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Sample records for youth cigarette smoking

  1. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

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    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  2. Factors associated with different cigarette access behaviours among underage smoking youth who usually smoke contraband (native) cigarettes.

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    Leatherdale, Scott T; Ahmed, Rashid; Vu, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Given that little is known about how youth access contraband cigarettes, the current study seeks to examine factors associated with how underage smoking youth report usually accessing contraband cigarettes. This study used nationally representative data collected from 41,886 students (grades 9 to 12) as part of the 2006-07 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Using data from current smokers who report that their usual brand of cigarettes is contraband, three logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with buying cigarettes from a store, getting cigarettes from a family member, or getting cigarettes from friends or strangers. In 2006, 7.9% (n = 1 3,300) of Canadian youth who were current smokers reported that their usual brand of cigarettes was contraband. Among these youth, the majority reported that they usually get their cigarettes from a friend or stranger (54.8%), whereas 26.4% report usually getting them from a family member and 18.8% usually buying their own from a store. Boys were more likely to buy contraband cigarettes from a store, whereas youth with a parent who smokes contraband cigarettes were substantially more likely to get contraband cigarettes from a family member and youth with friends who smoke contraband cigarettes were substantially more likely to get contraband cigarettes from a friend or stranger. Ongoing surveillance of contraband cigarette use among youth and how youth access contraband cigarettes is required for guiding future tobacco control policy and programming activities.

  3. Electronic cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking initiation among youth, United States, 2015-2016

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    Satomi Odani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S youth. We used cross-sectional, nationally representative data of U.S. middle and high school students to examine the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking initiation. Methods Data were from the 2015 and 2016 National Youth Tobacco Surveys, a school-based survey of U.S. 6 th -12 th graders (pooled N=38,386. Questions on current age and age at initiation of different tobacco products were used to assess temporality. The study included 35,775 students who had never smoked conventional cigarettes five years before the survey (i.e., baseline, including never-smokers and those who first smoked < 5 years ago. Baseline never smokers were classified by e-cigarette use status into: (1 those who ever used e-cigarettes on/before or without ever smoking cigarettes; or (2 those who had never used e-cigarettes, or started only after initiating cigarette smoking. The outcome variables were cigarette smoking at pre-determined periods: any time within the past 5 years; past 1 year; past 6 months; past 30 days; and past 7 days. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. The models controlled for socio-demographic characteristics and use of smokeless tobacco, cigars, and hookah on/before cigarette smoking initiation. Results Among baseline never cigarette smokers, 17.4% used e-cigarettes, and 16.7% initiated cigarette smoking within the past 5 years. Those who used e-cigarettes on/before ever smoking cigarettes had higher odds of smoking cigarettes than those who did not at all periods assessed: any time within the past 5 years (AOR=2.61; past 1 year (AOR=3.18, past 6 months (AOR=2.59, past 30 days (AOR=1.75, and past 7 days (AOR=1.38 (all p< 0.05. Conclusions These cross-sectional findings reveal that e-cigarette use was associated with conventional cigarette smoking initiation among U.S. youth

  4. Electronic cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking initiation among youth, United States, 2015-2016

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    Satomi Odani; Kristy Marynak; Brian Armour; Israel Agaku

    2018-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S youth. We used cross-sectional, nationally representative data of U.S. middle and high school students to examine the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking initiation. Methods Data were from the 2015 and 2016 National Youth Tobacco Surveys, a school-based survey of U.S. 6 th -12 th graders (pooled N=38,386). Questions on current age and age at initiation of dif...

  5. Waterpipe Use and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Never-Smoking Youth.

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    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Pbert, Lori

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm decision against smoking, is a strong predictor of regular smoking and addiction. Several modifiable risk factors have been identified among never cigarette smokers, and one potential factor of interest is waterpipe use. The purpose of this study is to determine the association of waterpipe use with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-smoking youth. In a pooled analysis of 17 Arab nations with nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted during 2002-2011, tobacco-related information was obtained from 30,711 never-smoking adolescents representing 4,962,872 youth. Study outcome was susceptibility to cigarette smoking, and primary exposure was waterpipe use. Data were analyzed in 2014 using weighted logistic regression models, including stratified models by gender, to determine the odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking with waterpipe use, adjusting for confounders. Overall, 20% of never-smoking youth were susceptible to cigarette smoking, ranging from 13.1% in Oman to 32.6% in Somalia; 5.2% currently used waterpipe, ranging from 0.3% in Morocco to 23.5% in Kuwait. The estimated odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking were 2.5 (95% CI=1.9, 3.4) times higher for adolescents who used waterpipe in the past month compared with those who did not, controlling for confounders. Estimates were similar when stratified by gender. Waterpipe use is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Study findings identify a novel risk factor for never smokers to initiate smoking and will help the public health community develop and implement policies around waterpipe use prevention. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013.

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    Bunnell, Rebecca E; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Coleman, Blair N; Dube, Shanta R; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

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    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  8. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

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    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth.

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    Erika B Fulmer

    Full Text Available Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students.By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use.In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation.These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising.

  10. Cigarette brand preference as a function of price among smoking youths in Canada: are they smoking premium, discount or native brands?

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    Leatherdale, S T; Ahmed, R; Barisic, A; Murnaghan, D; Manske, S

    2009-12-01

    Given that little is known about the price-related cigarette brand preferences of youths, the current study seeks to characterise cigarette brand preferences and examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands among Canadian youths who are current smokers. This study used nationally representative data collected from 71,003 grade 5-12 students as part of the 2006-7 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Using data from current smokers, logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands relative to premium cigarette brands. In 2006, premium cigarettes were the most prevalent brand of cigarette youths report usually smoking (49.4%); a substantial number of youths do report usually smoking either discount (12.9%) or native (9.3%) cigarette brands. Occasional smokers were more likely to report usually smoking premium cigarettes whereas daily smokers were more likely to report smoking either discount or native cigarettes. In particular, discount and native brands appear to be appealing among smoking youths with less spending money or those who are heavier smokers compared to youths smoking premium brands. Discount and native cigarette brands are commonly used by a substantial number of smoking youths in Canada. Additional research is required to better understand the reasons behind different cigarette brand preferences and how youths are able to access premium, discount and illicit native cigarettes. Moreover, ongoing surveillance of the cigarette brand preferences of youths is required for guiding future tobacco control policy and programming activities.

  11. Is youth smoking responsive to cigarette prices? Evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

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    Kostova, Deliana; Ross, Hana; Blecher, Evan; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand among youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was used to obtain data on the smoking behaviour of 315,353 adolescents from 17 LMIC. Two-part model of cigarette demand with country fixed effects. The first part estimates the impact of prices on smoking participation while the second part estimates the impact of prices on the number of cigarettes smoked among current smokers. Besides controlling for individual characteristics such as Age, Gender, Parental Smoking and availability of Pocket Money, the authors control for confounding environmental factors such as anti-smoking sentiment, the prevalence of cigarette advertising and anti-tobacco media messAges, and ease of purchasing cigarettes. All countries in this study are represented with at least two observations over time, which allows us to control for unobserved country characteristics and/or policies that may influence smoking patterns within countries. Cigarette price is an important determinant of smoking. The estimated price elasticity of smoking participation is -0.74, and the estimated price elasticity of conditional cigarette demand is approximately -1.37. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand is -2.11, implying that an increase in price of 10% would reduce youth cigarette consumption by 21.1% at the mean.

  12. Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination

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    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether perceived discrimination explained the associations of acculturation with depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among 1,124 Hispanic youth (54% fema...

  13. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender

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    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths’ intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (1...

  14. Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination

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    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether…

  15. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

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    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  16. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender.

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    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths' intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (141 girls, 160 boys; 153 from Miami, 150 from Los Angeles) who completed surveys at 3 time-points. Youth completed measures of acculturation (Latino/a practices, Latino/a identity, collectivistic values; U.S. cultural practices, U.S. identity, individualistic values), smoking related health risk attitudes, perceived subjective norms regarding smoking, and intentions to use cigarettes. Structural equation modeling indicated that collectivistic values were associated with more perceived disapproval of smoking, which in turn was negatively associated with intentions to smoke. Collectivistic values may help protect Latino/a immigrant youth from intending to smoke. Thus, educational smoking prevention efforts could promote collectivistic values and disseminate messages about the negative consequences of smoking on interpersonal relationships.

  17. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender

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    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths’ intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (141 girls, 160 boys; 153 from Miami, 150 from Los Angeles) who completed surveys at 3 time-points. Youth completed measures of acculturation (Latino/a practices, Latino/a identity, collectivistic values; U.S. cultural practices, U.S. identity, individualistic values), smoking related health risk attitudes, perceived subjective norms regarding smoking, and intentions to use cigarettes. Structural equation modeling indicated that collectivistic values were associated with more perceived disapproval of smoking, which in turn was negatively associated with intentions to smoke. Collectivistic values may help protect Latino/a immigrant youth from intending to smoke. Thus, educational smoking prevention efforts could promote collectivistic values and disseminate messages about the negative consequences of smoking on interpersonal relationships. PMID:28042523

  18. Public Smoking Bans, Youth Access Laws, and Cigarette Sales at Vending Machines

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    Kvasnicka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco control policies have proliferated in many countries in recent years, in particular youth access laws and public smoking bans. The effectiveness of youth access laws is still disputed, however, as are the costs of public smoking bans to the hospitality industry. Using a unique data set on cigarette sales at more than 100k vending machines that provides first objective evidence on the outgoing and customer behavior of smokers, we study both outcome dimensions by investigating several r...

  19. The importance of peer effects, cigarette prices and tobacco control policies for youth smoking behavior.

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    Powell, Lisa M; Tauras, John A; Ross, Hana

    2005-09-01

    This paper expands the youth cigarette demand literature by undertaking an examination of the determinants of smoking among high school students incorporating the importance of peer effects and allowing cigarette prices (taxes) and tobacco control policies to have a direct effect and an indirect effect (via the peer effect) on smoking behavior. To control for the potential endogeneity of our school-based peer measure we implement a two-stage generalized least squares estimator for a dichotomous dependent variable and implement a series of diagnostic tests. The key finding is that peer effects play a significant role in youth smoking decisions: moving a high-school student from a school where no children smoke to a school where one quarter of the youths smoke is found to increase the probability that the youth smokes by about 14.5 percentage points. The results suggest that there is a potential for social multiplier effects with respect to any exogenous change in cigarette taxes or tobacco control policies.

  20. Receptivity to protobacco media and its impact on cigarette smoking among ethnic minority youth in California.

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    Chen, Xinguang; Cruz, Tess Boley; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, Carl Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents from different ethnic groups show different cigarette smoking prevalence rates, suggesting potential differences in receptivity to and influences from protobacco media. Understanding these differences will be helpful in tailoring smoking prevention and cessation programs for diverse adolescent populations in the United States. Data from cross-sectional surveys of 20,332 randomly sampled California boys and girls, 12-17 years of age, were analyzed. Results indicate that receptivity to protobacco media was lower among African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics than among White youth. There was a consistent dose-response relationship between receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking across ethnic groups. Having a cigarette brand preference was associated with the highest risk for cigarette smoking, having a favorite tobacco ad showed the lowest risk, while having received or being willing to use tobacco promotional items was associated with a moderate risk. After controlling for 13 covariates, the odds ratio for receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking was significant for Whites (RR = 1.38, p 0.05) and Asian American (RR = 1.17, p > 0.05) youth. African American, Asian American, and Hispanic adolescents have a lower level of receptivity to protobacco media than do Whites. The association between media receptivity and 30-day cigarette smoking exists for all four ethnic groups without controlling for other smoking predictor variables, but only for Hispanics and Whites when other variables are controlled. Protecting adolescents from protobacco advertising influences is an important element in tobacco control among ethnic minority youth.

  1. Influence of retail cigarette advertising, price promotions, and retailer compliance on youth smoking-related attitudes and behaviors.

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    Kim, Annice E; Loomis, Brett R; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to retail tobacco marketing is associated with youth smoking, but most studies have relied on self-reported measures of exposure, which are prone to recall bias. To examine whether exposure to retail cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance is associated with youth smoking-related outcomes using observational estimates of exposure. Data on retail cigarette advertising and promotions were collected from a representative sample of licensed tobacco retailers in New York annually since 2004. County-level estimates of retail cigarette advertising and promotions and retailer compliance with youth access laws were calculated and linked to the New York Youth Tobacco Survey, administered to 54,671 middle and high school students in 2004, 2006, and 2008. Regression models examined whether cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance were associated with youth's awareness of retail cigarette advertising, attitudes about smoking, susceptibility to smoking, cigarette purchasing behaviors, and smoking behaviors. Living in counties with more retail cigarette advertisements is associated with youth having positive attitudes about smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.19, P advertising and promotions may help reduce youth smoking.

  2. 'Smoking': use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts among Southeast Asian American youth and young adults.

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    Lee, J P; Battle, R S; Lipton, R; Soller, B

    2010-02-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban population. We conducted in-person interviews with 164 Southeast Asians, smokers and non-smokers, in two low-income urban communities in Northern California, collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. Analysis of the quantitative data indicated distinct use patterns for blunts, cigars and other forms of marijuana in terms of associations with generation in the United States. The use of these items was also found to be related: ever having smoked cigarettes or blunts increased the risk of ever having smoked the other three items. Qualitative data found indications of all three hypothesized relationships between tobacco and marijuana for youths but not for older adults. For youths in the study, 'smoking' was found to constitute a social construct within which use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts were somewhat interchangeable. Youths in similar settings may initiate into and progress through smoking as an activity domain rather than any one of these items.

  3. Prohibiting juvenile access to tobacco: Violation rates, cigarette sales, and youth smoking.

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    Spivak, Andrew L; Monnat, Shannon M

    2015-09-01

    Scholars who examine the efficacy of juvenile tobacco sales restrictions, especially the 1992 "Synar Amendment" that led all of fifty U.S. states to enact prohibitions on tobacco sales to minors, are notably divided as to impact on youth smoking. Some researchers claim that such policies have failed and ought to be abandoned (Craig & Boris, 2007; Etter, 2006; Glantz, 2002), while others insist that enforcement has indeed led to reduced tobacco use (DiFranza, 2011b; SAMHSA, 2011). The present study is the first to combine data on Synar violation rates from all states and years available since the amendment's implementation, assessing the connection to national rates of cigarette sales and youth smoking behavior. Using national data from the United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the Tobacco Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System across all U.S. states between 1996 and 2007, we employ hierarchical linear modeling to examine the connection between retailer Synar violations and youth smoking. Controlling for state-level demographic variables, results indicate that retailer violation rates are significantly associated with greater youth smoking prevalence, as well as higher overall cigarette sales. While critiques of Synar policies are substantive and should be addressed, laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to juveniles appear to have had some degree of success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Current cigarette smoking among in-school American youth: results from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

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    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter

    2009-04-03

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60]), Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58]), Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92]), and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]). American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]). Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked). Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or two years were more likely to smoke than those who

  5. Main determinants of cigarette smoking in youth based on the 2006 Cyprus GYTS.

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    Christophi, Costas A; Savvides, Elena Charis G; Warren, Charles W; Demokritou, Philip; Connolly, Gregory N

    2009-03-01

    The goal of the study is to identify predictors of current cigarette smoking in adolescents within the school, home, and broader social environment. A two stage cluster sample design was used to select a representative sample of students from all middle and high schools in Cyprus in 2005-2006. Standardized Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) methodology was employed in administering the questionnaires and processing the results. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression with the outcome variable being current smoking. After adjusting for the effect of other predictors in the model, the strongest predictor of adolescent smoking was smoking peers. Having parents and grandparents that smoke, concerns about weight, access to pocket money, ease of buying cigarettes, owning an item with a cigarette logo on it, the belief that smokers are less attractive, and the false consensus effect all remain statistically significant predictors. In designing smoking prevention programs, factors pertaining to the school, social and familial circle of adolescents as well as misconceptions on the link between smoking and physical appearance need to be considered. Such programs can act as empowering tools to complement legal measures which need to be firmly enforced and constantly revised to be effective.

  6. Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauphinee Amanda L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans are disproportionately exposed to cigarette advertisements, particularly for menthol brands. Tobacco industry documents outline strategic efforts to promote menthol cigarettes to African Americans at the point of sale, and studies have observed more outdoor and retail menthol advertisements in neighborhoods with more African-American residents. Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of this target marketing on adolescents’ recognition of cigarette brand advertising and on smoking uptake. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine racial differences in brand recognition and to assess the prospective relationship between brand recognition and smoking uptake. Methods School-based surveys assessing tobacco use and environmental and social influences to smoke were administered to 6th through 9th graders (ages 11 to 15 in an urban and racially diverse California school district. The primary outcome for the cross-sectional analysis (n = 2,589 was brand recognition, measured by students’ identification of masked tobacco advertisements from the point of sale. The primary outcome for the longitudinal analysis (n = 1,179 was progression from never to ever smoking within 12 months. Results At baseline, 52% of students recognized the Camel brand, 36% Marlboro, and 32% Newport. African-American students were three times more likely than others to recognize Newport (OR = 3.03, CI = 2.45, 3.74, p  Conclusions The study findings illustrate that African-American youth are better able to recognize Newport cigarette advertisements, even after adjustment for exposure to smoking by parents and peers. In addition, recognition of Newport cigarette advertising predicted smoking initiation, regardless of race. This longitudinal study contributes to a growing body of evidence that supports a ban on menthol flavored cigarettes in the US as well as stronger regulation of tobacco

  7. Electronic Cigarette Use Among High School Students and Its Association With Cigarette Use And Smoking Cessation, North Carolina Youth Tobacco Surveys, 2011 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Kowitt, Sarah D; Sutfin, Erin L; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2016-08-04

    Although adolescent cigarette use continues to decline in the United States, electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette) use among adolescents has escalated rapidly. This study assessed trends and patterns of e‑cigarette use and concurrent cigarette smoking and the relationships between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation intentions and behaviors among high school students in North Carolina. Data came from high school students who completed the school-based, cross-sectional North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey in 2011 (n = 4,791) and 2013 (n = 4,092). This study assessed changes in prevalence of e-cigarette and cigarette use from 2011 through 2013, and cessation-related factors associated with those students' current and past use of e‑cigarettes in 2013. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use (use in the past 30 days) significantly increased from 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.2%) in 2011 to 7.7% (95% CI, 5.9%-10.0%) in 2013. Among dual users, current e-cigarette use was negatively associated with intention to quit cigarette smoking for good (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.87) and with attempts to quit cigarette smoking in the past 12 months (RRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49-0.97). Current e-cigarette smokers were less likely than those who only smoked cigarettes to have ever abstained from cigarette smoking for 6 months (RRR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82) or 1 year (RRR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.51) and to have used any kind of aids for smoking cessation (RRR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29-0.74). Public health practitioners and cessation clinic service providers should educate adolescents about the risks of using any nicotine-containing products, including e-cigarettes, and provide adequate tobacco cessation resources and counseling to adolescent tobacco users.

  8. Beyond experimentation: Five trajectories of cigarette smoking in a longitudinal sample of youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Dutra

    Full Text Available The first goal of this study was to identify the most appropriate measure of cigarette smoking for identifying unique smoking trajectories among adolescents; the second goal was to describe the resulting trajectories and their characteristics. Using 15 annual waves of smoking data in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97, we conducted an exploratory latent class growth analysis to determine the best of four outcome variables for yearly smoking (cigarettes per day on days smoked, days smoked per month, mean cigarettes per day, and total cigarettes per month among individuals aged 12 to 30 (n = 8,791. Days smoked per month was the best outcome variable for identifying unique longitudinal trajectories of smoking and characteristics of these trajectories that could be used to target different types of smokers for prevention and cessation. Objective statistics were used to identify four trajectories in addition to never smokers (34.1%: experimenters (13.6%, quitters (8.1%, early established smokers (39.0%, and late escalators (5.2%. We identified a quitter and late escalator class not identified in the only other comparable latent class growth analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify the characteristics of individuals in each trajectory. Compared with never smokers, all trajectories except late escalators were less likely to be black; experimenters were more likely to be out of school and unemployed and drink alcohol in adolescence; quitters were more likely to have a mother with a high school degree/GED or higher (versus none and to use substances in adolescence and less likely to have ever married as a young adult; early established smokers were more likely to have a mother with a high school diploma or GED, be out of school and unemployed, not live with both parents, have used substances, be depressed, and have peers who smoked in adolescence and to have children as young adults and less likely to be Hispanic and to

  9. Smoking initiation among youth: the role of cigarette excise taxes and prices by race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2011-05-01

    Existing evidence for the role of cigarette excise taxes and prices as significant determinants of youth smoking initiation is mixed. A few studies have considered the possibility that the impact of cigarette taxes and prices might differ by gender or race/ethnicity. In this paper, we address the role of cigarette taxes and prices on youth smoking initiation using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort and discrete-time survival methods. We present results overall and by gender, race/ethnicity, and gender by race/ethnicity. We examine initiation over the age range during which youth are most at risk of initiation and over a period in which substantial changes have occurred in tax and price. The result for cigarette excise taxes is small and mixed across alternative specifications, with the effect strongest for black youth. Cigarette prices are more consistently a significant determinant of youth smoking initiation, especially for black youth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Current cigarette smoking among in-school American youth: results from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Results Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60], Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58], Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92], and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]. American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]. Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked. Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or

  11. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  12. Potential Consequences of E-Cigarette Use: Is Youth Health Going Up in Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    e - cigarette explosions, a trend that may prompt the Navy to ban e - cigarette use altogether [9]. For this reason alone, the military may...of people. A recent study found that some reasons that youth initially try e - cigarettes are especially correlated with continued use, including (a... cigarettes [32]. All of these reasons suggest that chronic e - cigarette users may primarily be people who would otherwise have used traditional

  13. The density of tobacco retailers and its association with attitudes toward smoking, exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking among New York youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R; Kim, Annice E; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2012-11-01

    Estimate the association between the density of licensed tobacco retailers (LTRs) and smoking-related attitudes and behaviors among middle and high school students in New York. The 2000-2008 New York Youth Tobacco Surveys were pooled (N=70,427) and linked with county-level density of LTRs and retailer compliance with laws restricting youth access to cigarettes. Logistic regressions tested for associations with attitudes toward smoking exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking prevalence. LTR density is associated with self-reported exposure to point-of-sale advertising in New York City (NYC) among all youth (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.30) and nonsmokers (OR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30); youth believing that smoking makes them look cool, overall (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.52) and among nonsmokers (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.55); and a counter-intuitive negative relationship with frequent smoking in NYC (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84). Retailer compliance was negatively associated with youth reporting that a retail store is their usual source for cigarettes (OR=0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98). Restricting tobacco licenses and enforcing youth access laws are reasonable policy approaches for influencing youth smoking outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlates of cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Thailand: findings from the Thai global youth tobacco survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies examining the social correlates of tobacco use among adolescents fail to recognise theories of health behaviour and health promotion in their analysis. Using the Socio-Ecologiocal Model (SEM we assessed the demographic and social factors associated with current cigarette smoking among adolescents in Thailand. Method A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (Thai GYTS 2005 was analysed to obtain prevalence of selected attributes and assess factors associated with current cigarette smoking. Current cigarette smoking was defined as having smoked a cigarette, even a single puff, in the last 30 days. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the level of association between the explanatory variables and current smoking. Results Of the 18,368 respondents, 22.0% males and 5.2% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Current cigarette smoking was associated with male gender, smoking parents or closest peers. Perception that smoking was harmful to health was associated with less likelihood of being a current smoker.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, A S; Siziya, S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-07-01

    The majority of adults who smoke cigarettes initiated the habit when they were adolescents or young adults. While rates of smoking and associated factors are known among 13-15 year olds in Malawi, correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in a national representative sample in Malawi have not been studied. We, therefore, carried out this study to estimate the prevalence of current smoking and determine its correlates in a nationally representative sample of in-school adolescents in Malawi. An analysis of the Malawi Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2005 was conducted. Using logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between current cigarette smoking and potential explanatory variables. Overall, 2.5% of adolescents (3.2% among males, and 1.8% among females) were current cigarette smokers. Smoking among parents was 9.6% with no significant difference between males and females (10.3% versus 10.1%). Stronger associations with smoking were observed for friends smoking status (AOR=3.07, 95%CI 2.99, 3.16), receiving pocket money (AOR=3.06, 95%CI 2.98, 3.14), and perception that smoking increases body weight (AOR=2.98, 95%CI 2.81, 3.16). Students who thought that cigarette smoking is harmful to health were 56% (AOR=0.44, 95%CI 0.43, 0.45) less likely to smoke than students who thought otherwise. Despite being the world's second leading grower of tobacco, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent is lower than has been reported elsewhere.

  16. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of susceptibility to cigarette smoking among school students in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Zaheer, Sidra; Rao, Saadiyah; Shafique, Kashif

    2014-02-21

    Susceptibility to smoke has been recognized as a strong predictor of smoking experimentation and taking up regular smoking habit. The identification of smoking susceptible individuals and its determinants is important in the efforts to reduce future smoking prevalence. The aims of this study are to estimate prevalence of susceptibility to smoke among adolescents, and identify factors associated with it. Cross sectional data was obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in three cities of Pakistan in year 2004. Study population consisted of students in grades, 8th, 9th, and 10th; aged 13 to 15 years. Secondary analysis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between smoking susceptibility and co-variates. Descriptive statistics were reported in proportions, and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to report logistic regression analyses. Approximately 12% of nonsmoking students were found susceptible to smoking. Students, who were females (OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.24-1.89]); whose parents (OR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.35-1.99]); or close friend smoked (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [2.27- 3.40]) were more susceptible to cigarette smoking. Students who had good knowledge about harmful effects of smoking (OR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.43-0.69]); and had access to anti-smoking media (OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.59-0.89]) were less likely to be susceptible to smoking. Students who were females, had smoking parents, friends or exposure to newspaper/magazines cigarette marketing, were more susceptible to cigarette smoking among Pakistani adolescents. While knowledge of harmful effects of smoking and access to anti-smoking media served as protective factors against susceptibility to smoking.

  18. An exploratory study of the socio-cultural risk influences for cigarette smoking among Southern Nigerian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Catherine O; Petersen, Inge; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2014-11-22

    The increase in smoking prevalence in developing countries including Nigeria has been mainly blamed on the aggressive marketing strategies of big tobacco companies. There is a paucity of research on other socio-cultural risk factors for smoking among the youth. The main objective of this study is to explore and describe socio-cultural risk factors influencing cigarette smoking among the youth in Southern Nigeria. A total of 27 respondents (5 community leaders, 4 political analysts and 18 young cigarette smokers) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the data. Social-cultural practices fuelling early usage and exposure of children to cigarettes and the promotional activities of tobacco companies were identified as possible factors influencing youth's smoking behaviour in Southern Nigeria. Tobacco control policies should include cultural interventions to modify current traditional practices and social norms which fuel the use of tobacco in the society. Such interventions must target specific groups, subpopulations and subcultures more exposed to the cultural risk influences for smoking.

  19. Tobacco outlet density, retailer cigarette sales without ID checks and enforcement of underage tobacco laws: associations with youths' cigarette smoking and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B; Mair, Christina

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the relationships of tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks and local enforcement of underage tobacco laws with youth's life-time cigarette smoking, perceived availability of tobacco and perceived enforcement of underage tobacco laws and changes over time. The study involved: (a) three annual telephone surveys, (b) two annual purchase surveys in 2000 tobacco outlets and (c) interviews with key informants from local law enforcement agencies. Analyses were multi-level models (city, individual, time). A sample of 50 mid-sized non-contiguous cities in California, USA. A total of 1478 youths (aged 13-16 at wave 1, 52.2% male); 1061 participated in all waves. Measures at the individual level included life-time cigarette smoking, perceived availability and perceived enforcement. City-level measures included tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks and compliance checks. Outlet density was associated positively with life-time smoking [OR = 1.12, P Sales rate without checking IDs was related to greater perceived availability (β = 0.01, P sales without ID checks and enforcement levels may influence beliefs about access to cigarettes and enforcement of underage tobacco sales laws. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. A longitudinal analysis of Hispanic youth acculturation and cigarette smoking: the roles of gender, culture, family, and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-05-01

    Risk for smoking initiation increases as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. society, and this association seems to be stronger for Hispanic girls than boys. To better understand the influence of culture, family, and everyday discrimination on cigarette smoking, we tested a process-oriented model of acculturation and cigarette smoking. Data came from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), which included 1,436 Hispanic students (54% girls) from Southern California. We used data from 9th to 11th grade (85% were 14 years old, and 86% were U.S. born) to test the influence of acculturation-related experiences on smoking over time. Multigroup structural equation analysis suggested that acculturation was associated with increased familismo and lower traditional gender roles, and enculturation was linked more with familismo and respeto. Familismo, respeto, and traditional gender roles were linked with lower family conflict and increased family cohesion, and these links were stronger for girls. Familismo and respeto were further associated with lower discrimination. Conversely, fatalismo was linked with worse family functioning (especially for boys) and increased discrimination in both the groups. Discrimination was the only predictor of smoking for boys and girls. In all, the results of the current study indicate that reducing discrimination and helping youth cope with discrimination may prevent or reduce smoking in Hispanic boys and girls. This may be achieved by promoting familismo and respeto and by discouraging fatalistic beliefs.

  1. A Longitudinal Analysis of Hispanic Youth Acculturation and Cigarette Smoking: The Roles of Gender, Culture, Family, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Risk for smoking initiation increases as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. society, and this association seems to be stronger for Hispanic girls than boys. To better understand the influence of culture, family, and everyday discrimination on cigarette smoking, we tested a process-oriented model of acculturation and cigarette smoking. Methods: Data came from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), which included 1,436 Hispanic students (54% girls) from Southern California. We used data from 9th to 11th grade (85% were 14 years old, and 86% were U.S. born) to test the influence of acculturation-related experiences on smoking over time. Results: Multigroup structural equation analysis suggested that acculturation was associated with increased familismo and lower traditional gender roles, and enculturation was linked more with familismo and respeto. Familismo, respeto, and traditional gender roles were linked with lower family conflict and increased family cohesion, and these links were stronger for girls. Familismo and respeto were further associated with lower discrimination. Conversely, fatalismo was linked with worse family functioning (especially for boys) and increased discrimination in both the groups. Discrimination was the only predictor of smoking for boys and girls. Conclusions: In all, the results of the current study indicate that reducing discrimination and helping youth cope with discrimination may prevent or reduce smoking in Hispanic boys and girls. This may be achieved by promoting familismo and respeto and by discouraging fatalistic beliefs. PMID:23109671

  2. Cigarette smoking susceptibility among youth alternate tobacco product users: implications of flavoured tobacco from a national cross-sectional Canadian sample (YSS 2012/2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Nguyen, Nghia; Azagba, Sunday; Manske, Steve R

    2015-12-30

    Declines in cigarette smoking have been accompanied by increases in alternative tobacco product (ATP) use, particularly among youth. This study examines smoking susceptibility and ATP use in a national sample of Canadian youth. Data from grades 9-12 students who participated in the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalisable sample of Canadian students (n=27,404) were used to examine cigarette smoking susceptibility among never smokers (n=17,396). Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in smoking susceptibility by use of flavoured and all ATPs and by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Overall, 30% of Canadian grades 9-12 never smokers were susceptible to cigarette smoking. Compared to never users, those who had ever tried ATPs (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.59 to 2.42) and those who had ever tried flavoured ATPs (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.96) had significantly higher odds of being susceptible to cigarette smoking. ATP use is associated with smoking susceptibility among youth never smokers. Findings from this study, along with existing evidence, can be used by policymakers to improve regulation around youth access to ATPs (particularly flavoured varieties). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphinee, Amanda L; Doxey, Juliana R; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P; Henriksen, Lisa

    2013-02-25

    African Americans are disproportionately exposed to cigarette advertisements, particularly for menthol brands. Tobacco industry documents outline strategic efforts to promote menthol cigarettes to African Americans at the point of sale, and studies have observed more outdoor and retail menthol advertisements in neighborhoods with more African-American residents. Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of this target marketing on adolescents' recognition of cigarette brand advertising and on smoking uptake. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine racial differences in brand recognition and to assess the prospective relationship between brand recognition and smoking uptake. School-based surveys assessing tobacco use and environmental and social influences to smoke were administered to 6th through 9th graders (ages 11 to 15) in an urban and racially diverse California school district. The primary outcome for the cross-sectional analysis (n = 2,589) was brand recognition, measured by students' identification of masked tobacco advertisements from the point of sale. The primary outcome for the longitudinal analysis (n = 1,179) was progression from never to ever smoking within 12 months. At baseline, 52% of students recognized the Camel brand, 36% Marlboro, and 32% Newport. African-American students were three times more likely than others to recognize Newport (OR = 3.03, CI = 2.45, 3.74, p brand recognition of Camel and Marlboro did not predict smoking initiation. Regardless of race, students who recognized the Newport brand at baseline were more likely to initiate smoking at follow-up (OR = 1.49, CI = 1.04, 2.15, p recognition of Newport cigarette advertising predicted smoking initiation, regardless of race. This longitudinal study contributes to a growing body of evidence that supports a ban on menthol flavored cigarettes in the US as well as stronger regulation of tobacco advertising at the point of sale.

  4. Is There a Relation between School Smoking Policies and Youth Cigarette Smoking Knowledge and Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

    2006-01-01

    To comply with workplace legislation, New Zealand schools are required to have policies regarding tobacco smoking. Many schools also have policies to prevent tobacco use by students, including education programmes, cessation support and punishment for students found smoking. This paper investigated the associations between school policies and the…

  5. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  6. Secondhand smoke exposure and susceptibility to initiating cigarette smoking among never-smoking students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung A; Palipudi, Krishna M; English, Lorna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and illness in non-smokers. We examined SHS exposure at home and in public places, as well as susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking among never cigarette smokers. We used 2006-2011 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 29 African countries (56,967 students). GYTS is a nationally representative, self-administered school-based survey, conducted among students aged 13-15years. Prevalence ratio, estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed for SHS exposure in the homes and public places separately. The two-sample t-test was used to assess the difference in susceptibility to smoking by SHS exposure among never-smoking students (α=0.05). Among never-smoking students, exposure to SHS at home ranged from 12.7% (Cape Verde) to 44.0% (Senegal). The prevalence ratio (PR) comparing susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS at home to those who were not exposed at home ranged from 1.2 to 2.6. Exposure to SHS in public places ranged from 23.9% (Cape Verde) to 80.4% (Mali). Of the countries being studied, 8 countries showed a significant difference in susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS in public places compared to those not exposed in public places. (PR ranged from 0.5-3.5). In many African countries in the study, a substantial proportion of students who never smoked are exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Majority of never smokers who were exposed to SHS at home and in public places had a higher prevalence of susceptibility to initiate smoking than those that were not exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Adoption and enforcement of smoke-free policies in public places and smoke-free rules at home could substantially contribute to reducing SHS exposure in many of these countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Noncigarette Tobacco Product Use With Future Cigarette Smoking Among Youth in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Shannon Lea; Glantz, Stanton A; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2018-02-01

    Approximately 90% of adult smokers first tried a cigarette by 18 years of age, and even infrequent smoking in adolescence is associated with established adult smoking. Noncigarette tobacco use is increasing and could stimulate subsequent conventional cigarette smoking in youths. To estimate the longitudinal association between noncigarette tobacco use and subsequent cigarette smoking initiation among US youth. In this prospective cohort study of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) waves 1 (September 12, 2013, to December 14, 2014) and 2 (October 23, 2014, to October 30, 2015), a nationally representative sample of youths who never smoked a conventional cigarette at baseline and completed wave 2 follow-up (N = 10 384) was studied. PATH retention at follow-up was 87.9%. Ever use and past 30-day use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah, noncigarette combustible tobacco, or smokeless tobacco at baseline. Ever use and past 30-day use of cigarettes at follow-up. The present analysis was based on the 10 384 PATH youth respondents who reported never having smoked a cigarette in wave 1 and whose cigarette ever or past 30-day use was reported in wave 2 (mean [SD] age, 14.3 [1.7] years; age range, 12-17 years; 5087 [49.1%] female; 4829 [52.5%] white). At 1-year follow-up, 469 (4.6%) of all baseline never-smoking youths had tried a cigarette and 219 (2.1%) had smoked a cigarette within the past 30 days. Cigarette ever use at follow-up was higher among youths who had ever used e-cigarettes (78 [19.1%]), hookah (60 [18.3%]), noncigarette combustible tobacco (45 [19.2%]), or smokeless tobacco (29 [18.8%]) at baseline. After adjusting for sociodemographic, environmental, and behavioral smoking risk factors and for baseline ever use of other tobacco products, the odds of past 30-day cigarette use at follow-up were approximately twice as high among baseline ever users of e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% CI, 1.15-3.05), hookah (OR, 1

  8. Examining the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sport participation with e-cigarette use and smoking status in a large sample of Canadian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicic, Sandra; Piérard, Emma; DeCicca, Philip; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-11-01

    Youth e-cigarette use is common worldwide, but the profile of e-cigarette users compared with tobacco users is unclear. This study examines how sport participation and activity levels among youth differ between e-cigarette users and smokers. Using Canadian data from 38,977 grade 9 to 12 students who participated in Year 3 (2014-15) of the COMPASS study, logistic regression models were used to examine the likelihood of sport participation and activity level based on e-cigarette use and smoking status. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine subgroup differences by gender. E-cigarette users are more likely to participate in intramural, competitive, and team sports compared to non-users. Current and former smokers are less likely to participate in those sports than non-smokers. Youth e-cigarette users are more likely than non-users to meet the physical activity guidelines. Current smokers are more likely than non-smokers to undertake physical activity at least 60 minutes daily but less likely than non-smokers to tone at least 3 times per week. Youth e-cigarette users are less likely than non-users to be sedentary less than 2 hours daily. Gender differences among males and females show that male e-cigarettes users drive the general relationship. Results suggest that e-cigarette users are more likely to engage in physical activity compared to non e-cigarette users. Youth e-cigarette users are more likely to be physically active while the opposite is true for smokers. Although e-cigarettes may be less harmful to health compared to cigarette smoking, the increased uptake among youth of differing profiles should be considered in prevention efforts. These results highlight the importance of addressing e-cigarette use in youth who undertake health promoting behaviours. Prevention efforts should not focus only on youth who may undertake riskier health habits; e-cigarette prevention programs should go beyond the domain of tobacco control. © The Author 2017. Published

  9. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  10. Examining Youth Dual and Polytobacco Use with E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ok Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes and other non-cigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular among youth. Little is known to inform public health efforts to reduce youth use. We examined psychosocial correlates of single and multiple tobacco product use among youth e-cigarette users. Data were from the 2014 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 69,923, a representative sample of Florida middle and high school students. Associations between combinations of e-cigarette, cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP use and psychosocial variables were examined using multinomial logistic regression with an analytic sample of N = 2756. Most e-cigarette-using youth used at least one other product (81%. Perceiving cigarettes as easy to quit was significantly associated with greater likelihood of combined e-cigarette/OTP use (relative risk ratio (RRR = 2.51, p < 0.001 and combined e-cigarette/cigarette/OTP use (RRR = 3.20, p < 0.0001. Thinking you will be smoking cigarettes in 5 years was associated with product combinations that include cigarettes. Tobacco company marketing receptivity was associated with multiple product user types. Given that specific psychosocial factors put youth at risk for concurrent use of e-cigarettes with tobacco products, public health efforts should address polytobacco use specifically, instead of individual product use. Youth perceptions about the ease of quitting cigarettes, intentions to continue smoking cigarettes and receptivity to tobacco company marketing are promising areas for messaging aimed at reducing e-cigarette polytobacco product use.

