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Sample records for younger granite intrusion

  1. Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruden, Alexander R. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    2008-12-15

    The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical (&apos

  2. Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical ('constrained

  3. Distress and Recurrence of Intrusive Thoughts in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Magee, Joshua C; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study incorporated a lifespan perspective into existing theories of intrusive thoughts to examine age-related differences in the difficulty controlling intrusive thoughts, the distress following intrusive thought recurrences, and the meanings assigned to these recurrences. Younger (N = 51) and older (N = 49) community adults were randomly assigned to suppress (i.e., keep out of mind) or monitor an intrusive thought. Participants rated their positive and negative affect throughout ...

  4. Aeroradiometric and photogeologic characterizations Of the younger granites in the north eastern desert, Egypt and implications for mineral deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Maksoud, M. A. [محمد علي عبدالمقصود; Meguid, Ahmed A. Abdel; Abuzied, Hassan T.; Rakaiby, Magid L.; Bishta, Adel Z.

    1995-01-01

    Photogeologic studies of the younger granites in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt using both aerial photographs and satellite images revealed the separation of three successive phases of younger granites with different photogeological radiometrical and gcologiical characteristics. The first phase plutons (YG1) are charactlerizcd by brown colour, dark tone, fine surface texture, low relief with gentle slopes, elongated ridges, large size (3 km3), and high density -dendritic to parallcd-dra...

  5. Three Paleoproterozoic A-type granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, East Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Huhma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mafic and felsic intrusive rocks aged 2.5–2.4 Ga have been observed over a large area in eastern and northern Finland, as well as in adjacent northwestern Russia. We describe three granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, Finland, that belong to this bimodal magmatic event. All these three granites show clear A2-type chemical affinities with high Y/Nb, HREE, Fe/Mg, Ga and Nb. Two of the intrusions, Rasinkylä and Pussisvaara, were dated at 2425±3 and 2427±3 Ma, respectively, using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry utilizing the chemical abrasion method (CA-TIMS. CA-TIMS ages are supported by single-grain age determinations obtained by using Laser Ablation Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-MC-ICPMS. New data on the previously described Rasimäki granite from southern Kainuu is presented, including an age of 2389±5 Ma obtained with LA-MC-ICPMS. The variable magnetite content of the granites is proposed to reflect the differences in the oxidation state of the source, which in our interpretation is the local Archean lower crust. Partial melting and the emplacement of the granites occurred in an extensional environment. Heat for the partial melting was provided by mafic magmas under and intraplating the extended crust.

  6. U-Pb Zircon Dating of the Yeniutan Granitic Intrusion in the Western Sector of the North Qilian Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Zircons from granodiorite and biotite granite in the Yeniutan granitic intrusion in the western North Qilian Mountains ylelded a weighted mean 206PH/apparent age of 460±3Ma, suggesting that the intrusion originated during the late stage of plate subuotion Its related Ta’ergou and Xiaoliugou deposits are two of the few large tungsten deposits formed in the plate subduction environment in the world. The U-Pb dating of the zircons from the biotite granite gave a discordant lower intercept age of 183±4 Ma, which implies that the Yanshanian event was probably superimposed on the North Qilian region.

  7. The spatial variation of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Toki granite, Central Japan. Implications for the intrusion and cooling processes of a granitic pluton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial variation in initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (SrI) in the Toki granite, Central Japan, shows heterogeneity ranging from 0.708942 to 0.710069, which provides information on the intrusion and cooling processes of plutons. The Toki granite has three mineralogy-based rock facies: muscovite-biotite granite (MBG), hornblende-biotite granite (HBG) and biotite granite (BG). Large SrI values were found to be distributed at the western margin (west MBG) and the lithologically central region (central BG), while small SrI values were found at the northeast margin (northeast MBG). Regions with high and low Sr concentrations were also found in the Toki granite. In the Sr-rich samples, SrI (0.708942-0.709789) increases with 100/Sr (0.7-1.5). This geochemical trend extends towards the country sedimentary rocks of the Mino Terrane, which can be interpreted to result from assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) between the original granitic magma and the Mino sedimentary rocks. The SrI values in the Sr-rich regions show a correlation with the Alumina Saturation Index (ASI). In particular, the west MBG, with large SrI values, is classified as a peraluminous granitoid with large ASI, suggesting that the western margin of the pluton was strongly affected by assimilation during the intrusion process. The Sr-poor samples are present both in the central BG, with large SrI values, and in the northeast MBG, with small SrI values. The Sr-poor samples have small ASI and large differentiation indices, indicating that the central BG and the northeast MBG were generated either by different AFC process with different amounts of contaminants or by the intrusion and fractionation of different source magma with different SrI values. Overall, the geochemical spatial variations found in the Toki granite can be explained by various degrees of assimilation and fractional crystallization in the magma chamber and/or multi-stage intrusions with different degrees of crystallization of plural

  8. Intrusion level of granitic massifs along the Hercynian belt: balancing the eroded crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneresse, J. L.

    1999-06-01

    Hercynian granitoid intrusions form a long (3200 km) belt comparable in size to other batholiths in the world. Six massifs have been selected which encompass Cabeza de Araya (Extremadura, Spain), Guitiriz (Galicia, Spain), Pontivy and Mortagne (Brittany, France), La Marche (Massif Central, France) and Fichtelgebirge (Bavaria, Germany). Detailed gravity surveys over these massifs and subsequent inversion provide their shape at depth. Correlation of the deeper zones with internal structures determine the place of the root zones. The shape of the massifs is examined along the strike of the chain. The emplacement of individual massifs is controlled by local tectonics. Most granites are not deeply rooted, but one massif (Cabeza de Araya, Spain) shows a root zone presently as deep as 14 km. Most have about half of their volume in the first 3 km below the present surface. Estimates of the magma volume transferred result in 1500 km 3 issued from one specific feeder, yielding a total of 70,000 km 3 of magma intruded all along the chain. The depth of emplacement of the granitic massifs does not show any significant trend along the strike of the chain. The shallower massifs in the French Massif Central correspond to more deeply eroded areas in the center of the chain. Their root zone, as well as the change in the dip of the walls, are presently observed at depths ranging between 4 and 6 km in Hercynian granites. Both variations are interpreted as being related to the brittle/ductile transition at the time of emplacement. Gross thermal considerations place the transition at its former place during magma emplacement, indicating that the upper crust has not been eroded by more than 6-8 km. This estimate severely contrasts with models involving a doubled crust.

  9. Assessment of the radiological consequences of human intrusion into repositories located in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method used in France to assess the radiological impact of waste repositories in granite consists in making a deterministic analysis of the normal evolution scenario (base case scenario) and a limited number of altered evolution scenarios which, for each series of plausible scenarios, are those with the greatest potential impact. In view of the importance of the human intrusion scanario, and following a request from the working party on site selection criteria chaired by Professor Goguel, a study has been made of this scenario under the CEC PAGIS project. A description of the Auriat site drawn up under the PAGIS project was used as a basis for analyzing the radiological consequences of an intrusion (after periods ranging from 1 000 to 100 000 years subsequent to closure of the repository) assumed to result in the creation of a cavern equivalent to a cube measuring 100 m along each side. Three different scenarios were considered (mine worker, stock rearing, gardening). Except for the mine worker scenario, which produced exposure rates of up to 10 millisieverts/year, a figure that is in fact comparable to the dose to which workers in conventional mines are exposed, the calculated dose equivalents were relatively low

  10. Characteristics of pegmatoidal granite exposed near Bayalan, Ajmer district, Rajasthan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nilanjan Dasgupta; Taritwan Pal; Joydeep Sen; Tamoghno Ghosh

    2011-08-01

    The study involves the characterization of pegmatoidal granite, southeast of Beawar, Ajmer district, Rajasthan. Earlier researchers had described this granite as part of the BGC, basement to the Bhim Group of the Delhi Super Group rocks. However, the present study indicates that it is younger than the rocks of Bhim Group of South Delhi Fold Belt, into which it is intrusive. The intrusion is structurally controlled and the outcrop pattern is phacolithic. The granite had intruded post-D2 deformation of the Delhi orogeny along the axial planes of D2 folds. The intrusion has also resulted in the formation of a contact aureole about the calc gneisses.

  11. Deep-seated geology of the granite intrusions at the Soultz EGS site based on data from 5 km-deep boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooijkaas, Gerridina R. [Departments of Petrology and Isotope Geochemistry, Institute of Earth Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Genter, Albert; Dezayes, Chrystel [French Geological Survey, BRGM, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP6009, F-45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2006-10-15

    The petrographic model for the deep-seated geology at the Soultz-sous-Forets Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) site in the Rhine Graben, France, was revised on the basis of data from 5 km-deep wells. Several types of granite and sub-facies were characterized through thin-section analysis of drill cuttings. Various datalogs were studied to correlate them with petrography. The new geological model of the Soultz site is made up of a massive porphyritic granite that shows some paleo-weathering at its top, overlain by about 1400 m of Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments. Between 2700 and 3200 m depth, the same granite is highly fractured and hydrothermally altered. Below this zone, the granite is less fractured and is very rich in biotite and amphibole. Starting at 4700 m depth is a younger, fine-grained, two-mica and amphibole-rich granite that intrudes into the porphyritic granite. (author)

  12. U-Pb dating of zircon from the bed parallel anatectic granitic intrusion in the Baoban group in Hainan Island and the tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Shijiang; HU Jianmin; SONG Biao; CHEN Mulun; XIE Shengzhou; FAN Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The petrological and geochemical features of the bed parallel granitic intrusion in the Pre-Cambrian Baoban group in Hainan Island attest to the anatexis origin of the granites. U-Pb dating analyses of zircons from the anatectic granite and the biotite two-feldspar gneiss in the Baoban group, using SHRIMP II in the Beijing Ion-probe Center, acquire 206Pb/238U ages of 368±3.5 Ma (of granite, 95% confidence level, MSDW=1.23) and 362.9±6.1 Ma (of gneiss, 95% confidence level, MSDW = 2.04) respectively. The two late Devonian ages indicate consistently a tectonic- thermal event experienced in Hainan Island, and are the first discovered record of the Devonian geological process in the district. This event possibly resulted from the deep thermal-dynamic process when the Gondwana continent began to break up in the Devonian period.

  13. Intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust facilitated by magma pulsing and dike-diapir interactions: Numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenrong; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Paterson, Scott

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a 2-D thermomechanical modeling study of intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust to explore the roles of multiple pulsing and dike-diapir interactions in the presence of visco-elasto-plastic rheology. Multiple pulsing is simulated by replenishing source regions with new pulses of magma at a certain temporal frequency. Parameterized "pseudo-dike zones" above magma pulses are included. Simulation results show that both diking and pulsing are crucial factors facilitating the magma ascent and emplacement. Multiple pulses keep the magmatic system from freezing and facilitate the initiation of pseudo-dike zones, which in turn heat the host rock roof, lower its viscosity, and create pathways for later ascending pulses of magma. Without diking, magma cannot penetrate the highly viscous upper crust. Without multiple pulsing, a single magma body solidifies quickly and it cannot ascent over a long distance. Our results shed light on the incremental growth of magma chambers, recycling of continental crust, and evolution of a continental arc such as the Sierra Nevada arc in California.

  14. Depth Estimation of Digitized Aeromagnetic Data of the Western Part of the Younger Granite Rocks of North Central Nigeria, West Africa

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    S.C. Alkali

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at estimating the depths extents of aeromagnetic anomalies over the younger granite rocks and their associates in the western part of North Central Nigeria. The Younger Granites rocks of North Central Nigeria are characterized by total magnetic intensity values ranging from 32670 to 33070 nanoTesla (nT. Most of the anomalous features trend in the northeast-southwest direction. Medium to higher magnetic intensity values occupy more than three quarter of the area. Third order polynomial trend surface fitting performed by least squares produced positive regional field without preferred direction. Higher regional field values are observed along the southern region and lower ones around the northeast. The surface residual anomaly has values between 32660 and 33061 nT. E-W, NE-SW and NNW-SSE are the main structural directions of the residual anomalies. Individual anomalies suggest discontinuity of the rock units. Residual anomalies of the total magnetic intensity fields fitted with third degree polynomial regional curves along four profiles produced both negative and positive values. Segments of the profiles with little variations are considered magnetic ‘quiet’ environments and those showing considerable variation are ‘noisy’ and indicate magnetic sources in the subsurface. Two and a half dimensional models of the subsurface structures suggest deep seated fault along the profiles that attained maximum depths of 12.0 km each along sections Mag1 and Mag2; 13.0 km along Mag3 and 26.6 km along Mag4. The steepness of the magnetic sources suggest possible relative displacement of the blocks of the rock bodies of these magnitudes. The fault correlate with Romanche fracture zone which, if extrapolated into Nigerian landmass will pass through the area diagonally in a NE-SW striking direction.

  15. Advective heat transfer and fabric development in a shallow crustal intrusive granite – the case of Proterozoic Vellaturu granite, south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dilip Saha; Sukanya Chakraborti

    2007-10-01

    Syntectonic plutons emplaced in shallow crust often contain intermediate-to low-temperature deformation microstructures but lack a high-temperature, subsolidus deformation fabric,although the relict magmatic fabric is preserved. The Proterozoic Vellaturu granite emplaced at the eastern margin of the northern Nallamalai fold belt,south India during the late phase of regional deformation has a common occurrence of intermediate-to low-temperature deformation fabric, superimposed over magmatic fabric with an internally complex pattern. But high-T subsolidus deformation microstructure and fabric are absent in this pluton.The main crystal plastic deformation and fluid enhanced reaction softening was concentrated along the margin of the granite body. Resulting granite mylonites show Y-maximum c axis fabric in completely recrystallized quartz ribbons,dynamic recrystallization of perthites,and myrmekite indicative of fabric development under intermediate temperature (∼500-400° C). The weakly-deformed interior shows myrmekite,feldspar microfracturing and limited bulging recrystallization of quartz.The abundance of prism subgrain boundaries is indicative of continuing deformation through low-temperature(∼300° C).The relative rates of cooling in fluenced by advective heat transfer and deformation of the pluton seem to control the overall subsolidus fabric development.The rapid advective heat transfer from the interior in the early stages of subsolidus cooling was followed by slow cooling through intermediate temperature window as a well-developed phyllosilicate rich mylonitic skin around the granite body slowed down conductive heat loss.Low-T crystal plastic deformation of quartz was effected at a late stage of cooling and deformation of the shallow crustal granite body emplaced within the greenschist facies Nallamalai rocks.

  16. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Miocene granitic intrusions related to the Zhibula Cu skarn deposit in the Gangdese belt, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zheng, You-ye; Sun, Xiang; Shen, Ya-hui

    2016-04-01

    The Zhibula Cu skarn deposit (19.5 Mt ore @ 1.64%), near the Qulong porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, is located in the Gangdese porphyry copper belt in southern Tibet. The deposit is a typical metasomatic skarn that is related to the interaction of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and calcareous host rocks. Stratiform skarn orebodies are mainly distributed in the contact between tuff and marble in the lower part of the Jurassic Yeba Formation. Endoskarn zonations for an outward trend are observed in the granodiorite, which grade from a fresh granodiorite to a weakly chlorite-altered granodiorite, a green diopside-bearing granodiorite, and a dark red-brown garnet-bearing granodiorite. The Zhibula granodiorite and monzogranite have similar secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb ages of 16.9 ± 0.3 Ma and 17.0 ± 0.2 Ma, respectively. They exhibit different fractional crystallization from granodiorite (SiO2 = 64.8-69.3 wt.%) to monzogranite (SiO2 = 72.3-76.8 wt.%). Both the granodiorite and monzogranite are characterized by high Al2O3 (12.6-16.7 wt.%) and K2O (1.5-5.5 wt.%) contents, high Sr/Y (35-151) and La/Yb (19-48) ratios, and variable MgO (0.16-3.91) and Mg# (31-61) values. They display features of enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs, e.g., Rb, Ba, Sr, and K), depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P), and moderate negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.58-0.98). They show restricted in situ zircon Hf isotopic compositions (+6.7 to +8.8; only one sample is +4.5) and consistent δ18O values (+6.0‰ to +6.6‰). The geochemical data indicated that the Miocene Zhibula granitic intrusions formed by the magma that were characterized by high Sr/Y ratios and were derived from the partial melting of the thickened juvenile lower crust, which may have been metasomatized by the slab melts during subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust and were induced by the convective removal of the thickened lithosphere. In addition, the

  17. Rare earths elements in the rocks of the Cinovec granite cupola (Czechoslovakia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth elements (REE) were analyzed by the nondestructive INAA method in samples from drilling CS-1 situated in the center of the Cinovec granite cupola, eastern Krusne hory Mts., Czechoslovakia. The 1596 m deep drilling found upper zinnwaldite and lower protolithionite granites which differ in their amounts of REE. Both types of granites that belong to the granites of the Younger Intrusive Complex of the Krusne Hory Mts. give flat chondrite-normalized patterns characterized by a large negative Eu anomaly. (author). 9 figs., 5 tabs., 25 refs

  18. Origin and evolution of the granitic intrusions in the Brusque Group of the Dom Feliciano Belt, south Brazil: Petrostructural analysis and whole-rock/isotope geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Mathias; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Castro, Neivaldo Araújo de

    2016-08-01

    In the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina the Dom Feliciano Belt, formed by the tectonic juxtaposition of different crustal blocks during the Brasiliano-Pan African Orogenic cycle, can be divided into three domains. In the central domain, three granitic suites intrude the metavolcanosedimentary sequence of the Brusque Group: São João Batista (SJBS), Valsungana (VS) and Nova Trento (NTS), from the oldest to the youngest. This extensive magmatism, here referred to as granitic intrusions in the Brusqe Group (GIBG), is coeval with the thermal peak in the host metamorphic successions, but postdates its main foliation. A progressive deformation starting from the magmatic stage throughout the cooling history points to the influence of the late stages of deformation recorded in the Brusque Group. The SJBS consists of gray to white leucocratic, equigranular granites, with aluminous minerals such as muscovite, garnet and tourmaline. The porphyritic VS is the largest of the suites and is characterized by its cm-sized K-feldspar megacrysts in a coarse-grained biotite-rich matrix. The granites from the NTS are equigranular, light gray to pink in color and have biotite as the main mafic mineral, but magmatic muscovite, tourmaline and hornblende can occur as well. Geochemically, the GIBG are mildly peraluminous and show a calc-alkaline affinity. Most intrusions have a high REE fractionation, but some SJBS granites show a characteristic pattern with no fractionation and strong negative Eu anomalies ("seagull pattern"). Elevated Sr(i) values, between 0.707 and 0.735, and negative εNd values as low as -24 points to the melting of old evolved crust. The Nd (TDM) ages are scattered between 1.54 and 2.76 Ga, with a predominance of values around 2.0 Ga. The GIBG have a strong crustal signature that most closely connects, within the regional units, to that of the metasedimentary rocks of the Brusque Group and its crystalline basement, the Camboriú Complex. All three suites

  19. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  20. Contrasting fluid/rock interaction between the Notch Peak granitic intrusion and argillites and limestones in western Utah: evidence from stable isotopes and phase assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabelek, P.I.; Labotka, T.C.; O'Neil, J.R.; Papike, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Jurassic Notch Peak granitic stock, western Utah, discordantly intrudes Cambrian interbedded pure limestones and calcareous argillites. Contact metamorphosed argillite and limestone samples, collected along traverses away from the intrusion, were analyzed for ??18O, ??13C, and ??D. The ??13C and ??18O values for the limestones remain constant at about 0.5 (PDB) and 20 (SMOW), respectively, with increasing metamorphic grade. The whole rock ??18O values of the argillites systematically decrease from 19 to as low as 8.1, and the ??13C values of the carbonate fraction from 0.5 to -11.8. The change in ??13C values can be explained by Rayleigh decarbonation during calcsilicate reactions, where calculated {Mathematical expression} is about 4.5 permil for the high-grade samples and less for medium and low-grade samples suggesting a range in temperatures at which most decarbonation occurred. However, the amount of CO2 released was not anough to decrease the whole rock ??18O to the values observed in the argillites. The low ??18O values close to the intrusion suggest interaction with magmatic water that had a ??18O value of 8.5. The extreme lowering of ??13C by fractional devolatilization and the lowering of ??18O in argillites close to the intrusion indicates oxgen-equivalent fluid/rock ratios in excess of 1.0 and X(CO2)F of the fluid less than 0.2. Mineral assemblages in conjunction with the isotopic data indicate a strong influence of water infiltration on the reaction relations in the argillites and separate fluid and thermal fronts moving thru the argillites. The different stable isotope relations in limestones and argillites attest to the importance of decarbonation in the enhancement of permeability. The flow of fluids was confined to the argillite beds (argillite aquifers) whereas the limestones prevented vertical fluid flow and convective cooling of the stock. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Fluid-related modifications of Cr-spinel and olivine from ophiolitic peridotites by contact metamorphism of granitic intrusions in the Ablah area, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Hassan; Surour, Adel Abdullah

    2016-05-01

    The Ablah serpentinized peridotites and overlying layered metagabbros represent an allochthonous piece of a dismembered ophiolite in the southern Hijaz terrane that belongs to the Neoproterozoic Arabian Shield in Saudi Arabia. On both sides, the ophiolite is bounded by wider domains of granitic intrusions and volcano-sedimentary successions, all together follow a N-S trend. The protolith of the Ablah serpentinized peridotites is mainly harzburgite which is partly or totally serpentinized. Carbonate veins of variable sizes invade and hydrate the serpentinized peridotites. Away from the contact with the granitic intrusions, fresh primary (igneous) olivine and Cr-spinel are preserved in the partly serpentinized peridotites. These relict primary minerals are used to infer their tectonic setting of formation as a nascent spreading center rock association of mid-ocean ridge or back-arc basin setting. Based on the re-distribution of elements related to different thermal effects, three patterns of Cr-spinel modification can be defined. The first pattern can be followed in the partly serpentinized peridotites where Cr-spinel displays simple zoning that is characterized by sharp contact between primary Al-rich cores and secondary Fe3+-rich rims. These cores and rims are homogeneous and show progressive decrease in Mg, Al and Cr, but with remarkable increase in Fe3+ and Fe2+ toward the rims. Mineral assemblage in equilibrium with this type of Cr-spinel is primary olivine + antigorite + chlorite ± talc ± chrysotile. The second pattern of Cr-spinel modification is represented by homogeneous weakly zoned Cr-rich spinel with no distinct sharp contacts between Cr-rich cores and magnetite rims. Cr-spinel cores of this type are rich in Cr and Fe2+, and poor in Mg, Al and Fe3+. The mineral assemblage in equilibrium with this Cr-spinel type is Fe-rich olivine + antigorite + enstatite + chlorite + tremolite + anthophyllite ± talc. The third pattern is defined by pervasive

  2. Granite intrusion by externally induced growth and deformation of the magma reservoir, the example of the Plasenzuela pluton, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Antonio; Fernández, Carlos

    1998-09-01

    The Plasenzuela pluton in the Central Extremadura batholith in the southern Iberian Massif, is an example of permissive emplacement in relation to the tectonic development of extensional fractures in the upper continental crust. Paradoxically, this pluton has a concordant structural pattern which is classically attributed to diapirism or ballooning. This pattern consists of the following elements: (a) nearly elliptical shape in the horizontal section; (b) conformity of the pre-existing aureole structures to the shape of the pluton contacts; and (c) development of a crenulation cleavage, parallel to the contacts, in the vicinity of the pluton walls. All these features have been interpreted in many plutons as resulting from the pushing-aside of the country rock structures due to the expansion of the pluton. However, the detailed structural relationships in the aureole do not favour a forceful emplacement mechanism. By contrast, these relationships constitute prime evidence of permissive intrusion in extensional fractures. According to this interpretation, the concordant shape of the pluton was acquired by syn-plutonic opening of a mixed tensional-shear fracture, parallel to the main foliation in the host rocks, and by folding of the fracture walls together with the previous anisotropy of the country rocks. This is a growth-deformation process that can operate at local conditions in the upper continental crust giving rise to concordant syn-tectonic plutons.

  3. Mesoproterozoic rapakivi granites of the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern border of the Amazonian craton, Brazil-I. Reconnaissance U-Pb geochronology and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Leite, W.B.; Payolla, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapakivi granites and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern Amazonian craton, Brazil were emplaced during six discrete episodes of magmatism between ca 1600 and 970 Ma. The seven rapakivi granite suites emplaced at this time were the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1606 and 1532 Ma); Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1406 Ma); Teotonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1387 Ma); Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1346 and 1338 Ma); Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1314 and 1309 Ma); Santa Clara Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1082 and 1074 Ma); and Younger Granites of Rondonia (U-Pb ages between 998 and 974 Ma). The Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite intruded the Paleoproterozoic (1.80 to 1.70 Ga) Rio Negro-Juruena crust whereas the other suites were emplaced into the 1.50 to 1.30 Ga Rondonia-San Ignacio crust. Their intrusion was contemporaneous with orogenic activity in other parts of the southwestern Amazonian craton, except for the oldest, Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite. Orogenic events coeval with emplacement of the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite are not clearly recognized in the region. The Santo Antonio, Teotonio, Alto Candeias and Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suites are interpreted to represent extensional anorogenic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of the Rondonian-San Ignacio orogeny. At least the Sao Lourenco-Caripunas rapakivi granites and coeval intra-continental rift sedimentary rocks may, in contrast, represent the products of extensional tectonics and rifting preceding the Sunsas/Aguapei orogeny (1.25 to 1.0 Ga). The two youngest rapakivi suites, the Santa Clara Intrusive Suite and Younger Granites of Rondonia, seemingly represent inboard magmatism in the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province during a younger episode of reworking in the Rio Negro-Juruena Province during the waning stages of the collisional 1.1 to 1.0 Ga

  4. Genetic relationship between L granite body and 3701 uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ore deposit occurs in carbonate rocks situated in the exocontact zone (0 - 120 m) with the L granite body. The mineralization is hosted by argillaceous limestone of the middle Devonian Yingtang Formation. The ore bodies are in lenticular or stratifed form. The ores are fine vein-type and disseminated type. Four stages of mineralization in the deposit are recognized. Industrial mineral is pitchblende which occurs as micro-impregnation and micro-vein in the calcite, and fills or replaces its associated minerals. Gangue minerals are chiefly calcite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and tennantite etc. The host rocks of the ore-veins show weak hydrothermal alterations with plane and linear distribution. The L granite body with an area of 238 km2 is a single-stage intrusive batholith which mainly consists of coarse-medium grained biotite granites. Because the urnium mineralization age (65.0 - 30.7 Ma) is much younger than that of the L granite (318 -202 Ma), it may be considered that the deposit is genetically not related to activity of the L granitic magma. However, the granitic rocks may play an important role in the formation of the 3701 uranium deposit in following hands: providing a large number of uranium and lead; providing minor amounts of surfur, carbon and trace elements; forming impermeable basement to promote the accumulation of uranium-bearing solution; providing an additional heat source for heating ore-bearing solution and its convective circulation

  5. The Encantada Granite: registration of a peraluminous intrusion in the Rondonian Province - San Ignacio, in SW Amazonic Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Verginassi do Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Encantada Granite occurs on the extreme southwest of the state of Mato Grosso, SW of the Amazonian Craton, near the border of Brasil/Bolívia. It corresponds to an body oriented to NNW direction that intruded metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. It consists of leucogranites with monzo- to sienogranitic composition, marked by prominent schistosity. It is characterized by equigranular to porphyritic inequigranular texture, and composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite with garnet, zircon, allanite and opaque minerals. Chlorite and epidote are the most common secondary minerals. The geochemical study allows the classification of the magmatism as having acid character, sub-alkaline, high-potassium-calc-alkaline to shoshonitic type. These rocks have alumina index saturation higher than 1, with normative corundum, and thus classified as peraluminous granite. Due to the reflection of the excess of aluminium, they have various aluminous phases, mainly muscovite, biotite and garnet; presents typical pattern of calc-alkaline rocks rich in potassium with enrichment of light ETRs over the heavy ones. The collected data allows to consider that the Encantada Granite rocks were generated from the partial melting of crustal rocks of pelitic composition.

  6. Granites petrology, structure, geological setting, and metallogeny

    CERN Document Server

    Nédélec, Anne; Bowden, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Granites are emblematic rocks developed from a magma that crystallized in the Earth’s crust. They ultimately outcrop at the surface worldwide. This book, translated and updated from the original French edition Pétrologie des Granites (2011) is a modern presentation of granitic rocks from magma genesis to their crystallization at a higher level into the crust. Segregation from the source, magma ascent and shapes of granitic intrusions are also discussed, as well as the eventual formation of hybrid rocks by mingling/mixing processes and the thermomechanical aspects in country rocks around granite plutons. Modern techniques for structural studies of granites are detailed extensively. Granites are considered in their geological spatial and temporal frame, in relation with plate tectonics and Earth history from the Archaean eon. A chapter on granite metallogeny explains how elements of economic interest are concentrated during magma crystallization, and examples of Sn, Cu, F and U ore deposits are presented. Mi...

  7. Zircon U-Pb geochronological framework of Qitianling granite batholith, middle part of Nanling Range, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Qitianling granite batholith (QGB) is located in the southern Hunan Province, middle part of the Nanling Range, South China. Its total exposure area is about 520 km2. Based on our 25 single grain zircon U-Pb age data and 7 published data as well as the geological, petrological, and space distribution characteristics, we conclude that QGB is an Early Yanshanian (Jurassic) multi-staged composite pluton. Its formation process can be subdivided into three major stages. The first stage, emplaced at 163―160 Ma with a peak at about 161 Ma, is mainly composed of hornblende-biotite monzonitic granites and locally biotite granites, and distributed in the eastern, northern, and western peripheral parts of the pluton. The second stage, emplaced at 157―153 Ma with a peak at 157―156 Ma, is mainly composed of biotite granites and locally containing hornblende, and distributed in the middle and southeastern parts of the pluton. The third stage, emplaced at 150―146 Ma with a peak at about 149 Ma, is mainly composed of fine-grained (locally porphyritic) biotite granites, and distributed in the middle-southern part of the pluton. Each stage can be further disintegrated into several granite bodies. The first two intrusive stages comprise the major phase of QGB, and the third intrusive stage comprises the additional phase. Many second stage fine-grained granite bosses and dykes intruded into the first stage host granites with clear chilling margin-baking phenomena at their intrusive contacts. They were emplaced in the open fracture space of the earlier stage consolidated rocks. Their isotopic ages are mostly 2―6 Ma younger than their hosts. Conceivably, the time interval from magma emplacement, through cooling, crystallization, solidification, up to fracturing of the earlier stage granites cannot exceed 2―6 Ma. During the Middle-Late Jurassic in the Qitianling area and neighboring Nanling Range, the coeval granitic and basic-intermediate magmatic activities were widely

  8. STUDY ON THE18O DEPLETION IN THE SUZHOU Nb,Ta-BEARING GRANITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangRucheng; XuShijin; ShenWeizhou; XuKeqin

    1997-01-01

    The Suzhou granite is one of the farnous-Nb,Ta-bearing granites in China. Petrographic studies permitted to divide it into three intrusion stages;the first stage-medium-grained am-phibole-biotite granite,the second stage-medium-to-fine-grained biotite granite ,and the third

  9. Rare Earths of Two Types Granites in Sawuer Region, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Feng; Zhou Taofa; Tan Lugui; Fan Yu; Yue Shucang

    2005-01-01

    The geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements of A type and I type granites were studied in the Sawuer region, Xinjiang. The characteristics of two types granites are different obviously,because the A type and I type granites formed at different stage of the post-collisional period. The Sentasi intrusion and Wokensala intrusion are the I type granites formed at the late of post-collisional period, and there is extrusion translating to extension stress. The characteristics of rare earth elements show that the fractional crystallization of the I type granites is indistinct, and the sources of the I type granites come from the mantle. The Kuoyitasi intrusion and Qiaqihai intrusion are the A type granites formed at the end of post-collisional period, and there is extension stress. The characteristics of rare earth elements show that the fractional crystallization of the A type granites is distinct. The sources of the A type granites come from the mantle but interfused by the crust.

  10. Modelling granite migration by mesoscale pervasive flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, A. M.; Weinberg, R. F.

    2002-06-01

    Mesoscale pervasive magma migration leads to granite injection complexes, common in hot crustal terranes. Pervasive migration is limited by magma freezing when intruding cold country rock. Here, we explore numerically the feedback mechanism between magma intrusion and heating of the country rock, which allows younger intrusive batches to reach increasingly shallower/cooler levels. This process relies on the higher solidus temperature of a rock compared to that of its melt, once melt is segregated. We define the 'free-ride layer' as the region above the melt source, where magma may freely migrate because rock temperature is above melt solidus. The top of the free-ride layer, which corresponds to the melt solidus ( TS) isotherm, is at the 'limiting depth', zS. After magma passes through the free-ride layer, the magma 'front' is always at the limiting depth. We modeled the thickening and heating of the crust above the source as melt at its liquidus ( TL) intrudes it pervasively from below. We found that: (a) magma quickly warms crust below zS to about TL, forming a step in temperature at zS; (b) the front ( zS) moves up through the crust as more magma is intruded; (c) as magma is emplaced at the front, a mingled layer of about half magma half crust forms below it, so that the total rise of the front corresponds approximately to half of the thickness of magma added to the free-ride layer; (d) the rate of rise of the front depends on the temperature difference between crust and TL, and slows down as the magma front rises; (e) for most reasonable intrusion rates and volumes, the crust above zS feels little influence of the intrusion, because the diffusion time scale is much smaller than the rise rate of the front. In summary, pervasive migration is an efficient way of heating the lower to middle crust, and can result in an injection complex several kilometers thick, consisting of about half magma and half original crust.

  11. Petrochemistry and Rb-Sr isotopic study of bandal granites, district Kulu, Himachal Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandal granites which form the subject matter of the present study occur as a concordant body of batholithic size and cover an area of about 500 sq. km. consider these granites to be the result of granitization of arkose and pelitie rocks. Whereas treats them as intrusive into the Banjar Formation, recognized two components i.e. foliated and non-foliated which made the Bandal pluton the latter is intrusive into the former. This gave an isochron age of 1220±100 Ma for the foliated granite. This paper presents the results of a petrochemical and Rb-Sr isotopic studies of these granites with a view to understand their petrogenesis

  12. Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of granite hosted rhyodacites associated with a disseminated pyrite mineralization (Arnolz, Southern Bohemian Massif, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göd, Richard; Kurzweil, Johannes; Klötzli, Urs

    2016-09-01

    The study focuses on a subvolcanic rhyodacite dyke intruding a fine grained biotite granite and paragneisses of the South Bohemian Massif, part of the Variscan Orogenic Belt in Central Europe. The subvertical dyke strikes NNE, displays a thickness of about 30 m and has been traced by boulder mapping for approximately 7 km. The rhyodacites have been affected by two hydrothermal fluids. An older one of oxidizing condition giving rise to a reddish to brownish type of rock (Type I) and a younger fluid of reducing condition causing a greenish variety (Type II). The hydrothermal alteration is associated with the formation of the clay minerals chlorite, sericite, kaolinite and smectite and a disseminated pyrite mineralization. Bulk chemistries of the rhyodacites emphasize the hydrothermal alterations to be isochemical with the exception of sulphur enriched up to a maximum of 0.6 wt%. Trace element composition of the rhyodacites points to a barren geochemical environment in terms of base and precious elements. Sulphur isotope investigations of pyrites from the rhyodacites and the hosting granites respectively yield d34S data ranging from +0.07 to -2.22 ‰, emphasizing a magmatic origin of the sulphur. Geochronological investigations yield in situ U/Pb zircon ages of 312 ± 4 Ma for the biotite granite and of 292 ± 4 Ma for the rhyodacitic dykes indicating a time gap of ≈ 20 Ma between these two intrusive events. A contemporaneous but geochemically specialized granitic intrusion associated with NW striking "felsitic" dykes occurs about 10 to 20 km to the NW of Arnolz. However, the rhyodacites around Arnolz differ significantly from these felsitic dykes in their geochemistry and alteration phenomena which points to a different magmatic source. This coincides with a change in the orientation of the dykes from a NW direction controlling the geochemically specialized intrusions in the NW to a dominating NNE direction mirrored by the studied rhyodacites at Arnolz.

  13. Uranium in granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research activities of the Canadian Uranium in Granites Study are presented in 18 papers and 3 abstracts. 'Granites' is used as a generic term for granitoids, granitic rocks, and plutonic rocks

  14. 湘南王仙岭花岗岩体的锆石U-Pb年代学、地球化学、锆石Hf同位素特征及其地质意义%Geochronology, geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopes of the Wangxianling granitic intrusion in South Hunan Province and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳浩; 郭春丽

    2012-01-01

    湘南王仙岭岩体由主体电气石黑云母花岗岩和侵入其内部的黑云母二长花岗岩组成,LA-MC-ICP MS锆石U-Pb 定年显示电气石黑云母花岗岩形成于印支期(235.0±1.3Ma),黑云母二长花岗岩形成于燕山期(155.9±1.0Ma),表明该岩体是两期岩浆活动的产物.这两期岩石均为高钾钙碱性系列,A/CNK值为1.07 ~1.66,属过铝-强过铝质花岗岩类.稀土元素显示LREE富集,HREE亏损,Eu负异常明显(0.01 ~0.38)的特征.早期电气石黑云母花岗岩和晚期黑云母二长花岗岩的εHf(t)值分别为-7.92~+4.61和-10.66~ -5.35;两阶段Hf模式年龄(tDM2)分别为1758 ~ 967Ma和1875 ~1538Ma.两期花岗岩均来自于古中元古代地壳物质重熔,其中早期电气石黑云母花岗岩在侵位上升过程中捕获了部分幔源老锆石,成岩过程中有少量地幔物质参与,且其源区具有高εHf(t)值的特点.综合前人研究成果,本文认为华南中生代印支期和燕山期均有钨锡矿化作用,印支期花岗质岩浆形成于碰撞挤压作用间隙伸展环境,而燕山期花岗质岩浆可能形成于大陆边缘弧后伸展环境.%The Wangxianling intrusion in South Hunan Province consists of two granitoids, the main tourmaline biotite granites and the biotite monzonite granites invading into the former. LA-MC-ICP MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that tourmaline biotite granites formed in Indosinian (235.0 ± 1.3Ma) while the biotite monzonite granites formed in Yanshanian (155.9 ± l.Oma), indicating that Wangxianling intrusion is the product of two-time magmatic activities. The compositions of these two period granites fall into the calc-alkaline category, with an A/CNK ratio of 1. 07 ~ 1. 66, which are peraluminous to strongly peraluminous granites. Their whole rock rare earth elements demonstrate total LREE enrichment and HREE deficit with significant negative Eu anomalies (0. 01 - 0. 38 ). The sm(t) values and two-staged Hf model ages of tourmaline

  15. Geochemical Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements of Guidong Granitic Complex and Relationship with Uranium Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Hua Renmin; Liu Xiaodong; Deng Ping; Wu Lieqin

    2007-01-01

    Guidong granitic complex is constituted by Luxi intrusion, Xiazhuang intrusion, Maofeng intrusion, Sundong intrusion, Aizi intrusion and Siqian intrusion, which emplaced in Indosinian and early Yanshanian Periods. These intrusions varied from each other not only in major element content, aluminium saturation index, but also in values of ΣREE, δEu, and LREE/HREE, (La/Yb)N, (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N. The Maofeng intrusion, which has the closest relationship with uranium mineralization, belongs to strong peraluminous granites. Having undergone much intense fluid-rock interaction, it is characterized by typical M-type tetrad effects and lowest values of ΣREE, δEu, LREE/HREE, (La/Yb)N, (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios than other studied intrusions.

  16. 2005 dossier: granite; Dossier 2005: granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - advantage of granitic formations for the geologic disposal; 2 - containers; 3 - design study of a disposal facility in granitic environment; 4 - understanding and modelling of granite; 5 - description of disposal concepts in granitic environment; 6 - long-term and safety aspects; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  17. Determination of concentrations and isotopic ratio of uranium in groundwaters drawn from two deep wells drilled in granitic rocks belonging to Itu intrusive suite; Determinacao das concentracoes e razoes isotopicas de uranio em aguas subterraneas extraidas de pocos perfurados em rochas da suite intrusiva de Itu (SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Francisca de; Reyes, Erika; Marques, Leila Soares [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Dept. de Geofisica]. E-mail: francisca@iag.usp.br; erika@iag.usp.br; leila@iag.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the first results obtained in the determination of dissolved uranium concentrations and ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) activity ratios of groundwaters drawn from two deep wells drilled in granitic rocks belonging to Itu Intrusive Suite, which is located at eastern Sao Paulo State. One of the wells, whose groundwaters have been analyzed, is located in Salto Town, while the other one is located in Itu Town. The groundwater sampling is monthly and begun on September, 2004, in order to investigate possible sazonal variations. The alpha spectrometry technique, associated with isotopic dilution method, has been used for these determinations. The data obtained up to now show that the groundwaters from Salto present uranium concentrations significantly lower ((0.098 {+-} 0.007) - (0.17 {+-} 0.01) ng/g) than those from Itu ((0.22 {+-} 0.02) - (0.31 {+-} 0.02) ng/g). The {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U isotopes of the investigated groundwaters from both wells are in radioactive disequilibrium, with ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) activity ratios systematically higher than unity. Although the groundwaters from Salto well are characterized by low {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U specific activities they present higher ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) activity ratios than those from Itu. The observed differences on the behavior of uranium concentrations and ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) activity ratios in the groundwaters from the two wells are very probably due to the large variety of granitic rocks from Itu Intrusive Suite, which are characterized by distinct uranium abundances. (author)

  18. Magmatic constraints on localization of natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Selonen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1580–1570 Ma old Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith was studied with the aim to define the geological constraints for localization of natural stone deposits in the batholith. The batholith comprises four roughly concentric granite intrusions from the margin inwards: pyterlite, coarse-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite and two types of medium-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite. Also porphyry aplite and even-grained rapakivi granite occur. The batholith has intruded as a succession of pulses of subhorizontal sheet-like intrusions conceivably through repeated cauldron subsidence. Natural stone quarries are confined only to certain intrusions within the batholith. We show that the medium-grained porphyritic granite body in the centre of the batholith comprises two almost identical but different intrusions, with only slightly different appearances: the inner (IG and the outer (OG granite. The quarries are confined to the outer intrusion which has an appearance more attractive to the market than that of the inner intrusion. The localization of the natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa batholith is a result of the magmatic history of the batholith, producing intrusions of different appearances with different commercial potential.

  19. 新疆古伦沟地区古仍格萨拉东岩体的地球化学及锆石U-Pb年龄%Geochemistry and Zircon U-Pb Age of East Gurenggesala Granitic Intrusion in Gulungou Area, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王居里; 杨猛; 王建其; 党飞鹏

    2013-01-01

    The East Gurenggesala granitic intrusion in Gulungou area on the northern margin of Middle Tianshan Mountains consist of granodiorite-porphyry with porphyry copper mineralization. The intrusion is characterized by enrichment of alkali, with Na2O/K2O ratio changing from 1.95 to 19.00, and depletion of Fe and Mg, accompanied by sub-alkaline (mainly tholeiitic and calc-alkaline series) and weakly peraluminous features (A/CNK=0.98~1.11). REE concentrations are low (∑REE=61.28×10-6~99.50×10-6) and show obvious differentiation between LREE and HREE (LaN/YbN=7.82~22.80), with weak Eu negative anomalies (δEu=0.72~0.97). In addition, the rock mass is relatively rich in such elements as Rb, Ba, Th, U and K, and poor in Nb, Ta, P, Ti etc., suggesting characteristics of volcanic-arc granite (VAG). Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating results show that the crystallization of the intrusion took place from (488.9±1.7) Ma to (470.5±3.1) Ma, i.e., in Early Ordovician. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of East Gurenggesala granitic intrusion are fairly uniform: (87Sr/86Sr)i=0.70677~0.70685,εSr(t)=40.10~41.21, (143Nd/144Nd)i=0.51190~0.51191, εNd(t)=-2.62 ~ -2.30, tDM=1.31~1.38 Ga, implying that magma originated from partial melting of Meso-Proterozoic mantle-derived basic lower crust. Based on both previous and present research results, the authors have reached the conslusion that East Gurenggesala granitic intrusion was formed in the epicontinental arc relevant to the subduction of the paleo-Junggar ocean towards Yili-Central Tianshan plate in Early Ordovician together with porphyry copper mineralization. In general, the emplacement of East Gurenggesala granitic intrusion marked the epoch when the northern margin of Middle Tianshan entered into the stage of active epicontinental arc in connection with subduction in Early Ordovician.%古伦沟地区古仍格萨拉东花岗闪长斑岩体位于中天山构造带北缘。地球化学和锆石 U-P 年龄测定

  20. Host minerals for uranium and thorium in the Cape granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium and thorium in Cape granite reside chiefly in trace minerals. The principle host minerals differ much from pluton to pluton. The large composite Khubus pluton in the Richterveld is composed of a central body of syenite surrounded by various types of granite. The granites are usually very low in dark minerals. According to autoradiographic results, the bulk of the uranium and thorium in the Khubus pluton is situated in the zircon, rather than in the sphene, apatite and fluorite. In many intrusives of the Cape granite suite most of the uranium is situated in a single host mineral such a zircon, xenotime, sphene or even uraninte. The most important thorium host mineral is monazite. The radio-element host mineral spectrum is unique for each different intrusive

  1. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and thermal modeling of multilayer granitoid intrusions. Implications for the building and thermal evolution of the Central System batholith, Iberian Massif, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Alvarado, Juan; Fernández, Carlos; Castro, Antonio; Moreno-Ventas, Ignacio

    2013-08-01

    This work shows the results of a U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronological study of the central part of the Gredos massif (Spanish Central System batholith). The studied batholith is composed of several granodiorite and monzogranite tabular bodies, around 1 km thick each, intruded into partially molten pelitic metasediments. Granodiorites and monzogranites, belonging to three distinct intrusive bodies, and samples of anatectic leucogranites have been selected for SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology. Distinct age groups, separated by up to 20 Ma, have been distinguished in each sample. Important age differences have also been determined among the most representative age groups of the three analyzed granitoid bodies: 312.6 ± 2.8 Ma for the Circo de Gredos Bt-granodiorites (floor intrusive layer), 306.9 ± 1.5 Ma for the Barbellido-Plataforma granitoids (top intrusive layer) and 303.5 ± 2.8 Ma for Las Pozas Crd-monzogranites (middle intrusive layer). These age differences are interpreted in terms of sequential emplacement of the three intrusive bodies, contemporary with the Late Paleozoic D3 deformation phase. The anatectic leucogranites are coeval to slightly younger than the adjacent intrusive granodiorites and monzogranites (305.4 ± 1.6 Ma for Refugio del Rey leucogranites and 303 ± 2 Ma for migmatitic hornfelses). It is suggested that these anatectic magmas were generated in response to the thermal effects of granodiorite intrusions. Thermal modeling with COMSOL Multiphysics® reveals that sequential emplacement was able to keep the thermal conditions of the batholith around the temperature of zircon crystallization in granitic melts (around 750 °C) for several million of years, favoring the partial melting of host rocks and the existence of large magma chambers composed of crystal mush prone to be rejuvenated after new intrusions.

  2. Ages of granites of the Serrinha Nucleus, Bahia (Brazil): an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ages of granites of the Serrinha Nucleus (SN), in the eastern part of Bahia State, Brazil are poorly constrained and radiometric dating is mainly by the Rb-Sr whole rock isochron method, indicating a complex intrusive history. New Pb-Pb and U-Pb zircon for plutons widely distributed within the SN terrains range from Archean (>3070 Ma) to Paleoproterozoic (2067 Ma) and generally support the interpretation that at least three plutonic events affect these terrains. The range of ages evidently constitutes a large interval of regional granitic emplacement which can be divided into three principal domains: pre, syn and late/post tectonic. The new Archean ages (2.7 to 3.1 Ga.) by the U-Pb zircon method indicate reworking of an older crust during the Paleoproterozoic plutonic event in the SN region and clearly point to the existence of an Archean basement prior to 2.7 Ga. (Jequie Cycle). The younger ages help to further constrain the extension and age of Archean components of the Sao Francisco Craton which is important for a complete understanding of the Precambrian geology of that part of Brazil. (author)

  3. Rb-Sr, K-Ar and fission track ages for granites from Penang Island, West Malaysia: an interpretation model for Rb-Sr whole-rock and for actual and experimental mica data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, T. S.; Krähenbühl, R.; Jager, E.

    1992-09-01

    Penang Island represents the northwestern extension of the western magmatic belt of Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty-one samples of highly evolved biotite-and biotite-muscovite granites were used in an integrated study to unravel the complex magmatic, tectonic and cooling histories of these rocks. Highly distorted Rb-Sr whole-rock age patterns are evident. These are attributed to the partial post-magmatic Sr homogenization within the granite batholith which led to the rotation of isochrons towards younger ages and higher (87/86)Sr intercepts. The recognition of this mechanism allowed the establishment of a new Rb-Sr interpretation model. The intrusion ages of the granites can be extrapolated based on the evolutionary trend of the initial (87/86)Sr. Including the data of Bignell and Snelling, three episodes of granite emplacement at 307±8 Ma, 251±7 Ma and 211±2 Ma are suggested for Penang and the NW Main Range. The late-Triassic intrusive induced a hydrothermal conductive convection system which affected all the granites. It is considered to be responsible for the Rb-Sr whole-rock age distortion, the Rb-Sr and K-Ar biotite age resetting and the textural and mineralogical changes in the granites. The duration of the hydrothermal convections, deduced from the Rb-Sr whole rock ages, is about 6 Ma and 20 Ma in the northern and southern parts of Penang respectively. Fast regional cooling to 350±50°C within a time span of 1 3 Ma is recognized for the late-Triassic Feringgi intrusive from the mica ages, followed by a generally slow cooling rate of about 1°C/Ma. Fission track ages, in addition, indicate blockwise uplift along the N-S and NW-SE tending faults, thus resulting in the exposure of deeper crustal levels in southern and eastern Penang. A change in the tensional regime since Oligocene/Miocene, accompanied by a southwest tilting of the island, is indicated by the fission track apatite ages. Variable sometimes younger K-Ar, respectively Rb-Sr biotite ages mainly

  4. Association of Neoproterozoic A- and I-type Granites in South China: Implications for Generation of A-type Granites in A Subduction-related Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin-fu; ZHOU Mei-fu; LI Jian-wei; WU Fu-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Neoproterozoic magmatism in the Yangtze Block of South China produced voluminous S- and I-type granites, and sparse A-type granites. The Daxiangling A-type granitic pluton is spatially associated with the Shimian I-type pluton at the western margin of the Yangtze Block. Both plutons have similar SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of~800 Ma and are slightly younger than the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses in the area.

  5. Oxygen isotope studies of early Precambrian granitic rocks from the Giants Range batholith, northeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.

    1974-01-01

    Oxygen isotope studies of granitic rocks from the 2.7 b.y.-old composite Giants Range batholith show that: (1) ??(O18)quartz values of 9 to 10 permil characterize relatively uncontaminated Lower Precambrian, magmatic granodiorites and granites; (2) granitic rocks thought to have formed by static granitization have ??(O18)quartz values that are 1 to 2 permil higher than magmatic granitic rocks; (3) satellite leucogranite bodies have values nearly identical to those of the main intrusive phases even where they transect O18-rich metasedimentary wall rocks; (4) oxygen isotopic interaction between the granitic melts and their O18-rich wall rocks was minimal; and (5) O18/O18 ratios of quartz grains in a metasomatic granite are largely inherited from the precursor rock, but during the progression - sedimentary parent ??? partially granitized parent ??? metasomatic granite ??? there is gradual decrease in ??(O18)quartz by 1 to 2 permil. ?? 1974.

  6. The neural representation of intrusive thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, S; Schmiedek, F.; Brose, A.; Schott, B.; Lindenberger, U; Lövdén, M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the philosophical notion that language embodies thought we investigated whether a habitual tendency for intrusive thought that younger and older participants report over a period of 100 sessions, spread out over about 6 months, is associated with brain regions related to language production. In favour of this hypothesis, we found that individual differences in habitual intrusive thoughts are correlated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca’s area) as well as th...

