrian dynamics. Such phenomenon had been studied widely and has been experimentally verified in different systems of discrete particles flowing through a centre exit. To experimentally validate this phenomenon by using people under high pressure is difficult due to ethical issues. A mouse, similar to a human, is a kind of self-driven and soft body creature with competitive behaviour under stressed conditions. Therefore, mice are used to escape through an exit at a corner. A number of repeated tests are conducted and the average escape time per mouse at different levels of stimulus are analysed. The escape times do not increase obviously with the level of stimulus for the corner exit, which is contrary to the experiment with the center exit. The experimental results show that the FIS effect is not necessary a universal law for any discrete system. The observation could help the design of buildings by relocating their exits to the corner in rooms to avoid the formation of FIS effect.

  18. Experiment of cavitation erosion at the exit of a long orifice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Yoshinori; Murase, Michio [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    We performed experiments to clarify mechanism of cavitation erosion and to predict cavitation erosion rate at the exit of a long orifice equipped at the chemical and volume control system in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In order to find this mechanism, we used a high speed video camera. As the result, we observed bubble collapses near the exit of the orifice when flow condition was oscillating. So the bubble collapses due to the oscillation might cause the first stage erosion at the exit of the orifice. Using the orifice which had the cone-shaped exit, we observed that bubbles collapsed near the exit and then they collapsed at the upstream like a chain reaction. So this bubble collapse mechanism could be explained as follows: shock wave was generated by the bubble collapse near the exit, then it propagated upwards, consequently it caused the bubble collapse at the upstream. And we predicted erosion rate by evaluating the effect of the velocity and comparing the erosion resistance between the test speciment (aluminum) and the plant material (stainless steel) by means of vibratory tests. We compared the predicted erosion rate with that of the average value estimated from plant investigation, then we examined the applicability of these method to the plant evaluations. (author)

  19. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-07-19

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution.

  20. Fostering Nautical Tourism in the Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Moreno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine pillars for fostering nautical tourism based on the beliefs and attitudes that professionals in the sector have towards the particularities and difficulties that the market is going through. To achieve these goals, in-depth interviews structured around 37 questions were carried out with agents of associations and nautical firms, public institutions, and the Chamber of Commerce. The qualitative analysis program NVIVO 11 was used to analyze the content of the gathered data. The findings reveal that the main difficulties are related to normative issues and taxation, illegal supply, and a lack of definition of the nautical tourist profile. This absence of definition causes a vagueness when estimating the total number of nautical tourists that visit a destination. Thus, this affects evaluation of the economic, social, and environmental impact of nautical tourism.