  11. Examining Youth Dual and Polytobacco Use with E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Pepper, Jessica K; MacMonegle, Anna J; Nonnemaker, James M; Duke, Jennifer C; Porter, Lauren

    2018-04-08

    E-cigarettes and other non-cigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular among youth. Little is known to inform public health efforts to reduce youth use. We examined psychosocial correlates of single and multiple tobacco product use among youth e-cigarette users. Data were from the 2014 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey ( N = 69,923), a representative sample of Florida middle and high school students. Associations between combinations of e-cigarette, cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP) use and psychosocial variables were examined using multinomial logistic regression with an analytic sample of N = 2756. Most e-cigarette-using youth used at least one other product (81%). Perceiving cigarettes as easy to quit was significantly associated with greater likelihood of combined e-cigarette/OTP use (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.51, p < 0.001) and combined e-cigarette/cigarette/OTP use (RRR = 3.20, p < 0.0001). Thinking you will be smoking cigarettes in 5 years was associated with product combinations that include cigarettes. Tobacco company marketing receptivity was associated with multiple product user types. Given that specific psychosocial factors put youth at risk for concurrent use of e-cigarettes with tobacco products, public health efforts should address polytobacco use specifically, instead of individual product use. Youth perceptions about the ease of quitting cigarettes, intentions to continue smoking cigarettes and receptivity to tobacco company marketing are promising areas for messaging aimed at reducing e-cigarette polytobacco product use.

  12. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  13. Ethnic Discrimination, Acculturative Stress, and Family Conflict as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking Among Latina/o Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-10-01

    Latino youth can experience a range of cultural (i.e., ethnic discrimination and acculturative stress) and familial (i.e. family conflict) risk factors that can contribute to their perceived stress, thereby increasing their risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. To understand the mechanisms by which ethnic discrimination, acculturative stress and family conflict influence the risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking of youth, the current study investigated the mediating role of perceived stress in these associations. The data came from a longitudinal study of acculturation and substance use with 1919 Latino adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 year-olds; 87% U.S. born). Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination and family conflict (Time 1) related with higher perceived stress (Time 2), which, in turn, related with more depressive symptoms and smoking (Time 3). The results suggest that perceived stress might be one mechanism by which ethnic discrimination and family conflict contribute to Latino youth symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking. The findings highlight the need for prevention and intervention strategies that help youth manage their general perceived stress and/or focus on stress reduction techniques.

  14. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  15. Never, non-daily, and daily smoking status and progression to daily cigarette smoking as correlates of major depressive episode in a national sample of youth: Results from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M

    2018-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with depression, and new initiates who progress more quickly to daily smoking may be at enhanced risk. In a nationally representative sample of youth, this study examined the association between daily, non-daily, and never smoking with past-year and lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) and, among daily smokers, whether faster progression to daily smoking was associated with increased MDE risk. Data were from n = 44,921 youth aged 12-17 in the 2013-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Weighted adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status (daily, non-daily, never) with lifetime and past-year MDE, and the association between progression from cigarette trial to daily smoking with MDE outcomes among daily smokers. Daily and non-daily smokers had similar rates of lifetime and past-year MDE; rates of MDE were approximately 50% lower among never smokers. Compared to never smokers, adjusted models showed that non-daily smokers had a higher risk of past-year and lifetime MDE, while daily smokers had a higher risk of past-year but not lifetime MDE. Daily smoking youth who progressed more quickly from cigarette trial to daily use had an increased risk of both lifetime and past-year MDE. Prevention programs should target factors associated with the shift from cigarette experimentation to regular use to curb deleterious consequences of use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  17. Impact of E-Cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Laws on Current Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A; Arrazola, René A; King, Brian A

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged e-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and age) and state-level (smoke-free laws, cigarette taxes, medical marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  19. Determinants of cigarette smoking among senior secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking remains an increasing high-risk behaviour among the youth, despite its harmful effects on health. This study sought to find out the determinants of cigarette smoking among youth of a rural Nigerian community and suggested intervention measures which have potential for the control of smoking among ...

  20. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  1. Potential Consequences of E-Cigarette Use: Is Youth Health Going Up in Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    is). For regulatory purposes, however, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) places e-cigarettes in this category. 2 obesity on...DA Diacetyl DOD Department of Defense e-cigarette Electronic Cigarette FDA Food and Drug Administration MEPS Military Entrance Processing Station... associated with higher addiction rates [14]. In a separate study, researchers found huge variation in the amount of nicotine present in different e

  2. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... CI (95%) = 0.22 – 0.96). Conclusively, the prevalence of smoking was high among in-school adolescents in the ... The link between cigarette smoking and many non- ..... potential. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations;.

  3. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Punjab, India: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-01-14

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. There is therefore need to identify relevant factors associated with smoking among adolescents in order to better tailor public health interventions aimed at preventing smoking. We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in 2003 in Punjab, India, on 2014 adolescents of whom 58.9% were males. We conducted a weighted logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex, to determine associations between predictor variables and current tobacco smoking status. A total of 2014 adolescents participated in the survey in 2003, and of these 58.9% were males. Male respondents tended to be older than females (21.2% of males, and 13.1% of females were of age 16 years or above). The percent of males and females in the other age groups were: 23.0% and 28.6% for pocket money; adolescents who had parents who smoked, chewed or applied tobacco; adolescents who said that boys or girls who smoke or chew tobacco have more friends; adolescents who said that smoking or chewing tobacco makes boys look less attractive; adolescents who said that there is no difference in weight between smokers and non-smokers; adolescents who said that smoking makes one gain weight; and adolescents who had most or all of their closest friends who smoked. The factors that were negatively associated with smoking were: adolescents who said that boys or girls who smoke or chew tobacco have less number of friends; adolescents who said that girls who smoke or chew tobacco are less attractive; and adolescents who had some of their closest friends who smoked. The observed associations between current smoking on one hand and peer smoking, and perception that boys who smoke are less attractive on the other, deserve further studies. The factors reported in the current study should be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed to reduce adolescent cigarette smoking.

  4. Chemical composition of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a concentrated aerosol of liquid particles suspended in an atmosphere consisting mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. While the precise chemical composition of the particulate and gaseous phases is dependent on the characteristics of the cigarette and the manner in which it is smoked, both phases contain tens of hundreds of individual constitutents. Notable among potentially hazardous constituents of smoke are tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, benzo(a)pyrene, and N-nitrosamines.

  5. The African American Youth Smoking Experience: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bridgette E; Gardiner, Phillip S; Wright, La Tanisha C; Pechacek, Terry F

    2016-04-01

    Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the

  6. The African American Youth Smoking Experience: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bridgette E.; Gardiner, Phillip S.; Wright, La Tanisha C.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. Methods We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. Results While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Conclusion Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. Implications While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. PMID:26980860

  7. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Punjab, India: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. There is therefore need to identify relevant factors associated with smoking among adolescents in order to better tailor public health interventions aimed at preventing smoking. Methods We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS conducted in 2003 in Punjab, India, on 2014 adolescents of whom 58.9% were males. We conducted a weighted logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex, to determine associations between predictor variables and current tobacco smoking status. Results A total of 2014 adolescents participated in the survey in 2003, and of these 58.9% were males. Male respondents tended to be older than females (21.2% of males, and 13.1% of females were of age 16 years or above. The percent of males and females in the other age groups were: 23.0% and 28.6% for Conclusion The observed associations between current smoking on one hand and peer smoking, and perception that boys who smoke are less attractive on the other, deserve further studies. The factors reported in the current study should be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed to reduce adolescent cigarette smoking.

  8. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  9. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse linked to suicidal ideation and attempts: findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.

  10. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  11. Association between electronic cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among US young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Blair N; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Ambrose, Bridget K; Green, Kerry M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18-29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18-24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  13. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking by American Students in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2016-08-01

    High school students' electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use rose rapidly in 2014, to levels higher than cigarette smoking, which declined significantly. This study assesses how frequency of e-cigarette use is associated with students' smoking status. Using Monitoring the Future data in 2015, this study evaluated the association between students' smoking and frequency of 30-day e-cigarette use in 2014, focusing on high school seniors. Previous research has considered only whether e-cigarettes were used at all during the past month. Non-smokers were far less likely than smokers to have used an e-cigarette (pE-cigarette use frequency rose with the amount of ever smoking (pe-cigarette use by very light smokers (e-cigarette. Among tenth- and eighth-graders, 43% and 48% of past-month e-cigarette users had never smoked. Non-smoking high school students are highly unlikely to use e-cigarettes; among those who do, most used them only on 1-2 of the past 30 days. By contrast, current smokers are likely to use e-cigarettes and on many more days. It is unclear whether students' e-cigarette use represents short-term experimentation or future sustained use, and whether it will eventually increase or decrease youth smoking and nicotine addiction. More sophisticated research methods, employing better data, will be essential to unravel the mystery that is the e-cigarette phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceptions of E-Cigarettes among Black Youth in California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Catherine; Antin, Tamar; Annechino, Rachelle

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that Black youth are less likely to use e-cigarettes than their white counterparts, yet little is known as to why. We examined perceptions of e-cigarettes among Black young adults (ages 18–25) to explore the meanings these youth ascribe to e-cigarettes and the role that identity...... plays in how these devices are viewed. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 36 Black smokers and non-smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area suggests that Black youth perceive e-cigarettes as serving distinct, yet overlapping roles: a utilitarian function, in that they are recognized as legitimate smoking...... cessation tools, and a social function, insofar as they serve to mark social identity, specifically a social identity from which our participants disassociated. Participants described e-cigarette users in highly racialized and classed terms and generally expressed disinterest in using e-cigarettes, due...

  16. Effects of individual characteristics and school environment on cigarette smoking among students ages 13-15: A multilevel analysis of the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Quynh; Khanh, Pham Huyen; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among students in Vietnam ages 13-15 and examines its relationship with compositional and contextual factors. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in nine provinces in Vietnam. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to analyse the association between the current incidence of cigarette smoking and factors on both the individual and school level. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among students was 3.3% overall. The prevalence of smoking among male students (5.9%) was higher than that among females (1.2%). Parental smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking among the students. Having a friend who smoked was the strongest predictor of smoking status among the study subjects. We have demonstrated that school-level factors appeared to impact the prevalence of cigarette smoking among students ages 13-15. This paper highlights the importance of utilising an extensive range of actions to prevent students from using tobacco in Vietnam. These actions should include providing specific curricula for students that address both individual characteristics and the school environment. Further, prevention programmes should also target both parental- and peer-smoking issues.

  17. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Ah Lee; Sungkyu Lee; Hong-Jun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an exper...

  18. Alpha radioactivity in cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.; Eisenbud, M.; Harley, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The α activity of cigarette smoke tar deposited onto membrane filters was found to be associated with the relatively insoluble fraction. Perfusion of the tar with physiological saline resulted in no change in the mean measured activity, but there was more variability in the measured values for the perfused tar than for the initial tar samples. Analysis of cigarette smoke condensate shows that radium and thorium are present, but over 99% of the α activity results from 210 Po. Repeat measurements after a time lapse of 2 1/2 years indicate that the initial 210 Pb content of the tar is roughly 30 to 40% of the original 210 Po content for both unprocessed and perfused samples. An increase in the α activity concentration of smoke deposited in lung tissue may result from the lack of solubility of the radioactive material compared with other smoke constituents

  19. Immediate response to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, P.J.; Chowienczyk, P.J.; Clark, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    Using an automated method of calculating airways resistance in the body plethysmograph, we have investigated changes occurring immediately after inhalation of cigarette smoke. Decreases in specific conductance occurred by the time of the first measurement seven or eight seconds after exposure to single inhalations of cigarette smoke in 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers. Less than half of the initial change was present 40 seconds after the inhalation. Initial responses were greater in the non-smokers. Responses recurred with repeated inhalations in smokers and non-smokers. Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers. Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

  20. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P content-related effect of cigarette advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  1. Predictors of youth e-cigarette use susceptibility in a U.S. nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Elizabeth; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Chen, Zhongxue

    2018-07-01

    Given that nicotine is one of the most addictive substances and that adolescents who are exposed to nicotine via e-cigarettes can progress to conventional cigarette smoking, there is a need to identify youth who are susceptible to e-cigarette use and prevent them from initiating e-cigarette use. Susceptibility to e-cigarette use, defined as the absence of a firm decision not to use e-cigarettes, is a useful concept that can be used to predict e-cigarette initiation and identify youth who have high risk of initiating e-cigarettes. This study was conducted to investigate factors that affect youth susceptibility to e-cigarette use. Youth who have never smoked conventional cigarettes and who had seen or heard of e-cigarettes but never used them (N = 9853) were drawn from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 1 youth dataset collected from 2013 to 2014. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to investigate intrapersonal and environmental determinants of youth susceptibility to e-cigarette use. Overall, 24.2% (n = 2410) of youth who have never used e-cigarettes were susceptible to e-cigarette use. Psychological problems and rebelliousness were associated with increased susceptibility. Ever use of alcohol, marijuana, and other substances and household secondhand smoke exposure were found to be risk factors. Perceptions of e-cigarettes as addictive and harmful worked as protective factors. The results revealed determinants of e-cigarette use susceptibility. Multi-level intervention approach is needed to prevent youth from being susceptible to e-cigarette initiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Use: Associations With Conventional Cigarette and Hookah Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E; Soule, Eric K; Forrest, Jamie R; Porter, Lauren; Tomar, Scott L

    2015-08-01

    The emerging trends and rapid growth of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents are being monitored closely. The trends are critical as policy to prevent uptake among adolescents is considered. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of e-cigarette use and potential correlates for use. Associations between e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and hookah are assessed. This study used data from the 2013 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated in 2014 and differences were determined based on CIs. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of e-cigarette use among participants based on demographic and other tobacco products used. There were no sex differences in middle school, whereas male high school students reported higher use than their female counterparts. Cigarette smoking and hookah use were significantly associated with ever and current e-cigarette use among both middle and high school students. Although e-cigarettes are being assessed as a potential replacement product for traditional tobacco, evidence from this study indicates the possibility of multiple product use among adolescents. E-cigarettes are not only associated with traditional cigarettes, but also with hookahs, a similar emerging product that offer tobacco flavors that may appeal to adolescents. Notably, many e-cigarette users also reported no cigarette or hookah use. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Menthol Cigarette Smoking among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. Purpose To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January–April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Results Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). Conclusions These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. PMID:25245795

  4. A Randomized Trial of the Effect of Youth Appealing E-Cigarette Advertising on Susceptibility to Use E-Cigarettes Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padon, Alisa A; Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2017-07-05

    Very little is known about how e-cigarette marketing is being perceived by youth, and the potential effect it will have on youth vaping and smoking behaviors. This limits the ability to identify youth-focused marketing efforts and to design effective policies for the regulation of e-cigarette marketing content and placement. A sample of 417 nonsmoking youth (mean age = 15, SD = 1.3) were randomly assigned to either view four e-cigarette ads with low youth appeal, four e-cigarette ads with high youth appeal or four control ads. After exposure, participants completed covert and overt measurements of e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette attitudes and susceptibility to use. Youth in an e-cigarette ad condition were more likely to select an e-cigarette item in a product choice task compared to control, and had more positive e-cigarette beliefs. Contrary to hypotheses, youth in the low youth appeal condition reported greater susceptibility to trying e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes compared to control. Exposure to any e-cigarette advertising may play a role in teens' decision to initiate e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette use. As the Food and Drug Administration now has regulatory authority over the marketing of e-cigarettes, regulations on e-cigarette advertising are suggested. Teens are increasingly being exposed to e-cigarette advertising, and many places are considering e-cigarette regulations, yet we know very little about how e-cigarette advertisements might influence youth tobacco use. This study utilized a novel dataset of e-cigarette ads coded for youth appeal and presented them to a sample of 417 nonsmoking teens in a randomized controlled design to test the effect of features on youth susceptibility to initiating e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette use. The findings inform evidence-based recommendations for regulating the marketing of e-cigarettes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  5. Longitudinal study of e-cigarette use and onset of cigarette smoking among high school students in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Knight, Rebecca; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Pagano, Ian; Williams, Rebecca J

    2017-01-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is prevalent among adolescents, but there is little knowledge about the consequences of their use. We examined, longitudinally, how e-cigarette use among adolescents is related to subsequent smoking behaviour. Longitudinal school-based survey with a baseline sample of 2338 students (9th and 10th graders, mean age 14.7 years) in Hawaii surveyed in 2013 (time 1, T1) and followed up 1 year later (time 2, T2). We assessed e-cigarette use, tobacco cigarette use, and psychosocial covariates (demographics, parental support and monitoring, and sensation seeking and rebelliousness). Regression analyses including the covariates tested whether e-cigarette use was related to the onset of smoking among youth who had never smoked cigarettes, and to change in smoking frequency among youth who had previously smoked cigarettes. Among T1 never-smokers, those who had used e-cigarettes at T1 were more likely to have smoked cigarettes at T2; for a complete-case analysis, adjusted OR=2.87, 95% CI 2.03 to 4.05, pe-cigarette use among T1 never-users of either product was predicted by age, Caucasian or Native Hawaiian (vs Asian-American) ethnicity, lower parental education and parental support, higher rebelliousness, and perception of e-cigarettes as healthier. Adolescents who use e-cigarettes are more likely to start smoking cigarettes. This result together with other findings suggests that policies restricting adolescents' access to e-cigarettes may have a rationale from a public health standpoint. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  7. Efficacy of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Katherine Kelly; Asal, Nicole J

    2014-11-01

    To review data demonstrating effective smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1946-March 2014) was performed using the search terms e-cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and smoking cessation. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. All English-language clinical studies assessing efficacy of e-cigarettes compared with baseline, placebo, or other pharmacological methods to aid in withdrawal symptoms, smoking reduction, or cessation were evaluated. A total of 6 clinical studies were included in the review. In small studies, e-cigarettes significantly decreased desire to smoke, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and adverse effects were variable. The most common adverse effects were nausea, headache, cough, and mouth/throat irritation. Compared with nicotine patches, e-cigarettes were associated with fewer adverse effects and higher adherence. Most studies showed a significant decrease in cigarette use acutely; however, long-term cessation was not sustained at 6 months. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation; however, there may be a place in therapy to help modify smoking habits or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked. Studies available provided different administration patterns such as use while smoking, instead of smoking, or as needed. Short-term studies reviewed were small and did not necessarily evaluate cessation with a focus on parameters associated with cessation withdrawal symptoms. Though long-term safety is unknown, concerns regarding increased poisoning exposures among adults in comparison with cigarettes are alarming. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  9. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-03-14

    The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13-18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of

  10. E-cigarette use is differentially related to smoking onset among lower risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Pagano, Ian; Schweitzer, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    E-cigarette use has been linked to onset of cigarette smoking among adolescents, but some commentators have suggested that this simply reflects high-risk adolescents being more likely to use e-cigarettes and to smoke. We tested whether the effect of e-cigarette use for smoking onset differs for youth who are lower versus higher on propensity to smoke. School-based survey with a longitudinal sample of 1136 students (9th-11th graders, mean age 14.7 years) in Hawaii, initially surveyed in 2013 (T1) and followed up 1 year later (T2). We assessed e-cigarette use, propensity to smoke based on 3 psychosocial factors known to predict smoking (rebelliousness, parental support and willingness to smoke), and cigarette smoking status. Analyses based on T1 never-smokers tested the relation of T1 e-cigarette use to T2 smoking status for participants lower versus higher on T1 propensity to smoke. The relation between T1 e-cigarette use and T2 smoking onset was stronger among participants with lower levels of rebelliousness and willingness and higher levels of parental support. A multiple logistic regression analysis with T2 smoking as the criterion tested the cross-product of T1 e-cigarette use and T1 smoking propensity score; the interaction (OR=0.88, p=0.01) indicated a significantly larger effect for smoking onset among lower risk youth. The results indicate e-cigarette use is a risk factor for smoking onset, not just a marker of high risk for smoking. This study provides evidence that e-cigarettes are recruiting lower risk adolescents to smoking, which has public health implications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  12. Adolescent Sports Participation, E-cigarette Use, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Sean Esteban; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents. National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Differences in e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were assessed between 13 different sports to determine which sports were associated with a greater or lower risk of these behaviors. Adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport were less likely to engage in past 30-day traditional cigarette smoking (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.538, 0.973) and past 30-day dual use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.438, 0.982) when compared with their nonparticipating peers. Adolescents who participated in baseball/softball and wrestling were at greatest risk of e-cigarette use. Of the 13 assessed sports, none were found to lower the odds of e-cigarette use. No significant evidence was found that participation in a sport was a protective factor against e-cigarette use. Certain types of athletes are at an elevated risk of e-cigarette use, and prevention efforts targeted at these specific sports should be considered by school administrators. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Duffy, Valerie; Oncken, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour. Participants completed daily logs of cigarette and e-cigarette use and were followed each week. Analyses over days indicated that, during the 6-week e-cigarette period, cigarette smoking rates dropped from an average of about 16 to about 7 cigarettes/day. e-Cigarette flavour had a significant effect such that the largest drop in cigarette smoking occurred among those assigned menthol e-cigarettes, and the smallest drop in smoking occurred among those assigned chocolate and cherry flavours. e-Cigarette vaping rates also differed significantly by flavour assigned, with the highest vaping rates for tobacco- and cherry-flavoured e-cigarettes, and the lowest rates for those assigned to chocolate. The findings suggest that adoption of e-cigarettes in smokers may influence smoking rates and that e-cigarette flavourings can moderate this effect. e-Cigarette vaping rates are also influenced by flavourings. These findings may have implications for the utility of e-cigarettes as a nicotine replacement device and for the regulation of flavourings in e-cigarettes for harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Adolescents and Young Adults' Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes as a Gateway to Smoking: A Qualitative Study in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) acting as a gateway to smoking traditional cigarettes (TCs) is a growing public health concern of EC use among youths. To gather the opinions and perceptions of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) on whether and how EC can act as a gateway to smoking TC among youths. A qualitative method included 42 AYAs. Participants…

  15. Perceptions of E-Cigarettes among Black Youth in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Hess

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that Black youth are less likely to use e-cigarettes than their white counterparts, yet little is known as to why. We examined perceptions of e-cigarettes among Black young adults (ages 18–25 to explore the meanings these youth ascribe to e-cigarettes and the role that identity plays in how these devices are viewed. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 36 Black smokers and non-smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area suggests that Black youth perceive e-cigarettes as serving distinct, yet overlapping roles: a utilitarian function, in that they are recognized as legitimate smoking cessation tools, and a social function, insofar as they serve to mark social identity, specifically a social identity from which our participants disassociated. Participants described e-cigarette users in highly racialized and classed terms and generally expressed disinterest in using e-cigarettes, due in part perhaps to the fact that use of these devices would signal alignment with a middle class, hipster identity. This analysis is discussed within a highly charged political and public health debate about the benefits and harms associated with e-cigarette use.

  16. Can attitudes about smoking impact cigarette cravings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lauren; Lipsky, Samara; Erblich, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette cravings, especially those in response to environmental stressors and other smoking-related triggers (e.g., passing by a favorite smoking spot), are important contributors to smoking behavior and relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated significant individual differences in such cravings. This study explores the possibility that attitudes about smoking can influence the experience of cigarette craving. Consistent with classical theories of the links between cognition and motivation, we predicted that smokers who exhibit more favorable attitudes towards smoking would have greater cravings. Daily smokers (n=103, mean age=41.8years, 33% female) were instructed to imagine smoking, stress, and neutral scenarios. Cravings were measured prior to and after each exposure. Participants also completed an abridged version of the Smoking Consequence Questionnaire (SCQ) that had them rate the: 1) desirability and 2) likelihood, for eighteen separate negative smoking consequences (e.g., "The more I smoke, the more I risk my health", "People will think less of me if they see me smoking"). Findings revealed that favorable attitudes about the consequences of smoking, as measured by the SCQ-desirability index, significantly predicted cigarette cravings. Findings suggest that individual attitudes toward smoking may play an important role in better understanding cigarette cravings, which may ultimately help identify targets for more efficient and effective cognitive/attitude-based interventions for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The E-cigarette Social Environment, E-cigarette Use, and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Urman, Robert; Chou, Chih Ping; Howland, Steve; Wang, Kejia; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gilreath, Tamika D; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Samet, Jonathan M; McConnell, Rob

    2016-07-01

    One concern regarding the recent increase in adolescent e-cigarette use is the possibility that electronic (e-) cigarettes may be used by those who might not otherwise have used cigarettes, and that dual use, or transition to cigarette use alone, may follow. Questionnaire data were obtained in 2014 from 11th/12th grade students attending schools in 12 communities included in the Southern California Children's Health Study. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use, the social environment (family and friends' use and approval of e-cigarettes and cigarettes), and susceptibility to future cigarette use among never cigarette smokers (N = 1,694), using previously validated measures based on reported absence of a definitive commitment not to smoke. Among adolescents who had never used cigarettes, 31.8% of past e-cigarette users and 34.6% of current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users indicated susceptibility to cigarette use, compared with 21.0% of never e-cigarette users. The odds of indicating susceptibility to cigarette use were two times higher for current e-cigarette users compared with never users (odds ratio = 1.97; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.22). A social environment favorable to e-cigarettes (friends' use of and positive attitudes toward the use of e-cigarettes) was also associated with greater likelihood of susceptibility to cigarette use, independent of an individual's e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use in adolescence, and a pro-e-cigarette social environment, may put adolescents at risk for future use of cigarettes. E-cigarettes may contribute to subsequent cigarette use via nicotine addiction or social normalization of smoking behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. E-Cigarettes: Use, Effects on Smoking, Risks, and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Stanton A; Bareham, David W

    2018-04-01

    Since e-cigarettes appeared in the mid-2000s, some practitioners, researchers, and policy makers have embraced them as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes and an effective way to stop smoking. While e-cigarettes deliver lower levels of carcinogens than do conventional cigarettes, they still expose users to high levels of ultrafine particles and other toxins that may substantially increase cardiovascular and noncancer lung disease risks, which account for more than half of all smoking-caused deaths, at rates similar to conventional cigarettes. Moreover, rather than stimulating smokers to switch from conventional cigarettes to less dangerous e-cigarettes or quitting altogether, e-cigarettes are reducing smoking cessation rates and expanding the nicotine market by attracting youth.

  19. Perceptions of the Harm and Addictiveness of Conventional Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescent E-Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotomo, Olusegun; Maslowsky, Julie; Loukas, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity. National samples of 8th- and 10th-grade students from 2014 and 2015 (N = 14,151) were obtained from the Monitoring the Future Study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between adolescent smoking status and perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking while controlling for potential confounders. E-cigarette users had lower perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking compared with nonusers but higher than cigarette smokers and dual users. E-cigarette users reported lower influence by antismoking ads, more conventional cigarette-smoking peers, and greater risk-taking propensity than nonusers. E-cigarette users and cigarette smokers did not differ in their perceived harm of conventional cigarette smoking or in their risk-taking propensity. E-cigarette users' attitudes and perceptions regarding conventional cigarette smoking may leave them vulnerable to becoming conventional cigarette smokers. Future studies should explore the prospective relationship between smoking-related perceptions of conventional cigarette smoking among e-cigarette users and the onset of cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  20. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Kim

    2011-05-01

    To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers.

  1. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  2. The Effect of Computer Usage in Internet Café on Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Chinese Adolescents and Youth: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006. Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  3. "Smoking revolution": a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, Rachel A; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%); increased social status (44%); enhanced social activity (32%); romance (31%); and use by celebrities (22%). Health claims and smoking-cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. School bullying and susceptibility to smoking among never-tried cigarette smoking students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2016-04-01

    Bullying involvement has been linked with substance use; however, less is known about its relationship with pre-initiation stages of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior. This study examined the association between bullying involvement and smoking susceptibility among never tried or experimented with cigarette smoking students. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking in adolescence is a strong predictor of subsequent smoking initiation. A cross-sectional data on Canadian adolescent and youth were drawn from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey (n=28,843). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility among never-smoking students. About 21% self-reported involvement in bullying (as a bully, victim or both). Middle school students (grades 6-8) reported more involvement in bullying (24%) than those in grades 9-12 (16%). The multivariable analyses showed that the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility was significantly different by grade level. Middle school students involved in bullying had higher odds of smoking susceptibility compared to uninvolved students (bully, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.54, 95% CI=1.73-3.74; victim, AOR=1.29, 95% CI=1.11-1.48; bully-victim, AOR=2.19, 95% CI=1.75-2.74). There were no significant associations between all subgroups of bullying and smoking susceptibility for grades 9-12 students. Students involved in bullying were more susceptible to smoking, although patterns of association varied by grade level. In particular, the findings highlight that non-smoking middle school students involved in bullying were susceptible to future smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of menthol in cigarettes as a reinforcer of smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahijevych, Karen; Garrett, Bridgette E

    2010-12-01

    The World Health Organization has identified several additives such as menthol in the manufacturing of cigarettes to specifically reduce smoke harshness. These additives may have important implications for reinforcing smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize research related to the role of menthol's sensory characteristics in strengthening the reinforcing effects of nicotine in cigarettes and the impact on nicotine addiction and smoking behavior. Research reports from 2002 to 2010 on the addictive potential of menthol cigarettes were reviewed that included qualitative focus groups, self-reports and biomarkers of nicotine dependence, human laboratory, and epidemiological studies. Positive sensory effects of menthol cigarette use were identified via reports of early smoking experiences and as a potential starter product for smoking uptake in youth. Menthol cigarettes may serve as a conditioned stimulus that reinforces the rewarding effects of smoking. Nicotine dependence measured by shorter time-to-first cigarette upon waking was increased with menthol cigarette use in most of the studies reviewed. Smoking quit rates provide additional indicators of nicotine dependence, and the majority of the studies reviewed provided evidence of lower quit rates or higher relapse rates among menthol cigarette smokers. The effects of menthol cigarette use in increasing the reinforcing effects of nicotine on smoking behavior were evidenced in both qualitative and quantitative empirical studies. These findings have implications for enhanced prevention and cessation efforts in menthol smokers.

  6. How do Indonesian youth perceive cigarette advertising? A cross-sectional study among Indonesian high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayi Suryo Prabandari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have reported an association between cigarette advertising and smoking behavior. Although this has been reported extensively in the West, it has been reported less in Southeast Asian countries that have not completely banned tobacco advertising promotion and sponsorship (TAPS. Indonesia is the only ASEAN country that has not ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, so TAPS regulation is limited. This study aimed to assess the association between youths’ perceptions of cigarette ads and smoking initiation. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 2,115 high school students aged 13–18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to gauge the perception of cigarette ads and initiation to smoking. We calculated the odds ratio (OR between the perception of cigarette ads and smoking initiation, adjusting for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. The sociodemographic variables included in the final model were age and sex. Results: The final multivariate model showed an association between perception of tobacco ads encouraging youths to smoke and smoking initiation (OR 2.70 and current smoking (OR 7.63. Attitude toward TAPS was associated with smoking initiation (OR 1.51 and current smoking (OR 3.32. Exposure to cigarette ads had an association with smoking initiation only (OR 1.27 and did not have an association with current smoking. Having friends and family who smoked was associated with smoking initiation and current smoking in the final multivariate model. Smoking initiation and current smoking were also related to the susceptibility to smoke. Conclusions: This study revealed that cigarette ads were perceived as encouraging youths to smoke and that smoking status was consistently associated with perception of cigarette ads targeted at youths, attitude toward TAPS, and susceptibility as well as smoking friends and family. Regulations to ban TAPS

  7. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  8. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78 and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51. The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49. Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47 and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30, respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  9. Cigarette Taxes, Smoking-and Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Karen Smith; Niles, David P

    2017-08-01

    This research provides the first in-depth analysis of the effect that increased cigarette taxes have on exercise behavior. Smoking may diminish the ability to exercise; individuals may also use exercise to compensate for the harmful health effects of smoking or to avoid gaining weight if they cut back. Our conceptual model highlights these and several other avenues for effect and reveals that the predicted effect of cigarette costs on exercise behavior is theoretically ambiguous. To investigate the relationship empirically, 1994-2012 data from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system are combined with state level cigarette tax rates and other state level variables. Several measures of both smoking and exercise behavior are created and estimated in reduced form models. Our results suggest that both smoking and exercise are reduced by cigarette taxes. However, the effects on exercise may be more complicated as we find that certain groups, such as young adults or those who have recently quit smoking, are affected differently. Our analyses also show that the responsiveness of both smoking and exercise behavior to cigarette costs is much smaller in the 2000s, an era of high-tax increases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2017-08-01

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Role of Nicotine Dependence in E-Cigarettes' Potential for Smoking Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selya, Arielle S; Dierker, Lisa; Rose, Jennifer S; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2017-07-07

    E-cigarettes (Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, or ENDS) are an increasingly popular tobacco product among youth. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may be effective for harm reduction and smoking cessation, although these claims remain controversial. Little is known about how nicotine dependence may contribute to e-cigarettes' effectiveness in reducing or quitting conventional smoking. A cohort of young adults were surveyed over 4 years (approximately ages 19-23). Varying-coefficient models (VCMs) were used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and conventional smoking frequency, and how this relationship varies across users with different nicotine dependence levels. Lifetime, but not recent, e-cigarette use was associated with less frequent concurrent smoking of conventional cigarettes among those with high levels of nicotine dependence. However, nondependent e-cigarette users smoked conventional cigarettes slightly more frequently than those who had never used e-cigarettes. Nearly half of ever e-cigarette users reported using them to quit smoking at the last measurement wave. For those who used e-cigarettes in a cessation attempt, the frequency of e-cigarette use was not associated with reductions in future conventional smoking frequency. These findings offer possible support that e-cigarettes may act as a smoking reduction method among highly nicotine-dependent young adult cigarette smokers. However, the opposite was found in non-dependent smokers, suggesting that e-cigarette use should be discouraged among novice tobacco users. Additionally, although a substantial proportion of young adults used e-cigarettes to help them quit smoking, these self-initiated quit attempts with e-cigarettes were not associated with future smoking reduction or cessation. This study offers potential support for e-cigarettes as a smoking reduction tool among highly nicotine-dependent young adult conventional smokers, although the extent and nature of this

  12. Association between menthol cigarette smoking and current use of electronic cigarettes among us adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Agaku

    2017-05-01

    Current e-cigarette use was significantly higher among menthol than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to reduce all forms of tobacco product use, including e-cigarettes, among youth.

  13. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Many adult cigarette smokers initiated the habit as adolescents. Adolescent tobacco use may be a marker of other unhealthy behaviours. There are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Iraq. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of, and assess the socio-demographic correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Methods Secondary data analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, conducted in the region of Kurdistan, Iraq in 2006. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between current cigarette smoking and explanatory variables. Results One thousand nine hundred eighty-nine adolescents participated in the Kurdistan-Iraq Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Of these, 58.1% and 41.9% were boys and girls respectively. The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 15.3%; 25.1% and 2.7% in boys and girls respectively. The factors associated with adolescent smoking were: parents' smoking, smoking in closest friends, male gender, having pocket money and perceptions that boys or girls who smoked were attractive. Conclusion We suggest that public health interventions aimed to curb adolescent cigarette smoking should be designed, implemented and evaluated with due recognition to the factors that are associated with the habit. PMID:18053219

  14. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adult cigarette smokers initiated the habit as adolescents. Adolescent tobacco use may be a marker of other unhealthy behaviours. There are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Iraq. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of, and assess the socio-demographic correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Methods Secondary data analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, conducted in the region of Kurdistan, Iraq in 2006. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between current cigarette smoking and explanatory variables. Results One thousand nine hundred eighty-nine adolescents participated in the Kurdistan-Iraq Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Of these, 58.1% and 41.9% were boys and girls respectively. The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 15.3%; 25.1% and 2.7% in boys and girls respectively. The factors associated with adolescent smoking were: parents' smoking, smoking in closest friends, male gender, having pocket money and perceptions that boys or girls who smoked were attractive. Conclusion We suggest that public health interventions aimed to curb adolescent cigarette smoking should be designed, implemented and evaluated with due recognition to the factors that are associated with the habit.