  7. EXPLOITATION OF GRANITE BOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Structural relationship between gebel qattar granite and the associated uraniferous hammamat sediments, north eastern desert, egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebel qattar granite is surrounded at its northern borders by the hammamat sediments of gebel U mm Tawat. The nature of the contact between these two different lithological rock units is thoroughly studied in the field. The contact zone is also subjected to an extensive geological, structural and radiometric studies. It is noteworthy to mention that the hammamat sediments at the contact are occasionally hosting uranium minerals with dark violet fluorite. The study revealed that gebel qattar granite forms a very large granitic intrusion which is forcefully intruded into the older rocks including hammamat sediments. The contact between this granite and its surrounding hammamat sediments is normal intrusive contact. The granites at some peripheral parts are occasionally episynitized and some times hosting uranium minerals. 40 figs, 1 tab

  9. Tectonic imprints within a granite exposed near Srinagar, Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trishit Ruj; Nilanjan Dasgupta

    2014-08-01

    Partial melting in the middle to lower crustal level produces melts of granitic composition during orogeny. Thrusts play a vital role in their exhumation after consolidation of these granitic melts. In this paper we focus on one such granite along the eastern margin of the Delhi Fold Belt (DFB) rocks near Srinagar, Rajasthan, India. This is the first report of granite within the area and holds a key stratigraphic position in the entire rock package. The said granite is found to be intrusive to the DFB metasediments as well as their basement popularly known as the Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC). We disentangle the deformation fabrics seen within the granite and associated DFB metasediments, suggesting that subsequent to emplacement and consolidation, the granite has co-folded along with the country rocks. Three deformational events could be identified within the DFB metasediments namely, D1D, D2D and D3D. The peak metamorphism was achieved in the D1D event. The granite magma is generated and emplaced late syn-kinematic to D1D and thereafter is deformed by D2D and D3D producing D1G and D2G structural fabrics. These compressive deformations resulted in the collapse of the basin; the combined package of DFB rocks and the granite was thrusted eastwards over the basement rocks. The tectonic transport direction during thrusting is suggested eastwards from our structural analysis. Transverse faults developed perpendicular to the length of the granite have led to partitioning of the strain thereby showing a heterogeneity in the development of fabric within it.

  10. Post-Orogenic Granites in Pingwu Region, Northwest Sichuan: Evidence for North China Block and Yangtze Block Collision during Triassic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xianzhi; Li Zuochen; Ding Saping; Feng Jianyun; Li Ruibao; Sun Yu; Zhang Yafeng; Liu Zhanqing

    2009-01-01

    The Nanyili (南一里), Laohegou (老河沟), and Shaiziyan (筛子岩) granitic intrusions are located in the southern margin of the Bikou (碧口) block in Pingwu (平武) area, Northwest Sichuan (四川). The petrography and geochemical characteristics of the granitic intrusions as well as their source and tectonic settings are reported and discussed in this article. The Laohegou and Shaiziyan granites are with high SiO2 (69.89 wt.%-73.05 wt.%) and Al2O3 contents, and A/CNK=1.04-1.12. They are typi-cal strongly peraluminous granites, with supersaturation in Al and Si. The abundance of ∑REE varies in the range of (33.13-89.12)×106. The rocks show an LREE enrichment pattern and obvious Eu nega-tive anomaly. The trace element geochemistry is characterized evidently by a negative anomaly of Ta, Nb, Ti, etc. and a positive anomaly of Rb, Ba, Sr, etc.. Zircons of the Nanyili granite have higher Th/U ratios, and their CL images have internal oscillatory zoning, suggesting that the zircons of the samples are igneous in origin. The LA ICP-MS zircon U-Pb isotopic concordia diagram yields an age of 223.1±2.6 Ma (MSWD=1.4), which indicates that the granodiorite intrusions formed in the early Late Triassic. The Nanyili, Laohegou, and Shaiziyan granites have the characteristics of post-eollisional granites and are regarded as post-orogenic granites. Thus, the granite intrusions are interpreted as syn-collisional granites that resulted from the crustal thickening caused by the collisions between the North China plate and the Yangtze plate during the Indosinian. The granitic intrusions formed in a transitional environment from syn- (compres-slonal environment) to post-collision (extensionalenvironment).

  11. Petrography and geochemistry of the topaz-bearing granite stocks in Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi, western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Lukkari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi granite stocks at the western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi batholith are multiphase rapakivi granite intrusions in which the most evolved phase is topaz-bearing granite. The Artjärvi stock is composed of porphyritic and even-grained biotite granite and even-grained topaz granite, and the Sääskjärvi stock comprises even-grained biotite granite and porphyritic topazgranite. The granites are metaluminous to peraluminous A-type granites, showing within-plate (WPG geochemical characteristics. The topaz granites from the Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks are petrographically and geochemically similar to other topaz-bearing rapakivi granites in Finland. The anomalous geochemistry of the topaz granite is essentially magmatic; postmagmatic reactions have only slightly modified its composition. Greisen veins, some of which are mineralized, are widely found associated with the Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks.The most characteristic feature of the Artjärvi granite stock is a stockscheider at the roof contact of the topaz granite. The stockscheider is composed of schlieren layering and pegmatite layers parallel to the contact. The most probable mechanism for the formation of the schlieren layering is velocity-gradient sorting parallel to the flow, which led to accumulation of mafic minerals along the upper contact of the topaz granite. Cooling and contraction of the topaz granite formed fractures parallel to the roof contact and the residual pegmatite magmas were injected along the fractures forming pegmatite layers. Textures like graphic intergrowths, aplitic groundmass and fan-shaped alkali feldspar crystals associated with the Artjärvi porphyritic biotite granite and pegmatite indicatecrystallization from undercooled magma. Miarolitic cavities found in the porphyritic biotite granite and topaz granite indicate at least local volatile saturation.

  12. Groundwater in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of published chemical analyses of ground waters found in granitic rocks from a variety of locations shows that their compositions fall into two distinct classes. Ground waters from shallow wells and springs have a high bicarbonate/chloride ratio resulting from the neutralization of carbonic acid (dissolved CO2) by weathering reactions. The sodium, potassium, and silica released by weathering reactions drive the solutions away from equilibrium with the dominant minerals in the granites (i.e., quartz, muscovite, potassium feldspar, and albite). On the other hand, ground waters from deep wells and excavations are rich in chloride relative to bicarbonate. Their Na, K, H, and silica activities indicate that they are nearly equilibrated with the granite minerals suggesting a very long residence time in the host rock. These observations furnish the basis for a powerful tool to aid in selecting sites for radioactive waste disposal in granitic rocks. When water-bearing fractures are encountered in these rocks, a chemical analysis of the solutions contained within the fracture can determine whether the water came from the surface, i.e., is bicarbonate rich and not equilibrated, or whether it is some sort of connate water that has resided in the rock for a long period, i.e., chloride rich and equilibrated. This technique should allow immediate recognition of fracture systems in granitic radioactive waste repositories that would allow radionuclides to escape to the surface

  13. Chemical characteristics of zircon from A-type granites and comparison to zircon of S-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, Karel; Lamarão, Claudio Nery; Borges, Régis Munhoz Krás; Dall'Agnol, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The trace element content in zircons from A-type granites and rhyolites was investigated by using back-scattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses. The studied Proterozoic (Wiborg batholith, Finland and Pará, Amazonas and Goiás states, Brazil) and Variscan (Krušné Hory/Erzgebirge, Czech Republic and Germany) plutons cover a wide range of rocks, from large rapakivi-textured geochemically primitive plutons to small intrusions of F-, Li-, Sn-, Nb-, Ta-, and U-enriched rare-metal granites. While zircon is one of the first crystallized minerals in less fractionated metaluminous and peraluminous granites, it is a late-crystallized phase in peralkaline granites and in evolved granites that may crystallize during the whole process of magma solidification. The early crystals are included in mica, quartz, and feldspar; the late grains are included in fluorite or cryolite or are interstitial. The zircon in hornblende-biotite and biotite granites from the non-mineralized plutons is poor in minor and trace elements; the zircon in moderately fractionated granite varieties is slightly enriched in Hf, Th, U, Y, and HREEs; whereas the zircon in highly fractionated ore-bearing granites may be strongly enriched in Hf (up to 10 wt.% HfO2), Th (up to 10 wt.% ThO2), U (up to 10 wt.% UO2), Y (up to 12 wt.% Y2O3), Sc (up to 3 wt.% Sc2O3), Nb (up to 5 wt.% Nb2O5), Ta (up to 1 wt.% Ta2O5), W (up to 3 wt.% WO3), F (up to 2.5 wt.% F), P (up to 11 wt.% P2O5), and As (up to 1 wt.% As2O5). Metamictized zircons may also be enriched in Bi, Ca, Fe, and Al. The increase in the Hf content coupled with the decrease in the Zr/Hf value in zircon is one of the most reliable indicators of granitic magma evolution. In the zircon of A-type granites, the Zr/Hf value decreases from 41-67 (porphyritic granite) to 16-19 (equigranular granite) in the Kymi stock, Finland, and from 49-52 (biotite granite) to 18-36 (leucogranite) in the Pedra Branca pluton, Brazil. In the in situ strongly

  14. 40Ar-39Ar Age of K-feldspar from K- feldspar Granite in the Qiaohuote Copper Deposit, Bayanbulak, Xinjiang, and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhiliang; MAO Jingwen; YANG Jianmin; CHEN Wen; ZHANG Zuoheng

    2004-01-01

    By using the 40Ar-39Ar chronological method to date K-feldspar from K-feldspar granite in the Qiaohuote copper district, the authors obtained a plateau age of 274.78±0.44 Ma and an isochron age of 272.7±3.0 Ma. Because there is no tectonic deformation overprinted or hydrothermal alteration in the K-feldspar granite intrusion after its emplacement, the 40Ar-39Ar age represents the crystallization age of K-feldspar in K-feldspar granite, i.e. the late crystallization age of the K-feldspar granite intrusion, which indicates that the K-feldspar granite formed in the intraplate extensional stage during the Early Permian. Moreover, based on the spatial relationship between the K-feldspar granite intrusion and copper orebodies, variations of copper ore grade, REE characteristics of K-feldspar granite and copper ores, and H and O isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions in copper ores, the metallogenesis of the Qiaohuote copper deposit is directly related to intrusive activities of the K-feldspar granite, and thus the crystallization age of K-feldspar in the granite approximately approaches the metallogenic epoch of the Qiaohuote copper deposit.

  15. Intrusion Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pietro, Roberto Di

    2008-01-01

    In our world of ever-increasing Internet connectivity, there is an on-going threat of intrusion, denial of service attacks, or countless other abuses of computer and network resources. In particular, these threats continue to persist due to the flaws of current commercial intrusion detection systems (IDSs). Intrusion Detection Systems is an edited volume by world class leaders in this field. This edited volume sheds new light on defense alert systems against computer and network intrusions. It also covers integrating intrusion alerts within security policy framework for intrusion response, rel

  16. Characteristics of the Two Types of Granits at Sikongshan in the Eastern Part of the Dabieshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈跃志; 桑宝梁; 等

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown from petrologic,geochemical,trace element and REE evidence that the gran-ite intrusions at Sikongshan,Anhui Province,can be assigned to two distinct types which are radically different in age and origin.The Precambrian gneissic granited resulted from remelting of old continental crust while the Mesozoic granites were derived ,also through remelting,from low-Rb/Sr rocks at greater depths.Granite masses at Tiantangzhai and Zhoujiawan in the Dabieshan Mountains are also dicussed.

  17. Metasomatism of ferroan granites in the northern Aravalli orogen, NW India: geochemical and isotopic constraints, and its metallogenic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Parampreet; Chaudhri, Naveen; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Raczek, Ingrid; Okrusch, Martin; Skora, Susanne; Koepke, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    The late Palaeoproterozoic (1.72-1.70 Ga) ferroan granites of the Khetri complex, northern Aravalli orogen, NW India, were extensively metasomatised ~900 Ma after their emplacement, at around 850-830 Ma by low-temperature (ca. 400 °C) meteoric fluids that attained metamorphic character after exchanging oxygen with the surrounding metamorphic rocks. Albitisation is the dominant metasomatic process that was accompanied by Mg and Ca metasomatism. A two-stage metasomatic model is applicable to all the altered ferroan intrusives. The stage I is represented by a metasomatic reaction interface that developed as a result of transformation of the original microcline-oligoclase (An12-14) granite to microcline-albite (An1-3) granite, and this stage is rarely preserved. In contrast, the stage II metasomatic reaction front, where the microcline-bearing albite granite has been transformed to microcline-free albite granite, is readily recognisable in the field and present in most of the intrusives. Some of them lack an obvious reaction interface due to the presence of stage II albite granites only. When studied in isolation, these intrusives were incorrectly classified and their tectonic setting was misinterpreted. Furthermore, our results show that the mafic mineralogy of metasomatised granites has a significant impact on the characterisation of such rocks in the magmatic classification and discrimination diagrams. Nevertheless, the stage I metasomatised granites can be appropriately characterised in these diagrams, whereas the characterisation of the stage II granites will lead to erroneous interpretations. The close spatial association of these high heat producing ferroan granites with iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), U and REE mineralisation in the region indicates a genetic link between the metasomatism and the mineralisation. World-class IOCG, U and REE deposits are associated with metasomatised ferroan granites, suggesting that such a relationship may act as a critical

  18. Gravimetric, radiometric, and magnetic susceptibility study of the Paleoproterozoic Redenção and Bannach plutons, eastern Amazonian Craton, Brazil: Implications for architecture and zoning of A-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Davis Carvalho; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Corrêa da Silva, João Batista; Costa de Almeida, José Arimatéia

    2008-02-01

    The 1.88 Ga, anorogenic, A-type Redenção and Bannach granites, representative of the Jamon suite and associated dikes, are intrusive in Archean granitoids of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane in the eastern Amazonian Craton in northern Brazil. Petrographic and geochemical aspects associated with magnetic susceptibility and gamma-ray spectrometry data show that the Redenção and the northern part of Bannach plutons are normally zoned. They were formed by two magmatic pulses: (1) a first magma pulse was fractionated in situ after emplacement at shallow crustal level, generating a series of coarse, even-grained monzogranites with variable modal proportions of biotite and hornblende; and (2) a second, slightly younger magma pulse, located to the center of the plutons, was composed of a more evolved liquid from which even-grained leucogranites derived. Gravity modeling indicates that the Redenção and Bannach plutons are sheeted-like composite intrusions, approximately 6 and 2 km thick, respectively. These plutons follow the general power law for laccolith dimension and are similar in this respect to classical rapakivi granite plutons. Gravity data suggest that the growth of the northern part of the Bannach pluton resulted from the amalgamation of smaller sheeted-like plutons that intruded in sequence from northwest to southeast. The Jamon suite plutons were emplaced in an extensional tectonic setting, and the stress was oriented approximately NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW, as indicated by the occurrence of diabase and granite porphyry dyke swarms, orientated WNW-ESE to NNW-SSE and coeval with the Jamon suite. The 1.88 Ga A-type granite plutons and stocks of Carajás are disposed along a belt that follows the general trend defined by the dikes. The inferred tabular geometry of the studied plutons and the high contrast of viscosity between the granites and their Archean country rocks can be explained by magma transport via dikes.

  19. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the younger Gardar southern rift, South Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G.J. Upton

    2013-11-01

    oblate plans reflecting ductile, fault-related strain. The Tugtutôqcomplex comprises quartz syenites and alkali granites. The Ilímaussaq complex mainly consists of nepheline syenite crystallised from highly reduced, Fe-rich phonolitic peralkaline (agpaitic magma,and resulted in rocks with very high incompatible element concentrations.Abundant anorthositic xenoliths in the mafic and intermediate intrusions point to a large anorthosite protolith at depth which is considered of critical importance in the petrogenesis of the salicrocks. Small intrusions of aillikite and carbonatite may represent remobilised mantle metasomites. The petrological similarity between Older and Younger Gardar suites implies strong lithospheric control of their petrogenesis. The parental magmas are inferred to have been derived from restitic Ketilidian lithospheric mantle, metasomatised by melts from subducting Ketilidian oceanic crust and by small-scale melt fractions associated with Gardar rifting.There are numerous analogies between the southern Gardar rift and the Palaeogene East Africanrift.

  20. Mesoarchean sanukitoid rocks of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane, Amazonian craton, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Augusto; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Althoff, Fernando Jacques; da Silva Leite, Albano Antonio

    2009-02-01

    The Archean sanukitoid Rio Maria Granodiorite yielded zircon ages of ˜2.87 Ga and is exposed in large domains of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane, southeastern Amazonian craton. It is intrusive in the greenstone belts of the Andorinhas Supergroup, in the Arco Verde Tonalite and Caracol Tonalitic Complex (older TTGs). Archean potassic leucogranites, younger TTGs and the Paleoproterozoic granites of Jamon Suite are intrusive in the Rio Maria Granodiorite. The more abundant rocks of the Rio Maria Granodiorite have granodioritic composition and display medium to coarse even-grained textures. These rocks show generally a gray color with greenish shades due to strongly saussuritized plagioclase, and weak WNW-ESE striking foliation. The significant geochemical contrasts between the occurrences of Rio Maria Granodiorite in different areas suggest that this unit corresponds in fact to a granodioritic suite of rocks derived from similar but distinct magmas. Mingling processes involving the Rio Maria Granodiorite and similar mafic to intermediate magmas are able to explain the constant occurrence of mafic enclaves in the granodiorite. The associated intermediate rocks occur mainly near Bannach, where mostly quartz diorite and quartz monzodiorite are exposed. The dominant rocks are mesocratic, dark-green rocks, with fine to coarse even-grained texture. The Rio Maria Granodiorite and associated intermediate rocks show similar textural and mineralogical aspects. They follow the calc-alkaline series trend in some diagrams. However, they have high-Mg#, Cr, and Ni conjugate with high contents of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), typical of sanukitoids series. The patterns of rare earth elements of different rocks are similar, with pronounced enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and strong to moderate fractionation of heavy rare earth elements (HREEs). Field aspects and petrographic and geochemical characteristics denote that the granodiorites and

  1. Geochronology of the Xihuashan composite granitic body and tungsten mineralization, Jiangxi province, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, E.H.; Rytuba, J.J.; Xu, Keqin

    1987-01-01

    One of the goals of this visit was to collect samples of different granitic rocks in the pluton for radiometric dating to establish the geochronology of intrusion, alteration, and mineralization. This report summarises geochronologic studies during a visit by Chinese and US scientists to the Xihuashan mine.-after Authors

  2. Ion Probe U-Pb dating of the Central Sakarya basement: a peri-Gondwana terrane cut by late Lower Carboniferous subduction/collision related granitic magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayda Ustaömer, P.; Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair. H. F.

    2010-05-01

    the Early Palaeozoic, relatively early compared to other E Mediterranean inferred Minoan terranes (e.g. Menderes, Crete, Bitlis), and then accreted to the Eurasian margin, possibly in during Late Palaeozoic time. The Central Sakarya metamorphic basement is cut by a number of granitic intrusions (collectively termed the Söğüt Granite or Sarıcakaya Granite), three of which were dated in this study. Pink, alkali feldspar-rich granite (Küplü granite) yielded an age of 324.3 ±1.5 Ma. Grey, blastomylonitic biotite granite (Çaltı granite) is dated at 327.2 ± 1.9 Ma. Another granitic body with biotite and amphibole (Borçak granite) yielded a significantly younger age of 319.5 ± 1.1 Ma. Thus, late Early Carboniferous granitic magmatism in the Central Sakarya terrane could have persisted for ≥ 8 Ma, possibly related to subduction or collision of a Central Sakarya terrane with the Eurasian margin. This work was supported by Yıldız Technical University Research Fund (Project No: 29.13.02.01) and a Royal Society Travel Grant.

  3. Bainiuchang super-large silver-polymetallic ore deposit related to granitic magmatism in Mengzi, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-shun; ZHANG Hong-pei; OUYANG Yu-fei; ZHANG Cai-hua

    2007-01-01

    Bainiuchang silver-polymetallic ore deposit is located in the southeast Yunnan tin-polymetallic metallogenic belt. The probable reserves and inferred resources of the deposit are of 6 470 t Ag and 1.10 Mt Pb and 1.72 Mt Zn and 86 kt Sn. Orebodies of the deposit occur in clastic-carbonate rocks of Tianpeng Formation and Longha Formation of the middle Cambrian System above the Bainiuchang concealed granite of the late Yanshan period. The concealed granite has the characteristics of tin-bearing granites.Abundance of the mineralization elements Sn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag and Sb is high in the granitic rocks. Sulphur isotope data of the metal sulphides indicate that most sulphur is derived from the magmas. The ores are similar in rare earth element(REE) patterns to the granitic rocks. The granitic magma activity results in ore-bearing structures. Rocks of the Middle Cambrian System above the concealed intrusion suffer from skarnization, hornfelsing, marbleization, siliconizing and carbonatization. The mineralization elements Sn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag and Sb successively appear from the top of the granite to surrounding rocks. These evidences indicate that the granitic magmatism is the principal mineralization factor. The opinion that the south Bainiuchang ore field and the north Awei ore block are tin and copper potential exploration areas was put forward and was verified by drilling tests.

  4. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Interior intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  6. The rapakivi granite plutons of Bodom and Obbnäs, southern Finland: petrography and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosunen, P.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Obbnäs and Bodom granite plutons of southernmost Finland show the typical petrographic and geochemical features of the Proterozoic rapakivi granites in Finland and elsewhere: they cut sharply across the 1900 Ma Svecofennian metamorphic bedrock and have the geochemical characteristics of subalkaline A-type granites. The Bodom pluton is composed of porphyritic granites (hornblende-, hornblende-biotite-, and biotite-bearing varieties and an even-grained granite that probably represent two separate intrusive phases. This lithologic variation does not occur in the Obbnäs pluton, which is almost entirely composed of porphyritic hornblende-biotite granite that gradually becomes more mafic to the southwest. Three types of hybrid granitoids resulting from magma mingling and mixing occur on the southwestern tip of the Obbnäs peninsula. The Bodom granites are syenogranites, whereas the composition of the Obbnäs granite varies from syeno- to monzogranite. The main silicates of both the Bodom and Obbnäs granites are quartz, microcline, plagioclase (An1541, biotite (siderophyllite, and generally also amphibole (ferropargasite or hastingsite. Plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar megacrysts are absent or rare. The accessory minerals are fluorite, allanite, zircon, apatite, and iron-titanium oxides; the Obbnäs granite also contains titanite. The Bodom and Obbnäs granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, with average A/CNK of 1.00 and 1.05, respectively, have high Fe/Mg (average FeOtot/[FeOtot+MgO] is 0.94 for the Bodom and 0.87 for the Obbnäs granites, and high Ga/Al (3.78 to 5.22 in Bodom and 2.46 to 4.18 in Obbnäs. The REE contents are high with LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized patterns and moderate (Obbnäs to relatively strong (Bodom negative Eu-anomalies. The Obbnäs granite is enriched in CaO, TiO2, MgO, and FeO, and depleted in SiO2 and K2O compared to the Bodom granites. Also, there are differences in the Ba, Rb, and Sr contents of

  7. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  8. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  9. Geochemistry and Geochronology U-Pb SHRIMP of granites from Peixoto de Azevedo: Alta Floresta Gold Province; Geoquimica e geocronologia U-Pb (SHRIMP) de granitos da regiao de Peixoto de Azevedo: Provincia Aurifera Alta Floresta, MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda Rodrigues da; Barros, Marcia Aparecida Sant' Ana; Pierosan, Ronaldo; Pinho, Francisco Edigio Cavalcante; Tavares, Carla; Rocha, Jhonattan, E-mail: geologia.fernanda@gmail.com, E-mail: mapabarros@yahoo.com, E-mail: ronaldo.pierosan@gmail.com.br, E-mail: aguapei@yahoo.com, E-mail: carlageologia@hotmail.com, E-mail: geologojrocha@live.com [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Rocha, Mara Luiza Barros Pita; Vasconcelos, Bruno Rodrigo; Dezula, Samantha Evelyn Max, E-mail: marapita1@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: brunovasc@gmail.com, E-mail: samanthadezula@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geologia

    2014-09-15

    The analysis of petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data of granites in the Peixoto de Azevedo region, Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the eastern portion of the Alta Floresta Gold Province, led to the recognition of two granitic bodies bounded by regional major faults and shear zones. In the northwestern portion a body with featured as biotite granodiorite, coarse-grained, with porphyritic to inequigranular texture, metaluminous to peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and magnesium character. In the southeastern portion of the area, a biotite monzogranite coarse-grained, with equigranular to porphyritic texture, slightly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and dominantly of ferrous character. U- Pb dating (SHRIMP) showed that the biotite monzogranite has an age of 1869 ± 10 Ma, similar to the Matupa Intrusive Suite, while the biotite granodiorite has an age of 1781 ± 10 Ma, that is the age expected to Peixoto Granite. Both units show patterns of rare earth elements with enrichment of light over heavy and negative Eu anomaly (La{sub N}/Yb{sub N} » 7.6 to 17.31 and ratios Eu/EU{sup ⁎} between 0.46 – 0.72 for biotite monzogranite and La{sub N}/Yb{sub N} » 7.13 to 29.09 with ratios Eu/Eu{sup ⁎} between 0.25 - 0.40 for the biotite granodiorite). Trace elements pattern for both present negative anomalies of Ba, P, Ti and Nb indicating an evolution from mineral fractionation and subduction related sources. In this paper, it is suggested that the monzogranite Matupa was developed in mature arc tectonic environment. For the Peixoto Granite, two hypotheses are suggested: (a) it was developed in younger magmatic arc environment associated with the Colider Magmatism or (b) it was generated in extensional tectonic environment during the Columbia Super continent break up. (author)

  10. Petrogenesis and Zircon U-Pb radiometric dating in Herris granite (NW Shabestar) East Azarbaijan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heris intrusive body has cut Kahar Formation and has been covered by Permian basal sediments, non-conformably. The composition of this body is granite- alkali granite with meta luminous to weak peraluminous nature. The strong negative anomaly of Eu in REE diagram indicates the presence of plagioclase in the source area or differentiation of it during evolution of the magma. Negative anomaly of Ba and enrichment of Rb and Th relative to Ta and Nb is an indicator of crustal origin. These granites are within-plate and A-type granites, which have been formed by partial melting of tonalitic- granodioritic source in extensional setting. Zircon U-Pb dating yields 306±34 Ma for crystallization of these rocks. This age is consistent with primary extensions of rifting in Arabian- Iranian platform.

  11. Radiometric dating of the Horrsjoe granite, south central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-Pb analyses from the Horrsjoe granite, south central Sweden, give an upper intercept with concordia of 1850 +8-7Ma (1 sigma). The Horrsjoe granite accordingly belongs to the synkinematic Svecokarelian intrusions. The zircons have no visible cores. Their positions on discordia are reversed in relation to the normal case, the smallest crystals having less than half the uranium content of the largest. This may be due to uranium loss caused by superimposed events of ser- and postorogenic Svecokarelian magmatism in the area. However, a recalculation with the new U-Pb systematics of Wickman (Wickman, F.E., 1983: Uranium-lead isotope systematics: The case of crystals with discrete cores. Lithos 16) yields an age of 1946 Ma. The age of 1850 Ma is accordingly a minimum age. (Authors)

  12. Climax granite test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions.The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%

  13. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly

  14. Granites and granitoids of the southern region - Granite molybdenite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic concentrations of molybdenum are genetically closely associated with acidic and moderately acid granitoids-granites, granodiorites, monzonites and diorites, and are located in two geotectonic settings: subduction-related and rift-related. The aim of this paper is twofold, first succinctly approach the geology, tectonic setting and chemical parameters of the 'granite molybdenite system' as defined by Mutschler and/or alcali granite porphyry bodies emplaced in the North American continent for occasion of a Mesozoic-Fanerozoic extensile event; second to relate the computer-assisted evaluation of 422 major element chemical analysis of granites and granitoids of southern region of Brazil, using chemical fingerprints (SiO2 ≥ 74. Owt%, Na2O ≤ 3.6wt%, K2O ≥ 4.5wt%), and K2O/Na2O ratio > 1.5 developed and testified from North American and Finnish occurrences, may locate molybdenite-bearing granite bodies with high exploration potential. These techniques suggest that some late Precambrian to early Paleozoic granite-rhyolite assemblages inserted at domains of the SG. 22/23 Curitiba/Iguape, SH. 21/22 Uruguaiana/Porto Alegre and SI.22 Lagoa Mirim Sheets, have exploration potential for molybdenum. (author)

  15. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  16. Influence of age, thought content, and anxiety on suppression of intrusive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadel, Jessica R; Green, Jennifer S; Hosseinbor, Shahrzad; Teachman, Bethany A

    2013-08-01

    Understanding differences in responses following attempts to suppress versus simply monitor intrusive thoughts is important given the established relationship between intrusive thinking and numerous forms of psychopathology. Moreover, these differences may vary as a function of age. Because of the links between aging and both enhancement in emotion regulation skills and decline in inhibition skills, older and younger adults were expected to differ in their responses (e.g., experience of negative affect and thought recurrence) to attempts at suppressing intrusive thoughts. This study examined whether efforts to suppress thought content that varied in valence and age-relevance differentially affected older (N=40, aged 66-92) and younger (N=42, aged 16-25) adults' ability to inhibit intrusive thought recurrence and their resulting negative affect. Interestingly, older adults experienced less recurrence for most thoughts than younger adults. Also, for several dependent variables (negative affect and perceived difficulty suppressing intrusive thoughts), older adults showed less decline in their magnitude of response across thinking periods (i.e., from suppression to monitoring) than did younger adults. These age effects were not generally moderated by level of trait anxiety, though higher anxiety did predict intrusive thought responding in expected directions, such as greater negative affect. These findings point to independent influences of age and anxiety, and suggest a complex mix of risk and protective factors for older adults' responses to intrusive thoughts. PMID:23395408

  17. Geochemistry and SHRIMP Zircon U-Pb Age of Post-Collisional Granites in the Southwest Tianshan Orogenic Belt of China: Examples from the Heiyingshan and Laohutai Plutons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Lingli; GAO Jun; WANG Jingbin; QIAN Qing; XIONG Xianming; WANG Yuwang; WANG Lijuan; GAO Liming

    2008-01-01

    The Heiyingshan granite and the Laohutai granite plutons exposed in the Southwest Tianshan resemble A-type granites geochemically. Analysis shows that the both are ferron calc-alkalic peraluminous or ferron aikali-calcic peraluminous with a relatively high concentration of SiO2 (>70%), high alkali contents (Na2O + K2O = 7.14%-8.56%; K2O>N2O; A/CNK = 0.99-1.20), and pronounced negative anomales in Eu, Ba, Sr, P and Ti. A SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 285±4 Ma was obtained for the Heiyingshan hornblende biotite granite intrusion. The geochemical and age dating data reported in this paper indicate that these granites were formed during the post-collisional crustal extension of the Southwest Tianshan orogenic belt, in agreement with the published data for the granites in the South Tianshan.

  18. Network intrusion detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oboile Tirelo; YANG Chun-hua

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, network computer systems play an increasingly important role in society and economy. They have become the targets of a wide array of malicious attacks that invariably turn into actual intrusions. This is why the computer security has become an essential concern for network administrators. Too often, intrusions wreak havoc inside LANs and the time and cost to repair the damage can grow to extreme proportions. Instead of using passive measures to fix and patch security holes once they have been exploited, it is more effective to adopt a protective approach to intrusions. In addition to the well-established intrusion prevention techniques such as data encryption and message integrity, user authentication and user authorization, as well as the avoidance of security flaws inherent to many off-the-shelf applications, intrusion detection techniques can be viewed as an addition safeguard for network computers. The paper discusses traditional and new security designs, the approach to implementing best-practice security measures and the method to trace the malicious computer attackers.

  19. Geochemistry of the Baishitouquan Amazonite—and Topaz—bearing Granite in the Mid—Tianshan Belt,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾连兴; 王金珠; 等

    1994-01-01

    The Baishitouquan amazonite and topaz-bearing granite is one of the typical high-rubidium and high-fluorine granites in the eastern part of the Mid-Tianshan belt.This intrusion is in sharp contact with Mid-Proterozoic schists,gneisses and marbles,and is composed of four zones transitional from the bottom upwards:leucogranite,amazonite granite,topaz-bearing amazonite granite and topaz quartz albitite.The Baishitouquan granite contains highly ordered K-feldspar,Li-rich mica,Mn-rich garnet,α-quartz and low-temperature zircon and is chemically high in Si,K,Na,Al,Li,Rb,Cs an F, and low in Ti,Fe,Ca,Mg,P,Co,Ni,Cr,V,Sr and Ba,with Na2O>K2O,Amazonite from the amazonite granite zone contains 1867 ppm Rb.The F contents of bulk rocks are 3040 and 4597 for the amazonite granite and topaz-bearing amazonite granite zones,respectively,These two zones have δ18O values of 8.97-9.85‰(SMOW)and show flat REE distribution patterns with strong Eu depletion.K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages of this inturusion are 226.6 Ma and 209.6 Ma respectively,with an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.987±0.213.The Baishitouquan granite is the product of crystallization of a low-temperature,and water,rubidium and fluorine-rich magma,which may have been derived from partial melting of muscovite-rich crustal rocks.Consolidation of this granite involved two contasting and successive stages:melt crystallization and hydrothermal metasomatism and precipitation.Various geological features of this granite were formed during the transition from the magmatic to the hydrothermal stage.

  20. Zircon U-Pb ages for Wulian granites in northwest Sulu and their tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Wulian complex occurring in the north-western part of the Sulu orogen consists of metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks at greenschist-facies. Zircon U-Pb dating for three granite intrusions within it yields concordant ages of (672±4), (742±9) and (747±14) Ma, respectively. These ages indicate that the granites are the Neoproterozoic intrusions in the northern margin of the Yangtze plate, and correspond to the magmatic complex at Luzhenguan in the eastern part of the Beihuaiyang belt in the Dabie orogen. They were tectonic slices scraped off from the Yangtze plate during Triassic subduction and thus belong to a part of the accretionary wedge of the Yangtze plate subduction. The discovery of extensive Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks in the Wulian area suggests that the suture location between the North China and the Yangtze plates lies north of the Wulian complex.

  1. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications of Late Triassic granites in the Mongolian Altai Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Batulzii; Boldbaatar, Enkhjargal; Zorigtkhuu, Oyun-Erdene; Yin, An

    2016-03-01

    Although the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in western China and western Mongolia occurred in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, widespread intra-continental magmatism continued to occur across this region from the Late Permian to the end of the Triassic. In this study we document field relationships and geochemical characterization of a Late Triassic felsic intrusive complex in the western Mongolian Altai. The plutonic complex occurs as sills, dikes, and small stocks and its composition varies from biotite granite, two-mica granite, to leucogranite. Structurally, the plutonic complex occurs in the hanging wall of a segment of the regionally extensively (>1500 km long) Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust zone. As the plutonic bodies both cut and are deformed by the shear fabrics in this regional thrust shear zone, the duration of felsic magmatism and regional thrusting was temporally overlapping. This suggests that magmatism was coeval with crustal thickening. Major- and trace-element data and isotopic analysis of granitoid samples from our study area indicate that the felsic intrusions were derived from partial melting of meta-sediments, with the biotite and two-mica granite generated through vapor-absent melting and the leucogranite from flux melting. Although the Mongolian Altai intrusions were clearly originated from anatexis, coeval granite in the Chinese Altai directly west of our study area in the hanging wall of the Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust was derived in part from mantle melting. To reconcile these observations, we propose a Himalayan-style intracontinental-subduction model that predicts two geologic settings for the occurrence of felsic magmatism: (1) along the intracontinental thrust zone where granite was entirely generated by anatexis and (2) in the hanging wall of the intracontinental thrust where convective removal and/or continental subduction induced mantle melting.

  2. Status of LLNL granite projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-12-31

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site.

  3. Intrusive prospective imagery, posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Charlotte P; Picchioni, Marco M; Ellett, Lyn

    2015-12-30

    Trauma exposure and intrusive thoughts are commonly reported in both schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Information processing accounts suggest that intrusions occur in the two conditions as a result of insufficient state and/or trait contextual processing in long-term memory. Most research has focused on intrusions about past events, while growing evidence suggests that intrusions about prospective imagined events warrants further investigation. Prospective intrusive imagery has yet to be examined in psychotic disorders but could provide crucial information regarding the aetiology and maintenance of psychotic symptoms. The current study examines the role of prospective intrusive imagery, posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia. Fifty-seven participants (30 patients and 27 healthy controls) completed measures of trauma, PTSD, anxiety, general non-affective use of imagery, and intrusive prospective imagery. Patients reported significantly more intrusive prospective imagery relative to control participants but, importantly, not greater use of general non-affective imagery. Intrusive prospective imagery was associated with posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia. The findings are consistent with information processing models of intrusions and psychosis, and provide novel insights for theoretical accounts, clinical formulation and therapeutic targets for psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26619917

  4. Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhaeusser, Carl R.

    2014-12-01

    Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks comprise some of the most diverse rock types on the Earth's surface and were formed during the early stages of the development of the planet from Eoarchaean to Neoarchaean times - a period extending back from about 4000 to 2500 million years ago. Because of their great age, these rocks have received unprecedented attention from a wide spectrum of Earth scientists striving to learn more about the evolution of the Earth, including its crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, the commencement of life, and the nature and distribution of mineral deposits. The knowledge gained thus far has accumulated incrementally, beginning with solid field-based studies, the latter being supplemented with increasingly advanced technological developments that have enabled scientists to probe fundamental questions of Earth history. Archaean granite-greenstone terranes display considerable variability of lithologies and geotectonic events, yet there are unifying characteristics that distinguish them from other geological environments. Most greenstone belts consist of a wide variety of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that reflect different evolutionary conditions of formation and all have invariably been influenced by subsequent geotectonic factors, including the intrusion of ultramafic, mafic and granitic complexes, resulting in widespread deformation, metamorphism, metasomatism, as well as mineralization. Geochemical and isotopic age determinations have shown how complex these ancient rocks are and efforts at understanding the nature and evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and primitive life have made Archaean terranes exciting environments in which to study. Conflicting views as to the nature, history and origin of many of the rock types and events in Archaean terranes has been ongoing and stimulating. This review attempts to describe the main lithotypes and other characteristics of granite-greenstone belt geology and points to some

  5. Petrochemical characteristics of Serra do Meio alkaline granite (Campo Alegre de Lourdes - Bahia State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Serra do Meio granite outcrops near the town of Campo Alegre de Lourdes, north-northeast of Bahia State. The granite is intrusive into micachists, which are correlatives of the Salgueiro-Cachoeirinha Group (Early Proterozoic), during early to the syn-tectonic shear phase. The geological setting also comprises a phosphatic rock-bearing carbonatitic complex and gabbroid complexes with one of the main world resources of Fe-Ti-V. The granite mineralogical composition grades from Aegerine-augite alkali-feldspar granite/syenites to Leuco alcali-feldspar granite. The geochemical analysis shows SiO2-enrichment (67 to 76%), in alkalis (Na2+K2O, 7,5 to 12,5%), Nb (up to 680ppm), Zr (up to 2,390ppm), Y (up to 250ppm) e REE (up to 796ppm). The geochemical behaviour is peculiar to alkaline series, denoting a silica-oversaturated, potassium-rich, magma. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns display a first group with smooth slopes from the La to Lu, and a second one with negative slopes. Negative Eu anomalies are displayed in all the patterns. The first group is HREE-enriched, with low fractionation ratios. Samples with milonytic fabrics and higher fractionation ratios are related to the second group, suggesting the interaction of metassomatic fluids and the alkaline magma. Discriminant diagrams for Nb, Y and Rb, coupled with geophysical data, point to an intrusive granite in an extensional within a plate tectonic setting of attenuated continental crust. (author)

  6. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the Late Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab granitoids, Central Eastern Dessert, Egypt: Implications for the origin of rare metal post-orogenic A-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Farahat, Esam S.; Ahmed, Awaad F.; Mohamed, Haroun A.

    2015-04-01

    within A-type granite worldwide. According to Zhang et al., 2012, the garnet crystallized at the expense of biotite from the MnO-rich evolved melt after fractionation of biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, zircon, apatite, and ilmenite. The granitoids are alkali feldspar granites showing distinct geochemical features and most likely, belong to the post-orogenic younger Egyptian granitoids. They are peraluminous A-type alkaline rocks but they have lower Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, TiO2, P2O5, Sr, Ba, V, and higher SiO2, Na2O, K2O, Nb, Ta, U, Zr, Th, Ga/Al and Rb than the typical rocks of this type. The positive correlation between Ba and Sr, and the negative correlation between Rb and K/Rb reveal fractional crystallization of alkali feldspar. The similarity in most geochemical characteristics suggests that Abu Diab granitoids are genetically related to each other and extremely enrichment in incompatible elements such as Nb and Ta, indicating that they crystallized from extremely differentiated magmas. References: Zhang, J., Ma, C. and She, Z., 2012. An Early Cretaceous garnet-bearing metaluminous A-type granite intrusion in the East Qinling Orogen, central China: Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical constraints. Geoscience Frontiers 3 (5), 635-646.

  7. Palaeomagnetism of the Loch Doon Granite Complex, Southern Uplands of Scotland: The Late Caledonian palaeomagnetic record and an Early Devonian episode of True Polar Wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, J. D. A.

    2007-03-01

    The Southern Uplands terrane is an Ordovician-Silurian back-arc/foreland basin emplaced at the northern margin of the Iapetus Ocean and intruded by granite complexes including Loch Doon (408.3 ± 1.5 Ma) during Early Devonian times. Protracted cooling of this 130 km 3 intrusion recorded magnetic remanence comprising a predominant ('A') magnetisation linked to initial cooling with dual polarity and mean direction D / I = 237 / 64° ( α95 = 4°, palaeopole at 316°E, 21°N). Subsidiary magnetisations include Mesozoic remanence correlating with extensional tectonism in the adjoining Irish Sea Basin ('B', D / I = 234/- 59°) and minority populations ('C', D / I = 106/- 2° and 'D', D / I = 199/1°) recording emplacement of younger (˜ 395 Ma) granites in adjoining terranes and the Variscan orogenic event. The 'A' directions have an arcuate distribution identifying anticlockwise rotation during cooling. A comparable rotation is identified in the Orthotectonic Caledonides to the north and the Paratectonic Caledonides to the south following closure of Iapetus. Continental motion from midsoutherly latitudes (˜ 40°S) at 408 Ma to equatorial palaeolatitudes by ˜ 395 Ma is identified and implies minimum rates of continental movement between 430 and 390 Ma of 30-70 cm/year, more than double maximum rates induced by plate forces and interpreted as a signature of true polar wander. Silurian-Devonian palaeomagnetic data from the British-Scandinavian Caledonides define a 430-385 Ma closed loop comparable to the distributed contemporaneous palaeomagnetic poles from Gondwana. They reconcile pre-430 Ma and post-380 Ma APW from this supercontinent and show that Laurentia-Baltica-Avalonia lay to the west of South America with a relict Rheic Ocean opening to the north which closed to produce Variscan orogeny by a combination of pivotal closure and right lateral transpression.

  8. 华北克拉通北部长城系底界年龄小于1670Ma:来自北京密云花岗斑岩岩脉锆石LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb年龄的约束%The base age of the Changchengian System at the northern North China Crnton should be younger than 1670 Ma: Constraints from zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICPMS dating of a granite-porphyry dike in Miyun County, Beijing.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀坤; 苏文博; 周红英; 耿建珍; 相振群; 崔玉荣; 刘文灿; 陆松年

    2011-01-01

    近期在北京密云沙厂北东的大龙门村附近发现一条花岗斑岩岩脉,该岩脉侵入于新太古代密云群角闪斜长片麻岩当中,其顶部则与片麻岩一起被常州沟组含砾砂岩沉积不整合覆盖.对该岩脉采用LA-MC-ICPMS进行锆石U-Pb同位素年龄测定,获得了(1 673±10)Ma的侵位年龄.这表明华北北部的常州沟组底界(也即长城系的底界)年龄小于1 670 Ma,很可能接近1 650 Ma,比传统的底界年龄1 800 Ma至少年轻150Ma左右.这是迄今为止华北北部长城系底界最为直接而精确的年龄约束.结合上覆大红峪组、高于庄组等测年资料,可进一步将新厘定的长城系(含常州沟组、串岭沟组、团山子组、大红峪组)的形成时代限定在1 650~1 600 Ma,归属于固结纪(Statherian Period,1 800~1 600Ma)最晚期.这一新进展表明,华北北部中一新元古界的底界与西伯利亚里菲系(Riphean)和印度温地亚(Vindhyan)超群等沉积序列的底界几乎完全一致,可能暗示华北与这些古陆在哥伦比亚超大陆旋回中有着紧密的亲缘关系.%Recently a granite-porphyry dike has been recognized near the Dalongmen Village in the north of the Shachang Town, Miyun County, Beijing. The dike emplaced into the Neoarchean Miyun Group amphibole-plagio-gneiss. Both the dike and the wall rock gneiss were unconformably overlain by the conglomerate and sandstone of the Changzhougou Formatiorn By means of LA-MC-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating, the emplacement age 1673±10 Ma of the granite-porphyry dike has been obtained. This dating result indicates that the base age of the Changzhougou Formation, i.e. the base age of the Changchengian System at the northern North China Craton (NCC) should be younger than 1670 Ma, probably close to 1650 Ma, at least~150 Ma younger than the conventionally adopted age 1800 Ma. This is the most direct and precise age constraint for the base of the Changchengian System at the northern NCC to date

  9. The Pikes Peak batholith, Colorado front range, and a model for the origin of the gabbro-anorthosite-syenite-potassic granite suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F.; Wones, D.R.; Sharp, W.N.; Desborough, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    This study of the Pikes Peak batholith includes the mineralogy and petrology of quartz syenite at West Creek and of fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free biotite granite near Mount Rosa; major element chemistry of the batholith; comparisons with similar postorogenic, intracratonic, sodic to potassic intrusives; and genesis of the batholith. The batholith is elongate in plan, 50 by 100 km, composite, and generally subalkalic. It was emplaced at shallow depth 1,040 m. y. ago, sharply transects its walls and may have breached its roof. Biotite granite and biotite-hornblende granite are predominant; quartz syenite, fayalite granite and riebeckite granite are present in minor amounts. Fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free quartz syenite, fayalite-biotite granite and riebeckite granite show a well-defined sodic differentiation trend; the less sodic fayalite-free granites exhibit a broader compositional range and no sharp trends. Crystallization was largely at PH2O suite that includes gabbro or basalt, anorthosite, quartz syenite, fayalite granite, riebeckite granite, and biotite and/or hornblende granites is of worldwide occurrence. A model is proposed in which mantle-derived, convecting alkali olivine basaltic magma first reacts with K2O-poor lower crust of granulite facies to produce magma of quartz syenitic composition. The syenitic liquid in turn reacts with granodioritic to granitic intermediate crust of amphibolite facies to produce the predominant fayalite-free biotite and biotite-hornblende granites of the batholith. This reaction of magma and roof involves both partial melting and the reconstitution and precipitation of refractory phases, as Bowen proposed. Intermediate liquids include MgO-depleted and Na2O-enriched gabbro, which precipitated anorthosite, and alkali diorite. The heat source is the basaltic magma; the heat required for partial melting of the roof is supplied largely by heats of crystallization of phases that settle out of the liquid - mostly olivine

  10. Molybdenite in Pomona Island Granite at Lake Manapouri, Fiordland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small occurrence of molybdenite (MoS2) mineralisation has been discovered in the weakly A-type Pomona Island Granite on the shorelines of Lake Manapouri in eastern Fiordland. The disseminated appearance of molybdenite and the absence of quartz veins indicates that mineralisation is probably the product of magmatic and/or hydrothermal activity related to pluton crystallisation at c. 157 Ma, and not younger (c.128-116 Ma) shear zone-related mesothermal mineralisation as has been recently described from the Murchison Mountains to the north and Stewart Island to the south. Although apparently not of economic grade, the Pomona Island Granite locality is regionally important because it is the first direct pluton-related Mo-mineralisation event to be recognised in eastern Fiordland. This occurrence adds to the growing number and known styles of base metal occurrences within the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc (Outboard Median Batholith) that formed on or near the New Zealand Gondwana margin. Furthermore, the wide distribution of essentially uninvestigated A-type granites in the Outboard Median Batholith means that there may be further Mo-mineralised localities awaiting discovery. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Groundwater evolution of the granite area, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemistry and environmental isotopes of groundwater in the Cretaceous granite of the Yeongcheon area has been investigated. The hydrochemistry of groundwater belongs to the Ca-HCO3 type. The oxygen-18 and deuterium data are clustered along the meteoric water line, indicating that the groundwater is of meteoric water origin. Tritium data show that the groundwaters were mostly recharged before pre-thermonuclear period and have been mixed with younger surface water flowing rapidly along fractured zones. Based on the mass balance and reaction simulation approaches using both the hydrochemistry of groundwater and the secondary mineralogy of fracture-filling materials, the low-temperature hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the area has been modeled. The results of geochemical simulation show that the concentrations of Ca, Na and HCO3 and pH of waters increase progressively owing to the dissolution of reactive minerals in flow paths. The concentrations of Mg and K first increase with the dissolution of reactant minerals, but later decrease when montmorillonite and illitic material are precipitated respectively. The continuous adding of reactive minerals, i. e. the progressively larger degrees of water/rock interaction, causes the formation of secondary minerals with the following sequence: hematite > gibbsite > kaolinite > montmorillonite > illitic material > microcline. The results of reaction simulation agree well with the observed water chemistry and secondary mineralogy, indicating the successful applicability of this simulation technique to delineate the complex hydrogeochemistry of bedrock groundwaters. (author)

  12. Re Os molybdenite dating of granite-related Sn W Mo mineralisation at Hnilec, Gemeric Superunit, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohút, M.; Stein, H.

    2005-12-01

    Re Os molybdenite ages from the exocontact of the Hnilec granite-greisen body provide temporal constraints for tin, tungsten and molybdenite mineralisation in the Gemeric Superunit, Slovakia. Two molybdenite separates were taken from a representative sample of the Sn W Mo mineralisation at Hnilec and their Re Os ages of 262.2 ± 0.9 and 263.8 ± 0.8 Ma (2-sigma) are in excellent agreement. The obtained Re Os molybdenite ages are similar to recent but less precise electron microprobe monazite (276 ± 13 Ma) and U Pb single zircon (250 ± 18 Ma) ages from the Hnilec granite intrusion, supporting a granite-related greisen origin for the Sn W Mo mineralisation. Our precise Re Os molybdenite ages resolve the long time controversy over the timing of high-temperature mineralisation in the Gemeric Superunit. These Permian ages eliminate suggestions of an Alpine age. The sulphur isotope composition of the studied molybdenite is δ34S(CDT) = 1.71 ± 0.2‰ and is consistent with a magmatic sulphur source. Field observations indicate the lack of a broad contact aureole in the vicinity of the Hnilec granite body. Shallow level granite emplacement in schistose host rocks was accompanied by alteration and formation of tin-tungsten greisen in the upper part of the granite and exocontact molybdenite mineralisation, both commonly lacking in other granite bodies within the Gemeric Superunit.

  13. Re-Os molybdenite dating of granite-related Sn-W-Mo mineralization at Hnilec, Gemeric Superunit, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re-Os molybdenite ages from the exocontact of the Hnilec granite-greisen body provide temporal constraints for tin, tungsten and molybdenite mineralization in the Gemeric Superunit, Slovakia. Two molybdenite separates were taken from a representative sample of the Sn-W-Mo mineralization at Hnilec and their Re-Os ages of 262.2 ± 0.9 and 263.8 ± 0.8 Ma (2-sigma) are in excellent agreement. The obtained Re-Os molybdenite ages are similar to recent but less precise electron microprobe monazite (276 ± 13 Ma) and U-Pb single zircon (250 ± 18 Ma) ages from the Hnilec granite intrusion, supporting a granite-related greisen origin for the Sn-W-Mo mineralization. Our precise Re-Os molybdenite ages resolve the long time controversy over the timing of high-temperature mineralization in the Gemeric Superunit. These Permian ages eliminate suggestions of an Alpine age. The sulphur isotope composition of the studied molybdenite is δ34S(CDT) = 1.71 ± 0.2 %o and is consistent with a magmatic sulphur source. Field observations indicate the lack of a broad contact aureole in the vicinity of the Hnilec granite body. Shallow level granite emplacement in schistose host rocks was accompanied by alteration and formation of tin-tungsten greisen in the upper part of the granite and exocontact molybdenite mineralization, both commonly lacking in other granite bodies within the Gemeric Superunit. (author)

  14. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: vicmartin6@ig.com.br, e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U

  15. WLAN Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Sushama Shirke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an implementation of the Wireless LAN Intrusion Detection System (WIDS using clock-skews as a fingerprinting property as suggested by Jana-Kasera [1]. Our objective is to detect the presence of a fake access point (AP in a Wireless LAN (WLAN. Use of clock -skew enables us to effectively detect Medium Access Control (MAC Address spoofing. The principle used in this project is that clock s k e w s remain consistent over time for the same AP but vary significantly across AP’s. We have also tried to exploreprobable points of failure and implemented algorithms to overcome these problems. Advantage of this implementation is that fake AP can be detected very quickly as WLAN Intrusion Detection System needs only 100 -200 packets in most cases.

  16. Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jack TIMOFTE

    2008-01-01

    The wireless networks have changed the way organizations work and offered a new range of possibilities, but at the same time they introduced new security threats. While an attacker needs physical access to a wired network in order to launch an attack, a wireless network allows anyone within its range to passively monitor the traffic or even start an attack. One of the countermeasures can be the use of Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems.