  15. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.M.; Ershadian, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis. Methodology: In this retrospective study which was carried out in Razi hospital, in Ahvaz a city southwest Iran, medical charts of patients with tuberculosis between 2005 and 2007 were reviewed. Sixty one patients aged 15-96 years with documented pulmonary tuberculosis (smear positive) were selected as cases and 122 age and sex matched persons without tuberculosis(patients hospitalized in surgery and orthopedic wards) were selected randomly as controls. Data on smoking status, quantity of cigarette smoked, and duration of smoking was collected from medical charts. The data in the two groups were statistically compared with SPSS version 16. The chi square test was used to compare the frequency of cigarette smoking in two groups. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated when appropriate. Differences with a P value of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of total 61 case, 42 (68.9%) were smoker, while, of total 122 controls 22(18%) were smoker. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of the relation between smoking and tuberculosis was 10.1 [(95% confidence interval (CI) 4.3 to 23.5), P<0.001]. The mean of pocket - year of smoked cigarette (20/pocket) in cases and controls were 15.9 +- 13.7 and 13.5 +- 9.1, respectively (P=0.5). Conclusion: This study showed that pulmonary tuberculosis is associated to cigarette smoking. The association is not dose-dependent. Smoking may be a risk factor for TB acquisition. (author)

  17. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  18. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Young Adults in Mangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithambigai, G; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, G; Ramya, Shenoy; Pai, B H Mithun

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is a heralding health menace, particularly among college students. Tobacco usage among young can have an especially devastating effect as they can be exposed for longer periods. Data to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in young adults will be a valuable addition to the existing resources. An analytical cross-sectional study was therefore carried out in Mangalore city using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with a representative sample of 720 students aged 18-20 years selected from degree colleges by multi-stage random sampling. Prevalence of 'ever users' and 'current users' of smoking were 20.4% and 11.4%, respectively. The mean age at initiation of cigarette smoking was 16 years and the majority (31 %) smoked in public places. Interestingly, 84% of them knew about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. About one half of smokers had some or most of their friends smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed gender (OR=8.585: CI-3.26-22.5), pocket money (OR=4.165; CI=1.76-9.82) and peer's smoking habit (OR= 5.15; CI-2.21-11.9) have higher odds as correlates of tobacco usage among college students. It is of prime importance to highlight the role of prevention of smoking initiation rather than subsequently trying to stop the habit. Comprehensive interventions embracing family, friends and social milieu are needed to reduce tobacco use among students in India.

  19. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R....... Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer...... are small and appear to be explicable. The Prevent model can be used for more general scenarios of effective health promotion, but it requires more data than the Peto et al method, which can be used only to estimate mortality related to smoking....

  20. Prevalence and determinants of ever smoked cigarettes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited data on adolescent smoking and its determinants in ... ever smoked cigarettes was associated with having a parent or closest friend who smoked. ... to prevent teenage adolescent smoking should incorporate a comprehensive ...

  1. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  2. Effects of cigarette smoking on lexical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, C R; Gentry, M V; Meliska, C J

    1999-02-01

    10 habitual smokers, aged 19-25 yr., were randomly assigned to smoke either a very low nicotine "Placebo" cigarette (.05-mg nicotine delivery as estimated by the FTC method) or a Nicotine cigarette (.7-mg estimated nicotine delivery). Each participant was asked to abstain from smoking for 4 to 7 hr. prior to testing. After completing a presmoking test of lexical decision-making, participants smoked either a Nicotine or Placebo cigarette and were then retested for reaction times and accuracy on the lexical decision test. When presented the most difficult lexical decisions, participants responded significantly faster after smoking a Nicotine cigarette than they did before smoking; smoking a Placebo cigarette did not affect reaction times. Response accuracy was unaffected by smoking either kind of cigarette. These results suggest that smoking a nicotine cigarette may improve attention or memory retrieval after several hours of smoking abstinence.

  3. Associations of Electronic Cigarette Nicotine Concentration With Subsequent Cigarette Smoking and Vaping Levels in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenson, Nicholas I; Leventhal, Adam M; Stone, Matthew D; McConnell, Rob S; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L

    2017-12-01

    association with a significantly greater number of vaping episodes per day was found with use of low (adjusted RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 2.61-4.03), medium (adjusted RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 2.54-4.10), and high (adjusted RR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.63-3.24) nicotine concentrations (vs no nicotine) at baseline. Similar results were found for the number of puffs per vaping episode for low (adjusted RR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.41-2.70), medium (adjusted RR, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.66-4.11), and high (adjusted RR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.42-3.03) nicotine concentrations. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that use of e-cigarettes with higher nicotine concentrations by youths may increase subsequent frequency and intensity of smoking and vaping.

  4. Cigarette smoking and perception of its advertisement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The most predominant form of tobacco use is cigarette smoking, and it poses serious threats to maternal and child health. The magnitude of cigarette smoking in pregnancy in our environment is not well.known. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among pregnant women in ...

  5. Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C; Lee, Youn O; Kim, Annice E; Watson, Kimberly A; Arnold, Kristin Y; Nonnemaker, James M; Porter, Lauren

    2014-07-01

    Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration does not regulate electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketing unless it is advertised as a smoking cessation aid. To date, the extent to which youth and young adults are exposed to e-cigarette television advertisements is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in youth and young adult exposure to e-cigarette television advertisements in the United States. Nielsen data on television household audiences' exposure to e-cigarette advertising across US markets were examined by calendar quarter, year, and sponsor. Youth exposure to television e-cigarette advertisements, measured by target rating points, increased 256% from 2011 to 2013. Young adult exposure increased 321% over the same period. More than 76% of all youth e-cigarette advertising exposure occurred on cable networks and was driven primarily by an advertising campaign for 1 e-cigarette brand. E-cigarette companies currently advertise their products to a broad audience that includes 24 million youth. The dramatic increase in youth and young adult television exposure between 2011 and 2013 was driven primarily by a large advertising campaign on national cable networks. In the absence of evidence-based public health messaging, the current e-cigarette television advertising may be promoting beliefs and behaviors that pose harm to the public health. If current trends in e-cigarette television advertising continue, awareness and use of e-cigarettes are likely to increase among youth and young adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, and perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted among four hundred non-dental undergraduates of University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, perceived efficacy in oral self-care and preventing gingivodental diseases among them. The result showed that the perceived ...

  7. E-cigarette use, perceptions, and cigarette smoking intentions in a community sample of young adult nondaily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-05-01

    E-cigarettes have been suggested as a strategy for reducing harm from cigarettes. Although e-cigarettes could be a less-harmful alternative to cigarettes for those trying to quit, there may also be costs that outweigh any benefits of reduction. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively investigate perceptions of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking intentions, and their associations with e-cigarette use over time. Community participants (N = 348, 57% male) aged 18 to 24 years were recruited for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Inclusion criteria included nondaily cigarette smoking for ≥ 6 months with no history of daily smoking. Participants reported e-cigarette use over the past 14 days at baseline, and for the past 9 days at 3, 6, and 9 months. Assessments were completed online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 22% to 33% of participants reported recent e-cigarette use. Intent to quit smoking cigarettes and intent to maintain smoking were unrelated to e-cigarette frequency. E-cigarette frequency was positively associated with perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and more positive e-cigarette expectancies (ps E-cigarette use was also more frequent among those who smoked cigarettes frequently and who used e-cigarettes to circumvent cigarette bans more often (ps e-cigarette use more than harm reduction. Findings instead seem consistent with the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are more often used to complement ongoing cigarette smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Differential trends in cigarette smoking in the USA: is menthol slowing progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A; Villanti, Andrea C; Mowery, Paul D; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous to an individual's health as non-mentholated varieties. The addition of menthol to cigarettes reduces perceived harshness of smoke, which can facilitate initiation. Here, we examine correlates of menthol use, national trends in smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes, and brand preferences over time. We estimated menthol cigarette use during 2004-2010 using annual data on persons ≥12 years old from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We adjusted self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol, based on sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. Among cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette use was more common among 12-17 year olds (56.7%) and 18-25 year olds (45.0%) than among older persons (range 30.5% to 34.7%). In a multivariable analysis, menthol use was associated with being younger, female and of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Among all adolescents, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes decreased from 2004-2010, while menthol smoking rates remained constant; among all young adults, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes also declined, while menthol smoking rates increased. The use of Camel menthol and Marlboro menthol increased among adolescent and young adult smokers, particularly non-Hispanic Caucasians, during the study period. Young people are heavy consumers of mentholated cigarettes. Progress in reducing youth smoking has likely been attenuated by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands. This study should inform the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential public health impact of a menthol ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. The perceived influence of cigarette advertisements and smoking susceptibility among seventh graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, D L; Flora, J A; Feighery, E; Schooler, C

    1999-01-01

    A perceptual bias, the third person effect, has been observed where individuals believe themselves to differ from others regarding the perceived influence of media messages. Given the frequency with which youth encounter prosmoking messages and the reported negative effects of these messages, it is of value to study whether youth perceive cigarette advertisements to influence themselves and their friends and peers. This study examined the associations between exposure to social and information prosmoking environments, the perceived influence of cigarette advertisements on self, best friends, and other youth, and smoking susceptibility. A sample of 571 seventh graders completed surveys on tobacco advertisements and promotions. Using Student's-t, chi-square, ANOVA tests and proportional odds models, we found significant associations between perceived influence of cigarette advertisements and exposure to social and information prosmoking environments as well as smoking susceptibility. These data suggest that youth be taught that everyone is vulnerable to the tobacco industry's strategies and be given skills to resist prosmoking advertising.

  10. Exploring the Predictive Validity of the Susceptibility to Smoking Construct for Tobacco Cigarettes, Alternative Tobacco Products, and E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Adam G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-12-06

    Within tobacco prevention programming, it is useful to identify youth that are at risk for experimenting with various tobacco products and e-cigarettes. The susceptibility to smoking construct is a simple method to identify never-smoking students that are less committed to remaining smoke-free. However, the predictive validity of this construct has not been tested within the Canadian context or for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes. This study used a large, longitudinal sample of secondary school students that reported never using tobacco cigarettes and non-current use of alternative tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline in Ontario, Canada. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the susceptibility construct for predicting tobacco cigarette, e-cigarette, cigarillo or little cigar, cigar, hookah, and smokeless tobacco use one and two years after baseline measurement were calculated. At baseline, 29.4% of the sample was susceptible to future tobacco product or e-cigarette use. The sensitivity of the construct ranged from 43.2% (smokeless tobacco) to 59.5% (tobacco cigarettes), the specificity ranged from 70.9% (smokeless tobacco) to 75.9% (tobacco cigarettes), and the positive predictive value ranged from 2.6% (smokeless tobacco) to 32.2% (tobacco cigarettes). Similar values were calculated for each measure of the susceptibility construct. A significant number of youth that did not currently use tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline reported using tobacco products and e-cigarettes over a two-year follow-up period. The predictive validity of the susceptibility construct was high and the construct can be used to predict other tobacco product and e-cigarette use among youth. This study presents the predictive validity of the susceptibility construct for the use of tobacco cigarettes among secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. It also presents a novel use of the susceptibility construct for

  11. Cigarette Cue Attentional Bias in Cocaine-Smoking and Non-Cocaine-Using Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Katherine R; Alcorn, Joseph L; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    Cigarette smoking in cocaine users is nearly four times higher than the national prevalence and cocaine use increases cigarette smoking. The mechanisms underlying cigarette smoking in cocaine-using individuals need to be identified to promote cigarette and cocaine abstinence. Previous studies have examined the salience of cigarette and cocaine cues separately. The present aim was to determine whether cigarette attentional bias (AB) is higher in cigarettes smokers who smoke cocaine relative to individuals who only smoke cigarettes. Twenty cigarette smokers who smoke cocaine and 20 non-cocaine-using cigarette smokers completed a visual probe task with eye-tracking technology. During this task, the magnitude of cigarette and cocaine AB was assessed through orienting bias, fixation time, and response time. Cocaine users displayed an orienting bias towards cigarette cues. Cocaine users also endorsed a more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect associated with cigarette craving than non-cocaine users (g = 0.6). Neither group displayed a cigarette AB, as measured by fixation time. Cocaine users, but not non-cocaine users, displayed a cocaine AB as measured by orienting bias (g = 2.0) and fixation time (g = 1.2). There were no significant effects for response time data. Cocaine-smoking cigarettes smokers display an initial orienting bias toward cigarette cues, but not sustained cigarette AB. The incentive motivation underlying cigarette smoking also differs. Cocaine smokers report more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect. Identifying differences in motivation to smoke cigarettes may provide new treatment targets for cigarette and cocaine use disorders. These results suggest that cocaine-smoking cigarette smokers display an initial orienting bias towards cigarette cues, but not sustained attention towards cigarette cues, relative to non-cocaine-using smokers. Smoked cocaine users also report a more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect

  12. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  13. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends' cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking.

  14. Association Between Initial Use of e-Cigarettes and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Wills, Thomas A; Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Gibson, Laura A; Yang, JaeWon; Primack, Brian A; Andrews, Judy A; Miech, Richard A; Spindle, Tory R; Dick, Danielle M; Eissenberg, Thomas; Hornik, Robert C; Dang, Rui; Sargent, James D

    2017-08-01

    past 30-day e-cigarette users and 4.6% for baseline non-past 30-day e-cigarette users. Adjusting for known demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cigarette smoking, the pooled odds ratio for subsequent cigarette smoking initiation was 3.62 (95% CI, 2.42-5.41) for ever vs never e-cigarette users, and the pooled odds ratio for past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up was 4.28 (95% CI, 2.52-7.27) for past 30-day e-cigarette vs non-past 30-day e-cigarette users at baseline. A moderate level of heterogeneity was observed among studies (I2 = 60.1%). e-Cigarette use was associated with greater risk for subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and past 30-day cigarette smoking. Strong e-cigarette regulation could potentially curb use among youth and possibly limit the future population-level burden of cigarette smoking.

  15. Perceptions about e-cigarette safety may lead to e-smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Loya, Selina; Viswanath, Humsini; Carter, Asasia; Molfese, David L; Velasquez, Kenia M; Baldwin, Philip R; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Sharp, Carla; Fowler, J Christopher; De La Garza, Richard; Salas, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine-delivery devices that are increasingly used, especially by young people. Because e-cigarettes lack many of the substances found in regular tobacco, they are often perceived as a safer smoking alternative, especially in high-risk situations such as pregnancy. However, studies suggest that it is exposure to nicotine that is most detrimental to prenatal development. The authors studied perceptions of tobacco and e-cigarette health risks using a multiple-choice survey. To study the perceived safety of e-cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes, 184 modified Global Health Youth Surveys (WHO, http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/gyts/en/ ) were completed electronically or on paper. Age range, smoking status, and perceptions about tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes were studied. The results verified that younger people use e-cigarettes more than older people. Tobacco cigarettes were perceived as more harmful than e-cigarettes to health in general, including lung cancer and pregnancy. Although more research is necessary, the authors postulate that the perception that e-cigarettes are safer during pregnancy may induce pregnant women to use these devices more freely. Given that nicotine is known to cause fetal harm, pregnant mothers who smoke e-cigarettes could cause even greater harm to the fetus because e-cigarettes are perceived as being safer than tobacco cigarettes. Until more data about the effects of nicotine during pregnancy are available, the authors advocate for labeling of e-cigarettes as potentially harmful, at least during pregnancy.

  16. Cigarette smoking and perception of its advertisement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... exposures and perceptions of cigarette smoking advertisement. Materials and ..... effect of pro‑smoking versus antismoking adverts on the .... smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non‑pregnant women. Matern ...

  17. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  18. The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

  19. The association between exposure to tobacco coupons and predictors of smoking behaviors among US youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A recent report showed that 13.1% of US middle and high school students were exposed to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days in 2012. The current study reanalyzed data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey 2012 to examine the associations between exposure to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days and predictors of smoking among US youth by smoking status. Methods 24658 middle and high school students were asked if and where they had received tobacco coupons in the past 30 days. Demographics, smoking behaviors, smoking-related beliefs, susceptibility to smoking, and confidence in quitting smoking were assessed. Analyses were stratified by smoking status (never smokers, experimenters, and current smokers). Data were weighted to be representative of US youth. Results Exposure to tobacco coupons was associated with lower likelihood of denying the social benefits of cigarette smoking and believing all tobacco products are dangerous, higher likelihood of being susceptible to smoking (among non-smokers), lower likelihood to feel confident in quitting cigarettes completely (among current smokers) and higher likelihood to intend to purchase cigarettes in the next 30 days (among experimenters and current smokers; p < 0.05). Conclusions Tobacco coupons may promote smoking and hinder smoking cessation among youth. Regulating tobacco coupons may reduce youth smoking in the US. Further research is needed to determine the effect of tobacco coupons on youth tobacco use globally. PMID:25882686

  20. Electronic cigarette initiation among minority youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammig, Bart; Daniel-Dobbs, Page; Blunt-Vinti, Heather

    2017-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) use among youth is a pressing public health issue, with prevalence of use surpassing that of tobacco cigarettes. While research concerning e-cigarettes has proliferated in recent years, there is a dearth of information regarding those whose first exposure to tobacco products was an e-cigarette. To examine factors associated with e-cigarette initiation among minority youth in the United States. Data on minority students in middle and high schools in the United States derived from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) were sampled (weighted N = 27,294,454). We examined e-cigarette initiation among minority youth using logistic regression models to identify related factors. In 2014, 736,158 minority youth were e-cigarette initiators. Odds of e-cigarette initiation was highest among Hispanic youth [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.60-4.56]. Exposure to e-cigarette advertising (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.07-2.50), perceptions of little to no harm (AOR = 7.08; 95% CI = 4.03-12.46), and believing e-cigarettes were less addictive than tobacco (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.52-3.02) were associated with e-cigarette initiation. Odds of initiating e-cigarette use was highest among Hispanic youth. Among minority youth, e-cigarette initiation was associated with perceptions of harm and addiction potential, as well as exposure to e-cigarette advertising. Therefore, prevention efforts targeting minority youth who are at risk of becoming e-cigarette initiators may benefit by incorporating these factors into prevention campaigns.

  1. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  2. Risky business: a longitudinal study examining cigarette smoking initiation among susceptible and non-susceptible e-cigarette users in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleyan, Sarah; Cole, Adam; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-05-26

    Given that many adolescent e-cigarette users are never-smokers, the possibility that e-cigarettes may act as a gateway to future cigarette smoking has been discussed in various studies. Longitudinal data are needed to explore the pathway between e-cigarette and cigarette use, particularly among different risk groups including susceptible and non-susceptible never-smokers. The objective of this study was to examine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among a sample of never-smoking youth predicted cigarette smoking initiation over a 2-year period. Longitudinal cohort study. 89 high schools across Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A sample of grade 9-11 never-smoking students at baseline (n=9501) who participated in the COMPASS study over 2 years. Participants completed in-class questionnaires that assessed smoking susceptibility and smoking initiation. Among the baseline sample of non-susceptible never-smokers, 45.2% of current e-cigarette users reported trying a cigarette after 2 years compared with 13.5% of non-current e-cigarette users. Among the baseline sample of susceptible never-smokers, 62.4% of current e-cigarette users reported trying a cigarette after 2 years compared with 36.1% of non-current e-cigarette users. Overall, current e-cigarette users were more likely to try a cigarette 2 years later. This association was stronger among the sample of non-susceptible never-smokers (AOR=5.28, 95% CI 2.81 to 9.94; pe-cigarette use may contribute to the development of a new population of cigarette smokers. They also support the notion that e-cigarettes are expanding the tobacco market by attracting low-risk youth who would otherwise be unlikely to initiate using cigarettes. Careful consideration will be needed in developing an appropriate regulatory framework that prevents e-cigarette use among youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  3. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking. PMID:27898019

  4. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J; Sargent, James D

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012-2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary fully adjusted models, baseline e-cigarette use was independently associated with progression to smoking

  5. Another Risk From Cigarette Smoking: Corneal Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hürmeriç

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male presented with corneal injury in his left eye after one of his friends had moved his arm backwards and accidentally hit his eye with the lit end of a cigarette. Slit lamp examination revealed epithelial defect and significant stromal edema at the superior temporal quadrant of the cornea. Cigarette ashes were noted in his lashes and inferior conjunctival fornix at the initial examination in the emergency service. 6 weeks after the injury, slit lamp examination revealed stromal thinning and haze in the temporal part of the cornea. His best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 with a refractive error of -6.75x135 diopters in the left eye. Our case demonstrates that ocular thermal injury due to cigarette smoking can cause serious damage to the ocular tissues. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 484-5

  6. E-cigarette Ads and Youth PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Most electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and may harm brain development. More than 18 million middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette ads. Exposure to these ads may be contributing to an increase in e-cigarette use among youth. Learn what can be done to keep our youth safe and healthy.

  7. CDC Vital Signs-E-cigarette Ads and Youth

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Most electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and may harm brain development. More than 18 million middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette ads. Exposure to these ads may be contributing to an increase in e-cigarette use among youth. Learn what can be done to keep our youth safe and healthy.

  8. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  9. How does electronic cigarette access affect adolescent smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Abigail S

    2015-12-01

    Understanding electronic cigarettes' effect on tobacco smoking is a central economic and policy issue. This paper examines the causal impact of e-cigarette access on conventional cigarette use by adolescents. Regression analyses consider how state bans on e-cigarette sales to minors influence smoking rates among 12 to 17 year olds. Such bans yield a statistically significant 0.9 percentage point increase in recent smoking in this age group, relative to states without such bans. Results are robust to multiple specifications as well as several falsification and placebo checks. This effect is both consistent with e-cigarette access reducing smoking among minors, and large: banning electronic cigarette sales to minors counteracts 70 percent of the downward pre-trend in teen cigarette smoking for a given two-year period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Kafue, Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Interest in developing countries smoking prevalence has been growing since 1999. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and associated factors among school-age adolescents in Kafue, Zambia. Methods: A ...

  11. Using E-Cigarettes in the Home to Reduce Smoking and Secondhand Smoke: Disadvantaged Parents' Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are subject to considerable public health debate. Most public health experts agree that for smokers who find it particularly challenging to quit, e-cigarettes may reduce harm. E-cigarette use in the home may also reduce children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, although e-cigarette vapour may pose risks. This…

  12. Peer Effects and Youth Smoking in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaj Silda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of peer smoking on individual smoking among youths in 10 countries that participated in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. I control for endogeneity in school selection and unobserved school-level characteristics through the use of school fixed-effects. I use instrumental variables to address the simultaneity in peer and individual behaviours. Identification arises by comparing students in different classes within the same school. On average, an increase in the share of classmates who smoke by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual in that class will smoke by 3 to 6.9 percentage points. The results imply that any policy intervention such as anti-smoking messages, smoking bans, or higher cigarette prices will be even more cost-effective because of the social multiplier effect of peers – policies affecting some individuals in a group will generate spillovers to others through the peer effect.

  13. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hui eChen; Hui eChen; Sonia eSaad; Shaun eSandow; Paul eBertrand

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behaviour, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causin...

  14. Cigarette Smoking and Brain Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Saad, Sonia; Sandow, Shaun L.; Bertrand, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing...

  15. Pulse carboxyhemoglobin-oximetry and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova-Djokić, L; Milosević, S; Skrbić, R; Salabat, R; Voronov, G; Igić, R

    2011-01-01

    We used a pulse carbon monoxide (CO)-oximeter to measure the levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in smokers and non-smokers. Our goal was to determine if this device could not only define smoking status, but also to increase accuracy of self-reported data at various surveys on smoking. Thirty-four healthy volunteers participated in this study. Twenty-two of them were current daily smokers; 12 participants were non-smokers who lived alone or with a nonsmoker, and who worked in non-smoking environment. Nicotine dependency level was determined by the modified Fagerstrom questionnaire. Blood COHb levels were measured with a pulse CO-oximeter (Masimo, Radical 7). The COHb levels in both moderate/heavy smokers and light smokers increased significantly after they smoked a single cigarette. This increase persisted for more than 6 h in the moderate/heavy smokers, while in the light smokers COHb levels returned to the baseline level after one hour. The pulse rate of all smokers increased significantly 20 min after smoking. We conclude that the CO-oximeter can detect smoking by moderate/heavy smokers and light smokers if they smoked 6 h or 20 min earlier, respectively. We concluded that it could be used as a validation test for smoking at the time of admission to the surgical facility and to increase smoking abstinence during preoperative and postoperative periods. This noninvasive, simple and inexpensive test may also be used at various surveys to increase accuracy of self-reports on smoking.

  16. E-Cigarette Marketing Exposure Is Associated With E-Cigarette Use Among US Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Clendennen, Stephanie L; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarettes are currently the most commonly used tobacco product among US youth. However, unlike conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes are not subject to marketing restrictions. This study investigates the association between exposure to e-cigarette marketing and susceptibility and use of e-cigarettes in youth. Data were obtained from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were 22,007 US middle and high school students. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the relationship between e-cigarette marketing (internet, print, retail, and TV/movies) and current and ever use as well as susceptibility to use e-cigarettes among never e-cigarette users. Exposure to each type of e-cigarette marketing was significantly associated with increased likelihood of ever and current use of e-cigarettes among middle and high school students. Exposure was also associated with susceptibility to use of e-cigarettes among current nonusers. In multivariate models, as the number of channels of e-cigarette marketing exposure increased, the likelihood of use and susceptibility also increased. Findings highlight the significant associations between e-cigarette marketing and e-cigarette use among youth and the need for longitudinal research on these relationships. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Smoke composition and predicting relationships for international commercial cigarettes smoked with three machine-smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, M E; Morton, M J; Laffoon, S W; Cox, R H; Lipowicz, P J

    2005-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine the effects of smoking machine puffing parameters on mainstream smoke composition and to express those effects as predicting relationships. Forty-eight commercial Philip Morris USA and Philip Morris International cigarettes from international markets and the 1R4F reference cigarette were machine-smoked using smoking conditions defined by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), and Health Canada (HC). Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and ammonia. Mainstream yields for tar and 44 individual smoke constituents and "smoke pH" were determined. Cigarette constituent yields typically increased in the order ISOrelationships were developed between ISO tar and ISO, MDPH, and HC constituent yields and between MDPH tar and HC tar and respective smoking condition yields. MDPH and HC constituent yields could be predicted with similar reliability using ISO tar or the corresponding smoking-condition tar. The reliability of the relationships varied from strong to weak, depending on particular constituents. Weak predicting relationships for nitrogen oxides and TSNA's, for example, were improved with inclusion of tobacco filler composition factors. "Smoke pH" was similar for all cigarettes at any one smoking condition, and overall marginally lower at HC conditions than at ISO or MDPH conditions.

  18. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  19. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  20. Perceptions of smoking prevalence by youth in countries with and without a tobacco advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Dee; Graham, John W; Johnson, C Anderson; Uutela, Antti; Vartiainen, Erkki; Palmer, Raymond F

    2010-09-01

    This study examined a proposed mechanism by which exposure to cigarette advertising may mediate the subsequent smoking of youth. We hypothesized that children's exposure to cigarette advertising leads them to overestimate the prevalence of smoking, and that these distorted perceptions, in turn, lead to increased intentions to smoke. Children in Finland, where there has been a total tobacco advertising ban since 1978, were compared with children in the United States at a time when tobacco advertising was ubiquitous. Samples of 477 8- to 14-year-old Helsinki students and 453 8- to 14-year-old Los Angeles students whose lifetime cigarette use consisted of no more than a puff of a cigarette were administered questionnaires in their classrooms. The primary hypothesis was confirmed. Los Angeles youth were significantly more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate the prevalence of adult smoking, in spite of the fact that actual adult smoking prevalence in Helsinki was almost twice that of Los Angeles adults. A similar, significant pattern for perceived peer smoking was obtained, with Los Angeles youth being more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate prevalence, in spite of the actual greater prevalence of youth smoking in Helsinki.

  1. Frequency and habits of cigarette smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the habits and frequency of cigarette smoking. The study included 112 participants. In the study group, 67,64% of respondents were females whereas 32,36% were males. The age of participants ranged from 15 to 26 years. The study conducted in the period from January 2017 to February 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 16 questions single-choice or multiple- choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. In the study group 28.8% of respondents answered that they smoked cigarettes in the past, while smoking a cigarette at the moment declared by 12.6% of people. Half of the respondents smoked about 10 cigarettes a day. Over 60% of respondents declared to start smoking over 18 years of age. More than 30% of respondents smoked e-cigarettes. Almost 100% of the respondents aware of the dangers of smoking. Over ¾ respondents have ever tried to break up with addiction. The respondents were asked where they most often they smoke cigarettes. Nearly half (46.9% of the respondents choose a public place as the place where cigarettes are most commonly smoked (work, school. Nearly half of the respondents (46.9% indicated that at least one parent in the household smokes cigarettes. However, only 9.74% of respondents said they smoked cigarettes at home with the company of a family. The question "What prompted you to first try a cigarette?" The most common answer was the "curiosity" and "friends suggestion" (78,1%. As many as 46.9% of respondents say that stress increases the number of smoked cigarettes.

  2. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, A S

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi. Cross-sectional data were obtained from school-going adolescents in Blantyre in 2001 using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data collection instrument. Data were analysed to determine prevalence of current and ever cigarette smoking, and predictors of smoking. The prevalence of current smoking and ever smoking were 3.0% and 15.6%, respectively. Predictors of current tobacco smoking included male gender, having friends or parents who smoked, having been exposed to advertisements about tobacco brands on television and having seen a lot of advertisements in newspapers and magazines. School programmes that included being taught about smoking in class and a class discussion on the dangers of tobacco were not associated with reduced current smoking. Intervention programmes aiming to curb tobacco smoking among adolescents should focus on dealing also with parental smoking, peer influence and pay special attention toward male gender. School-based programmes to prevent smoking should be evaluated as some may have little impact in influencing current smoking status.

  3. Electronic cigarette use among Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study of market penetration, dual use, and relationship to quit attempts and former smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Grana, Rachel A; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-06-01

    As elsewhere, in South Korea electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are marketed, in part, as a smoking cessation aid. We assessed the prevalence of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents and the relationship between e-cigarette use and current (past 30-day) smoking, cigarettes/day, attempts to quit conventional cigarettes, and ceasing to use cigarettes. Data from the 2011 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 75,643 students aged 13-18 years were analyzed with logistic regression. A total of 9.4% (8.0% ever-dual users who were concurrently using e-cigarettes and smoking conventional cigarettes and 1.4% ever-e-cigarette only users) of Korean adolescents have ever used e-cigarettes and 4.7% were current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users (3.6% dual users and 1.1% e-cigarettes only). After adjusting for demographics, current cigarette smokers were much more likely to use e-cigarettes than were nonsmokers. Among current cigarette smokers, those who smoked more frequently were more likely to be current e-cigarette users. The odds of being an e-cigarette user were 1.58 times (95% confidence interval, 1.39-1.79) higher among students who had made an attempt to quit than for those who had not. It was rare for students no longer using cigarettes to be among current e-cigarette users (odds ratio, .10; confidence interval, .09-.12). Some Korean adolescents may be responding to advertising claims that e-cigarettes are a cessation aid: those who had made an attempt to quit were more likely to use e-cigarettes but less likely to no longer use cigarettes. E-cigarette use was strongly associated with current and heavier cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acrolein in cigarette smoke inhibits T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Cherie; McCue, Jesica; Portas, Mary; Ouyang, Yanli; Li, JiMei; Rosano, Thomas G; Lazis, Alexander; Freed, Brian M

    2005-10-01

    Cigarette smoking inhibits T-cell responses in the lungs, but the immunosuppressive compounds have not been fully identified. Cigarette smoke extracts inhibit IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha production in stimulated lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, even when the extracts were diluted 100-fold to 1000-fold. The objective of these studies was to identify the immunosuppressive compounds found in cigarette smoke. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and HPLC were used to identify and quantitate volatile compounds found in cigarette smoke extracts. Bioactivity was measured by viability and production of cytokine mRNA and protein levels in treated human lymphocytes. The vapor phase of the cigarette smoke extract inhibited cytokine production, indicating that the immunosuppressive compounds were volatile. Among the volatile compounds identified in cigarette smoke extracts, only the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein (inhibitory concentration of 50% [IC50] = 3 micromol/L) and crotonaldehyde (IC50 = 6 micromol/L), exhibited significant inhibition of cytokine production. Although the levels of aldehydes varied 10-fold between high-tar (Camel) and ultralow-tar (Carlton) extracts, even ultralow-tar cigarettes produced sufficient levels of acrolein (34 micromol/L) to suppress cytokine production by >95%. We determined that the cigarette smoke extract inhibited transcription of cytokine genes. The inhibitory effects of acrolein could be blocked with the thiol compound N-acetylcysteine. The vapor phase from cigarette smoke extracts potently suppresses cytokine production. The compound responsible for this inhibition appears to be acrolein.

  5. Flavored e-cigarette use: Characterizing youth, young adult, and adult users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, M B; Weaver, S R; Loukas, A; Creamer, M; Marti, C N; Jackson, C D; Heath, J W; Nayak, P; Perry, C L; Pechacek, T F; Eriksen, M P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth ( n  = 3907) and young adult college students ( n  = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults ( n  = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and "usual" e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%), Texas young adult college students (95%), and young adults (71.2%) nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco), while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03). Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy) may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.

  6. Flavored e-cigarette use: Characterizing youth, young adult, and adult users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Harrell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12–17 years old, young adults (18–29 years old, and older adults (30+ years old. Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907 and young adult college students (n = 5482 in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051 nationwide were administered in 2014–2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and “usual” e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%, Texas young adult college students (95%, and young adults (71.2% nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco, while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03. Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.

  7. Youth curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars: prevalence and associations with advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B; Wu, Charles C; Tworek, Cindy; Chen, Jiping; Borek, Nicolette

    2014-08-01

    Curiosity about cigarettes is a reliable predictor of susceptibility to smoking and established use among youth. Related research has been limited to cigarettes, and lacks national-level estimates. Factors associated with curiosity about tobacco products, such as advertising, have been postulated but rarely tested. To describe the prevalence of curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars among youth and explore the association between curiosity and self-reported tobacco advertising exposure. Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of 24,658 students, were used. In 2013, estimates weighted to the national youth school population were calculated for curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars among never users of any tobacco product. Associations between tobacco advertising and curiosity were explored using multivariable regressions. Curiosity about cigarettes (28.8%); cigars (19.5%); and smokeless tobacco (9.7%) was found, and many youth were curious about more than one product. Exposure to point-of-sale advertising (e.g., OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.19, 1.54 for cigarette curiosity); tobacco company communications (e.g., OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.38, 2.09 for cigarette curiosity); and tobacco products, as well as viewing tobacco use in TV/movies (e.g., OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.20, 1.58 for cigarette curiosity) were associated with curiosity about each examined tobacco product. Despite decreasing use of tobacco products, youth remain curious about them. Curiosity is associated with various forms of tobacco advertising. These findings suggest the importance of measuring curiosity as an early warning signal for potential future tobacco use and evaluating continued efforts to limit exposure to tobacco marketing among youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in Greece: results from a cross sectional study (GYTS Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter; Kyrlesi, Athina; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-09-15

    Data about the predictors of smoking among adolescents in Greece are sparse. We tried to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Greece in the context of GYTS study. A secondary analysis of data from a questionnaire study using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey methodology was conducted to identify factors associated with smoking among adolescents in Greece. Data were collected in 2004-2005. The outcome variable was cigarette smoking within the past 30 days preceding the survey while independent variables included age, gender, parental educational status, parental smoking, perception of harmfulness of smoking, and the amount of pocket money at the adolescent's disposal. 6141 adolescents (51.5% males and 48.5% females) participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was associated with male gender (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1, 08-3.08), parental smoking (OR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.45-5.89), and having pocket money > or = 16 Euros (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.19-5.98). Male gender, parental smoking, and having pocket-money > or = 16 Euros were independently associated with current smoking among Greek students. These findings could be taken into account in order to formulate a comprehensive anti-smoking strategy in Greece.

  9. Factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in Greece: Results from a cross sectional study (GYTS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data about the predictors of smoking among adolescents in Greece are sparse. We tried to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Greece in the context of GYTS study. Methods A secondary analysis of data from a questionnaire study using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey methodology was conducted to identify factors associated with smoking among adolescents in Greece. Data were collected in 2004–2005. The outcome variable was cigarette smoking within the past 30 days preceding the survey while independent variables included age, gender, parental educational status, parental smoking, perception of harmfulness of smoking, and the amount of pocket money at the adolescent's disposal. Results 6141 adolescents (51.5% males and 48.5% females participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was associated with male gender (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1, 08–3.08, parental smoking (OR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.45–5.89, and having pocket money ≥ 16 Euros (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.19–5.98. Conclusion Male gender, parental smoking, and having pocket-money ≥ 16 Euros were independently associated with current smoking among Greek students. These findings could be taken into account in order to formulate a comprehensive anti-smoking strategy in Greece.

  10. E-Cigarette Use, Perceptions, and Cigarette Smoking Intentions in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Daily Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes have been suggested as a strategy for reducing harm from cigarettes. While e-cigarettes could be a less-harmful alternative to cigarettes for those trying to quit, there may also be costs that outweigh any benefits of reduction. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively investigate perceptions of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking intentions and their associations with e-cigarette use over time. Community participants (n = 348, 57% male) aged 18–24 were recruited for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Inclusion criteria included non-daily cigarette smoking for ≥ 6 months with no history of daily smoking. Participants reported e-cigarette use over the past 14 days at baseline and for the past 9 days at 3, 6, and 9 months. Assessments were completed online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 22–33% of participants reported recent e-cigarette use. Intent to quit smoking cigarettes and intent to maintain smoking were unrelated to e-cigarette frequency. E-cigarette frequency was positively associated with perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and more positive e-cigarette expectancies (ps E-cigarette use was also more frequent among those who smoked cigarettes frequently and who used e-cigarettes to circumvent cigarette bans more often (ps e-cigarette use more than harm reduction. Findings instead seem consistent with the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are more often used to complement ongoing cigarette smoking. PMID:28125242

  11. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  12. Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the United States, especially the use of electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Examples of new and different tobacco and nicotine products and devices include the following: E-cigarettes. Small cigars . Water pipes (hookahs) for smoking tobacco. Flavored smokeless ...

  13. Use of electronic cigarettes in smoke-free environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan; Cummins, Sharon E; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Although most US states prohibit cigarette smoking in public places and worksites, fewer jurisdictions regulate indoor use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Given the dramatic increase in e-cigarette use and concern about its impact on non-users, there is a need to examine the use of e-cigarettes in smoke-free environments and related attitudes and perceptions. Recruited from a nationally representative adult panel (GfK's KnowledgePanel), 952 current users of e-cigarettes completed a cross-sectional online survey in 2014. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine the factors associated with ever using e-cigarettes in smoke-free environments. Overall, 59.5% of e-cigarette users had vaped where cigarette smoking was not allowed. Young adults (18-29 years) were most likely to do so, 74.2%. The places of first-time use most often mentioned were service venues (bar, restaurant, lounge and club), 30.7%, followed by worksites, 23.5%. Daily e-cigarette users were more likely to have vaped in smoke-free environments than non-daily users (OR=2.08, p=0.012). Only 2.5% of those who used e-cigarettes in smoke-free environments reported negative reactions from other people. Most e-cigarette users did not think e-cigarettes are harmful to themselves or to by-standers, and thus should not be banned where smoking is; those who had used e-cigarettes where smoking is banned were even more likely to hold these views. E-cigarette use in smoke-free environments was common, suggesting that most e-cigarette users do not consider smoke-free laws to apply to e-cigarettes. Explicit laws should be considered if jurisdictions want to prohibit e-cigarette use in public places. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, David; Rickert, William S; Levasseur, Genevieve; Larose, Yolande; Maertens, Rebecca; White, Paul; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for cannabinoid content and for tar generation. There have not been extensive studies of the chemistry of marijuana smoke, especially in direct comparison to tobacco smoke. In this study, a systematic comparison of the smoke composition of both mainstream and sidestream smoke from marijuana and tobacco cigarettes prepared in the same way and consumed under two sets of smoking conditions, was undertaken. This study examined the suite of chemicals routinely analyzed in tobacco smoke. As expected, the results showed qualitative similarities with some quantitative differences. In this study, ammonia was found in mainstream marijuana smoke at levels up to 20-fold greater than that found in tobacco. Hydrogen cyanide, NO, NO x , and some aromatic amines were found in marijuana smoke at concentrations 3-5 times those found in tobacco smoke. Mainstream marijuana smoke contained selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at concentrations lower than those found in mainstream tobacco smoke, while the reverse was the case for sidestream smoke, with PAHs present at higher concentrations in marijuana smoke. The confirmation of the presence, in both mainstream and sidestream smoke of marijuana cigarettes, of known carcinogens and other chemicals implicated in respiratory diseases is important information for public health and communication of the risk related to exposure to such materials.

  15. Risk factors of future smoking among Thai youth: a secondary analysis of the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyeongsil; Lee, Joann; Lee, Sungkyu

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to identify the risk factors for future smoking among Thai youth aged 13 to 15 years (seventh to ninth grade). Data from the nationally representative 2005 Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 15 774) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Among nonsmoking Thai youth, boys were much more likely to have intention of future smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37-0.84). Younger youth were more likely to be cigarette smokers in the future (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Youth having the intention of smoking from a friend's cigarette offer were 5.29 times more likely to have intention of future smoking, compared with those who did not (95% CI = 3.75-7.46). Understanding and targeting youth at higher risk for future smoking can provide for a lowering of the youth smoking rate in Thailand and contribute to the country's continued efforts in effective youth tobacco control. © 2013 APJPH.

  16. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  17. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and concentration of testosterone in the urine. Forty young men age between 23 to 31 years were used for this study. The subjects were ...

  18. Cigarette Smoking and Quitting among Young Adults In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...

  19. Ventilatory Function and Cigarette Smoking in Cement Handlers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Occupational exposure to dust and cigarette smoking play important roles in the pathogenesis of lung diseases, particularly in developing countries. To determine the effects of outdoor cement dust exposure and cigarette smoking on lung health, we compared ventilatory function in cement handlers (smokers ...

  20. Toxicological Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Some Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that while normal people may suffer complications of active and passive cigarette smoking, diabetes patients may suffer more. This study therefore aimed at investigating the toxicological effects of cigarette smoke on some biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n ...

  1. Prevalence of and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports show a sharp increase in smoking rates among girls. We describe prevalence of cigarette smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam and examine the associated factors. We used data from female secondary school students aged 13 to 15 years (grades 8-10) from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey that was conducted in 9 provinces in Vietnam. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine associations between independent variables with smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among girls was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.5), and 1.5% (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) of girls were susceptible to smoking. Having friends who smoke was the strongest predictor of both smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Attendance at school classes that described the harmful effects of smoking had significant effects in reducing cigarette smoking. Girls who were exposed to billboard cigarette advertising were more likely to be susceptible to smoking than were those who had not seen advertisements. Our findings highlight the need for pursuing school-based intervention programs in Vietnam and for countering tobacco advertising and marketing practices that target young women.

  2. Effects of electronic cigarette smoking on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Al Asiri, S A

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarette smoking is gaining dramatic popularity and is steadily spreading among the adolescents, high income, urban population around the world. The aim of this study is to highlight the hazards of e-cigarette smoking on human health. In this study, we identified 38 published studies through a systematic database searches including ISI-web of science and pub-med. We searched the related literature by using the key words including Electronic cigarette, E-cigarette, E-vapers, incidence, hazards. Studies in which electronic cigarette smoking hazards was investigated were included in the study. No limitations on publication status, study design of publication were implemented. Finally we included 28 publications and remaining 10 were excluded. E-smoking can cause, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, choking, burn injuries, upper respiratory tract irritation, dry cough, dryness of the eyes and mucous membrane, release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators, allergic airway inflammation, decreased exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) synthesis in the lungs, change in bronchial gene expression and risk of lung cancer. Electronic cigarettes are swiftly promoted as an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking, although its use is highly controversial. Electronic cigarettes are not a smoking cessation product. Non-scientific claims about e-cigarettes are creating confusion in public perception about e-cigarette and people believe that e-cigarettes are safe and less addictive, but its use is unsafe and hazardous to human health. E-cigarette smoking should be regulated in the same way as traditional cigarettes and must be prohibited to children and adolescents.

  3. Biological effects of inhaled cigarette smoke in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.O.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Dagle, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    A group of twenty dogs has received up to 7 yr of daily cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes per day, 5 days per week), using realistic methods of oral inhalation and nose-plus-mouth exhalation. Three dogs that received 20 cigarettes per day over 9 mo developed respiratory tract lesions, including pleural thickening, alveolar septal fibrosis, vesicular emphysema, and chronic bronchitis, more rapidly than dogs receiving 10 cigarettes per day

  4. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently, little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared with other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from 1,988 multiethnic current daily smokers (M age = 45.1, SD = 13.0; 51.3% women) who had made an average of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) lifetime quit attempts but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, "immediate reinforcement"-a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness-was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and "concerns about health" was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative "smoking" experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  7. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieming Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61 compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%. Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  8. Monitoring and Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Sanem, Julia R.; Adams, Monica L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of tobacco possession laws on public smoking among youth. There were two intervention sites: a fast food restaurant and a shopping mall. Two control sites were also monitored for public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings suggest that when police issued tickets to minors for violating tobacco possession laws,…

  9. Basophil degranulation induced by cigarette smoking in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, S; Walter, A

    1982-01-01

    There is some evidence that histamine could be a mediator of the immediate broncho-constriction that follows cigarette smoking. Since the chief reservoir of histamine in normal human blood is the basophil, we studied the acute effects of cigarette smoking on these cells. Capillary blood samples were obtained from 27 healthy young male smokers, before and 10 minutes after smoking. Basophils were collected and concentrated from these samples by a millipore membrane filter technique, stained wit...

  10. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  11. CDC Vital Signs-E-cigarette Ads and Youth

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-05

    This podcast is based on the January 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Most electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and may harm brain development. More than 18 million middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette ads. Exposure to these ads may be contributing to an increase in e-cigarette use among youth. Learn what can be done to keep our youth safe and healthy.  Created: 1/5/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/5/2016.

  12. E-cigarette Ads and Youth PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Most electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and may harm brain development. More than 18 million middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette ads. Exposure to these ads may be contributing to an increase in e-cigarette use among youth. Learn what can be done to keep our youth safe and healthy.  Created: 1/5/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/5/2016.

  13. Role of the media in influencing trajectories of youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Flay, Brian; Nichter, Mark; Giovino, Gary

    2003-05-01

    This paper summarizes results of empirical studies on cigarette advertising and promotions, antismoking advertising, product placement in movies, on television and in music media and news coverage about smoking. In addition, we provide an overview of some of the theoretical literature relevant to the study of media uses and effects. Finally, we discuss empirical findings in the context of these theories to draw some conclusions about media influences on smoking and identify issues for further research. We conclude that (a) the media both shape and reflect social values about smoking; (b) the media provide new information about smoking directly to audiences; (c) the media act as a source of observational learning by providing models which teenagers may seek to emulate; (d) exposure to media messages about smoking also provides direct reinforcement for smoking or not smoking; (e) the media promote interpersonal discussion about smoking; (f) the media can influence "intervening" behaviors that may make teenage smoking less likely; and (g) antismoking media messages can also set the agenda for other change at the community, state or national level. We outline priorities for further research which emphasize the need for longitudinal studies, multi-level studies, an awareness of the probably dynamic relationship between tobacco advertising and antismoking advertising, the importance of determining appraisal of tobacco industry youth smoking prevention efforts and the dearth of research on news coverage about smoking.

  14. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  15. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium ( 210 Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210 Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g -1 , depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210 Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210 Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210 Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210 Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210 Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times more 210 Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210 Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d -1 , and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210 Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed. (author)

  16. The Influence of Youth Music Television Viewership on Changes in Cigarette Use and Association with Smoking Peers: A Social Identity, Reinforcing Spirals Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D; Hayes, Andrew F

    2010-12-01

    Prior research has found strong evidence of a prospective association between R movie exposure and teen smoking. Using parallel process latent-growth modeling, the present study examines prospective associations between viewing of music video channels on television (e.g., MTV and VH-1) and changes over time in smoking and association with smoking peers. Results showed that baseline viewing of music-oriented channels such as MTV and VH-1 robustly predicted increasing trajectories of smoking and of associating with smoking peers, even after application of a variety of controls including parent reports of monitoring behavior. These results are consistent with the arguments from the reinforcing spirals model that such media use serves as a means of developing emergent adolescent social identities consistent with associating with smoking peers and acquiring smoking and other risk behaviors; evidence also suggests that media choice in reinforcing spiral processes are dynamic and evolve as social identity evolves.

  17. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  18. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  19. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  20. Deposition of radionuclide-labeled cigarette smoke in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, A.P.; Bair, W.J.; Haller, W.A.; Case, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    Cigarettes labeled with 82 Br, 24 Na, and 42 K by exposure to 8 X 10 16 neutrons/cm 2 were smoked by dogs in an exposure system facilitating oral inhalation of the cigarette smoke. Deposition of the labeled cigarette smoke in the dogs was measured by whole-body counting and analysis of blood and excreta. Bromine 82 was the best suited tracer. It could be detected by whole-body counting for up to 9 days as compared to 3 and 4 days for 42 K and 24 Na, respectively. Blood levels of 82 Br could be monitored for 4 days. Excreta also showed detectable levels of 82 Br for 4 days. Between 30 and 70 percent of the 82 Br body burden occurred in the blood where it was retained for an appreciable period of time. The 82 Br blood level was a linear function of the number of cigarettes smoked whereas whole-body counts showed a decrease in Br, K, and Na deposited per cigarette as more cigarettes were smoked. The maximum total body radiation dose received by a dog smoking one neutron-activated cigarette was less than 5 X 10 -4 rads which makes this technique applicable to studies with human subjects. (U.S.)

  1. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  2. The Great Recession, Adolescent Smoking, and Smoking Inequalities: What Role Does Youth Unemployment Play in 24 European Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Conflicting evidence has been reported on smoking behavior among adults during times of economic downturn. No study has yet investigated young people's smoking and inequalities in smoking during economic recessions. This study examines the association between country-level youth unemployment due to the economic recession and adolescent smoking and smoking inequalities in Europe. The WHO collaborative "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children" study in 2009/2010 included 15-year-old adolescents from 24 European countries (N = 43 093). Socioeconomic position (SEP) was measured by the Family Affluence Scale. Logistic multilevel models were conducted. The absolute rate of youth unemployment in 2010 (during the recession) and the relative change rate in youth unemployment (2005/2006-2009/2010) were regressed on smoking and SEP inequalities in smoking in 2010, respectively. Youth unemployment rates were not significantly associated with overall smoking in adolescents. A higher absolute youth unemployment rate in 2010 related to lower likelihoods of smoking among middle (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and low affluent adolescents (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) compared to high affluent adolescents. In contrast, an increase in youth unemployment (2005/2006-2009/2010) was not associated with overall likelihoods of smoking and inequalities in smoking. Our findings indicate that an increase in youth unemployment was not related to smoking and smoking inequalities. However, higher absolute levels of youth unemployment are related to lower likelihoods of smoking in lower SEP adolescents. Thus, smoking among vulnerable groups is more linked to the overall insecure circumstances and the affordability of cigarettes rather than to the economic recession itself. Economic recessions have often led to increases in adult and youth unemployment rates. Conflicting evidence has been reported on smoking behavior among adults during times of economic downturn. This study examines for the first

  3. Polonium in mainstream cigarette smoke and associated internal radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Rathod, T.D.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Maity, S.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    210 Po activity concentrations in cigarettes tobacco, mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS), ash and post smoking filter were measured by alpha spectrometry using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. The results of present study indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of 210 Po in cigarette tobacco were 9.77 to 15.34 mBq per cigarette. The combined annual effective doses due to internal exposure of 210 Po and 210 Pb for a smoker (considering on an average 20 cigarette a day and 50% of MCS getting deposited in respiratory tract) were found to be ranging from 0.28 to 0.40 mSv for tested brands of cigarette. (author)

  4. Analysis of cigarette smoke by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, W.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Mamantov, G.

    1977-02-01

    The application of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) to the quantitative determination of several components in the gas phase of whole, dilute tobacco smoke was demonstrated. The 18-cm absorption cell was part of a cigarette smoking system similar to the intermittent inhalation exposure devices used in smoking and health research with rodents. Concentrations were measured for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethylene, and methanol in 7 to 22% smoke. The precision of a measurement in 22% smoke ranged from 3% for carbon dioxide to 34% for ethylene. Absorbances measured for isoprene and hydrogen cyanide followed expected concentrations in different cigarette smokes. It was shown that the concentrations of these components remain constant during a 30-s hold-up following each puff on the cigarettes.

  5. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-06-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceptions towards electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation among Stop Smoking Service users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Frances C; Newson, Lisa; Marcus, Michael W; Field, John K; Robinson, Jude

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are promoted as smoking cessation tools, yet they remain unavailable from Stop Smoking Services in England; the debate over their safety and efficacy is ongoing. This study was designed to explore perceptions and reasons for use or non-use of electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation tools, among individuals engaged in Stop Smoking Services. Semi-structured telephone interviews were undertaken with twenty participants engaged in Stop Smoking Services in the north-west of England. Participants comprised of both individuals who had tried e-cigarettes (n = 6) and those who had not (n = 14). Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subject to thematic analysis, which explored participants' beliefs and experiences of e-cigarettes. A thematic analysis of transcripts suggested that the following three superordinate themes were prominent: (1) self-efficacy and beliefs in e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid; and (3) cues for e-cigarette use. Participants, particularly never users, were especially concerned regarding e-cigarette efficacy and safety. Overall, participants largely expressed uncertainty regarding e-cigarette safety and efficacy, with some evidence of misunderstanding. Evidence of uncertainty and misunderstanding regarding information on e-cigarettes highlights the importance of providing smokers with concise, up-to-date information regarding e-cigarettes, enabling smokers to make informed treatment decisions. Furthermore, identification of potential predictors of e-cigarette use can be used to inform Stop Smoking Services provision and future research. What is already known on this subject? Research suggests that e-cigarettes may help smokers quit smoking, but further studies are needed. Electronic cigarette use in Stop Smoking Services has increased substantially in recent years, although e-cigarettes are currently not regulated. There is debate within the

  7. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, Muhannad; van der Tempel, Jan; Schwartz, Robert; Minichiello, Alexa; Lightfoot, Clayton; Noormohamed, Aliya; Andrews, Jaklyn; Zawertailo, Laurie; Ferrence, Roberta

    2016-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been steadily increasing in popularity among smokers, most of whom report using them to quit smoking. This study systematically reviews the current literature on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, ROVER, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit (OTRU) library catalogue, and various gray literature sources. We included all English-language, empirical quantitative and qualitative papers that investigated primary cessation outcomes (smoking abstinence or reduction) or secondary outcomes (abstinence-related withdrawal symptoms and craving reductions) and were published on or before February 1, 2016. Literature searches identified 2855 references. After removing duplicates and screening for eligibility, 62 relevant references were reviewed and appraised. In accordance with the GRADE system, the quality of the evidence in support of e-cigarettes' effectiveness in helping smokers quit was assessed as very low to low, and the evidence on smoking reduction was assessed as very low to moderate. The majority of included studies found that e-cigarettes, especially second-generation types, could alleviate smoking withdrawal symptoms and cravings in laboratory settings. While the majority of studies demonstrate a positive relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation, the evidence remains inconclusive due to the low quality of the research published to date. Well-designed randomized controlled trials and longitudinal, population studies are needed to further elucidate the role of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. This is the most comprehensive systematic evidence review to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation among smokers. This review offers balanced and rigorous qualitative and quantitative analyses of published evidence on the effectiveness of e-cigarette use for smoking

  8. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    magnesium level than the passive smokers/social drinkers group and controls. The results of this study ... non-alcohol/non-cigarette smoke exposed combined oral contraceptive ..... contraceptives: historical perspective. Johns. Hopkins Med.

  9. The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; LVM; PZO

    2003-01-01

    In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to cigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in the literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated psychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin, histamine, tryptophan,

  10. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  11. Smoking Revolution” A Content Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Retail Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, Rachel A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. Purpose To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Methods Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Results Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%), increased social status (44%), enhanced social activity (32%), romance (31%), and use by celebrities (22%). Conclusions Health claims and smoking cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. PMID:24650842

  12. Inter-ethnic differences in youth tobacco language and cigarette brand preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, J; McCormick, L K; Allen, P; Grieser, M; Crawford, M; Davis, S

    1999-11-01

    To describe and understand variations in cigarette brand preferences between adolescents from varying ethnic and gender groups around the US. A qualitative study where adolescents, both smokers and nonsmokers, were interviewed individually in depth. Schools and recreation centers in four sites: urban Maryland (Baltimore), urban Texas (Houston), rural Alabama and rural New Mexico. 121 adolescent volunteers 13-19 years of age, representing African American, white, American Indian and Hispanic ethnic groups, from both genders. Considerable geographic and ethnic variation exists in terminology used by youth to refer to cigarettes and to their use. Clear patterns in brand preference by ethnic group were found that follow patterns of targeted marketing by ethnicity. White teens preferred Marlboro brand cigarettes, while African-American teens who smoke preferred Newports. Hispanic and American Indian teens were more likely to smoke Marlboro or Camel cigarettes. Hispanic teens were most likely to mention low price as a reason for choosing a particular brand or to state that the brand does not matter. Tobacco advertisements targeting ethnic groups and the use of promotional items to encourage teen smoking were also recognized as factors influencing brand preferences. These findings have implications for the design of intervention programs aimed at curbing teen smoking. When working with teens who already smoke, using youth language to target messages at perceived characteristics of commonly used brands may be more effective and meaningful than talking about cigarette use in general. Another implication of this work is to shed light on what impact an advertising ban would have on teen brand preferences, brand loyalty, and prevalence of smoking.

  13. Explaining Cigarette Smoking: An Endogenous-Exogenous Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Jack

    Kruglanski's endogenous-exogenous partition, when applied to reasons given by smokers for smoking cigarettes, distinguishes two types of actions: (1) endogenous reasons implying that the behavior of consuming the cigarette is the goal of the action and the actor is positive toward the behavior, and (2) exogenous reasons implying that the behavior…

  14. Smoking beliefs and behavior among youth in Malaysia and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Carla M; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Awang, Rahmat; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary

    2009-01-01

    To characterize smoking beliefs among Thai and Malaysian youth and to examine associations with gender, antismoking media exposure, and smoking status. Nationally representative samples of youth completed self-administered questionnaires. A substantial proportion of youth reported positive beliefs about smoking. Those reporting positive beliefs were more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Youth who noticed antismoking media were less likely to report positive beliefs about smoking. As in Western countries, beliefs about smoking held by youth in Southeast Asia are associated with smoking status. Antismoking media may be an important means of targeting beliefs about smoking among youth.

  15. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  16. Cigarette pack design and perceptions of risk among UK adults and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Dockrell, Martin; Arnott, Deborah; Lee, Alex; McNeill, Ann

    2009-12-01

    It is illegal in the EU for tobacco packaging to suggest that some cigarettes are safer than others. This study examined consumer perceptions of cigarette packs in the UK, including perceptions of 'plain packaging', in which colour and other design elements are removed, whilst retaining the brand name. 516 adult smokers and 806 youth aged 11-17 participated in an online survey. Participants were asked to compare pairs of cigarette packs on five measures: taste, tar delivery, health risk, attractiveness and either ease of quitting (adult smokers) or brand they would choose if trying smoking (youth). Adults and youth were significantly more likely to rate packs with the terms 'smooth', 'silver' and 'gold' as lower tar, lower health risk and either easier to quit smoking (adults) or their choice of pack if trying smoking (youth). For example, more than half of adults and youth reported that brands labelled as 'smooth' were less harmful compared with the 'regular' variety. The colour of packs was also associated with perceptions of risk and brand appeal: compared with Marlboro packs with a red logo, Marlboro packs with a gold logo were rated as lower health risk by 53% and easier to quit by 31% of adult smokers. Plain packs significantly reduced false beliefs about health risk and ease of quitting, and were rated as significantly less attractive and appealing to youth for trying smoking. Current regulations have failed to remove potentially misleading information from tobacco packaging. Removing colours from packs (plain packaging), as well as terms such as 'smooth' 'gold' and 'silver' would significantly reduce false beliefs and increase compliance with existing legislation.

  17. Community reductions in youth smoking after raising the minimum tobacco sales age to 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel Schneider, Shari; Buka, Stephen L; Dash, Kim; Winickoff, Jonathan P; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2016-05-01

    Raising the tobacco sales age to 21 has gained support as a promising strategy to reduce youth cigarette access, but there is little direct evidence of its impact on adolescent smoking. Using regional youth survey data, we compared youth smoking trends in Needham, Massachusetts--which raised the minimum purchase age in 2005--with those of 16 surrounding communities. The MetroWest Adolescent Health Survey is a biennial census survey of high school youth in communities west of Boston; over 16,000 students participated at each of four time points from 2006 to 2012. Using these pooled cross-section data, we used generalised estimating equation models to compare trends in current cigarette smoking and cigarette purchases in Needham relative to 16 comparison communities without similar ordinances. To determine whether trends were specific to tobacco, we also examined trends in youth alcohol use over the same time period. From 2006 to 2010, the decrease in 30-day smoking in Needham (from 13% to 7%) was significantly greater than in the comparison communities (from 15% to 12%; psales age to 21 for tobacco contributes to a greater decline in youth smoking relative to communities that did not pass this ordinance. These findings support local community-level action to raise the tobacco sales age to 21. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. A critique of the US Surgeon General's conclusions regarding e-cigarette use among youth and young adults in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo; Russell, Christopher; Nitzkin, Joel; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2017-09-06

    In December 2016, the Surgeon General published a report that concluded e-cigarette use among youth and young adults is becoming a major public health concern in the United States of America. Re-analysis of key data sources on nicotine toxicity and prevalence of youth use of e-cigarettes cited in the Surgeon General report as the basis for its conclusions. Multiple years of nationally representative surveys indicate the majority of e-cigarette use among US youth is either infrequent or experimental, and negligible among never-smoking youth. The majority of the very small proportion of US youth who use e-cigarettes on a regular basis, consume nicotine-free products. The sharpest declines in US youth smoking rates have occurred as e-cigarettes have become increasingly available. Most of the evidence presented in the Surgeon General's discussion of nicotine harm is not applicable to e-cigarette use, because it relies almost exclusively on exposure to nicotine in the cigarette smoke and not to nicotine present in e-cigarette aerosol emissions. Moreover, the referenced literature describes effects in adults, not youth, and in animal models that have little relevance to real-world e-cigarette use by youth. The Surgeon General's report is an excellent reference document for the adverse outcomes due to nicotine in combination with several other toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but fails to address the risks of nicotine decoupled from tobacco smoke constituents. The report exaggerates the toxicity of propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG) by focusing on experimental conditions that do not reflect use in the real-world and provides little discussion of emerging evidence that e-cigarettes may significantly reduce harm to smokers who have completely switched. The U.S. Surgeon General's claim that e-cigarette use among U.S. youth and young adults is an emerging public health concern does not appear to be supported by the best available evidence on the health risks

  19. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    210 Po was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses of polonium were performed using 209 Po as an internal isotopic tracer. Samples were dissolved with acids, polonium plated on a silver disc and measured by alpha spectrometry using silicon surface barrier detectors. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in the cigarettes, on the ashes of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke inhaled by the smoker. 210 Po in the tobacco display concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq/g, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210 Po remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied between 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210 Po in the inhaled smoke from one cigarette varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, about 50 % of the 210 Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210 Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210 Po and 210 Pb in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times more 210 Po than a non smoker. The average absorption of 210 Po into the blood taking all pathways into account is 0.39 Bq d -1 . This includes, namely, the ingestion of water and beverages, the ingestion of food, the inhalation of air and cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to this rate of 210 Po absorption into the blood and, after circulating in all organs, gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210 Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure of this organ. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoking are discussed. (author)

  20. How will e-cigarettes affect health inequalities? Applying Bourdieu to smoking and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirlway, Frances

    2018-04-01

    This paper uses the work of Bourdieu to theorise smoking and cessation through a class lens, showing that the struggle for distinction created the social gradient in smoking, with smoking stigma operating as a proxy for class stigma. This led to increased policy focus on the health of bystanders and children and later also to concerns about electronic cigarettes. Bourdieu's concept of habitus is deployed to argue that the e-cigarette helps middle-class smokers resolve smoking as a symptom of cleft habitus associated with social mobility or particular subcultures. E-cigarette use is also compatible with family responsibility and sociable hedonism; aspects of working-class habitus which map to the 'practical family quitter' and the 'recreational user' respectively. The effectiveness of class stigma in changing health behaviours is contested, as is the usefulness of youth as a category of analysis and hence the relevance of concerns about young people's e-cigarette use outside a class framework of smoking and cessation. With regard to health inequalities, whilst middle-class smokers have in class disgust a stronger incentive to quit than working-class smokers, there is potential for tobacco control to tap into a working-class ethos of family care and responsibility. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff (naffa) inhalation on BMI, lipid profile, and plasma glucose. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Methods: The study was conducted on 200 healthy male subjects, including, 50 non-smokers aged 40.98±8.07, 50 cigarette smokers aged 41.32±7.39, ...

  2. Cigarette smoking: knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPIA-CONYER ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  3. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  4. Global Evidence on the Association between POS Advertising Bans and Youth Smoking Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-03-09

    Point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising has been linked to youth smoking susceptibility and experimental smoking. However, there is limited evidence of the association between POS advertising bans and youth smoking participation. This study aims to examine how such bans are associated with current smoking, daily smoking, and regular smoking (≥ 1 cigarettes per day) participation among youth. one to two waves (primarily one wave) of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were conducted in 130 countries between 2007 and 2011. These surveys were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" data using country and year identifiers to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and smoking participation in the past month. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to analyze this association while controlling for age, gender, parents' smoking status, 6 MPOWER policy scores, and GDP per capita. We find that in countries with POS advertising bans, current smoking (OR = 0.73, p ≤ 0.1), daily smoking (OR = 0.70, p ≤ 0.1), and regular smoking (OR = 0.75, p ≤ 0.05) participation in the past month is significantly lower, suggesting that POS promotion bans can potentially reduce youth smoking. This study provides evidence to support the implementation of POS promotion regulations by the US FDA and implementation of the WHO FCTC guidelines regarding restrictions on tobacco POS promotion.

  5. Effect of exclusive cigarette smoking and in combination with waterpipe smoking on lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil Hallit

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, LDL levels increased relative to nonsmokers, consistent with findings in other populations. In addition, among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, current waterpipe smoking might increase adverse lipid profiles associated with adverse coronary effects more than cigarette smoking alone. The direct cause responsible for these observed variations in our study remains unidentified, with the hope that future research will reveal it.

  6. Youth audience segmentation strategies for smoking-prevention mass media campaigns based on message appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L; Connolly, Scott W; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-08-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American, Hispanic, and White youth participated. Impact of audience characteristics on message appeal ratings was assessed to provide guidance for audience segmentation strategies. Age had a strong effect on individual message appeal. The effect of gender also was significant. Message ratings were similar among the younger racial/ethnic groups, but differences were found for older African American youth. Lower academic achievement was associated with lower appeal scores for some messages. Age should be a primary consideration in developing and delivering smoking-prevention messages to youth audiences. The unique needs of boys and girls and older African American adolescents should also be considered.

  7. Multilevel analysis of school anti-smoking education and current cigarette use among South African students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Brandon; Masyn, Katherine; Chandora, Rachna; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana

    2017-01-01

    South Africa (SA) implemented the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) four times between 1999 and 2011. Data from the four surveys indicated that downward trends in cigarette use among students may have stalled. Understanding the effect of school anti-smoking education on current smoking among students within schools and variability across schools may provide important insights into policies aimed at preventing or reducing tobacco use among students. The objective was to assess the student- and school-level effects of students' exposure to school anti-smoking education on current cigarette use among the study population using the most recent wave of GYTS data in SA (2011). An analytic sample of students 13-15 years of age was selected (n=3,068) from the SA GYTS 2011. A taxonomy of two-level logistic regression models was fit to assess the relationship of various tobacco use, control, and exposure predictor variables on current cigarette smoking among the study population. At the student-level in the full model, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, peer smoking, and ownership of a promotional item were significantly associated with higher risk of current smoking. At the school-level in the full model, average exposure to peer smoking was associated with significant increases in the prevalence of current cigarette use, while average family anti-smoking education was significantly associated with decreases in the outcome variable. School anti-smoking education was not a statistically significant predictor at the student- or school-levels. in this study, exposure to school anti-smoking education had no association with current cigarette smoking among the study population. Consistent with previous studies, having peers that smoked was highly associated with a student being a current smoker. Interestingly, at the school-level in the multilevel analysis, schools with higher rates of average family anti-smoking education had lower prevalence of current smoking. This finding has

  8. Neurobiological and neurocognitive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2007-05-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular function as well as the increased risk for various forms of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on human brain function. Although smoking rates have decreased in the developed world, they remain high in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Despite the high prevalence of chronic smoking in AUD, few studies have addressed the potential neurobiological or neurocognitive consequences of chronic smoking in alcohol use disorders. Here, we review the the neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in both AUD and chronic cigarette smoking, followed by a review of the effects of comorbid cigarette smoking on neurobiology and neurocognition in AUD. Recent research suggests that comorbid chronic cigarette smoking modulates magnetic resonance-detectable brain injury and neurocognition in alcohol use disorders and adversely affects neurobiological and neurocognitive recovery in abstinent alcoholics.. Consideration of the potential separate and interactive effects of chronic smoking and alcohol use disorders may have significant implications for pharmacological and behavioral treatment interventions.

  9. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  10. Global Evidence on the Association between Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-02-28

    Background : In 2011, the courts ruled in favor of tobacco companies in preventing the implementation of graphic warning labels (GWLs) in the US, stating that FDA had not established the effectiveness of GWLs in reducing smoking. Methods : Data came from various sources: the WHO MPOWER package (GWLs, MPOWER policy measures, cigarette prices), Euromonitor International (smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption), and the World Bank database (countries' demographic characteristics). The datasets were aggregated and linked using country and year identifiers. Fractional logit regressions and OLS regressions were applied to examine the associations between GWLs and smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption, controlling for MPOWER policy scores, cigarette prices, GDP per capita, unemployment, population aged 15-64 (%), aged 65 and over (%), year indicators, and country fixed effects. Results : GWLs were associated with a 0.9-3 percentage point decrease in adult smoking prevalence and were significantly associated with a reduction of 230-287 sticks in per capita cigarette consumption, compared to countries without GWLs. However, the association between GWLs and cigarette consumption became statistically insignificant once country indicators were included in the models. Conclusions : The implementation of GWLs may be associated with reduced cigarette smoking.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents in East Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, S; Muula, A S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates for current cigarette smoking. Secondary analysis of the East Timor-Leste Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in 2006. Public and private schools registered with the Ministry of Education. A two-stage cluster sample of 1790 students in Grades 7 to 9. Schools were selected with probability proportional to enrolment size, and classes were randomly selected in each school. All students in selected classes were eligible to participate in the survey. The school and student response rates were 96.0% and 84.5%, respectively. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking. Out of 1790 adolescents, 52.1% were of ages less than 15 years, 51.8% were males, 42.8% reported having some pocket money in a month, and 72.7% had at least a parent who was a smoker. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 40.3%. Current smokers also reported having bought cigarettes from peddlers (32.4%), someone bought for them (16.7%), got from someone older (13.7%), borrowed (13.3%), and stole (3.4%). Males were more likely to be smokers than females (59.0% versus 19.3%). Factors positively associated with current smoking were: parental smoking; closest friend smoking; amount of pocket money; and exposure to anti-tobacco messages. East Timor has one of the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescents. The fact that exposure to anti-tobacco messages was associated with being a smoker may be evidence suggesting that anti-tobacco messages, especially from tobacco-related industry, may have unintended consequences.

  12. Adolescent smoking behaviour and cigarette brand preference in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Y; Tanihata, T; Ohida, T; Minowa, M; Wada, K; Suzuki, K; Kaetsu, A; Okamoto, M; Kishimoto, T

    2006-06-01

    As part of efforts to develop a smoking control strategy for Japanese adolescents, the results of two nationwide surveys on adolescent smoking behaviour were compared. Descriptive study on smoking behaviour among high school students was conducted. Self-reporting anonymous questionnaires were administered to 115,814 students in 1996 and 106,297 in 2000 through randomly sampled junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Smoking prevalence, proportion of smokers by usual sources of cigarettes, national estimated cigarettes consumed by minors, share of cigarette brands smoked by high school students. The experiment rate among junior high school boys decreased in 2000 compared with that in 1996, whereas current and daily smoking rates did not. Although prevalence among Japanese girls was much lower than that among boys, prevalence among girls increased in 2000. The main source of cigarettes among high school smokers was vending machines. The proportion of smokers who usually purchased cigarettes from vending machines increased in 2000, in spite of the 1998 introduction of restrictions on night-time operations. Japanese adolescents were more likely than adults to smoke American cigarette brands, and the adolescent market share of American brands has increased rapidly, especially for menthol brands. This survey revealed the seriousness of the problem of smoking behaviour among Japanese high school students, and suggested that this behaviour may be influenced by social environmental factors, including the marketing strategies of the tobacco industry. Action should be taken to reduce the prevalence and impact of pro-tobacco marketing messages and to abolish cigarette vending machines.

  13. Associations of advertisement-promotion-sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Richard; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of noncommunicable disease morbidity and mortality. Most smokers initiate the smoking habit as adolescents or young adults. Survey data from the 2007 Lusaka (Zambia) Global Youth Tobacco Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and assess whether exposure to pro-tobacco media and perception of the potential harm of secondhand smoke are associated with adolescents' smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations. Altogether, 2378 students, of whom 56.8% were females, participated in the study. Overall, 10.5% of the students (9.3% among males and 12.1% among females) smoked cigarettes in the 30 days prior to the survey. Students who favored banning smoking in public places were 33% (OR = 0.67; 95% CI [0.47, 0.96]) less likely to smoke cigarettes compared to those who were not in favor of the ban. Seeing actors smoking in TV shows, videos or movies was positively associated with smoking (OR = 1.90; 95% CI [1.26, 2.88]). However, possessing an item with a cigarette brand logo on it, seeing advertisements of cigarettes on billboards and being ever offered a free cigarette by a cigarette sales representative were negatively associated with smoking (OR=0.39, 95% CI [0.26, 0.58]; OR=0.63, 95% CI [0.43, 0.92]; and OR=0.43, 95% CI [0.29, 0.65], respectively). Findings from this study indicate that TV advertisement-promotion-sponsorship was positively associated with smoking, while it was the opposite with other forms of advertisement; there is a need for further studies.

  14. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  15. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 853 soldiers ...

  16. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and the knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Materials and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of ...

  17. 76 FR 57008 - Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... not limited to: Electronic cigars, pipes, and devices designed to look like everyday products such as...] RIN 2105-AE06 Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST... Transportation is proposing to amend its existing airline smoking rule to explicitly ban the use of electronic...

  18. ?A good method of quitting smoking? or ?just an alternative to smoking?? Comparative evaluations of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette usage by dual users

    OpenAIRE

    Vandrevala, Tushna; Coyle, Adrian; Walker, Victoria; Cabrera Torres, Joshelyn; Ordo?a, Izobel; Rahman, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The development of e-cigarettes was initially hailed as a resource in facilitating a reduction in or cessation of cigarette smoking. Many users of e-cigarettes are ‘dual users’, smoking traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes. The present qualitative study examines the factors that a group of 20 dual users considered to have been influential in their decisions to use e-cigarettes and their comparative evaluations of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Health concerns were not found to be...