  17. Influence of Age, Thought Content, and Anxiety on Suppression of Intrusive Thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica R Beadel; Green, Jennifer S.; Hosseinbor, Shahrzad; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in responses following attempts to suppress versus simply monitor intrusive thoughts is important given the established relationship between intrusive thinking and numerous forms of psychopathology. Moreover, these differences may vary as a function of age. Because of the links between aging and both enhancement in emotion regulation skills and decline in inhibition skills, older and younger adults were expected to differ in their responses (e.g., experience of negat...

  18. Emplacement age and tectonic implications of the Xilinhot A-type granite in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Guanghai; MIAO Laicheng; ZHANG Fuqing; JIAN Ping; FAN Weiming; LIU Dunyi

    2004-01-01

    A new rock type of granite, approximate 45 km2 in area and located about 10 km south of Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, was found in the Sunitezuoqi (or called Suzuoqi)-Xilinhot tectonic belt and identified as an A-type mia- rolitic intrusion. The pluton has miarolitic structure and is composed chiefly of perthite, quartz, euhedral albite and potassium feldspar. Various types of textures occur in the pluton, such as perthitie, graphic and myrmekite textures. Only quartz is found in miarolitic cavity. This A-type granite with seagull-shaped REE patterns and obvious negative Eu anomaly (δEu = 0.24-0.28) is high in SiO2 (76%-77%), K and Na (Na2O + K2O = 7.75%-8.15%) and low in Ca (CaO = 0.20%-0.22%), Fe and Mg. Both petrographical observations and chemical compositions indicate that it is an A-type granite. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb analyses indicate that this A-type granite was emplaced at 276 ( 2 Ma and coeval with the same type of granites in the adjacent areas. Therefore, it suggests that this pluton was likely formed in a post-orogenic extensional setting and probably related to break-off of subducted slabs in Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which indicate that the Sunitezuoqi-Xilinhot belt was tectonically evolved into post-orogenic stage since early Permian.

  19. New dating of Dajishan granite and related tungsten mineralization, South Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenlan; HUA Renmin; WANG Rucheng; CHEN Peirong; LI Huimin

    2007-01-01

    The Dajishan deposit is a well-known tungsten and niobium-tantalum deposit in China. Due to the technolo- gical restrictions, little work has been done on the ages of ore-forming and related granite in Dajishan for a long time. By means of the single-zircon U-Pb isotopic method, the intrusion age is reported in this paper, which is (151.7±1.6) Ma for a patched granite body (the source granite for Nb-Ta). By quick neutron mobilization method, an 40Ar-39Ar age of mica from the major ore vein is determined, yielding ore-forming ages of 144 Ma and 147 Ma. Combining these age data with the occurrences of the main granite body, the patched body, the major ore veins and Na-Ta mineralization, the paper dis- cusses their formation orders and relationships. These data also show that the Dajishan granite and its related mineraliza- tions are the product of magmatism in the middle Yanshanian stage and a part of the secondary large-scale mineralization in the Mesozoic.

  20. Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive magmatism in western Guangdong and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG; Hongyan; XU; Xisheng; S.Y.O'Reilly; ZHAO; Ming; SUN; Tao

    2006-01-01

    Systematic zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating reveals that Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive activities developed in western Guangdong. Representative volcanic rocks, i.e. Maanshan and Zhougongding rhyodacites, have zircon U-Pb isotopic ages of 100±1 Ma, and the intrusive ones including the Deqing monzonitic granite body and the Xinghua granodiorite body in the Shidong complex, as well as the Tiaocun granodiorite body in the Guangping complex yield ages of 99±2 Ma, ca.100 Ma, and 104±3 Ma respectively. The biotite-granites of the Shidong complex main body (461±35 Ma) and that of the Guangping complex (444±6 Ma) are Caledonian. In spite of the big time interval between Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive magmatisms and Caledonian intrusive ones, both of them are characterized by enrichment in Rb, Th, Ce, Zr, Hf, Sm, depletion in Ba, Nb, Ta, P, Ti, Eu, and weakly REE tetrad effect. Eu negative anomalies are: Cretaceous volcanic rocks (Eu/Eu*=0.74), Cretaceous intrusive rocks (Eu/Eu*=0.35-0.58), Caledonian biotite granites (Eu/Eu*=0.31-0.34). Studies of Sr-Nd isotope data show that all these igneous rocks have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7105-0.7518), and low εNd(t) values (-7.23--11.39) with their Nd two-stage model ages ranging from 1.6-2.0 Ga, which suggest that they all derived from the Proterozoic crustal basement of southeast China.The occurrence of Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive magmatisms in western Guangdong is related with the important lithospheric extension event in southeast China (including Nanling region) at ca. 100 Ma.The "volcanic line" defined by the large scale Mesozoic intermediate-acidic volcanic magmatisms in southeast China may further extend to the southwest margin of Nanling region.

  1. Geochemical, petrological, geo dynamic and radiometric age dating investigation of Aqdarreh intrusion massive (north of Takab) northwest of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqdarreh intrusi body with an area of 30 km 2 is located in 34 km north of Takab, northwest of Iran. This batholith is situated in Central Iran, cutting Paleozoic rocks. Radiometric age of Aqdarreh batholith by K-Ar method is 48.38 m. a.,corresponding to Eocene magmatism. Aqdarreh intrusive body consists of tonalite, granodiorite, alkali feldspar granite and monzogranite in which the main mafic mineral is biotite. Further more, there is not any enclave in these rocks. Study of the investigated samples shows that Aqdarreh intrusive rocks have two different generations. Part of the collected samples belongs to I-type granite (calc-alkaline) and others represent the A-type granite (alkaline). It seems that this process is created by the contamination of alkaline magma by crustal materials. Geochemistry of the rare earth elements shows that the tectonic setting of the body is compatible with Post Orogenic Granitoids

  2. Charnockites and granites of the western Adirondacks, New York, USA: a differentiated A-type suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    Granitic rocks in the west-central Adirondack Highlands of New York State include both relatively homogeneous charnockitic and hornblende granitic gneisses (CG), that occur in thick stratiform bodies and elliptical domes, and heterogeneous leucogneisses (LG), that commonly are interlayered with metasedimentary rocks. Major- and trace-element geochemical analyses were obtained for 115 samples, including both types of granitoids. Data for CG fail to show the presence of more than one distinct group based on composition. Most of the variance within the CG sample population is consistent with magmatic differentiation combined with incomplete separation of early crystals of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and pyroxenes or amphibole from the residual liquid. Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca, P, Sr, Ba, and Zr decrease with increasing silica, while Rb and K increase. Within CG, the distinction between charnockitic (orthopyroxene-bearing) and granitic gneisses is correlated with bulk chemistry. The charnockites are consistently more mafic than the hornblende granitic gneisses, although forming a continuum with them. The leucogneisses, while generally more felsic than the charnockites and granitic gneisses, are otherwise geochemically similar to them. The data are consistent with the LG suite being an evolved extrusive equivalent of the intrusive CG suite. Both CG and LG suites are metaluminous to mildly peraluminous and display an A-type geochemical signature, enriched in Fe, K, Ce, Y, Nb, Zr, and Ga and depleted in Ca, Mg, and Sr relative to I- and S-type granites. Rare earth element patterns show moderate LREE enrichment and a negative Eu anomaly throughout the suite. The geochemical data suggest an origin by partial melting of biotite- and plagioclase-rich crustal rocks. Emplacement occurred in an anorogenic or post-collisional tectonic setting, probably at relatively shallow depths. Deformation and granulite-facies metamorphism with some partial melting followed during the Ottawan phase

  3. Crystallization and uplift path of late Variscan granites evidenced by quartz chemistry and fluid inclusions: Example from the Land's End granite, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivenes, Kristian; Larsen, Rune Berg; Müller, Axel; Sørensen, Bjørn Eske

    2016-05-01

    The megacrystic, coarse-grained granite of the Land's End granitic complex, SW England, has been investigated by analyzing fluid inclusions, trace elements, and cathodoluminescence textures of quartz. By applying the TitaniQ geothermobarometer together with the cathodoluminescence textures, a two-stage emplacement process is proposed. K-feldspar and quartz phenocrysts crystallized in a deep magma chamber at ca. 18-20 km depth. The phenocrysts were transported together with the melt to a shallow emplacement depth at ca. 5-9 km in multiple intrusive events, causing the composite appearance of the granitic complex. This model of emplacement concurs with similar granites from the Erzgebirge. At the emplacement level, the magma exsolved an aqueous fluid with average salinity of 17.3% m/m NaCl and 9.7% m/m CaCl2. Fluids with higher salinities were exsolved deeper in the system, as the magma experienced stages of water saturation and water undersaturation during ascent from the deep magma chamber. The complex fluid inclusion textures are the results of multiple stages of entrapment of aqueous fluids in the host phases as multiple recharge events from the deeper magma chamber supplied fresh melts and aqueous volatiles. Titanium contents in quartz are closely related to the panchromatic cathodoluminescence intensity, and the Al/Ti ratio is reflected by the 3.26 eV/2.70 eV ratio of hyperspectral cathodoluminescence.

  4. Geochemical characteristics and origin of the Lebowa Granite Suite, Bushveld Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Barker, F.; Hunter, D.; Knight, R.

    1996-01-01

    The ??? 2052-Ma Lebowa Granite Suite (LGS) represents the culminating phase of an Early Proterozoic magmatic cycle in the Central Transvaal area of the Kaapvaal Province. Following extrusion of at least 200,000 km3 of intermediate to acid volcanics (Rooiberg Felsite), mafic and ultramafic magmas intruded at 2065 Ma to form the Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS). The LGS includes the Nebo, Makhutso, Bobbejaankop, Lease, and Klipkloof granites. The Nebo Granite intruded the Rooiberg Felsite as sheets up to 4 km thick above the RLS. Smaller stocks of the other granites crosscut the Nebo. We determined major- and trace-element compositions and oxygen, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotope ratios for samples of: Nebo Granite; Rooiberg Felsite; granophyre and granophyric granite; Makhutso, Bobbejaankop, and Lease granites; and feldspar porphyry from areas throughout the exposed area of the LGS (Dennilton, Verena Balmoral, Enkeldoorn, Sekhukhune Plateau, Zaaiplaats-Potgeitersrus, and Western Transvaal). Coherent floor-to-roof geochemical trends exist in some areas, although it is not possible to model them convincingly. Regional variations in geochemistry exist and likely are related to source variations in the estimated 200,000 km3 of the Nebo Granite sheets. ??18O for the LGS range from +5.9??? to +9.5???; if these are approximate primary magmatic values, pelitic sediments cannot have been an important source for the LGS. The Rb-Sr isotope system has been altered, a finding consistent with previous studies. A mineral isochron for Nebo Granite near Dennilton yields a York regression age of 1995 ?? 99 Ma, with initial 143Nd/144Nd = 0.50978??8 and ???CHUR=-5.12. Samples from the Sekhukhune Plateau have higher 143Nd/144Nd ratios than do Dennilton-area samples, suggesting that the former originated from older or less LREE-enriched sources. We suggest that intrusion of mafic to ultramafic magmas at depth in the continental crust triggered melting of Archean quartzofeldspathic crystalline

  5. Episodic growth of a Late Cretaceous and Paleogene intrusive complex of pegmatitic leucogranite, Ruby Mountains core complex, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, K.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Barnes, C.G.; Premo, W.R.; Snoke, A.W.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Gneissic pegmatitic leucogranite forms a dominant component (>600 km3) of the midcrustal infrastructure of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range core complex (Nevada, USA), and was assembled and modified episodically into a batholithic volume by myriad small intrusions from ca. 92 to 29 Ma. This injection complex consists of deformed sheets and other bodies emplaced syntectonically into a stratigraphic framework of marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite, schist, and other granitoids. Bodies of pegmatitic granite coalesce around host-rock remnants, which preserve relict or ghost stratigraphy, thrusts, and fold nappes. Intrusion inflated but did not disrupt the host-rock structure. The pegmatitic granite increases proportionally downward from structurally high positions to the bottoms of 1-km-deep canyons where it constitutes 95%-100% of the rock. Zircon and monazite dated by U-Pb (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe, SHRIMP) for this rock type cluster diffusely at ages near 92, 82(?), 69, 38, and 29 Ma, and indicate successive or rejuvenated igneous crystallization multiple times over long periods of the Late Cretaceous and the Paleogene. Initial partial melting of unexposed pelites may have generated granite forerunners, which were remobilized several times in partial melting events. Sources for the pegmatitic granite differed isotopically from sources of similar-aged interleaved equigranular granites. Dominant Late Cretaceous and fewer Paleogene ages recorded from some pegmatitic granite samples, and Paleogene-only ages from the two structurally deepest samples, together with varying zircon trace element contents, suggest several disparate ages of final emplacement or remobilization of various small bodies. Folded sills that merge with dikes that cut the same folds suggest that there may have been in situ partial remobilization. The pegmatitic granite intrusions represent prolonged and recurrent generation, assembly, and partial melting modification of a

  6. Intrusive growth of sclerenchyma fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Snegireva, A.V.; Ageeva, M.V.; Amenitskii, S.I.; Chernova, T.E.; Ebskamp, M.; Gorshkova, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Intrusive growth is a type of cell elongation when the rate of its longitudinal growth is higher than that of surrounding cells; therefore, these cells intrude between the neighboring cells penetrating the middle lamella. The review considers the classical example of intrusive growth, e.g., elongation of sclerenchyma fibers when the cells achieve the length of several centimeters. We sum the published results of investigations of plant fiber intrusive growth and present some features of intru...

  7. Origin of postcollisional intrusions in NW Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for magma chamber processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysal, Namık

    2013-04-01

    Post-collisional magmatic activities of NW Anatolia are represented by a series of granitic intrusions and volcanic successions in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. These plutonic rocks have distinct textures, chemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotope characteristics. They consist of coarse grained, equigranular and/or hypidiomorphic textured granite, gronodiorite, monzogranite, quartz-monzonite, pyroxene-monzonite and leucocratic alkali feldspar granites. These intrusions are composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. However, leucocratic facies rocks contain tourmaline with minor amount of mafic minerals. Accessory phases are represented by zircon, apatite, monozite, magnetite, sphene and rarely allanite. ASI values of the plutonic rocks vary between 0.7 and 1.24. These intrusive rocks are therefore classified as metaluminous-peraluminous with I-type affinity. K2O contents show that the intrusive rock samples show calc-alkaline, high K-calc-alkaline and shoshonitic character. Initial 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.69980-0.70835), 143Nd/144Nd(t) (0.51238-0.51247) isotope ratios and negative ɛNd(t) (-4.4 - -2.6) values imply that these intrusive rocks could have been derived from enriched mantle sources. N-MORB normalized spidergrams of NW Anatolian plutonic rocks display enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE) indicating hydrous melting of a mantle wedge in a subduction zone and/or enrichment of the mantle source with an inherited subduction component from an ancient arc magmatism. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element spidergrams are indicative of the importance of plagioclase and amphibole fractionation. On tectonic discrimination diagrams, all granite samples fall into the volcanic arc granite, syn and post-collisional granite fields. The geochemical data also indicate that a number of magma chamber processes involving magma mixing, fractional

  8. Sources of granite magmatism in the Embu Terrane (Ribeira Belt, Brazil): Neoproterozoic crust recycling constrained by elemental and isotope (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Adriana; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa

    2016-07-01

    Whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry and in situ K-feldspar Pb isotope geochemistry were used to identify the sources involved in the genesis of Neoproterozoic granites from the Embu Terrane, Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil. Granite magmatism spanned over 200 Ma (810-580 Ma), and is dominated by crust-derived relatively low-T (850-750 °C, zircon saturation) biotite granites to biotite-muscovite granites. Two Cryogenian plutons show the least negative εNdt (-8 to -10) and highest mg# (30-40) of the whole set. Their compositions are strongly contrasted, implying distinct sources for the peraluminous (ASI ∼ 1.2) ∼660 Ma Serra do Quebra-Cangalha batholith (metasedimentary rocks from relatively young upper crust with high Rb/Sr and low Th/U) and the metaluminous (ASI = 0.96-1.00) ∼ 630 Ma Santa Catarina Granite. Although not typical, the geochemical signature of these granites may reflect a continental margin arc environment, and they could be products of a prolonged period of oceanic plate consumption started at ∼810 Ma. The predominant Ediacaran (595-580 Ma) plutons have a spread of compositions from biotite granites with SiO2 as low as ∼65% (e.g., Itapeti, Mauá, Sabaúna and Lagoinha granites) to fractionated muscovite granites (Mogi das Cruzes, Santa Branca and Guacuri granites; up to ∼75% SiO2). εNdT are characteristically negative (-12 to -18), with corresponding Nd TDM indicating sources with Paleoproterozoic mean crustal ages (2.0-2.5 Ga). The Guacuri and Santa Branca muscovite granites have the more negative εNdt, highest 87Sr/86Srt (0.714-0.717) and lowest 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, consistent with an old metasedimentary source with low time-integrated Rb/Sr. However, a positive Nd-Sr isotope correlation is suggested by data from the other granites, and would be consistent with mixing between an older source predominant in the Mauá granite and a younger, high Rb/Sr source that is more abundant in the Lagoinha granite sample. The

  9. Network Intrusion Forensic Analysis Using Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for computer intrusion forensics arises from the alarming increase in the number of computer crimes that are committed annually. After a computer system has been breached and an intrusion has been detected, there is a need for a computer forensics investigation to follow. Computer forensics is used to bring to justice, those responsible for conducting attacks on computer systems throughout the world. Because of this the law must be follow precisely when conducting a forensics investigation. It is not enough to simple know an attacker is responsible for the crime, the forensics investigation must be carried out in a precise manner that will produce evidence that is amicable in a court room. For computer intrusion forensics many methodologies have been designed to be used when conducting an investigation. With the birth of the Internet and networks, the computer intrusion has never been as significant as it is now. There are different preventive measures available, such as access control and authentication, to attempt to prevent intruders. Intrusion detection systems (IDS are developed to detect an intrusion as it occurs, and to execute countermeasures when detected. Intrusion detection (ID takes over where preventive security fails. In order to choose the best IDS for a given system, one should be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of the each IDS. This paper views a forensic application within the framework of Intrusion Detection and details the advantages and disadvantages of IDS.

  10. Resolving the Younger Dryas Event Through Borehole Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, John Francis

    One of the most striking features of the ice core records from Greenland is a sudden drop in oxygen isotope values (delta O-18) between approximately 11,500 and 10,700 years ago. This Younger Dryas event was an intense return to ice age conditions during a time of general de-glaciation. As recorded in the ice cores, temperatures in Greenland cooled by roughly seven degrees Kelvin. W. Broecker and R. Fairbanks have proposed competing explanations for the cooling and cause of this "aborted ice age." One supposes that the seven degree cooling is real and results from a shutdown in the North Atlantic ocean circulation; the other, that it is largely fictitious and records an intrusion of isotopically light glacial meltwater into the ice core records. Using optimal control methods and heat flow modelling, the author makes a valiant but ultimately futile attempt to distinguish the Younger Dryas event in the ice sheet temperatures measured at Dye 3, South Greenland. The author discusses the prospects for attempting the same in the new Summit boreholes in Central Greenland: how that will require more accurate temperature measurements, a coupled thermo-mechanical model, and a refined uncertainty analysis. He concludes by discussing how borehole temperature analysis may improve the climate histories determined from ice cores.

  11. Intensive low-temperature tectono-hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous rare-metal granite: a case study from the Dlhá dolina valley (Gemericum, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiter Karel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of low-temperature metamorphic (hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous, highly evolved rare-metal S-type granite is described. The hidden Dlhá dolina granite pluton of Permian age (Western Carpathians, eastern Slovakia is composed of barren biotite granite, mineralized Li-mica granite and albitite. Based on whole-rock chemical data and evaluation of compositional variations of rock-forming and accessory minerals (Rb-P-enriched K-feldspar and albite; biotite, zinnwaldite and di-octahedral micas; Hf-(Sc-rich zircon, fluorapatite, topaz, schorlitic tourmaline, the following evolutionary scenario is proposed: (1 Intrusion of evolved peraluminous melt enriched in Li, B, P, F, Sn, Nb, Ta, and W took place followed by intrusion of a large body of biotite granites into Paleozoic metapelites and metarhyolite tuffs; (2 The highly evolved melt differentiated in situ forming tourmaline-bearing Li-biotite granite at the bottom, topaz-zinnwaldite granite in the middle, and quartz albitite to albitite at the top of the cupola. The main part of the Sn, Nb, and Ta crystallized from the melt as disseminated cassiterite and Nb-Ta oxide minerals within the albitite, while disseminated wolframite appears mainly within the topaz-zinnwaldite granite. The fluid separated from the last portion of crystallized magma caused small scale greisenization of the albitite; (3 Alpine (Cretaceous thrusting strongly tectonized and mylonitized the upper part of the pluton. Hydrothermal low-temperature fluids enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2 unfiltered mechanically damaged granite. This fluid-driven overprint caused formation of carbonate veinlets, alteration and release of phosphorus from crystal lattice of feldspars and Li from micas, precipitating secondary Sr-enriched apatite and Mg-rich micas. Consequently, all bulk-rock and mineral markers were reset and now represent the P-T conditions of the Alpine overprint.

  12. Geology and geochemistry of the Redrock Granite and anorthosite xenoliths (Proterozoic in the northern Burro Mountains, Grant County, New Mexico, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia T. McLemore

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral ages from the A-type granites and anorthosite xenoliths in the Redrock area in the northwestern Burro Mountains in southwestern New Mexico cluster around ~1220–1225 Ma and provide yet another example of bimodal igneous activity during this time period in the southwestern United States. The metaluminous to peraluminous, marginally alkaline to subalkaline Redrock Granite exhibits the textural, mineralogical, and geochemical features of A-type granitethat was emplaced at a relatively high crustal level. Field relationships, whole rock and mineral geochemical and isotopic trends suggest that the four phases of the Redrock Granite are genetically related, with the miarolitic biotite/alkali feldspar granite being the youngest phase. Spatial relationships and geochemical data suggest that the anorthosite xenoliths were coeval with the RedrockGranite, which is consistent with the anorthosite being derived from the upper mantle, possibly due to deep mantle upwellings, and the Redrock Granite from the lower crust. The process involved melting in the upper mantle, emplacement of anorthosite in the crust resulting in partial crustal melting and thinning, and, finally, intrusion of shallow silicic plutons, the Redrock Granite. The Redrock Granite and anorthosite were presumably derived from sources characterized by subtle, long-term LREE depletion, with εNd (at 1220 Ma values on theorder of +1 to +2.

  13. GRANITE PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Donald F.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Peak Roadless Area occupies an area of about 5 sq mi in the southern part of the Trinity Alps of the Klamath Mountains, about 12 mi north-northeast of Weaverville, California. Rock and stream-sediment samples were analyzed. All streams draining the roadless area were sampled and representative samples of the rock types in the area were collected. Background values were established for each element and anomalous values were examined within their geologic settings and evaluated for their significance. On the basis of mineral surveys there seems little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources.

  14. Status of the GRANIT facility

    CERN Document Server

    Roulier, Damien; Baessler, Stefan; Clément, Benoît; Morton, Daniel; Nesvizhevsky, Valery; Pignol, Guillaume; Rebreyend, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The GRANIT facility is a follow-up project, which is motivated by the recent discovery of gravitational quantum states of ultracold neutrons. The goal of the project is to approach the ultimate accuracy in measuring parameters of such quantum states and also to apply this phenomenon and related experimental techniques to a broad range of applications in particle physics as well as in surface and nanoscience studies. We overview the current status of this facility, the recent test measurements and the nearest prospects.

  15. Extra-terrestrial igneous granites and related rocks: A review of their occurrence and petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard

    2012-11-01

    The telluric planets and the asteroid belt display the same internal structure with a metallic inner core and a silicate outer shell. Experimental data and petrological evidence in silicate systems show that granite can be produced by extreme igneous differentiation through various types of igneous processes. On Moon, 4.4-3.9 Ga granite clasts display dry mineral assemblages. They correspond to at least 8 discrete intrusive events. Large K/Ca enrichment and low REE abundances in granite relative to KREEP are consistent with silicate liquid immiscibility, a process observed in melt inclusions within olivine of lunar basalts and in lunar meteorites. Steep-sided domes identified by remote sensing can represent intrusive or extrusive felsic formations. On Mars, black-and-white rhythmic layers observed on the Tharsis rise along the flanks of the peripheral scarps of the Tharsis Montes giant volcanoes suggest the possible eruption of felsic pyroclastites. Though no true granites were found so far in the Martian SNC meteorites, felsic glasses and mesostases were identified and a component close to terrestrial continental (granitic) crust is inferred from trace element and isotope systematics. Venus has suffered extensive volcanic resurfacing, whereas folded and faulted areas resemble terrestrial continents. Near large shield volcanoes, with dominant basaltic compositions, steep-sided domes have been interpreted as non-degassed silicic extrusions. The hypothesis of a granitic component is "tantalising". Extra-terrestrial granite is frequently found as clasts and mesostases in asteroidal meteorites. Porphyritic textures, with alkali feldspar crystals up to several centimetres in size, were observed in silicate enclaves within iron meteorites. In the chondrite clan, polymict breccias can contain granitic clasts, whose provenance is debated. One clast from the Adzhi-Bogdo meteorite yields a 4.53 ± 0.03 Ga Pb-Pb age, making it the oldest known granite in the solar system. The

  16. Intrusive growth of sclerenchyma fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snegireva, A.V.; Ageeva, M.V.; Amenitskii, S.I.; Chernova, T.E.; Ebskamp, M.; Gorshkova, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Intrusive growth is a type of cell elongation when the rate of its longitudinal growth is higher than that of surrounding cells; therefore, these cells intrude between the neighboring cells penetrating the middle lamella. The review considers the classical example of intrusive growth, e.g., elongati

  17. Older Siblings Influence Younger Siblings' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah E.; Nuzzo, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Evidence exists for two competing theories about the effects of having an older sibling on development. Previous research has found that having an older sibling has both advantages and disadvantages for younger siblings' development. This study examined whether and how older siblings influenced the onset of their own younger siblings' motor…

  18. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  19. Construction of the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex, Maine, USA: the Plutonic Record of Evolving Magma Chambers Affected by Multiple Episodes of Replenishment, Rejuvenation, Crystal Accumulation and Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Hawkins, D. P.

    2004-12-01

    Increasingly, the plutonic roots of volcanic systems can be shown to contain temporal records of events inferred from the study of volcanic rocks. The Vinalhaven intrusive complex preserves evidence for multiple episodes of silicic and mafic replenishments, rejuvenation of granite, and probable eruptive events over a nominal time-span of 1.7 Ma (Hawkins and Wiebe, this volume). The complex is about 12 km in diameter and consists mainly of cg granite, a thick section of arcuate, inward-dipping gabbro-diorite sheets in the southeastern half of the complex, and a circular core of fg granite. Field relations demonstrate that the base of the intrusion is along the southeastern margin of the complex, and the top is along the northwestern margin where it intrudes coeval volcanic rocks. Aphyric basaltic and granitic dikes fed this essentially bimodal intrusion. When basaltic dikes intersected a silicic chamber, basalt spread across a floor of silicic crystal mush to form gabbro-diorite sheets in granite. Several extensive layers of angular blocks of country rock occur within the mafic rocks. Granitic dikes and the fg granitic core of the complex have sharp to gradational contacts with cg granite, and, locally, both granites are intimately mixed and commingled. These relations indicate that new silicic injections mixed into partly crystallized resident magma. Several irregular bodies of porphyry (0.2 to 0.5 km in average dimension) intrude cg granite with sharp, gradational, or commingled contacts. The porphyry has 5 to 40% corroded phenocrysts, identical in composition to crystals in the granite, and a variably quenched matrix. Some of these bodies formed when late injections of basalt remelted largely solid portions of cg granite. New silicic input may have contributed to other porphyry bodies. The matrix probably quenched because of a sudden decrease in pressure, possibly due to eruption of magma from the chamber. The cg granite and inter-layered mafic rocks preserve a

  20. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN GRANITE WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Srilakshmi; Swetha; Vijaya Bhaskar; Rambabu; Madhulatha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) has significantly increased over the last few decades and has become a main health challenge worldwide. Prevalence of MS is quickly rising in developing countries due to changing lifestyle. It was considered worthwhile to study MS and its components in granite workers since granite ...

  1. The timing of tectonic transition from compression to extension in Dabieshan:Evidence from Mesozoic granites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Changqian; YANG Kunguang; MING Houli; LIN Guangchun

    2004-01-01

    With the methods of single grain zircon U-Pb and hornblende-biotite Ar-Ar dating, a U-Pb zircon age (135.4(2.7) Ma of Liujiawa high Sr/Y granite and 40Ar-39Ar plateau ages (139.0(1.0) Ma and (125.3(0.2) Ma of hornblende and biotite respectively of Fenliupu high Sr/Y granite in the Dabieshan high- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt are yielded. Following the emplacement of the high Sr/Y granites, extension-related mafic intrusions and late granitoids with negative Sr and Eu anomalies and isotopic ages of 105-130 Ma were emplaced. Geochemical comparison between the two types of granitoids shows that, from early to late, the alkalinities, the K2O contents and the Sr/Y ratios as well as FeO/(FeO+MgO) ratios of the rocks increase, while the abundance of Sr reduces, suggesting that as time goes on the depth of crustal melting decreases. Rheological stratification of the crust due to early Cretaceous partial melting of crustal rocks resulted in crustal extension and deep-buried rock exhumation. Therefore, the high Sr/Y granite that appeared at ~135 Ma is the product of the tectonic transition from early shortening to late overall extension.

  2. Deformation features of garnet-bearing granites from Huwan, western Dabie Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG KunGuang; LIU Qiang; XIE JianLei; DAN Wei; SHE ZhenBing; MA ChangQian

    2009-01-01

    Foliated garnet-bearing granite, usually associated with high pressure and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamophic rocks, is a particular rock-type extensively exposed in the Mesozoic Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt of China. This study focuses on deformation features and SHRIMP zircon dating of foliated garnet granite in a high-pressure metamorphic unit from Huwan, western Dabie Mountains in order to resolve discrepancies in current versions of its petrogenesis and structural evolution. SHRIMP dating reveals a zircon age of 762±15 Ma (MSWD=1.7) for Huwan granites, representing the Middle to Late Neopro terozoic age of intrusion and crystallization. Field and microstructural studies show that the Huwan granite body underwent multiple-stage deformation. The deformation was manifested by an early stage of rootless folding and imposition of relict foliation (S1); an Indosinian main stage marked by imposition of north-dipping penetrative gneissosity (S2) and development of ductile shear zones under NNE-SSW directed compression; and a final Indosinian stage of southward thrusting of the Huwan high-pressure unit. Shallow level extension prevailed after the Late Triassic, giving rise to south-dipping thrust faults and north-dipping normal faults.

  3. Deformation features of garnet-bearing granites from Huwan,western Dabie Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Foliated garnet-bearing granite,usually associated with high pressure and ultrahigh-pressure(UHP) metamophic rocks,is a particular rock-type extensively exposed in the Mesozoic Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt of China.This study focuses on deformation features and SHRIMP zircon dating of foliated garnet granite in a high-pressure metamorphic unit from Huwan,western Dabie Mountains in order to resolve discrepancies in current versions of its petrogenesis and structural evolution.SHRIMP dating reveals a zircon age of 762 ± 15 Ma(MSWD=1.7) for Huwan granites,representing the Middle to Late Neoproterozoic age of intrusion and crystallization.Field and microstructural studies show that the Huwan granite body underwent multiple-stage deformation.The deformation was manifested by an early stage of rootless folding and imposition of relict foliation(S1);an Indosinian main stage marked by imposition of north-dipping penetrative gneissosity(S2) and development of ductile shear zones under NNE-SSW directed compression;and a final Indosinian stage of southward thrusting of the Huwan high-pressure unit.Shallow level extension prevailed after the Late Triassic,giving rise to south-dipping thrust faults and north-dipping normal faults.

  4. Field characteristics, petrography, and geochronology of the Hohonu Batholith and the adjacent Granite Hill Complex, North Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed geological mapping, petrography, geochemistry and geochronological studies in the Hohonu Batholith, North Westland, have identified 10 granitoid plutons emplaced during three intrusive episodes. The earliest episode is represented by a single dated Paleozoic pluton, Summit Granite (new) (381.2 ± 7.3 Ma), which is correlated with a discrete pulse of Mid-Late Devonian plutonism recognised in the Karamea Batholith. The undated Mount Graham Granite (new) is also likely to be Paleozoic, based on chemical and petrographic characteristics. The bulk of the batholith (seven plutons) was emplaced in the mid Cretaceous (114-109 Ma) and comprises two related, yet distinct, geochemical suites, which correlate with the previously defined Rahu Suite. The plutons identified are (from north to south): Pah Point Granite; Jays Creek Granodiorite (new); Uncle Bay Tonalite; Te Kinga Monzogranite; Deutgam Granodiorite; Turiwhate Granodiorite (new); and Arahura Granite (new). Mid-Cretaceous plutonism in the Western Province is considered to be the result of crustal thinning and extension following overthickening during collision of the Early Cretaceous Median Tectonic Zone volcanic arc. Late Cretaceous alkaline activity is represented by the emplacement of the A-type French Creek Granite at 1.7 ± 1.8 Ma, contemporaneous with intrusion of a major swarm of doleritic-lamprophyric dikes - the Hohonu Dike Swarm. These events correlate with the first appearance of oceanic crust in the Tasman Sea. The Granite Hill Complex is a suite of amphibolite facies gneisses occurring as an uplifted wedge between the Alpine Fault nd the Hohonu Batholith. These gneisses are considered to represent an extension of the Fraser Complex to the south. A detailed understanding of their geological affinities and history is yet to be established. (author). 66 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Contrasting Structures and Deformational History of Syntectonic Granites of Campina Grande and Serra Redonda, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Wilians de Oliveira Rodrigues

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Campina Grande and Serra Redonda Granites are intrusive along the contact of the Paleoproterozoic basement(Alto Moxotó Domain with the Tonian gneisses (Alto Pajeú Domain of the Borborema Province (northeast Brazil. TheCampina Grande Granite (U-Pb age = 581± 2 Ma shows a concentric oval-shaped structure whereas the Serra RedondaGranite (U-Pb age = 576 ± 3 Ma has a tabular shape, elongated in the NE-SW direction. The plutons are separated bythe left-lateral Galante transcurrent shear zone. In this study, the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS was appliedto 64 outcrops of granites to determine the internal structures of these plutons and to explore the relationship betweenmagmatism and deformation in an orogenic setting. The magnetic fabrics are concordant with the metamorphic structure ofthe host rocks. Strike-slip shear zones controlled the emplacement of the Serra Redonda Granite, as indicated by sigmoidalfoliation, defining shear bands associated with the Galante shear zone. In contrast, the magmatic/magnetic fabric of theCampina Grande granite seems to have been produced by body (ascensional forces. The pluton displays an inward dipping, concentric planar fabric parallel to the wall rock contact and lineations highly oblique to the foliation trend. The fabric of the Campina Grande pluton is consistent with a magma moving over a ramp dipping to southwest, with the lineation at high angle to the NE-trending flow direction. The contrasting structures of the plutons reflect the episodic nature of orogenic deformation, which was punctuated by the alternation of weak and strong strains, affecting the fabric development of the syntectonic intrusions.

  6. Geochemical, zircon U-Pb dating and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the age and petrogenesis of an Early Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive complex at Xiangshan, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shui-Yuan; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Jiang, Yao-Hui; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Fan, Hong-Hai

    2011-01-01

    The Late Mesozoic geology of Southeast China is characterized by extensive Jurassic to Cretaceous magmatism consisting predominantly of granites and rhyolites and subordinate mafic rocks, forming a belt of volcanic-intrusive complexes. The Xiangshan volcanic-intrusive complex is located in the NW region of the belt and mainly contains the following lithologies: rhyodacite and rhyodacitic porphyry, porphyritic lava, granite porphyry with mafic microgranular enclaves, quartz monzonitic porphyry, and lamprophyre dyke. Major and trace-element compositions, zircon U-Pb dating, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions have been investigated for these rocks. The precise SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that the emplacement of various magmatic units at Xiangshan took place within a short time period of less than 2 Myrs. The stratigraphically oldest rhyodacite yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 135 ± 1 Ma and the overlying rhyodacitic porphyry has an age of 135 ± 1 Ma. Three porphyritic lava samples yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 136 ± 1 Ma, 132 ± 1 Ma, and 135 ± 1 Ma, respectively. Two subvolcanic rocks (granite porphyry) yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 137 ± 1 Ma and 137 ± 1 Ma. A quartz monzonitic porphyry dyke, which represented the final stage of magmatism at Xiangshan, also yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 136 ± 1 Ma. All these newly obtained precise U-Pb ages demonstrate that the entire magmatic activity at Xiangshan was rapid and possibly took place at the peak of extensional tectonics in SE China. The geochemical data indicate that all these samples from the volcanic-intrusive complex have an A-type affinity. Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data suggest that the Xiangshan volcanic-intrusive complex derived mainly from remelting of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crust without significant additions of mantle-derived magma. However, the quartz monzonitic porphyry, which has zircon Hf model ages older than the whole-rock Nd model ages, and which has ɛNd(T) value higher than the other rocks

  7. Novel Model for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jia-chun; Li Zhi-tang

    2003-01-01

    It's very difficult that the traditional intrusion detection methods based on accurate match adapt to the blur and uncertainty of user information and expert knowledge, it results in failing to report the variations of attack signature. In addition security itself includes fuzziness, the judgment standard of confidentiality, integrity and availability of system resource is uncertain. In this paper fuzzy intrusion detection based on partial match is presented to detect some types of attacks availably and alleviate some of the difficulties of above approaches, the architecture of fuzzy intrusion detection system(FIDS) is introduced and its performance is analyzed.

  8. Novel Model for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Jia-chun; Li; Zhi-tang

    2003-01-01

    It's very difficult that the traditional intrusion detection methods based on accurate match adapt to the blur and uncertainty of user information and expert knowledge, it results in failing to report the variation of attack signature.In addition security itself includes fuzziness, the judgment standard of confidentiality, integrity and availability of system resource is uncertain. In this paper fuzzy intrusion detection based on partial match is presented to detect some types of attacks availably and alleviate some of the difficulties of above approaches, the architecture of fuzzy intrusion detection system(FIDS) is introduced and its performance is analyzed.

  9. Reconnaissance geology and geochronology of the Precambrian of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Hildreth, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    The Precambrian of the western part of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, contains a metamorphic complex of gneisses, schists, and amphibolites that were derived through amphibolite-grade metamorphism from a sedimentary-volcanic sequence perhaps similar to that exposed in the southeastern Wind River Mountains. Whole-rock Rb-Sr dating places the time of metamorphism at 2,860?80 million years. A high initial 87Sr/ 86 S r ratio of 0.7048 suggests that either the protoliths or the source terrane of the sedimentary component is several hundred million years older than the time of metamorphism. Following an interval of 300:t100 million years for which the geologic record is lacking or still undeciphered, the metamorphic complex was intruded by a batholith and satellite bodies of medium- to coarse-grained, generally massive biotite granite and related pegmatite and aplite. The main body of granite is dated at 2,550?60 million years by the Rb-Sr method. Limited data suggest that diabase dikes were emplaced and nephrite veins were formed only shortly after intrusion of the granite. Emplacement of the granite at about 2,550 million years ago appears to be related to a major period of regional granitic plutonism in the Precambrian of southern and western Wyoming. Granites, in the strict sense, that are dated between 2,450 and 2,600 million years occur in the Teton Range, the Sierra Madre, the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Laramie Range. This episode of granitic plutonism occured some 50 to 100 million years later than the major tonalitic to granitic plutonism in the Superior province of northern Minnesota and adjacent Ontario-the nearest exposed Precambrian W terrane that is analogous to the Wyoming province. Initial 87Sr / 86Sr ratios of some of the Wyoming granites are higher than expected if the rocks had been derived from juvenile magmas and it is likely that older crustal rocks were involved to some degree in the generation of these granites. Slightly to highly disturbed

  10. Conventional U-Pb dating versus SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Rondonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrenberger, I.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ba??rbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondo??nia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondo??nia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 ?? 5 Ma and 989 ?? 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yield little about the ages of Sn-granite magmatism. SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the Santa Ba??rbara facies association yielded a 207Pb/206Pb weighted-mean age of 978 ?? 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Ba??rbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and ??Nd (T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondo??nia Tin Province.

  11. Uranium mineralization in the muscovite-rich granites of the Shalatin region, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The younger granitoids of the Shalatin district in the Southeastern Desert of Egypt, are of biotite and two-mica granite compositions. The geochemistry of rare-earth elements ( REE), yttrium, thorium and uranium forms the basis for many important methods to reconstruct igneous petrogenesis. Since the recognition that REE, Y, Th, U-rich accessories may play an important role in controlling the geochemistry of crustal melts, a considerable amount of work has been done in an attempt to understand their effects. However, this effort has been almost exclusively focused on three minerals: zircon, monazite and apatite. Nevertheless, the variety of REE-Th-U-rich accessories in granite rocks are neither limited to these three minerals nor are they always the main REE, Y, Th carriers. The geochemistry of REE, Y, Th and U reflects the behavior of accessories and some key major minerals such as garnet and feldspars, and may therefore give valuable information about the conditions of partial melting, melt segregation and crystallization of granite magmas in different crustal regimes. The geochemistry of U and Th during magmatic differentiation has been studied in many granites from different areas and it has been known that the U and Th contents of granitic rocks generally increase during differentiation, although in some cases they decrease. The Th/U ratio can either increase or decrease, depending on redox conditions, the volatile content or alteration by endogene or supergene solutions. The accessory assemblage of muscovite-rich granites and high-grade rocks is composed of monazite, xenotime, apatite, Th-orthosilicate, secondary U-mineralization and betafite-pyrochlore. REE, Y, Th and U are not suitable for geochemical modeling of granitoids by means of equilibrium-based trace element fractionation equations, but are still useful petrogenetic tools.

  12. New perspectives on the origin and emplacement of the Late Jurassic Fanos granite, associated with an intra-oceanic subduction within the Neotethyan Axios-Vardar Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Maria; Pipera, Kyriaki; Koroneos, Antonios; Kilias, Adamantios; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2016-10-01

    The Fanos granite occurs in the Peonias subzone of the eastern Axios-Vardar zone in northern Greece. The Fanos granite is Late Jurassic (158 ± 1 Ma) and trends N-S, intruding the Mesozoic back-arc Guevgueli ophiolitic complex. The intrusive character of the eastern contact of the Fanos granite with the host ophiolitic complex is well preserved. In turn the western contact is overprinted by a few meters thick, west- to southwest-directed semi-ductile thrust zone, of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age. The Fanos granite is dominated by the typical, isotropic granitoid fabric, although in some places the initial magmatic flow fabric is preserved. The main deformation recognized in the Fanos granite occurred in brittle regime and expressed by Tertiary thrust faults and Neogene-Quaternary normal to oblique normal faults. The origin as well as the possible tectonic setting of the Fanos granite is the main topics that we address in our study. Rock samples of the Fanos granite along with the adjusted Kotza Dere quartz diorite were analyzed for major and trace elements and for Sr and Nd isotopes (only the quartz diorite). The geochemical data show that the granite has peraluminous characteristics, high-K calc-alkaline affinities, and I-type features. The Sr initial isotopic values of the Fanos granite are rather low (0.7053-0.7056) while for the quartz diorite range from 0.7066 to 0.7068. The Nd initial isotopic values range from 0.51235 to 0.51240 for the granite and from 0.51222 to 0.51233 for the quartz diorite. The source of the granitic melt is interpreted to be meta-basaltic amphibolites. These amphibolites are the metamorphic products of enriched mantle melts that underplated the oceanic lithosphere. Taking into account our and published structural and geochemical data for the Fanos granite along with the tectonic data of the broader Axios-Vardar zone, we suggest that the studied granitic rocks were formed during an intra-oceanic subduction within the Neotethyan

  13. New perspectives on the origin and emplacement of the Late Jurassic Fanos granite, associated with an intra-oceanic subduction within the Neotethyan Axios-Vardar Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Maria; Pipera, Kyriaki; Koroneos, Antonios; Kilias, Adamantios; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2016-03-01

    The Fanos granite occurs in the Peonias subzone of the eastern Axios-Vardar zone in northern Greece. The Fanos granite is Late Jurassic (158 ± 1 Ma) and trends N-S, intruding the Mesozoic back-arc Guevgueli ophiolitic complex. The intrusive character of the eastern contact of the Fanos granite with the host ophiolitic complex is well preserved. In turn the western contact is overprinted by a few meters thick, west- to southwest-directed semi-ductile thrust zone, of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age. The Fanos granite is dominated by the typical, isotropic granitoid fabric, although in some places the initial magmatic flow fabric is preserved. The main deformation recognized in the Fanos granite occurred in brittle regime and expressed by Tertiary thrust faults and Neogene-Quaternary normal to oblique normal faults. The origin as well as the possible tectonic setting of the Fanos granite is the main topics that we address in our study. Rock samples of the Fanos granite along with the adjusted Kotza Dere quartz diorite were analyzed for major and trace elements and for Sr and Nd isotopes (only the quartz diorite). The geochemical data show that the granite has peraluminous characteristics, high-K calc-alkaline affinities, and I-type features. The Sr initial isotopic values of the Fanos granite are rather low (0.7053-0.7056) while for the quartz diorite range from 0.7066 to 0.7068. The Nd initial isotopic values range from 0.51235 to 0.51240 for the granite and from 0.51222 to 0.51233 for the quartz diorite. The source of the granitic melt is interpreted to be meta-basaltic amphibolites. These amphibolites are the metamorphic products of enriched mantle melts that underplated the oceanic lithosphere. Taking into account our and published structural and geochemical data for the Fanos granite along with the tectonic data of the broader Axios-Vardar zone, we suggest that the studied granitic rocks were formed during an intra-oceanic subduction within the Neotethyan

  14. Mechanical behaviour of compacted decomposed granite soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I K

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the mechanical behaviour of decomposed granite soil, especially when it is used as a construction material. The soil tested was a completely weathered granite soil (grade V) taken from Seoul, Korea and was a well graded silty sand and gravel. Triaxial compression tests have been carried out on compacted samples and special attention has been given to the determination of the effects of the moisture condition on the behaviour. The test results show...

  15. Textures and melt-crystal-gas interactions in granites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Louis Vigneresse

    2015-01-01

    the multiple granitic intrusions of Dolbel, Niger illustrate such events.

  16. From intrusive to oscillating thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Anne Griswold

    2007-10-01

    This paper focused on the possibility that intrusive thoughts (ITs) are a form of an evolutionary, adaptive, and complex strategy to prepare for and resolve stressful life events through schema formation. Intrusive thoughts have been studied in relation to individual conditions, such as traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. They have also been documented in the average person experiencing everyday stress. In many descriptions of thought intrusion, it is accompanied by thought suppression. Several theories have been put forth to describe ITs, although none provides a satisfactory explanation as to whether ITs are a normal process, a normal process gone astray, or a sign of pathology. There is also no consistent view of the role that thought suppression plays in the process. I propose that thought intrusion and thought suppression may be better understood by examining them together as a complex and adaptive mechanism capable of escalating in times of need. The ability of a biological mechanism to scale up in times of need is one hallmark of a complex and adaptive system. Other hallmarks of complexity, including self-similarity across scales, sensitivity to initial conditions, presence of feedback loops, and system oscillation, are also discussed in this article. Finally, I propose that thought intrusion and thought suppression are better described together as an oscillatory cycle. PMID:17904485

  17. Petrology and textural evolution of granites associated with tin and rare-metals mineralization at the Pitinga mine, Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenharo, Sara Lais Rahal; Pollard, Peter J.; Born, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    The Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes at the Pitinga mine were emplaced into acid volcanic rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Iricoumé Group, and host major tin, rare-metal (Zr, Nb, Ta, Y, REE) and cryolite mineralization. The igneous complexes are elongate NE-SW and each is composed of three major facies that, in order of emplacement, include porphyritic and equigranular rapakivi granite and biotite granite in both igneous complexes, followed by topaz granite in the Água Boa igneous complex (ABIC) and albite granite in the Madeira igneous complex (MIC). Rapakivi, porphyritic and granophyric textures observed in the granites are interpreted to reflect multiple stages of crystallization at different pressures (depths). Decompression during ascent shifted the magmas into the plagioclase stability field, causing partial resorption of quartz, with subsequent growth at lower pressure. Fluid saturation and separation probably occurred after final emplacement at shallow levels. Temperature and pressure estimates based on phase relations and zircon concentrations range from a maximum of 930 °C and 5 kbar for the rapakivi granites to below 650 °C and 1 kbar for the peralkaline albite granite. This suggests initial crystallization of early intrusive phases at around 15 km depth, with final emplacement of more volatile-rich crystal-mush at a depth of 0.5-1 km. Accessory minerals, including zircon, thorite, monazite, columbite-tantalite, cassiterite, bastnaesite and xenotime are present in almost all facies of the Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes, attesting to the highly evolved character of the magmas. The presence of magnetite and/or primary cassiterite indicate crystallization under oxidizing conditions above the NNO buffer. The evolutionary sequence and Nd isotope characteristics ( TDM=2.2-2.4 Ga) of the Pitinga granites are similar to those of other Proterozoic rapakivi granites. However, petrographic, geochemical and Nd isotopic data ( ɛNd initial=-2.1 to +0

  18. Archean high-Mg monzodiorite-syenite, epidote skarn, and biotite-sericite gold lodes in the Granny Smith-Wallaby district, Australia: U-Pb and Re-Os chronometry of two intrusion-related hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; Hall, Gregory C.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Stein, Holly J.; Creaser, Robert A.; Mason, Douglas R.

    2008-03-01

    The Granny Smith (37 t Au production) and Wallaby deposits (38 t out of a 180 t Au resource) are located northeast of Kalgoorlie, in 2.7 Ga greenstones of the Eastern Goldfields Province, the youngest orogenic belt of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. At Granny Smith, a zoned monzodiorite-granodiorite stock, dated by a concordant titanite-zircon U-Pb age of 2,665 ± 3 Ma, cuts across east-dipping thrust faults. The stock is fractured but not displaced and sets a minimum age for large-scale (1 km) thrust faulting (D2), regional folding (D1), and dynamothermal metamorphism in the mining district. The local gold-pyrite mineralization, controlled by fractured fault zones, is younger than 2,665 ± 3 Ma. In augite-hornblende monzodiorite, alteration progressed from a hematite-stained alkali feldspar-quartz-calcite assemblage and quartz-molybdenite-pyrite veins to a late reduced sericite-dolomite-albite assemblage. Gold-related monazite and xenotime define a U-Pb age of 2,660 ± 5 Ma, and molybdenite from veins a Re-Os isochron age of 2,661 ± 6 Ma, indicating that mineralization took place shortly after the emplacement of the main stock, perhaps coincident with the intrusion of late alkali granite dikes. At Wallaby, a NE-trending swarm of porphyry dikes comprising augite monzonite, monzodiorite, and minor kersantite intrudes folded and thrust-faulted molasse. The conglomerate and the dikes are overprinted by barren (1,600-m-long replacement pipe, which is intruded by a younger ring dike of syenite porphyry pervasively altered to muscovite + calcite + pyrite. Skarn and syenite are cut by pink biotite-calcite veins, containing magnetite + pyrite and subeconomic gold-silver mineralization (Au/Ag = 0.2). The veins are associated with red biotite-sericite-calcite-albite alteration in adjacent monzonite dikes. Structural relations and the concordant titanite U-Pb age of the skarn constrain intrusion-related mineralization to 2,662 ± 3 Ma. The main-stage gold-pyrite ore

  19. Building Intrusion Tolerant Software System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Wen-ling; WANG Li-na; ZHANG Huan-guo; CHEN Wei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the hypothesis about intrusion tolerance software system, so that it can provide an intended server capability and deal with the impacts caused by the intruder exploiting the inherent security vulnerabilities. We present some intrusion tolerance technology by exploiting N-version module threshold method in constructing multilevel secure software architecture, by detecting with hash value, by placing an "antigen" word next to the return address on the stack that is similar to human immune system, and by adding "Honey code" nonfunctional code to disturb intruder, so that the security and the availability of the software system are ensured.

  20. Intrusion Detection using unsupervised learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum bharti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is the one of the efficient datamining techniques for intrusion detection. In clustering algorithm kmean clustering is widely used for intrusion detection. Because it gives efficient results incase of huge datasets. But sometime kmean clustering fails to give best result because of class dominance problem and no class problem. So for removing these problems we are proposing two new algorithms for cluster to class assignment. According to our experimental results the proposed algorithm are having high precision and recall for low class instances.

  1. Geochemistry and Rb-sr geochronology of associated proterozoic peralkaline and subalkaline anorogenic granites from Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collerson, Kenneth D.