  19. Media Literacy and Cigarette Smoking in Hungarian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Balazs, Mate A.; Struk, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking media literacy in a sample of Hungarian youth and to determine its association with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four elementary and four high schools in Mako, Hungary. Method: A survey form was administered in regularly-scheduled classes to…

  20. The Association between Cigarette Smoking and Acne Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ramin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit. Different factors have been suggested to influence acne including diet, menstruation and occupation. The role of some of these factors on acne intensity is confirmed. The affect of Cigarette smoking on acne intensity has been suggested. In this research, we evaluated the association between cigarette smoking and the acne intensity.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 278 smoker and 277non smoker males referred to dermatology clinics of Semnan during 2006-2007. The dermatologists interviewing the patients completed questionnaires based on clinical diagnosis and intensity of acne. Data analysis was performed using t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Spearman coefficient tests. P-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Severe acne was observed in 16.6% of non-smokers and 22.7% of smokers. Distribution of acne intensity in both groups was significant (P=0.023. Association between duration of cigarette smoking and acne intensity was significant too (P<0.001. The association between dosage of cigarette smoking and acne intensity was also significant (P<0.001.Conclusion: Significant association between cigarette smoking and acne intensity showed that smoking withdrawal is helpful for reducing the acne intensity

  1. E-cigarettes: Comparing the Possible Risks of Increasing Smoking Initiation with the Potential Benefits of Increasing Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E; Mendez, David

    2018-03-29

    The public health community is divided regarding electronic cigarettes. Skeptics emphasize potential vaping-induced increases in smoking among children and possible health hazards for adults. Enthusiasts consider e-cigarettes much less dangerous than smoking and believe they increase adult smoking cessation. We compare potential health benefits and costs to put these two perspectives in context. Using a dynamic model that tracks the US adult population's smoking status and smoking-related deaths over time, we simulate the effects of vaping-induced smoking initiation and cessation on life-years saved or lost to the year 2070. The base case assumes that vaping annually increases smoking initiation by 2% and smoking cessation by 10%. Sensitivity analyses raise the initiation rate increase to 6% while decreasing the cessation rate increase to 5%. Sensitivity analyses also test vaping's reducing the health benefits of quitting smoking by 10%. With base-case assumptions, the population gains almost 3.3 million life-years by 2070. If all people who quit smoking by vaping lose 10% of the benefit of quitting smoking, the net life-year gain falls to 2.4 million. Under worst-case assumptions, in which vaping increases smoking initiation by 6% and cessation by 5%, and vaping-induced quitters lose 10% of the health benefits, the population gains over 580,000 life-years. Potential life-years gained as a result of vaping-induced smoking cessation are projected to exceed potential life-years lost due to vaping-induced smoking initiation. These results hold over a wide range of plausible parameters. Our analysis strongly suggests that the upside health benefit associated with e-cigarettes, in terms of their potential to increase adult smoking cessation, exceeds their downside risk to health as a result of their possibly increasing the number of youthful smoking initiators. Public messaging and policy should continue to strive to reduce young people's exposure to all nicotine and

  2. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings on a quantitative evaluation of carbonyl levels in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The cigarettes evaluated include products with 5.0 mg ‘tar’, 10.6 mg ‘tar’ and 16.2 mg ‘tar’, where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water, and the cigarettes are smoked following U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendations. The measured levels of carbonyls in the exhaled smoke were compared with calculated yields of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke and a retention efficiency was obtained. The number of human subjects included a total of ten smokers for the 10.6 mg ‘tar’, five for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’, and five for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, each subject smoking three cigarettes. The analyzed carbonyl compounds included several aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde, and two ketones (acetone and 2-butanone. The smoke collection from the human subjects was vacuum assisted. Exhaled smoke was collected on Cambridge pads pretreated with a solution of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the dinitrophenylhydrazones of the carbonyl compounds. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and analyzed for nicotine. The nicotine levels for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke, based on calibration curves. These were generated separately by analyzing the carbonyls in smoke and the nicotine in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. The comparison of the level of carbonyl compounds in exhaled smoke with that from the inhaled smoke showed high retention of all the carbonyls. The retention of aldehydes was above 95% for all three different ‘tar’ levels cigarettes. The ketones were retained with a

  3. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals

  4. Chemical Composition of Aerosol from an E-Cigarette: A Quantitative Comparison with Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margham, Jennifer; McAdam, Kevin; Forster, Mark; Liu, Chuan; Wright, Christopher; Mariner, Derek; Proctor, Christopher

    2016-10-17

    There is interest in the relative toxicities of emissions from electronic cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. Lists of cigarette smoke priority toxicants have been developed to focus regulatory initiatives. However, a comprehensive assessment of e-cigarette chemical emissions including all tobacco smoke Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents, and additional toxic species reportedly present in e-cigarette emissions, is lacking. We examined 150 chemical emissions from an e-cigarette (Vype ePen), a reference tobacco cigarette (Ky3R4F), and laboratory air/method blanks. All measurements were conducted by a contract research laboratory using ISO 17025 accredited methods. The data show that it is essential to conduct laboratory air/method measurements when measuring e-cigarette emissions, owing to the combination of low emissions and the associated impact of laboratory background that can lead to false-positive results and overestimates. Of the 150 measurands examined in the e-cigarette aerosol, 104 were not detected and 21 were present due to laboratory background. Of the 25 detected aerosol constituents, 9 were present at levels too low to be quantified and 16 were generated in whole or in part by the e-cigarette. These comprised major e-liquid constituents (nicotine, propylene glycol, and glycerol), recognized impurities in Pharmacopoeia-quality nicotine, and eight thermal decomposition products of propylene glycol or glycerol. By contrast, approximately 100 measurands were detected in mainstream cigarette smoke. Depending on the regulatory list considered and the puffing regime used, the emissions of toxicants identified for regulation were from 82 to >99% lower on a per-puff basis from the e-cigarette compared with those from Ky3R4F. Thus, the aerosol from the e-cigarette is compositionally less complex than cigarette smoke and contains significantly lower levels of toxicants. These data demonstrate that e-cigarettes can be developed that offer the potential

  5. Overtime work, cigarette consumption, and addiction to cigarette among workers subject to mild smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoue, Tetsuya; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Yamato, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Reijula, Kari

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the relation of hours of overtime work to cigarette consumption and addiction to cigarette, which was measured by the heaviness of smoking index. The subjects were 571 male daily smokers who responded to a cross-sectional survey of municipal employees of a Japanese city office, in which smoking was permitted in designated areas. Those who engaged in moderate overtime work (10-29 h per month) consumed less number of cigarettes per day and had lower levels of heaviness of smoking index, compared with those who worked either shorter or longer hours of overtime, although the differences were not statistically significant. In the workplace, men who worked 50 h or longer overtime last month consumed, on average, 4 cigarettes more than men who worked less than 30 h of overtime. Home cigarette consumption decreased as hours of overtime work increased. In stratified analysis, there was a significant difference in daily cigarette consumption according to hours of overtime work among smokers in staff position or under low psychological work stress; showing reduced consumption associated with medium levels of overtime work, compared to either no overtime work or extended overtime hours. The U-shaped relations of hours of overtime work to overall cigarette consumption and addiction to smoking deserve further investigations.

  6. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; Phillips, Elyse; Gentzke, Andrea S; Homa, David M; Babb, Stephen D; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J

    2018-01-19

    The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that the burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States is overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products (1). Cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults, and about 480,000 U.S. deaths per year are caused by cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (1). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU-1.1),* CDC analyzed data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2016, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults was 15.5%, which was a significant decline from 2005 (20.9%); however, no significant change has occurred since 2015 (15.1%). In 2016, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male, aged 25-64 years, American Indian/Alaska Native or multiracial, had a General Education Development (GED) certificate, lived below the federal poverty level, lived in the Midwest or South, were uninsured or insured through Medicaid, had a disability/limitation, were lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB), or had serious psychological distress. During 2005-2016, the percentage of ever smokers who quit smoking increased from 50.8% to 59.0%. Proven population-based interventions are critical to reducing the health and economic burden of smoking-related diseases among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (1,2).

  7. [Smoking among youths and parents attitudes in this phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Katarzyna; Gawłowicz, Kamila; Jachimowicz, Violetta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore smoking among adolescents and to examine the attitudes of parents to this patology. MATEIAL AND METHODS: the study included 180 adolescents of promary school and 40 parents.Research was conducted by questionnaire containing questions on smoking among youths., the avalibaility of and reasons for reaching for a cigarette. Parents also answered questions concerning knowledge about this pathology and how to deal with it. The study shows that 20% of sixth grade students of primary school has had a first initiation nicotine. The surveyed parents/carers feel that the biggest threat in the school environment is not smoking (12.5%), but drug abuse (80%). 31% of respondents believe that these phenomena are inherent. Parents/guardians are aware of the risks which are inherent to smoking, but do not know how to figh him. Pupils from Year 6 of primary school are exposed in school to smoke. There is a need for education of young people and parents of the dangers of smoking and prevention of this pathology. Parents do not know how to prevent smoking among adolescents and to turn to for help. Common activities at school, parents and local communities seem to be an alternative to this phenomenon.

  8. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  9. Asymmetric peer effects in the analysis of cigarette smoking among young people in the United States, 1992-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey E; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz

    2008-03-01

    We extend the recent literature on peer effects to test the possible role of asymmetric social influences in the determination of youth smoking. We analyzed cigarette smoking among people aged 15-24 in approximately 90,000 households in the 1992-1999 U.S. Current Population Surveys. The presence of additional smoking sibling in a household, we estimated, raised a young person's probability of smoking by 7.6%, while each non-smoking sibling lowered the probability by an estimated 3.5%. Moreover, the overall deterrent effect of an increase in cigarette price on the probability of smoking was approximately 60% greater than the estimated effect when peer influences were held constant. The concept of asymmetric social influence may have applications in other fields, including labor economics, education, crime prevention, and group dynamics.

  10. E-cigarette use and willingness to smoke: a sample of adolescent non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-04-01

    There is little evidence on the consequences of using electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of non-smokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking of combustible cigarettes. School-based cross-sectional survey of 2309 high school students (mean age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Non-smokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared with those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted OR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.73 to 3.19). SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking, but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Among adolescent non-smokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Association between high school students’ cigarette smoking, asthma and related beliefs: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resa M. Jones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking has a detrimental effect on the symptoms and severity of asthma, a common chronic disease among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between asthma and smoking among high school students and assess provider-patient communication with asthmatic adolescents regarding smoking and adolescents’ beliefs about the harms of smoking. Methods In fall 2014, data from high school students, ages 14–18 years, completing the 2009-2010 Virginia Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 1796 were used in descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for model-specific confounders as appropriate. Results Overall, an estimated 19 % of high school students in Virginia smoked and 16 % had asthma. Odds of smoking did not differ by asthma status; however, asthmatics had 1.5 times higher odds of being asked if they smoke (95 % CI 1.06–2.13 and being advised not to smoke by a health professional (95 % CI 1.10–2.14 compared to non-asthmatics. Asthmatics who believed second-hand smoke or smoking 1–5 cigarettes/day was not harmful had respectively 4.2 and 2.8 times higher odds of smoking than those who thought each was harmful. Further, asthmatics who thought smoking 1−2 years is safe had 3.4 times higher odds of smoking than those who did not (95 % CI 1.57–10.1. Conclusions While asthmatic adolescents are just as likely to smoke as non-asthmatics, less healthy beliefs about the risks of smoking increase the odds of smoking among asthmatics. Thus, targeted asthma-specific smoking prevention and education to change attitudes and beliefs could be an effective tool for adolescents.

  12. Social integration in friendship networks: The synergy of network structure and peer influence in relation to cigarette smoking among high risk adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakon, Cynthia M.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a study of high risk adolescents in Southern California, U.S.A. (N = 851), this study examined synergy between social network measures of social integration and peer influence in relation to past month cigarette smoking. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling, results indicated that being central in networks was significantly and positively related to past month cigarette smoking, across all study models. In addition, there is modest evidence that the number of reciprocated friendship ties was positively related to past month cigarette smoking. There is also some modest evidence that the relationship between having reciprocated friendships and past month cigarette smoking was moderated by a network peer influence process, smoking with those in youths’ best friend networks. Findings indicate that being integrated within a social network context of peer influences favoring drug use relates to more smoking among these high risk youth. PMID:22436575

  13. Social normative beliefs regarding cigarette smoking in Hungarian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Piko, Bettina F; Balazs, Mate A; Struk, Tamara

    2011-10-01

    Hungary will continue to experience a high burden of disease and death from lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease unless there is a significant reduction in youth smoking. Social factors have been found to be among the most important determinants of adolescent smoking, yet few studies have investigated social normative beliefs in Hungarian youth. The purpose of the current study was to investigate three measures of smoking normative beliefs thought to influence adolescent smoking: perceived prevalence of smoking; perceived popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society; and perceived disapproval by friends and family. A cross-sectional school-based survey of eighth grade (n = 258) and 12th grade (n = 288) students in Mako, Hungary was conducted to assess social normative beliefs about smoking, current smoking, ever smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. The association of the normative beliefs with the smoking behavior variables was examined through logistic regression analysis, and the underlying factor structure of the normative belief items in the current sample was determined through factor analysis. The percent of boys reporting current smoking was 40.5% in 12th grade and 27.0% in eighth grade. Among girls, the percent was 44.0% of 12th graders and 29.1% of eighth graders. Parent/peer disapproval was the most consistently associated normative belief with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking across both samples. Youth smoking prevention programs should consider assessing and taking into account normative beliefs and develop strategies that provide accurate information about the actual prevalence of smoking, the types of individuals who smoke, and approval/disapproval of smoking by parents and peers. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper. Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers. The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation.

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ghobain Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghobain, Mohammed O; Al Moamary, Mohamed S; Al Shehri, Sulieman N; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S

    2011-07-01

    To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) tool to achieve our objectives. Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls), the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls). The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls). Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  17. Recall of Point-of-Sale Marketing Predicts Cigar and E-Cigarette Use among Texas Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E; Nicksic, Nicole E; Opara, Samuel C; Jackson, Christian; Harrell, Melissa B; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-10-23

    While research has documented associations between recall of point-of sale tobacco marketing and youth tobacco use, much of the research is cross-sectional and focused on cigarettes. The present longitudinal study examined recall of tobacco marketing at the point-of-sale and multiple types of tobacco use six months later. The Texas Adolescent Tobacco Advertising and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS) is a large-scale, representative study of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders in 79 middle and high schools in five counties in Texas. Weighted logistic regression examined associations between recall of tobacco advertisements and products on display at baseline and ever use, current use, and susceptibility to use for cigarette, e-cigarette, cigar, and smokeless products six months later. Students' recall of signs marketing e-cigarettes at baseline predicted ever e-cigarette use and increased susceptibility to use e-cigarettes at follow-up across all store types. Recall of e-cigarette displays only predicted susceptibility to use e-cigarettes at follow-up, across all store types. Both recall of signs marketing cigars and cigar product displays predicted current and ever cigar smoking and increased susceptibility to smoking cigars at follow-up, across all store types. Recall of cigarette and smokeless product marketing and displays was not associated with tobacco use measures. The point-of-sale environment continues to be an important influence on youth tobacco use. Restrictions on point-of-sale marketing, particularly around schools, are warranted. Cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to point-of-sale cigarette marketing is associated with use of cigarettes among youth, though longitudinal evidence of the same is sparse and mixed. Cross-sectional studies have found that recall of cigars, smokeless product, and e-cigarette tobacco marketing at point-of-sale is associated with curiosity about tobacco use or intentions to use tobacco among youth, but limited

  18. Medicalisation, smoking and e-cigarettes: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2017-12-01

    There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit. We argue that the medicalisation of smoking will have limited impact due to the emphasis on population-based interventions in tobacco control, the ambiguous place of nicotine among other drugs and the modest efficacy of current pharmacotherapies. These factors, as well as lay understandings of smoking that emphasise willpower, personal choice and responsibility, have contributed to the limited success of medical approaches to smoking cessation. While the rapid uptake of e-cigarettes in some countries has provided an option for those who reject medical treatments for smoking cessation, current regulatory developments could limit the potential of e-cigarettes to provide non-therapeutic nicotine for those who currently smoke tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  20. Children’s Idea about Cigarettes and Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking is attributed to pediatric disease and pediatric epidemics. This study aimed to indicate the attitudes of four- to six-year-old children toward cigarettes. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted by a questionnaire in 2011. Hundred and forty-five, children, aged four to six years, were randomly selected from eight kindergartens located in all four areas of Ahvaz. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze demographic data, Chi-square test to compare qualitative variables and Pearson correlation coefficient to compare quantitative data. Results Results of the study showed that 76.4% of children knew what a cigarette is; 41.2% had talked about smoking with their parents; 1.4% had asked to buy one due to the attractive appearance of cigarette packs; 27.8% imitated the act of smoking. Children’s attitude toward smoking showed that 1.4% of them took smoking as a good act, 91.4% believed that smoking was a bad act and 7.1% had no idea about smoking. Conclusions Since parents’ behaviors affect their children, it is advisable to implement effective interventional programs to increase parents’ awareness about smoking and its harmful environmental effects.

  1. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul G Sangani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rahul G Sangani, Andrew J GhioEnvironmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking are yet to be delineated. We propose that 1 injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure to and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2 the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 µg particulate matter; this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles, and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress, which is associated with a series of reactions, including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and comorbidity (eg, emphysema and carcinogenesis after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.Keywords: particulate matter, smoking, oxidants, oxidative stress, air pollution

  2. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and sleep quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ting Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although nicotine can enhance some cognitive functions, cigarette smoking may impair memory and sleep quality. Our aim was to investigate the impact of cigarette smoking on memory and sleep quality in healthy smokers. Sixty-eight healthy participants (34 smokers and 34 controls completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and a Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was performed, and Hochberg’s Sharpened Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. The results show that current smokers had a worse visual memory compared to nonsmokers. There was no significant correlation between the index of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Fagerström test for nicotine dependence. Moreover, smokers had poorer sleep quality. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and adversely influence sleep quality.

  3. E-Cigarette Marketing Exposure is Associated with E-cigarette Use among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S.; Cooper, Maria R.; Clendennen, Stephanie; Pasch, Keryn; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction E-cigarettes are currently the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. youth. However, unlike conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes are not subject to marketing restrictions. This study investigates the association between exposure to e-cigarette marketing and susceptibility and use of e-cigarettes in youth. Methods Data were obtained from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were 22,007 U.S. middle and high school students. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the relationship between e-cigarette marketing (internet, print, retail, TV/movies) and current and ever use as well as susceptibility to use e-cigarettes among never e-cigarette users. Results Exposure to each type of e-cigarette marketing was significantly associated with increased likelihood of ever and current use of e-cigarettes among middle and high school students. Exposure was also associated with susceptibility to use of e-cigarettes among current non-users. In multivariate models, as the number of channels of e-cigarette marketing exposure increased, the likelihood of use and susceptibility also increased. Conclusions Findings highlight the significant associations between e-cigarette marketing and e-cigarette use among youth, and the need for longitudinal research on these relationships. PMID:27080732

  4. Characteristics of Adults Who Switched From Cigarette Smoking to E-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Hyun; Duncan, Dustin T; Shahawy, Omar El; Lee, Lily; Shearston, Jenni A; Tamura, Kosuke; Sherman, Scott E; Weitzman, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Because of the rapidly increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), this study aimed to investigate the individual characteristics and state-level prevalence of U.S. adults who have switched to e-cigarettes from traditional cigarettes. Data from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Surveys were analyzed in 2016. Relative percent change in switching was estimated, and the state-specific prevalence of adults who switched to e-cigarettes from traditional cigarettes was calculated and mapped. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine how switching varied by sociodemographic subgroups and region. Overall, the number of individuals who switched from traditional cigarettes to e-cigarettes increased by approximately 100% over the 1-year interval. Significant increases were found among a number of sociodemographics and regions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that young adults and those living in the South and West were more likely to switch to e-cigarettes, compared to former smokers who did not switch. Compared with current dual users, those with higher education and those who were not single were more likely to switch to e-cigarettes. The state with the highest prevalence of switching was New Mexico (7.3%), whereas Connecticut had the lowest prevalence (0.8 %) among former smokers. There is an increase in the progression from traditional cigarette use to e-cigarette use. Further research is warranted to determine whether this change continues and facilitates cigarette smoking cessation as a possible public health benefit and opportunity to save lives rather than constitutes a potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  6. Authoritative parenting, child competencies, and initiation of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C; Bee-Gates, D J; Henriksen, L

    1994-01-01

    School-based social influence programs to prevent adolescent smoking are having limited success in the long term. Intervening earlier in the process of smoking onset, during the childhood years, may be required to prevent adolescent smoking. Child socialization variables, specifically parenting behaviors and child competencies, may be important to understanding the earliest phase of smoking onset. This study tested hypotheses of association between authoritative parenting behaviors, enhanced child competencies, and relatively low rates of initiation of cigarette smoking. Analyzing cross-sectional survey data from 937 students in Grades 3 to 8, we found general support for the study hypotheses: Authoritative parenting was positively associated with child competencies; children's competency levels were inversely related to their rates of smoking intention, initiation, and experimentation; authoritative parenting was inversely related to rates of child smoking intention and behaviors; and authoritative parenting and parent smoking status had independent associations with child initiation of cigarette smoking. These results indicate that child socialization variables merit further investigation for their potential role in the development of early intervention programs for smoking prevention.

  7. Cigarette advertising and onset of smoking in children: questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    While, D; Kelly, S; Huang, W; Charlton, A

    1996-08-17

    To investigate uptake of smoking in a cohort of 11 to 12 year olds related to awareness of advertised cigarette brands named. Self completed questionnaires administered to whole classes of schoolchildren in June 1993 and June 1994. Primary, middle, and secondary schools in the north and south of England. 1450 pupils aged 11 and 12 years at the time of the first survey. Onset of smoking and brands smoked by the second survey related to cigarette brands named in the first one. Less advertised brands were used as the base for calculating odds ratios. Girls who named the most advertised brands-namely, Benson and Hedges alone (odds ratio = 2.50, 95% confidence interval = 1.18 to 5.30) or Benson and Hedges and Silk Cut (2.15, 1.04 to 4.42) in the first survey were at greatest risk of taking up smoking by the second one. The difference was similar but not significant for boys. Boys and girls who named the least advertised brands in the first survey were at no greater risk of taking up smoking by the second survey than those who named no brands (boys odds ratio = 0.49 (0.24 to 1.01); girls 0.79 (0.38 to 1.62)). New smokers were more likely to smoke any available brand (29.5%) or a less advertised brand such as Embassy (24.6%) than the most advertised ones, Benson and Hedges (19.7%) and Silk Cut (14.8%). Established smokers were more selective, only 15% smoking any available brand and 38.3% smoking Benson and Hedges. Cigarette advertising appears to increase children's awareness of smoking at a generic level and encourages them to take up the behaviour, beginning with any cigarettes which are available and affordable.

  8. Aggression among male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoke cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Omer; Erim, Rahsan

    2009-12-01

    The authors aimed to explore the relation between nicotine dependence and the severity of aggression among Turkish male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoked cigarettes, as well as the effect of aggression in these groups. Participants were 126 male alcohol-dependent inpatients who were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Substance Use Disorder Module (A. Corapcioglu, O. Aydemir, & M. Yildiz, 1999; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, & J. B. W. Williams, 1997), the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (K. O. Fagerstrom, 1978), and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS; S. C. Yudofsky, J. M. Silver, W. Jackson, J. Endicott, & D. Williams, 1986). The authors found differences between male alcohol-dependent inpatients with nicotine dependence (n = 94) and those with nondependence (n = 32) in OAS subtypes. The authors' findings showed that smoking cigarettes-an addiction frequently observed with alcoholism-was positively correlated with aggressive behaviors. The authors suggest that smoking cigarettes may cause aggression or aggression may cause smoking. Observing and evaluating how aggression and smoking cigarettes are associated with alcohol dependence may help relapse prevention and improve effectiveness of treatment interventions in alcoholism.

  9. Nicotine levels, withdrawal symptoms, and smoking reduction success in real world use: A comparison of cigarette smokers and dual users of both cigarettes and E-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorenby, Douglas E; Smith, Stevens S; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate how experienced dual users used cigarettes and e-cigarettes in real-world use and under different levels of cigarette availability. Dual users (cigarettes+e-cigarettes; n=74) and a smoke-only group (just cigarettes; n=74) engaged in a 26-day study with two ad lib use intervals, a week of 75% cigarette reduction and three days of 100% cigarette reduction. After a week of ad lib use of products, all participants were asked to reduce smoking by 75% (dual users were free to use their e-cigarettes as they wished), followed by another week of ad lib use. All participants were then asked to reduce smoking by 100% (cessation) for three days. Primary outcomes were biological samples (carbon monoxide, urinary nicotine and cotinine). Participants also provided real-time reports of product use, craving, and withdrawal symptoms using a smartphone app. Dual users did not smoke fewer cigarettes than smoke-only participants during ad lib periods, but quadrupled their use of e-cigarettes during smoking reduction periods. Dual users were significantly more likely to maintain 100% reduction (97.1% vs. 81.2%). Amongst women, dual use was associated with higher nicotine levels and withdrawal suppression. Among a group of experienced dual users, e-cigarettes helped maintain smoking reduction and reduced some withdrawal symptoms, although both withdrawal symptoms and nicotine levels varied as a function of gender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p's e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes.

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN MUNICIPALITY OF KLADOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mihajlović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the most spread modern, social disease worlwide. It is considered that efficient programs of cigarette smoking prevention implemented among adolescents would considerably lower the morbidity and mortality in adults reported for diseases caused by smoking.The aim of the research was to investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among school children and youth in the municipality of Kladovo, as well as the nature of their smoking habit.The research, in the form of cross-sectional study, was conducted among the pupils of higher grades of elementary schools and all grades of high schools from the territory of the Municipality of Kladovo, during May and June, 2008. Five hundred and twenty-seven examinees aged 10-19 years (49.71% were boys and 50.28% girls were polled. Data collection was done by a modified form of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.15.9% of examinees declared to be smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence increases with aging: it is lowest at the age of 12 (2.4% and highest in the examinees aged 17 years or over (30.5%. There is high statistically significant association between age and prevalence of cigarette smoking. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among boys is 16.5%, and 15.3% among girls, without statistically significant difference among sexes. The prevalence of cigarette smoking is ten times higher (30.8% among adolescents whose best friends (45% are smokers. This prevalence is 4.5 times higher among adolescents whose boyfriends/ girlfriends (16.3% are smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence is proportional to the number of parents-smokers: in a group of children whose both parents are smokers, there is the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (26.2%. The majority of pupils consider that cigarette smoking can seriously damage health (96.8%. The distribution of smoking habit is statistically significantly higher in the group of pupils who are not aware that cigarette smoking is harmful (35

  12. Cigarette smoking and perception of a movie character in a film trailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    To study the effects of smoking in a film trailer. Experimental study. Ten secondary schools in Northern Germany. A sample of 1051 adolescents with a mean (SD) age of 14.2 (1.8) years. Main Exposures Participants were randomized to view a 42-second film trailer in which the attractive female character either smoked for about 3 seconds or did not smoke. Perception of the character was measured via an 8-item semantic differential scale. Each item consisted of a polar-opposite pair (eg, "sexy/unsexy") divided on a 7-point scale. Responses to individual items were summed and averaged. This scale was named "attractiveness." The Cronbach alpha for the attractiveness rating was 0.85. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression was used to test the effect of smoking in a film trailer. Smoking in the film trailer did not reach significance in the linear regression model (z = 0.73; P = .47). Smoking status of the recipient (z = 3.81; P film trailer and smoking status of the recipient (z = 2.21; P = .03) both reached statistical significance. Ever smokers and never smokers did not differ in their perception of the female character in the nonsmoking film trailer. In the smoking film trailer, ever smokers judged the character significantly more attractive than never smokers. Even incidental smoking in a very short film trailer might strengthen the attractiveness of smokers in youth who have already tried their first cigarettes.

  13. Number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva versus the status of cigarette smoking, considering duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2017-09-21

    A large number of colonies of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) cariogenic bacteria in the saliva show a high risk of dental caries development. Cotinine is a biomarker of exposure to the tobacco smoke. The aim of the study was assessment of the number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in the saliva of non-smokers and smokers considering the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. The number of SM and LB was analysed in relation to the frequency of oral health check-ups. The investigated group comprised 124 people aged 20-54. 58 (46.8%) reported cigarette smoking; 66 (53.2%) reported they had never smoked cigarettes and had never attempted to smoke. Cotinine concentration in the saliva was assayed using the Cotinine test (Calbiotech), and the number of SM and LB with the use of the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi2 and Mann-Whitney tests. Test values of pSM and LB and the status of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of cigarette smoking. Smokers who reported having dental check-ups at least once a year significantly more frequently had a small number of LB stated in relation to people who had dental check-ups to control their oral health less frequently than once a year. The number of SM and LB in saliva does not depend on the smoking status, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of smoking.

  14. Determination of Toxic Elements in Cigarettes Smoke, Using Neutron Activation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellawati, J; Chichester D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to get information of the toxic elements content in cigarettes smoke which could be used to estimate the cigarettes smoke contribution in air pollution. The sample were cigarette smoke from the mixture of 7 popular brand cigarettes collected by The Centre Cigarettes Research, University of kentucky, USA. Neutron activation was done in the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor, IRI Delft Netherlands, using thermal neutron flux 4.8 x 10 16n cm-2 second-1 for 4 hours. Result of the analysis showed that the cigarettes smoke contained Cd, As, Sb, and Br which are toxic elements

  15. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 mid...

  16. Effects of Opium Addiction and Cigarette Smoking on Hematological Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabinejad, Gholamabbas; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Kazemi-Arababadi, Mohammad; Nabati, Saeideh; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of opium addiction and cigarette smoking on the complete blood count (CBC). Eighty-six male subjects, including 31 opium-addicted cigarette smokers (OACS), 19 opium-addicted non-cigarette smokers (OANCS), 17 non-opium-addicted cigarette smokers (NOACS), and 19 non-opium-addicted non-cigarette smokers (NOANCS) participated in this study. The CBC test was measured in all individuals. The OACS had significantly higher white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte, and red blood cell (RBC) count but lower in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) compared to NOANCS. The OANCS had significantly higher lymphocyte in comparison with NOACS. Our results demonstrated that the number of WBC, lymphocytes, and RBC were significantly higher, while, MCV was lower in OANCS subjects when compared to NOACS. The OACS had significantly higher level of lymphocyte in comparison with NOACS. The mean number of lymphocyte in OANCS was found significantly higher than NOACS. The smokers were shown to have significantly higher levels of WBC compared to NOANCS. Our results showed that opium-addiction, especially when associated with cigarette smoking, has intensive effects on hematological factors and these alteration might leads to greater risk for developing atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and imbalance in immune system.

  17. Behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Two groups of Wistar rats were studied as follows: control group (C, comprising 28 animals; and smoking group (S, comprising 23 animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 days. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo with transthoracic echocardiography, and myocardial performance was analyzed in vitro in preparations of isolated left ventricular papillary muscle. The cardiac muscle was assessed in isometric contractions with an extracellular calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L. RESULTS: No statistical difference was observed in the values of the body variables of the rats and in the mechanical data obtained from the papillary muscle between the control and smoking groups. The values of left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly greater in the smoking animals than in the control animals (C= 3.39 ± 0.4 mm and S= 3.71 ± 0.51 mm, P=0.02. A significant reduction was observed in systolic shortening fraction (C= 56.7 ± 4.2% and S= 53.5 ± 5.3%, P=0.02 and in ejection fraction (C= 0.92 ± 0.02 and S= 0.89 ± 0.04, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: The rats exposed to cigarette smoke had a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, although their myocardial function was preserved.

  18. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E; Connell, Christian M; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults' perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students' beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, "healthier" alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions

  19. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346

  20. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Crossed two relapse prevention conditions (skills training-vs-discussion control) with two levels of aversive smoking in volunteer subjects (N=123). Results indicated that relapse-prevention skill training did prevent relapse among cigarette smokers. Lighter smokers were more favorably influenced. (LLL)

  1. Cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, Marco van der

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in epithelial cells and discussed the potential of these phenomena in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). In the first three chapters we demonstrated that CS

  2. The effects of cigarette smoking on intraocular pressure and arterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effects of cigarette Smoking on intra ocular pressure and arterial blood pressure of normotensive young male adults. Fifty male students (who met the screening conditions and devoid of obvious ocular pathology and systemic diseases and nonsmokers) had their intra ocular ...

  3. Cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco in Moshi rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco in Moshi rural district of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. KS Mnyika, E Klouman, K-I Klepp. Abstract. No Abstract. East African Journal of Public Health Vol. 3 (1) April 2006: 24-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  4. Cigarette smoking and Khat chewing among college students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and khat chewing among college students. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2001 in the four colleges found in North West Ethiopia. Students in each year of study were selected by systematic sampling technique.

  5. Cigarette smoking and khat chewing among University instructors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and khat chewing. Design: College based cross sectional. Setting: Four colleges found in north west Ethiopia namely Gondar College of Medical Sciences, Gondar College of Teachers Education, Bahr Dar University Engineering Faculty, and Bahr ...

  6. Association between Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome as defined by using the modified NCEP/ATP III criteria [modified the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria] and cigarette smoking in Thai subjects. Methods: This study was carried out among 254 ...

  7. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter serum magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) levels in female subjects using combined oral contraceptives. Thirty female subjects who have used combined oral contraceptive ...

  8. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  9. Lung emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: Studies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijl, Teunis Jan Ahasuerus van

    2006-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to shed some more light on the mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema. We used elastase instillation to induce lung emphysema, and subsequently perfused the lungs ex-vivo with buffer at a range of flows to measure changes

  10. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The retention by humans of 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs from mainstream cigarette smoke was evaluated. The analysis was done by a new technique using solid phase extraction (SPE for the cleanup and the concenration of PAHs. The new technique has excellent sensitivity and accuracy, which were necessary for the analysis of the very low levels of PAHs present in the exhaled cigarette smoke. The study was done on a common commercial cigarette with 10.6 mg ‘tar’ by U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendation. The results were obtained from ten human subjects, each smoking three cigarettes. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling. The study showed that the PAHs with a molecular weight lower than about 170 Daltons are retained with high efficiency. The heavier molecules are less retained, but even compounds such as indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, and benzoperylene are retained with efficiencies around 50%. The dependence of retention efficiency for PAHs (in % on their octanol-water partition coefficient (LogPow was found to be nonlinear and showed considerable variability for several compounds that have very close LogPow values. Better correlation was obtained between the retention efficiency and PAHs vapor pressure (Log VP.

  11. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  12. Cigarette smoke alters the secretome of lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossina, Alessandra; Lukas, Christina; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uhl, Franziska E; Mutze, Kathrin; Schamberger, Andrea; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia; Jia, Jie; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Königshoff, Melanie; Hauck, Stefanie M; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the most relevant risk factor for the development of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Many of its more than 4500 chemicals are highly reactive, thereby altering protein structure and function. Here, we used subcellular fractionation coupled to label-free quantitative MS to globally assess alterations in the proteome of different compartments of lung epithelial cells upon exposure to cigarette smoke extract. Proteomic profiling of the human alveolar derived cell line A549 revealed the most pronounced changes within the cellular secretome with preferential downregulation of proteins involved in wound healing and extracellular matrix organization. In particular, secretion of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, a matricellular protein that functions in tissue response to injury, was consistently diminished by cigarette smoke extract in various pulmonary epithelial cell lines and primary cells of human and mouse origin as well as in mouse ex vivo lung tissue cultures. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized acute response of lung epithelial cells to cigarette smoke that includes altered secretion of proteins involved in extracellular matrix organization and wound healing. This may contribute to sustained alterations in tissue remodeling as observed in lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  14. Reduced biological effect of e-cigarette aerosol compared to cigarette smoke evaluated in vitro using normalized nicotine dose and RNA-seq-based toxicogenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Haswell, Linsey E.; Baxter, Andrew; Banerjee, Anisha; Verrastro, Ivan; Mushonganono, Jessica; Adamson, Jason; Thorne, David; Ga?a, Marianna; Minet, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has increased globally and could potentially offer a lower risk alternative to cigarette smoking. Here, we assessed the transcriptional response of a primary 3D airway model acutely exposed to e-cigarette aerosol and cigarette (3R4F) smoke. Aerosols were generated with standard intense smoking regimens with careful consideration for dose by normalizing the exposures to nicotine. Two e-cigarette aerosol dilutions were tested for equivalent and higher ni...

  15. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ?18 years old, smoking ?25 of the last 30 days, smoking ?5 cigarettes pe...

  16. Bans on electronic cigarette sales to minors and smoking among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouk, Rahi; Adams, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Many states have banned electronic cigarette sales to minors under the rationale that using e-cigarettes leads to smoking traditional combustion cigarettes. Such sales bans would be counterproductive, however, if e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes are substitutes, as bans might push teenagers back to smoking the more dangerous combustion cigarettes. We provide evidence that these sales bans reduce the incidence of smoking conventional cigarettes among high school seniors. Moreover, we provide evidence suggesting that sales bans reduced e-cigarette usage as well. This evidence suggests that not only are e-cigarettes and smoking regular cigarettes positively related and not substitutes for young people, banning retail sales to minors is an effective policy tool in reducing tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to Point-of-Sale Marketing of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes as Predictors of Smoking Cessation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Pasch, Keryn E; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-06

    Cue-reactivity theory suggests smoking-related visual cues such as point-of-sale (POS) marketing (e.g., advertising, product displays) may undermine cessation attempts by causing an increase in nicotine cravings among users. This study examined the relationship between recall of exposure to POS marketing and subsequent cessation behaviors among young adult cigarette smokers. Participants included 813 18-29 year old (m=21.1, sd=2.70) current cigarette smokers attending 24 Texas colleges. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the impact of baseline self-reported exposure to cigarette and e-cigarette advertising and product displays, on using e-cigarettes for cessation and successful cigarette cessation at 6-month follow-up. Two-way interactions between product-specific advertising and between product-specific displays were examined to determine if the marketing of one product strengthened the cue-reactivity of the other. Baseline covariates included socio-demographic factors, past quit attempts, intentions to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence. Exposure to e-cigarette displays was associated with lower odds of cigarette smoking cessation, controlling for covariates and conventional cigarette display exposure. E-cigarette advertising was positively associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation among participants exposed to low (i.e., at least one standard deviation below the mean) levels of cigarette advertising. Cigarette advertising was associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation only among those exposed to low levels of e-cigarette advertising. Exposure to cigarette displays was not associated with either outcome. Smoking-related cues at POS may undermine successful cigarette cessation. Exposure to product displays decrease odds of cessation. Advertising exposure increased odds for using e-cigarettes for cessation attempts, but may have guided smokers towards an unproven cessation aid. By examining the interaction of

  18. E-Cigarettes and "Dripping" Among High-School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Morean, Meghan; Kong, Grace; Bold, Krysten W; Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Simon, Patricia; Wu, Ran

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) electrically heat and vaporize e-liquids to produce inhalable vapors. These devices are being used to inhale vapors produced by dripping e-liquids directly onto heated atomizers. The current study conducts the first evaluation of the prevalence rates and reasons for using e-cigarettes for dripping among high school students. In the spring of 2015, students from 8 Connecticut high schools ( n = 7045) completed anonymous surveys that examined tobacco use behaviors and perceptions. We assessed prevalence rates of ever using e-cigarettes for dripping, reasons for dripping, and predictors of dripping behaviors among those who reported ever use of e-cigarettes. Among 1080 ever e-cigarette users, 26.1% of students reported ever using e-cigarettes for dripping. Reasons for dripping included produced thicker clouds of vapor (63.5%), made flavors taste better (38.7%), produced a stronger throat hit (27.7%), curiosity (21.6%), and other (7.5%). Logistic regression analyses indicated that male adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64), whites (OR = 1.46), and those who had tried multiple tobacco products (OR = 1.34) and had greater past-month e-cigarette use frequency (OR = 1.07) were more likely to use dripping ( P s e-cigarettes also report using the device for dripping. Future efforts must examine the progression and toxicity of the use of e-cigarettes for dripping among youth and educate them about the potential dangers of these behaviors. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Looks like smoking, is it smoking?: Children’s perceptions of cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems, smoking and cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Faletau, Julienne; Glover, Marewa; Nosa, Vili; Pienaar, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternative cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems have been met with diverse opinions. One concern has been for the effect on children. We investigate whether children can differentiate tobacco cigarette smoking from use of a nicotine inhaler and electronic cigarette. Their opinions on these devices was also of interest. Methods Two structured focus groups and twelve individual interviews were conducted with twenty Māori and Pacific children (6–10 years old) in low socioeconomic...

  20. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking among secondary and high school students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Bąk-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    To prevent adolescents from becoming smokers, it is essential to understand factors that cause them to become susceptible to smoking (SS). The aim of this study was to examine association between individual and school characteristics and susceptibility to smoking initiation and experimentation in the youth. We collected cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13-19 years attending 21 schools from Piotrkowski district. Of 4050 students, 3552 respondents, including 2508 non-smokers, filled in an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to the study factors linked to SS among the never and ever smoking youth. About 22 % of the never smoking and 57 % of the ever smoking students were found to be vulnerable to smoking. The youth who were males (OR = 1.4; p = 0.001), who were older (OR = 1.1; p = 0.002) and those, whose mothers had medium (OR = 1.8; p smoking compared to the females, younger ones and those whose mothers were highly educated. The students who lived in households with no smoking ban (OR = 1.4; p = 0.001) and those who had ever tried cigarettes (OR = 3.5; p smoking comparing to those who indicated smoke-free home and who had never smoked. In addition, having smoking friends (OR = 2.3; p smoking on the premises of the school (OR = 1.8; p smoking girls more attractive than the non-smokers (OR = 3.8; p smoking susceptibility. Finally, the separate analysis among the never smokers indicated that no school training on tobacco harm (OR = 1.3; p = 0.04) is the additional significant factor for susceptibility to smoking initiation. SS is prevalent in secondary and high school students in Poland. Personal, social and environmental factors are strongly correlated with SS. When addressing the youth, efforts should be focused on the groups at risk, with a comprehensive approach

  1. Formation of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Part 1, FTC Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report evaluates the formation of nitrosonornicotine (NNN and of 4-(methyl-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK from nicotine, and of NNN from nornicotine in the mainstream smoke of a burning cigarette. The cigarettes analyzed in the study were Kentucky reference cigarettes 1R4F and 2R4F, and five other cigarettes, three of them having tobaccos with low levels of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs. All cigarettes had ‘tar’ levels around 10 mg [where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water]. Cigarettes were smoked according to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC puffing regimen, using a 35 mL puff volume, 2 sec puff duration and 60 sec puff intervals. Three separate experiments were performed in this study to evaluate the proportion of TSNAs transferred from preexistent tobacco TSNAs and the proportion formed during smoking (pyrosynthesized. In one experiment, the results were obtained by GC/MS analysis of 13C3-TSNAs formed in smoke when 13C3-nicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes. Another experiment used GC analysis with chemiluminescence detection of TSNAs from smoke before and after an excess of nornicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes, and another experiment consisted of LC/MS/MS analysis of 2H4-TSNAs formed in the smoke when 2H4-nicotine and when 2H4-nornicotine were intentionally added to cigarettes. The use of different analytical methods for the study of TSNA formation conveyed an additional level of confidence regarding the reliability of the results obtained. It was found that NNK was generated during smoking from nicotine with 3 × 10-5% to 8 × 10-5% conversion (0.3 ppm to 0.8 ppm conversion of the nicotine while the result for NNN generation was not conclusive. One experiment demonstrated the formation of NNN from nicotine between 4 × 10-5% and 1.5 × 10-4% (0.4 ppm to 1.5 ppm reported to nicotine, but another experiment did not

  2. Associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jodie B; Ameringer, Katherine J; Trujillo, Michael A; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve; Brightman, Molly; Pitts, Stephanie R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cigarette smoking has been difficult because of PTSD's symptomatic heterogeneity. This study examined common and unique lifetime cross-sectional relationships between PTSD symptom clusters [Re-experiencing (intrusive thoughts and nightmares about the trauma), Avoidance (avoidance of trauma-associated memories or stimuli), Emotional Numbing (loss of interest, interpersonal detachment, restricted positive affect), and Hyperarousal (irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, insomnia)] and three indicators of smoking behavior: (1) smoking status; (2) cigarettes per day; and (3) nicotine dependence. Participants were adult respondents in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions with a trauma history (n = 23,635). All four symptom clusters associated with each smoking outcome in single-predictor models (ps Emotional Numbing was the only cluster to retain a significant association with lifetime smoking over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.30, p dependence in multivariate models, these relations fell below significance after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity. No clusters uniquely associated with cigarettes per day. Hyperarousal uniquely related with nicotine dependence over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.51, p < .001). These results suggest the following: (a) common variance across PTSD symptom clusters contribute to PTSD's linkage with smoking in the American population; and (b) certain PTSD symptom clusters may uniquely associate with particular indicators of smoking behavior. These findings may clarify the underpinnings of PTSD-smoking comorbidity and inform smoking interventions for trauma-exposed individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Role of E-Cigarettes in smoking cessation: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: E-cigarettes (EC are devices that heat liquid into an aerosol that user inhales. Youth are using EC at increasing and alarming rates. The tobacco industry aggressively markets EC to youth, glamorizing EC use in advertisements, and offering EC in candy flavors such as bubble gum and gummy bears. The liquid usually in EC has nicotine and other additives which is addictive. Aim: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the role of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. Materials and Methods: A literature review was performed; PubMed, PubMed Central and Cochrane Library, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched from 1970 to December 2017 to identify appropriate studies. Results: Out of the total 817 titles appeared, 17 articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. Two articles which were hand searched and one article which was through E-mail was also included in this review. EC have a direct impact on smokers and efficiency in quitting smoking was assessed very low. Majority of the study found that EC could increase the risk of smokers developing nicotine dependence and thus evidence on smoking reduction was found very low. Conclusions: There are relatively a few studies evaluating the role of EC in smoking cessation. EC products are marketed in a wide variety of channels that have broad reach among youth and young adults, including magazines, television, radio, and the Internet. More randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify the role of EC in smoking cessation.

  4. Cigarette smoking and pulmonary diffusion defects in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westedt, M L; Hazes, J M; Breedveld, F C; Sterk, P J; Dijkman, J H

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has still to be defined. Risk factors associated with lung involvement in RA were investigated by means of pulmonary function studies in 40 RA patients without apparent lung disease. A decreased carbon monoxide (CO) diffusion capacity indicative of interstitial lung disease (ILD) was the main pulmonary function defect found in the first 20 patients. The occurrence was associated with current cigarette smoking. This association was confirmed in a case control study performed subsequently. These data suggest that ILD in RA is stimulated by smoking and provide an additional argument that modification of smoking behaviour in RA patients might lead to less severe complications.

  5. Attitudes toward Cigarette Smoking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkom, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to gather data on the attitudes and smoking habits of university students. Data were collected from 250 undergraduates dealing with various aspects of smoking behavior. There were 80 smokers and 170 nonsmokers, including 21 former smokers. In addition to demographic information, participants were assessed with…

  6. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the ...

  7. Different physiological and behavioural effects of e-cigarette vapour and cigarette smoke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, L; Moretti, M; Sala, M; Fasoli, F; Mucchietto, V; Lucini, V; Cannazza, G; Gallesi, G; Castellana, C N; Clementi, F; Zoli, M; Gotti, C; Braida, D

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine is the primary addictive substance in tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vapour. Methodological limitations have made it difficult to compare the role of the nicotine and non-nicotine constituents of tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of traditional cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour containing the same amount of nicotine in male BALB/c mice exposed to the smoke of 21 cigarettes or e-cig vapour containing 16.8 mg of nicotine delivered by means of a mechanical ventilator for three 30-min sessions/day for seven weeks. One hour after the last session, half of the animals were sacrificed for neurochemical analysis, and the others underwent mecamylamine-precipitated or spontaneous withdrawal for the purposes of behavioural analysis. Chronic intermittent non-contingent, second-hand exposure to cigarette smoke or e-cig vapour led to similar brain cotinine and nicotine levels, similar urine cotinine levels and the similar up-regulation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different brain areas, but had different effects on body weight, food intake, and the signs of mecamylamine-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal episodic memory and emotional responses. The findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that e-cig vapour induces addiction-related neurochemical, physiological and behavioural alterations. The fact that inhaled cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour have partially different dependence-related effects indicates that compounds other than nicotine contribute to tobacco dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Roseberry, H.; Stevenson, J.L.; Clayton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors measured lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA) as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 equal-size groups: control, all smoke exposure (ASE), and limited smoke exposure (LSE). Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 20-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biologic half-life (T 1 / 2 ). Mean T 1 / 2 minimum was significantly lower for ASE and LSE rabbits than by control rabbits. They observed a significant difference at 20 and 30 breath exposures between the control and ASE group mean values for T 1 / 2 , arterial blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. A combination of light and electron microscopy showed focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the ASE and LSE groups but no alveolar-capillary membrane damage. In summary, acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability as measured by /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance, but there was no detectable ultrastructural alteration of the alveolar-capillary membrane

  9. Determination of the elemental distribution in cigarette components and smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, D.; Landsberger, S.; Larson, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major source of particle released in indoor environments. A comprehensive study of the elemental distribution in cigarettes and cigarette smoke has been completed. Specifically, concentrations of thirty elements have been determined for the components of 15 types of cigarettes. Components include tobacco, ash, butts, filters, and cigarette paper. In addition, particulate matter from mainstream smoke (MS) and sidesstream smoke (SS) were analyzed. The technique of elemental determination used in the study is instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that certain heavy metals, such as As, Cd, K, Sb and Zn, are released into the MS and SS. These metals may then be part of the health risk of exposure to smoke. Other elements are retained, for the most part, in cigarette ash and butts. The elemental distribution among the cigarette components and smoke changes for different smoking conditions. (author)

  10. E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age: Impulsivity, cigarette smoking status, and other risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Laura L; Hand, Dennis J; Priest, Jeff S; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    The study aim was to examine impulsivity and other risk factors for e-cigarette use among women of reproductive age comparing current daily cigarette smokers to never cigarette smokers. Women of reproductive age are of special interest because of the additional risk that tobacco and nicotine use represents should they become pregnant. Survey data were collected anonymously online using Amazon Mechanical Turk in 2014. Participants were 800 women ages 24-44years from the US. Half (n=400) reported current, daily smoking and half (n=400) reported smoking e-cigarette use were examined using logistic regression. Daily cigarette smoking was associated with greater impulsivity, lower education, past illegal drug use, and White race/ethnicity. E-cigarette use in the overall sample was associated with being a cigarette smoker and greater education. E-cigarette use among current smokers was associated with increased nicotine dependence and quitting smoking; among never smokers it was associated with greater impulsivity and illegal drug use. E-cigarette use was associated with hookah use, and for never smokers only with use of cigars and other nicotine products. E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age varies by smoking status, with use among current smokers reflecting attempts to quit smoking whereas among non-smokers use may be a marker of a more impulsive repertoire that includes greater use of alternative tobacco products and illegal drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, ∼10 -6 cm 3 /s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols

  12. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eChen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an addictive behaviour, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases. Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing a negative energy state which is characterized by reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure that are linked to low body weight. These findings have led to the public perception that smoking is associated with weight loss. However, its effects at reducing abdominal fat mass (a predisposing factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance are marginal, and its promotion of lean body mass loss in animal studies suggests a limited potential for treatment in obesity. Smoking during pregnancy puts pressure on the mother’s metabolic system and is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking is a predictor of future risk for respiratory dysfunction, social behavioral problems, cardiovascular disease, obesity and type-2 diabetes. Catch-up growth is normally observed in children exposed to intrauterine smoke, which has been linked to subsequent childhood obesity. Nicotine can have a profound impact on the developing fetal brain, via its ability to rapidly and fully pass the placenta. In animal studies this has been linked with abnormal hypothalamic gene expression of appetite regulators such as downregulation of NPY and POMC in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Maternal smoking or nicotine replacement leads to unhealthy eating habits (such as junk food addiction and other behavioral disorders in the offspring.

  13. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Saad, Sonia; Sandow, Shaun L; Bertrand, Paul P

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing a negative energy state which is characterized by reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure that are linked to low body weight. These findings have led to the public perception that smoking is associated with weight loss. However, its effects at reducing abdominal fat mass (a predisposing factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance) are marginal, and its promotion of lean body mass loss in animal studies suggests a limited potential for treatment in obesity. Smoking during pregnancy puts pressure on the mother's metabolic system and is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking is a predictor of future risk for respiratory dysfunction, social behavioral problems, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type-2 diabetes. Catch-up growth is normally observed in children exposed to intrauterine smoke, which has been linked to subsequent childhood obesity. Nicotine can have a profound impact on the developing fetal brain, via its ability to rapidly and fully pass the placenta. In animal studies this has been linked with abnormal hypothalamic gene expression of appetite regulators such as downregulation of NPY and POMC in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Maternal smoking or nicotine replacement leads to unhealthy eating habits (such as junk food addiction) and other behavioral disorders in the offspring.

  14. Determination of trace elements in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many trace elements hazardous for human body. Tobacco samples were analyzed for their trace element contents and the results were reported earlier. This paper presents results on the trace element content analyzed in cigarette smoke using an automatic smoking machine developed in laboratory to simulate actual smoking pattern. The trace element levels in the total particulate matter samples of the cigarette smoke collected on filter papers were measured and compared with those of cigarette smoke condensate reported in the literature. Both methods of collection give comparable results. (author)

  15. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke: Problems with Lists of Tumorigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1960s, various investigators, agencies, and institutions have disseminated lists of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS components reported to be tumorigenic on the basis of laboratory bioassays conducted under conditions significantly different from those encountered by the smoker during exposure to the components in the cigarette MSS aerosol. Since 1990, numerous lists of cigarette MSS components, defined as significant tumorigens, have been compiled by American Health Foundation personnel, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, Fowles and Bates, and R.J. Reynolds R&D personnel. The purpose of most of the reports was to define human risk assessment and to dissuade smokers from smoking. Various investigators and agencies have frequently cited the earlier and/or the more recent lists of tumorigenic entities. The recent compilations, involving nearly 80 MSS components, suffer from serious deficiencies including: a Use of per cigarette delivery ranges for specified components which often include analytical data from cigarettes manufactured in the 1950s and 1960s which are not comparable to lower-'tar’ yield cigarettes manufactured since the mid-1970s. b Absence of standard analytical procedures for most of the listed components. c Methodological considerations regarding bioassays used to determine tumorigenicity of the listed MSS components. d Difficulty in extrapolating in vivo bioassay data obtained by non-inhalation modes of administration of a single compound to the human smoking situation involving inhalation of a complex aerosol containing that compound. e Inhalation data inadequacies regarding the tumorigenicity of many of the components. f Several tobacco smoke components are listed despite the fact their presence has not been confirmed, their MSS level has not been defined, or their MSS level is no longer relevant. g Insufficient consideration of inhibitors of tumorigenesis and mutagenesis found in MSS. h

  16. Determination of Dibenzacridines in the Particulate Phase of Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki TA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to resolve a controversy related to the presence of dibenz[a,j]acridine and dibenz[a,h]acridine in the particulate phase of cigarette smoke. Smoking was performed using FTC conditions (35 mL puff volume, 2 sec. puff, 1 min. interval on a Borgwaldt RM 20/CS smoking machine. The particulate phase of forty cigarettes was collected on 92 mm Cambridge filter pads. Pads were combined to analyze the particulate phase of the mainstream smoke from between 120 and 320 cigarettes. In an initial scheme of analysis, the pads were extracted with an acidic aqueous solution. This aqueous solution was then washed with CH2Cl2 and the organic phase discarded. The aqueous solution was then changed to basic and extracted with CH2Cl2, which was concentrated and analyzed via GC/MS. The dibenzacridine could not be detected utilizing this scheme, even when the pads had been spiked with a few thousand nanograms of dibenzacridine. After using several other organic solvents (cyclohexane, CHCl3, and benzene to eliminate the possibility that the extraction efficiency of CH2Cl2 was poor, it was determined that dibenzacridine was being discarded with the first CH2Cl2 wash. A successful separation scheme was developed by extracting the smoked pad with an aqueous acidic solution, followed by extraction of the aqueous phase with CH2Cl2without pH change. The CH2Cl2 extract was concentrated under nitrogen and 1 µL injected for GC/MS analysis. Quantification was achieved by spiking the pads with dibenz[a,j]acridine-d13 as an internal standard at a level equal to 1.7-2.5 ng/cig. The limit of detection for this technique was approximately 0.5 ng/cig. The chromatographic separation was performed with a 30 m BPX-5 column (0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 µm film thickness. Mass spectral data were acquired in selected ion monitoring (SIM mode with m/z = 279 for the two dibenzacridine isomers and m/z = 292 for the deuterated internal standard. Three commercial cigarettes were

  17. Neutron activation analysis of an iranian cigarette and its smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinzadeh, Z.; Razeghi, M.; Parsa, B.

    1977-01-01

    Non-destructive neutron activation analysis, employing a high-resolution Ge(Li)detector, was applied to determine the concentration of 24 trace elements in the tobacco of the Zarrin cigarette which is commercially made in Iran. These elements are: Na, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Au, Hg and Th. The smokes from the combustion of this tobacco and of the cigarette paper were also analysed for these elements and the percentage transference values were calculated. The concentration of some of the trace elements in Zarrin cigarette tobacco obtained in this work from the pooled tobacco sample have significantly changed in comparison with the results obtained in the earlier observations based on individual cigarettes. Aside from the differences which may occur due to different sampling methods, this may be attributed to the variations in specific brands of commercial cigarettes over a period of time. The fact of particular importance is that the concentrations of Se, Hg and Sb in Zarrin cigarette tobacco have almost increased by a factor of 2,3 and 10, respectively. However, the levels of some elements such as K, Fe, Rb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Tb, Hf and Th have remained fairly constant during the two observation periods. (T.G.)

  18. Clinical Effects of Cigarette Smoking: Epidemiologic Impact and Review of Pharmacotherapy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onor, IfeanyiChukwu O.; Stirling, Daniel L.; Williams, Shandrika R.; Bediako, Daniel; Borghol, Amne; Harris, Martha B.; Darensburg, Tiernisha B.; Clay, Sharde D.; Okpechi, Samuel C.; Sarpong, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking—a crucial modifiable risk factor for organ system diseases and cancer—remains prevalent in the United States and globally. In this literature review, we aim to summarize the epidemiology of cigarette smoking and tobacco use in the United States, pharmacology of nicotine—the active constituent of tobacco, and health consequence of cigarette smoking. This article also reviews behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for cigarette smokers and provides cost estimates for approved pharmacologic interventions in the United States. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ClinicalKey, and PubMed databases using the following headings in combination or separately: cigarette smoking, tobacco smoking, epidemiology in the United States, health consequences of cigarette smoking, pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking, and non-pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking. This review found that efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic therapy are available for cessation of cigarette smoking. Given the availability of efficacious interventions for cigarette smoking cessation, concerted efforts should be made by healthcare providers and public health professionals to promote smoking cessation as a valuable approach for reducing non-smokers’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:28956852

  19. Clinical Effects of Cigarette Smoking: Epidemiologic Impact and Review of Pharmacotherapy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IfeanyiChukwu O. Onor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking—a crucial modifiable risk factor for organ system diseases and cancer—remains prevalent in the United States and globally. In this literature review, we aim to summarize the epidemiology of cigarette smoking and tobacco use in the United States, pharmacology of nicotine—the active constituent of tobacco, and health consequence of cigarette smoking. This article also reviews behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for cigarette smokers and provides cost estimates for approved pharmacologic interventions in the United States. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ClinicalKey, and PubMed databases using the following headings in combination or separately: cigarette smoking, tobacco smoking, epidemiology in the United States, health consequences of cigarette smoking, pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking, and non-pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking. This review found that efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic therapy are available for cessation of cigarette smoking. Given the availability of efficacious interventions for cigarette smoking cessation, concerted efforts should be made by healthcare providers and public health professionals to promote smoking cessation as a valuable approach for reducing non-smokers’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

  20. Problems with cigarette smoking and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W W; Ma, W; Zhu, Q; Chen, H; Tang, L

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China, as causes for failure to control smoking. Environmental monitoring and population survey. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements were conducted in randomly selected public places (restaurants, non-alcoholic drink shops and internet bars) and exposure-related health hazards were evaluated. University students and adult citizens were randomly selected to determine their extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitude towards the ban of smoking in public places. The collected data were used to evaluate possible causes and solutions to the smoking problem. From PM2.5 measurements, the average indoor to outdoor concentrations in non-smoking restaurants were 33.4 vs. 30.6 μg/m(3), P > 0.05; average indoor of smoking restaurants was 350.0% higher, P  0.001. From our survey of 1100 university students: 1) 17.5% and 7.5% were active male and female smokers, respectively; and 2) 57.5% of students would accept a smoke-ban policy. From 502 adult citizens: 1) 27.5% were active male smokers; 2) Approximately 40 and 60% had inadequate knowledge of health hazards from smoking and second-hand smoke exposure; and 3) >90% of them would accept a smoke-ban policy. Our data indicate that failure to ban smoking was not caused by resistance from smokers but inadequate (national and local) government effort to educate the public and to enforce existing policy. The data suggest that development of a citizen-based approach, in collaboration with willing officials, may be highly successful in the control of cigarette smoking in China. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative assessment of e-cigarette aerosols and cigarette smoke on in vitro endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Jaunky, Tomasz; Hewitt, Katherine; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Fearon, Ian M; Gaca, Marianna

    2017-08-05

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for several diseases. There has been a steep increase in the use of e-cigarettes that may offer a safer alternative to cigarette smoking. In vitro models of smoking-related diseases may provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms associated with tobacco use and could be used to assess e-cigarettes. We previously reported the application of a 'scratch wound' assay, measuring endothelial cell migration rate following artificial wounding, in the presence or absence of cigarette smoke extracts. This study reports the comparative effects of two commercial e-cigarette products (Vype ePen and Vype eStick) and a scientific reference cigarette (3R4F) on endothelial migration in vitro. Puff-matched extracts were generated using the Health Canada Intense (HCI) regime for cigarettes and a modified HCI for e-cigarettes. Exposure to 3R4F extract (20h) induced concentration-dependent inhibition of endothelial cell migration, with complete inhibition at concentrations >20%. E-cigarette extracts did not inhibit migration, even at double the 3R4F extract nicotine concentration, allowing cells to migrate into the wounded area. Our data demonstrate that e-cigarettes do not induce the inhibition of endothelial cell migration in vitro when compared to 3R4F. The scratch wound assay enables the comparative assessment between tobacco and nicotine products in vitro. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. E-cigarettes and National Adolescent Cigarette Use: 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-02-01

    E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing among adolescents in the United States, with some suggesting that e-cigarettes are the cause of declining youth cigarette smoking. We hypothesized that the decline in youth smoking changed after e-cigarettes arrived on the US market in 2007. Data were collected by using cross-sectional, nationally representative school-based samples of sixth- through 12th-graders from 2004-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (samples ranged from 16 614 in 2013 to 25 324 in 2004). Analyses were conducted by using interrupted time series of ever (≥1 puff) and current (last 30 days) cigarette smoking. Logistic regression was used to identify psychosocial risk factors associated with cigarette smoking in the 2004-2009 samples; this model was then applied to estimate the probability of cigarette smoking among cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users in the 2011-2014 samples. Youth cigarette smoking decreased linearly between 2004 and 2014 (P = .009 for ever smoking and P = .05 for current smoking), with no significant change in this trend after 2009 (P = .57 and .23). Based on the psychosocial model of smoking, including demographic characteristics, willingness to wear clothing with a tobacco logo, living with a smoker, likelihood of smoking in the next year, likelihood of smoking cigarettes from a friend, and use of tobacco products other than cigarettes or e-cigarettes, the model categorized e-cigarette-only users (between 11.0% in 2012 and 23.1% in 2013) as current smokers. The introduction of e-cigarettes was not associated with a change in the linear decline in cigarette smoking among youth. E-cigarette-only users would be unlikely to have initiated tobacco product use with cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Cigarette smoking in obsessive-compulsive disorder and unaffected parents of OCD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Geller, Daniel A; Reuman, Lillian; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is more prevalent among individuals with psychiatric disorders than the general population. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be an intriguing exception, although no recent study has investigated this hypothesis in OCD patients. Moreover, it is unknown whether reduced smoking rates are present in unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients. We assessed smoking prevalence in adults with OCD and unaffected parents of youth with OCD (PYOCD). To this end, 113 adults with OCD completed online questionnaires assessing symptom severity and smoking status. Smoking status was obtained from an independent sample of 210 PYOCD assessed for psychiatric diagnoses. Smoking prevalence rates in adults with OCD (13.3%; n=15) and PYOCD (9.5%; n=20) samples were significantly lower than those found in representative samples of the general population (19-24%, all POCD subset without clinically significant depressive symptoms (n=54). Low prevalence of smoking in OCD may be familial and unique among psychiatric disorders, and might represent a possible state-independent OCD marker. Hypotheses concerning the uncharacteristically low prevalence rates are discussed with relation to OCD phenomenology and pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  5. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam and Correlates of Current Cigarette Smoking: Results from GYTS 2014 Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits.

  6. Smoking, epidemiology and e-cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Raschke RA

    2013-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. “The true face of smoking is disease, death and horror - not the glamour and sophistication the pushers in the tobacco industry try to portray.” - David Byrne In our fellows’ conference we recently reviewed the evolution of the science of clinical epidemiology as it relates to the association of smoking and lung cancer and the concurrent history of tobacco marketing in the United States. This story begins in 1950, when Richard Doll and A...

  7. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopa Krzysztof

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.

  8. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Haider, M Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R; Thrasher, James F; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-02-18

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4). Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking.

  9. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. The most frequent inquiries concerned the ingredients, safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. Clients used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, cut down the number of conventional cigarettes smoked, have a safe alternative to smoking, and protect their health while continuing to smoke. More than 60 % of service providers reported favourable beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes, and believed that e-cigarettes are as effective as other smoking cessation aids, including pharmacotherapy. Despite limited empirical evidence, service providers in Italy viewed e-cigarettes, as safe and effective smoking cessation aids. More concerted efforts are needed to improve knowledge about e-cigarettes among service providers, to guide their clinical practice and decision-making with respect to e-cigarettes.

  10. Cigarette smoking among healthcare professional students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is aknown fact that health professionals can play a critical role in reducing tobacco use. In fact, it has been shown that even brief and simple advice from health care professionals can substantially increase smoking cessation rates. Students in healthcare professions are future healthcare professionals ...

  11. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Bani Meri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility.Methods: Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960 were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564 and group B (smokers; n=396, which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266 and non-heavy smokers (n=130.Results: A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD. Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD. There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005. Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers.Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count which in turn may result in male subfertility.

  12. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents’ past 12-month smoking from perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends’ smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents’ smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends’ smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends’ smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths’ smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults. PMID:24241785

  13. 'A good method of quitting smoking' or 'just an alternative to smoking'? Comparative evaluations of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette usage by dual users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrevala, Tushna; Coyle, Adrian; Walker, Victoria; Cabrera Torres, Joshelyn; Ordoña, Izobel; Rahman, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The development of e-cigarettes was initially hailed as a resource in facilitating a reduction in or cessation of cigarette smoking. Many users of e-cigarettes are 'dual users', smoking traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes. The present qualitative study examines the factors that a group of 20 dual users considered to have been influential in their decisions to use e-cigarettes and their comparative evaluations of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Health concerns were not found to be sole motivators. Participants pointed to financial and contextual considerations, particularly peer influence on uptake and continued usage of e-cigarettes. E-cigarettes were evaluated as comparable to cigarettes in some ways but not in other important respects such as sensation and satisfaction. Different social evaluations of cigarette and e-cigarette usage were discerned which influenced how participants identified as smokers, 'vapers' or neither. Findings are discussed in relation to social representations, identity and implications for continued e-cigarette usage among dual users.

  14. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Klausner, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 doc...

  15. Role of diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Ram K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperosmolar food causes atherosclerosis. Hyperosmolal food hypothesis encompasses all the factors involved under one heading and, that is, the generation of heat in the body. The involvement of cigarette smoking is obvious. High glycemic index food and diabetes result in high levels of blood glucose, which raises the core body temperature. The ingestion of hyperosmolal salt, glucose, and amino acids singularly or synergistically raise the core body temperature, forcing abdominal aorta to for...

  16. Cigarette advertising and media coverage of smoking and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E

    1985-02-07

    In the US, media coverage of the health hazards of cigarette smoking is consored by the tobacco industry. Tobacco companies, which in 1983 alone spent US$2.5 billion on smoking promtion, are a major source of advertising revenue for many media organizations. As a result media organizations frequently refuse to publish antismoking information, tent to tone down coverage of antismoking news events, and often refuse to accept antismoking advertisements. In a 1983 "Newsweek" supplement on personal health, prepared by the American Medical Association, only 4 sentences were devoted to the negative effects of smoking. A spokesman for the association reported that "Newsweek" editors refused to allow the association to use the forum to present a strong antismoking message. In 1984 a similar type of health supplement, published by "Time," failed to mention smoking at all. An examination of 10 major women's magazines revealed that between 1967-79, 4 of the magazines published no articles about the hazards of smoking and only 8 such articles appeared in the other 6 magazines. All of these magazines carried smoking advertisements. During the same time period, 2 magazines, which refused to publish cigarette ads, published a total of 16 articles on the hazards of smoking. Small magazines which publish antismoking articles are especially vulnerable to pressure from the tobacco industry. For example, the tobacco industry canceled all its ads in "Mother Jones" after the magazine printed 2 antismoking articles. 22 out of 36 magazines refused to run antismoking advertisements when they were requested to do so. Due to poor media coverage, th public's knowledge of the hazards of smoking is deficient. Recent surveys found that 2/3 of the public did not know that smoking could cause heart attacks, and 1/2 of the respondents did not know that smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. An analysis of time trends in cigarette smoking indicates that the public does respond to antismoking

  17. Teens Using E-cigarettes May Be More Likely to Start Smoking Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Release Tuesday, August 18, 2015 Teens using e-cigarettes may be more likely to start smoking tobacco New NIH-funded study shows possible link between e-cigarettes and initiation of tobacco use. Students who have ...

  18. 210Po radiation dose due to cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, Wesley S.; Subha, Vincila R.; Feroz, Khan M.

    2010-01-01

    The level of 210 Po in eight brands of cigarettes and four brands of bidis popular in and around Nagercoil town was determined to evaluate the annual effective dose. The 210 Po activity in a full cigarette ranged from 32.8±3.6 to 68.4±5.9 mBq and from 34.3±3.5 to 62.9±5.8 mBq in a bidi. In tobacco, the highest 210 Po content was recorded in the brand C4 (23.0±1.2 mBq) whereas for bidis it was the highest in the brand B2 (21.1±1.1 mBq). The activity in mainstream varied from 15.2±0.75 to 36.8±2.1 mBq in a cigarette and from 20.7±3.1 to 39.8±4.0 mBq in a bidi. With regard to 210 Po activity concentration, not much specificity was noted with respect to the tobacco brand. The data showed a relatively wide range of activity concentration of 210 Po in the different cigarette/bidi brands and even within the same brand. The bidis showed a higher activity when compared to cigarettes. The popular brands concentrated more activity than the fine brands. Smokers who smoke one pack (10 cigarettes/bidis) per day may inhale about 100-300 mBq d -1 (0.1-0.3 Bq d -1 ) of 210 Po. In this study, radiation dose values in the range of 153.5-372.9 μSv Y - '1 from cigarettes and from 209.2 to 402.7 μSvY -1 from bidis was estimated for the whole body. (author)

  19. Smoking, epidemiology and e-cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. “The true face of smoking is disease, death and horror - not the glamour and sophistication the pushers in the tobacco industry try to portray.” - David Byrne In our fellows’ conference we recently reviewed the evolution of the science of clinical epidemiology as it relates to the association of smoking and lung cancer and the concurrent history of tobacco marketing in the United States. This story begins in 1950, when Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill published their landmark case control study demonstrating the association between smoking and lung cancer (1. This study was performed with methodological standards that have rarely been matched in the 63 years since. Exhaustive analysis of possible confounders, a multi-stage evaluation of study blinding, determination of dose-effect, and the use of multiple analyses to establish consistency are among many examples of superb attention to detail exercised by Doll and Hill in this study. The …

  20. A whole-blood transcriptome meta-analysis identifies gene expression signatures of cigarette smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huan, T. (Tianxiao); R. Joehanes (Roby); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Schramm (Katharina); L.C. Pilling (Luke); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); R. Mägi (Reedik); D.L. Demeo (Dawn L.); G.T. O'Connor (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Homuth (Georg); R. Biffar (Reiner); U. Völker (Uwe); C. Herder (Christian); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); A. Peters (Annette); S. Zeilinger (Sonja); A. Metspalu (Andres); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); P.J. Munson (Peter); H. Lin (Honghuang); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); T. Esko (Tõnu); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); H. Prokisch (Holger); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D. Melzer (David); D. Levy (Daniel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCigarette smoking is a leading modifiable cause of death worldwide. We hypothesized that cigarette smoking induces extensive transcriptomic changes that lead to target-organ damage and smoking-related diseases. We performed a metaanalysis of transcriptome-wide gene expression using whole

  1. Prevalence and correlates of smoking and e-cigarette use among young men who have sex with men and transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Although the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the United States has decreased, rates remain elevated among sexual and gender minorities (SGMs). This study examined rates and correlates of tobacco use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women. Participants (N=771) were drawn from the baseline assessment of an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of racially diverse MSM aged 16-29 years. Data collection took place in 2015-2016. Socio-demographic and SGM-specific (e.g., gender identity, sexual identity, physical attraction) correlates of cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use were identified using logistic regression. Twenty-one percent were current cigarette smokers. Nearly 40% ever tried an e-cigarette, but regular e-cigarette use was low (3.8%). Smokers were more likely to be older (vs. aged 16-18), less educated, homeless, bisexual or identify as some other sexual minority (vs. gay), attracted to males and females equally or more attracted to females than males (vs. males only), and HIV-positive. E-cigarette users were more likely to be transgender women (vs. cisgender men), White (vs. Black), more educated, and mostly attracted to females. Findings highlight important risk factors for tobacco use among SGM youth. Correlates of smoking mirrored findings observed in the general population, but also included factors specific to SGM youth (e.g., sexual orientation, HIV status, homelessness). Although some variables (gender identity, attraction) demonstrated similar relationships with smoking and e-cigarette use, others (race/ethnicity, education) demonstrated opposite patterns. Findings underscore the urgent need for tobacco prevention and cessation interventions for SGM youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Features of sales promotion in cigarette magazine advertisements, 1980-1993: an analysis of youth exposure in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, L G; Siegel, M

    1999-01-01

    To examine the presence of features of sales promotion in cigarette advertising in United States magazines, and to describe trends in youth (ages 12-17) exposure to such advertising (termed "promotional advertising"). Analysis of 1980-1993 annual data on: (a) total pages and expenditures for "promotional advertising" (advertising that contains features of sales promotion) in 36 popular magazines (all magazines for which data were available), by cigarette brand; and (b) readership characteristics for each magazine. We defined promotional advertising as advertisements that go beyond the simple advertising of the product and its features to include one or more features of sales promotion, such as coupons, "retail value added" promotions, contests, sweepstakes, catalogues, specialty item distribution, and sponsorship of public entertainment or sporting events. Total pages of, and expenditures for promotional advertising in magazines; and gross impressions (number of readers multiplied by the number of pages of promotional advertising) among youth and total readership. During the period 1980-1993, tobacco companies spent $90.2 million on promotional advertising in the 36 magazines. The proportion of promotional advertising appearing in "youth" magazines (defined as magazines with a greater than average proportion of youth readers) increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 100% in 1987. Although youth readers represented only 19% of magazine readers, the proportion of youth gross impressions to total gross impressions of tobacco promotional advertising exceeded this value throughout the entire period 1985-1993, peaking at 33% in 1987. The five "youth" cigarette brands (defined as brands smoked by at least 2.5% of smokers aged 10-15 years in 1993) accounted for 59% of promotional advertising in all magazines, but for 83% of promotional advertising in youth magazines during the study period. In their magazine advertising, cigarette companies are preferentially exposing young

  3. Cigarette smoke chemistry market maps under Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Michael J; Laffoon, Susan W

    2008-06-01

    This study extends the market mapping concept introduced by Counts et al. (Counts, M.E., Hsu, F.S., Tewes, F.J., 2006. Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46, 225-242) to include both temporal cigarette and testing variation and also machine smoking with more intense puffing parameters, as defined by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH). The study was conducted over a two year period and involved a total of 23 different commercial cigarette brands from the U.S. marketplace. Market mapping prediction intervals were developed for 40 mainstream cigarette smoke constituents and the potential utility of the market map as a comparison tool for new brands was demonstrated. The over-time character of the data allowed for the variance structure of the smoke constituents to be more completely characterized than is possible with one-time sample data. The variance was partitioned among brand-to-brand differences, temporal differences, and the remaining residual variation using a mixed random and fixed effects model. It was shown that a conventional weighted least squares model typically gave similar prediction intervals to those of the more complicated mixed model. For most constituents there was less difference in the prediction intervals calculated from over-time samples and those calculated from one-time samples than had been anticipated. One-time sample maps may be adequate for many purposes if the user is aware of their limitations. Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, ammonia, chlorogenic acid, and reducing sugars. The filler information was used to improve predicting relationships for several of the smoke constituents, and it was concluded that the effects of filler chemistry on smoke chemistry were partial explanations of the observed brand-to-brand variation.