    1982-12-01

    Anorogenic granites of middle to late Proterozoic age in the Davis Inlet — Flowers Bay area of Labrador are subdivided on the basis of petrology and geochemistry into three coeval suites. Two of these are high-temperature anhydrous hypersolvus granites: a peralkaline aegirine-sodic-calcic to sodic amphibole-bearing suite and a non-alkaline fayalite-pyroxene-bearing suite. The third is a group of non-alkaline subsolvus hornblende-biotite-bearing granites. Associated with the hypersolvus peralkaline suite is a group of genetically related syenites and quartz syenites. The granites cut ca. 3,000 Ma old Archaean gneisses as well as Elsonian layered basic intrusions of the Nain Complex. One of these, a crudely layered mass which ranges in composition from gabbro to diorite and monzonite, appears to be related to the syenites. The peralkaline granites and some of the syenites are extremely enriched in the high field-strength elements such as Y, Zr, Nd, as well as Rb, Ga and Zn, and have low abundances of Ba, Sr and most of the transition elements. In contrast, the non-alkaline hypersolvus and subsolvus granites do not show the same degree of enrichment. Concentration of the highly charged cations in the peralkaline suite is believed to be the result of halogen-rich fluid activity during fractionation of the magma. The sodic evolution trend in the peralkaline suite is reflected mineralogically by the development of aegirine and aegirine-hedenbergite solid solutions, and by a spectacular amphibole compositional range from katophorite through winchite, richterite, riebeckite to arfvedsonite and ferro eckermannite. Accessory phases which are ubiquitous in these rocks include aenigmatite, astrophyllite, fluorite, monazite and zircon. The non-alkaline hypersolvus granites typically contain iron-rich phases such as fayalite, eulite, ferrosilite-hedenbergite, and annite rich biotite. In the subsolvus granites, amphiboles range in composition from edenite through common

  2. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Pre-Nagssugtoqidian crustal evolution in West Greenland: geology, geochemistry and deformation of supracrustal and granitic rocks north-east of Kangaatsiaq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt, Gordon R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The area north-east of Kangaatsiaq features polyphase grey orthogneisses, supracrustal rocks and Kangaatsiaq granite exposed within a WSW–ENE-trending synform. The supracrustal rocks are comprised of garnet-bearing metapelites, layered amphibolites and layered, likewise grey biotite paragneisses. Their association and geochemical compositions are consistent with a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary basin (containing both tholeiitic and calc-alkali lavas and is similar to other Archaean greenstone belts. The Kangaatsiaq granite forms a 15 × 3 km flat, subconcordant body of deformed,pink, porphyritic granite occupying the core of the supracrustal synform, and is demonstrably intrusive into the amphibolites. The granite displays a pronounced linear fabric (L or L > S. Thepost-granite deformation developed under lower amphibolite facies conditions (400 ± 50°C, and is characterised by a regular, NE–SW-trending subhorizontal lineation and an associated irregular foliation, whose poles define a great circle; together they are indicative of highly constrictional strain. The existence of a pre-granite event is attested by early isoclinal folds and a foliation within the amphibolites that is not present in the granite, and by the fact that the granite cuts earlier structures in the supracrustal rocks. This early event, preserved only in quartz-free lithologies, resulted in high-temperature fabrics being developed under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions.

  3. Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis of late Triassic aluminous A-type granites in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Ma, Changqian; Liu, Yuanyuan; She, Zhenbing

    2011-11-01

    The late Permian-Triassic granites in the South China Block (SCB) have important tectonic significance for the evolution of East Asia. Most of the intrusive bodies in the central SCB consist of S-type granites. Here, we report the first unambiguous discovery of Wengshan aluminous A-type granites in southwest Zhejiang Province, southeast China. SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb analyses yielded similar ages about 224 Ma for two samples from the Wengshan pluton, in concordance with peak time of late Indosinian (234-205 Ma) tectonic magmatic activity in the SCB. The Wengshan granites are peraluminous with A/CNK values ranging from 1.09 to 1.24, enriched in K, Rb, Th, REE and Zr + Nb + Ce + Y, have elevated FeO tot/MgO and Ga/Al ratios, and are depleted in Mg, Ca, Mn, Ba, Sr, P and Ti. In addition, they show high zircon saturation temperatures (820-878 °C). Their REE patterns are highly fractionated, with (La/Yb) N ratios of 36.89-101.24 and strongly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu * = 0.28 - 0.53). In-situ zircon Hf isotopic analyses indicate that the Wengshan granites have ɛ Hf( t) values ranging from -15.9 to -12.7 and two-stage depleted mantle Hf model ages from 2.05 to 2.26 Ga. Sr-Nd isotope systematics are characterized by a high initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of 0.7092-0.7218 and a low ɛNd( t) values of -15.0 to -12.1, with two-stage depleted mantle Nd model ages of 1.99-2.22 Ga, consistent with those of Paleoproterozoic basement rocks in the area. It is inferred that the Wengshan granite magma formed by partial melting of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary sources in Cathaysia Block. Meanwhile, the underplating of mafic magma in the lower crust may provide the heat source for the formation of the Wengshan granites. The data show that the Wengshan granites, unlike other S-type granites in the SCB, are late Triassic aluminous A-type granite. Therefore they may indicate distinct geodynamic significance. Our study of the Wengshan A-type granites (224 Ma), together with

  4. Monazite-(Ce in Hercynian granites and pegmatites of the Bratislava massif, Western Carpathians: compositional variations and Th-U-Pb electron-microprobe dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Uher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monazite-(Ce represents a characteristic magmatic accessory mineral of the Hercynian peraluminous S-type granites to granodiorites and related granitic pegmatites of the Bratislava Granitic Massif (BGM, Malé Karpaty Mountains, Central Western Carpathians, SW Slovakia. Monazite forms euhedral to subhedral crystals, up to 200 μm in size, usually it is unzoned in BSE, rarely it reveals oscillatory or sector zoning. Thorium concentrations of 2 to 9 wt. % ThO2 (≤0.09 apfu and local elevated uranium contents (≤4.3 wt. % UO2, ≤0.04 apfu are characteristic for the pegmatite monazites. Both huttonite ThSiREE-1P-1 and cheralite Ca(Th,UREE-2 substitutions took place in the studied monazite. Electron-microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating of the granites and pegmatites gave an isochron age of 353±2 Ma (MSWD = 0.88, n = 290, which confirmed the meso-Hercynian, Carboniferous, Lower Mississipian magmatic crystallization. An analogous age (359±11 Ma was obtained from monazite from adjacent paragneiss, corresponding to the age of the Hercynian contact thermal metamorphism related to the granite intrusion of BGM. Monazite in some granite shows also older clastic or authigenic grains or zones (~505 to 400 Ma, with maximum of 420±7 Ma which probably represents inherited material from the Lower Paleozoic metapelitic to metapsammitic protolith of BGM.

  5. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN GRANITE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS has significantly increased over the last few decades and has become a main health challenge worldwide. Prevalence of MS is quickly rising in developing countries due to changing lifestyle. It was considered worthwhile to study MS and its components in granite workers since granite factories are situated in and around Khammam area. Moreover, no studies of MS in granite workers have been reported in literature. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in granite workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 210 male workers in the age group of 20 - 50 working in granite industries located in and around the Khammam town of Telangana State are selected for the present study. Blood pressures (BP, waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of glucose and lipids. RESULTS: 69 subjects out of 210 were identified as having MS based on updated National cholesterol education programme - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP - ATP III guidelines. CONCLUSION: MS should be identified and remedial measures may be suggested, so that the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular risk, diabetes and the resultant morbidity is minimized and can be delayed

  6. Non-intrusive appliance recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, G; Krist, J.O.; Bakker, V.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation becomes more important nowadays. The use of smart meters and, in the near future, smart appliances, are the key to achieve reduction in energy consumption. This research proposes a non-intrusive appliance monitor and recognition system for implementation on an embedded system. Th

  7. Multi-Vector Portable Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Moyers, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This research describes an intrusion detection system designed to fulfill the need for increased mobile device security. The Battery-Sensing Intrusion Protection System (B-SIPS) [1] initially took a non-conventional approach to intrusion detection by recognizing attacks based on anomalous Instantaneous Current (IC) drainage. An extension of B-SIPS, the Multi-Vector Portable Intrusion Detection System (MVP-IDS) validates the idea of recognizing attacks based on anomalous IC drain by correlat...

  8. Timing and sources of granite magmatism in the Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil: Insights from zircon in situ U–Pb dating and Hf isotope geochemistry in granites from the São Roque Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Andrade, Sandra; Vasconcellos, Antonio Carlos B. C.; Henrique-Pinto, Renato; Ulbrich, Horstpeter H. G. J.

    2016-07-01

    Eight new in situ U-Pb zircon age determinations by SHRIMP and LA-MC-ICPMS reveal that the main granitic magmatism in the São Roque Domain, which is largely dominated by metaluminous high-K calc-alkaline monzogranites with subordinate peraluminous leucogranites, occurred between 604 ± 3 and 590 ± 4 Ma. This small temporal range is ca. 20-30 Ma younger than previously admitted based on U-Pb TIMS dates from literature, some of which obtained in the same occurrences now dated. The observed discrepancy seems related to the presence of small Paleoproterozoic inherited cores in part of the zircon populations used for TIMS multigrain dating, which could also respond for the unusually high (up to 10 Ma) uncertainty associated with most of these dates. The younger age range now identified for the São Roque granite magmatism has important implications for the evolution of the Ribeira Fold Belt. Whilst previously admitted ages ca. 620-630 Ma substantiated correlations with the widespread and intensely foliated high-K calc-alkaline granitoid rocks of the neighbor Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (potentially associated with an accretionary continental margin), the ∼600-590 Ma interval seems more consistent with a late deformation tectonic setting. Strongly negative εHf(t) characterize the magmatic zircons from the São Roque Domain granites. An eastward increase from -22 in the São Roque Granite to -11 in the Cantareira Granite and neighboring stocks suggests an across-domain shift in granite sources. Such eastward younging of sources, also indicated by Sm-Nd isotope data from granites and supracrustal sequences in neighboring domains, is suggestive that some of the first-order limits and discontinuities in this belt are not defined by the strike-slip fault systems traditionally taken to separate distinct domains. Although the negative εHf(t) and εNd(t) indicate sources with long crustal residence for all studied granite plutons, the observed range is more radiogenic than the

  9. Early Mesozoic granites in the Nanling Belt, South China: Implications for intracontinental tectonics associated with stress regime transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meijia; Shu, Liangshu; Santosh, M.

    2016-04-01

    The link between two tectono-magmatic events during Early and Late Mesozoic periods in the Nanling Belt of South China remains debated. Here we present zircon U-Pb geochronology, Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry of granitic intrusions from Zhuguangshan in the Nanling Belt. The zircon data exhibit two magmatic episodes with 206Pb/238U ages of ca. 230 Ma and 150 Ma, representing the Indosinian (Early-Middle Triassic period) and Early Yanshanian (Jurassic-Cretaceous period) events, respectively. The Indosinian granites are characterized by strongly peraluminous nature with high A/CNK values (> 1.1), whereas the Early Yanshanian granites are weakly peraluminous (average A/CNK value of 1.06). Although the Early Yanshanian granites bear higher HREE contents and lower LREE/HREE ratios, the two-phase granites show enrichment in LREE, Rb, Th, U and Pb, depletion in Eu and negative Ba, Sr, Nb and Ti anomalies. All samples show variably negative εHf(t) values (- 5 to - 16) with two-stage Hf model ages clustered around 1.8-2.1 Ga. Our data indicate that the two-phase granitic magmas were generated from the partial melting of early Paleoproterozoic basement rocks with no input of mantle material. Combined with other geological evidence, we infer that the Indosinian tectono-magmatic event was closely related to intracontinental orogeny triggered by collisions along the boundaries of South China Craton, in relation to processes associated with the E-W trending Tethys tectonic domain. We envisage that the Early Yanshanian event might be a response to the back-arc extension of NW-directed paleo-Pacific plate subduction. The Nanling Belt is a critical zone that records the transformation from Tethys to paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes.

  10. Source regions of granites and their links to tectonic environment: examples from the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Elizabeth Y.

    2005-03-01

    This review, in honor of Ilmari Haapala's retirement, reflects on lessons learned from studies of three granitic systems in western North America: (1) Mesoproterozoic samples from west Texas and east New Mexico; (2) Laramide granitic systems associated with porphyry-copper deposits in Arizona; and (3) granites of the Colorado Mineral Belt. The studies elucidate relationships amongst tectonic setting, source material, and magma chemistry. Mesoproterozoic basement samples are from two different felsic suites with distinct elemental and isotopic compositions. The first suite, the "plutonic province", is dominantly magnesian, calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic, and metaluminous. It has low K 2O/Na 2O and Rb/Sr, and Nd model ages of 1.56 to 1.40 Ga. The second suite, the "Panhandle igneous complex", is magnesian, metaluminous, alkalic, and is part of the Mesoproterozoic belt of magmatism that extends from Finland to southwestern United States. Samples from the Panhandle igneous complex demonstrate three episodes of magmatism: the first pulse was intrusion of quartz monzonite at 1380 to 1370 Ma; the second was comagmatic epizonal granite and rhyolite at 1360 to 1350 Ma. Both of these rock types are high-K to slightly ultra-high-K. The third pulse at 1338 to 1330 Ma was intrusion of ultra-high-K quartz syenite. Nd model ages (1.94 to 1.52 Ga) are distinct from those of the "plutonic province" and systematically older than crystallization ages, implying a substantial crustal input to the magmas. At the Sierrita porphyry-copper deposit in the Mazatzal Province of southeastern Arizona, trace element, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions were determined for a suite of andesitic and rhyolitic rocks (67 Ma) intruded by granodiorite and granite. Isotopic composition and chemical evolution are well correlated throughout the suite. Andesite has the least negative initial ɛNd (-4.3) and lowest 87Sr/ 86Sr i (0.7069). It is also the oldest and chemically most primitive, having low

  11. Petrogenesis of Paleocene-Eocene porphyry deposit-related granitic rocks in the Yaguila-Sharang ore district, central Lhasa terrane, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junxing; Li, Guangming; Evans, Noreen J.; Qin, Kezhang; Li, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xia'nan

    2016-11-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene ore deposits in the Gangdese Metallogenic Belt, Tibet, are thought to have been formed during the main period of India-Asia continental collision. This paper reports the whole-rock major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions and zircon trace element contents of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Paleocene Yaguila skarn Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and adjacent Eocene Sharang porphyry Mo deposit in the central Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Geochemical signatures and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the Yaguila Cretaceous rhyolitic rocks were formed by the melting of ancient continental crust, whereas the Paleocene causative granite porphyry may have resulted from the interaction between mantle-derived and crustal-derived materials when continental collision was initiated. The dramatic increase of εNd(t) values between emplacement of the granite porphyry and later porphyritic biotite granite suggests a greater involvement of mantle materials during the crystallization of the barren biotite granite stock. The post-ore Miocene granodiorite porphyry has a similar geochemical signature to the Sharang Miocene dykes, suggesting they were both generated from melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. Nd-Hf mixing calculations indicate an increasing contribution of mantle materials in Paleocene to Eocene intrusions, consistent with the regional tectonic model of Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab roll-back and break-off. Zircons from both the Yaguila and Sharang ore-related porphyries have higher Ce anomalies than those from the barren granitoids, suggesting that Mo mineralization was closely related to highly oxidized and differentiated magma. The fertile intrusions in the Yaguila-Sharang district contain EuN/EuN∗ values from 0.3 to 0.6, higher than the non-mineralized intrusions. The processes of early crystallization of plagioclase and/or SO2-degassing from underlying magma can explain the observed negative Eu anomalies in zircon.

  12. The petrogenesis of the Early Permian Variscan granites of the Cornubian Batholith: Lower plate post-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rhenohercynian Zone of SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B.; Shail, Robin K.; Andersen, Jens C. Ø.

    2016-09-01

    The Early Permian Cornubian Batholith was generated during an extensional regime following Variscan convergence within the Rhenohercynian Zone of SW England. Its component granites can be classified, using mineralogical, textural and geochemical criteria, into five main types, all of which are peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.1): G1 (two-mica), G2 (muscovite), G3 (biotite), G4 (tourmaline) and G5 (topaz). G1 granites formed through up to 20% muscovite and minor biotite dehydration melting of a metagreywacke source at moderate temperatures and pressures (731-806 °C, > 5 kbar). Younger G3 granites formed through higher temperature, lower pressure (768-847 °C, chemical data. Variations in the major elements, Ba, Sr and Rb indicate that G1 and G3 granites underwent 15%-30% fractionation of an assemblage dominated by plagioclase, alkali feldspar and biotite to form more evolved G2 and G4 granites, respectively. Decreasing whole-rock abundances of Zr, Th and REE support the fractionation of zircon, monazite, apatite and allanite. Subsolidus alteration in G2 and G4 granites is indicated by non-primary muscovite and tourmaline and modification of major and trace element trends for G3-G4 granites, particularly for P2O5 and Rb. Topaz (G5) granites show low Zr, REE and extreme enrichment in Rb (up to 1530 ppm) and Nb (79 ppm) that cannot be related in a straightforward manner to continued differentiation of the G1-G2 or G3-G4 series. Instead, they are considered to represent partial melting, mediated by granulite facies fluids, of a biotite-rich restite following extraction of G1 and/or G3 magmas; they do not exhibit the typical geochemical characteristics of intraplate A-type granites.

  13. The petrogenesis of the Early Permian Variscan granites of the Cornubian Batholith: Lower plate post-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rhenohercynian Zone of SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B.; Shail, Robin K.; Andersen, Jens C. Ø.

    2016-09-01

    The Early Permian Cornubian Batholith was generated during an extensional regime following Variscan convergence within the Rhenohercynian Zone of SW England. Its component granites can be classified, using mineralogical, textural and geochemical criteria, into five main types, all of which are peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.1): G1 (two-mica), G2 (muscovite), G3 (biotite), G4 (tourmaline) and G5 (topaz). G1 granites formed through up to 20% muscovite and minor biotite dehydration melting of a metagreywacke source at moderate temperatures and pressures (731-806 °C, > 5 kbar). Younger G3 granites formed through higher temperature, lower pressure (768-847 °C, data. Variations in the major elements, Ba, Sr and Rb indicate that G1 and G3 granites underwent 15%-30% fractionation of an assemblage dominated by plagioclase, alkali feldspar and biotite to form more evolved G2 and G4 granites, respectively. Decreasing whole-rock abundances of Zr, Th and REE support the fractionation of zircon, monazite, apatite and allanite. Subsolidus alteration in G2 and G4 granites is indicated by non-primary muscovite and tourmaline and modification of major and trace element trends for G3-G4 granites, particularly for P2O5 and Rb. Topaz (G5) granites show low Zr, REE and extreme enrichment in Rb (up to 1530 ppm) and Nb (79 ppm) that cannot be related in a straightforward manner to continued differentiation of the G1-G2 or G3-G4 series. Instead, they are considered to represent partial melting, mediated by granulite facies fluids, of a biotite-rich restite following extraction of G1 and/or G3 magmas; they do not exhibit the typical geochemical characteristics of intraplate A-type granites.

  14. Was Scotland deglaciated during the Younger Dryas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, David; Fabel, Derek

    2016-08-01

    Recent work has produced data that challenges the canonical view that the Younger Dryas (c.12.9-11.7 ka) was a time of glacier expansion across the North Atlantic. Boulders on moraines located within the inner sector of the Scottish Loch Lomond Stadial (≈Younger Dryas) ice cap yield cosmogenic exposure ages 12.8-11.3 ka with a best estimate moraine age of 11.5 ± 0.6 ka. This age contradicts the interpretation that Scotland was completely deglaciated as early as 12,580 cal yr BP and no later than 12,200 cal yr BP. Our data supports the previously accepted scenario, supported by a wide variety of data, that final deglaciation of Scotland did not occur until late in the Loch Lomond Stadial or the early Holocene.

  15. Origin of the Lyme Dome and implications for the timing of multiple Alleghanian deformational and intrusive events in southern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, G.J.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic mapping, structural analysis, and geochronology in the area of the Lyme dome, southern Connecticut provides constraints on the origin of the rocks in the core of the dome, the absolute timing of the principal deformational and thermal events attributed to Alleghanian orogenesis, and the processes that generated the dome. Detrital zircon geochronology in combination with ages on intrusive rocks brackets the deposition of quartzite in the core of the dome sometime between ca. 925 and 620 Ma. Granite and granodiorite intruded the Neoproteorozic metasedimentary rocks in the core of the dome at ca. 620 to 610 Ma. Four major early Permian events associated with the Alleghanian orogeny affected the rocks in the Lyme dome area. Syn-tectonic migmatization and widespread penetrative deformation (D1, ca. 300 - 290 Ma) included emplacement of alaskite at 290 ?? 4 Ma during regional foliation development and aluminosilicate-orthoclase metamorphic conditions. Rocks of the Avalon terrane may have wedged between Gander cover rocks and Gander basement in the core of the Lyme during D1. Limited structural evidence for diapiric uplift of the Lyme dome indicates that diapirism started late in D1 and was completed by D2 (ca. 290 - 280 Ma) when horizontal WNW contractional stresses dominated over vertical stresses. Second sillimanite metamorphism continued and syn-tectonic D2 granite pegmatite (288 ?? 4 Ma) and the Joshua Rock Granite Gniess (284 ?? 3 Ma) intruded at this time. North-northwest extension during D3 (ca. 280 - 275 Ma) led to granitic pegmatite intrusion along S3 cleavage planes and in extensional zones in boudin necks during hydraulic failure and decompression melting. Intrusion of a Westerly Granite dike at 275 ?? 4 Ma suggests that D3 extension was active, and perhaps concluding, by ca. 275 Ma. Late randomly oriented but gently dipping pegmatite dikes record a final stage of intrusion during D4 (ca. 275 - 260 Ma), and a switch from NNW extension to vertical

  16. Oxygen and neodymium isotope evidence for source diversity in Cretaceous anorogenic granites from Namibia and implications for A-type granite genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, A.-type granite genesis R. B.; Harris, C.; Frindt, S.; Wigand, M.

    2004-03-01

    Many of the early Cretaceous intrusive complexes in the Damaraland of west-central Namibia are silicic in composition. Although all have trace element characteristics typical for the so-called A-type granites, major differences in alkali/aluminum ratios and isotopic compositions require diverse magma sources. This paper presents Nd and O isotope data from the five largest silicic complexes (Paresis, Erongo, Brandberg, Cape Cross, Gross Spitzkoppe) that provide new constraints on the nature of crustal and mantle sources involved, and their relative proportions. The Paresis complex has an isotopic signature ( δ18O=+9‰, ɛNd 130 Ma=-21) indicating a crustal component similar to Mesoproterozoic gneisses of the Angola craton. The other complexes have isotope variations ( δ18O from +8.1‰ to +10.7‰ and ɛNd 130 Ma from -1 to -9) that can be explained by a binary mixing model between a mantle and crustal component. More importantly, this same mixing line also fits the Nd-O isotope variations reported from the mafic Okenyenya and Messum complexes, and from rhyodacites in the southern Etendeka volcanic sequence. The uniformity of the crustal component implied by this mixing model suggests lower crustal material, in contrast to the geologic complexity of the Neoproterozoic Damara Belt presently exposed at the surface. This is consistent with the isotopic data, and we interpret the crustal component to be lower crustal metametasediments that were dehydrated and perhaps melt-depleted by generation of the S-type granites, which are widespread in the Damara Belt. The mantle component is interpreted to be dominated by the Tristan mantle plume, but some involvement of depleted mantle material is needed to explain all of the isotope data. The data rule out any significant role for enriched, subcontinental mantle lithosphere. All silicic Damaraland complexes, as well as the Etendeka rhyodacites, classify as A-type granites despite their proven source diversity. This means

  17. Geochemical Constraints on Collision-related Intrusive Rocks in Central, Northwestern and Western Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2010-05-01

    The intrusive rocks in Anatolia occupy a broad petrological range from I- to A- type granitoids. Thus, Turkey is a natural laboratory to study collision-related magmatism, its geochemical characteristic, source region and also tectono-magmatic evolution. The central, northwestern and western Anatolian magmatic provinces are defined by a large number of Late Mesozoic to Late Cenozoic collision-related granitoids (Ilbeyli and Kibici 2009). Calc-alkaline, subalkaline and alkaline intrusive rocks in central Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, high-K and I- to A-types. They cover a petrological range from monzodiorite through quartz monzonite to granite/syenite. All these intrusive rocks are enriched in LILE and are also radiogenic in terms of Sr, and unradiogenic in terms of Nd, isotope ratios. Their geochemical characteristics show that the intrusive rocks originated from a mantle source containing large subduction components, and have experienced crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization. Delamination of a thermal boundary layer, and/or slab breakoff is the likely mechanisms for the initiation of the diverse magmatism in the complex (Ilbeyli et al. 2009). Calc-alkaline plutonic rocks in northwestern Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, medium- to high-K and I-types. They are monzonite to granite, and all are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE, showing features of arc-related intrusive rocks. Geochemical data reveal that these plutons were derived from partial melting of mafic lower crustal sources. These rocks are related to subduction of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethyan ocean beneath the Sakarya microcontinent during Cretaceous-Paleocene times (Kibici et al. 2008). Calc-alkaline intrusive rocks in western Anatolia are metaluminous, high-K and I-types. They have a compositional range from granodiorite to granite, and are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE. Geochemical characteristics of these intrusive rocks indicate that they could have originated

  18. Iron content and reducing capacity of granites and bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iron contents in various granites and in bentonite have been determined. For granites, the content is usually in the range 1-9% (weight) and 2.5-3% for bentonite. Most of the iron is divalent in the granites (70-90%); in bentonite the divalent fraction is 25-50%. A large part of the divalent iron in the granites appears to be accessible for the reduction of dissolved oxygen in an aqueous system. (author)

  19. Sheeted and bulbous pluton intrusion mechanisms of a small granitoid from southeastern Australia: implications for dyke-to-pluton transformation during emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T. J.

    1994-06-01

    The small late syn-tectonic Carboniferous Davys Creek Granite (DCG) of southeastern Australia consists of microgranitic intrusive bodies of diverse geometry and structure. These bodies include: (1) subvertical concordant sheets; (2) bulbous peneconcordant plutons with apophyses and discordant lobes; and (3) subvertical dykes and stocks. The sequence of changing intrusive style is broadly 1-2-3. Transition from 1 to 2 was probably a response to rising magma pressures or declining tectonic stresses. The λ parameter of Emerman and Marrett (1990), which discriminates between stable sheet-like and potential stock/pluton/batholith emplacement modes, adequately predicts the transitions between sheet and pluton emplacements for the DCG. Ductile dyking along actively forming foliations appears to have been an important early intrusive mechanism. A transition from sheet to bulbous pluton intrusion style is suggested to have been in response to magma pressure increases.

  20. Physics of the granite sphere fountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeijer, J.H.; Weele, van der J.P.

    2014-01-01

    A striking example of levitation is encountered in the “kugel fountain” where a granite sphere, sometimes weighing over a ton, is kept aloft by a thin film of flowing water. In this paper, we explain the working principle behind this levitation. We show that the fountain can be viewed as a giant bal

  1. Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ulvila, Jacob W.; Gaffney, John E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive method for evaluating intrusion detection systems (IDSs). It integrates and extends ROC (receiver operating characteristic) and cost analysis methods to provide an expected cost metric. Results are given for determining the optimal operation of an IDS based on this expected cost metric. Results are given for the operation of a single IDS and for a combination of two IDSs. The method is illustrated for: 1) determining the best operating point for a single an...

  2. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  3. Intrusive cognitions, anxiety and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, K L

    2008-01-01

    Since the recognition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) of life-threatening illnesses as a stressor that can precipitate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), research has focussed on the issue of PTSD following cancer. Although the utility of a trauma framework has been questioned, understanding symptoms associated with PTSD such as intrusive cognitions may be critical in understanding psychological distress in cancer patients. Research has found that cancer patients experi...

  4. Gamma radiation measurements in Brazilian commercial granites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M.; Veiga, R.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Macario, K. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Gamma radiation from radionuclides which are characterized by half lives comparable to the age of the earth, such as 40 K and the radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th series, and their decay products, represent the main terrestrial source of irradiation to the human body. Their concentrations vary for different types of rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite. Thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations of granitic rocks are intimately related to their mineral compositions and general petrologic features. Then, these features associated with effects of weathering and metamorphism produce expressive alterations in the relationship between the natural radionuclides (Th, U, K, Th/U and Th/K). Consequently, the measurements of thorium, uranium, and potassium concentrations of different granite samples result on individual differentiation sequences. From the 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K activity concentrations obtained for each sample, it is possible to evaluate their respective dose rates in air, when these stones are used as tiling rocks. These results are of great interest in the environmental radiological protection study, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental materials, including as indoor covering. In this way, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Physics Institute of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (I.F. -U.F.F.) has been performing analyzes on more than one hundred differ ent types of the main Brazilian commercial granites in last two years [1]. Using NaI and HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometers to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides in these samples, the annual effective dose rates and the gamma activity concentration index have been evaluated and compared to the limits proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and European Commission (E.C.). In addition, the correlations between thorium

  5. Fractal patterns of fractures in granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velde, B.; Dubois, J.; Moore, D.; Touchard, G.

    1991-01-01

    Fractal measurements using the Cantor's dust method in a linear one-dimensional analysis mode were made on the fracture patterns revealed on two-dimensional, planar surfaces in four granites. This method allows one to conclude that: 1. (1)|The fracture systems seen on two-dimensional surfaces in granites are consistent with the part of fractal theory that predicts a repetition of patterns on different scales of observation, self similarity. Fractal analysis gives essentially the same values of D on the scale of kilometres, metres and centimetres (five orders of magnitude) using mapped, surface fracture patterns in a Sierra Nevada granite batholith (Mt. Abbot quadrangle, Calif.). 2. (2)|Fractures show the same fractal values at different depths in a given batholith. Mapped fractures (main stage ore veins) at three mining levels (over a 700 m depth interval) of the Boulder batholith, Butte, Mont. show the same fractal values although the fracture disposition appears to be different at different levels. 3. (3)|Different sets of fracture planes in a granite batholith, Central France, and in experimental deformation can have different fractal values. In these examples shear and tension modes have the same fractal values while compressional fractures follow a different fractal mode of failure. The composite fracture patterns are also fractal but with a different, median, fractal value compared to the individual values for the fracture plane sets. These observations indicate that the fractal method can possibly be used to distinguish fractures of different origins in a complex system. It is concluded that granites fracture in a fractal manner which can be followed at many scales. It appears that fracture planes of different origins can be characterized using linear fractal analysis. ?? 1991.

  6. Towards an Effective Intrusion Response Engine Combined with Intrusion Detection in Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective intrusion response engine combined with intrusion detection in ad hoc networks. The intrusion response engine is composed of a secure communication module, a local and a global response module. Its function is based on an innovative tree-based key agreement protocol while the intrusion detection engine is based on a class of neural networks called eSOM. The proposed intrusion response model and the tree-based protocol, it is based on, are analyzed concerning key secrecy while the intrusion detection engine is evaluated for MANET under different traffic conditions and mobility patterns. The results show a high detection rate for packet dropping attacks.

  7. Assessment of radiological hazard of commercial granites from Extremadura (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J; Tejado, J J; Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Muñoz, J G

    2014-06-01

    The term "commercial granite" comprises different natural stones with different mineralogical components. In Extremadura, western Spain, "commercial granites" can be classified in three types: granite s.s. (sensus stricti), granodiorite, and diorite. The content of naturally occurring radionuclides depended of the mineralogy. Thus, the (40)K content increased as the relative content of alkaline feldspar increased but decreased as the plagioclase content increased. The radioactive content decreased in the following order: granite s.s. > granodiorite > diorite. In this work, the radiological hazard of these granites as building material was analyzed in terms of external irradiation and radon exposure. External irradiation was estimated based on the "I" index, ranged between 0.073 and 1.36. Therefore, these granites can be use as superficial building materials with no restriction. Radon exposure was estimated using the surface exhalation rates in polished granites. The exhalation rate in granites depends of their superficial finishes (different roughness). For distinct mechanical finishes of granite (polish, diamond sawed, bush-hammered and flamed), the surface exhalation rate increased with the roughness of the finishes. Thermal finish presented the highest exhalation rate, because the high temperatures applied to the granite may increase the number of fissures within it. The exhalation rates in polished granites varied from 0.013 to 10.4 Bq m(-2) h(-1).

  8. Discovery of the Early Paleozoic post-collisional granites in northern margin of the Erguna massif and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guang; SUN Fengyue; ZHAO Caisheng; LI Zhitong; ZHAO Ailin; PANG Qingbang; LI Guangyuan

    2005-01-01

    The Luoguhe intrusion, located in Mohe County, Heilongjiang Province, is mainly composed of monzogranite, quartz diorite and granodiorite, with minor diorite, tonalite, quartz monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, syenogranite and alkali-feldspar granite. The intrusion can be divided into two lithological units, I.e. Quartz diorite and monzogranite units, with affinities to high-K calc-alkaline series. The quartz diorite unit (SiO2: 54.79%―58.30%, Na2O/CaO: 0.79―1.53 and Shand index: 0.77―0.82) belongs to metaluminous rocks. And the monzogranite unit (SiO2: 65.29%―66.45%, Na2O/CaO:1.73―3.43 and Shand index <1.05) can be considered as weakly peraluminous rocks. The intrusion is characterized by high REE abundance (∑REE = 180.2―344.3 μg/g), medium-strong negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.33―0.82), weak REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 4.12―10.45], enrichments in Rb, Th, U, K, La, Ce, Nd, Hf, Zr and Sm, but strong depletions of Ba, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti. These characteristics of major, REE and trace elements indicate that the intrusion was formed in a transitional tectonic setting from compressional to extensional regime, which can be classified as post-collisional granitoids. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analyses yield ages of 517±9 and 504±8 Ma for the quartz diorite and monzogranite units, respectively. The discovery of Early Paleozoic post-collisional granites in the northern margin of the Erguna massif indicates that the northern branch of Paleo-Asian Ocean between Siberian plate and Erguna massif was closed in the Early Paleozoic and the Salair orogeny ended ca. 500 Ma ago.

  9. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses. In contrast seegrasses grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to sulfide intrusion. Little is known about the strategies to survive sulfide intrusion, if there are detoxification mechanisms and sulfur...... nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled with a series of field studies and in situ experiments we elucidate sulfide intrusion and different strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis...... to trace sulfur compounds and as well as metabolomics upon sulfide and anoxia exposure we identified different strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1) Avoidance, by reoxidation of gaseous sulfide in the arenchyma to elemental sulfur and sulfate; where precipitation of sulfide occurred as non...

  10. Classification and Importance of Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is a device or software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a Management Station. Some systems may attempt to stop an intrusion attempt but this is neither required nor expected of a monitoring system. Due to a growing number of intrusion events and also because the Internet and local networks have become so ubiquitous, organizations are increasingly implementing various systems that monitor IT security breaches. This includes an overview of the classification of intrusion detection systems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of IDS methodology: audit trail analysis and on-the-fly processing as well as anomaly detection and signature detection approaches. This research paper discusses the primary intrusion detection techniques and the classification of intrusion Detection system.

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Pregnancies in Younger Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Pregnancies in Younger Teens Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Problem Many younger teens give birth at ages 15 to 17. ...

  12. Non-intrusive refractometer sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pabitra Nath

    2010-04-01

    An experimental realization of a simple non-intrusive refractometer sensor is demonstrated in this communication. The working principle of the sensor is based on intensity modulation of the back-reflected light when output light from an optical fibre end focusses onto air–medium interface. The change in the refractive index of the medium affects the reflectance of the incident light signal and thus modulates the back-reflected signal. Refractive index variation as small as 0.002 RIU can be measured using the present technique. The advantages of the technique are its simplicity, cost efficiency and usefulness in monitoring refractive indices of acidic solutions.

  13. Physics of the granite sphere fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijer, Jacco H.; der Weele, Ko van

    2014-11-01

    A striking example of levitation is encountered in the "kugel fountain" where a granite sphere, sometimes weighing over a ton, is kept aloft by a thin film of flowing water. In this paper, we explain the working principle behind this levitation. We show that the fountain can be viewed as a giant ball bearing and thus forms a prime example of lubrication theory. It is demonstrated how the viscosity and flow rate of the fluid determine (i) the remarkably small thickness of the film supporting the sphere and (ii) the surprisingly long time it takes for rotations to damp out. The theoretical results compare well with measurements on a fountain holding a granite sphere of one meter in diameter. We close by discussing several related cases of levitation by lubrication.

  14. An international perspective on Facebook intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela Magdalena; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-08-30

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking websites in the world. The main aim of the study was to present an international comparison of Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration while examining possible gender differences. The study consisted of 2589 participants from eight countries: China, Greece, Israel, Italy, Poland, Romania, Turkey, USA. Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration were taken into consideration. In this study the relationship between Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration was demonstrated. Facebook intrusion was slightly negatively related to Internet penetration in each country. PMID:27347649

  15. An international perspective on Facebook intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela Magdalena; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-08-30

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking websites in the world. The main aim of the study was to present an international comparison of Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration while examining possible gender differences. The study consisted of 2589 participants from eight countries: China, Greece, Israel, Italy, Poland, Romania, Turkey, USA. Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration were taken into consideration. In this study the relationship between Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration was demonstrated. Facebook intrusion was slightly negatively related to Internet penetration in each country.

  16. U-Pb zircon geochronology of intrusive and basement rocks in the Jacurici Valley region, Sao Francisco Craton, BA, Brazil; Geocronologia U-Pb em zircao de rochas intrusivas e de embasamento na regiao do Vale do Jacurici, Craton do Sao Francisco, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Carlos Jose Sobrinho da; Frantz, Jose Carlos; Marques, Juliana Charao; Roos, Siegbert; Peixoto, Vinicius Medina, E-mail: silveira.carlosjose@hotmail.com, E-mail: jose.frantz@propesq.ufrgs.br, E-mail: juliana.marques@ufrgs.br, E-mail: sig_duda@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vinimpeixoto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Geologia Isotopica; Queiroz, Waldemir Jose Alves de, E-mail: waldemirqueiroz@hotmail.com [Companhia de Ferro Ligas da Bahia (FERBASA), Pojuca, BA (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    The Jacurici Complex, located in the NE of the Sao Francisco Craton, is constituted by several Cr-mineralized mafic-ultramafic N-S bodies, possible fragments of a single sill disrupted during deformation. Some works suggest it is intruded on the Serrinha Block while others consider it in the Salvador-Curaca Belt. The basement on this region is informally divided into paragneisses and orthogneisses; the latter is supposed to be younger considering it is less deformed. Petrography revealed that some of the paragneisses are alkali-feldspar granite strongly milonitized. The orthogneisses occur at the north and consist, at least in part, of monzogranites with heterogeneous deformation, locally of low temperature. U-Pb zircon dating were performed for five representative samples. Just three provided good concordia ages. A mafic rock produced a 2102 ± 5 Ma age and it is petrographically similar to the metanorites described in the Jacurici Complex, being interpreted as the record of the first pulses of the mafic magmatism. A monzogranite yielded a 2995 ± 15 Ma age, older than expected, related to the Serrinha Block. The alkali-feldspar granite yielded a 2081 ± 3 Ma age. The Itiuba Syenite and the pegmatites that crosscut the Jacurici Complex have similar ages. Considering the lack of information about the supracrustal sequence that hosts the intrusive alkaline and mafic-ultramafic rocks at the Ipueira and the Medrado areas, it is possible that part of the terrain belongs to the Salvador-Curaca Belt. We suggest that the Jacurici Complex could be intruded after the tectonic amalgamation between the Serrinha Block and the older part of the Salvador-Curaca Belt and, therefore, could be hosted by both terrains. (author)

  17. Diffusion of uranium in the granite rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal, a significant retardation factor of radionuclides leaking from an underground repository can be expected. When radionuclides released from an underground repository are transported with the moving groundwater along cracks in the rock, the radionuclides will be retarded by not only adsorption on the surface of the cracks but also by process diffusion into submicron pores of rock matrix. In this experiments have been performed by process diffusion of uranium in water saturated granite. The measured penetration profile of uranium was composed of two parts. This profile was successfully explained by considering two diffusion paths in granite rock. One diffusion path was possibly a fissure with a width of few microns and another was a submicron pores of granite rock. The orders of magnitude of diffusivities for uranium were 10-12 m2/sec through the fissure and 1015 m2/sec through the submicron pores. The difference between the diffusivities of two path is thought to be caused by small geometrical factor of submicron pores, if to compared with fissures. (author)

  18. Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Jae Song; Sungyoung Lee; Heejo Lee; Hassan Jameel; d’Auriol, Brian J.; Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

    2009-01-01

    Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed ano...

  19. Nuclear techniques used in the localization of fracture zone from granites of Itu-SP; Tecnicas nucleares usadas na localizacao de zonas de fraturas nos granitos de Itu-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiodo, Francisco Yukio; Porsani, Jorge Luis; Elis, Vagner Roberto, E-mail: francisc@iag.usp.br, E-mail: porsani@iag.usp.br, E-mail: vagnelis@iag.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Dept. de Geofisica

    2002-05-15

    Nowadays there are many geophysical techniques of rock fractures mapping as GPR, electromagnetic and dipole-dipole geoelectrical sounding. These methods don't give information about the content of fracture zone, that can be fulfilled of clay. Using nuclear methods as gamma spectrometry and radon emanometry become possible to identify the nature of mineral composition of fracture material and to study the freshwater circulation using the radon transport by water. In this work the integration of nuclear, GPR and geoelectric techniques in Itu granitic intrusive became very interesting because it was possible to find and identify fracture in granitic rock with clay and freshwater content. (author)

  20. Non-intrusive speed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyett, L.

    1986-01-01

    In Phase I of the Non-Intrusive Speed Sensor program, a computerized literature search was performed to identify candidate technologies for remote, non-intrusive speed sensing applications in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. The three most promising technologies were subjected to experimental evaluation to quantify their performance characteristics under the harsh environmental requirements within the turbopumps. Although the infrared and microwave approaches demonstrated excellent cavitation immunity in laboratory tests, the variable-source magnetic speed sensor emerged as the most viable approach. Preliminary design of this speed sensor encountered no technical obstacles and resulted in viable and feasible speed nut, sensor housing, and sensor coil designs. Phase II of this program developed the variable-source magnetic speed sensor through the detailed design task and guided the design into breadboard fabrication. The speed sensor and its integral speed nut were evaluated at both unit and system level testing. The final room-temperature and cryogenic spin testing of the hardware demonstrated that the sensor was capable of generating sufficient output signal to enable remote speed sensing from 1500 to 40000 rpm over a speed nut/sensor separation of 3.5 inches.

  1. Assessment of radiological hazard of commercial granites from Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “commercial granite” comprises different natural stones with different mineralogical components. In Extremadura, western Spain, “commercial granites” can be classified in three types: granite s.s. (sensus stricti), granodiorite, and diorite. The content of naturally occurring radionuclides depended of the mineralogy. Thus, the 40K content increased as the relative content of alkaline feldspar increased but decreased as the plagioclase content increased. The radioactive content decreased in the following order: granite s.s. > granodiorite > diorite. In this work, the radiological hazard of these granites as building material was analyzed in terms of external irradiation and radon exposure. External irradiation was estimated based on the “I” index, ranged between 0.073 and 1.36. Therefore, these granites can be use as superficial building materials with no restriction. Radon exposure was estimated using the surface exhalation rates in polished granites. The exhalation rate in granites depends of their superficial finishes (different roughness). For distinct mechanical finishes of granite (polish, diamond sawed, bush-hammered and flamed), the surface exhalation rate increased with the roughness of the finishes. Thermal finish presented the highest exhalation rate, because the high temperatures applied to the granite may increase the number of fissures within it. The exhalation rates in polished granites varied from 0.013 to 10.4 Bq m−2 h−1. - Highlights: • 40K content in granite increased with alkaline feldspar and decreased with plagioclase. • Radioactive content was higher in granite s.s., followed by granodiorite and diorite. • The surface exhalation rate increased with roughness of granite with mechanical finishes. • Thermal finish of granite presented the highest exhalation rate due to high temperature applied

  2. The Pedregal granite (Portugal: petrographic and geochemical characterization of a peculiar granitoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pedregal granite outcrops in the Central Iberian Zone, northern Portugal, in the eastern border of a synorogenic variscan granite-migmatite complex sub-concordant with the regional metamorphic structures. It is a granitoid (ca. 3 km2 with an elongated NW-SE shape intruded in staurolite-micaschist and banded gneiss-migmatite rocks, with local igneous breccias in the contact. The country rocks belong to a metapelitic and metasammitic sequence of Edicarian-Cambrian age, known as the “Complexo Xisto-Grauváquico” (CXG which shows a main regional foliation with a NW-SE to NNW-SSE direction. The Pedregal granite is peraluminous (its A/CNK parameter ranges from 1.18 to 1.62, with a magnesian and alkali to alkali-calcic signature. The peculiar features of the granite are high contents of Zr (389 to 435 ppm and a LREE flat pattern, which are uncommon characteristics for granitic rocks, as well as the corroded shape of the biotite, and the large amount of secondary muscovite. These peculiar features distinguish it from the adjacent synorogenic granites. The field, petrographical and chemical features of the Pedregal granite are in accordance with a second phase of partial melting of a residuum, depleted by melt segregation during a first melting episode with the involvement of peritectic garnet and abundant residual biotite with LREE- and Zr-bearing accessory minerals. Besides, the intrusive character of the granite, and the presence of metasedimentary xenoliths point out to a secondary diatexite.El granito de Pedregal aflora en la Zona Centro-Ibérica, en el norte de Portugal, en el borde oriental de un complejo granito-migmatítico sinorogénico varisco, subconcordante con las estructuras metamórficas regionales. Es un granitoide (ca. 3 km2 de forma elongada NW-SE, que intruye en micaesquistos estaurolíticos y en rocas gneissico- migmatíticas bandeadas, con brechas ígneas locales en el contacto. Las rocas encajantes pertenecen a una

  3. Intrusive images and intrusive thoughts as different phenomena: Two experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Brewin, C.R.; Minnen, A. van; Holmes, E.A.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2010-01-01

    According to the dual representation theory of PTSD, intrusive trauma images and intrusive verbal thoughts are produced by separate memory systems. In a previous article it was shown that after watching an aversive film, participants in non-movement conditions reported more intrusive images than par

  4. Zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study of the Xianggou granite in the Ma’anqiao gold deposit and its relationship with gold mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE; Ben

    2010-01-01

    those of the syn-collisional granites.The geological and geochemical characteristics of the Xianggou granite reveal that it was a product of partial melting of the basaltic rocks from the thickened lower crust,triggered by continental collision,which occurred in the geodynamic background of continental-continental collision and shearing within the crust.The Xianggou granite was intruded in the compressive orogenic environment 242 Ma ago,but the gold mineralization occurred in the transitional environment of compression to extension around 170 Ma ago,lagging behind the intrusive age of the Xianggou granite by about 70 Ma.Meanwhile,the distribution of trace elements and REEs of the Xianggou monzonitic granitic porphyry is distinct from that of ores,suggesting the absence of direct genetic relationship between the Xianggou granite and gold mineralization.In contrast,the relatively high ore-forming elemental content of the Xianggou monzonitic granitic porphyry is due to the rock having experienced Au-bearing hydrothermal alteration.From the view of gold mineralization,considering the intrusive age,structural deformation,as well as alteration of the granite,we can conclude that the Xianggou pluton was a pre-ore-intrusion,whose intrusive age of 242 Ma constrains the lower time limit of gold metallogenesis.Following the intrusive event of the syn-collisional granitic porphyry and the intensively brittle-ductile shear deformation,large-scale fluid activity and gold mineralization took place.

  5. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in granite formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive wastes, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in granite was carried out. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Auriat and two alternative sites, Barfleur and a site in the U.K. The report describes the methodology adopted (a deterministic and a stochastic approach) with the corresponding data base and the models used. A parametric study of sub-systems (near field, far field and biosphere) was carried out by CEA-ANDRA using AQUARIUS, DIMITRIO and BIOS. A global evaluation of the performances was carried out by CEA-IPSN using MELODIE code. The results of deterministic calculations showed for Auriat a maximum dose equivalent evaluated at 6.10-3m Sv/a arising 3 millions years after disposal. Results of human intrusion scenario analyses, uncertainty analyses and global sensitivity analyses are presented. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  6. Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

    2010-02-27

    We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are

  7. Unusual lithospheric structure beneath the Hyderabad granitic region, eastern Dharwar craton, south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, O. P.; Agrawal, P. K.; Chetty, T. R. K.

    2002-03-01

    Using multiparametric geological and geophysical data, the evolutionary history of the lithosphere beneath the Late Archean—early Proterozoic Hyderabad granitic region (HGR) of the eastern Dharwar craton of south Indian shield has been attempted. Our study reveals that the entire granitic region and the surroundings (˜200 km×200 km) is being neotectonically uplifted possibly due to a major intrusive body situated at sub-crustal depth, leading to changes in river courses and also erosion of several kilometers (˜10 km) from its upper crustal column. Beneath this region, the Moho is elevated (32-33 km), the reduced heat flow is of the order of 28 mW/m 2 and the asthenosphere is located at shallow depths of about 124 km, i.e. far less than 200-400 km depth found in Precambrian shield areas of the globe. The cratonic mantle lithosphere beneath HGR contains a highly conductive (15 Ωm) hydrous and seismically anisotropic metasomatic zone between depth of 90 and 100 km, where the estimated temperatures could be in the range of 900-1000 °C. The surface granitic layer, containing unusually high radioactivity (5.25 μW/m 3), appears very thin probably a kilometer or so, beneath which the entire crustal column seems to be differentiated and made up of low radioactive granulite facies (?) rocks of acid to intermediate composition. Persistent episodic thermal reactivations during the last 2.6 gega years and continuous uplifting seems to have played a major role towards making its crustal column unusual.

  8. Magnetic Fabrics of the Cabreuva Granite, São Paulo State, SE Brazil: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujamra, J. P.; Raposo, M. I. B.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on the units of the 570 ± 3 Ma-old isotropic Cabreuva granite (NW of São Paulo State). This intrusion with 160 km2 is roughly elliptical in the oriental and occidental sectors whereas in the south sector it is circular. It is composed of quartz-monzodiorite, granodiorite, quartz-monzonite, monzogranite, diorite, quartz syenite and synogarnite. Magnetic fabrics were determined by applying both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The two fabrics are coaxial. The parallelism between AMS and AARM tensors excludes the presence of a single domain (SD) effect on the AMS fabric of the units. Several rock-magnetism experiments performed in one specimen from each sampled unit show that for all units the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic fabrics are carried by magnetite grains. Foliations and lineations in the units were successful determined by applying magnetic methods. Most of the magnetic foliations are horizontal or steeply dipping in all units, and are roughly parallel to the foliation of the rocks which surround the granite. The magnetic lineations present mostly low plunges for the whole pluton. Thin section analysis show that rocks from the Cabreuva granite were not affected by the regional strain during and after emplacement. This evidence allows us to interpret the observed magnetic fabrics as primary in origin (magmatic) acquired when the rocks were solidified as a result of magma flow, in which horizontally plunging magnetic lineation suggests that the feeder zone is far from this area.

  9. Paleomagnetism of the Middle Proterozoic Laramie anorthsite complex and Sherman Granite, southern Laramie Range, Wyoming and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Steve S.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Geissman, John W.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    1994-09-01

    paleomagnetic poles derived from 1480 Ma to 1450 Ma intrusions elsewhere in North America, but it plots significantly north of those from Middle Proterozoic sedimentary strata of the Belt Supergroup and Sibley Group. In addition to the characteristic magnetization, samples from some sites in Sherman Granite contain a remanence of southeast declination and shallow negative inclination (D = 154.9 deg, I = -16.0 deg, k = 90.6 deg, alpha(sub 95) = 9.7 deg, n = 4 sites). This secondary magneti- zation was probably acquired during late Paleozoic time.

  10. Intrusive luxation of 60 permanent incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O;

    2012-01-01

    Intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is an uncommon injury but it is considered one of the most severe types of dental trauma because of the risk for damage to the periodontal ligament, pulp and alveolar bone. Management of intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is controversial...

  11. Emotional and Behavioral Reaction to Intrusive Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Lisa-Marie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David

    2010-01-01

    A self-report measure of the emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusive thoughts was developed. The article presents data that confirm the stability, reliability, and validity of the new seven-item measure. Emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusions emerged as separate factors on the Emotional and Behavioral Reactions to Intrusions…

  12. Intrusive images in grief : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The relevance of intrusive mental imagery to the understanding and treatment of psychological disorders is increasingly acknowledged. Little research has been done on intrusive imagery in grief. Using a sample of 131 mourners, recruited from professional and lay mental health care workers, the curre

  13. Hydrothermal modification of host rock geochemistry within Mo-Cu porphyry deposits in the Galway Granite, western Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolometti, Gavin; McCarthy, Will

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of host rock is a process inherent to the formation of porphyry deposits and the required geochemical modification of these rocks is regularly used to indicate proximity to an economic target. The study involves examining the changes in major, minor and trace elements to understand how the quartz vein structures have influenced the chemistry within the Murvey Granite that forms part of the 380-425Ma Galway Granite Complex in western Ireland. Molybdenite mineralisation within the Galway Granite Complex occurred in close association with protracted magmatism at 423Ma, 410Ma, 407Ma, 397Ma and 383Ma and this continues to be of interest to active exploration. The aim of the project is to characterize hydrothermal alteration associated with Mo-Cu mineralisation and identify geochemical indicators that can guide future exploration work. The Murvey Granite intrudes metagabbros and gneiss that form part of the Connemara Metamorphic complex. The intrusion is composed of albite-rich pink granite, garnetiferous granite and phenocrytic orthoclase granite. Minor doleritic dykes post-date the Murvey Granite, found commonly along its margins. Field mapping shows that the granite is truncated to the east by a regional NW-SE fault and that several small subparallel structures host Mo-Cu bearing quartz veins. Petrographic observations show heavily sericitized feldspars and plagioclase and biotite which have undergone kaolinization and chloritisation. Chalcopyrite minerals are fine grained, heavily fractured found crystallized along the margins of the feldspars and 2mm pyrite crystals. Molybdenite are also seen along the margins of the feldspars, crystallized whilst the Murvey Granite cooled. Field and petrographic observations indicate that mineralisation is structurally controlled by NW-SE faults from the selected mineralization zones and conjugate NE-SW cross cutting the Murvey Granite. Both fault orientations exhibit quartz and disseminated molybdenite

  14. Preparation of glass-ceramic materials from granitic rocks waste

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal A. Khater

    2012-01-01

    Crystallisation of glasses based on the diopside-anorthite eutectic system, containing increased amount (10–50 wt.%) of wollastonite based on granite quarries waste, was investigated for the preparation of cheap technical glass-ceramic materials. Granite quarries waste consisted of about 52 wt.% of the batch constituents depending on composition. The granite quarries waste composition was sometimes modified by adding other ingredients such as dolomite, limestone and Al2O3. Batches were melted...

  15. Preface to special issue: Granite magmatism in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll

    2016-07-01

    Granites are important both to the geologic evolution and to the economy of Brazil. Deposits of precious and rare metals, such as Au, Sn and many others, are directly or indirectly associated with granites, especially in the geologically under-explored Amazon region. On the opposite eastern side of the country, expanding exploitation of natural granite as dimension stone makes Brazil currently the world's second largest exporter of granite blocks. Granites are a major constituent of the Brazilian Archean-Proterozoic cratonic domains (the Amazon and São Francisco cratons) and their surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts. The granites are thus fundamental markers of the major events of crustal generation and recycling that shaped the South American Platform. As a result, Brazilian granites have received great attention from the national and international community, and a number of influential meetings focused on the study of granites were held in the country in the last three decades. These meetings include the two International Symposia on Granites and Associated Mineralization (Salvador, January 21-31, 1987, and August 24-29, 1997), the Symposium on Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks (Belém, August 2-5, 1995) and the Symposium on Magmatism, Crustal Evolution, and Metallogenesis of the Amazonian Craton (Belém, August 2006). Special issues dedicated to contributions presented at these meetings in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Sial et al., 1998), Lithos (Stephens et al., 1999), Canadian Mineralogist (Dall'Agnol and Ramo, 2006), Precambrian Research (Ramo et al., 2002) and Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Dall'Agnol and Bettencourt, 1997; Sial et al., 1999a) are still important references on the knowledge of Brazilian granites and granite petrology in general.

  16. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little...... is known about the strategies of seagrasses to survive sulfide intrusion, their potential detoxification mechanisms and sulfur nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled with a series of field studies and in situ experiments we elucidate sulfide intrusion and different...... strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1...

  17. Intrusion Preventing System using Intrusion Detection System Decision Tree Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syurahbil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To distinguish the activities of the network traffic that the intrusion and normal is very difficult and to need much time consuming. An analyst must review all the data that large and wide to find the sequence of intrusion on the network connection. Therefore, it needs a way that can detect network intrusion to reflect the current network traffics. Approach: In this study, a novel method to find intrusion characteristic for IDS using decision tree machine learning of data mining technique was proposed. Method used to generate of rules is classification by ID3 algorithm of decision tree. Results: These rules can determine of intrusion characteristics then to implement in the firewall policy rules as prevention. Conclusion: Combination of IDS and firewall so-called the IPS, so that besides detecting the existence of intrusion also can execute by doing deny of intrusion as prevention.

  18. Intrusion-aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Auriol, Brian J d; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae; 10.3390/s90805989

    2009-01-01

    Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

  19. Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Song

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

  20. Intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm for cooperative distributed intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Jameel, Hassan; d'Auriol, Brian J; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae

    2009-01-01

    Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm. PMID:22454568

  1. Diffusion experiment of a radionuclide in granitic rock cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective diffusion coefficient of neptunium-237 which is one of hazardous long-lived radionuclide including high level radioactive waste was determined by using 40 mm diameter and 5 mm thick disks under an aerobic condition. An alpha autoradiography was performed for cross sections of a 20 mm thick granite disk to study the penetrated neptunium into granite. The effective diffusion coefficient of neptunium diffused through a water saturated granite was about 2.5 x 10-13 m2/sec. The autoradiograph of solid state track detectors clearly showed that biotite constituting granite has storage pores and keep diffusing species in it. (author)

  2. Portuguese granites associated with Sn-W and Au mineralizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M.R. Neiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Portugal, there are different tin-bearing granites. Most of them are of S-type, others have mixed characteristics of I-type and S-type granites and a few are of I-type. Tin-tungsten deposits are commonly associated with Hercynian tin-bearing S-type granites. Some quartz veins with wolframite are associated with an I-type granite, which has a low Sn content. In suites of tin-bearing S-type granitic rocks, Sn content increases as a function of the degree of fractional crystallization. Greisenizations of two-mica S-type granites associated with tin-tungsten mineralizations are accompanied by an increase in SiO2, H2O+, Sn, W, Nb, Ta, Rb, Zn, and Pb and decrease in MgO, Na2O, V, Sc,Zr, and Sr. The granite associated with the Jales gold deposit is of S-type and strongly differentiated like the tin-bearing S-type granites, but it has a very low Sn content. During fractional crystallization, Si, Rb, Sn, Pb, Au, As, Sb, and S increase. During increasing degree of hydrothermal alteration of this granite at the gold-quartz vein walls, there are progressive increases in K2O, H2O+, Sn, Cs, Cu, Pb, Au, Sb, As, and S.

  3. Zircon SHRIMP dating of granite from Qaidamshan,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Zircon SHRIMP dating from Qaidamshan granite shows that the granite age is 446 Ma, similar to that of eclogite in the UHP belt. We think that both granite and eclogite may be formed at different stages during tectonic evolution of this area. Together with other studies we suggested that the collision of ocean and continent plates may occur at the early Caledonian in this area, forming the eclogite, and the collision of continent and continent plates at the late Caledonian, forming the Qaidamshan granite with the zircon SHRIMP age of 446 Ma.

  4. The Paleoproterozoic Nattanen-type granites in northern Finland and vicinity – a postcollisional oxidized A-type suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Heilimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The ~1.8 Ga Nattanen-type granites in the Finnish Lapland and western Kola Peninsula are found as several relatively small, high-level, discordant plutons that are easily discernible as weak maxima on aeromagnetic maps. We present U–Pb mineral isotope data on the Finnishplutons. The concordia ages are in the 1.79−1.77 Ga range and there is little evidence for inheritance. Initial radiogenic isotope compositions (our common-Pb data combined with previously published whole-rock Nd and Hf data imply a major, yet varying, Archeansource component. Elemental geochemical data on five Finnish intrusions (the Nattanen stock, the Tepasto and Pomovaara complexes, the Riestovaara and Vainospää batholiths, as well as associated dyke rocks allow the Nattanen-type granites to be classified as oxidizedA-type granites. Their petrogenesis may be related to partial melting of the lower crust by mafic underplating (extensional setting or as a result of thermal relaxation in thickened crustal setting.

  5. Magma accumulation and segregation during regional-scale folding: The Holland's dome granite injection complex, Damara belt, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tolene; Kisters, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The regional-scale, upright fold of the Holland's dome in the Damara belt of central Namibia contains a kilometre-scale network of intrusive, highly fractionated uraniferous leucogranites. Three broadly orthogonal and intersecting sets of leucogranite sheets that intruded parallel and at right angles to the axial plane of the first-order fold can be distinguished. The granites are internally sheeted and illustrate the growth of the injection complex through the successive addition of thousands of smaller magma batches. Spatial and timing relationships point to a stepwise evolution of the injection complex. Early dilatancy-driven segregation and accumulation of granitic magmas in the core of the fold, above a basal detachment, was followed by compaction-driven segregation of a melt phase during fold tightening. The intersecting leucogranite sets provide a suitably organized permeability structure for melt segregation, while the successive injection of magma batches ensures compatibility between regional strain rates during folding and the rates of magma segregation. The three-dimensional network of melt-bearing structures further assisted regional shortening past the lock-up of the fold. The Holland's dome injection complex illustrates the geometric complexity of magma transfer pathways and the significance of regional-scale folding for the accumulation, segregation and fractionation of granitic magmas in suprasolidus crust.

  6. U-Pb dating of granodiorite and granite units of the Los Pedroches batholith. Implications for geodynamic models of the southern Central Iberian Zone (Iberian Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, M.; Paquette, J. L.; Alonso Olazabal, A.; Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; García de Madinabeitia, S.; Tiepolo, M.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2009-10-01

    The first U-Pb geochronological results on the magmatic alignment of the Los Pedroches batholith are presented. The batholith is composed of a main granodioritic unit, several granite plutons and an important acid to basic dyke complex, all of them intrusive after the main Variscan regional deformation phase, D1, along the boundary between the Ossa-Morena and Central Iberian zones (SW Iberian Massif). Zircons from samples on both extremes of the granodiorite massif record nearly simultaneous magmatic crystallization at ca. 308 Ma, while the emplacement of granite plutons was diachronic between 314 and 304 Ma. The U-Pb results combined with new field and textural observations allow to better constrain the age of Variscan deformations D2 and D3 across the region, while the age of D1 remains imprecise. Transcurrent D2 shearing-tightening of D1 folds occurred around 314 Ma (lower Westphalian) in relation to the emplacement of the first granitic magmas. D3 faults and shear bands bearing a strong extensional component developed at ca. 308 Ma (upper Westphalian), associated to the intrusion of the main granodiorite pluton (granodiorite) of the batholith. Together with available geochemical and geophysical information, these results point to the Variscan reactivation of lithospheric fractures at the origin and subsequent emplacement of hybrid magmas within this sector of the Massif.

  7. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others

  8. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  9. Indosinian Tectonic Setting of the Southern Yidun Arc: Constraints from SHRIMP Zircon Chronology and Geochemistry of Dioritic Porphyries and Granites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A mass of granitoid and dioritic intrusions are distributed in the southern Yidun Arc, among which the representative Indosinian intrusions include the Dongco and Maxionggou granitoid intrusions in Daocheng County and hypabyssal intrusions intruding into arc volcanic rocks near the Xiangcheng town. The Dongco and Maxionggou granitoid intrusions consist mainly of porphyraceous monzogranites, megacryst monzogranites and aplite granites. The Xiangcheng hypabyssal intrusions are composed dominantly of dioritic porphyries. SHRIMP zircon ages of 224±3 Ma and 222±3 Ma have been obtained for the Dongco granitoid intrusion and the Xiangcheng dioritic porphyries, respectively.The Xiongcheng dioritic porphyries show a calc-alkaline geochemical feature, and are characterized by higher Sr/Y ratios, depletive Nb, Ta, P and Ti, enriched LILEs, and lower εNd (t) (= -3.27), suggesting that they might be derived from mantle source magmas that were obviously contaminated by continent crustal materials. However, the Dongco and Maxionggou granitoids belong to high-potassium calcalkaline series with a per-metaluminous feature, and are characterized by higher CaO/(∑FeO+MgO)and Al2O3/(∑FeO+ MgO) ratios, lower (La/Yb)n and Sr/Y ratios, depletive Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti,enriched LILEs, and very low εNd (t) (= -8.10), indicating that the granitoids might be derived from partial melting of continental crust materials mainly of graywacke. Petrogenesis of Dongco and Maxionggou granitoids implies that there was an oceanic crust between the Zongza continental block (ZCB) and western margin of the Yangtze Craton (WMYZC). And the oceanic crust slab subducted westward during the Indosinian Epoch, producing an Andes-type continent marginal arc and a backarc basin at the WMSCC. Then the oceanic basin closed and a sinistrally lateral collision occurred at ca. 224 Ma-222 Ma between the ZCB and the WMYZC, causing partial melting of sediments in the back-arc basin to generate granitoid magmas of the

  10. Sorption behavior of U(VI), 234U(VI) and 238U(VI) onto fracture-filling clays in Beishan granite, Gansu: Application to selecting the site of high-level radwaste repository in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN; Maozhong; LUO; Xingzhang; WANG; Ju; JIN; Yuanxin; WAN

    2005-01-01

    The first results of sorption experiments of U(VI), 234U(VI) and 238U(VI) onto original (unpurified) fracture-filling clays from No.1 monzonitic granite intrusion, Beishan area, Gansu Province, China are reported. The monzonitic granite intrusion is a potential location for a high-level radwaste (HLW) repository in China. The present experimental results show that the maximum U(VI) sorption reached 92% at near-neutral Ph and the distribution coefficient (Kd) was 1226 Ml/g. A high sorption capacity of the fracture-filling clays in host rock on radioactive elements is necessary for HLW deep geological disposal repository. No preferential sorption of 234U onto the clays was found. Finally, the sorption of U(VI) onto the clays was also modeled using a surface complexation model.

  11. Self-report may underestimate trauma intrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarangi, Melanie K T; Strange, Deryn; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Research examining maladaptive responses to trauma routinely relies on spontaneous self-report to index intrusive thoughts, which assumes people accurately recognize and report their intrusive thoughts. However, "mind-wandering" research reveals people are not always meta-aware of their thought content: they often fail to notice shifts in their attention. In two experiments, we exposed subjects to trauma films, then instructed them to report intrusive thoughts during an unrelated reading task. Intermittently, we asked whether they were thinking about the trauma. As expected, subjects often spontaneously reported intrusive thoughts. However, they were also "caught" engaging in unreported trauma-oriented thoughts. The presence and frequency of intermittent probes did not influence self-caught intrusions. Both self-caught and probe-caught intrusions were related to an existing tendency toward intrusive cognition, film-related distress, and thought suppression attempts. Our data suggest people may lack meta-awareness of trauma-related thoughts, which has implications for theory, research and treatment relating to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:24993526

  12. Role of mantle-derived magma in genesis of early Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range,South China:in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XianHua; LI WuXian; WANG XuanCe; LI QiuLi; LIU Yu; TANG GuoQiang

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of petrographic observations and isotopic data suggest that magma mixing is common in genesis of many granite plutons,it is still controversial whether the mantle-derived magmas were involved in granites.We carried out in this study a systematic analysis of in situ zircon Hf-O isotopes for three early Yanshanian intrusions dated at ca.160 Ma from the Nanling Range of Southeast China.The Qinghu monzonite has very homogeneous zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions,εHf(t) =11.6±0.3 and δ8O=5.4‰±0.3‰.In combination with whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data,the parental magma of the Qinghu monzonite were likely derived from the partial melting of recently-metasomatized,phlogopite-bearing lithospheric mantle without appreciable crustal contamination.The Lisong and Fogang granites and the mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) within the Lisong granites have a wide range of zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions,with Hf and O isotopes being negatively correlated within each pluton.The Lisong MMEs were crystallized from a mantle-derived magma,similar to the parental magma of the Qinghu monzonite,with small amount of crustal assimilation.The Lisong and Fogang granites were formed by reworking of meta-sedimentary materials by mantle-derived magmas and mixing of the mantle-and sediment-derived melts to varying degrees.It is thus concluded that these two Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range were formed associated with growth and differentiation of continental crust.

  13. Role of mantle-derived magma in genesis of early Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range, South China: in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of petrographic observations and isotopic data suggest that magma mixing is common in genesis of many granite plutons, it is still controversial whether the mantle-derived magmas were involved in granites. We carried out in this study a systematic analysis of in situ zircon Hf-O isotopes for three early Yanshanian intrusions dated at ca. 160 Ma from the Nanling Range of Southeast China. The Qinghu monzonite has very homogeneous zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions, εHf(t) =11.6±0.3 and δ18O=5.4‰±0.3‰. In combination with whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data, the parental magma of the Qinghu monzonite were likely derived from the partial melting of recently-metasomatized, phlogopite-bearing lithospheric mantle without appreciable crustal contamination. The Lisong and Fogang granites and the mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) within the Lisong granites have a wide range of zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions, with Hf and O isotopes being negatively correlated within each pluton. The Lisong MMEs were crystallized from a mantle-derived magma, similar to the parental magma of the Qinghu monzonite, with small amount of crustal assimilation. The Lisong and Fogang granites were formed by reworking of meta-sedimentary materials by mantle-derived magmas and mixing of the mantle-and sediment-derived melts to varying degrees. It is thus concluded that these two Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range were formed associated with growth and differentiation of continental crust.

  14. Oxygen Isotope Study of the Suzhou Granite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汝成; 沈渭洲; 等

    1998-01-01

    Oxygen isotope studies of the Suzhou granite have been made based on drill-hole samples.In the inner part,the δ18 O values are less variable either in the whole-rock,quartz or in feldspar.Oxygen isotopic compositions are in equilibrium between coexisting quartz and feldspar.Data points from the inner part are plotted in a small area in the δ18 OQ-δ18Of diagram,indicating that this part has not been affected by meteoric hydrothermal fluids.But the whole-rock δ18 O values of the marginal part vary greatly.Oxygen isotopic compositions are in extreme disequilibrium between quartz and feldspar.Data points from the marginal part are displayed with a nearly vertical slope in the δ18OQ-δ18 Of diagram,implying that rocks of this part are affected by the meteoric hydrothermal fluids.Extreme water-rock interactions lead to mineralizations of rare-elements(Nb,Ta,as well as Zr,Hf,Th)in the marginal part.Source materials of the Suzhou granite are also discussed in this paper.

  15. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  16. GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIES: GETTING A DECADE YOUNGER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmitha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal malignancies are one of the most common malignancies encountered frequently, with rising incidence in young age due to the changing lifestyle and food habits in India. Oesophagus, stomach and colonic cancers are the commonly affected regions of the GI tract. These malignancies is known to occur in older age of fifth decade onwards. This is a study intended to highlight the rising incidence of such malignancies in the younger age in second to third decade as observed in and around Mangalore. Upper gastrointestinal malignancies are common in oesophagus and stomach, whereas lower gastrointestinal malignancies occur more commonly seen in colon. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common of all familial malignancies with peak incidence in 60 to 70 years of age, 90% of cases occur in people aged 50 or older.Risk factors include a genetic predisposition, diet and lifestyle changes in the current era. Inheritance plays a role in the pathogenesis of upto a third of CRC cases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of gastrointestinal malignancies in patients less than fifty years and the association of positive family history and polyps with colorectal carcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 128 cases of gastrointestinal malignancies from June 2010 to May 2012 received in and around Mangalore. The study includes endoscopic biopsies, colonoscopic biopsies partial and total colectomy specimens with growth seen anywhere from oesophagus to rectum. Representative sections are taken, processed routinely and stained with H & E. The pathological findings are then correlated with clinical data like age and sex distribution, site, family history and presence of other malignancies. RESULTS: In this study gastrointestinal malignancies were studied as upper and lower gastrointestinal lesions. Upper gastrointestinal (GI lesions were those in oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum. A total of 128 cases

  17. Signature Based Intrusion Detection System Using SNORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s Intrusion Detection systems plays very important role in Network security. As the use of internet is growing rapidly the possibility of attack is also increasing in that ratio. People are using signature based IDS’s. Snort is mostly used signature based IDS because of it is open source software. World widely it is used in intrusion detection and prevention domain. Basic analysis and security engine (BASE is also used to see the alerts generated by Snort. In the paper we have implementation the signature based intrusion detection using Snort. Our work will help to novel user to understand the concept of Snort based IDS.

  18. Development of modal layering in granites: a case study from the Carna Pluton, Connemara, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kirsty; McCarthy, William; Hunt, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Modal layering in igneous rocks uniquely record dynamic processes operating in magma chambers and also host a large proportion of Earth's strategic mineral deposits. This research investigates the origin of biotite modal layering and primary pseudo-sedimentary structures in felsic magmas, by using a combination of Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) analysis and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) to determine the mechanisms responsible for the development of these structures in the Carna Pluton, Connemara, Ireland. The Carna Pluton is a composite granodiorite intrusion and is one of five plutons comprising the Galway Granite Complex (425 - 380 Ma). Prominent 30 cm thick modal layers are defined by sharp basal contacts to a biotite-rich (20%) granite, which grades upward over 10 cm into biotite-poor, alkali-feldspar megacrystic granite. The layering strikes parallel to, and dips 30-60° N toward the external pluton contact. Pseudo-sedimentary structures (cross-bedding, flame structures, slumping and crystal graded bedding) are observed within these layers. Petrographic observations indicate the layers contain euhedral biotite and fresh undeformed quartz and feldspar. Throughout the pluton, alkali-feldspar phenocrysts define a foliation that is sub-parallel to the strike of biotite modal layers. Together these observations indicate that the intrusion's concentric foliation, biotite layers and associated structures formed in the magmatic state and due to a complex interaction between magma flow and crystallisation processes. Biotite CSDs (>250 crystals per sample) were determined for nine samples across three biotite-rich layers in a single unit. Preliminary CSD results suggest biotite within basal contacts accumulated via fractional crystallisation within an upward-growing crystal pile, likely reflecting the yield strength of the magma as a limiting factor to gravitational settling of biotite. This is supported by the abrupt decrease in mean biotite crystal size across

  19. Petrogenesis of the mineralized granitic intrusion near Los Santos, Western Spain, and remote sensing and data integration as a tool in regional exploration for granite related mineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based metal exploration is labour intensive and thus expensive. Data acquisition by satellite and aircraft, and subsequent image processing seem to offer a cheaper and attractive strategy to replace some of this effort, notably in the screening phase of a new project. However, realizing this

  20. A-type and I-type granitoids and mylonitic granites of Hassan Salaran area of SE Saqqez, Kurdistan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fakhraddin Mohammad; Saeed Ahmad, Sheler

    2014-05-01

    event. The mylonitic granites are elongated masses with a NE-SW trend and their contacts with the A-type and I-type granitoids are fault contact. Hand specimens have a layered appearance with green bands made from chlorite and epidote and grey to white bands with quartz and feldspar. These rocks contain plagioclase, quartz and orthoclase under the microscope. Also fine-grained minerals such as quartz, sericite, epidote, chlorite and opaque minerals make the groundmass wrapping the porphyroclasts. Pressure shadows around porphyroclasts of plagioclase and quartz and crystallization of fine-grained quartz and sericite in these places along with intense alteration of plagioclase to epidote and sericite, existence of quartz with different sizes, andaluse extinction in quartz crystals, and elongation of chlorites, resulted from dynamic recrystallisation of biotites all indicate effect of stresses on the rocks. Considering the similar mineralogical composition of the mylonitic rocks with I-type granitoid, it could be concluded that the granodioritic magma, after intrusion and solidification, is changed to mylonite in a shear zone due to tectonical forces.

  1. Chronological and geochemical studies of granite and enclave in Baimashan pluton, Hunan, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; WeiFeng; CHEN; PeiRong; HUANG; HongYe; DING; Xing; SUN; Tao

    2007-01-01

    Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating reveals that the Baimashan Pluton is composed mainly of late Indosinian (204.5±2.8 Ma-209.2±3.8 Ma) biotite granodiorites/monzonitic granites (LIGs) and early Yanshanian (176.7±1.7 Ma) two-micas monzonitic granites (EYGs),and the coeval (203.2±4.5 Ma-205.1±3.9 Ma) mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) are generally found in the former.In addition,the ages of cores within zircons from LIGs and MMEs ranging from 221.4±4.0 Ma to 226.5±4.1Ma provide evidence of multistage magma intrusion during Indosinian in the study area.Measured 3010±20.6 Ma of inherited zircon age suggests that there may be recycling Archaean curstal material in existence in this area.LIGs and EYGs share some similar geochemical features: subalkaline and peraluminous granites,enrichment of Th,U,K,Ta,Zr,Hf and LREE but depletion of Ba,Nb,P,Ti and Eu,low εNd(t) values but high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios,and old T2DM (ca.1.9-2.0 Ga).The behaviors of incompatible elements and REE are mainly dominated by fractional crystallization of plagioclase,K-feldspar,ilmenite and apatite,but that of Sr isotope mainly controlled by EC-AFC.They are crust-sourced and derived from partial melting of paleo-Proterozoic metagreywackes and related to biotite dehydration melting.LIGs are formed in post-collisional tectonic setting as crustal local extension and thinning during late Indosinian.But EYGs may be evolved products of congeneric granitic magma with LIGs formed in late Indoinian,which were emplaced again when crust underwent extensive thinning and extension in post-orogenic tectonic setting during Yanshanian in SC after undergoing EC-AFC.MMEs should be cognate enclaves and derived from liquid immiscibility of host magma.

  2. Effectiveness of granite cleaning procedures in cultural heritage: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Antonio, J S; Rivas, T; López, A J; Fiorucci, M P; Ramil, A

    2016-11-15

    Most of the Cultural Heritage built in NW Iberian Peninsula is made of granite which exposition to the environment leads to the formation of deposits and coatings, mainly two types: biological colonization and sulphated black crusts. Nowadays, another form of alteration derives from graffiti paints when these are applied as an act of vandalism. A deep revision needs to be addressed considering the severity of these deterioration forms on granite and the different cleaning effectiveness achieved by cleaning procedures used to remove them. The scientific literature about these topics on granite is scarcer than on sedimentary carbonate stones and marbles, but the importance of the granite in NW Iberian Peninsula Cultural Heritage claims this review centred on biological colonization, sulphated black crusts and graffiti on granite and their effectiveness of the common cleaning procedures. Furthermore, this paper carried out a review of the knowledge about those three alteration forms on granite, as well as bringing together all the major studies in the field of the granite cleaning with traditional procedures (chemical and mechanical) and with the recent developed technique based on the laser ablation. Findings concerning the effectiveness evaluation of these cleaning procedures, considering the coating extraction ability and the damage induced on the granite surface, are described. Finally, some futures research lines are pointed out.

  3. The Serra do Carambei Granite - PR and the uraniferous anomalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Serra do Carambei Granite forms a pluton relatively homogeneous, covering about 33 km2, cropping out as an elongate retangular body trending NE-SW, being emplaced in the Cunhaporanga Granitoid Complex. Its characteristics indicates a kind of hololeucocratic granite, equigranular, medium to coarse-grained, consisting predominantly of microperthitic alkali-feldspar, quartz and a small amount of biotite (less than 1%), thus being classified as an alaskite. Chemical data allows a classification in the group of granite with high contents of silica (74-76% Wt. SiO2), dominantly alkaline chemism and hypersolvus character, derived from a parental magma under saturated in water with distinguished features of granitoids from the magnetite series and types I and A granites. The pluton shows important chemical variations due to weathering processes. However detailed chemical studies reveal the presence of anomalous concentrations of trace elements such as U, Sn, Nb, Y, Zr, the Serra do Carambei Granite lacks economically important mineralizations because of the absence of well-developed tardi/pos-magmatic processes that could concentrate them. The SW side of the granite is cut by leucocratic rhyolite dykes that show some radiometric anomalies. These rocks, which are highly diferentiated, were emplaced contemporaneously to the Serra do Carambei Granite. Although petrographic and chronological similarities are found between the uraniferous alaskite of Roessing (Namibia) and the Serra do Carambei Granite anyhow it was not possible to establish any lateral continuity with the uranifeous Pan-African Province. (Author)

  4. Root zone of a continental rift: the Neoproterozoic Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex, northern Swedish Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Moritz; Svenningsen, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Mafic magmatic rocks formed between ca. 615 and 560 Ma along the Neoproterozoic margins of Baltica and Laurentia are classically attributed to continental rifting heralding the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. We report new data for the Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex (KIC) exposed in the Seve Nappes...... in northern Sweden. The KIC consists of sheeted dolerite dykes and gabbroic bodies with mutually intrusive relations. Major and trace element data exhibit a transitional- to normal-mid-ocean-ridge basalt-type geochemical signature. Differentiation processes and late-stage liquid immiscibility of a tholeiitic...... melt are considered to account for the compositional range exhibited by the KIC igneous rocks. U/Pb SIMS geochronological data from zircon rims yield an emplacement age of 578 ± 9 Ma. The KIC is thus younger and more depleted than coeval mafic rocks found in the Seve Nappe, and is interpreted...

  5. Petrology, composition, and age of intrusive rocks associated with the Quartz Hill molybdenite deposit, southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T.; Smith, James G.; Elliott, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A large porphyry molybdenum deposit (Quartz Hill deposit) was recently discovered in the heart of the Coast Range batholithic complex about 70 km E of Ketchikan, SE Alaska. Intrusive rocks associated with the mineral deposit form two composite epizonal to hypabyssal stocks and many dikes in country rocks. All observed metallization and alteration is within the Quartz Hill stock. Molybdenite forms fracture coatings and occurs in veins with quartz. Alteration is widespread and includes development of secondary quartz, pyrite, K-feldspar, biotite, white mica, chlorite, and zeolite. Field relations indicate that the stocks were emplaced after regional uplift and erosion of the Coast Range batholithic complex, and K-Ar data show that intrusion and alteration took place in late Oligocene time, about 27 to 30 Ma ago. Data from the Ketchikan quadrangle indicate that porphyry molybdenum metallization in the Coast Range batholithic complex is associated with regionally extensive but spotty, middle Tertiary or younger, felsic magmatism. -from Authors

  6. Geophysical Studies of Irish Granites Using Magnetotelluric and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T. F.; Muller, M. R.; Rath, V.; Feely, M.; Hogg, C.

    2014-12-01

    We present results of on-going geophysical studies of Caledonian radiothermal granite bodies in Ireland, which are being undertaken to investigate the volumetric depth extent and structural features of these granites. During three field seasons, magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired at 156 sites targeting three separate granite bodies. These studies will contribute to a crustal-scale investigation of the geothermal energy potential of the granites and their contribution to the thermal field of the Irish crust. Across the calc-alkaline Galway granite, located on the Irish west coast, MT and AMT data were acquired at 75 sites distributed in a grid. Preliminary 3D inversion reveals the presence of a resistor, thickest beneath the central block of the granite where it extends to depths of 11 - 12 km. The greater depth of the resistor beneath the central block is in contrast to previous thinking that proposed the central block granites to have shallower depth extent than those of the western block, based on Bouguer anomaly maps of the area in which the western block exhibited a more pronounced negative Bouguer anomaly than the central block. At the S-type Leinster granite, in eastern Ireland and to the south of Dublin, MT and AMT data were acquired along two profiles (LGN - 27 sites and LGS - 32 sites). Preliminary 1D inversions of AMT data along profile LGN show the Northern Units of the Leinster granite to extend to a depth of 4.5 km and the Lugnaquilla pluton extending to 2.5 km depth. MT and AMT data were acquired at 22 sites along a profile across the buried Kentstown granite, 35 km to the NW of Dublin. The Kentstown granite was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 492 m and 663 m. Preliminary 2D inversions do not yet satisfactorily resolve the top of the buried granite. Inversion of MT and AMT data is continuing, with the electrical conductivity structures revealed by these inversions being used to

  7. Geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Banabuiu granite, Northeastern Ceara, Brazil; Geologia y geocronologia U-Pb del granito de Banabuiu, Noreste de Ceara, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M. N.; Nogueira Neto, J. A.; Azevedo, M. R.; Valle Aguado,

    2010-07-01

    The Banabuiu massif crops out in the Central Ceara Domain (DCC) of the Borborema Province (NE Brasil), as an N-S elongate granite intrusion, concordant with the regional structures. It was emplaced into basement rocks of Paleoproterozoic age, extensively transformed into gneisses and migmatites during the Brasilian orogeny ({approx}600 Ma). Using U-Pb zircon dating, the crystallization age of the Banabuiu syn-kinematic two-mica granite was estimated at 578.6 {+-} 6.5 Ma. The granite is strongly peraluminous (A/CNK 1,098 - 1,134) and shows a typical S-type geochemical signature. The {epsilon}Nd{sub 5}80 values are strongly negative ({epsilon}Nd{sub 5}80 = -19 a - 23) and partially overlap with those of the Paleoproterozoic gneissmigmatite complex ({epsilon}Nd{sub 5}80 = -12 to -26), suggesting that the parental magmas of the Banabuiu granite could have been produced by partial melting of similar crustal materials. (Author) 21 refs.

  8. Dynamic failure analysis on granite under uniaxial impact compressive load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue ZHAI; Junhai ZHAO; Guowei MA; Changming HU

    2008-01-01

    High strain-rate uniaxial compressive loading tests were produced in the modified split Hopkinson pres-sure bar (SHPB) with pulse shaper on granite samples. It was shown that the failure of the granite cylinder was typ-ical tensile splitting failure mode by sudden splitting parallel to the direction of uniaxial compressive loading at different strain rates. Besides, it was concluded that not only the strength of granite increased, but also the fragment size decreased and the fragment numbers increased with the increasing strain rate. To quantitatively analyze the failure phenomena, the numerical calculation based on a dynamic interacting sliding microcrack model was adopted to invest-igate the influence of microcrack with the different initial crack length, crack angle, crack space and friction coef-ficient on the macro-mechanical properties of granite under different strain rates. Accordingly, the strain-dependency of the compression strength and the fragmentation degree of granite was explained reasonably.

  9. Grey-theory based intrusion detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Boping; Zhou Xianwei; Yang Jun; Song Cunyi

    2006-01-01

    To solve the problem that current intrusion detection model needs large-scale data in formulating the model in real-time use, an intrusion detection system model based on grey theory (GTIDS) is presented. Grey theory has merits of fewer requirements on original data scale, less limitation of the distribution pattern and simpler algorithm in modeling.With these merits GTIDS constructs model according to partial time sequence for rapid detect on intrusive act in secure system. In this detection model rate of false drop and false retrieval are effectively reduced through twice modeling and repeated detect on target data. Furthermore, GTIDS framework and specific process of modeling algorithm are presented. The affectivity of GTIDS is proved through emulated experiments comparing snort and next-generation intrusion detection expert system (NIDES) in SRI international.

  10. A phased approach to network intrusion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; DuBois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a prototype intrusion detection system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). The development of this system is based on three basic assumptions: (1) that statistical analysis of computer system and user activates may be used to characterize normal system and user behavior, and that given the resulting statistical profiles, behavior which deviates beyond certain bounds can be detected, (2) that expert system techniques can be applied to security auditing and intrusion detection, and (3) that successful intrusion detection may take place while monitoring a limited set of network activities. The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) design intent was to duplicate and improve the audit record review activities which had previously been undertaken by security personnel, to replace the manual review of audit logs with a near realtime expert system.

  11. Periodontal changes following molar intrusion with miniscrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Bayani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, these results suggest that not only periodontal status was not negatively affected by intrusion, but also there were signs of periodontal improvement including attachment gain and shortening of clinical crown height.

  12. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  13. Intrusion Detection System Using Advanced Honeypots

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ram Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The exponential growth of Internet traffic has made public servers increasingly vulnerable to unauthorized accesses and intrusions. In addition to maintaining low latency for the client, filtering unauthorized accesses has become one of the major concerns of a server maintainer. This implementation of an Intrusion Detection System distinguishes between the traffic coming from clients and the traffic originated from the attackers, in an attempt to simultaneously mitigate the problems of both latency and security. We then present the results of a series of stress and scalability tests, and suggest a number of potential uses for such a system. As computer attacks are becoming more and more difficult to identify the need for better and more efficient intrusion detection systems increases. The main problem with current intrusion detection systems is high rate of false alarms. Using honeypots provides effective solution to increase the security.

  14. First Younger Dryas moraines in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Linge, Henriette; Möller, Per; Schomacker, Anders; Fabel, Derek; Kjær, Kurt H.; Xu, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Over the Greenland ice sheet the Younger Dryas (YD) cold climate oscillation (12.9-11.7 kaBP) began with up to 10°C drop in temperatures and ended with up to 12°C abrupt warming. In the light of the present warming and melting of the ice sheet, and its importance for future climate change, the ice sheet's response to these dramatic changes in the past is of great interest. However, even though much effort has gone into charting YD ice margin behaviour around Greenland in recent years, no clear-cut signal of response to the oscillation has been uncovered. Here we show evidence to suggest that three major outlets from a local ice cap at Greenland's north coast advanced and retreated synchronously during YD. The evidence comprises OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) dates from a marine transgression of the coastal valleys that preceded the advance, and exposure ages from boulders on the moraines, formed by glaciers that overrode the marine sediment. The OSL ages suggest a maximum age of 12.4 ±0.6 kaBP for the marine incursion, and 10 exposure ages on boulders from the three moraines provide an average minimum age of 12.5 ±0.7 kaBP for the moraines, implying that the moraines were formed within the interval 11.8-13.0 kaBP. Elsewhere in Greenland evidence for readvance has been recorded in two areas. Most notably, in the East Greenland fjord zone outlet glaciers over a stretch of 800 km coast advanced through the fjords. In Scoresby Sund, where the moraines form a wide belt, an extensive 14C and exposure dating programme has shown that the readvance here probably culminated before YD, while cessation of moraine formation and rapid retreat from the moraine belt did not commence until c. 11.5 kaBP, but no moraines have so far been dated to YD. Readvance is also seen in Disko Bugt, the largest ice sheet outlet in West Greenland. However, here the advance and retreat of the ice stream took place in mid YD times, and lasted only a few hundred years, while YD in

  15. Zircon Saturation and the Viability of Magma Bodies During Intrusion of the Tuolumne Intrusive Series, Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Burgess, S.; Miller, C.; Miller, R.; Bergantz, G.

    2005-05-01

    -rich, magma bodies formed by remelting of earlier intrusions at a scale that encompasses samples with statistically distinguishable zircon ages. A corollary of 1-3 above is that there may be a correlation between zircon age dispersion and inferred magma body longevity in the TIS. Samples with tight clusters of concordant, single-crystal weighted mean ages (low MSWD) presumably correspond to areas in TIS where no appreciable heating (several 100's °C) occurred after cooling through Tzrc. Conversely, samples showing concordant, single-crystal, age dispersion may reflect: (a) reheating/melting of mushy zones or earlier solidified intrusions within the TIS, such that older zircons were incorporated into new inputs of magma but did not completely dissolve, and/or (b) transient thermal oscillations about Tzrc in long-lived mushy magma, producing periods of alternating dissolution and growth. Age progression from older to younger toward the interior would still be preserved even with these complexities. [1] Coleman DS, Gray W, Glazner AF (2004) Geology 32:433-436; [2] Watson EB, Harrison TM (1983) Earth Planet Sci Lett 64:295-304; [3] Watson EB (1996) Trans Roy Soc Edinburgh: Earth Sci 87:43-56.

  16. Total exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada, J.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology to estimate the recovery percentage for each of the products which can be obtained from the exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry: block, semiblock, masonry-transverse stone, and the smaller materials that can be used to obtain construction aggregates. This methodology ensures that quarry exploitation is exhaustive, thereby minimising the production of spoils and the consequent negative impact on the environment. The analysis is based on a detailed and exhaustive compilation of discontinuity data from the research fronts, which are then interpreted statistically and projected over the three weakness planes that are a particular feature of ornamental granite deposits. Using this information, and bearing in mind the minimum commercially viable sizes for each kind of granite, the corresponding recovery rates are calculated for each material in each plane. The results are then integrated using spatial techniques, and the result is an evaluation of quarry contents with a view to total exploitation. This methodology was applied to a quarry in the opening phase in order to carry out an a priori assessment of the economic feasibility of the quarry.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para estimar el porcentaje de recuperación de cada uno de los productos que se pueden obtener en la explotación de una cantera de granito ornamental: bloque, semibloque, manpostería y per piaños, y material restante destinado a la obtención de áridos. De esta manera se logra un aprovechamiento integral de la cantera, evitándose la generación de estériles y el subsiguiente impacto ambiental producido por éstos. La metodología de análisis se basa en la recopilación detallada y exhaustiva de datos de discontinuidades en los frentes de investigación, que se interpretan estadísticamente y se proyectan sobre los tres planos de debilidad propios del granito ornamental. Con esta información, y las

  17. The Development of Intrusive Thoughts to Obsessions

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Lisa- Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to consider the role of appraisals of intrusivethoughts in the development of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. A narrativeliterature review explored the hypothesis that ‘normal’ intrusive thoughts lieon a continuum with clinical obsessions. The review discussed previousresearch on intrusive thoughts in nonclinical samples and drew comparisonswith characteristics of clinical obsessions. An internet-based empiricalinvestigation employed a randomised controlled trial des...

  18. [Intrusive care and the nursing approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécu, Anays Vaplet; Viltart, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    All caregivers who listen to patients will hear them tell their experience of the intrusive nature of care, whether it be basic, technical, educational or relational. The relational approach implemented by nurses enables them to identify organisational and behavioural methods which favour the establishment of a climate of trust. It helps them appropriate this interdisciplinary approach to caregiving, limiting as much as possible the intrusion felt by the patient during their hospital stay. PMID:26043629

  19. Multilayer Statistical Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Boudriga; Amel Meddeb-Makhlouf; Mohamed Hamdi

    2008-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of mobile applications and services has introduced new vulnerabilities that do not exist in fixed wired networks. Traditional security mechanisms, such as access control and encryption, turn out to be inefficient in modern wireless networks. Given the shortcomings of the protection mechanisms, an important research focuses in intrusion detection systems (IDSs). This paper proposes a multilayer statistical intrusion detection framework for wireless networks. The archite...

  20. Introduction to Wireless Intrusion Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Milliken, Jonny

    2014-01-01

    The IDS (Intrusion Detection System) is a common means of protecting networked systems from attack or malicious misuse. The development and rollout of an IDS can take many different forms in terms of equipment, protocols, connectivity, cost and automation. This is particularly true of WIDS (Wireless Intrusion Detection Systems) which have many more opportunities and challenges associated with data transmission through an open, shared medium. The operation of a WIDS is a multistep process from...

  1. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Labriola, Merete; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2015-01-01

    younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem...

  2. Chronic mucus hypersecretion: prevalence and risk factors in younger individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Lotte; Thomsen, S F; Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals.......Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  3. Obesity and sexual dysfunction in younger Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Heitman, B. L.; Wagner, Gorm

    2008-01-01

    : To examine a possible association between sexual disorders (erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorders, and sexual desire disorders) and obesity among younger men born and living in Denmark. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study of sexual health among Danish younger men. Questionnaires were...... to height, weight, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was more prevalent among these younger and older men with higher BMI, but only significant among men 20-45 years old, with an odds ratio of 2.74 (95% confidence interval 1.1-6.8). The prevalence of ED was higher among...... the younger obese nonsmokers than obese smokers. Premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, and sexual desire disorders were all unrelated to overweight or obesity. CONCLUSION: Obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) seems associated with ED among younger men aged 20-45 years. Health programs directed toward...

  4. Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na2CO3/NaHCO3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 700C for a 24 hour time period. (author)

  5. Expected repository environments in granite: thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared for the Reference Repository Conditions - Interface Working Group and will be used to formulate a standardized description of repository conditions for use by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. A baseline repository in granite is defined and three waste types are considered: unreprocessed spent fuel, commercial high-level waste, and defense high-level waste. Three different scales of repository environment are described - the very-near field (near the waste canister), the near field (the room and pillar), and the far field (the entire repository and surroundings). Information was compiled from the literature and, in addition, a number of calculations were performed. The major emphasis is on describing the thermal environment although the ground-water flow and chemical and radiation environments are also described. 61 figures, 24 tables

  6. Uranium-lead isotope systematics and apparent ages of zircons and other minerals in precambrian granitic rocks, Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Zircon suites from the two main types of granite in the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, yielded concordia-intercept ages of 2,640??20 m.y. for a red, foliated granite (granite of Long Creek Mountain) and 2,595??40 m.y. for the much larger mass of the granite of Lankin Dome. These ages are statistically distinct (40??20 m.y. difference) and are consistent with observed chemical and textural differences. The lower intercepts of the zircon chords of 50??40 and 100+ 75 m.y. for the granite of Long Creek Mountain and granite of Lankin Dome, respectively, are not consistent with reasonable continuous diffusion lead-loss curves but do correspond well with the known (Laramide) time of uplift of the rocks. Epidote, zircon, and apatite from silicified and epidotized zones in the granites all record at least one postcrystallization disturbance in addition to the Laramide event and do not define a unique age of silicification and epidotization. The lower limit of ???2,500 m.y. provided by the least disturbed epidote, however, suggests that these rocks were probably formed by deuteric processes shortly after emplacement of the granite of the Lankin Dome. The earlier of the two disturbances that affected the minerals of the silicified-epidotized rock can be bracketed between 1,350 and 2,240 m.y. ago and is probably the same event that lowered mineral K-Ar and ages in the region. Zircon suites from both types of granite show well-defined linear correlations among U content, common-Pb content, and degree of discordance. One of the zircon suites has an extremely high common-Pb content (up to 180 ppm) and exhibits a component of radiogenic-Pb loss that is apparently unrelated to radiation damage. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Research on Wireless Sensor Network Intrusion Detection Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Qing Gang; Wang Li; Zhu Yun Jie; Cai Yan Ning; Li Yong Qiang

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, wireless sensor network (WSN) has been widely used in all walks of life. The security problem of WSN has become a research hotspot. Intrusion detection technology has an important position in the network security. In this Paper, firstly, the intrusion and intrusion detection are introduced, secondly, the WSN intrusion detection system and its classification are analyzed. The main study is to analyze the current WSN intrusion detection technology...

  8. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal): genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, I. Ribeiro; Mourão, C.; Récio, C.; Guimarães, F.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, J. Farinha; Barriga, F. J. A. S.; Palmer, M. R.; Milton, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (±mica)-tourmaline rocks (tourmalinites) in several exocontact locations, and (3) as a rare detrital phase in contact zone hornfels and metapelitic host-rocks. Electron microprobe and stable isotope (δ18O, δD, δ11B) data provide clear distinctions between tourmaline populations from these different settings: (a) schorl-oxyschorl tourmalines from granitic rocks have variable foititic component (X□ = 17-57 %) and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios (0.19-0.50 in two-mica granitic rocks, and 0.05-0.19 in the more differentiated muscovite-granite and aplites); granitic tourmalines have constant δ18O values (12.1 ± 0.1 ‰), with wider-ranging δD (-78.2 ± 4.7 ‰) and δ11B (-10.7 to -9.0 ‰) values; (b) vein/breccia oxyschorl [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.31-0.44] results from late, B- and Fe-enriched magma-derived fluids and is characterized by δ18O = 12.4 ‰, δD = -29.5 ‰, and δ11B = -9.3 ‰, while replacement tourmalines have more dravitic compositions [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.26-0.64], close to that of detrital tourmaline in the surrounding metapelitic rocks, and yield relatively constant δ18O values (13.1-13.3 ‰), though wider-ranging δD (-58.5 to -36.5 ‰) and δ11B (-10.2 to -8.8 ‰) values; and (c) detrital tourmaline in contact rocks and regional host metasediments is mainly dravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.35-0.78] and oxydravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.51-0.58], respectively. Boron contents of the granitic rocks are low (Monsanto pluton, either as direct tourmaline precipitation in cavities and fractures crossing the

  9. Variscan thrusting in I- and S-type granitic rocks of the Tribeč Mountains, Western Carpathians (Slovakia: evidence from mineral compositions and monazite dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broska Igor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tribeč granitic core (Tatric Superunit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia is formed by Devonian/Lower Carboniferous, calc-alkaline I- and S-type granitic rocks and their altered equivalents, which provide a rare opportunity to study the Variscan magmatic, post-magmatic and tectonic evolution. The calculated P-T-X path of I-type granitic rocks, based on Fe-Ti oxides, hornblende, titanite and mica-bearing equilibria, illustrates changes in redox evolution. There is a transition from magmatic stage at T ca. 800–850 °C and moderate oxygen fugacity (FMQ buffer to an oxidation event at 600 °C between HM and NNO up to the oxidation peak at 480 °C and HM buffer, to the final reduction at ca. 470 °C at ΔNN= 3.3. Thus, the post-magmatic Variscan history recorded in I-type tonalites shows at early stage pronounced oxidation and low temperature shift back to reduction. The S-type granites originated at temperature 700–750 °C at lower water activity and temperature. The P-T conditions of mineral reactions in altered granitoids at Variscan time (both I and S-types correspond to greenschist facies involving formation of secondary biotite. The Tribeč granite pluton recently shows horizontal and vertical zoning: from the west side toward the east S-type granodiorites replace I-type tonalites and these medium/coarse-grained granitoids are vertically overlain by their altered equivalents in greenschist facies. Along the Tribeč mountain ridge, younger undeformed leucocratic granite dykes in age 342±4.4 Ma cut these metasomatically altered granitic rocks and thus post-date the alteration process. The overlaying sheet of the altered granites is in a low-angle superposition on undeformed granitoids and forms “a granite duplex” within Alpine Tatric Superunit, which resulted from a syn-collisional Variscan thrusting event and melt formation ~340 Ma. The process of alteration may have been responsible for shifting the oxidation trend to the observed

  10. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series. PMID:11378931

  11. The Phalaborwa Syenite Intrusions along the West-Central Boundary of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Frick

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The geology of the Phalaborwa Complex is described and emphasis placed on the distribution of the large number of syenite intrusions. The petrography of the different textural types of syenites is discussed and it is shown that porphyritic, granular, gneissic and hypidiomorphic syenites are present. The petrography shows that the deformation textures, which are present in some of the syenites, may have formed during the emplacement of syenitic magmas which contained a high concentration of crystals. The geochemistry of the syenites is discussed and it is shown that they were not derived from an alkali basaltic magma through fractional crystallisation, but that they may rather represent alkali basaltic magmas which were contaminated by granitic material. The mode of emplacement of the Phalaborwa Complex is discussed and the relationship between the pyroxenites is explained.

  12. Geochronology of the Suomenniemi rapakivi granite complex revisited: Implications of point-specific errors on zircon U-Pb and refined λ87 on whole-rock Rb-Sr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rämö, O.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-grain isotope dilution and secondary ion microprobe zircon U-Pb as well as wholerock Rb-Sr isotope dilution data on the late Paleoproterozoic Suomenniemi rapakivi granite complex (exposed on the northern flank of the Wiborg batholith in southeastern Finland are discussed in the light of point-specific errors on Pb/U and proposed new values of the decay constant of 87Rb, λ87. U-Pb zircon data on hornblende granite and biotite granite of the main metaluminous-marginally peraluminous granite fractionation series of the Suomenniemi batholith indicate crystallization in the 1644-1640 Ma range, with a preferred age at 1644±4 Ma. A cross-cutting hornblende-clinopyroxene-fayalite granite is probably slightly younger, as are quartz-feldspar porphyry dikes (1634±4 Ma that cut both the main granite series and the metamorphic Svecofennian country rocks of the Suomenniemi batholith. Recalculation of whole-rock Rb-Sr data published on the main granite series of the batholith by Rämö (1999 implies errorchron ages of 1635±10 Ma and 1630±10 Ma and a magmatic 87Sr/86Sri of 0.7062±0.0024. This relatively high initial ratio is indicative of a major Proterozoic crustal source component in the granites of the batholith. The main granite series of the batholith probably cooled relatively rapidly to and below the closure temperature of the Rb-Sr isotope system, with little subsequent subsolidus adjustment. The three discrete silicic magmatic phases of the batholith (the main granite series, the hornblende-clinopyroxene-fayalite granite, and the quartz-feldspar porphyry dikes were all probably emplaced before the main volume of rapakivi granite (the Wiborg batholith proper in southeastern Finland. The Suomenniemi batholith thus represents an early magmatic precursor to the classic Wiborg batholith and was emplaced clearly before the massive rise of isotherms associated with the ascent and crystallization of the magmas that formed the bulk of the Wiborg

  13. Petrogenesis of syntectonic granites emplaced at the transition from thrusting to transcurrent tectonics in post-collisional setting: Whole-rock and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry in the Neoproterozoic Quatro Ilhas and Mariscal Granites, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florisbal, Luana Moreira; Bitencourt, Maria de Fátima; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll; Heaman, Larry M.