  4. Effect of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Mouhamed, D; Ezzaher, A; Neffati, F; Douki, W; Gaha, L; Najjar, M F

    2016-02-01

    Smoking is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) of the effects of smoking on CVD are not clearly understood; however, a number of atherogenic characteristics, such as insulin resistance have been reported. We aim to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance and to determine the correlation between this parameter with smoking status characteristics. This study was conducted on 138 non-smokers and 162 smokers aged respectively 35.6±16.0 and 38.5±21.9 years. All subjects are not diabetic. Fasting glucose was determined by enzymatic methods and insulin by chemiluminescence method. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated using the Homeostasis Model of Assessment equation: HOMA-IR=[fasting insulin (mU/L)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)]/22.5. IR was defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR. Values above 2.5 were taken as abnormal and reflect insulin resistance. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had significantly higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. These associations remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (age, gender, BMI and alcohol consumption). A statistically significant association was noted between the smoking status parameters, including both the number of cigarettes smoked/day and the duration of smoking, and fasting insulin levels as well for HOMA-IR index. Among smokers, we noted a positive correlation between HOMA-IR index and both plasma thiocyanates and urinary cotinine. Our results show that smokers have a high risk to developing an insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, compared with a matched group of non-smokers, and may help to explain the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Comparison of three methods of exposing rats to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauderly, J L; Bechtold, W E; Bond, J A; Brooks, A L; Chen, B T; Cuddihy, R G; Harkema, J R; Henderson, R F; Johnson, N F; Ritchideh, K; Thomassen, D G

    1988-12-01

    We compared smoke composition and biological effects resulting from exposures of rats for 5 wk to cigarette smoke by nose-only intermittent (NOI), nose-only continuous (NOC) and whole-body continuous (WBC) exposure methods. Exposure concentrations and times were adjusted to achieve the same daily concentration x time product for particulate matter. There were few differences in smoke composition or biological effects among exposure modes. WBC smoke was lower in particle-borne nicotine and higher in some organic vapors and carbon monoxide than smoke in nose-only modes. Body weight was depressed less by WBC than by NOI or NOC exposures. Plasma and urine nicotine levels were higher for WBC than for NOI or NOC, suggesting greater absorption from body surfaces or by grooming. Smoke exposures increased nasal epithelial proliferation, tracheal epithelial cell transformation, chromosomal aberrations in alveolar macrophages, and lung DNA adduct levels, and caused inflammatory changes in airway fluid and slight alterations of respiratory function, but there were no significant differences among exposure modes. The results indicate that WBC exposures should produce long-term effects similar to those of nose-only exposures, but might allow increased delivery of smoke to lungs while reducing stress, acute toxicity and the manpower requirements associated with performing these experiments. (author)

  6. Comparison of three methods of exposing rats to cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bechtold, W.E.; Bond, J.A.; Brooks, A.L.; Chen, B.T.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Johnson, N.F.; Ritchideh, K.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    We compared smoke composition and biological effects resulting from exposures of rats for 5 wk to cigarette smoke by nose-only intermittent (NOI), nose-only continuous (NOC) and whole-body continuous (WBC) exposure methods. Exposure concentrations and times were adjusted to achieve the same daily concentration x time product for particulate matter. There were few differences in smoke composition or biological effects among exposure modes. WBC smoke was lower in particle-borne nicotine and higher in some organic vapors and carbon monoxide than smoke in nose-only modes. Body weight was depressed less by WBC than by NOI or NOC exposures. Plasma and urine nicotine levels were higher for WBC than for NOI or NOC, suggesting greater absorption from body surfaces or by grooming. Smoke exposures increased nasal epithelial proliferation, tracheal epithelial cell transformation, chromosomal aberrations in alveolar macrophages, and lung DNA adduct levels, and caused inflammatory changes in airway fluid and slight alterations of respiratory function, but there were no significant differences among exposure modes. The results indicate that WBC exposures should produce long-term effects similar to those of nose-only exposures, but might allow increased delivery of smoke to lungs while reducing stress, acute toxicity and the manpower requirements associated with performing these experiments. (author)

  7. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (Pissues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychosocial correlates of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen

    2013-04-01

    Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Microcontroller Operated Device for the Generation of Liquid Extracts from Conventional Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chastain A; Bokota, Rachael E; Majeste, Andrew E; Murfee, Walter L; Wang, Shusheng

    2018-01-18

    Electronic cigarettes are the most popular tobacco product among middle and high schoolers and are the most popular alternative tobacco product among adults. High quality, reproducible research on the consequences of electronic cigarette use is essential for understanding emerging public health concerns and crafting evidence based regulatory policy. While a growing number of papers discuss electronic cigarettes, there is little consistency in methods across groups and very little consensus on results. Here, we describe a programmable laboratory device that can be used to create extracts of conventional cigarette smoke and electronic cigarette aerosol. This protocol details instructions for the assembly and operation of said device, and demonstrates the use of the generated extract in two sample applications: an in vitro cell viability assay and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. This method provides a tool for making direct comparisons between conventional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes, and is an accessible entry point into electronic cigarette research.

  10. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  11. Association of cigarette smoking with drug use and risk taking behaviour in Irish teenagers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Cathail, S M

    2011-05-01

    Cigarette smoking has been shown to act as a \\'gateway\\' to cannabis use and further risk taking behaviours. This study aims to (1) establish the prevalence of cigarette smoking and cannabis use in Irish teenagers, (2) to quantify the strength and significance of the association of cigarette smoking and cannabis use and other high risk behaviours and (3) examine whether the above associations are independent of the extent of social networking.

  12. The electronic-cigarette: effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dawkins, Lynne; Turner, John J.D.; Hasna, Surrayyah; Soar, Kirstie

    2012-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of the White Super e-cigarette on desire to smoke, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, attention and working memory. Eighty-six smokers were randomly allocated to either: 18mg nicotine e-cigarette (nicotine), 0mg e-cigarette (placebo), or just hold...

  13. Income, income inequality and youth smoking in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David X; Guindon, G Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relationships between income, income inequality and current smoking among youth in low- and middle-income countries. Pooled cross-sectional data from the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys, conducted in low- and middle-income countries, were used to conduct multi-level logistic analyses that accounted for the nesting of students in schools and of schools in countries. A total of 169 283 students aged 13-15 from 63 low- and middle-income countries. Current smoking was defined as having smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was our measure of absolute income. Contemporaneous and lagged (10-year) Gini coefficients, as well as the income share ratio of the top decile of incomes to the bottom decile, were our measures of income inequality. Our analyses reveal a significant positive association between levels of income and youth smoking. We find that a 10% increase in GDP per capita increases the odds of being a current smoker by at least 2.5%, and potentially considerably more. Our analyses also suggest a relationship between the distribution of incomes and youth smoking: youth from countries with more unequal distributions of income tend to have higher odds of currently smoking. There is a positive association between gross domestic product and the odds of a young person in a low- and middle-income country being a current smoker. Given the causal links between smoking and a wide range of youth morbidities, the association between smoking and income inequality may underlie a substantial portion of the health disparities observed that are currently experiencing rapid economic growth. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Cigarette smoking and risk of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Julian A; Lee, Paul C; Port, Jeffrey L; Altorki, Nasser K; Neugut, Alfred I

    2008-10-01

    Whereas extensive research has explored the effect of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. We conducted a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39 of 53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144 of 301) of patients without lung metastases [P=0.001; summary odds ratio (OR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology]. Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.20-18.5), but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95% CI 0.27-1.60), was associated with lung metastasis. Compared with the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.42-1.83). Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship seems to be site specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome.

  15. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  16. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  17. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  18. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  19. Cigarette smoke extract increases albumin flux across pulmonary endothelium in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes lung inflammation, and a characteristic of inflammation is an increase in vascular permeability. To determine if cigarette smoke could alter endothelial permeability, we studied flux of radiolabeled albumin across monolayers of porcine pulmonary artery endothelium grown in culture on microporous membranes. Extracts (in either dimethylsulfoxide or phosphate-buffered saline) of cigarette smoke in a range estimate of concentrations simulating cigarette smoke exposure to the lungs in vivo caused a dose-dependent increase in albumin flux that was dependent on extracellular divalent cations and associated with polymerization of cellular actin. The effect was reversible, independent of the surface of endothelial cells exposed (either luminal or abluminal), and due primarily to components of the vapor phase of smoke. The effects occurred without evidence of cell damage, but subtle morphological changes were produced by exposure to the smoke extracts. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke can alter permeability of the lung endothelium through effects on cytoskeletal elements

  20. The Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Advertising on Youth Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising on youth smoking. NRT advertising could decrease smoking by informing smokers that the product can make quitting easier and thus inducing more smokers to try and quit. However, a moral hazard is created because NRT advertising increases the expectation that cessation is relatively easy. NRT advertising could thus induce youth to smoke, to smoke more and/or to delay quit attempts. Data from Nielsen Media Research ...

  1. Development of nitroxide radicals–containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals–containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV–visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke. (papers)

  2. Electronic cigarette use and its association with smoking in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Leung, Lok Tung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly used in adolescents with unknown impacts on conventional cigarette smoking. We examined the associations of e-cigarette use with smoking intention, nicotine addiction and smoking cessation in Chinese adolescents. A total of 45,128 students (age 14.6 ± 1.9; boys 51.4%) from 75 randomly selected schools in Hong Kong reported e-cigarette use (in the past 30 days), conventional cigarette use and socio-demographic characteristics in an anonymous questionnaire survey. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of intention to smoke, morning smoking urge, intention to quit and quit attempts; and beta-coefficient (β) of cigarette consumption per day were calculated in relation to e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use was associated with intention to smoke with an AOR (95% CI) of 1.74 (1.30-2.31) in all students, 2.18 (1.12-4.23) in never and 2.79 (2.05-3.79) in ever smokers (non-significant interaction by smoking status). The associations were also significant in experimental and former smokers but not in current smokers. In current smokers, e-cigarette use was significantly associated with heavier smoking (β 2.54, 95% CI 1.28-3.81) and morning smoking urge (AOR 2.54, 95% CI 1.50-3.11), and non-significantly associated with lower quit intention (0.76, 0.52-1.09) and attempts (0.80, 0.56-1.23). E-cigarette use was associated with smoking intention in never, experimental and former smokers in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. In current smokers, e-cigarette use was associated with nicotine addiction but not quit intention and attempts. Prospective studies with detailed measurements on e-cigarette use are warranted for further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. E-Cigarettes: The Science Behind the Smoke and Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Sonti, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarettes are a diverse set of devices that are designed for pulmonary delivery of nicotine through an aerosol, usually consisting of propylene glycol, nicotine, and flavorings. The devices heat the nicotine solution using a battery-powered circuit and deliver the resulting vapor into the proximal airways and lung. Although the current devices on the market appear to be safer than smoking combusted tobacco, they have their own inherent risks, which remain poorly characterized due to widespread product variability. Despite rising use throughout the United States, predominantly by smokers, limited evidence exists for their efficacy in smoking cessation. Pending regulation by the FDA will enforce limited disclosures on the industry but will not directly impact safety or efficacy. Meanwhile, respiratory health practitioners will need to tailor their discussions with patients, taking into account the broad range of existing effective smoking cessation techniques, including pharmaceutical nicotine replacement therapy. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. The biologic effects of cigarette smoke on cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobus, Samantha L; Warren, Graham W

    2014-12-01

    Smoking is one of the largest preventable risk factors for developing cancer, and continued smoking by cancer patients is associated with increased toxicity, recurrence, risk of second primary cancer, and mortality. Cigarette smoke (CS) contains thousands of chemicals, including many known carcinogens. The carcinogenic effects of CS are well established, but relatively little work has been done to evaluate the effects of CS on cancer cells. In this review of the literature, the authors demonstrate that CS induces a more malignant tumor phenotype by increasing proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis and by activating prosurvival cellular pathways. Significant work is needed to understand the biologic effect of CS on cancer biology, including the development of model systems and the identification of critical biologic mediators of CS-induced changes in cancer cell physiology. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  5. Smoking behaviour in youth: the problem of low self-esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, A; Inglis, D

    1999-10-01

    The study considers the relationship between self-esteem and smoking in youth. Research has emphasized the need for ecological perspectives on health behaviours, for example, the context and meaning of cigarette smoking in young people's lives. Recent Scottish research, utilizing a range of methodologies, has examined the peer group context and smoking. The convergence of findings is striking. It would appear that different social groupings exist within the peer context, where these are tied to peer status and associated with distinctive lifestyle practices, and dispositions, including smoking. In the case of self-esteem and smoking the results from conventional, survey-based research have often been inconclusive, the suggestion being that global measures of self-esteem are insufficient, since feelings of self-esteem are domain or context specific. However, the present study analyses survey data from two Scottish samples of 13-14-year-olds, conducted some 10 years apart, one national (n=2100, 1987) and the other rural (n=800, 1996) to show that even with the bluntest of research instruments, i.e. self-report questionnaire survey data and general measures, it is possible to elaborate on the relationship between self-esteem and cigarette smoking in youth. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  6. Cigarette smoking among Thai Buddhist monks, central and eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2005-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December, 2003 among Thai Buddhist monks in 4 provinces of the central region (Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Saraburi and Chai Nat) and in 4 provinces of the eastern region (Chachoengsao, Rayong, Trat, and Sa Kaeo) of Thailand. Data were collected using face to face interviews, questionnaires, and physical examination reports (weight, height, heart rate, blood pressure, etc) as the research tools. This study focused on sociodemographics, history of illness, and smoking behavior. The proportion of the cigarette smoking was 47.6% of the total of 920 Buddhist monks. The age group 20-34 years, Maha Nikaya section and Public temple were the majority of the study subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that only four factors were related to smoking consumption: dharma education, Naktharm To (grade 2) (OR = 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4-0.9), Naktharm Aek (grade 3) or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.6); Lay education, secondary school (OR = 0.7, 95% Cl: 0.5-0.9), bachelor degree or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.8); systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mmHg (OR = 1.8, 95% Cl: 1.1-2.8) and history of respiratory illness (OR = 3.2, 95% Cl: 1.5-6.9). As a result, dharma education and well educated persons were the crucial factors which led to success in decreasing cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation campaigns and education of the consequences of smoking are strongly recommended among risk groups.

  7. Carboxyhemoglobin Levels Induced by Cigarette Smoking Outdoors in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jonathan; George, Naomi; Schwarz, John; Yousif, Sami; Suner, Selim; Hack, Jason B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive screening of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) in the emergency department to detect occult exposure is increasingly common. The SpCO threshold to consider exposure in smokers is up to 9%. The literature supporting this cutoff is inadequate, and the impact of active smoking on SpCO saturation remains unclear. The primary objective was to characterize baseline SpCO in a cohort of smokers outdoors. Secondary objectives were to explore the impact of active smoking on SpCO and to compare SpCO between smokers and non-smokers. This was a prospective cohort pilot study in two outdoor urban public areas in the USA, in a convenience sample of adult smokers. SpCO saturations were assessed non-invasively before, during, and 2 min after cigarette smoking with pulse CO-oximetry. Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and a generalized estimating equation model. Eighty-five smokers had mean baseline SpCO of 2.7% (SD 2.6) and peak of 3.1% (SD 2.9), while 15 controls had SpCO 1.3% (SD 1.3). This was a significant difference. Time since last cigarette was associated with baseline SpCO, and active smoking increased mean SpCO. There was correlation among individual smokers' SpCO levels before, during, and 2 min after smoking, indicating smokers tended to maintain their baseline SpCO level. This study is the first to measure SpCO during active smoking in an uncontrolled environment. It suggests 80% of smokers have SpCO ≤ 5%, but potentially lends support for the current 9% as a threshold, depending on clinical context.

  8. Associations between e-cigarette access and smoking and drinking behaviours in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A; Hardcastle, Katherine A; McHale, Philip; Bennett, Andrew; Ireland, Robin; Pike, Kate

    2015-03-31

    Public health concerns regarding e-cigarettes and debate on appropriate regulatory responses are focusing on the need to prevent child access to these devices. However, little is currently known about the characteristics of those young people that are accessing e-cigarettes. Using a cross-sectional survey of 14-17 year old school students in North West England (n = 16,193) we examined associations between e-cigarette access and demographics, conventional smoking behaviours, alcohol consumption, and methods of accessing cigarettes and alcohol. Access to e-cigarettes was identified through a question asking students if they had ever tried or purchased e-cigarettes. One in five participants reported having accessed e-cigarettes (19.2%). Prevalence was highest among smokers (rising to 75.8% in those smoking >5 per day), although 15.8% of teenagers that had accessed e-cigarettes had never smoked conventional cigarettes (v.13.6% being ex-smokers). E-cigarette access was independently associated with male gender, having parents/guardians that smoke and students' alcohol use. Compared with non-drinkers, teenagers that drank alcohol at least weekly and binge drank were more likely to have accessed e-cigarettes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.89, P smoking cessation. Those most likely to access e-cigarettes may already be familiar with illicit methods of accessing age-restricted substances.

  9. Cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Teruo; Yoshida, Hideyo; Takahashi, Hidekatsu; Kawai, Makoto

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the longitudinal impact of smoking cessation and relapse on the exercise habits of apparently healthy Japanese men, 750 subjects presenting for a checkup at a metropolitan health center were surveyed annually for 7 years. Exercise was dichotomously classified as none or any. Subjects were grouped in two categories: 98 smokers who ceased smoking during the second year of the study, matched with 196 continuing smokers and 196 men who had never smoked; and 52 relapsed smokers (including 2 new smokers) who did not smoke at baseline or at Year 1 but smoked from Year 2 to final follow-up, matched with 104 continuing smokers and 104 never-smokers. Based on self-reported responses to questionnaires, exercise was consistently less prevalent among smokers who did not quit than among never-smokers throughout the study. Habitual exercise in subjects who had quit smoking increased during the follow-up (any exercise: 42.9% at baseline increased to 51% at final follow-up, p for longitudinal trend = .115). Habitual exercise in matched never-smokers did not change during the study and decreased significantly among persistent smokers (p = .025). Habitual exercise in relapsed smokers decreased during the follow-up (any exercise: 50.0% at baseline declined to 32.7% at final follow-up, p = .007), but habitual exercise in matched persistent smokers and never-smokers did not change. We conclude that smoking and sedentary lifestyle coexist continuously, that smoking cessation is associated with increased habitual exercise among healthy men, and that relapse is associated with reduced habitual exercise, suggesting that cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits.

  10. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G.; Sutherland, J.M.; McCluskey, A.; Hansbro, P.M.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  11. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Sutherland, J.M. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McCluskey, A. [Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Hansbro, P.M. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  12. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-07-01

    It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers. To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers. Using a randomized single-blind crossover design, 30 participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) were exposed to three different experimental conditions. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session (smoked 2 cigarettes within 30-min) and an active e-cigarette smoking session (smoked a pre-determined number of puffs within 30-min using a liquid with 11 ng/ml nicotine). Similarly, nonsmokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to 23 ± 1 ppm of CO in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber) and a passive e-cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to air enriched with pre- determined number of puffs in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed in participants' blood prior to, immediately after, and 1-h post-exposure. TAC, CAT and GSH remained similar to baseline levels immediately after and 1-h-post exposure (p > 0.05) in all trials. Tobacco and e-cigarette smoking exposure do not acutely alter the response of the antioxidant system, neither under active nor passive smoking conditions. Overall, there is not distinction between tobacco and e-cigarette active and passive smoking effects on specific redox status indices.

  13. Exploring Differences in Youth Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Electronic Cigarette Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C; Allen, Jane A; Eggers, Matthew E; Nonnemaker, James; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    Studies suggest that exposure to televised electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertising contributes to the recent increase in e-cigarette use among youth. This study examines the relationship between perceptions of e-cigarette advertisements and attitudes toward and intentions to use e-cigarettes among youth who had never used e-cigarettes. In May 2014, we conducted an online survey of 5020 youth aged 13 to 17. Participants were randomly assigned to answer questions about their attitudes toward and intentions to use e-cigarettes before or after viewing e-cigarette advertisements. Perceived effectiveness (PE) of advertisements was measured after ad exposure. Ordinary least squares models were used to assess the relationship between PE and study outcomes. Among never e-cigarette users, greater PE was associated with more positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes (b = 0.74, P effective were more likely to have a positive attitude toward e-cigarettes and greater intention to try e-cigarettes in the future. Restricting televised e-cigarette advertising may reduce e-cigarette initiation among youth. Previous studies demonstrate that, among adults, PE is antecedent to actual ad effectiveness across a range of behaviors. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the relationship between PE and advertising effectiveness among youth. It provides evidence that PE may be a useful tool to quantify the potential influence of advertising on youth-advertising that, in this case, is designed to market a consumer good that may be harmful to youth but that may also be used to develop public health campaigns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Electronic cigarettes in North America: history, use, and implications for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Budlovsky, Talia; Windle, Sarah B; Filion, Kristian B; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2014-05-13

    Designed to mimic the look and feel of tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may facilitate smoking cessation. However, the efficacy and safety of e-cigarette use for this purpose remain poorly understood. Our objectives were to review the available data on the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation and to consider issues relevant to the context in which they are used, including product awareness and regulatory and ethical concerns. We systematically searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials and uncontrolled, experimental studies involving e-cigarettes. Included studies were limited to English or French language reports. Quality assessment was performed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We identified 169 publications, of which 7 studies were included. Studies have concluded that e-cigarettes can help reduce the number of cigarettes smoked and may be as effective for smoking cessation as the nicotine patch. Although there is a lack of data concerning the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation therapy, available evidence showed no significant difference in adverse event rates between e-cigarettes and the nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are widely used among smokers attempting to quit. However, significant international variation remains in the regulatory mechanisms governing the sale and distribution of e-cigarettes. Ethical concerns surround the use of e-cigarettes among minors and their potential to undermine efforts to reduce cigarette smoking. Given the limited available evidence on the risks and benefits of e-cigarette use, large, randomized, controlled trials are urgently needed to definitively establish their potential for smoking cessation.

  15. The unbearable lightness of "light" cigarettes: a comparison of smoke yields in six varieties of Canadian "light" cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Paul L; Vitaro, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Labelling cigarettes as "light" or "mild" is claimed to be one of the biggest marketing scams in Canadian history. Arguably, such labelling implies that these varieties of cigarettes are less harmful than "regular" cigarettes. In Canada, a food product can be labelled "light" if there is a 25% reduction from the "reference food" and if the constituent being reduced is clearly identified (e.g., light in fat). Cigarette labelling does not comply with these regulations, however. To examine whether or not some tobacco constituents meet the 25% reduction criterion, we compared yields of 41 toxic and/or carcinogenic smoke constituents in six varieties of "light" cigarettes to the yields of "regular" cigarettes. We selected cigarettes from the two most popular Canadian brands, Du Maurier and Players. Using a set of data provided by Imperial Tobacco Canada and made available to the public by the Government of British Columbia, we compared yields measured under a laboratory protocol (modified ISO) that was designed to provide a more rigorous evaluation of the differences between varieties of cigarettes and a more accurate assessment of smokers' potential smoke intake than the traditional protocol (standard ISO). For all six varieties of "light" cigarettes, the yields of nicotine were higher by an average of 5% (range: 1% to 13%). The 25% reduction criterion was not met for any variety of "light" cigarettes concerning yields of tar. For all cigarettes tested, yields of tar were reduced on average by only 16% (range: 5% to 22%). For carbon monoxide (CO), only Player's Smooth Light had an over 25% reduction (30%) compared with Player's Regular. Conversely, yield of CO was 24% higher for Du Maurier Lights compared with Du Maurier Regular. As for the other smoke constituents, the majority (75%) were not reduced by 25% or more in "light" cigarettes, and a sizeable proportion of yields (e.g., acrylonitrile, benzene, chromium, m+p cresol, mercury, nickel, toluene) were larger in

  16. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p'saffected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p'ssmokers with less negative initial subjective ratings, greater false beliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronic cigarette use among cancer patients: Characteristics of e-cigarette users and their smoking cessation outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borderud, Sarah P.; Li, Yuelin; Burkhalter, Jack; Sheffer, Christine E.; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Given that continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis increases the risk for adverse health outcomes, cancer patients are strongly advised to quit. Despite a current lack of evidence regarding their safety and effectiveness as a cessation tool, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular. In order to guide oncologists’ communication with their patients about e-cigarette use, this paper provides the first published clinical data about e-cigarette use and cessation outcomes among cancer patients. Methods Participants (n=1074) included smokers (cancer patients) who recently enrolled in a tobacco treatment program at a comprehensive cancer center. Standard demographic, tobacco use history and follow-up cessation outcomes were assessed. Results A threefold increase in e-cigarette use was observed from 2012 to 2013 (10.6% vs. 38.5%). E-cigarette users were more nicotine dependent than non-users, had more prior quit attempts, and were more likely to be diagnosed with thoracic and head or neck cancers. Using a complete case analysis, e-cigarette users were as likely to be smoking at follow-up as non-users, (OR: 1.0; 95%CI 0.5–1.7). Using an intention to treat analysis, e-cigarette users were twice as likely to be smoking at follow-up as non-users, (OR: 2.0; 95%CI 1.2–3.3). Conclusions The high rate of e-cigarette use observed is consistent with recent papers highlighting increased e-cigarette use in the general population. Our longitudinal findings raise doubt about the utility of e-cigarettes for facilitating smoking cessation among cancer patients. Further research is needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as a cessation treatment for cancer patients. PMID:25252116

  18. Electronic cigarette use among patients with cancer: characteristics of electronic cigarette users and their smoking cessation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borderud, Sarah P; Li, Yuelin; Burkhalter, Jack E; Sheffer, Christine E; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2014-11-15

    Given that continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis increases the risk of adverse health outcomes, patients with cancer are strongly advised to quit. Despite a current lack of evidence regarding their safety and effectiveness as a cessation tool, electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular. To guide oncologists' communication with their patients about E-cigarette use, this article provides what to the authors' knowledge is the first published clinical data regarding E-cigarette use and cessation outcomes among patients with cancer. A total of 1074 participants included smokers (patients with cancer) who recently enrolled in a tobacco treatment program at a comprehensive cancer center. Standard demographic, tobacco use history, and follow-up cessation outcomes were assessed. A 3-fold increase in E-cigarette use was observed from 2012 to 2013 (10.6% vs 38.5%). E-cigarette users were more nicotine dependent than nonusers, had more prior quit attempts, and were more likely to be diagnosed with thoracic and head or neck cancers. Using a complete case analysis, E-cigarette users were as likely to be smoking at the time of follow-up as nonusers (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-1.7). Using an intention-to-treat analysis, E-cigarette users were twice as likely to be smoking at the time of follow-up as nonusers (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.3). The high rate of E-cigarette use observed is consistent with recent articles highlighting increased E-cigarette use in the general population. The current longitudinal findings raise doubts concerning the usefulness of E-cigarettes for facilitating smoking cessation among patients with cancer. Further research is needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of E-cigarettes as a cessation treatment for patients with cancer. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Flavored E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Reduction and Cessation-A Large National Study among Young Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Julia Cen

    2018-04-06

    E-cigarette use prevalence has increased drastically among young adult cigarette smokers in recent years. This study seeks to understand which e-cigarette flavors-sweet and fruity or tobacco and menthol/mint-are more likely to be associated with smoking reduction and cessation among young adults. Longitudinal data (waves 1 and 2) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study from young adult (aged 18-34) cigarette smokers (n = 4,645) at wave 1 and current e-cigarette users (n = 844) at wave 2 were used. Univariate and multivariate regressions were conducted to examine the associations between past-year smoking reduction and cessation and current e-cigarette flavor use at wave 2. At wave 2, 25.9% of respondents either reduced or quit smoking, and 6.7%, 5.2%, and 6.3% of them reported currently using e-cigarettes with tobacco/menthol (TM) flavors, one non-tobacco/non-menthol (NTM) flavor, and multiple NTM flavors, respectively. E-cigarette users with one (AOR = 2.5, p e-cigarette users. NTM flavor use was positively associated with e-cigarette use of a higher frequency and larger amount. The positive association between past-year smoking reduction and cessation and current NTM flavored e-cigarette use may be explained by young adults' escalated e-cigarette use with NTM flavors. Public health professionals should prevent and reduce multiple tobacco use through enhanced education about the harm of vaping NTM flavors and by advising young adult smokers to quit tobacco altogether using evidence-based methods.

  20. TSNA levels in machine-generated mainstream cigarette smoke: 35 years of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Scott; Olegario, Raquel M; Lipowicz, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    This paper characterizes historical and current tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA) levels in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke of US commercial cigarettes. To conduct this analysis, we gathered 35 years of published data of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) levels in MS cigarette smoke. We also assessed internal data of MS smoke NNK and NNN levels generated from various market monitoring initiatives and from control cigarettes used in a multi-year program for testing cigarette ingredients. In all, we analyzed machine smoking data from 401 cigarette samples representing a wide range of products and design characteristics from multiple manufacturers and market leaders. There was no indication that TSNA levels systematically increased in cigarette MS smoke over the 35-year analysis period. In particular, TSNA levels expressed as either per cigarette or normalized for tar suggest a downward trend in MS smoke over the past 10 years. The apparent downward trend in TSNA levels in MS smoke may reflect industry and agricultural community efforts to reduce levels of TSNAs in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking and reproduction: The oviduct as a target of cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riveles Karen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The oviduct is an exquisitely designed organ that functions in picking-up ovulated oocytes, transporting gametes in opposite directions to the site of fertilization, providing a suitable environment for fertilization and early development, and transporting preimplantation embryos to the uterus. A variety of biological processes can be studied in oviducts making them an excellent model for toxicological studies. This review considers the role of the oviduct in oocyte pick-up and embryo transport and the evidence that chemicals in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke impair these oviductal functions. Epidemiological data have repeatedly shown that women who smoke are at increased risk for a variety of reproductive problems, including ectopic pregnancy, delay to conception, and infertility. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate the oviduct is targeted by smoke components in a manner that could explain some of the epidemiological data. Comparisons between the toxicity of smoke from different types of cigarettes, including harm reduction cigarettes, are discussed, and the chemicals in smoke that impair oviductal functioning are reviewed.

  2. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  3. A Qualitative Examination of Smoke-Free Policies and Electronic Cigarettes Among Sheltered Homeless Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Hurst, Samantha; Pierce, John P

    2017-05-01

    To examine attitudes toward smoke-free policies and perceptions of e-cigarette use among homeless adults. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted. Study setting comprised seven transitional homeless shelters with indoor smoke-free policies in San Diego County; facilities differed in outdoor restrictions on smoking. Sixty-six current or former smokers were the study participants. Participants completed a questionnaire on smoking behaviors, perceived antitobacco norms, and attitudes toward smoke-free policies, and attended a focus group interview that explored these topics. We used a directed content analysis approach to analyze the focus group transcripts. Clients in facilities with outdoor restrictions on smoking had stronger perceived antitobacco norms than those in facilities without such restrictions. We identified the following major themes: attitudes toward smoke-free policies, the use of e-cigarettes, the addictive potential of cigarettes, vulnerability to tobacco industry marketing, and interest in smoking cessation. The consensus was that smoke-free policies were important because they limited secondhand smoke exposure to nonsmokers and children. All were curious about e-cigarettes, particularly if they could be smoked in areas where smoking was prohibited and/or used as a cessation aid. In this study of homeless adults, there was strong support for indoor and outdoor smoke-free policies. However, misperceptions that e-cigarettes could be used indoors could threaten antitobacco norms, highlighting opportunities to educate about the potential risks of e-cigarette use among homeless individuals.

  4. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function

  5. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camlin, Nicole J. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, Eileen A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holt, Janet E. [School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  6. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.T.; Weber, R.E.; Yeh, H.C.; Lundgren, D.L.; Snipes, M.B.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to 14 C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m 3 for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14 C contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 ± 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 ± 0.9% and 15.9 ± 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  7. Comparison of cigarette smoke exposure atmospheres in different puffing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.T.; Bechtold, W.E.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke generated using different puffing profiles was characterized for particle size distribution, vapor/gas concentration, and chemical composition. Three puffing profiles were compared: (1) a standard, 2-sec, 35 ml puff (SP), once per minute; (2) a puff of double the standard volume (70 mL), once per minute (DP); and (3) a double puff, twice per minute (2-DP). Results from samples collected with a multijet Mercer impactor indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of smoke particles decreased with puff volume. The concentrations of specific chemicals from gas samples (CO, CO 2 , nitrogen oxides, and small molecular weight hydrocarbons), organic vapor samples (acetone, 2-methylfuran, benzene, meta- and para-xylene, ortho-xylene, and limonene), and particulate samples (nicotine, glycerol, hydroquinone, and palmitic acid) showed good agreement among the three puffing profiles. They support a prediction that the health effects of cigarette smoke generated from 2-DP or DP profiles would not be different from those resulting from SP profiles. (author)

  8. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B T; Weber, R E; Yeh, H C; Lundgren, D L; Snipes, M B; Mauderly, J L

    1988-12-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to {sup 14}C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m{sup 3} for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14{sub C} contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 {+-} 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 {+-} 0.9% and 15.9 {+-} 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  9. "My First Thought was Croutons": Perceptions of Cigarettes and Cigarette Smoke Constituents Among Adult Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, Kathryn E; Morgan, Jennifer C; Mendel, Jennifer; Teal, Randall; Noar, Seth M; Ribisl, Kurt M; Hall, Marissa G; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-07-01

    Understanding what people think about harmful and potentially harmful constituents in cigarettes and cigarette smoke has new urgency given legislation requiring US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to disclose constituent information. Our study sought to obtain qualitative information on what people think about these constituents and the language they use to talk about them. We conducted six focus groups in 2014 with 40 adults in North Carolina. Open-ended questions focused on cigarette and cigarette smoke constituents in general and on the 18 constituents on the FDA's abbreviated list. We coded the transcripts for emergent themes, and all four coders discussed themes until we reached consensus. Participants knew that cigarette smoke contains chemicals but did not know how many chemicals nor what those chemicals are, beyond tar and nicotine. Dangers of constituents mentioned included "chemicals," physical disease, and addiction. Participants incorrectly believed harmful constituents came primarily from tobacco companies' additives. For unfamiliar constituents, people tried to make associations based on similar-sounding words. Recognizable constituents that participants associated with health harms most discouraged them from wanting to smoke. Most participants wanted to know health harms associated with constituents and what else the chemicals were in. Participants showed enthusiasm for learning more information about constituents, and also showed substantial misunderstandings about the source of harmful constituents. Our findings contribute to the limited body of research on adults' knowledge and perceptions of cigarette smoke constituents and can aid the FDA as it plans to disclose constituent information to the public. Our study provides information about adults' understanding of cigarette smoke constituents and what adults would like to know about these constituents. This information can help communication campaigns describe cigarette smoke constituents in a

  10. Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuemmeler, Bernard; Lee, Chien-Ti; Ranby, Krista W; Clark, Trenette; McClernon, F Joseph; Yang, Chongming; Kollins, Scott H

    2013-09-01

    Characterizing smoking behavior is important for informing etiologic models and targeting prevention efforts. This study explored the effects of both individual- and community-level variables in predicting cigarette use vs. non-use and level of use among adolescents as they transition into adulthood. Data on 14,779 youths (53% female) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. A cohort sequential design allowed for examining trajectories of smoking typologies from age 13 to 32 years. Smoking trajectories were evaluated by using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth analysis and latent class growth analysis modeling approach. Significant relationships emerged between both individual- and community-level variables and smoking outcomes. Maternal and peer smoking predicted increases in smoking over development and were associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to any of the four identified smoking groups versus Non-Users. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms during adolescence were related to cigarette use versus non-use. State-level prevalence of adolescent smoking was related to greater cigarette use during adolescence. Individual- and community-level variables that distinguish smoking patterns within the population aid in understanding cigarette use versus non-use and the quantity of cigarette use into adulthood. Our findings suggest that efforts to prevent cigarette use would benefit from attention to both parental and peer smoking and individual well-being. Future work is needed to better understand the role of variables in the context of multiple levels (individual and community-level) on smoking trajectories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mediating influences of negative affect and risk perception on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; Sanders, Patricia E; Bekman, Nicole M; Worley, Matthew J; Monreal, Teresa K; McGee, Elizabeth; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A

    2011-06-01

    A substantial number of adolescents are current and regular cigarette smokers, and there is a need to better understand factors that contribute to smoking behavior during these years. Sensation seeking (SS) is one factor that has consistently been associated with smoking, but less is known about mechanisms that may explain this relationship. The present study tested the hypothesis that high school students high in SS would report heavier cigarette smoking and that this relationship would be mediated by negative affect and by perceptions about the risks of smoking. Students (n = 1,688) participated in an annual survey of substance use and related attitudes and characteristics. As expected, higher SS was associated with greater levels of past 30-day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, p = .004) and lifetime (OR = 1.37, p = .004) smoking, particularly for males. Multiple mediation models indicated that effect of SS on both 30-day (combined indirect effect z = 5.38, p perception. These findings suggest a need for increasing the sensation value of anti-tobacco messages to increase their efficacy for high SS youth. High SS youth may also benefit from prevention efforts designed to teach healthy ways of coping with negative affect.