    2012-11-01

    The Neoproterozoic post-collisional period in southern Brazil (650-580 Ma) is characterized by substantial volumes of magma emplaced along the active shear zones that compose the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt. The early-phase syntectonic magmatism (630-610 Ma) is represented by the porphyritic, high-K, metaluminous to peraluminous Quatro Ilhas Granitoids and the younger heterogranular, slightly peraluminous Mariscal Granite. Quatro Ilhas Granitoids include three main petrographic varieties (muscovite-biotite granodiorite — mbg; biotite monzogranite — bmz; and leucogranite — lcg) that, although sharing some significant geochemical characteristics, are not strictly comagmatic, as shown by chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data. The most primitive muscovite-biotite granodiorite was produced by contamination of more mafic melts (possibly with some mantle component) with peraluminous crustal melts; the biotite monzogranite, although more felsic, has higher Ca, MgO, TiO2 and Ba, and lower K2O, FeOt, Sr and Rb contents, possibly reflecting some mixing with coeval mafic magmas of tholeiitic affinity; the leucogranite may be derived from pure crustal melts. The Mariscal Granite is formed by two main granite types which occur intimately associated in the same pluton, one with higher K (5-6.5 wt.% K2O) high Rb and lower CaO, Na2O, Ba and Zr as compared to the other (3-5 wt.% of K2O). The two Mariscal Granite varieties have compositional correspondence with fine-grained granites (fgg) that occur as tabular bodies which intruded the Quatro Ilhas Granoitoids before they were fully crystallized, and are inferred to correspond to the Mariscal Granite feeders, an interpretation that is reinforced by similar U-Pb zircon crystallization ages. The initial evolution of the post-collisional magmatism, marked by the emplacement of the Quatro Ilhas Granitoids varieties, activated sources that produced mantle and crustal magmas whose emplacement was controlled both by flat-lying and

  14. Count out your intrusions: Effects of verbal encoding on intrusive memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Becker, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peri-traumatic information processing is thought to affect the development of intrusive trauma memories. This study aimed to replicate and improve the study by Holmes, Brewin, and Hennessy (2004, Exp. 3) on the role of peri-traumatic verbal processing in analogue traumatic intrusion development. Par

  15. THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC IMANDRA-VARZUGA RIFTING STRUCTURE (KOLA PENINSULA: INTRUSIVE MAGMATISM AND MINERAGENY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chashchin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data on the structure of the Paleoproterozoic intercontinental Imandra-Varzuga rifting structure (IVS and compositions of intrusive formations typical of the early stage of the IVS development and associated mineral resources. IVS is located in the central part of the Kola region. Its length is about 350 km, and its width varies from 10 km at the flanks to 50 km in the central part. IVS contains an association of the sedimentary-volcanic, intrusive and dyke complexes. It is a part of a large igneous Paleoproterozoic province of the Fennoscandian Shield spreading for a huge area (about 1 million km2, which probably reflects the settings of the head part of the mantle plume. Two age groups of layered intrusions were associated with the initial stage of the IVS development. The layered intrusions of the Fedorovo-Pansky and Monchegorsk complexes (about 2.50 Ga are confined to the northern flank and the western closure of IVS, while intrusions of the Imandra complex (about 2.45 Ga are located at the southern flank of IVS. Intrusions of older complexes are composed of rock series from dunite to gabbro and anorthosites (Monchegorsk complex and from orthopyroxenite to gabbro and anorthosites (Fedorovo-Pansky complex. Some intrusions of this complexes reveal features of multiphase ones. The younger Imandra complex intrusions (about 2.45 Ga are stratified from orthopyroxenite to ferrogabbro. Their important feature is comagmatical connection with volcanites. All the intrusive complexes have the boninite-like mantle origin enriched by lithophyle components. Rocks of these two complexеs with different age have specific geochemical characteristics. In the rocks of the Monchegorsk and Fedorovo-Pansky complexes, the accumulation of REE clearly depends on the basicity of the rocks, the spectrum of REE is non-fractionated and ‘flat’, and the Eu positive anomaly is slightly manifested. In the rocks of the Imandra complex, the level of

  16. Alteration, evaluation and use of extremaduran granite residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrán-Liso, C.; Jordán-Vidal, M. M.; Sanfeliu-Montolio, T.; Liso-Rubio, M. J.

    2006-04-01

    The necessity of eliminating debris from a granite quarry has awakened an interest in applications of by-products, called “marginal arids”, in different fields, like construction and foundations for roadways, restoration, material for the manufacture of artificial rocks, and artesian products etc. Conclusions obtained from the results of tests carried out by X-ray diffraction of granite quarry by-products in Extremadura, Spain, submitted to different treatments, are established. Test pieces from two quarries are analyzed and compared generally and specifically, for commercial use. Finally, conclusions relating to essays in test pieces and mineral dynamics of marginal arid granite are exposed.

  17. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: Granite. Tome evolution phenomenologique du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (HLLL) in granite formations. Content: 1 - introduction: ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formation; 2 - the granitic environment: geologic history, French granites; 3 - HLLL wastes and disposal design concepts; 4 - identification, characterization and modeling of a granitic site: approach, geologic modeling, hydrologic and hydro-geochemical modeling, geomechanical and thermal modeling, long-term geologic evolution of a site; 5 - phenomenological evolution of a disposal: main aspects of the evolution of a repository with time, disposal infrastructures, B-type wastes disposal area, C-type wastes disposal area; spent fuels disposal area, radionuclides transfer and retention in the granitic environment; 6 - conclusions: available knowledge, methods and tools for the understanding and modeling of the phenomenological evolution of a granitic disposal site. (J.S.)

  18. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shanmugavadivu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available IDS which are increasingly a key part of system defense are used to identify abnormal activities in a computer system. In general, the traditional intrusion detection relies on the extensive knowledge of security experts, in particular, on their familiarity with the computer system to be protected. To reduce this dependence, variousdata-mining and machine learning techniques have been used in the literature. In the proposed system, we have designed fuzzy logic-based system for effectively identifying the intrusion activities within a network. The proposed fuzzy logic-based system can be able to detect an intrusion behavior of the networks since the rule base contains a better set of rules. Here, we have used automated strategy for generation of fuzzy rules, which are obtained from the definite rules using frequent items. The experiments and evaluations of the proposed intrusion detection system are performed with the KDD Cup 99 intrusion detection dataset. The experimentalresults clearly show that the proposed system achieved higher precision in identifying whether the records are normal or attack one.

  19. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems’ operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Mora-Rodriguez, P. Amparo López-Jimenez, Helena M. Ramos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  20. Tonian granitic magmatism of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ignez P.; de Fatima L. de Brito, Maria; de A. Lages, Geysson; da Silva Filho, Adejardo F.; Santos, Lucilene; Brasilino, Roberta G.

    2016-07-01

    Tonian granitoids, today augen-gneisses and migmatites, showing crystallization ages ranging from 870 Ma to 1000 Ma occur in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The majority of them have ages within the 925-970 Ma interval. Few intrusions with ages of ∼1.0 Ga and 71%) and alkali contents, they vary from slightly peraluminous to slightly metaluminous, and from slightly magnesian to typical ferrroan rocks. In the migmatized orthogneisses the SiO2 contents are usually 40 ppm). The chondrite normalized REE patterns are characterized by strong to moderate negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.23-0.70). In general, the spidergram patterns show deep troughs at Ti, P, Ba and Sr and less pronounced Nb-Ta troughs. These patterns are similar to those reported for anorogenic granites evolved from mixtures of magmas from both crustal and mantle sources. The CVG exhibit TDM model ages ranging from 1.9 to 1.1Ga, with slightly negative to slightly positive ƐNd(t) values, suggesting the involvement of distinct proportions of mantle and crustal components in the source of their protoliths. There is no consensus in the literature about the tectonic setting of the CVG ie they have been related to either continental margin magmatic arc, with possible back-arc association, or extention-related setting, with generation of A-type granites. However, all the available geochemical data suggest that the CVG represent extension related magmatism. The geochemical signature associated to bimodal volcanism, including pyroclastic rocks, with similar ages, and absence, up to now, of evidence for metamorphism of Tonian age, support the hypothesis of extension - related magmatism.

  1. Stress May Take Greatest Toll on Younger Women's Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160597.html Stress May Take Greatest Toll on Younger Women's Hearts: ... 24, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress may be especially hard on the hearts of ...

  2. Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head in younger adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two cases of subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head observed in younger adults without any history of overexertion. In both cases, MRI revealed an irregular, discontinuous low-intensity band on the T1-weighted images. Both patients were treated operatively, and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of subchondral fracture. A diagnosis of subchondral insufficiency fracture needs to be put in as one of the diagnoses in younger patients with a hip pain. (orig.)

  3. Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head in younger adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takuaki; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Shuto, Toshihide; Jingushi, Seiya; Iwamoto, Yukihide [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We report two cases of subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head observed in younger adults without any history of overexertion. In both cases, MRI revealed an irregular, discontinuous low-intensity band on the T1-weighted images. Both patients were treated operatively, and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of subchondral fracture. A diagnosis of subchondral insufficiency fracture needs to be put in as one of the diagnoses in younger patients with a hip pain. (orig.)

  4. Intrusion Detection System: Security Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShabnamNoorani,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is an ad hoc security solution to protect flawed computer systems. It works like a burglar alarm that goes off if someone tampers with or manages to get past other security mechanisms such as authentication mechanisms and firewalls. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a device or a software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station.Intrusion Detection System (IDS has been used as a vital instrument in defending the network from this malicious or abnormal activity..In this paper we are comparing host based and network based IDS and various types of attacks possible on IDS.

  5. An Overview on Intrusion Detection in Manet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh D. Wagh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring of mobile devices network connected without wires and hence MANET has become a very popular technology now days. A MANETS are the networks that are building, when some mobile nodes come in the mobility range of each other for data transfer and communication. In MANET, nodes are not stable hence the communication topology is not stable due to this vulnerable for attacks. MANET devices are connected via wireless links without using an existing network infrastructure or centralized administration due to which MANETs are not able to diverse types of attacks and intrusions. Hence intrusion detection has attracted many researchers. This paper gives an overview and different methods to detect intrusion in MANET.

  6. Natural radioactivity of granite rocks in Wadi Qena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compressed powdered granite samples brought from G. El Missikat and G. El Garra with different ages were analyzed by low-level γ-spectrometry. The contents of U, Th and K were determined and the dependence on age was tested. U/Th and U/K ratios for young and old granite samples were evaluated. Results were discussed and compared with other experiments. (author)

  7. Infiltration Characteristics of Granitic Residual Soil of Various Weathering Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal H. Ali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the result of a field study on the infiltration characteristics of cut a slope in granitic residual soil of various weathering grades. Granitic residual soil of weathering grade IV is found to have the highest infiltration rate. Water infiltration is found to increase from grade VI to IV and decrease from grade IV to grade III. Water infiltration is found to increase with the increase in soil porosity and void ratio.

  8. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  9. Infiltration Characteristics of Granitic Residual Soil of Various Weathering Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal H. Ali; Bujang B.K. Huat; T. H. Low

    2005-01-01

    This study presents the result of a field study on the infiltration characteristics of cut a slope in granitic residual soil of various weathering grades. Granitic residual soil of weathering grade IV is found to have the highest infiltration rate. Water infiltration is found to increase from grade VI to IV and decrease from grade IV to grade III. Water infiltration is found to increase with the increase in soil porosity and void ratio.

  10. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

  11. Effective analysis of cloud based intrusion detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Ram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of IDS is to analyze events on the network and identify attacks. The increasing number of network security related incidents makes it necessary for organizations to actively protect their sensitive data with the installation of intrusion detection systems (IDS. People are paid more attention on intrusion detection which as an important computer network security technology. According to the development trend of intrusion detection, detecting all kinds of intrusions effectively requires a global view of the monitored network, Here, discuss about new intrusion detection mechanism based on cloud computing, which can make up for the deficiency of traditional intrusion detection, and proved to be great scalable.

  12. Oxygen isotope use in the metallogenetic study of the Pedra Preta W mine, Musa Granite, Para State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pedra Preta wolframite deposit constitutes the main reserve of the Amazonian region, Brazil. Recent metallogenetic studies realized in the mine, allowed to identify four hydrothermal events related to the precocious, late and final vein formation. The first are of the metamorphic origin and basically composed of quartz, topaz and sulfide; the late veins are related to the Musa granite intrusion and are composed of quartz, topaz, fluorite, micas, sulfides and oxides (principally wolframite); the final veins are essentially constituted by quartz. The paper determines the characteristics isotopic signatures of different minerals found in the Pedra Preta deposit. Fourteen samples were analysed, and the fluid isotopic composition were determined through the δ18 O measurement in quartz, micas and wolframite

  13. Inclusões fluidas crepitadas, fluidos hipersalinos e aquo-carbônicos em quartzo associado a rochas micáceas no Granito Xinguara - Terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, PA Decrepitated fluid inclusions, aqueous-carbonic and hypersaline fluids in quartz associated to micaceous rocks in the Xinguara Granite - Rio Maria Granite - Greenstone terrain, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Leopoldo Weber

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As rochas micáceas encontradas no Granito Xinguara, terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, Pará, são compostas por muscovita e clorita com níveis de quartzo intercalados, que formam uma xistosidade bem desenvolvida. Essa xistosidade é cortada por veios de quartzo. Ambas as gerações de quartzo apresentam os mesmos tipos de inclusões fluidas em halos ou trilhas secundárias de composições variadas entre aquosas, aquo-carbônicas e saturadas em torno de grandes inclusões primárias crepitadas ou em trilhas transgranulares secundárias. A grande variação de temperaturas de homogeneização, a alta salinidade, as evidências de estrangulamento e a existência das inclusões crepitadas permitem supor forte influência de alterações pós-formacionais e reequilíbrio relacionados à intrusão do granito. Essas rochas foliadas são, portanto, enclaves metassedimentares afetados por fluidos graníticos hipersalinos aquo-carbônicos.The micaceous rocks occurring in the Xinguara Granite, Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone terrain, Pará State, Brazil, are composed of muscovite and chlorite with quartz levels intercalated forming a well developed schistosity. This schistosity is cut by quartz veins. Both quartz generations show the same aqueous, aqueous-carbonic and halite-bearing fluid inclusions either in secondary inclusions halos and trails surrounding decrepitated primary fluid inclusions or in transgranular secondary trails. A wide variation of homogenization temperatures, high salinity, necking down and the decrepitated inclusions existence indicates strong influence of post-formational alteration and reequilibration linked to the granite intrusion. These foliated rocks are metasedimentary enclaves affected by late hypersaline aqueous-carbonic granitic fluids.

  14. Uranium occurrences in the Granite Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work and results of the South Greenland Exploration Programme (Sydex) during the 1984 field season in the Granite Zone, and discusses the results and conclusions that can be drawn from them. It also contains a structural analysis of the Ivigtut-Julianehaab region, which will help in future exploration by indicating the likely directions of uraniferous faults and fractures. It also includes suggestions for future work with both exploration and scientific aspects. The project was carried out by the Geological Survey Greenland (GGU) in co-operation with Risoe National Laboratory. It was financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. The structural analysis was carried out using previous geological maps, our own field observations and an analysis of lineament frequencies taken from aerial photographs and satellite images. Major lineaments in the region are due to E-W sinistral wrench faults and NE-SW normal faults. Analysis of the minor lineaments showed that the region could be divided into three blocks which have each reacted differently to the same regional stress field which was active throughout the Gardar period. A northern block which has been influenced by an older system of faults in the Archaean gneiss, a central block dominated by a graben, and a southern block where there is a change to a less intensively faulted area. 2 maps, 27 refs. (EG)

  15. Design of Secure Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Intrusion Detection System (IDS) have received a great deal of attention because of their excellent ability of preventing network incidents. Recently, many efficient approaches have been proposed to improve detection ability of IDS. While the self-protection ability of IDS is relatively worse and easy to be exploited by attackers, this paper gives a scheme of Securely Distributed Intrusion Detection System (SDIDS). This system adopts special measurements to enforce the security of IDS components. A new secure mechanism combining role-based access control and attribute certificate is used to resist attack to communication.

  16. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  17. Intrusion Detection During IT Security Audits

    OpenAIRE

    Vatanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    In many public cases intruders have managed to remain undetected inside victim's network or sys-tems a very long time. Sometimes it has taken over two years until detection was made and during that that time most of the targets have most probably been monitored and audited. Whether audit or monitoring process has failed, or used tools and processes don’t cover intrusion detection. This thesis aimed at narrowing the gap between IT security audit and intrusion detection by inspect-ing attac...

  18. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is dissip......Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy...

  19. Intrusion Detection Approach Using Connectionist Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rui; LIU Yu-shu; DU Yan-hui

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the detection efficiency of rule-based expert systems, an intrusion detection approach using connectionist expert system is proposed. The approach converts the AND/OR nodes into the corresponding neurons, adopts the three-layered feed forward network with full interconnection between layers,translates the feature values into the continuous values belong to the interval [0, 1 ], shows the confidence degree about intrusion detection rules using the weight values of the neural networks and makes uncertain inference with sigmoid function. Compared with the rule-based expert system, the neural network expert system improves the inference efficiency.

  20. Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Anil Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems are intelligent systems designed to identify and prevent the misuse of computer networks and systems. Various approaches to Intrusion Detection are currently being used, but they are relatively ineffective. Thus the emerging network security systems need be part of the life system and this ispossible only by embedding knowledge into the network. The Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model - IDS comprising of K-Means clustering Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network techniques. Thetechnique is tested using multitude of background knowledge sets in DARPA network traffic datasets.

  1. Magma rheology variation in sheet intrusions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, C.; O'Driscoll, B.; Petronis, M. S.; Stevenson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The rheology of magma fundamentally controls igneous intrusion style as well as the explosivity and type of volcanic eruptions. Importantly, the dynamic interplay between the viscosity of magma and other processes active during intrusion (e.g., crystallisation, magma mixing, assimilation of crystal mushes and/or xenolith entrainment) will likely bear an influence on the temporal variation of magma rheology. Constraining the timing of rheological changes during magma transit therefore plays an important role in understanding the nuances of volcanic systems. However, the rheological evolution of actively emplacing igneous intrusions cannot be directly studied. While significant advances have been made via experimental modelling and analysis of lava flows, how these findings relate to intruding magma remains unclear. This has led to an increasing number of studies that analyse various characteristics of fully crystallised intrusions in an attempt to ';back-out' the rheological conditions governing emplacement. For example, it has long been known that crystallinity affects the rheology and, consequently, the velocity of intruding magma. This means that quantitative textural analysis of crystal populations (e.g., crystal size distribution; CSD) used to elucidate crystallinity at different stages of emplacement can provide insights into magma rheology. Similarly, methods that measure flow-related fabrics (e.g., anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility; AMS) can be used to discern velocity profiles, a potential proxy for the magma rheology. To illustrate these ideas, we present an integrated AMS and petrological study of several sheet intrusions located within the Ardnamurchan Central Complex, NW Scotland. We focus on the entrainment and transport dynamics of gabbroic inclusions that were infiltrated by the host magma upon entrainment. Importantly, groundmass magnetic fabrics within and external to these inclusions are coaxial. This implies that a deviatoric stress was

  2. Adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) software routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect information from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data-compression, storage, and formatting system; it also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be used for the collection of environmental, bilevel, analog, and video data. This report describes the software routines that control the different AIDS data-collection modes, the diagnostic programs to test the operating hardware, and the data format. Sample data printouts are also included

  3. The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallini

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1 accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2 a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3 high density of the magnetic survey, 4 detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5 direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

  4. Petrogenesis of skarn related Cu-porphyry intrusion deposit, Ali-Abad- Darreh Zereshk, Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Taghipour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study area is a part of Cenozoic magmatic belt of Central Iran, which is located in the West of Yazd porovince. Contact metamorphism and skarn occurred in conglomerate part of Sngestan Formation. The Oligocene intrusion bodies of Ali-Abad-Darreh Zereshk are leucocerate and have the chemical composition of granite to granodiorite with calc-alkaline affinity from volcanic arc geological setting. The main mineral assemblage of skarn in order of imprtance is as follow: Garnet + epidote + quartz + calcite + pyrite + iron oxides. Brown garnets are the skarn characteristic mineral. EPMA analysis has shown that the chemical composition with garnet belong to andradite-grossular solid-solution (And 65, Gross 30 with more andradite component. The high permeability and presence of carbonate pebbles in conglomerate are two important factors for fluid flow and genesis of garnets. Distinct oscillatory zoning in garnets is resulted from the change of fO2 in fluids. The evolution of Ali-Abad skarn is took place in the range of 380 to 530 ºC, 0.5 Kbar pressure and high fO2. Also close association of this skarn with Ali-Abad intrusive with Cu-porphyry mineralization shows that this skarn is a Cu-porphyry type skarn.

  5. Li isotope geochemical study on weathering of granite in Longnan, Jiangxi Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Xu, Z.; Zhao, T.; Yu, C.; Zhou, L.

    2015-12-01

    Li isotopes have been demonstrated to be a powerful tool in silicate weathering research from the continental scale to that of catchments and weathering profiles. In this study, we focus on Li isotopic behavior during granite weathering and pedogenic processes. Study profiles are developed on a granite intrusion in Longnan, South China, under a subtropical monsoon climate. Two soil profiles (JLN-S4 on the ridgetop and JLN-S3 on the midslope; both 120cm deep) and one weathering profiles (JLN-S1 on the toe slope; 1100cm deep) along a hill slope were selected to represent the granite weathering process in near surface condition. Bulk samples of these profiles were analyzed for major element and Li content, and δ7Li value. CIA (chemical index of alteration) values were determined. The uppermost soil profile (JLN-S4) samples have CIA values between 97.6 and 98.3, with δ7Li values from -2.50 to -3.90‰; JLN-S3 profile samples have lower CIA values varing from 94.4 to 96.1 and δ7Li values from -0.73‰ to -1.55‰. The weathering profile JLN-S1 at the toe slope has a generally increasing CIA values (in the range of 57.8~92.4) upward in the profile. The δ7Li values variation with CIA in JLN-S1, shows a two staged relationship: δ7Li increasing from -14.92‰ to 0.66‰ when CIA increases from 57.8 to 74.6 as the first stage (from the bottom to 370cm depth), and no obvious relationship between CIA andδ7Li(-4.74~3.62‰) was observed in the second stage (CIA higher than 74.6, 370cm depth above). Li contents in JLN-S4 vary between 3.84 and 15.03 μg/g, in JLN-S3 between 1.43~8.03 μg/g, and in JLN-S1 between 6.95~22.27μg/g. In the first stage defined by δ7Li and CIA relationship, Li contents decrease with increasing CIA. However, in the second stage, Li abundance decreases upward at the beginning and turns into an increacing tendency (at 175cm depth) to the surface. Two granite bedrock samples have δ7Li value of -0.23 and 0.39‰, and Li contents of 38.58 and 34

  6. Clay Veins and Clay Minerals in the Granitic Rocks in Hiroshima and Shimane Prefectures, Southwest Japan : Effect of the hydrothermal activities on the decomposition of the granitic rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kitagawa, Ryuji

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the clay minerals found in the granitic rocks distributed in Hiroshima and Shimane Prefectures with special reference to the effects of hydrothermal activities on the decomposition process of the granitic rocks. Many clay veins and hydrothermal clay deposits are commonly developed in the granitic rocks and their mode of occurrences were investigated in detail. the preferred orientations of the clay veins and microcracks found in the constituent minerals of granitic rocks...

  7. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report; Mission collegiale de concertation Granite. Rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisson, P.; Huet, Ph.; Mingasson, J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  8. An Adaptive Database Intrusion Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Rita M.

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection is difficult to accomplish when attempting to employ current methodologies when considering the database and the authorized entity. It is a common understanding that current methodologies focus on the network architecture rather than the database, which is not an adequate solution when considering the insider threat. Recent…

  9. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  10. Data Visualization Technique Framework for Intrusion detection

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa El - Din Riad; Ibrahim Elhenawy; Ahmed Hassan; Nancy Awadallah

    2011-01-01

    Network attacks have become the fundamental threat to today's largely interconnected computer system. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is indispensable to defend the system in the face of increasing vulnerabilities. While a number of information visualization software frameworks exist, creating new visualizations, especially those that involve novel visualization metaphors, interaction techniques, data analysis strategies, and specialized rendering algorithms, is still often a difficult proce...

  11. Daytime intrusive thoughts and subjective insomnia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Louise D; Baldwin, David S; Garner, Matthew

    2015-10-30

    Insomnia is increasingly recognised as a 24h complaint that is associated with an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. However, the effects of insomnia symptoms on maladaptive daytime patterns of thinking are poorly understood. We examined the relationship between subjective insomnia symptoms, attentional control and negative thought intrusions during daytime in a large sample of undergraduates experiencing poor sleep. A total of 109 participants completed self-report measures of sleep quality, current sleepiness, anxiety and attentional control. A behavioural measure of intrusive thought required participants to control their attention during two focus periods separated by a 5min period of self-referential worry. Thought intrusions were sampled throughout the pre- and post-worry periods. Perceived insomnia severity was associated with the reduced ability to focus attention and uniquely associated with increased negative thought intrusions in the pre-worry period. These results support suggestions that acute episodes of poor sleep can dysregulate key networks involved in attentional control and emotion regulation, and that promote negative cognitive activity. PMID:26279126

  12. Thermomechanical studies in granite at Stripa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Media other than rock salt are being considered for the deep, geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. The disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a deep, underground repository will subject the rock to a thermal pulse that will induce displacements, strains, and stresses in the rock. Thermomechanical experiments, with electrical heaters simulating the thermal output of waste canisters, were carried out in granite at a depth of 340 m below surface adjacent to a defunct iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden. Changes in temperature, displacement, and stress in the rock around these heaters were measured, and the measurements were compared with predictions calculated from the theory of linear thermoelasticity. Measured temperature changes agreed well with predictions, but measured displacements and stresses were consistently less than those predicted with constant values for the coefficient of thermal expansion and elastic properties of the rock. A laboratory test program to measure these coefficients over ranges of stress and temperature representing those in the field experiment has been initiated. Test specimens were taken from cores recovered from the instrumentation holes in the Stripa experiments. Preliminary results from laboratory tests on specimens free of joints indicate that the values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increase from about 60 to 80 MPa and from 0.15 to 0.22, respectively, as the confining stress is increased from 2 to 55 MPa; these values decrease with increasing temperature, more so at 2 MPa than at 55 MPa. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion at a confining stress of 30 MPa increases from about 10 x 10-6/0C at 400C to about 14 x 10-6/0C. The magnitudes of these changes are not sufficient to resolve the disparity between measured and predicted results. Perhaps the properties of test specimens containing joints will show greater variations in the values of the thermomechanical coefficients with temperature and pressure

  13. Younger Dryas glaciers in the High Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Philip; Fink, David

    2016-04-01

    Twelve cirque glaciers formed during the Younger Dryas on the mountains of Aksoual (3912 m a.s.l.) and Adrar el Hajj (3129 m a.s.l.) in the Marrakesh High Atlas. Moraines in two separate cirques on these mountains have been dated using 10Be and 36Cl exposure dating. In both cirques the age scatter is relatively small (13.8-10.1 ka) and all ages overlap within error with the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka). The glaciers were small and covered ELAs) ranging from 2470 and 3560 m. This large range is attributed to local topoclimatic factors with the lowest glacier (confirmed as Younger Dryas in age by 3 exposure ages) occupying a very steep cirque floor where a combination of steep glacier gradient and a large potential avalanche catchment enabled its low-lying position. This indicates that caution should be taken when using single glacier sites for reconstructing regional palaeoclimate, especially those formed in steep catchments that have strong topoclimatic controls. The average ELA of the twelve Younger Dryas glaciers was c. 3109 m a.s.l. (St Dev = 325 m) and this represents an ELA depression of > 1000 m from the modern theoretical regional ELA. Under precipitation values similar to today this would require a mean annual temperature depression of 9°C. Moreover, the glacier-climate modelling indicates that it is very unlikely that climate was drier than today during the Younger Dryas in the Marrakesh High Atlas.

  14. NADIR (Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter): A prototype network intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; DuBois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) is an expert system which is intended to provide real-time security auditing for intrusion and misuse detection at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). It is based on three basic assumptions: that statistical analysis of computer system and user activities may be used to characterize normal system and user behavior, and that given the resulting statistical profiles, behavior which deviates beyond certain bounds can be detected, that expert system techniques can be applied to security auditing and intrusion detection, and that successful intrusion detection may take place while monitoring a limited set of network activities such as user authentication and access control, file movement and storage, and job scheduling. NADIR has been developed to employ these basic concepts while monitoring the audited activities of more than 8000 ICN users.

  15. Isotope chronological trace of granite gravel in Hefei Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The discovery of granite gravel in Hefei Jurassic backland basin, which came from the Dabie Shah or North Huaiyang, has a great significance for probing into uplift and exhumation of the Dabie orogenic belt. Lithochemical and isotope chronological analyses on the granite gravel in the Sanjianpu Formation and the Fenghuangtai Formation in Jinzhai County prove that post-orogenic granite was developed in the major provenance of the Hefei Basin; that is, Dabie Shah or North Huaiyang. Discordant lower intersection point age of zircon U-Pb of granite gravel is 40Ar/39about 214 Ma, and Ar/39Ar age of muscovite about 196 Ma,K-Ar age of K-spar about 181 Ma. The former is the diagenetic age of the sample, and the latter two represent the sealed ages of muscovite and K-spar respectively. The age of sedimentary rocks in which a lot of granite gravels appear in the sedimentary section may represent the newest age of the exhumation of the granite body, so we assume that the age is 166 Ma. Therefore, we calculated the uplift rates of the granite body from Late Triassic to early Middle Jurassic; that is about 0.08 km/Ma and 0.4-0.3 km/Ma in the early slowly uplifting stage and later fast uplifting stage respectively, after the formation of the body at 214 Ma. These results are basically identical to the uplifting ages of the Dabie ultrahigh pressure metamorphic (UHPM) belt and the North Huaiyang thrust belt.

  16. Magnetic anisotropy of the Redenção granite, eastern Amazonian craton (Brazil): Implications for the emplacement of A-type plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Davis Carvalho; Neves, Sérgio Pacheco; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Mariano, Gorki; Correia, Paulo Barros

    2010-10-01

    A magnetic fabric study was performed on the Redenção pluton in an attempt to understand its emplacement history. The Redenção pluton is part of the 1.88 Ga, anorogenic, A-type Jamon suite that intruded 2.97-2.86 Ga-old Archean granitoids of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane in the eastern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil). Previous gravity survey indicates that the pluton is a 6 km-thick, tabular intrusion. It is characterized by a concentric distribution of facies, with rings of seriated and porphyritic granite that cut across the main facies of even-grained monzogranites. The whole set is intruded by leucogranites that occupy the center of the pluton. Petrographic examination, magnetic susceptibilities, coercivity-spectra and thermomagnetic curves indicate that the magnetic fabric is primarily carried by coarse-grained multidomain magnetite. This is reinforced by the coincidence of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy principal axes. The absence of solid-state deformation features and the low anisotropy degrees indicate that the magnetic fabric is magmatic in origin. The magnetic fabric displays a systematic pattern, with all facies, including the rings of porphyritic granite, being characterized by concentric, gently dipping foliations associated with gently plunging lineations. Only the central leucogranitic facies shows a slightly discordant pattern with steeply dipping fabrics at its northeastern sector. An emplacement model by vertical stacking of successive magma batches is proposed for the construction of the Redenção pluton, which reconciles the tabular shape of the intrusion, the petrographic and geochemical zoning, and the magnetic fabric pattern. Initially, two magma batches were emplaced as sills. First the even-grained monzogranite, then the seriated and porphyritic granites, which formed by mingling of a leucogranitic melt with the host biotite-monzogranitic magma as attested by geochemical data and field evidence. The

  17. Territorial intrusion risk and antipredator behaviour: a mathematical model.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Uriarte, R.

    2001-01-01

    In territorial animals that hide to avoid predators, a predatory attack creates a conflict because a hiding animal cannot defend its territory from conspecific intruders. When intruders are persistent, a past conspecific intrusion informs a territorial resident that future intrusions by the same animal are likely. Using a mathematical model, I examine the effects that past territorial intrusions can have on antipredator behaviour. Past territorial intrusions rarely affect a resident animal's ...

  18. An Intrusion Detection System Framework for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Singh; Surbhi Chauhan; Kamal Kant; Reshma Doknaia

    2012-01-01

    Secure and efficient communication among a set of mobile nodes is one of the most important aspects in ad-hoc wireless networks. Wireless networks are particularly vulnerable to intrusion, as they operate in open medium, and use cooperative strategies for network communications. By efficiently merging audit data from multiple network sensors, we analyze the entire ad hoc wireless network for intrusions and try to inhibit intrusion attempts. This paper presents an intrusion detection system fo...

  19. Petrology of the anorogenic, oxidised Jamon and Musa granites, Amazonian Craton: implications for the genesis of Proterozoic A-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Rämö, O. Tapani; de Magalhães, Marilia Sacramento; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano

    1999-03-01

    The 1.88 Ga Jamon and Musa granites are magnetite-bearing anorogenic, A-type granites of Paleoproterozoic age. They intrude the Archaean rocks of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrain in the eastern part of the Amazonian Craton in northern Brazil. A suite of biotite±amphibole monzogranite to syenogranite, with associated dacite porphyry (DP) and granite porphyry (GP) dykes, dominates in these subalkaline granites that vary from metaluminous to peraluminous and show high FeO/(FeO+MgO) and K 2O/Na 2O. In spite of their broad geochemical similarities, the Jamon and Musa granites show some significant differences in their REE patterns and in the behaviour of Y. The Jamon granites are related by fractional crystallisation of plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, biotite, magnetite±amphibole±apatite±ilmenite. Geochemical modelling and Nd isotopic data indicate that the Archaean granodiorites, trondhjemites and tonalites of the Rio Maria region are not the source of the Jamon Granite and associated dyke magmas. Archaean quartz diorites, differentiated from the mantle at least 1000 m.y. before the emplacement of the granites, have a composition adequate to generate DP and the hornblende-biotite monzogranite magmas by different degrees of partial melting. A larger extent of amphibole fractionation during the evolution of the Musa pluton can explain some of the observed differences between it and the Jamon pluton. The studied granites crystallised at relatively high fO 2 and are anorogenic magnetite-series granites. In this aspect, as well as concerning geochemical characteristics, they display many affinities with the Proterozoic A-type granites of south-western United States. The Jamon and Musa granites differ from the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite suites of north-eastern Canada and from the reduced rapakivi granites of the Fennoscandian Shield in several aspects, probably because of different magmatic sources.

  20. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2005 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2005 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, the age-1 and older fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Age-0 Chinook salmon are more difficult to distinguish between wild and non-adclipped hatchery fish and therefore classified as unknown rearing. The total annual hatchery spring/summer Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 0.34 times greater in 2005 than in 2004. The wild spring/summer Chinook catch was 0.34 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 0.67 times less than in 2004. Wild steelhead trout catch was 0.72 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 1,152 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2005, the Snake River trap captured 219 hatchery and 44 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 110 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on June 3. The trap was out of operation for a total of one day due to heavy debris. FPC requested that the trap be restarted on June 15 through June 22 to collect and PIT tag age-0 Chinook salmon. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 1.06 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.26 times greater than in 2004. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2005 was 1.41 times greater and wild steelhead trout collection was 1.27 times greater than the previous year. Trap operations

  1. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2004 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2004 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.1 times greater in 2004 than in 2003. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.2 times greater than in 2003. Wild steelhead trout catch was 1.6 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 978 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2004, the Snake River trap captured 23 hatchery and 18 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 60 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on June 4. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 10.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 19.0% less than in 2003. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2004 was 20.0% less and wild steelhead trout collection was 22.3% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on May 28 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because wild Chinook catch was very low, hatchery Chinook catch was very high, and the weekly quota of PIT tagged hatchery Chinook had been met. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km

  2. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The

  3. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2003 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2003 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 2.1 times less in 2003 than in 2002. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.7 times less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.1 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 579 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2003, the Snake River trap captured five hatchery and 13 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 36 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant differences in catch between 2003 and the previous year were due mainly to low flows during much of the trapping season and then very high flows at the end of the season, which terminated the trapping season 12 days earlier than in 2002. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 27. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 16.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.7 times greater than in 2002. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2003 was 5.6% less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout collection was 19.2% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 24 due to high

  4. Differences in reasons for smoking between younger and older smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, T P; Tilley, D; Gow, K

    1991-01-01

    The reasons why older people smoke have not been examined in the literature. This paper attempted to examine the differences in motivation and maintenance factors of elderly and young smokers using the Horn-Waingrow Why do you smoke questionnaire. One hundred and thirteen clinical patients and 112 non-patient controls were used in this study. The clinical group was divided into an elderly group (n = 58) and a younger group (n = 55). The results of a discriminant analysis showed that patients significantly differed from non-patients on 'automatic habit and stimulation', and 'crutch/tension reduction' factors. Elderly patients were found to be significantly differentiated from both younger patients and the control group on the 'pleasurable relaxation' factor. These findings offer support for the US Surgeon Generals' report that elderly smokers do have different motivating factors for their smoking behaviours from younger smokers.

  5. The uranium behaviour during rock-water interaction in the granites from the Itu complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil): a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helen S.B. da; Marques, Leila S.; Kawauchi, Roberto K., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.br, E-mail: keiji@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the process of uranium leaching due to the rock-water interaction in the granitic rocks from Itu Complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil), an experimental arrangement was developed and built. About 2.5kg of crushed rock fragments from Cabreuva and Indaiatuba Intrusions were maintained at room temperature within a glass flask filled with circulating water. The percolating water was removed periodically (from 10 to 30 days) for uranium analysis and then replaced by an equal volume of fresh water. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U, and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios, of the waters as well as of the granites. The results for both samples showed that most of the uranium is leached in the first days after the contact between rock and water. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios were significantly greater than unity, indicating radioactive disequilibrium between those isotopes, probably due to alpha recoil. Although the uranium activity concentrations in the water samples diminished with the increasing of time, it was not observed considerable variations of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios. It was also noticed that, the amount of leached uranium as well as the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios are characteristics of each sample submitted to leaching, reflecting the differences of the granite facies mineralogy.(author)

  6. Paleoproterozoic granitic gneisses of the Dinggye and LhagoiKangri areas from the higher and northern Himalaya,Tibet:Geochronology and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Granitic gneisses have been widely found in crystalline rocks in the Dinggye area of the Higher Himalaya (HHM) and the LhagoiKangri area of the North Himalaya (NHM), Tibet. In the HHM, the gneisses intruded in the granulite-amphibolite facies metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, known as Nyalam group. In the NHM, the gneisses intruded in the amphibolite facies metamorphosed ones, known as LhagoiKangri group. These granitic gneisses are peraluminous monzonitic granites in terms of their mineral assemblage, and are considered as being derived from metamorphosed sedimentary rocks by anatexis based on the transitional relationship of the gneisses with their migmatitized wall rocks. Zircons are similar in crystal shape and interior structure from both gneisses. Most of them are euhedral or subhedral elongated prism-shaped transparent crystals, with fine oscillatory zoning, showing the magmatic genesis. Some of them are short prism-shaped and with relict core inherited from magma source and oscillatory zoning mantle crystallized from magma. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zicons shows that both the granitic gneisses in the HHM and NHM are Paleoproterozoic (1811.6±2.9 Ma and 1811.7±7.2 Ma, respectively). These ages are similar to those (1815 to 2120 Ma) from granitic gneiss which is widely distributed in the Lesser Himalaya (LHM). The ages of inherited zircons (>2493.9±7.0 Ma, 2095.8± 8.8 Ma, 1874±29 Ma) exhibit the possible presence of several thermal events in Paleoproterozoic. All of the ages suggest the same India basement beneath the different units in Himalaya area, and do not support the idea that the HHM and NHM are accretionary terranes in Pan-Africa orogenic event. The fact that the basement in HHM is as old as or even younger than LHM is inconsistent with the presently prevalent orogenic models such as either extrusion of low-viscosity mid-crust or orogenic channel.

  7. Anisotropy of Pore Structure and Permeability in Granite: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, C. T.; Shimizu, I.; Mizoguchi, K.; Uehara, S.; Shimamoto, T.

    2001-12-01

    The permeability of rocks is sensitive to pore structures. In fault zones where brittle deformation dominates, connectivity of cracks is perhaps the most important factor to control the fluid permeability. The relationship between microstructure, porosity-pore structures and permeability were investigated, using drill core samples from the Toki Granite in Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan. Core samples taken from a borehole penetrating a fault strand of the Tsukiyoshi Fault at the depth of 700 m were used for analysis and measurements. The Toki Granite shows textural variations. For example, away from the fault zone, the granite is fresh, massive biotite granite. Toward the fault the granitic texture is largely destroyed, reflecting deformation due to fault movement, with extensive fracturing and development of calcite veins. The central part of the fault zone constitutes foliated ultra-cataclasites with a fine grained matrix. Microstructural observations indicate that fragmentation of crystals is the cause of grain size reduction in the fault zone and anisotropy in micro-crack development. The effective porosity of bulk samples measured by Helium pycnometer varies from 0.54% for unaltered fresh granite to over 5.4% for foliated cataclasite from the central part of the fault zone. The pore structures of the granite samples were visualized by the Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM). The samples were impregnated with low viscosity fluorescent resin under vacuum condition, and then observed by the LSM. Quasi 3-D images of pore structures were constructed from optical slices (confocal images) of thick sections. Micro-cracks in granites were successfully filled with the fluorescent resin. Micro-cracks were mainly observed at grain boundaries, and the intra and inter granular fractures. Permeability measurements were performed by a High Pressure Temperature (HPT) gas apparatus using the pore oscillation technique. Confining pressure was increased and then decreased in the range

  8. Substance Use Trends among Younger vs. Older Homeless Parolees

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa; Marshall, Lori; Idemundia, Faith; Mata, Ray; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Farabee, David; Leake, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study of 540 homeless ex-offenders exiting prisons and jails assessed sociodemographic, childhood and drug-related differences. Older ex-offenders from prison were more likely to have been married, come from a two-parent family and used crack while younger ex-offenders were more likely to have used methamphetamine. Older ex-offenders from jail were more likely to be African-American, have children, and report a history of crack and injection drug use, while those younger ...

  9. Prevalence of dry methods in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Margaret L; Johnson, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Granite countertop fabricators are at risk of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, which may cause silicosis and other lung conditions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of exposure control methods, especially wet methods, in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma to assess how many workers might be at risk of overexposure to crystalline silica in this industry. Granite fabrication shops in the three largest metropolitan areas in Oklahoma were enumerated, and 47 of the 52 shops participated in a survey on fabrication methods. Countertop shops were small businesses with average work forces of fewer than 10 employees. Ten shops (21%) reported using exclusively wet methods during all fabrication steps. Thirty-five shops (74%) employing a total of about 200 workers reported using dry methods all or most of the time in at least one fabrication step. The tasks most often performed dry were edge profiling (17% of shops), cutting of grooves for reinforcing rods (62% of shops), and cutting of sink openings (45% of shops). All shops reported providing either half-face or full-face respirators for use during fabrication, but none reported doing respirator fit testing. Few shops reported using any kind of dust collection system. These findings suggest that current consumer demand for granite countertops is giving rise to a new wave of workers at risk of silicosis due to potential overexposure to granite dust. PMID:22650974

  10. A study of strontium and cesium sorption on granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion and sorption of cesium and strontium in crushed granite particles is discussed. Sorption experiments have been performed with one granite from Finnsjoen outside Forsmark on the east coast of Sweden and one granite from the Stripa mine in central Sweden. Granite samples have been crushed and screened, and six different particle size fractions from 0.10-0.12 mm to 4-5 mm of each rock have been used in the experiments. The initial concentrations of inactive cesium and strontium were 10-15 ppm. The experimental data indicate that the amount of sorption is dependent not only on the mass of granite particles, but also to some extent on the size of the particles. An attempt has been made to distinguish between sorption on external surfaces and inner surfaces. The amount of external surface adsorption was found to vary from 15-40 % of the total adsorption capacity for the particle size fraction 0.10-0.12 mm to a few percent or less for the largest particles used. (Auth.)

  11. Uranium distribution in Brazilian granitic rocks. Identification of uranium provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research characterized and described uranium enriched granitoids in Brazil. They occur in a variety of tectonic environments and are represented by a variety granite types of distinct ages. It may be deduced that in general they have been generated by partial melting process of continental crust. However, some of them, those with tonality composition, indicate a contribution from mantle derived materials, thus suggesting primary uranium enrichment from the upper mantle. Through this study, the identification and characterization of uranium enriched granite or uranium provinces in Brazil can be made. This may also help identify areas with potential for uranium mineralization although it has been note that uranium mineralization in Brazil are not related to the uranium enrichment process. In general the U-anomalous granitoids are composed of granites with alkaline composition and granite ''sensu strictu'' which comprise mainly of syenites, quartz-syenites and biotite-hornblende granites, with ages between 1,800 - 1,300 M.a. The U-anomalous belongings to this period present high Sr initial ratios values, above 0.706, and high Rb contents. Most of the U-enriched granitoids occur within ancient cratonic areas, or within Early to Mid-Proterozoic mobile belts, but after their cratonization. Generally, these granitoids are related to the border zones of the mobile belts or deep crustal discontinuity. Refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Derivation of S and Pb in phanerozoic intrusion-related metal deposits from neoproterozoic sedimentary pyrite, Great Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, P.G.; Poulson, S.R.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    The thick (???8 km), regionally extensive section of Neoproterozoic siliciclastic strata (terrigenous detrital succession, TDS) in the central and eastern Great Basin contains sedimentary pyrite characterized by mostly high d34S values (-11.6 to 40.8%, isotopes ( 207Pb/204Pb Precambrian cratonal rocks to the east-southeast. In the overlying Paleozoic section, Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Au deposits associated with Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary granitic intrusions (intrusion-related metal deposits) contain galena and other sulfide minerals with S and Pb isotope compositions similar to those of TDS sedimentary pyrite, consistent with derivation of deposit S and Pb from TDS pyrite. Minor element abundances in TDS pyrite (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Au) compared to sedimentary and hydrothermal pyrite elsewhere are not noticeably elevated, implying that enrichment in source minerals is not a precondition for intrusion-related metal deposits. Three mechanisms for transferring components of TDS sedimentary pyrite to intrusion-related metal deposits are qualitatively evaluated. One mechanism involves (1) decomposition of TDS pyrite in thermal aureoles of intruding magmas, and (2) aqueous transport and precipitation in thermal or fluid mixing gradients of isotopically heavy S, radiogenic Pb, and possibly other sedimentary pyrite and detrital mineral components, as sulfide minerals in intrusion-related metal deposits. A second mechanism invokes mixing and S isotope exchange in thermal aureoles of Pb and S exsolved from magma and derived from decomposition of sedimentary pyrite. A third mechanism entails melting of TDS strata or assimilation of TDS strata by crustal or mantle magmas. TDS-derived or assimilated magmas ascend, decompress, and exsolve a mixture of TDS volatiles, including isotopically heavy S and radiogenic Pb from sedimentary pyrite, and volatiles acquired from deeper crustal or mantle sources. In the central and eastern Great Basin, the wide distribution and high density

  13. Age and weathering status of granite tors in Arctic Finland (~ 68° N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, R. G.; Thorn, C. E.; Seppälä, M.; Campbell, S. W.; Li, Y. K.; Harbor, J.

    2008-02-01

    progressed to a stage where recent lichen growth is overwhelmed by the long weathering history. Other measures of weathering, including total elemental analyses, did not detect significant differences among at-a-site samples, perhaps because all samples are highly weathered and we did not have a sample of unweathered granite for comparison. All samples, rock, grus, and soil were within the grus weathering range as indicated by chemical weathering indices. The soil forming adjacent to the tor at Riestovaara exhibited only slight development despite the great apparent age of the landscape. The regolith in which the soil is forming must therefore be much younger than the exposed bedrock and most likely represents a post-deglaciation accumulation of grus spanning only the last 9 kyr.

  14. SHRIMP Zircon U-Pb Dating of Gabbro and Granite from the Huashan Ophiolite, Qinling Orogenic Belt, China: Neoproterozoic Suture on the Northern Margin of the Yangtze Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yuruo; LIU Dunyi; ZHANG Zongqing; MIAO Laicheng; ZHANG Fuqin; XUE Hongmei

    2007-01-01

    The recently identified Huashan ophiolitic mélange was considered as the eastern part of the Mianliie suture in the Qinling orogenic belt. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology on gabbro from the Huashan ophiolite and granite intruding basic volcanic rocks indicates crystallization ages of 947±14Ma and 876±17 Ma respectively. These ages do not support a recently proposed Hercynian Huashan Ocean, but rather favor that a Neoproterozoic suture assemblage (ophiolite) is incorporated into the younger (Phanerozoic) Qinling orogenic belt.

  15. An Atmospheric Dry Intrusion Parameter and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Donghai; YANG Shuai

    2010-01-01

    Dry intrusion plays an important role in the explosive development of cyclones and the evolution of cold fronts. Characteristics of dry intrusion during a rainfall event that occurred in northern China are analyzed in detail in this paper. The IM (ingredients-based methodology) developed by Doswell et al. in 1996 and Wetzel and Martin in 2001 is utilized. All the physical representations of dry intrusion defined in the past studies, such as low relative humidity, cold advection, and high potential vorticity (on either isobaric or isentropic surfaces), are combined into a simple and convenient physical parameter to characterize dry intrusion. This is a new attempt to extend the IM that was primarily applied to research on heavy rainfall to the study of dry intrusion. The new dry intrusion parameter is used to analyze the isentropic evolution of dry intrusion during the rainfall event. The results show that this parameter can better quantify the intensity of dry intrusion and diagnose its evolution shown in satellite infrared and water vapor imageries. It is found that dry intrusion maintains during the rainfall period. The intensity of precipitation increases with the increasing dry intrusion, which has pushed the rainy region southeastward. From the results on the isentropic surface and the corresponding isobaric surface, it is inferred that the analyses of dry intrusion on both surfaces are consistent with each other. The isentropic analysis of dry intrusion reveals that cold and dry air at the upper level overruns that in the lower troposphere where moist and warm air is located. Thus, potential instability is built up in the vertical direction, which favors the occurrence of precipitation. In practice, we may identify dry intrusion regions by tracking strong signals of the dry intrusion parameter, and further identify the instability near the dry intrusion regions. This will aid in improving the accuracy of precipitation forecast.

  16. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  17. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  18. Radioactivity concentrations in soils of the Xiazhuang granite area, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radioactivity of soils at the Xiazhuang granite massif of Southern China has been studied. The radioactivities of 55 samples have been measured with a low-background HPGe detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U and 40K ranged from 40.2 to 442 and from 442 to 913Bq/kg, respectively, while the radioactivity concentration of 232Th varied only slightly. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D-bar ), the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (Hex) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in a granite area, specifically, the area in the vicinity of a uranium mine in Southern China. The data can be used in exploring granite-type uranium deposits

  19. GRANITE CUTTING WASTE: TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION FOR THE FINAL DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joner Oliveira Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The granite processing market is one of the most promising business areas of the mineral sector, with an average growth of the world production of about 6% per year. The granite extraction generates residues in the form of powder rock of 20-25 wt.% of the total benefited. The granite dust must be carefully managed since it can cause siltation of rivers and human health risks. This paper presents two routes for the final destination of this waste: the vitrification process aiming the production of fibers for thermo-acoustic insulation, and the magnetic separation in order to recover the steel grit. Results showed that the forms of treatments presented are economically and ecologically viable since they represent a cost reduction in the waste disposal, and also provide the production of new materials with commercial value.

  20. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  1. Media use by children younger than 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a policy statement addressing media use in children. The purpose of that statement was to educate parents about the effects that media--both the amount and the content--may have on children. In one part of that statement, the AAP recommended that "pediatricians should urge parents to avoid television viewing for children under the age of two years." The wording of the policy specifically discouraged media use in this age group, although it is frequently misquoted by media outlets as no media exposure in this age group. The AAP believed that there were significantly more potential negative effects of media than positive ones for this age group and, thus, advised families to thoughtfully consider media use for infants. This policy statement reaffirms the 1999 statement with respect to media use in infants and children younger than 2 years and provides updated research findings to support it. This statement addresses (1) the lack of evidence supporting educational or developmental benefits for media use by children younger than 2 years, (2) the potential adverse health and developmental effects of media use by children younger than 2 years, and (3) adverse effects of parental media use (background media) on children younger than 2 years.

  2. Memory Dynamics and Decision Making in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, M. Teresa; Gomez-Ariza, Carlos J.; Iglesias-Parro, Sergio; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to study whether memory dynamics influence older people's choices to the same extent as younger's ones. To do so, we adapted the retrieval-practice paradigm to produce variations in memory accessibility of information on which decisions were made later. Based on previous results, we expected to observe…

  3. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  4. The Experiences of the Younger Supervisor: Implications for Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lea

    2012-01-01

    With four generations in today's workforce, roles are being redefined to include a growing number of younger supervisor/older subordinate relationships, referred to as the intergenerational dyad. What current and limited literature exists about the intergenerational dyad exclusively addresses the issues of generational workplace differences…

  5. Geologic Mapping in Nogal Peak Quadrangle: Geochemistry, Intrusive Relations and Mineralization in the Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, F.; Kelley, S. A.; Lawrence, J. R.; Cikowski, C. T.; Krier, D. J.; Goff, C. J.; McLemore, V. T.

    2011-12-01

    Nogal Peak quadrangle is located in the northern Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex (SBIC) and contains most of the White Mountain Wilderness (geologic map is available at http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/publications/maps/geologic/ofgm/details.cfml?Volume=134). The geology of the quad consists of a late Eocene to Oligocene volcanic pile (Sierra Blanca Volcanics, mostly alkali basalt to trachyte) intruded by a multitude of dikes, plugs and three stocks: Rialto, 31.4 Ma (mostly syenite), Three Rivers, ca. 29 to 27 Ma (quartz syenite intruded by subordinate alkali granite), and Bonito Lake, 26.6 Ma (mostly monzonite). Three Rivers stock is partially surrounded by alkali rhyolites that geochemically resemble the alkali granites. The circular shape of the stock and surrounding rhyolites suggests they form the root of a probable caldera. SBIC rocks have compositions typical of those found within the Rocky Mountain alkaline belt and those associated with continental rift zone magmatism. Because the volcanic host rocks are deeply eroded, intrusive relations with the stocks are well exposed. Most contacts at stock margins are near vertical. Roof pendants are common near some contacts and stoped blocks up to 700 m long are found within the Three Rivers stock. Contacts, pendants and stoped blocks generally display some combination of hornfelsing, brecciation, fracturing, faulting and mineralization. Sierra Blanca Volcanics display hydrothermal alteration increasing from argillic in the NW sector of the quad to high-temperature porpylitic near stock margins. Retrograde phyllic alteration occurs within breccia pipes and portions of the stocks. Mineral deposits consist of four types: Placer Au, fissure veins (mostly Ag-Pb-Zn±Au), breccia pipes (Au-Mo-Cu), and porphyry Mo-Cu. A singular pipe on the SW margin of Bonito Lake stock contains sapphire-lazulite-alunite. Although Au has been intermittently mined in the quad since 1865, best production of Au originated around the turn of the last

  6. A Comprehensive Study in Data Mining Frameworks for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Venkatesan, R. Ganesan, A. Arul Lawrence Selvakumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on expanding every day. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration. Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management, Education, Science, Business, Manufacturing, Process control, and Fraud Detection. Data Mining for IDS is the technique which can be used mainly to identify unknown attacks and to raise alarms when security violations are detected. The purpose of this survey paper is to describe the methods/ techniques which are being used for Intrusion Detection based on Data mining concepts and the designed frame works for the same. We are also going to review the related works for intrusion detection.

  7. ISDTM:An Intrusion Signatures Description Temporal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OuYangMing-guang; ZhouYang-bo

    2003-01-01

    ISDTM, based on an augmented Allen's interval temporal logic (ITL) and first-order predicate calculus, is a formal temporal model for representing intrusion signatures.It is augmented with some real time extensions which enhance the expressivity. Intrusion scenarios usually are the set of events and system states, wherethe temporal sequence is their basic relation. Intrusion signatures description, therefore, is to represent such temporal relations in a sense. While representing these signatures, ISDTM decomposes the intrusion process into the sequence of events according to their relevant intervals, and then specifies network states in these Intervals. The uncertain intrusion signatures as well as basic temporal modes of events, which consist of the parallel mode,the sequential mode and the hybrid mode, can be succinctly and naturally represented in ISDTM. Mode chart is the visualization of intrusion signatures in ISDTM, which makes the formulas more readable. The intrusion signatures descriptions in ISDTM have advantages of compact construct, concise syntax, scalability and easy implementation.

  8. Oxidized, magnetite-series, rapakivi-type granites of Carajás, Brazil: Implications for classification and petrogenesis of A-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Roberto; de Oliveira, Davis Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    The varying geochemical and petrogenetic nature of A-type granites is a controversial issue. The oxidized, magnetite-series A-type granites, defined by Anderson and Bender [Anderson, J.L., Bender, E.E., 1989. Nature and origin of Proterozoic A-type granitic magmatism in the southwestern United States of America. Lithos 23, 19-52.], are the most problematic as they do not strictly follow the original definition of A-type granites, and approach calc-alkaline and I-type granites in some aspects. The oxidized Jamon suite A-type granites of the Carajás province of the Amazonian craton are compared with the magnetite-series granites of Laurentia, and other representative A-type granites, including Finnish rapakivi and Lachlan Fold Belt A-type granites, as well as with calc-alkaline, I-type orogenic granites. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of different groups of A-types granites are discussed with an emphasis on oxidized A-type granites in order to define their geochemical signatures and to clarify the processes involved in their petrogenesis. Oxidized A-type granites are clearly distinguished from calc-alkaline Cordilleran granites not only regarding trace element composition, as previously demonstrated, but also in their major element geochemistry. Oxidized A-type granites have high whole-rock FeO t/(FeO t + MgO), TiO 2/MgO, and K 2O/Na 2O and low Al 2O 3 and CaO compared to calc-alkaline granites. The contrast of Al 2O 3 contents in these two granite groups is remarkable. The CaO/(FeO t + MgO + TiO 2) vs. CaO + Al 2O 3 and CaO/(FeO t + MgO + TiO 2) vs. Al 2O 3 diagrams are proposed to distinguish A-type and calc-alkaline granites. Whole-rock FeO t/(FeO t + MgO) and the FeO t/(FeO t + MgO) vs. Al 2O 3 and FeO t/(FeO t + MgO) vs. Al 2O 3/(K 2O/Na 2O) diagrams are suggested for discrimination of oxidized and reduced A-type granites. Experimental data indicate that, besides pressure, the nature of A-type granites is dependent of ƒO 2 conditions and the water content

  9. Granite microcracks: Structure and connectivity at different depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fan; Dong, Yan-Hui; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Wang, Li-Heng; Tong, Shao-Qing; Duan, Rui-Qi

    2016-07-01

    Granite is one rock type used to host high-level radioactive waste repositories, and the structure of microcracks in the rock can influence its hydraulic characteristics. Thus, a quantitative analysis of granite microcracks is relevant for understanding the hydrogeological characteristics of the rocks surrounding geological repositories. The analysis can also contribute scientific data to a seepage model for low permeability rocks and materials with microscopic pores. In this study, seven granite core samples were drilled from different depths up to 600 m in Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China. Using a grid survey method and image processing technology, micrographs were converted into binary images of microcracks. The geometric parameters of the microcracks, including their quantity, width, cranny ratio, crack intersections and dimensional parameters of the fracture network, were analyzed in order to fully describe their spatial distribution. In addition, the morphological characteristics and elemental compositions of the microcracks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS), and the natural moisture content was also determined through heated. Finally, two-dimensional microcrack network seepage models of the granite samples were simulated using the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which revealed the influence of the microcrack structure on their connectivity. The results show that the growth and development of microcracks in the granite samples generally decreases as sampling depth increases in this study area. Connectivity is positively correlated with a number of the geometric parameters: the quantity of microcracks, the cranny ratio, the number of crack intersections and dimensional parameters of the fracture network, which is revealed in the two-dimensional microcrack network seepage models for these granite samples.

  10. Assessing exposure to granite countertops--Part 1: Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Theodore A; Allen, Joseph G; Minegishi, Taeko; McCarthy, William B; Stewart, James H; Macintosh, David L; McCarthy, John F

    2010-05-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Known sources include radon, soil, cosmic rays, medical treatment, food, and building products such as gypsum board and concrete. Little information exists about radiation emissions and associated doses from natural stone finish materials such as granite countertops in homes. To address this knowledge gap, gross radioactivity, gamma ray activity, and dose rate were determined for slabs of granite marketed for use as countertops. Annual effective radiation doses were estimated from measured dose rates and human activity patterns while accounting for the geometry of granite countertops in a model kitchen. Gross radioactivity, gamma activity, and dose rate varied significantly among and within slabs of granite with ranges for median levels at the slab surface of ND to 3000 cpm, ND to 98,000 cpm, and ND to 1.5E-4 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of the (40)K, (232)Th, and (226)Ra series were 2715, 231, and 450 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated annual radiation dose from spending 4 h/day in a hypothetical kitchen ranged from 0.005 to 0.18 mSv/a depending on the type of granite. In summary, our results show that the types of granite characterized in this study contain varying levels of radioactive isotopes and that their observed emissions are consistent with those reported in the scientific literature. We also conclude from our analyses that these emissions are likely to be a minor source of external radiation dose when used as countertop material within the home and present a negligible risk to human health. PMID:19707248

  11. Multilayer Statistical Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Boudriga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid proliferation of mobile applications and services has introduced new vulnerabilities that do not exist in fixed wired networks. Traditional security mechanisms, such as access control and encryption, turn out to be inefficient in modern wireless networks. Given the shortcomings of the protection mechanisms, an important research focuses in intrusion detection systems (IDSs. This paper proposes a multilayer statistical intrusion detection framework for wireless networks. The architecture is adequate to wireless networks because the underlying detection models rely on radio parameters and traffic models. Accurate correlation between radio and traffic anomalies allows enhancing the efficiency of the IDS. A radio signal fingerprinting technique based on the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT is developed. Moreover, a geometric clustering algorithm is presented. Depending on the characteristics of the fingerprinting technique, the clustering algorithm permits to control the false positive and false negative rates. Finally, simulation experiments have been carried out to validate the proposed IDS.

  12. A Survey on VANET Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ERRITALI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the security issues on Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have become one of the primary concerns. The VANET is inherently very vulnerable to attacks than wired network because it is characterized by high mobility, shared wireless medium and the absence of centralized security services offered by dedicated equipment such as firewalls and authentication servers. Attackcountermeasures such as digital signature and encryption, can be used as the first line of defense for reducing the possibilities of attacks. However, these techniques have limited prevention in general, and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to avoid most recent attacks that are designed to circumvent existing security measures. For this reason, there is a need of second technique to “detect and notify” these newer attacks, i.e. “intrusion detection”. This article aims to present and classifycurrent techniques of Intrusion Detection System (IDS aware VANETs.

  13. A Microcontroller Based Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewunonu Toochi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A Microcontroller based Intrusion Detection System is designed and implemented. Rampant, Okintrusion to restricted zones have highlighted the need for embedded systems that can effectively monitor, instantly alert personnel of any breach in security and retrieve graphic evidence of any such activity in the secured area. At the heart of the intrusion detection system is the PIC 168F77A Microcontroller that transmits pulses at 38 KHz. It is suitably interfaced to a GSM modem that can send SMS on sight of infringement and a webcam that can take snapshots. The report also presents the system software which has been developed in two parts: one in C++ Language using MPLAB KIT and the other written in AT COMMAND resident in the GSM modem. The system is very cost-effective, uses easily available components and is adaptable to control systems.

  14. Sensing Danger: Innate Immunology for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Uwe, Aickelin

    2008-01-01

    The immune system provides an ideal metaphor for anomaly detection in general and computer security in particular. Based on this idea, artificial immune systems have been used for a number of years for intrusion detection, unfortunately so far with little success. However, these previous systems were largely based on immunological theory from the 1970s and 1980s and over the last decade our understanding of immunological processes has vastly improved. In this paper we present two new immune inspired algorithms based on the latest immunological discoveries, such as the behaviour of Dendritic Cells. The resultant algorithms are applied to real world intrusion problems and show encouraging results. Overall, we believe there is a bright future for these next generation artificial immune algorithms.

  15. An immune based dynamic intrusion detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    With the dynamic description method for self and antigen, and the concept of dynamic immune tolerance for lymphocytes in network-security domain presented in this paper, a new immune based dynamic intrusion detection model (Idid) is proposed. In Idid, the dynamic models and the corresponding recursive equations of the lifecycle of mature lymphocytes, and the immune memory are built. Therefore, the problem of the dynamic description of self and nonself in computer immune systems is solved, and the defect of the low efficiency of mature lymphocyte generating in traditional computer immune systems is overcome. Simulations of this model are performed, and the comparison experiment results show that the proposed dynamic intrusion detection model has a better adaptability than the traditional methods.

  16. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.; Barfod, Gry;

    crystallization on non-traditional stable isotope systems, particularly iron. FeTi oxide minerals (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) appear after ~60% of the magma had solidified. This was a significant event affecting the liquid line of descent and potentially accompanied by iron isotope fractionation. Here we...... report the results of a broad study of the iron isotope compositions of gabbros within the layered and upper border series of the Skaergaard intrusion, pegmatite and granophyre associated with these gabbroic rocks, and the sandwich horizon thought to represent the product of extreme differentiation and....../or liquid immiscibility. Forty-eight whole rock samples from well-constrained stratigraphic levels in the intrusion were crushed, powdered and dissolved, followed by iron separation by ion chromatography. Purified solutions were analyzed by MC- ICPMS in high-resolution mode using the sample-std bracket...

  17. A Survey on Intrusion Detection in MANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BakeyaLakshmi, P.; Santhi, K.

    2012-10-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructureless network that changes its links dynamically, which makes routing in MANET a difficult process. As Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) has become a very important technology, research concerning its security problem, especially, in intrusion detection has attracted many researchers. Feature selection methodology plays a vital role in the data analysis process. PCA is used to analyze the selected features. This is because, redundant and irrelevant features often reduce performance of the intrusion detection system. It performs better in increasing speed and predictive accuracy. This survey aims to select and analyze the network features using principal component analysis. While performing various experiments, normal and attack states are simulated and the results for the selected features are analyzed.

  18. Nature and time of emplacement of a pegmatoidal granite within the Delhi Fold Belt near Bayalan, Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, N.; Sen, J.; Pal, T.; Ghosh, T.

    2009-04-01

    silicate gneisses of the Bhim Group have been deformed by three major phases of folding, namely D1, D2 and D3. Of these the D1 folds defined by transposed compositional layering are intrafolial and isoclinal in nature. The D2 folds are asymmetric with alternate steeply and gently easterly dipping limbs and are defined by compositional banding and schistosity (S1). A good compositional layering parallel to the S2 fabric has been observed within the calc silicate gneisses. The D2 folds are close to tight, gently plunging with a modal plunge of 20o towards 40o; and has an inclined axial plane which has an easterly vergence. This is the most dominant phase of deformation. The D3 folds have developed on the gentle limbs of the D2 folds with a horizontal axis on a vertical axial plane. Interference of the D1 with D2 and D1 with D3 has produced Type III type of interference pattern. The pegmatitic granite body is a coarse grained rock composed of quartz feldspar (dominantly K-feldspar), muscovite, biotite, and tourmaline. A weak foliation has developed within this rock which is parallel to the D3 axial planar structure found within the calc silicate gneisses. Thus from the structural study it is proposed that the pegmatitic granite was emplaced post-D2 and possibly syn D3. The presence of narrow planar zones of hornfelsic rocks parallel to the D3 axial plane within the calc silicate rocks also attests to the above fact. Therefore the D3 axial planes provided the necessary conduits of the granite fluid movement within the calcsilicate rocks. The intrusions have scaled off the calc silicate gneisses into large continuous pieces along the gneissosity plane and got emplaced along the hinges of the D2 and D3 folds. Though disturbed, it has been seen that the orientation of the structural elements within these ripped off blocks of the calc silicate gneisses were quite similar to those found within the ridges, unaffected by the granite. The granites were thus emplaced lit-par-lit in the

  19. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

    2009-08-15

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be

  20. INTRUSIVE MARKETING METHODS A CONTEMPORARY CONSUMER PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Owais, Faizan

    2008-01-01

    Is marketing practice destroying the faith of consumers? It may be argued that marketing practice over recent years has taken a more direct approach that appears intrusive and manipulative to consumers. The marketing activities we see today are a desperate attempt to grab consumer attention in any way possible and it is all spelling out bad news for marketing. Marketers have been faced with many challenges, with markets at saturation point, competitiveness is on the rise and marketers are...

  1. Intrusion Detection in High-Speed Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Riegel, Martin; Walsø, Claes Lyth

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates methods for implementing an intrusion detection system (IDS) in a high-speed backbone network. The work presented in this report is run in cooperation with Kripos and Uninett. The popular IDS software, Snort, is deployed and tested in Uninett's backbone network. In addition, the monitoring API (MAPI) is considered as a possible IDS implementation in the same environment. The experiments conducted in this report make use of the programmable DAG card, which is a passive...

  2. USBcat - Towards an Intrusion Surveillance Toolset

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Chris; Knight, Scott; Dean, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies an intrusion surveillance framework which provides an analyst with the ability to investigate and monitor cyber-attacks in a covert manner. Where cyber-attacks are perpetrated for the purposes of espionage the ability to understand an adversary's techniques and objectives are an important element in network and computer security. With the appropriate toolset, security investigators would be permitted to perform both live and stealthy counter-intelligence operations by ob...

  3. Active Intrusion Detection for Wireless Multihop Networks

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo, Rodrigo Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on network security and introduces an active-probing technique for intrusion detection in wireless multihop networks. Wireless networks have been the revolution of personal communications of the past decades. Millions of devices with wireless capabilities are sold to end customers every year: smartphones that enable access to the Internet almost everywhere, computers with wireless connections, personal watches, sports shoes, digital cameras, and even lenses with wirel...

  4. Numerical Simulation of Rigid Projectile's Normally Penetrating into Granite Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德志; 张向荣; 林俊德; 唐润棣

    2004-01-01

    The process of penetrating into granite was simulated by using program LS-DYNA3D. The granite was represented by the isotropic elastic-plastic model with failure criterion and the projectile was modeled by rigid model. The depth of penetration from simulations is identical with experiments. Penetration deceleration vs striking velocity was acquired at the same time, which can assist in the design of penetration weapons with payload and fuse. Through numerical simulation, that material model is considered with straightforward physical meaning, a few parameters which can be determined easily are more practical for engineering calculation along with experiments.

  5. Comorbidities and crash involvement among younger and older drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Papa

    Full Text Available Previous studies identified comorbidities as predictors of older driver performance and driving pattern, while the direct impact of comorbidities on road crash risk in elderly drivers is still unknown. The present study is a cross-sectional aimed at investigating the association between levels of comorbidity and crash involvement in adult and elderly drivers. 327 drivers were stratified according to age range in two groups: elderly drivers (age ≥70 years old, referred as older and adult drivers (age <70 years old, referred as younger. Driving information was obtained through a driving questionnaire. Distance traveled was categorized into low, medium and high on the basis of kilometers driven in a year. CIRS-illness severity (IS and CIRS-comorbidity indices (CI in all populations were calculated. Older drivers had a significantly higher crash involvements rate (p = .045 compared with the younger group based on the number of licensed drivers. Dividing comorbidity indices into tertiles among all licensed subjects, the number of current drivers significantly decreased (p<.0001 with increasing level of comorbidity. The number of current drivers among older subjects significantly decreased with increasing comorbidity level (p = .026 while no difference among younger group was found (p = .462. Among younger drivers with increasing comorbidity level, the number of road accidents significantly increased (p = .048 and the logistic regression analysis showed that comorbidity level significantly associated with crash involvement independent of gender and driving exposure. Older subjects with high level of comorbidity are able to self-regulate driving while comorbidity burden represents a significant risk factor for crash involvements among younger drivers.

  6. Comorbidities and Crash Involvement among Younger and Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Michela; Boccardi, Virginia; Prestano, Raffaele; Angellotti, Edith; Desiderio, Manuela; Marano, Luigi; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies identified comorbidities as predictors of older driver performance and driving pattern, while the direct impact of comorbidities on road crash risk in elderly drivers is still unknown. The present study is a cross-sectional aimed at investigating the association between levels of comorbidity and crash involvement in adult and elderly drivers. 327 drivers were stratified according to age range in two groups: elderly drivers (age ≥70 years old, referred as older) and adult drivers (age <70 years old, referred as younger). Driving information was obtained through a driving questionnaire. Distance traveled was categorized into low, medium and high on the basis of kilometers driven in a year. CIRS-illness severity (IS) and CIRS-comorbidity indices (CI) in all populations were calculated. Older drivers had a significantly higher crash involvements rate (p = .045) compared with the younger group based on the number of licensed drivers. Dividing comorbidity indices into tertiles among all licensed subjects, the number of current drivers significantly decreased (p<.0001) with increasing level of comorbidity. The number of current drivers among older subjects significantly decreased with increasing comorbidity level (p = .026) while no difference among younger group was found (p = .462). Among younger drivers with increasing comorbidity level, the number of road accidents significantly increased (p = .048) and the logistic regression analysis showed that comorbidity level significantly associated with crash involvement independent of gender and driving exposure. Older subjects with high level of comorbidity are able to self-regulate driving while comorbidity burden represents a significant risk factor for crash involvements among younger drivers. PMID:24722619

  7. Clinical Analysis of Lung Cancer Patients Younger Than 30 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjie HOU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is common recognized that young patients of lung cancer have poor prognosis due to relatively higher malignancy and more invasive growth. In the past most studies on young patients of lung cancer selected patients younger than 40 or 45 years old, and there were few clinical materials for younger patients under 30 years. This study retrospectively described the the disease history, stage, treatment and pathology features of lung cancer patients younger than 30 years and aimed to provide references for these patients. Methods Those patients younger than 30 years, once admitted in the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army for lung cancer from 1993 to date, were sought in medical record system, and 53 patients were found in total. In this group, there were 34 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and 19 small cell lung cacer (SCLC patients. The male/female ratio was 1.5:1. In the NSCLC patients, there were 27 adenocarcinomas, 6 squamous carcinomas and 1 adenosquamous carcinoma, with no large cell carcinoma involved. In these patients, 12 patients received operations while 38 patients got chemo- and/or radiotherapy and 3 quited any treatment. Results There was no death in hospital, however, in the 12 patients who got operation, only 8 patients got complete resection while 4 patients got palliative resection. Conclusion Lung cancer patients younger than 30 years had a high fraction of adenocarcinoma and small cell type pathologically and most of them were in late stage when presenting with symptoms in hospital and would have a dismal prognosis. The routine health examination and early diagnosis should be emphasized to improve the prognosis of these patients.

  8. A BOOSTING APPROACH FOR INTRUSION DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zan Xin; Han Jiuqiang; Zhang Junjie; Zheng Qinghua; Han Chongzhao

    2007-01-01

    Intrusion detection can be essentially regarded as a classification problem,namely,distinguishing normal profiles from intrusive behaviors.This paper introduces boosting classification algorithm into the area of intrusion detection to learn attack signatures.Decision tree algorithm is used as simple base learner of boosting algorithm.Furthermore,this paper employs the Principle Component Analysis(PCA)approach,an effective data reduction approach,to extract the key attribute set from the original high-dimensional network traffic data.KDD CUP 99 data set is used in these exDeriments to demonstrate that boosting algorithm can greatly improve the clas.sification accuracy of weak learners by combining a number of simple"weak learners".In our experiments,the error rate of training phase of boosting algorithm is reduced from 30.2%to 8%after 10 iterations.Besides,this Daper also compares boosting algorithm with Support Vector Machine(SVM)algorithm and shows that the classification accuracy of boosting algorithm is little better than SVM algorithm's.However,the generalization ability of SVM algorithm is better than boosting algorithm.

  9. Artificial Intrusion Detection Techniques: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Gupta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Networking has become the most integral part of our cyber society. Everyone wants to connect themselves with each other. With the advancement of network technology, we find this most vulnerable to breach and take information and once information reaches to the wrong hands it can do terrible things. During recent years, number of attacks on networks have been increased which drew the attention of many researchers on this field. There have been many researches on intrusion detection lately. Many methods have been devised which are really very useful but they can only detect the attacks which already took place. These methods will always fail whenever there is a foreign attack which is not famous or which is new to the networking world. In order to detect new intrusions in the network, researchers have devised artificial intelligence technique for Intrusion detection prevention system. In this paper we are going to cover what types evolutionary techniques have been devised and their significance and modification.

  10. Testing Of Network Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeep Vegunta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Network based intrusion detection system use the models of attacks to identify intrusive behavior ability of systems to detect attacks by quality of models which are called signatures. Some attacks exploits in different ways. For this reason we use testing tools that able to detect goodness of signatures. This technique describes test and evaluate misuse detection models in the case of network-based intrusion detection systems. we use Mutant Exploits are working against vulnerability applications. This mutant exploit is based on mechanism to generate large no. of exploit by applying mutant operators. The results of the systems in detecting these variations pro-vide a quantitative basis for the evaluation of the quality of the corresponding detection model. but here we are going to find defects of this testing and is this test will provide 100% security for this system (or not. and also which technique gives much security among these techniques fuzzy logic, neural networks, hybrid fuzzy and neural networks, naïve bayes, genetic algorithms and data mining.

  11. Intrusion detection using rough set classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连华; 张冠华; 郁郎; 张洁; 白英彩

    2004-01-01

    Recently machine learning-based intrusion detection approaches have been subjected to extensive researches because they can detect both misuse and anomaly. In this paper, rough set classification (RSC), a modern learning algorithm, is used to rank the features extracted for detecting intrusions and generate intrusion detection models. Feature ranking is a very critical step when building the model. RSC performs feature ranking before generating rules, and converts the feature ranking to minimal hitting set problem addressed by using genetic algorithm (GA). This is done in classical approaches using Support Vector Machine (SVM) by executing many iterations, each of which removes one useless feature. Compared with those methods, our method can avoid many iterations. In addition, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to increase the convergence speed and decrease the training time of RSC. The models generated by RSC take the form of"IF-THEN" rules, which have the advantage of explication. Tests and comparison of RSC with SVM on DARPA benchmark data showed that for Probe and DoS attacks both RSC and SVM yielded highly accurate results (greater than 99% accuracy on testing set).

  12. Intrusion detection using rough set classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连华; 张冠华; 郁郎; 张洁; 白英彩

    2004-01-01

    Recently machine learning-based intrusion detection approaches have been subjected to extensive researches because they can detect both misuse and anomaly. In this paper, rough set classification (RSC), a modem learning algorithm,is used to rank the features extracted for detecting intrusions and generate intrusion detection models. Feature ranking is a very critical step when building the model. RSC performs feature ranking before generating rules, and converts the feature ranking to minimal hitting set problem addressed by using genetic algorithm (GA). This is done in classical approaches using Support Vector Machine (SVM) by executing many iterations, each of which removes one useless feature. Compared with those methods, our method can avoid many iterations. In addition, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to increase the convergence speed and decrease the training time of RSC. The models generated by RSC take the form of"IF-THEN" rules,which have the advantage of explication. Tests and comparison of RSC with SVM on DARPA benchmark data showed that for Probe and DoS attacks both RSC and SVM yielded highly accurate results (greater than 99% accuracy on testing set).

  13. Intrusion detection using pattern recognition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    Today, cyber attacks such as worms, scanning, active attackers are pervasive in Internet. A number of security approaches are proposed to address this problem, among which the intrusion detection system (IDS) appears to be one of the major and most effective solutions for defending against malicious users. Essentially, intrusion detection problem can be generalized as a classification problem, whose goal is to distinguish normal behaviors and anomalies. There are many well-known pattern recognition algorithms for classification purpose. In this paper we describe the details of applying pattern recognition methods to the intrusion detection research field. Experimenting on the KDDCUP 99 data set, we first use information gain metric to reduce the dimensionality of the original feature space. Two supervised methods, the support vector machine as well as the multi-layer neural network have been tested and the results display high detection rate and low false alarm rate, which is promising for real world applications. In addition, three unsupervised methods, Single-Linkage, K-Means, and CLIQUE, are also implemented and evaluated in the paper. The low computational complexity reveals their application in initial data reduction process.

  14. Geochemical and mantle-like isotopic (Nd, Sr) composition of the Baklan Granite from the Muratdağı Region (Banaz, Uşak), western Turkey: Implications for input of juvenile magmas in the source domains of western Anatolia Eocene Miocene granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğan, M. Selman; Çoban, Hakan; Bozcu, Mustafa; Akıncı, Ömer

    2008-07-01

    The (late syn)- post-collisional magmatic activities of western and northwestern Anatolia are characterized by intrusion of a great number of granitoids. Amongst them, Baklan Granite, located in the southern part of the Muratdağı Region from the Menderes Massif (Banaz, Uşak), has peculiar chemical and isotopic characteristics. The Baklan rocks are made up by K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite and hornblende, with accessory apatite, titanite and magnetite, and include mafic microgranular enclaves (MME). Chemically, the Baklan intrusion is of sub-alkaline character, belongs to the high-K, calc-alkaline series and displays features of I-type affinity. It is typically metaluminous to mildly peraluminous, and classified predominantly as granodiorite in composition. The spider and REE patterns show that the rocks are fractionated and have small negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu ∗ = 0.62-0.86), with the depletion of Nb, Ti, P and, to a lesser extent, Ba and Sr. The pluton was dated by the K-Ar method on the whole-rock, yielded ages between 17.8 ± 0.7 and 19.4 ± 0.9 Ma (Early Miocene). The intrusion possesses primitive low initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.70331-0.70452) and negative ɛNd(t) values (-5.0 to -5.6). The chemical contrast between evolved Baklan rocks (SiO 2, 62-71 wt.%; Cr, 7-27 ppm; Ni, 5-11 ppm; Mg#, 45-51) and more primitive clinopyroxene-bearing monzonitic enclaves (SiO 2, 54-59 wt.%; Cr, 20-310 ppm; Ni, 10-70 ppm; Mg#, 50-61) signifies that there is no co-genetic link between host granite and enclaves. The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the Baklan intrusion argue for an important role of a juvenile component, such as underplated mantle-derived basalt, in the generation of the granitoids. Crustal contamination has not contributed significantly to their origin. However, with respect to those of the Baklan intrusion, the generation of the (late syn)- post-collisional intrusions with higher Nd(t) values from the western Anatolia require a much

  15. Count out your intrusions: effects of verbal encoding on intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Julie; Naring, Gerard; Becker, Eni S

    2009-11-01

    Peri-traumatic information processing is thought to affect the development of intrusive trauma memories. This study aimed to replicate and improve the study by Holmes, Brewin, and Hennessy (2004, Exp. 3) on the role of peri-traumatic verbal processing in analogue traumatic intrusion development. Participants viewed an aversive film under one of three conditions: counting backwards in 3s ("verbal interference"), verbalising emotions and thoughts ("verbal enhancement"), or without an extra task. A dual-process account of PTSD would predict that verbal interference would increase intrusion frequency compared to no task, whereas verbal enhancement would lead to a decrease. In contrast, mainstream memory theory predicts a decrease in intrusion frequency from any concurrent task that diverts attention away from the trauma film. The main finding was that the verbal interference task led to a decrease in intrusive memories of the film compared to the other two conditions. This finding does not support a dual-process account of PTSD, but is in line with general theories of memory and attention.

  16. Phosphate minerals of some granitic rocks associated quartz veins from northern and central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Neiva, A.M.R.; Silva, M.M.V.G.; Antunes, I.M.H.R.; Ramos, J. M. F.

    2000-01-01

    Phosphate minerals are common in northern and central Portuguese granitic rocks. Childrenite, eosphorite and intermediate compositions in this solid-solution séries occur in muscovite granites at Paredes da Beira and Penamacor-Monsanto, muscovite-biotite granites at Penamacor-Monsanto and in aplite veins at Vidago. The composition of childrenite and eosphorite are similar in each of these localities. Germanite occurs in a muscovite granite at Segura.

  17. Frequency of intrusive luxation in deciduous teeth and its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vivian; Jacomo, Diana Ribeiro; Campos, Vera

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were three-fold: First, to determine the prevalence of partial and total intrusion of the primary anterior teeth. Second, to investigate the sequelae of total and partial intrusive luxation in the primary anterior teeth and in their successors and finally, to establish whether the sequelae on both deciduous and permanent teeth were related to the child's age at the time of the intrusion. Data collected from records of 169 boys and 138 girls, all between the ages of zero and 10 years, who were undergoing treatment during the period of March 1996 to December 2004. The sample was composed of 753 traumatized deciduous teeth, of which 221 presented intrusive luxation injury. Children with ages ranging from one to 4 years were the most affected with falls being the main cause of intrusion. Of all intruded teeth 128 (57.9%) were totally intruded and 93 (42.1%) partially. Pulp necrosis/premature loss and color change were the most frequent sequelae in both total and partial intrusions. Concerning permanent dentition, the most common disturbances were color change and/or enamel hypoplasia. Both types of intrusion caused eruption disturbance. Total intrusion was the most frequent type of intrusive luxation. There was no significant correlation between the child's age at the time of intrusion and the frequency of subsequent sequela on primary injured teeth (P = 0.035), between the age at the time of injury and the developmental disturbances on permanent teeth (P = 0.140).

  18. Experimental introduction of excess Ar40 into a granitic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, W.S.; Lanphere, M.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1969-01-01

    Samples of a Precambrian granite were melted in sealed capsules to produce a radiogenic Ar40 atmosphere over the melt. The amount of Ar40 incorporated in the quenched charge was then determined. Under these experimental conditions the amount of argon dissolved in the quenched melt was appreciable and could be an important source of error in potassiumargon dating. ?? 1969 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Radiometric dating of the postorogenic Graversfors granite, south central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Rb-Sr whole rock isochron dating has yielded an age of 1692 +- 7 Ma on the Graversfors granite, south central Sweden. The 280 Ma higher U-Pb discordia age of 1971 +51 -43 Ma suggests a previous history for the zircons. The Rb-Sr mineral systems finally closed 1641 +- 17 Ma ago. (Author)

  20. Skills of Cognitive Flexibility in Monolingual and Bilingual Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçer, Ilmiye

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined skills of cognitive flexibility and sustained attention in late bilingual and monolingual younger adults. One-hundred and sixty two younger adults aged between 18 and 34 years old (M = 22.39) classified as Turkish-English late bilinguals (N = 74) and Turkish monolinguals (N = 88) completed the Trail Making Test (TMT-A and TMT-B). Results from this study showed that Turkish-English late bilinguals had shorter RTs than Turkish monolinguals on the TMT-B, however there were no significant RT differences between the groups on the TMT-A. These findings indicate that bilingualism impacts upon skills of cognitive flexibility but not sustained attention and that the amount of practice in coordinating, monitoring, and switching between languages is an important determinant of cognitive improvement. PMID:27410052

  1. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  2. Older (but not younger) siblings facilitate false belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, T; Perner, J; Naito, M; Parkin, L; Clements, W A

    1998-01-01

    Results from 4 experiments and an analysis in which all data from 444 English and Japanese children are pooled show (a) a linear increase in understanding false belief with the number of older siblings, (b) no such effect for children younger than 3 years 2 months, (c) no helpful effect of younger siblings at any age (despite the large sample), (d) no effect of siblings' gender, and (e) no helpful effect of siblings on a task measuring children's understanding of how they know something. Discussion involves speculation about how older siblings may assist children (e.g., through pretend play and mental state language) and how different aspects of a theory of mind may develop through different means.

  3. Gravity and magnetic modeling of granitic bodies in Central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Pereira, Alcides

    2015-04-01

    A better understanding of the subsurface geometry of the granitic bodies in Central Portugal is the main goal of this work. The results are also relevant for the assessment of the geothermal potential of the same region. The study area is located in the Central Iberian Zone where the Beiras granite batholith outcrops. These variscan granitoids were emplaced into the "Complexo Xisto-Grauváquico" (CXG), a thick and monotonous megasequences of metapelites and metagreywackes. This metasedimentary sequence is affected by the Variscan deformation phases and a late Proterozoic to Cambrian age has been generally assumed for this rocks. The granitoids in the region are attributed to the magmatic activity associated to the post-collisional stages of the Variscan orogeny during the D3 stage. The granitic bodies in the study area are considered syn-D3 and late to post-D3. To achieve the goal of the research, magnetic and gravimetric surveys where performed in order to obtain the Bouguer and magnetic anomalies. All the standard corrections were applied to the gravimetric and magnetic data. Considering and integrating all the available geological data and physical proprieties (density and magnetic susceptibility) the mentioned potential fields were simultaneously modeled. In this way it was possible to characterize the subsurface geometry of the granitic bodies in the studied region. The modeling results show that the regional tectonic setting controls the geometry of the granitic bodies as well as the structure of the host CXG metasedimentary sequence. Through the modeling of the potential field the overall geometry, average and maximum depths of the granitic bodies in the study area was obtained. Some late to post-D3 plutons outcrop in spatial continuity and as they have similar ages, a common feeding zone is assumed as the most likely scenario. The sin-D3 pluton is more abrupt and vertical, suggesting the presence of a fault contact with the late-D3 pluton. According to the

  4. Etude de la diagraphie neutron du granite de Beauvoir. Effet neutron des altérations et de la matrice du granite. Calibration granite. Porosité totale à l'eau et porosité neutron Analysis of the Beauvoir Granite Neutron Log. Neutron Effect of Alterations and of the Granite Matrix. Granite Calibration. Total Water Porosity and Neutron Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galle C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article rend compte des travaux effectués sur la porosité du granite de Beauvoir (Sondage GPF 1 d'Echassières, Massif Central français. L'objectif de notre étude est de pouvoir obtenir des valeurs représentatives de la saturation en eau (porosité totale à l'eau n du granite de Beauvoir à partir des mesures de porosité neutron PorositéN (diagraphie neutron BRGM sans avoir recours aux mesures sur carottes. Notre démarche est expérimentale et nous avons tenté d'approfondir certains problèmes liés à l'utilisation de la diagraphie neutron dans une roche granitique. Deux facteurs principaux conditionnent la réponse neutron : la concentration en hydrogène de la formation (eau libre et eau de constitution de certains minéraux et la présence d'éléments absorbeurs à forte section de capture comme le gadolinium, le cadmium, le bore, . . . et dans le cas du granite de Beauvoir, le lithium. A partir des mesures de porosité totale à l'eau n sur carottes, des essais de pertes au feu sur poudre qui nous permettent de déterminer la porosité neutron liée à l'eau de constitution PorositéN(OH- et des analyses chimiques avec lesquelles nous évaluons la porosité neutron thermique PorositéN(ox (Programme SNUPAR, Schlumberger liée à la capture neutronique, nous reconstituons la porosité neutron totale PorositéNR du granite de Beauvoir. Pour 7 échantillons caractéristiques du granite de Beauvoir, nous réalisons grâce à ces résultats une nouvelle calibration du taux de comptage neutron initial corrigé du gradient thermique et de l'effet de trou. Grâce à cette opération, il est possible de déterminer, pour les échantillons traités, la porosité neutron du granite avec une calibration granite (PorositéNg et non calcaire (PorositéNc. La connaissance de l'effet neutron de la matrice nous permet enfin d'évaluer la teneur en eau du granite (porosité totale à l'eau et de comparer celle-ci avec la porosité mesurée sur

  5. Sexuality and body image in younger women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, L R

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer has the potential to be most devastating to the sexual function and self-esteem of premenopausal women. Nevertheless, not one study has systematically compared the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual issues across age groups. Research shows that younger women with breast cancer have more severe emotional distress than older cohorts. In a group of patients seeking sexual rehabilitation in a cancer center, younger couples were more distressed, but also had the best prognosis with treatment. In theory, loss of a breast or poor breast appearance would be more distressing to women whose youth gives them high expectations for physical beauty. Seeking new dating relationships after breast cancer treatment is a special stressor for single women. Potential infertility also may impact on a woman's self-concept as a sexual person. Systemic treatment disrupts sexual function by causing premature menopause, with estrogen loss leading to vaginal atrophy and androgen loss perhaps decreasing sexual desire and arousability. Research on mastectomy versus breast conservation across all ages of women has demonstrated that general psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and overall sexual frequency and function do not differ between the two treatment groups. Women with breast conservation do rate their body image more highly and are more comfortable with nudity and breast caressing. There is some evidence that breast conservation offers more psychological "protection" for younger women. Research on the impact of breast reconstruction is sparse, but reveals similar patterns. Future studies should use rigorous methodology and focus on the impact of premature menopause and the effectiveness of sexual rehabilitation for younger women. PMID:7999462

  6. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection) and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility) among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver...

  7. Acceptance of Smart Phone by Younger Consumers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Hoe Hong; Boon Heng Teh; Chin Hooi Soh

    2014-01-01

    The sales of smart phone are rapidly increasing in Malaysia and in the global markets. Which means that, smart phone has a great opportunity in the future growth of the mobile industry. The aim of this research is to determine the acceptance of smart phone by younger consumers in Malaysia. A total of 113 useable questionnaires was collected and analyzed through SPSS. Google doc form was utilized to create the online questionnaire. The data collection method utilized in this paper was online i...

  8. Stress modulates reinforcement learning in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Gorlick, Marissa A; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J; Mather, Mara

    2013-03-01

    Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18-34) and older participants (age 65-85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group, and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. After the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings.

  9. Multi-agent cooperative intrusion response in mobile adhoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Zou Futai; Jiang Xinghao; Li Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    The nature of adhoc networks makes them vulnerable to security attacks. Many security technologies such as intrusion prevention and intrusion detection are passive in response to intrusions in that their countermeasures are only to protect the networks, and there is no automated network-wide counteraction against detected intrusions. the architecture of cooperation intrusion response based multi-agent is propose. The architecture is composed of mobile agents. Monitor agent resides on every node and monitors its neighbor nodes. Decision agent collects information from monitor nodes and detects an intrusion by security policies. When an intruder is found in the architecture, the block agents will get to the neighbor nodes of the intruder and form the mobile firewall to isolate the intruder. In the end, we evaluate it by simulation.

  10. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression. PMID:27069381

  11. Network Intrusion Detection based on GMKL Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuxiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the 31th statistical reports of China Internet network information center (CNNIC, by the end of December 2012, the number of Chinese netizens has reached 564 million, and the scale of mobile Internet users also reached 420 million. But when the network brings great convenience to people's life, it also brings huge threat in the life of people. So through collecting and analyzing the information in the computer system or network we can detect any possible behaviors that can damage the availability, integrity and confidentiality of the computer resource, and make timely treatment to these behaviors which have important research significance to improve the operation environment of network and network service. At present, the Neural Network, Support Vector machine (SVM and Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy inference and Genetic Algorithms are introduced into the research of network intrusion detection, trying to build a healthy and secure network operation environment. But most of these algorithms are based on the total sample and it also hypothesizes that the number of the sample is infinity. But in the field of network intrusion the collected data often cannot meet the above requirements. It often shows high latitudes, variability and small sample characteristics. For these data using traditional machine learning methods are hard to get ideal results. In view of this, this paper proposed a Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method to applied to network intrusion detection. The Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method can be well applied to large scale sample data, dimension complex, containing a large number of heterogeneous information and so on. The experimental results show that applying GMKL to network attack detection has high classification precision and low abnormal practical precision.

  12. Performance Analysis of Intrusion Detection in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMRIDHI SHARMA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Adhoc Network is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration such as a base station. The Adhoc Network provides lack of secure boundaries. At present, the security issues on Mobile Adhoc Network have become one of the primary concerns. The MANET is more vulnerable to attacks as compared to wired networks due to distributed nature and lacks of infrastructure. Those vulnerabilities are nature of the MANET structure that cannot be removed easily. As a result, attacks with malicious intent have been and will be devised to exploit those vulnerabilities and to cripple the MANET Operation. Attacks prevention techniques such as a authentication and encryption, can be used as medium of defense for decreasing the possibilities of attacks. These techniques have a limitation on the effects of prevention techniques in practice and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to prevent newer attacks that are designed for circumventing the existing security measures. For this purpose, there exist a need of mechanism that “detect and response” these type of newer attacks i.e. “Intrusion and Detection”. Intrusion detection provide audit and monitoring capabilities that offer the local security to a node and help to perceive the specific trust level of other node. In addition to this ontology is a proven tool for this type of analysis. In this paper, specific ontology has been modeled which aims to explore and to classify current technique of Intrusion Detection System (IDS aware MANET. To support these ideas, a discussion regarding attacks, IDS architecture and IDS in MANET are presented inclusively and then the comparison among several researches achievement will be evaluated based on these parameters.

  13. Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

  14. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Xie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathave forensic values. This paper also discusses how the Windows Registry forensic keys can be applied in intrusion detection.

  15. Introduction to gravity currents and intrusions

    CERN Document Server

    Ungarish, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The whole book is well written in a clear and pedagogical general style. … the author has, in my opinion, produced the first comprehensive book entirely devoted to the modeling of gravity currents and intrusions. This book will be particularly useful to graduate and PhD students, as well as to academics and research engineers working in this field. It may be used as a self-consistent document to get a detailed idea of the state of knowledge about a given problem or a guide toward more specialized papers. It is rich with ideas regarding the direction in which further research is warranted. This

  16. Intrusion Detection Systems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Mallarapu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are a new technology foreseen to be used increasingly in the near future due to their data acquisition and data processing abilities. Security for WSNs is an area that needs to be considered in order to protect the functionality of these networks, the data they convey and the location of their members. The security models & protocols used in wired and other networks are not suited to WSNs because of their severe resource constrictions. In this paper, we describe various threats to WSN and then examine existing approaches to identify these threats. Finally, we propose an intrusion detection mechanism based on these existing approaches to identifying threats.

  17. Petrogenesis of synorogenic diorite-granodiorite-granite complexes in the Damara Belt, Namibia: Constraints from U-Pb zircon ages and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Kröner, A.; Hauff, F.; Masberg, P.

    2015-01-01

    The synorogenic Palmental complex (central Damara Belt, Nambia) consists of ca. 545 Ma old quartz diorites and rare granodiorites and ca. 520 Ma-old leucogranites, representing one of the earliest and most primitive phase of crustal plutonism predating the main high-T regional metamorphism. Most quartz diorites and one granodiorite evolved through multistage, polybaric evolutionary processes involving fractionation from a lithospheric mantle-derived melt, followed by fractional crystallization of mainly hornblende, plagioclase and apatite which is shown by decreasing MgO, FeO, CaO, TiO2 and P2O5 with increasing SiO2. Assimilation of felsic basement gneisses was also important during formation of these granitoids. Although their chemical characteristics (high LILE, low HFSE) resemble those of quartz diorites and granodiorites with calc-alkaline affinity, they differ in their enriched Sr (initial 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7061-0.7098) and Nd (initial εNd: -2.7 to -9.9) isotopic composition. Neodymium depleted mantle mean crustal residence ages range from 1.3 to 1.9 Ga for the quartz diorites including the granodiorite. These model ages correlate with major and trace element abundances, further substantiating that AFC processes modified the initial isotopic systematics. Lead (206Pb/204Pb: 17.43-17.68, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.61-15.66, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.19-38.49) isotopic composition are unradiogenic relative to other Damaran intrusive rocks but plot above the Stacey and Kramers (1975) reference line, indicating that the source underwent an ancient (pre Pan-African) increase in U/Pb and Th/U, followed by more recent U-depletion. Some variation in 206Pb/204Pb at high 207Pb/204Pb further indicates involvement of ancient crustal material, most likely through AFC processes. A cross-cutting leucogranite dyke has also evolved isotopic compositions (initial 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7326; initial εNd: -15.6; 206Pb/204Pb: 17.42, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.62, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.16) but in view of the apparent younger age of

  18. Intelligence Intrusion Detection Prevention Systems using Object Oriented Analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    DR.K.KUPPUSAMY; S. Murugan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is deliberate to provide a model for “Intelligence Intrusion Detection Prevention Systems using Object Oriented Analysis method ” , It describes the state’s overall requirements regarding the acquisition and implementation of intrusion prevention and detection systems with intelligence (IIPS/IIDS). This is designed to provide a deeper understanding of intrusion prevention and detection principles with intelligence may be responsible for acquiring, implementing or monitoring such sy...

  19. COMPUTER INTRUSION DETECTION BY TWOOBJECTIVE FUZZY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Madhuri Agravat; Udai Pratap Rao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe two objective fuzzy genetics-based learning algorithms and discusses its usage to detect intrusion in a computer network. Experiments were performed with KDD-cup data set, which have information on computer networks, during normal behavior and intrusive behavior. The performance of final fuzzy classification system has been investigated using intrusion detection problem as a high dimensional classification problem. This task is formulate...

  20. Phenomenology of intrusive imagery in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).

    OpenAIRE

    Lipton, M.

    2008-01-01

    The study of intrusive mental imagery in anxiety is a growing area of interest. Whilst there is an appreciation of the variation in thematic content (Hirsch & Holmes, 2007), less is understood about the wider phenomenology and function of intrusive imagery across the anxiety disorders. The aim of the review is to adopt a transdiagnostic perspective, and compare and contrast the literature on intrusive imagery in anxiety in terms of the content, prevalence, frequency and characteristics. In ad...

  1. Identification of Human Intrusion Types into Radwaste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human intrusion has long been recognized as a potentially important post-closure safety issue for rad waste disposal facility. It is due to the difficulties in predicting future human activities. For the preliminary study of human intrusion, identification of human intrusion types need to be recognized and investigated also the approaching of problem solving must be known to predict the prevention act and accepted risk. (author)

  2. Cluster Based Cost Efficient Intrusion Detection System For Manet

    OpenAIRE

    Kumarasamy, Saravanan; B, Hemalatha; P, Hashini

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks are temporary wireless networks. Network resources are abnormally consumed by intruders. Anomaly and signature based techniques are used for intrusion detection. Classification techniques are used in anomaly based techniques. Intrusion detection techniques are used for the network attack detection process. Two types of intrusion detection systems are available. They are anomaly detection and signature based detection model. The anomaly detection model uses the historica...

  3. Fuzzy Based Anomaly Intrusion Detection System for Clustered WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathy Murugan; Sundara Rajan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the intrusion detection technique may result in increased computational cost, packet loss, performance degradation and so on. In order to overcome these issues, in this study, we propose a fuzzy based anomaly intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Initially the cluster heads are selected based on the parameters such as link quality, residual energy and coverage. Then the anomaly intrusion is detected using fuzzy logic technique. This technique conside...

  4. CUSUM-Based Intrusion Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bishan Ying

    2014-01-01

    The nature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) makes them very vulnerable to adversary's malicious attacks. Therefore, network security is an important issue to WSNs. Due to the constraints of WSN, intrusion detection in WSNs is a challengeable task. In this paper, we present a novel intrusion detection mechanism for WSNs, which is composed of a secure data communication algorithm and an intrusion detection algorithm. The major contribution of this paper is that we propose an original secure m...

  5. Intrusion Detection System in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anush Ananthakumar; Tanmay Ganediwal; Dr. Ashwini Kunte

    2015-01-01

    The security of wireless sensor networks is a topic that has been studied extensively in the literature. The intrusion detection system is used to detect various attacks occurring on sensor nodes of Wireless Sensor Networks that are placed in various hostile environments. As many innovative and efficient models have emerged in the last decade in this area, we mainly focus our work on Intrusion detection Systems. This paper reviews various intrusion detection systems which can be broadly class...

  6. Zarzalejo granite (Spain). A nomination for 'Global Heritage Stone Resource'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; José Varas-Muriel, María

    2015-04-01

    Zarzalejo granite is quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrama (Spanish Central System) foothills, in and around Zarzalejo village, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is an inequigranular monzogranite medium-to-coarse grained, with a slight porphyritic texture (feldspar phenocrysts) and mafic micro-grained enclaves. In this abstract the candidacy of Zarzalejo granite as a "Global Heritage Resource Stone" (GHSR) is presented. This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used in many heritage buildings and its good petrophysical properties and durability have allowed well preserved constructions such as a Roman road, San Pedro Church in Zarzalejo (1492), Descalzas Reales Monastery in Madrid (1559-1564) and the San Lorenzo del Escorial Royal Monastery (1563-1584), to be declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. This level of construction has been a landmark in the extraction and proliferation of historic quarries created due to the high demand that such colossal monuments and buildings with granite, have required for their construction. In the mid-20th century, More, Zarzalejo granite has also been used in restoration works including the Royal Palace and the Reina Sofía Museum (2001-2005), both buildings in Madrid, Spain. Extraction of granite ashlars from tors has been a very frequent activity in the Zarzalejo neighbourhood until mid-twentieth century. So there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries. This type of stone has created a landscape that has been preserved as an open-air museum today where you can see the marks left in the granite due to historic quarry operations. The granite industry has been one of the main pillars of the Zarzalejo regional economy. For centuries, the local community have been engaged in quarrying and have created a cultural landscape based on its building stone. A quarryman monument has been erected in Zarzalejo in honor of this traditional craft as well as an architecture museum at San Lorenzo del

  7. Hybridization of granitic magmas in the source: The origin of the Karakoram Batholith, Ladakh, NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, H.; Weinberg, R. F.; Andersson, U. B.; Fanning, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    Many magmatic bodies have a hybrid isotopic signature suggesting that somewhere during genesis, transport and emplacement, magmas assimilated other rocks or mixed with other magmas. Where and how hybridization takes place is seldom documented. Here, we investigate a magmatic system in the Eastern Karakoram, Ladakh, NW India, comprising an anatectic zone, and a network of sheets, stocks and plutons exposed in the Pangong Metamorphic Complex within the Karakoram Shear Zone, as well as the Karakoram Batholith. These granitic rocks have an isotopic signature indicative of a mixture between mantle and crustal sources. In the anatectic region, calc-alkaline granitoids and their meta-sedimentary country rocks underwent water-fluxed partial melting at upper amphibolite facies between 20 and 14 Ma ago. Anatexis gave rise to leucosomes and intrusive rocks that have a range in composition from leucotonalite to leucogranite. Those related to the partial melting of calc-alkaline rocks contain hornblende, whereas those related to Bt-psammites contain two micas ± garnet. Leucosomes rooting in different source rocks merge with each other and homogenize as they link up to form a hierarchy of magma channels, feeding into stocks, plutons and ultimately into the Karakoram Batholith. This interpretation is supported by Sr and Nd isotopes. Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr and ɛNd values are distinct for each of the magma protoliths in the anatectic zone and for the magmatic products. Calc-alkaline granitoids have initial 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7042 to 0.7077 and ɛNd = + 0.6 to + 2.4, indicative of a slightly depleted mantle source region. This is in contrast to the meta-sedimentary rocks that yield initial 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7115 to 0.7161 and ɛNd = - 10.0 to - 9.6, suggesting a stronger crustal component. Leucogranitic rocks, including a variety of leucosomes in the anatectic zone and samples from the Karakoram Batholith, yield intermediate values of initial 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7076 to 0.7121 and ɛNd = - 3.6 to

  8. Geology, alteration, age dating and petrogenesis of intrusive bodies in Halak Abad prospect area, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Ghourchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Halak Abad prospect occurs in the northeastern part of Central Iran zone (Sabzevar structural zone. In this investigation, geochemical evolution, age and source of part of northeastern Iran magmatic arc (intrusive bodies in Halak Abad area in the Khorasan Razavi province has been studied. The exposed rocks consist of volcanic rocks with andesite and dacite nature, limestone, plutonic rocks mostly diorite, quartz diorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite and granite and sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone and conglomerate. Magnetic susceptibility of intrusive rocks is >100 × 10-5 SI, so they belong to the magnetite-series (oxidized. This magmatism is mainly low-K (tholeiite series and meta-aluminous. The amounts of Zr, Th, Nb and Ti show depletion compared to N-MORB. Trace elements behavior shows a nearly flat pattern. Age of granodiorite body based on U-Pb zircon dating is 99.7±1.8 Ma (Mid-Cretaceous and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio is 0.7047. The geochemical signature and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio in the area suggest volcanic arc magmatism in subduction zone. This magmatism has characteristic such as high Na2O (3-7 %, low K2O (0.12-1 %, high CaO (4-5.7%, low Rb (1-20 ppm, low total REE (<40 ppm, high Ba/Nb, Sm/Yb<2, (La/YbN<5, 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio < 0.7045 and εNd: +4.5 show differences with normal granitoids in subduction zones. Geochemical and petrological characteristics indicate melting in relatively low pressure (shallow depth. The lines of evidence demonstrate that formation of this granitoid needs a suprasubduction zone.