  12. The separate effects of tar and nicotine on the cigarette smoking manoeuvre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, G.; Newman, S.P.; Paiva, D.; Clarke, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The separate effects of tar and nicotine on the cigarette smoking manoeuvre were investigated. Each of ten asymptomatic habitual smokers smoked three different commercially available cigarettes in a randomised order. The brands were chosen such that two had the same tar yield (10 mg) and two had the same nicotine yield (1.4 mg). The volume of smoke inhaled into the lungs was measured by tracing the smoke with the inert gas 81 Kr m . Puffing indices were recorded using an electronic smoking analyser and flowhead/cigarette holder. There was no difference in the total volume of smoke puffed from each of the cigarette brands. With cigarettes of the samme tar level, the total inhaled smoke volume was lower with the higher nicotine cigarette (P<0.05): by contrast, with cigarettes of the same nicotine level, the toal inhaled smoke volume was lower with the lower tar cigarette (P<0.02). Tar and nicotine appear to exercise independent control over the volume of smoke inhaled. (author)

  13. Noticing e-cigarette advertisements and associations with use of e-cigarettes, disapproval of smoking, and quitting smoking. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijndijk, Suzanne M.; Cummings, K. Michael; Willemsen, Marc C.; van den Putte, Bas; Heckman, Bryan W.; Hummel, Karin; de Vries, Hein; Hammond, David; Borland, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Background Much attention has been directed towards the possible effects of e-cigarette advertisements on adolescent never smokers. However, e-cigarette advertising may also influence perceptions and behaviors of adult smokers. The aim of our study was to examine whether noticing e-cigarette advertisements is associated with current use of e-cigarettes, disapproval of smoking, quit smoking attempts, and quit smoking success. Methods We used longitudinal data from two survey waves of the ITC Netherlands Survey among smokers aged 16 years and older (n=1198). Respondents were asked whether they noticed e-cigarettes being advertised on television, on the radio, and in newspapers or magazines in the previous 6 months. Results There was a significant increase in noticing e-cigarette advertisements between 2013 (13.3%) and 2014 (36.0%), across all media. The largest increase was for television advertisements. There was also a substantial increase in current use of e-cigarettes (from 3.1% to 13.3%), but this was not related to noticing advertisements in traditional media (OR=0.99, p=0.937). Noticing advertisements was bivariately associated with more disapproval of smoking (Beta=0.05, p=0.019) and with a higher likelihood of attempting to quit smoking (OR=1.37, p=0.038), but these associations did not reach significance in multivariate analyses. There was no significant association between noticing advertisements and quit smoking success in either the bivariate or multivariate regression analysis (OR=0.92, p=0.807). Conclusion Noticing e-cigarette advertisements increased sharply in the Netherlands between 2013 and 2014 along with increased e-cigarette use, but the two appear unrelated. The advertisements did not seem to have adverse effects on disapproval of smoking and smoking cessation. PMID:26818084

  14. Cigarette smoke deposition in the tracheobronchial tree: evidence for colligative effects

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, RF; Oldham, MJ; Mannix, RC; Schum, GM

    1994-01-01

    A series of cigarette smoke deposition studies was performed that used hollow models designed to represent the upper airways of adults and children. A major objective of the studies was to look for evidence of the influence of the colligative behavior of concentrated smoke on deposition in the hollow models. Another objective was to identify possible body-size—related factors in cigarette smoke deposition. The concentrated sidestream smoke from 1R3 University of Kentucky unfiltered research c...

  15. Then and now: Consumption and dependence in e-cigarette users who formerly smoked cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Matthew; Todd, Daniel G

    2018-01-01

    Electronic cigarette use, or vaping, continues to be a focus for regulators and policy makers in public health, particularly since it can compete with or be a substitute for smoking. This study investigated characteristics of nicotine dependence and consumption in a sample of vapers who formerly smoked cigarettes. We recruited 436 (80% male) vapers from several internet discussion forums; 95% of whom previously smoked, but ceased after commencing vaping. These participants completed a retrospective version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-R), as well as a version modified to suit current vaping (FTND-V), along with measures of consumption. Nicotine dependence appears to reduce markedly when smokers transition to vaping. However, 'decoupling' is observed in the relationship between consumption and dependence in vaping, and the FTND-V showed inadequate psychometric properties. Older and female vapers tend to employ a low-power, higher nicotine-concentration style of vaping. Overall, nicotine concentration tended to increase over time, although this effect was moderated by users' intentions to reduce their intake. Indicators of smoking addiction do not appear to be applicable to vaping, with respect to both internal consistency and relationship to consumption. This suggests that motivations for vaping are less dominated by nicotine delivery (negative reinforcement), and may be driven more by positive reinforcement factors. Nevertheless, e-liquid nicotine concentration was associated, albeit weakly, with dependence among e-cigarette users. Finally, vapers are heterogeneous group with respect to style of consumption, with a high-power/lower nicotine set-up more common among younger men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Impact of Tobacco vs Electronic Cigarette Smoking on Oxidative Stress and Vascular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Violi, Francesco; Nocella, Cristina; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Peruzzi, Mariangela; Marullo, Antonino G M; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Valenti, Valentina; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    The vascular safety of electronic cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) must still be clarified. We compared the impact of e-Cigarettes vs traditional tobacco cigarettes on oxidative stress and endothelial function in healthy smokers and nonsmoker adults. A crossover, single-blind study was performed in 40 healthy subjects (20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers, matched for age and sex). First, all subjects smoked traditional tobacco cigarettes. One week later, the same subjects smoked an e-Cigarette with the same nominal nicotine content. Blood samples were drawn just before and after smoking, and markers of oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, and vitamin E levels were measured. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was also measured. Smoking both e-Cigarettes and traditional cigarettes led to a significant increase in the levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and a significant decrease in nitric oxide bioavailability, vitamin E levels, and FMD. Generalized estimating equation analysis confirmed that all markers of oxidative stress and FMD were significantly affected by smoking and showed that the biologic effects of e-Cigarettes vstraditional cigarettes on vitamin E levels (P = .413) and FMD (P = .311) were not statistically different. However, e-Cigarettes seemed to have a lesser impact than traditional cigarettes on levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (P = .001), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (P = .046), and nitric oxide bioavailability (P = .001). Our study showed that both cigarettes have unfavorable effects on markers of oxidative stress and FMD after single use, although e-Cigarettes seemed to have a lesser impact. Future studies are warranted to clarify the chronic vascular effects of e-Cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cigarette continuity programs and social support for smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, W; Dunaway, M; Dillman, D G

    1998-01-01

    To describe smokers' participation in cigarette continuity programs and the prevalence and structure of cooperative teams of smokers. Cross-sectional survey of smoking histories and continuity-program participation by individuals and their family members in a convenience sample of 176 current smokers at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington. Fisher exact test or chi2 tests were used to compare proportions. One of 3 smokers collected coupons for a continuity program. Three quarters of the collectors redeemed their own coupons, and one quarter gave coupons to another collector. Coupon collectors reported an average team size of more than 2 members. One fifth of collectors were teammates with another generation of family members, and one quarter of collectors aged 24 to 35 years were teammates with their children. Smokers were often aware of their relatives' coupon-collecting habits. Continuity programs have been a popular means of reinforcing smoking, especially within families and groups of friends. Continuity programs are novel in encouraging smoking and brand loyalty between generations. Continuity-program participants need to be aware of the risk of promoting smoking initiation by their children. Health advocates could use similar strategies to promote smoking cessation and prevention within families and other social groups.

  18. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  19. Cigarette smoking and the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Cameron B; Costenbader, Karen H

    2018-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system inflammatory autoimmune disease of incompletely understood etiology. It is thought that environmental exposures 'trigger' or accelerate the disease in genetically-predisposed individuals. Areas covered: Substantial epidemiological evidence exists to support the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of incident SLE. Recent evidence points to current smoking as the specific risk factor, with decreasing risk 5 years after smoking cessation, and the greatest risk for disease characterized by the presence of SLE-specific autoantibodies. Research has begun to search for possible explanations for the temporal nature of the relationship between current smoking and autoantibody positive-SLE. Here we review potential biologic mechanisms linking smoking and SLE risk, including effects upon T and B cells, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and the formation of short-lived DNA adducts. Expert commentary: The directions for future research in this field include studies of gene-environment interactions, epigenetics, metabolomics and putative biologic mechanisms.

  20. Obesity and Cigarette Smoking: Extending the Link to E-cigarette/Vaping Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H Isabella; Pittman, Patricia; Batshoun, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, electronic tobacco (e-cigarette/vaping) use among young adults has grown exponentially. Given past research linking obesity and cigarette smoking, assessing whether this relationship extends to electronic tobacco use is warranted. The current study examined weight status as a correlate of substance use patterns reflecting electronic tobacco use. Survey data were collected from a convenience sample of 452 (59% female) undergraduates attending a large, public university during the 2015-2016 academic year. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify substance use classes and examine weight status as a covariate of class membership. LCA analyses identified 4 classes: High Substance Use (19%), Risky Alcohol Use (14%), Cigarette/Electronic Tobacco Use (17%), and Low Substance Use (50%). Both obesity status and greater deviation from one's group body mass index (BMI) norm were associated with a higher likelihood of belonging to the Cigarette/Electronic Tobacco Use class. Findings suggest that electronic tobacco use may fit well into previously established relationships between higher weight status and tobacco use. Future research should examine the longitudinal processes and pathways underlying the relationship between weight status and electronic tobacco use.

  1. Obesity and Cigarette Smoking: Extending the Link to E cigarette/Vaping Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Pittman, Patricia; Batshoun, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In recent years, electronic tobacco (e-cigarette/vaping) use among young adults has grown exponentially. Given past research linking obesity and cigarette smoking, assessing whether this relationship extends to electronic tobacco use is warranted. The current study examined weight status as a correlate of substance use patterns reflecting electronic tobacco use. Methods Survey data were collected from a convenience sample of 452 (59% female) undergraduates attending a large, public university during the 2015–2016 academic year. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify substance use classes and examine weight status as a covariate of class membership. Results LCA analyses identified 4 classes: High Substance Use (19%), Risky Alcohol Use (14%), Cigarette/Electronic Tobacco Use (17%), and Low Substance Use (50%). Both obesity status and greater deviation from one’s group body mass index (BMI) norm were associated with a higher likelihood of belonging to the Cigarette/Electronic Tobacco Use class. Conclusions Findings suggest that electronic tobacco use may fit well into previously established relationships between higher weight status and tobacco use. Future research should examine the longitudinal processes and pathways underlying the relationship between weight status and electronic tobacco use. PMID:28376978

  2. Electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes"): review of safety and smoking cessation efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul Truman; Simmons, Vani Nath; Correa, John Bernard; Padhya, Tapan Ashvin; Brandon, Thomas Henry

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among cancer patients and is associated with negative outcomes. Electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes") are rapidly growing in popularity and use, but there is limited information on their safety or effectiveness in helping individuals quit smoking. The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, and additional sources for published empirical data on safety and use of electronic cigarettes as an aid to quit smoking. We conducted a structured search of the current literature up to and including November 2013. E-cigarettes currently vary widely in their contents and are sometimes inconsistent with labeling. Compared to tobacco cigarettes, available evidence suggests that e-cigarettes are often substantially lower in toxic content, cytotoxicity, associated adverse effects, and secondhand toxicity exposure. Data on the use of e-cigarettes for quitting smoking are suggestive but ultimately inconclusive. Clinicians are advised to be aware that the use of e-cigarettes, especially among cigarette smokers, is growing rapidly. These devices are unregulated, of unknown safety, and of uncertain benefit in quitting smoking. In the absence of further data or regulation, oncologists are advised to discuss the known and unknown safety and efficacy information on e-cigarettes with interested patients and to encourage patients to first try FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  3. CT findings of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, Siro; Osima, K.; Kim, S. [Chiba Tokusyukai Hospital, Funabashi (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    CT scans were performed in 11 cases of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking. Characteristics of CT findings were as follows: Remarkable visualization of the branching in peripheral bronchi within secondary lobules, multiple ground-glass opacities of centrilobular or lobular size adjacent to the above mentioned bronchial branching, thickening of the bronchial wall without dilatation, and no or minimal centrilobular emphysema. These characteristic CT findings were observed in all of 11 cases, who are current smokers, and never observed in non-smokers, ex-smokers and patients with apparent centrilobular emphysema. (author)

  4. CT findings of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Siro; Osima, K.; Kim, S.

    1998-01-01

    CT scans were performed in 11 cases of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking. Characteristics of CT findings were as follows: Remarkable visualization of the branching in peripheral bronchi within secondary lobules, multiple ground-glass opacities of centrilobular or lobular size adjacent to the above mentioned bronchial branching, thickening of the bronchial wall without dilatation, and no or minimal centrilobular emphysema. These characteristic CT findings were observed in all of 11 cases, who are current smokers, and never observed in non-smokers, ex-smokers and patients with apparent centrilobular emphysema. (author)

  5. How does youth cigarette use respond to weak economic periods? Implications for the current economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    This paper examines whether youth cigarette use increases during weak economic periods (as do youth alcohol and drug use). The data come from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. With repeated measures over the 1997-2006 period, for almost 9,000 individuals, the samples include 30,000+ teenagers (15-19 years) and 30,000+ young adults (20-24 years). Logit models with state and year controls are estimated. The results indicate that teenagers and young adults increase cigarette use when the economy is weaker, implying that the current financial crisis has likely increased youth cigarette use relative to what it would have otherwise been.

  6. Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquereau, Anne; Guignard, Romain; Andler, Raphaël; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2017-09-01

    There is conflicting evidence that use of e-cigarettes promotes cessation in regular smokers, but contrasting findings may be due to differing definitions of vaping. The aim was to assess whether regular use of e-cigarettes while smoking is associated with subsequent smoking cessation. Baseline internet survey with outcomes measured at 6-month follow-up. All French metropolitan territory. A total of 2057 smokers aged 15-85 years were recruited through an access panel and responded to a 6-month follow-up: 1805 exclusive tobacco smokers and 252 dual users (tobacco plus regular e-cigarette users) at baseline. The three outcomes assessed at 6 months were: a minimum 50% reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts of at least 7 days and smoking cessation of at least 7 days at the time of follow-up. Logistic regressions were performed to model the three outcomes according to regular e-cigarette use at baseline, adjusted for socio-economic variables and smoking behaviours. Baseline dual users were more likely than baseline exclusive tobacco smokers to have halved cigarette consumption [25.9 versus 11.2%, P e-cigarette regularly are more likely to try to quit smoking and reduce their cigarette consumption during the next 6 months. It remains unclear whether regular e-cigarette users are also more likely to stop smoking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Exposure to Advertisements and Susceptibility to Electronic Cigarette Use Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2016-12-01

    Despite the rapid increase in e-cigarette use among youth, little is known about the social and behavioral factors that have contributed to this rise. We investigated whether young e-cigarette users are susceptible to e-cigarette advertisements. Estimates of e-cigarette use and exposure to e-cigarette advertisements from the 2014 National Young Tobacco Survey were investigated. Factors associated with the prevalence and levels of e-cigarette use were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Of all respondents (n = 21,491), 19.8% had tried e-cigarettes and 9.4% were current e-cigarette users. Exposure to e-cigarette ads was prevalent among youth, with 38.6%/29.6%/53.2%/35.4% having medium to high exposure to e-cigarette ads from the Internet/newspapers/stores/TV, respectively. Current use of e-cigarettes among youth was associated with frequent exposure (high vs. low) to e-cigarette advertising from the Internet (odd ratio [OR] = 3.1, p < .0001), newspapers/magazines (OR = 2.5, p < .0001), stores (OR = 2.8, p < .0001), and TV/movies (OR = 2.1, p < .0001). In the multivariate analysis that joint analyzed four advertisement channels and covariates, greater exposure to e-cigarette ads on the Internet (adjusted OR = 1.9, p < .0001) and in retail stores (adjusted OR = 1.9, p < .0001) remained to be significantly associated with increased odds of using e-cigarettes. Vaping by other household members significantly increased the risk of adolescent e-cigarette use (OR = 8.7, p < .0001). Exposure to e-cigarette ads significantly increased susceptibility to e-cigarette use among adolescents. E-cigarette advertising regulations and educational campaigns are critically needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cigarette Nicotine Content as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Negative Affect and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason D; Kypriotakis, George; Karam-Hage, Maher; Green, Charles E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Cinciripini, Paul M; Donny, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests a strong association between negative affect (NA) and smoking. However, little is known about the association between NA and smoking among individuals who switch to reduced-nicotine cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which cigarette nicotine content moderates the relationship between NA and smoking over time. Seven hundred and seventeen participants, 237 in the normal nicotine content (NNC; 15.8 mg/g and usual brand) cigarette group and 480 in the very low nicotine content (VLNC; 2.4 mg/g nicotine or less) cigarette group, participated in a randomized trial that examined the effects of cigarette nicotine content on smoking behavior over 6 weeks. We used parallel process latent growth curve modeling to estimate the relationship between changes in NA and changes in the numbers of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), from baseline to 6 weeks, as a function of cigarette nicotine content. The relationship between NA and investigational CPD reduced over time for those in the VLNC group, but not for those in the NNC group. There was no significant relationship between change in PA and CPD over time for either cigarette group. Smoking VLNC cigarettes disrupts the relationship between smoking and negative affect, which may help reduce nicotine dependence. This study suggests that the association between NA and smoking behavior is reduced over time among those that smoked reduced-nicotine content cigarettes. This provides additional evidence that smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes may help reduce nicotine dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Impacts of smoke-free public places legislation on inequalities in youth smoking uptake: study protocol for a secondary analysis of UK survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Philip Emeka; Craig, Peter; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Green, Michael James

    2018-03-27

    Smoke-free public places legislation has been introduced in many countries to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoking. While evaluations of smoke-free policies have demonstrated major public health benefits, the impact on youth smoking and inequalities in smoking remains unclear. This project aims to evaluate how smoke-free public places legislation in the UK has impacted on inequalities in youth smoking uptake, and how much of any impact is via changes in parental smoking behaviour. The study will constitute secondary analyses of UK data (from the British Household Panel Survey and the Understanding Society study). Merging these datasets gives coverage of the period from 1994 to 2016. Missing data will be handled using multiple imputation. The primary outcomes are the rates and inequalities in initiation, experimentation, escalation to daily smoking and quitting among youths aged 11-15 years. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of smoking among parents of these youths. Discrete-time event history analysis will be conducted to examine whether changes in the probability of youth smoking transitions are associated with the implementation of the smoke-free public places legislation; and whether any observed effects differ by socioeconomic position and parental smoking. A multilevel logistic regression model will be used to investigate whether there is a step change or change in trend for the prevalence of parental smoking after the policy was implemented. The models will be adjusted for relevant factors (including cigarette taxation, the change in the legal age for purchase of cigarettes and e-cigarette prevalence) that may be associated with the implementation of the legislation. This project will use anonymised survey data which have been collected following independent ethical review. The dissemination of the study findings will adopt multiple communication channels targeting both scientific and non-scientific audiences. © Article

  10. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D.; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: \\ud \\ud It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers.\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVE: \\ud \\ud To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers.\\ud \\ud METHODS: \\ud \\ud Using a randomized sing...

  11. How people think about the chemicals in cigarette smoke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer C; Byron, M Justin; Baig, Sabeeh A; Stepanov, Irina; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-08-01

    Laws and treaties compel countries to inform the public about harmful chemicals (constituents) in cigarette smoke. To encourage relevant research by behavioral scientists, we provide a primer on cigarette smoke toxicology and summarize research on how the public thinks about cigarette smoke chemicals. We systematically searched PubMed in July 2016 and reviewed citations from included articles. Four central findings emerged across 46 articles that met inclusion criteria. First, people were familiar with very few chemicals in cigarette smoke. Second, people knew little about cigarette additives, assumed harmful chemicals are added during manufacturing, and perceived cigarettes without additives to be less harmful. Third, people wanted more information about constituents. Finally, well-presented chemical information increased knowledge and awareness and may change behavior. This research area is in urgent need of behavioral science. Future research should investigate whether educating the public about these chemicals increases risk perceptions and quitting.

  12. Atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent after heavy smoking of contraband cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyilmaz, Isa; Ozyilmaz, Sinem; Tosun, Oyku; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Saygi, Murat; Ergul, Yakup

    2015-08-01

    The use of contraband cigarettes is a serious public health problem. We present a case of atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent suspected to be caused by smoking contraband cigarettes. A 15-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department experiencing syncope and palpitations. He was a cigarette smoker, but he had never smoked any illicit tobacco products before. He had finished a pack of counterfeit cigarettes (20 pieces) in 1.5 h. His electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response and irregular RR intervals. The patient had no history of alcohol use, surgery, palpitations, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, or any infectious diseases. His atrial fibrillation was converted to a normal sinus rhythm after the cardioversion treatment. Our patient was discharged from the pediatric cardiology service and advised to quit smoking cigarettes, strictly warning against illicit tobacco products. In conclusion, intensive smoking of counterfeit cigarettes may lead to occurrences of atrial fibrillation.

  13. Perceptions of e-Cigarettes and Noncigarette Tobacco Products Among US Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrock, Stephen M; Lee, Lily; Weitzman, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now the most commonly used tobacco product among US youth. The extent to which perceptions of e-cigarettes' harm and addictiveness differ from those of other products remains unknown, as does whether these perceptions have changed over time. Data from the 2012 and 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a repeated cross-sectional survey of grade 6 to 12 students, were used. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression models were used to describe correlates of perceptions of harm and addictiveness of e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco compared with cigarettes. Trends in perceptions of e-cigarettes' harm among different demographic groups were also assessed. In 2014, 73.0% believed that e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes, compared with 20.2% for smokeless tobacco and 25.8% for cigars. By comparison, 47.1% believed that e-cigarettes were less addictive than cigarettes, compared with only 14.0% for smokeless tobacco and 31.5% for cigars. Use of each product was associated with a perception of decreased harm and addictiveness in adjusted analyses, as was being male, being a non-Hispanic white, and residing with a household member who used that product. Between 2012 and 2014, increasing numbers of US youth thought they were able to assess the relative harm of e-cigarettes and increasingly believed that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Most US youth view e-cigarettes as less harmful and addictive than cigarettes. Far fewer think similarly about cigars and smokeless tobacco. Increases in e-cigarettes' perceived safety mirrors rapid increases observed in their use. Perceived safety correlates with use of each tobacco product. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  15. Examining Demographic Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking among Undergraduate Students at a Turkish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Erkan; Çelik, Ali Kemal; Akbaba, Ahmet Ilker

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading global preventable health risk, and it is associated with well-known health risks such as morbidity, mortality, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and nicotine addiction. When analyzed by age group, cigarette smoking in Turkey is the most prevalent among younger adult populations. The college years appear to be a time…

  16. Effect of cigarette smoke on the measured equivalent volume activity of 222Rn in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckova, S.; Tykva, R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke in air on the increase of the measured equivalent volume activity of 222 Rn is demonstrated. After introduction of the smoke from one cigarette into 1 m 3 of air, this value increased up to ten times as shown be the method of sucking air through a filter. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  17. Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs : A Gene-Expression Comparison Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morissette, Mathieu C.; Lamontagne, Maxime; Berube, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R.; Bosse, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains

  18. Cigarette smoking associated with chronic pancreatitis: a case control study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Lai

    2017-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for CP in the Chinese population and correlates with risk factors, such as age, gender, biliary disease, and alcohol consumption. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for CP in the Chinese subpopulation.

  19. Cigarette Smoke and Estrogen Signaling in Human Airway Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalem Sathish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cigarette smoke (CS in active smokers and second-hand smoke exposure exacerbate respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. While women are known to experience a more asthmatic response to CS than emphysema in men, there is limited information on the mechanisms of CS-induced airway dysfunction. We hypothesize that CS interferes with a normal (protective bronchodilatory role of estrogens, thus worsening airway contractility. Methods: We tested effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE on 17β-estradiol (E2 signaling in enzymatically-dissociated bronchial airway smooth muscle (ASM obtained from lung samples of non-smoking female patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Results: In fura-2 loaded ASM cells, CSE increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i responses to 10µM histamine. Acute exposure to physiological concentrations of E2 decreased [Ca2+]i responses. However, in 24h exposed CSE cells, although expression of estrogen receptors was increased, the effect of E2 on [Ca2+]i was blunted. Acute E2 exposure also decreased store-operated Ca2+ entry and inhibited stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1 phosphorylation: effects blunted by CSE. Acute exposure to E2 increased cAMP, but less so in 24h CSE-exposed cells. 24h CSE exposure increased S-nitrosylation of ERα. Furthermore, 24h CSE-exposed bronchial rings showed increased bronchoconstrictor agonist responses that were not reduced as effectively by E2 compared to non-CSE controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that CS induces dysregulation of estrogen signaling in ASM, which could contribute to increased airway contractility in women exposed to CS.

  20. 2015 Legislative update of e-cigarette youth access and exposure laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Page Daniel; Hammig, Bart; Sudduth, Abbie

    2016-07-01

    As of November 15, 2013, 22 states had passed laws explicitly addressing youth access to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes); by 2014, this increased to 41 states. Also in 2014, more than 13.4% of youth in the U.S. reported using e-cigarettes, making e-cigarette use more prevalent than conventional cigarette use (9.2%). We examined 221 bills addressing youth access and exposure to e-cigarettes between January 1 and November 1, 2015. Text searches on individual state general assembly websites and secondary sources were employed for data collection. Laws were analyzed using seven measures identified to protect adolescents from nicotine initiation and use. Two states (MI, PA) and Washington D.C. do not regulate the sale or distribution of e-cigarettes to youth as of November 1, 2015. Additionally, seventeen states have passed laws requiring e-cigarettes to use child-safety packaging to minimize unintended poisoning. As of July 1, 2016, four states (KS, LA, MN, and NC) will tax e-cigarettes. Oregon prohibits the use of e-cigarettes in cars with children under 18years of age, and Wyoming requires the public health department to develop educational campaigns to better educate the state on the risks of nicotine and tobacco products. While states are closing the gap of youth nicotine exposure, there remains a need to protect youth from e-cigarettes access, which can cause adverse health effects of brain development, lung function and potentially lead to addiction. Recommendation for the FDA to regulate e-cigarettes federally would close this regulation gap and protect youth across the U.S. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cigarette smoking causes hearing impairment among Bangladeshi population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Faisal Sumit

    Full Text Available Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94 were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63 ± 2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06 ± 11.06, 40.79 ± 20.36 decibel (dB, respectively and that of the smokers were 7 ± 3.8, 13.27 ± 8.4, 30.66 ± 12.50 and 56.88 ± 21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p5 years showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16 ± 19.87 dB at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52 ± 19.21 dB of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002. In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI. In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies.

  2. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and early initiation of multiple substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies have shown a relation between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) and offspring initiation of tobacco use. No prior study has examined the association between PCSE and early initiation of multiple substances (EIMS) including marijuana and alcohol in addition to tobacco. We investigated the association between PCSE and multiple substance use during adolescence. Pregnant women attending an urban prenatal clinic were selected to participate in the prospective longitudinal study based on their substance use. This study is based on the 16-year follow-up phase and consists of 579 mother-offspring dyads. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, 54% were Black, and 53% reported smoking cigarettes. 52% of the offspring were female. EIMS is a measure of the number of substances initiated prior to age 16 by the adolescents; it ranged from 0 (no initiation, N = 166) to 3 (all, N = 162). Adolescents exposed to tobacco during first trimester of gestation were 1.4 times more likely to initiate multiple substances by age 16 than the nonexposed group. PCSE was a significant predictor of EIMS after controlling for other prenatal exposures, home environment, and demographic characteristics, using ordinal polytomous logistic regression. Other risk factors of EIMS were maternal and adolescent depression, less strict and less involved parenting, offspring attention problems, and lack of participation in a youth club. There is a significant relation between PCSE and adolescent's EIMS.

  3. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vertical Equity Consequences of Very High Cigarette Tax Increases: If the Poor Are the Ones Smoking, How Could Cigarette Tax Increases Be Progressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Gregory J.; Remler, Dahlia K.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is concentrated among low-income groups. Consequently, cigarette taxes are considered regressive. However, if poorer individuals are much more price sensitive than richer individuals, then tax increases would reduce smoking much more among the poor and their cigarette tax expenditures as a share of income would rise by much less…

  5. Cigarette graphic warning labels increase both risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Tusler, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Cigarette graphic warning labels elicit negative emotion, which increases risk perceptions through multiple processes. We examined whether this emotion simultaneously affects motivated cognitions like smoking myth endorsement (e.g. 'exercise can undo the negative effects of smoking') and perceptions of cigarette danger versus other products. 736 adult and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers viewed one of three warning label types (text-only, low emotion graphic or high emotion graphic) four times over two weeks. Emotional reactions to the warnings were reported during the first and fourth exposures. Participants reported how often they considered the warnings, smoking myth endorsement, risk perceptions and perceptions of cigarette danger relative to smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes. In structural equation models, emotional reactions influenced risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement through two processes. Emotion acted as information about risk, directly increasing smoking risk perceptions and decreasing smoking myth endorsement. Emotion also acted as a spotlight, motivating consideration of the warning information. Warning consideration increased risk perceptions, but also increased smoking myth endorsement. Emotional reactions to warnings decreased perceptions of cigarette danger relative to other products. Emotional reactions to cigarette warnings increase smoking risk perceptions, but also smoking myth endorsement and misperceptions that cigarettes are less dangerous than potentially harm-reducing tobacco products.

  6. Continued Importance of Family Factors in Youth Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although it is known that levels of family factors (FF) such as parental monitoring and parent–adolescent connectedness vary during adolescence, it is unknown which factors remain protective, preventing smoking initiation, in youth of differing racial/ethnic groups. Using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, we examined which FF protect against smoking initiation in White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Methods: A total of 3,473 parent-nonsmoking youth dyads from Round 1 (T1) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were followed to Round 3 (T2). Youth smoking status at T2 was assessed as the primary outcome. We examined changes in FF (T2 – T1) and the protection afforded by these factors at T1 and T2 for smoking initiation, both by race/ethnicity and overall. Results: There were statistically significant decreases in levels of protective FF from T1 to T2 across all racial/ethnic groups; however, FF levels were higher in never-smokers compared with smoking initiators at both T1 and T2 (p parental monitoring in Black and Hispanic youth. Overall, higher parental monitoring at T1 was associated with decreased odds of smoking initiation (33%); decreased parental monitoring and perceived punishment from T1 to T2 were associated with increased odds of smoking initiation (55% and 17%, respectively). Conclusions: Smoking prevention interventions should encourage parents to both enforce consistent consequences of smoking behavior, and continue monitoring, especially in minority groups. PMID:22454285

  7. Electronic Cigarettes Among Priority Populations: Role of Smoking Cessation and Tobacco Control Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Kim, Yoonsang; Vera, Lisa; Emery, Sherry L

    2016-02-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) market has evolved rapidly in recent years, with exploding growth in brands and product types; however, e-cigarette use among priority (sexual minority and low-income) populations and its relationship with smoking-cessation and tobacco control policies have yet to be fully characterized. The authors conducted a nationally representative online survey of 17,522 U.S. adults in 2013. Participants were drawn from GfK's KnowledgePanel. Logistic regression models were used to analyze relationships between e-cigarettes (awareness, ever use, current use) and cigarette smoking and cessation behaviors, tobacco control policies, and demographics. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 15% of participants reported ever use of e-cigarettes, 5.1% reported current use, and 34.5% of ever users reported current use. E-cigarette awareness was lower among women, minorities, and those with low education. Ever and current use of e-cigarettes was higher among current cigarette smokers, young adults, and those with low SES; both ever use and current use were correlated with current cigarette smoking status, particularly when combined with quit intentions or attempts. Lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender respondents had higher rates of ever use and current use. Ever use was lower in states with comprehensive smoking bans. No significant relationship between cigarette price and e-cigarette use was detected. Ongoing surveillance of e-cigarette use among subpopulation groups and monitoring their use for combustible cigarette cessation are needed. Important variations in the patterns and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and use exist among priority populations. These findings have implications for future e-cigarette policy decisions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun

    2010-01-01

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1 -/- MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  9. Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Dysfunctions Induced by Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Sater Khaled A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known to adversely affect many organs and systems in human, where the cardiovascular system is one of the important targets. However, the exact mechanisms by which cigarette smoke alters myocardial and endothelial cells function and induces cardiovascular pathology are not clear. There are no reports especially with nitric oxide (NO•, uric acid and hemodynamics after acute exercise in smokers up to date. This study is designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress, NO• and uric acid in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking- induced cardiovascular diseases.40 apparently healthy subjects were studied. Depending on their previous physical conditioning status subjects were divided into equal four groups (n=10, physically active nonsmokers, physically active smokers, sedentary nonsmokers and sedentary smokers. Exercise tolerance was evaluated for each subject by using a running race (3 kilometers after a worming up period of 5 minutes.The obtained data revealed that regular exercise significantly decreased the plasma malonaldehyde, total cholesterol, LDL and uric acid levels below sedentary levels. Pre and post race plasma level of malonaldehyde and uric acid levels were significantly increased, while, plasma glutathione and NO• were decreased in sedentary smokers than the sedentary non smokers, physically active smokers and physically active non smokers.These findings point to the role of NO•, uric acid and lipid peroxide in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking induced cardiovascular diseases. Sedentary smokers may be at an even greater risk of oxidative stress-related cardiovascular diseases. Finally, every body should include in a regular exercise.

  10. Inhalation of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb from cigarette smoking in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarzec, B. E-mail: bosk@chemik.chem.univ.gda.pl; Ulatowski, J.; Struminska, D.I.; Borylo, A

    2001-07-01

    The carcinogenic effect of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Poland has one of the highest consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The results of {sup 210}Po determination on the 14 most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes which constitute over 70% of the total cigarette consumption in Poland are presented and discussed. Moreover, the polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobaccos, ash, fresh filters and post-smoking filters. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb inhalation with the cigarette smoke. The results of this work indicate that Polish smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 20 to 215 mBq of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb each. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers were estimated to be 35 and 70 {mu}Sv from {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, respectively. For persons who smoke two packs of cigarettes with higher radionuclide concentrations, the effective dose is much higher (471 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}) in comparison with the intake in diet. Therefore, cigarettes and the absorption through the respiratory system are the main sources and the principal pathway of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb intake of smokers in Poland.

  11. Inhalation of 210Po and 210Pb from cigarette smoking in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Ulatowski, J.; Struminska, D.I.; Borylo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Poland has one of the highest consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The results of 210 Po determination on the 14 most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes which constitute over 70% of the total cigarette consumption in Poland are presented and discussed. Moreover, the polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobaccos, ash, fresh filters and post-smoking filters. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb inhalation with the cigarette smoke. The results of this work indicate that Polish smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 20 to 215 mBq of 210 Po and 210 Pb each. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers were estimated to be 35 and 70 μSv from 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. For persons who smoke two packs of cigarettes with higher radionuclide concentrations, the effective dose is much higher (471 μSv yr -1 ) in comparison with the intake in diet. Therefore, cigarettes and the absorption through the respiratory system are the main sources and the principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake of smokers in Poland

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of argileh (water pipe or hubble-bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, M; Jabbour, S; El-Roueiheb, Z; Chemaitelly, H

    2004-12-01

    Currently, little is known about argileh (water pipe or hubble-bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in the Arab world, despite emerging evidence on the adverse health effects of argileh smoking and well-established knowledge about the health risks of cigarette smoking during pregnancy. The present study assesses pregnant Arab women's knowledge of chemical contents and related harmful effects of argileh and cigarettes, their attitudes towards smoking argileh and cigarettes, and their actual smoking of argileh and cigarettes, both before and during pregnancy. A stratified sample of 864 women from 23 health care centers in Lebanon completed a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was collected on basic demographic variables, women's knowledge, attitudes, and cigarette and argileh smoking. Women were partially knowledgeable about the health risks of cigarette smoking, knew little about the harmful ingredients of argileh smoking, and had many misconceptions regarding how argileh worked or how it can produce harm. Attitudes were permissive towards all forms of smoking. Almost one quarter (23%) of participants reported smoking during pregnancy, with 17% smoking only cigarettes, 4% smoking only argileh, and 1.5% smoking both cigarette and argileh. A significant and growing percentage of pregnant Arab women are smoking in Lebanon, with four cigarette smokers for every argileh smoker. Smoking behaviors are empirically linked with important gaps in knowledge and with permissive attitudes. These data may be used to design more effective prevention programs targeting this vulnerable population.

  13. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A hospital-b...

  14. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and incidence of aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, S C; Wolk, A; Bäck, M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are modifiable lifestyle factors with important impact on public health. It is unclear whether these factors influence the risk of aortic valve stenosis (AVS). To investigate the associations of alcohol consumption and smoking, including smoking intensity and time since cessation, with AVS incidence in two prospective cohorts. This analysis was based on data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men, comprising 69 365 adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were followed for AVS incidence and death by linkage to the Swedish National Patient and Causes of Death Registers. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Over a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 1249 cases of AVS (494 in women and 755 in men) were recorded. Compared with never drinkers of alcohol (lifelong abstainers), the risk of AVS was significantly lower in current light drinkers (1-6 drinks per week [1 drink = 12 g alcohol]; multivariable HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). The risk of AVS increased with increasing smoking intensity. Compared with never smokers, the HR was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.85) in current smokers of ≥30 pack-years. Former smokers who had quit smoking 10 or more years previously had similar risk for AVS as never smokers. This study suggests that current light alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of AVS, and indicates that the association between smoking and AVS risk is reversible. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. The effect of cigarette smoking on semen quality of infertile men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrannia, T.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on semen quality of infertile men. Two hundred fourteen infertile men who had been smoking cigarette and one hundred thirty infertile non smokers men participated in this study. Seminal volume, sperm concentration, motility, viability, and morphology were examined. The quality of spermatozoa obtained from smokers were much lower than non-smokers (P<0.01). The sperm concentration, viability and forward progression were negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (P<0.01). Smoking does affect the semen quality of infertile men. (author)

  16. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of 239PuO2 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Pappin, J.L.; Stevens, D.L.; Irby, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Groups of rats were exposed or sham exposed to cigarette smoke for 7 mo, at which time they were exposed to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 . Rats were then subjected to whole-body counting (17-keV X-rays) periodically, beginning at day 4 after plutonium exposure, and smoke exposures or sham exposures were resumed on day 7. Clearance of plutonium from the lungs of cigarette-smoke-exposed rats was significantly slower than that from the sham-exposed rats' lungs. The difference between the two groups became significant 7 days after the resumption of cigarette-smoke exposures

  17. Effect of the number of cigarettes smoked and of radon exposure on the lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.; Holy, K.; Sedlak, A.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between the extent of cigarette smoking and the lung cancer risk in people exposed to radon was examined. The changes in the airway geometry due to an increased production of mucus caused by smoking were taken into account. The mucous layer protects the target cells from the effects of ionizing radiation. The radiation risk per unit exposure decreases with the number of cigarettes smoked, in contrast to the total risk, which increases to stagnate in the range of extensive daily cigarette smoking. Lung damage in chronic smokers should be taken into account, though. (orig.)

  18. Pattern of shisha and cigarette smoking in the general population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Anil, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a primary risk factor for cancer development. While most research has focused on smoking cigarettes, the increasing popularity of shisha