  9. Structural features and emplacement of the late Svecofennian Perniö granite sheet in southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selonen, O.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1840-1830 Ma old Perniö granite occupies the southern margin of the Sauvo-Perniö granite area located in the western part of the late Svecofennian granite-migmatite zone in southern Finland. The S-type Perniö granite is light to dark red, medium- to coarse-grained with euhedral K-feldspar phenocrysts forming the porphyritic texture of the granite. The high grade supracrustal volcanic rocks and mica gneisses in the Sauvo-Perniö granite area show polyphase deformation. The D1 is characterized by isoclinal and intrafolial Fl folds. During the D2 the supracrustal sequence was thrusted towards the northwest. Combined ductile E-W shear movements and NNW-SSE compressional movements defined a transpressional tectonic regime during the D3 deformation. The Perniö granite intruded along subvertical mid-crustal feeder channels and was emplaced as a sheet or sheets along subhorizontal shear zones during the late stage of the F3 folding. After intruding into the shear zones the viscous granite magma was deformed. The K-feldspar phenocrysts in the granite acted as rigid particles in a viscous matrix and were rotated and imbricated in response to shearing along the subhorizontal shear zones indicating movements of the upper side of the granite sheet towards the west. Strike-slip dilatancy pumping is suggested as a possible mechanism for the emplacement of the Perniö granite.

  10. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

    2009-08-15

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be

  11. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be

  12. A Bayesian Networks in Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems (IDSs have been widely used to overcome security threats in computer networks. Anomaly-based approaches have the advantage of being able to detect previously unknown attacks, but they suffer from the difficulty of building robust models of acceptable behaviour which may result in a large number of false alarms caused by incorrect classification of events in current systems. We propose a new approach of an anomaly Intrusion detection system (IDS. It consists of building a reference behaviour model and the use of a Bayesian classification procedure associated to unsupervised learning algorithm to evaluate the deviation between current and reference behaviour. Continuous re-estimation of model parameters allows for real time operation. The use of recursive Log-likelihood and entropy estimation as a measure for monitoring model degradation related with behavior changes and the associated model update show that the accuracy of the event classification process is significantly improved using our proposed approach for reducing the missing-alarm.

  13. Scaling minerals from deep-seated granitic geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Norio

    2016-04-01

    To promote geothermal energy use and sustainable production, the information of scaling situation from deep-seated geothermal reservoir is important. In Japan, at the Kakkonda geothermal field, Iwate prefecture, north-eastern of Japan, there is 80MW geothermal power plant using about 300 degree C fluid from the reservoir at the boundary between Quaternary Kakkonda granite and Pre-Tertiary formations about 3km depth and more deep-seated reservoir survey was carried out by NEDO. Then, to understand the mechanism of deep-seated reservoir, we survey the metal sulphide minerals deposited at production wellhead and pipeline and compare with the brine And the brine of WD-1a at 3.7km depth, into Quaternary Kakkonda granite rock. In Kakkonda geothermal system, the scales are classified into two types based on sulphide mineralogy, which are Pb-Zn rich type and Cu rich type. Pb-Zn rich scales, for example galena (PbS) and Sphalerite (ZnS), are found in Well-19 located at the marginal part of the Kakkonda granite And Cu-rich scales, for example chalcocite (Cu2S), loellingite (FeAs2) and native antimony (Sb), are found in Well-13, located at the central part of the Kakkonda granite. And the brine of WD-1a at 3.7km depth about 500 degree C, into Quaternary Kakkonda granite rock near Well-19 is rich in Pb and Zn and similar composition as the Well-19 scale. Therefore, deep reservoir of Kakkonda field evolves with mixing the fluid of shallow reservoir and the brine of occurred in the Quaternary Kakkonda granite. Then, the existence of both Pb-Zn rich scale and Cu rich scale is a characteristic feature of Kakkonda geothermal and this fact suggest to have similar zoning as found in Porphyry Copper Zoning. On progress of production the fluids from deep reservoir continue to be suffered by the fluid of shallow reservoir and meteoritic water. With temperature of production well decreasing and chemical composition changed, silica precipitation decreased and the metal sulfide mineral

  14. Paleoproterozoic granitic gneisses of the Dinggye and LhagoiKangri areas from the higher and northern Himalaya, Tibet: Geochronology and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO QUnAn; LI DeWei; LU Lian; YUAN YieMing; CHU LingLin

    2008-01-01

    Granitic gneisses have been widely found in crystalline rocks in the Dinggye area of the Higher Himalaya (HHM) and the LhagoiKangri area of the North Himalaya (NHM), Tibet. In the HHM, the gneisses intruded in the granulite-amphibolite facies metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, known as Nyalam group. In the NHM, the gneisses intruded in the amphibolite facies metamorphosed ones, known as LhagoiKangri group. These granitic gneisses are peraluminous monzonitic granites in terms of their mineral assemblage, and are considered as being derived from metamorphosed sedimentary rocks by anatexis based on the transitional relationship of the gneisses with their migmatitized wall rocks. Zircons are similar in crystal shape and interior structure from both gneisses. Most of them are euhedral or subhedral elongated prism-shaped transparent crystals, with fine oscillatory zoning, showing the magmatic genesis. Some of them are short prism-shaped and with relict core inherited from magma source and oscillatory zoning mantle crystallized from magma. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zicons shows Ma, respectively). These ages are similar to those (1815 to 2120 Ma) from granitic gneiss which is the ages suggest the same India basement beneath the different units in Himalaya area, and do not support the idea that the HHM and NHM are accretionary terranes in Pan-Africa orogenic event. The fact that the basement in HHM is as old as or even younger than LHM is inconsistent with the presently prevalent orogenic models such as either extrusion of low-viscosity mid-crust or orogenic channel.

  15. Deformation Structures associated with the emplacement of high level intrusions: A study of Trachyte Mesa Intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. I. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Jarvis, I.; Murphy, P.; Davidson, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Most studies of sill and laccolith complexes have focused on the internal architecture and thermal effects of these intrusions, while few have looked in detail at host rock deformation structures associated with their emplacement. Various sill and laccolith emplacement mechanisms have been proposed (e.g. radial growth/ bulldozing, and two-stage growth), each with their own distinct deformation style. Compressional structures likely dominate during radial growth (bulldozing) emplacement, while extensional structures are more likely to form during two-stage growth emplacement. In this study we focus on deformation structures (faults, deformation bands and joints) associated with emplacement of Tertiary sills and laccolith intrusions in the Henry Mountains, Utah. Trachyte Mesa, the most distal satellite intrusion to the Mt. Hilliers intrusive centre, is an elongate (NE-SW) laccolith concordant with the Entrada sandstone it intrudes. The intrusion is comprised of multiple, stacked intrusive sheets. Two structural transects across the northwest lateral margin have identified distinct structural domains within the host rock that reflect both temporal and kinematic variations in deformation. Three deformation phases are identified, interpreted to be pre-, syn- and late-emplacement structures. A background set of deformation bands (phase 1), trending oblique to the intrusion margin, is apparent across the entire area. A second set of deformation bands (phase 2) overprint the early phase. These are characterised by conjugate deformation bands that parallel the intrusion margin, and increase in intensity and spacing towards the intrusion. Within this same zone a series of calcite filled normal faults, striking parallel and perpendicular to the intrusion margin, are apparent. Due to their spatial, kinematic and overprinting relationships we interpret these to be linked to the emplacement of the intrusive body. Overprinting all other structures, are two sets of tensile joints

  16. Research on the dry intrusion accompanying the low vortex precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; XiuPing; WU; GuoXiong; ZHAO; BingKe; YU; YuBin; YANG; GuiMing

    2007-01-01

    By employing the 6.7μm satellite vapor cloud images and NCEP/NCAR 1°×1° reanalysis datasets, the characteristics and mechanism of the dry intrusion, as well as its impacts on the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are explored in this paper. It is found that the formation,development and maintenance of the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are closely related to the evolution of the dry intrusion. The dry intrusion is characterized by high potential vorticity (PV), low humidity and cold air. The dry intrusion exhibits as an obvious dark zone on vapor cloud images, an area in which atmospheric relative humidity is lower than 60%. However, the features of the dry intrusion on the vapor images are clearer than that of the humidity field, for the former is the digital vapor cloud images with high temporal and spatial resolution, and it can be used to explore the finer characteristics of the development, evolution and supplement of the intrusion during the development of the low vortex. The dry intrusion impacts accompanying the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front come from all levels of the troposphere, with the strongest intrusion located at the upper troposphere. The dry and cold air intrudes the vicinity of the low vortex from the upper isentropic surface to the lower one, slanting east-ward from lower to higher level. The low vortex precipitation region is usually situated in front of the dry intrusion where the relative humidity gradient is higher. The research also reveals that the mechanism of the dry intrusion is that the high potential vorticity descends from the upper troposphere to the lower level, therefore, the dry intrusion can be used as an important index of the high PV forcing. To the west of the low vortex precipitation, the upper level northerlies descend across the isentropic surface, then the dry cold advection can trigger the instable development in the midlow troposphere. The dry intru-sion enhances the low vortex

  17. Shock-synthesized hexagonal diamonds in Younger Dryas boundary sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Kennett, James P.; West, Allen; West, G. James; Bunch, Ted E.; Brendan J. Culleton; Jon M. Erlandson; Que Hee, Shane S.; Johnson, John R.; Mercer, Chris; Shen, Feng; Sellers, Marilee; Stafford, Thomas W.; Stich, Adrienne; Weaver, James C.

    2009-01-01

    The long-standing controversy regarding the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America has been invigorated by a hypothesis implicating a cosmic impact at the Ållerød-Younger Dryas boundary or YDB (≈12,900 ± 100 cal BP or 10,900 ± 100 14C years). Abrupt ecosystem disruption caused by this event may have triggered the megafaunal extinctions, along with reductions in other animal populations, including humans. The hypothesis remains controversial due to absence of shocked minerals...

  18. Geomechanical design of a room and rib pillar granite mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniele Peila; Claudia Guardini; Sebastiano Pelizza

    2008-01-01

    The geomochanical and stability design of an underground granite mine located in Canal San Bovo (Trento district, North- eastern Italy) was described. The exploitation of the granite, which is used in the ceramic industry, was carried out by the rooms and rib pillars method. The rooms are 12 m wide while the pillars are 11 m wide and they cross the main discontinuity set of the rock mass in the perpendicular direction. To verify the stability condition of an underground mine, it is necessary to carry out the calcula- tions that are able to check both the local and global stability of the rock mass. In the studied example, this approach has been applied with the development of analytical and numerical parametric analyses and it has permitted to get the best orientation and to design the size of rooms and pillars.

  19. Quantized Ultracold Neutrons in Rough Waveguides: GRANIT Experiments and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply our general theory of transport in systems with random rough boundaries to gravitationally quantized ultracold neutrons in rough waveguides as in GRANIT experiments (ILL, Grenoble. We consider waveguides with roughness in both two and one dimensions (2D and 1D. In the biased diffusion approximation the depletion times for the gravitational quantum states can be easily expressed via each other irrespective of the system parameters. The calculation of the exit neutron count reduces to evaluation of a single constant which contains a complicated integral of the correlation function of surface roughness. In the case of 1D roughness (random grating this constant is calculated analytically for common types of the correlation functions. The results obey simple scaling relations which are slightly different in 1D and 2D. We predict the exit neutron count for the new GRANIT cell.

  20. Dynamic analysis of granite rockburst based on the PIV technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongjian; Liu Da’an; Gong Weili; Li Liyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the deep rockburst simulation system to reproduce the granite instantaneous rock-burst process. Based on the PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique, quantitative analysis of a rock-burst, the images of tracer particle, displacement and strain fields can be obtained, and the debris trajectory described. According to the observation of on-site tests, the dynamic rockburst is actually a gas–solid high speed flow process, which is caused by the interaction of rock fragments and surrounding air. With the help of analysis on high speed video and PIV images, the granite rockburst failure process is composed of six stages of platey fragment spalling and debris ejection. Meanwhile, the elastic energy for these six stages has been calculated to study the energy variation. The results indicate that the rockburst process can be summarized as:an initiating stage, intensive developing stage and gradual decay stage. This research will be helpful for our further understanding of the rockburst mechanism.

  1. Radon exhalation rates of some granites used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mladen D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address concern about radon exhalation in building material, radon exhalation rate was determined for different granites available on Serbian market. Radon exhalation rate, along with mass exhalation rate and effective radium content were determined by closed chamber method and active continuous radon measurement technique. For this research, special chambers were made and tested for back diffusion and leakage, and the radon concentrations measured were included in the calculation of radon exhalation. The radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.161 Bq/m2h to 0.576 Bq/m2h, the mass exhalation rate from 0.167 Bq/kgh to 0.678 Bq/kgh, while the effective radium content was found to be from 12.37 Bq/kg to 50.23 Bq/kg. The results indicate that the granites used in Serbia have a low level of radon exhalation.

  2. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhey, Peter; Morrill, Charles; Mensik, Fred

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased hatchery chinook numbers, and an overall decrease in numbers of smolts collected and transported. A total of 5,882,872 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite. Of these, 5,466,057 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,232,105 by barge and 233,952 by truck. An additional 339,398 fish were bypassed back to the river. A total of 117,609 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 440,810 smolts (7.5% of the total collected) of which 247,268 were PIT tagged and 572 were recorded as incidental mortalities.

  3. THERMAL STUDY ON THE GRINDING OF GRANITE WITH SUPERABRASIVE TOOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the present paer, a thermal study was conducted for the grinding of granite with diamond tools. Three types of grinding-straight surface grinding, deep grinding(circular sawing), and vertical spindle grinding-were studied. Some surface grinding tests were also conducted using a CBN(cubic boron nitride) wheel. Temperature distributions on the workpiece surface were measured using a foil thermocouple and the energy partition to the workpiece was estimated using a temperature matching method. The temperature for CBN surface grinding was found to be much higher than for diamond grinding. Energy partitions to the granite were 30%~36% for CBN surface grinding, 25%~32% for diamond surface grinding, about 53% for vertical spindle grinding, and 5.5%~9% for diamond deep grinding. The low energy partition value in deep grinding also suggested that more of the heat generated by grinding in this case can be conducted to the grinding tool and promote tool wear.

  4. Granite Rock Outcrops: An Extreme Environment for Soil Nematodes?

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Erin; Semmens, Katharine; Parsons, Charles; Treonis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    We studied soil nematode communities from the surface of granite flatrock outcrops in the eastern Piedmont region of the United States. The thin soils that develop here experience high light intensity and extreme fluctuations in temperature and moisture and host unique plant communities. We collected soils from outcrop microsites in Virginia (VA) and North Carolina (NC) in various stages of succession (Primitive, Minimal, and Mature) and compared soil properties and nematode communities to th...

  5. In situ geomechanics: Climax granite, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ modulus of the Climax granite in the Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) area of the Nevada Test Site was estimated using six different approaches. Our best estimate of field modulus as E/sub f/ = 26 GPa was obtained from a comparison of the various approaches. A best estimate of laboratory modulus acquired by comparing three different sources was E/sub l/ = 70 GPa. Therefore, the modulus reduction factor for the Climax granite appears to be E/sub f//E/sub l/ = 0.37. In turn, our estimate of in situ rock-mass deformability was used to back-calculate in situ values for the normal stiffness of the granite joints. Our analysis of former stress measurements by the US Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the horizontal stresses in the vicinity of SFT-C vary greatly with azimuth. An unexplained feature of the stresses at SFT-C is the fact that the vertical stress appears to be only 65 to 75% of the calculated lithostatic burden. From the three-dimensional stress ellipsoid at mid-length in the tunnels, assuming a plane strain condition, we were able to estimate an in situ Poisson's ratio of the rock mass as ν = 0.246. Two other techniques were applied in an attempt to measure the stresses around the SFT-C heater and canister drifts: the undercoring method and the borehole jack fracturing approach. The former technique appears to have given reasonable estimates of tangential stresses in the roof of the heater drifts; the latter appears to give low results for stresses in the pillars. Specific recommendations are made for future tests to further characterize the mechanical properties of the Climax granite and the in situ stresses at SFT-C

  6. Granite rock fragmentation at percussive drilling - experimental and numerical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Saadati, Mahdi; Forquin, Pascal; Weddfelt, Ken; Larsson, Per-Lennart; Hild, François

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to numerically model the fracture system at percussive drilling. Due to the complex behavior of rock materials, a continuum approach is employed relying upon a plasticity model with yield surface locus as a quadratic function of the mean pressure in the principal stress space coupled with an anisotropic damage model. In particular, Bohus granite rock is investigated and the material parameters are defined based on previous experiments. This includes different tests su...

  7. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhey, Peter; Ross, Doug; Morrill, Charles (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1998-12-01

    The 1998 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by relatively moderate spring flows and spill, moderate levels of debris, cool spring, warm summer and fall water temperatures, and increased chinook numbers, particularly wild subyearling chinook collected and transported. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database on fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  8. Soft-sensing, non-intrusive multiphase flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrobel, K.; Schiferli, W.

    2009-01-01

    For single phase flow meters more and better non-intrusive or even clamp-on meters become available. This allows for a wider use of meters and for easier flow control. As the demand for multiphase meters is increasing, the current aim is to develop a non-intrusive multiphase flow meter. The non-intr

  9. Statistical decision making for authentication and intrusion detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dimitrakakis; A. Mitrokotsa

    2009-01-01

    User authentication and intrusion detection differ from standard classification problems in that while we have data generated from legitimate users, impostor or intrusion data is scarce or non-existent. We review existing techniques for dealing with this problem and propose a novel alternative based

  10. Preparation of glass-ceramic materials from granitic rocks waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. Khater

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallisation of glasses based on the diopside-anorthite eutectic system, containing increased amount (10–50 wt.% of wollastonite based on granite quarries waste, was investigated for the preparation of cheap technical glass-ceramic materials. Granite quarries waste consisted of about 52 wt.% of the batch constituents depending on composition. The granite quarries waste composition was sometimes modified by adding other ingredients such as dolomite, limestone and Al2O3. Batches were melted and then casted into glass, which was then subjected to heat-treatment to induce crystallisation. The resulting glass-ceramic materials (heat-treated at 1000 °C for 3 h were mainly composed of diopside, anorthite, wollastonite and mullite. With increasing temperature (to 1050 °C for 3 h, diopside and anorthite transformed into akermanite and mullite. It has been found that increasing the content of the diopside-anorthite eutectic in the batch constituents, resulted in increased bulk crystallisation. Samples were characterised with different techniques including differential thermal analysis, polarizing microscope, X-ray diffraction and indentation microhardness testing. The obtained glass-ceramic materials possess very high hardness, indicating high abrasion resistance, making them suitable for many applications under aggressive mechanical conditions.

  11. Presence of radioactive minerals in ornamental granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report on results of studies to determine the presence of radioactive minerals in ornamental granitic rocks used as revestiment, originated from several quarries in Brazil, predominantly those from the states of Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais. To develop this work, one hundred samples were collected from commercial stones in Belo Horizonte. In the study of the radioactive materials, techniques of autoradiography were used, as well as optical microscopy, diffractometry and chemical analysis (X-ray spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, neutronic activation, gravimetry and electron microanalysis) to determine the associated minerals and litotypes. Results obtained with autoradiographs of several samples show the shape, size and intensity of irregularly distributed dark spots which, when checked through an optical microscope and an electron microprobe, highlight mainly monazite, allanite and zircon. By using chemical analysis, concentrations of up to 30 ppm of uranium and 130 ppm of thorium were found, preferably associated to high concentrations of light rare earths in silicate rocks of granitic composition. In the future, further results about the ornamental granitic rocks with radioactive minerals will be applied, where possible implications to the environment and damages to the health due to contact with these rocks will be discussed. (author)

  12. Mechanical characteristics and microcosmic mechanisms of granite under temperature loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-li; GAO Feng; SHEN Xiao-ming; XIE He-ping

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between mechanical characteristics of rock and microcosmic mechanism at high temperatures were investigated by MTS815, as well as the stress-strain behavior of granite under the action of temperatures ranging from room tem-perature to 1200 ℃. Based on a micropore structure analyzer and SEM, the changes in rock porosity and micro'structural mor-phology of sample fractures and brittle-plastic characteristics under high temperatures were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1) Mechanical characteristics do not show obvious variations before 800 ℃; strength decreases suddenly after 800 ℃ and bearing capacity is almost lost at 1200 ℃. 2) Rock porosity increases with rising temperatures; the threshold temperature is about 800 ℃;at this temperature its effect is basically uniform with strength decreasing rapidly. 3) The failure type of granite is a brittle tensile fracture at temperatures below 800 ℃ which transforms into plasticity at temperatures higher than 800 ℃ and crystal formation takes place at this time. Chemical reactions take place at 1200 ℃. Failure of granite under high temperature is a common result of thermal stress as indicated by an increase in the thermal expansion coefficient, transformation to crystal formation of minerals and structural chemical reactions.

  13. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrill, Charles; Ross, Doug; Mensik, Fred

    2000-01-01

    The 2000 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by lower than average spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased unclipped yearling and subyearling chinook smolts, and 8,300,546 smolts collected and transported compared to 5,882,872 in 1999. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above Lower Granite Dam, we can no longer accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. Although some table titles in this report still show ''wild'' column headings, the numbers in these columns for 1999 and 2000 include wild and unclipped hatchery origin smolts. The increases over previous years reflect the increased supplementation. A total of 8,300,546 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite Dam. Of these, 187,862 fish were bypassed back to the river and 7,950,648 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 7,778,853 by barge and 171,795 by truck. A total of 151,344 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 1,361,006 smolts (16.4% of the total collection).

  14. Radar, geologic, airborne gamma ray and Landsat TM digital data integration for geological mapping of the Estrela granite complex (Para State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is focused on the geotectonic context of the Carajas Mineral Province, Amazon Craton, which represents the most important Brazilian Mineral Province and hosts iron, cooper, gold, manganese and nickel deposits. At the end of Archean age, during the techno-metamorphic evolution, moderated alkaline granitoids were generated, such as, Estrela Granite Complex (EGC). This work has used digital integration products with the purpose of study the granite suite, its host rock, and the surrounded area. The digital integrated data were gamma-ray and geological data with satellite images (SAR-SAREX e TM-Landsat). The geophysics data, originally in 32 bits and grid format, were interpolated and converted to 8 bits images. The geological data (facies map) was digitalized and converted to a raster format. The remote sensing images were geometrically corrected to guarantee an accuracy on the geological mapping. On the data processing phase, SAR images were digital integrated with gamma-ray data, TM-Landsat image and the raster facies map. The IHS transformation was used as the technique to integrate the multi-source data. On the photogeological interpretation, SAR data were extremely important to permit the extraction of the main tectonic lineaments which occur on the following directions: +/- N45W, +/- N70W, +/- NS, +/- N20E, +/- N45E e +/- N75E. This procedure was done both in analogic and automatic form, being the automatic process more useful to complement information in the extracting process. Among the digital products generated, SAR/GAMA products (uranium, thorium and total count) were the ones that give the most important contribution. The interpretation of the SAR/GAMA's products added to the field campaign have allowed to map the limits of units that occur in the region and four facies of the Estrela Granite Complex were detected. The origin of the granite suite might be related to a magmatic differentiation or to distinct intrusion pulses. The use of the

  15. Growth of plutons by incremental emplacement of sheets in crystal-rich host: Evidence from Miocene intrusions of the Colorado River region, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.F.; Furbish, D.J.; Walker, B.A.; Claiborne, L.L.; Koteas, G.C.; Bleick, H.A.; Miller, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the notion that plutons are constructed incrementally, commonly over long periods of time, yet field evidence for the multiple injections that seem to be required is commonly sparse or absent. Timescales of up to several million years, among other arguments, indicate that the dominant volume does not remain largely molten, yet if growing plutons are constructed from rapidly solidifying increments it is unlikely that intrusive contacts would escape notice. A model wherein magma increments are emplaced into melt-bearing but crystal-rich host, rather than either solid or crystal-poor material, provides a plausible explanation for this apparent conundrum. A partially solidified intrusion undoubtedly comprises zones with contrasting melt fraction and therefore strength. Depending on whether these zones behave elastically or ductilely in response to dike emplacement, intruding magma may spread to form sheets by either of two mechanisms. If the melt-bearing host is elastic on the relevant timescale, magma spreads rather than continuing to propagate upward, where it encounters a zone of higher rigidity (higher crystal fraction). Similarly, if the dike at first ascends through rigid, melt-poor material and then encounters a zone that is weak enough (poor enough in crystals) to respond ductilely, the ascending material will also spread because the dike tip ceases to propagate as in rigid material. We propose that ascending magma is thus in essence trapped, by either mechanism, within relatively crystal-poor zones. Contacts will commonly be obscure from the start because the contrast between intruding material (crystal-poorer magma) and host (crystal-richer material) is subtle, and they may be obscured even further by subsequent destabilization of the crystal-melt framework. Field evidence and zircon zoning stratigraphy in plutons of the Colorado River region of southern Nevada support the hypothesis that emplacement of magma replenishments into a

  16. Identification of Hercynian shoshonitic intrusive rocks in central Hainan Island and its geotectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Caifu; ZHU Jinchu; DING Shijiang; ZHANG Yeming; FU Tai'an; LI Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    An identification has been made of some shoshonitic intrusive rocks in central Hainan Island recently. These rocks are K-rich (K2O=2.9%-5.1%,K2O/Na2O=0.95-2.12), distinctly enriched in LILE and LREE, strongly depleted in Nb, Ta, and moderately depleted in Sr and Ti, with (87Sr/86Sr)i=0.70859-0.71425 and εNd(t) = (-2.77--7.49). They were derived from an EM Ⅱ-type mantle source. The enrichment process is related to metasomatism of depleted mantle caused by a great amount of fluid-melt released from oceanic crust and terrigenous sediments at great depth (eclogite facies)during the subduction of the South China plate under the Indochina-South China Sea plate in the Carboniferous-Early Permian. A SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating yields a crystallization age of 272±7 Ma for the shoshonitic intrusions, which is coeval with the strongly peraluminous granites found in central Hainan Island.These two kinds of rocks generally possess syn-intrusion ductile deformation structures. Thus they are considered to have been generated during the early stage (syn-thrust phase) of a post-collisional event. The primary magma of shoshonitic rocks was produced at a depth>80 km by decompressiondehydration melting of previously enriched lithospheric mantle wedge, phlogopite-bearing garnet peridotite, which was in turn caused by the break-off of a descendent slab and upwelling of a hot asthenosphere. The rising of melts was accompanied by crustal contamination and crystallization fractionation (AFC). Combining with other related data, it is proposed that the southwards subduction and amalgamation of the South China plate with the IndoChina-South China Sea plate took place at ca. 287-278 Ma, which was a part of the convergence process of the Pangea supercontinent. The suture zone was probably located along the line of Song Ma-Beibu Gulf-north margin of the Yunkai Mountains-Wuyi Mountains.

  17. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of felsic intrusions in the El Teniente and Laguna La Huifa areas, Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The giant El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is located in the Andes foothills of Central Chile (34oS). In simplistic terms, the igneous rocks at the mine can be grouped in two major units: a felsic suite of silicic intrusives (the porphyries; SiO2≥56wt%) with subvertical stock-like to dyke shapes, and a mafic volcanic to subvolcanic sequence (the Farellones formation; SiO2<≤56wt%) with a sub-horizontal nature. The felsic rocks intrude the volcanogenic Farellones formation, which is known at the mine site as 'Andesitas de la mina'. The major felsic intrusives are locally known as the 'Diorita Sewell' and 'Porfido Teniente' bodies, plus a series of minor plugs, apophyses and dikes. According to Cuadra (1986), the age of the main intrusive units spans from Late Miocene ('Diorita Sewell'; 7-8Ma) to Early Pliocene ('Porfido Teniente'; ∼4-5Ma). These felsic intrusives are closely related to copper mineralization ( ∼4-5Ma; Cuadra, 1986), particularly the younger 'Porfido Teniente' (Camus, 1975). Additionally, Skewes and Stern (1996) have suggested the existence of an even slightly younger porphyry pluton, not exposed at surface, but still linked to the ore genesis. Similar felsic intrusive bodies are also present in the Laguna La Huifa area (Reich, 2001), located less than 3 km to the NE from the main El Teniente body. The copper mineralization here, is interpreted to be almost contemporaneous with the El Teniente mineralization (Cuadra, 1986). Based on petrographic and geochemical information on the silicic intrusive suite, Rabbia et al. (2000) suggested that this magmatism could be considered as a Phanerozoic equivalent of an Archean high-Al TTG. Furthermore it may be classified as a modified (Na-rich) 'I' type granitoid, in the sense of Atherton and Petford (1993) and Petford and Atherton (1996). According to these authors, the younger (and hotter) lower Andean crust would be a better candidate than the older (and colder) subducted Nazca plate basalts (NPB

  18. Intrusion-Tolerant Based Survivable Model of Database System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJianming; WANGChao; MAJianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Survivability has become increasingly important with society's increased dependence of critical infrastructures on computers. Intrusiontolerant systems extend traditional secure systems to be able to survive or operate through attacks, thus it is an approach for achieving survivability. This paper proposes survivable model of database system based on intrusion-tolerant mechanisms. The model is built on three layers security architecture, to defense intrusion at the outer layer, to detect intrusion at the middle layer, and to tolerate intrusion at the inner layer. We utilize the techniques of both redundancy and diversity and threshold secret sharing schemes to implement the survivability of database and to protect confidential data from compromised servers in the presence of intrusions. Comparing with the existing schemes, our approach has realized the security and robustness for the key functions of a database system by using the integration security strategy and multiple security measures.

  19. Network Security using Linux Intrusion Detection System / IJORCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Anitha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Attacks on the nation’s computer infrastructures are becoming an increasingly serious problem. Firewalls provide a certain amount of security, but can be fooled at times by attacks like IP spoofing and the so called authorized users. So an intelligent system that can detect attacks and intrusions is required. The tool GRANT (Global Real-time Analysis of Network Traffic being a Linux based Intrusion Detection System(LIDs, takes the advantage of the security of a Linux box and secures the other nodes in the perimeter of the network. It is capable of detecting intrusions and probes as and when they occur and capable of responding to “already” successful attacks, thus causing minimal or no damage to the entire network. For better performance, this Linux Intrusion Detection System should be part of a defense in depth strategy such as Firewall and Intrusion Prevention.

  20. Multi-core Processors based Network Intrusion Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqian Wan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly hard to build an intrusion detection system (IDS, because of the higher traffic throughput and the rising sophistication of attacking. Scale will be an important issue to address in the intrusion detection area. For hardware, tomorrow’s performance gains will come from multi-core architectures in which a number of CPU executes concurrently. We take the advantage of multi-core processors’ full power for intrusion detection in this work. We present an intrusion detection system based on the Snort open-source IDS that exploits the computational power of MIPS multi-core architecture to offload the costly pattern matching operations from the CPU, and thus increase the system’s processing throughput. A preliminary experiment demonstrates the potential of this system. The experiment results indicate that this method can be used effectively to speed up intrusion detection systems.

  1. Boron isotope method for study of seawater intrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖应凯; 尹德忠; 刘卫国; 王庆忠; 魏海珍

    2001-01-01

    A distinct difference in boron isotopes between seawater and terrestrial water is emphasized by δ11B values reported for seawater and groundwater, with an average of 38.8‰ and in the range of -8.9‰ to 9.8‰, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in groundwater can be used to quantify seawater intrusion and identify intrusion types, e.g. seawater or brine intrusions with different chemical and isotopic characteristics, by using the relation of δ11B and chloride concentration. The feasibility of utilizing boron isotope in groundwater for studying seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay Region, China, is reported in this study, which shows that boron isotope is a useful and excellent tool for the study of seawater intrusion.

  2. Identification Method of Attack Path Based on Immune Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This thesis takes researches on the immune intrusion detection and IP trace back technology. To find out the network data features of the real-time analyses, the distributed immune intrusion detection system and the packet marking theory are used; to guide the dynamically processing of path signs technology, the immune intrusion detection system is used; what’s more, to dynamically adaptive different methods of characteristics of network data, the path signs technology is adopted. After that, the attack paths can be quickly identified to provide path information for feature detector on attack path in the immune intrusion detection system. Experiment results show that this scheme can quickly reconstruct the attack path information, and the performance on the aspects of the convergence is with efficiency rate and false positive rate, which is superior to the current probabilistic packet marking algorithm and can provide characteristic path information for immune intrusion detection system

  3. Cambro-Ordovician Granites in the Araçuaí Belt, in Brazil: snapshots from a late orogenic collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campos, Cristina P.; Mendes, Júlio Cesar; de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; Ludka, Isabel P.

    2014-05-01

    Along the Brazilian Coast, surrounding the São Francisco Craton and adjacent mobile belts, deep segments of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo) generated over 120 Ma of successive magmatic episodes of granitic magmatism. The c.630-585 Ma calc-alkaline magmatic arc consists of metatonalite to metagranodiorite, with metadioritic to noritic facies and enclaves. During the syn-collisional and crustal thickening stage (c. 585 to 560 Ma) S-type metagranites have been built by dehydration melting of a diverse package of sediments. Around 545-525 Ma late orogenic crustal remelting formed mostly non-foliated garnet-cordierite leucogranites. In the post-orogenic stage (c. 510-480 Ma) inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutons intruded previous units. This work will focus on the youngest post-orogenic magmatism. It will present the state of the art by reviewing structural measurements, detailed mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data. The architecture of around 10 plutons, ranging from c. 20 to 200 km2 in surface area, unravels deep mushroom- to funnel-like magma chambers and/or conduits. Available data point towards different compositional domains, which are interfingered in complex concentric layers, so that, each pluton depicts a unique internal flow pattern. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented or folded layers of granite, in a hybrid K-gabbroic/dioritic matrix, contrast with predominantly homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by magmatic shear zones where mixing is enhanced, also resulting in hybrid compositions. Sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks locally depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least

  4. Strain gauges as intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain gauges have been studied for use as intrusion detection sensors in several applications being investigated at Sandia National Laboratories. Strain gauges are attached to a metal structure to monitor the quiescent strain in the structure. The change in the quiescent strain, when an intruder adds weight to the structure provides the alarm mechanism. The basic theory of force sensors is covered to lay the foundation for this application. In this paper, how this basic theory is applied to security sensors is discussed, and how this class of sensors is applicable to security at Department of Energy facilities is covered. Several applications are described for strain gauges as security sensors. Test results are presented from a six-month test conducted at a Department of Energy facility using the strain gauge to monitor overhead lines crossing a security perimeter. Monitoring these overhead lines with strain gauges is valuable because the cost is much less than the cost to bury the lines

  5. Multimodal Evolution Approach to Multidimensional Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weng Guang'an; Yu Shengsheng; Zhou Jingli

    2006-01-01

    An artificial immunity based multimodal evolution algorithm is developed to generate detectors with variable coverage for multidimensional intrusion detection. In this algorithm, a proper fitness function is used to drive the detectors to fill in those detection holes close to self set or among self spheres, and genetic algorithm is adopted to reduce the negative effects that different distribution of self imposes on the detector generating process. The validity of the algorithm is tested with spherical and rectangular detectors,respectively, and experiments performed on two real data sets ( machine learning database and DAPRA99) indicate that the proposed algorithm can obtain good results on spherical detectors, and that its performances in detection rate, false alarm rate, stability, time cost, and adaptability to incomplete training set on spherical detectors are all better than on rectangular ones.

  6. Coastal Marsh Monitoring for Persistent Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Callie M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's work on the project that supports the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) Governors Action Plan to monitor the coastal wetlands for saltwater intrusion. The action items that relate to the task are: (1) Obtain information on projected relative sea level rise, subsidence, and storm vulnerability to help prioritize conservation projects, including restoration, enhancement, and acquisition, and (2) Develop and apply ecosystem models to forecast the habitat structure and succession following hurricane disturbance and changes in ecological functions and services that impact vital socio-economic aspects of coastal systems. The objectives of the program are to provide resource managers with remote sensing products that support ecosystem forecasting models requiring salinity and inundation data. Specifically, the proposed work supports the habitat-switching modules in the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) model, which provides scientific evaluation for restoration management.

  7. Introduction To Intrusion Detection System Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Tewatia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Security of a network is always an important issue. With the continuously growing network the basic security such as firewall virus scanner is easily deceived by modern attackers who are experts in using software vulnerabilities to achieve their goals. For preventing such attacks we need even smarter security mechanism which act proactively and intelligently. Intrusion Detection System is the solution of such requirement. Many techniques have been used to implement IDS. These technique basically used in the detector part of IDS such as Neural Network Clustering Pattern Matching Rule Based Fuzzy Logic Genetic Algorithms and many more. To improve the performance of an IDS these approaches may be used in combination to build a hybrid IDS so that benefits of two o more approaches may be combined.

  8. Enigmatic Connection Between Rhyolites and Shallow Granites in a Cambrian Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. C.

    2007-12-01

    The Cambrian Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (SOA) exposes shallow-seated, A-type sheet granites emplaced on top of layered mafic bodies and under cover of A-type rhyolites, this gabbro-rhyolite boundary being a crustal magma trap. Granites and rhyolites appear to overlap in age, although rhyolites built up first, with the rhyolite pile thickening as later granites coarsened texturally to medium-grained types from earlier fine-grained sheets. Outcrop relations + widespread subsurface data, including regional gravity, indicate rhyolite volume exceeds granite volume. Both silicic and mafic members of the SOA sequence have the same positive Nd signature showing a fundamental genetic relationship between the rifting process and the development of new crust in the SOA. Major element geochemistry of rhyolites (~76% SiO2) and granites (73-76% SiO2) is similar, as are many trace element abundances and signatures. However, some indices are different: Zr in rhyolites is ~600-700ppm, in granites ~300-500; Zr/Nb in rhyolites 8-11, in granites 4-8; K/Rb in rhyolites 300's, in granites 200's. In only one locality can a continuous connection between fine-grained granite and a texturally rhyolitic lobe be seen. Thus, it is clear that none of the rhyolites and granites are directly related at their emplacement level. Conclusions: 1)Silicic magma, both rhyolitic and granitic, was fractionated from mafic sources in the middle rift crust. 2)Magma driving pressures for silicic liquids must have been higher for those becoming rhyolites than for those that became granites. 3)These differences imply that rhyolitic magma generally came from a deeper depth in the mid-crust, although the ultimate mafic sources may have been similar. 4)More generally as this case shows, spatially near, and chemically similar, rhyolite and granite bodies in the same tectonic setting may not be directly related.

  9. Emplacement of sandstone intrusions during contractional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Giuseppe; Grippa, Antonio; Bureau, Denis; Alsop, G. Ian; Hurst, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Sandstone injections are created by the forceful emplacement of remobilized sand in response to increases in overpressure. However, the contribution provided by horizontal compressive stress to the build-up in overpressure, and the resulting emplacement of sand injection complexes, is still to be substantiated by robust field observations. An opportunity to address this issue occurs in Central California where a large volume of sandstone intrusions record regionally-persistent supra-lithostatic pore-pressure. Detailed fieldwork allows sandstone-filled thrusts to be recognized and, for the first time, permits us to demonstrate that some sandstone intrusions are linked to contractional deformation affecting the western border of the Great Valley Basin. Fluidized sand was extensively injected along thrust surfaces, and also fills local dilatant cavities linked to thrusting. The main aims of this paper are to provide detailed descriptions of the newly recognized syn-tectonic injections, and describe detailed cross-cutting relationships with earlier sandstone injection complexes in the study area. Finally, an evolutionary model consisting of three phases of sand injection is provided. In this model, sand injection is linked to contractional tectonic episodes affecting the western side of the Great Valley Basin during the Early-Middle Cenozoic. This study demonstrates that sand injections, driven by fluid overpressure, may inject along thrusts and folds and thereby overcome stresses associated with regional contractional deformation. It is shown that different generations of sand injection can develop in the same area under the control of different stress regimes, linked to the evolving mountain chain.

  10. Geology, petrology, U-Pb (SHRIMP) geochronology of the Morrinhos granite - Paragua terrane, SW Amazonian craton: implications for the magmatic evolution of the San Ignacio orogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Ohana; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Sousa, Maria Zelia Aguiar de, E-mail: ohana.geo@gmail.com, E-mail: asruiz@gmail.com, E-mail: mzaguiar@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Geologia Geral; Batata, Maria Elisa Froes, E-mail: elisabatata@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisa em Evolucao Crustal e Tectonica; Lafon, Jean-Michel [Universidade Federal do Para (GEOCIAM/UFPA), Belem, PR (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de Cencia e Tecnologia de Geociencias da Amazonia

    2014-09-15

    Morrinhos granite is a batholith body that is slightly elongated in the NNW direction and approximately 1,140 km{sup 2} long; it is located in the municipality of Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the Paragua Terrane, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, in the SW portion of the Amazonian Craton. This intrusion displays a compositional variation from tonalite to monzogranite, has a medium to coarse inequigranular texture and is locally porphyritic; biotite is the predominant mafic in one of the facies, and hornblende is predominant in the other, with both metamorphosed into the green schist facies. The studied rocks characterize an intermediate to acidic sequence that was formed by a subalkaline magmatism; the series is alkali-calcic to metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, and the rocks evolved through fractioned crystallization mechanisms. The structural data show two deformation phases represented by penetrative foliation (S{sub 1}) and open folds (D{sub 2}), and both phases were most likely related to the San Ignacio Orogeny. The geochronological (U-Pb SHRIMP) and isotopic (Sm-Nd) investigations of these rocks indicated a crystallization age of 1350±12Ma, T{sub DM} of approximately 1.77 Ga and εNd{sub (1.35}) with a negative value of -2.57, suggesting that their generation was related to a partial melting process of a Paleoproterozoic (Statherian) continental crust. The results herein indicate that the Morrinhos granite was generated in a continental magmatic arc in a late- to post-orogenic stage of the San Ignacio Orogeny, and it can be recognized as belonging to the Pensamiento Intrusive Suite. (author)

  11. Bluish granites from Extremadura (Spain): a radiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Neves, Luís.; Peinado, Mercedes; Pereira, Alcides; Rodríguez, Leticia; António Blanco, José

    2010-05-01

    We have found in the area of Trujillo (Extremadura, Spain) a variety of striking bluish granites, outcropping within the Plasenzuela pluton. They are all quarried under different names and are characterized by leucocratic minerals such as quartz, feldspar (both potassium and plagioclase), sometimes giving a fenocrystic texture and muscovite, with some biotite. As accessory phases, idiomorphic tourmaline is found. Recently a bluish phosphate distributed in the whole rock was detected, included within most mineral phases and fillings from stressed structures that are cutting the rock. We attribute the bluish color of the granites to this phosphate. Although biotite is almost always transformed to chlorite, the rock gives an excellent response to be polished. Physico-mechanical properties make this bluish granite a perfect option for most applications. Absorption coefficient is rather low and alteration by thermal changes has not been observed. A secondary facies with yellow colour also occurs, spatially close to the topographic surface, and probably represents an alteration product of the original granite. This facies is also commercialized as ornamental stone. A radiological survey was carried out in the field, using a gamma ray spectrometer. The radiological background is quite homogeneous in the pluton, without significant differences between gamma ray fluxes of both facies (altered and non altered). The average contents of U, Th and K2O determined in situ with the spectrometer are 7.4 ppm, 0.8 ppm and 3.67%, respectively (n=15). Using U as a Ra proxy, the I index of the EU technical document 112 can be determined, and results in a value of 0.64 for the referred composition. This implies that the rock can be used without any restrictions for building purposes. However, a marked difference was observed in radon exhalation tests carried out in laboratorial facilities. The dominant blue variety shows radon exhalation rates comprised between 0.02 and 0.04 Bq.kg-1.h-1

  12. Review of geomechanics data from French nuclear explosions in the Hoggar granite, with some comparisons to tests in US granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous unclassified reports on the French nuclear explosions in the Hoggar (1961-1966) were reviewed from the standpoint of geomechanics. The following aspects of the tests are summarized: spectral content of the tests compared to U.S. results; shock front positions with time; cavity radius as a function of yield, coupling, density of rock, rock shear strength, and overburden; radial pressure, tangential pressure and peak velocity as a function of distance and yield; pressure vs. time at various distances; mechanical properties of granite; scaling laws for acceleration, velocity and displacement as a function of yield and distance for all Hoggar shots; extent of tunnel damage as a function of distance and yield; time to collapse of chimney as a function of yield, or cavity radius; extent of granite crushing and disking as a function of distance and yield cavity height relation to cavity radius; faulting and jointing on the Taourirt Tan Afella massif; and influence of water content on cavity radius vs. yield. Whenever possible, these French data are compared to corresponding data obtained in the U.S. granite events Hard Hat, Shoal, and Piledriver. The following results emerge from the comparison: (1) agreement is found between the French and U.S. experience for: mechanical properties of the granites, rock damage due to the blast, and yield-scaled peak values of acceleration, velocity and displacement; and (2) lack of agreement exists for: cavity size, chminey height, and time to cavity collapse. Average spacing of rock joints also was about 5 times greater in the Hoggar

  13. Intrusion Prevention/Intrusion Detection System (IPS/IDS) for Wifi Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Korcak; Jaroslav Lamer; Frantisek Jakab

    2014-01-01

    The nature of wireless networks itself created new vulnerabilities that in the classical wired network s do not exist. This results in an evolutional requireme nt to implement new sophisticated security mechanis m in form of Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems. This paper deals with security issues of small off ice and home office wireless networks. The goal of our work is to design and evaluate wireless IDPS with u se of packet injection method. Dec...

  14. Correlation of stratigraphy, structure, metamorphism and intrusion in the Caledonian allochthons of East Greenland and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, David G.

    2014-05-01

    There are two main hypotheses for the relationships between the Greenland and Svalbard Caledonides. The one regards the Svalbard "terranes" to be a natural, along-strike (via the continental shelves) continuation of the northeast Greenland allochthons, with a minor component in southwest Spitsbergen of rock units with affinities to the Ellesmerian Orogen and Pearya. The other hypothesis regards Svalbard as an assembly of lithospheric fragments that have been moved thousands of kilometres along the axis of the Caledonide Orogen from more southerly latitudes. It has long been accepted that the Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic successions in the Caledonides of northeastern Greenland and on Nordaustlandet, eastern Svalbard, are closely comparable in stratigraphy, depositional environment and structure and are unambiguous parts of the Laurentian continental margin.Their close correlation provides the foundation for the interpretation that they were deposited adjacent to each other and subsequently separated by vast (1000 km plus) displacements on orogen-parallel sinistral transcurrent faults. Studies of their underlying metamorphic complexes (the Renlandian Orogen in the Hager Berg Allochthon of northeast Greenland and the Nordaustlandet Orogen of northeastern Svalbard), demonstrated that they had very similar histories: latest Mesoproterozoic to earliest Neoproterozoic siliciclastic deposition, followed by mid Tonian deformation, HT/LP metamorphism, migmatization and syn- to post-tectonic granite intrusion (c. 950-930 Ma). On Nordaustlandet, major unconformities and some calc-alkaline volcanics, separate this late Grenvillian "basement" complex from the overlying Cryogenian succession; in northeast Greenland, unconformity is inferred, but has yet to be demonstrated. Another aspect of the geological history of these two "terranes" is that their Caledonian tectonothermal histories are also remarkably similar, with early to mid Silurian HT/LP metamorphism and

  15. A westward propagating slab tear model for Late Triassic Qinling Orogenic Belt geodynamic evolution: Insights from the petrogenesis of the Caoping and Shahewan intrusions, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangyang; Liu, Shuwen; Zhang, Wanyi; Deng, Zhengbin; Chen, Xu

    2016-10-01

    Late Triassic granitoid intrusions are widespread in the South Qinling Belt (SQB), providing excellent subjects to understand the geodynamic evolution of the Qinling Orogenic Belt and the collision between the North China Craton (NCC) and Yangtze Craton (YZC). This study shows newly obtained geological, geochemical and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data of the Caoping and Shahewan intrusions, revealing that the Caoping intrusion consists of ~ 215 Ma fined-grained granites, and ~ 221-215 Ma porphyritic and coarse to medium-grained tonalites, granodiorites and monzogranites, which assemble with coeval mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs). The Shahewan intrusion is composed of ~ 215-210 Ma porphyritic granodiorites and monzogranites, which also assemble with coeval MMEs. The fine-grained granites from the Caoping intrusion are characterized by high SiO2, Rb and (La/Yb)N ratio, but low MgO, CaO and Sc contents, with εHf(t) values of - 8.6 to + 4.3 and TDM2(Hf) ages of 883-1596 Ma, suggesting that they are mainly derived from partial melting of the Meso- to Neoproterozoic metagreywackes. The porphyritic and coarse to medium-grained granitoid rocks from both Caoping and Shahewan intrusions are characterized by higher MgO, CaO, Sc, Mg# values, but low SiO2, Rb contents and (La/Yb)N ratio, with εHf(t) values of - 0.7 to + 2.8 and TDM2(Hf) values of 961-1158 Ma, suggesting that they are mainly formed by magma mixing between melts that were derived from Meso- to Neoproterozoic basement rocks of the SQB and metasomatized lithospheric mantle. The MMEs from Caoping and Shahewan intrusions are characterized by low SiO2, Sr/Y ratio, high MgO, K2O, Rb, Sc, total REE contents, with εHf(t) values of + 0.5 to + 6.1 and TDM(Hf) values of 661-846 Ma, suggesting that they are produced by partial melting of metasomatized lithospheric mantle. The rapakivi-like textures of the rocks from Shahewan intrusion may be caused by continued underplating and injection of mafic magma resulting in higher

  16. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  17. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  18. Utilization and Outcomes of Breast Brachytherapy in Younger Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Grace L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Huo, Jinhai [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: bsmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To directly compare (1) radiation treatment utilization patterns; (2) risks of subsequent mastectomy; and (3) costs of radiation treatment in patients treated with brachytherapy versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI), in a national, contemporary cohort of women with incident breast cancer, aged 64 years and younger. Methods and Materials: Using MarketScan health care claims data, we identified 45,884 invasive breast cancer patients (aged 18-64 years), treated from 2003 to 2010 with lumpectomy, followed by brachytherapy (n=3134) or whole-breast irradiation (n=42,750). We stratified patients into risk groups according to age (Age<50 vs Age≥50) and endocrine therapy status (Endocrine− vs Endocrine+). “Endocrine+” patients filled an endocrine therapy prescription within 1 year after lumpectomy. Pathologic hormone receptor status was not available in this dataset. In brachytherapy versus WBI patients, utilization trends and 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks were compared. Stratified, adjusted subsequent mastectomy risks were calculated using proportional hazards regression. Results: Brachytherapy utilization increased from 2003 to 2010: in patients Age<50, from 0.6% to 4.9%; patients Age≥50 from 2.2% to 11.3%; Endocrine− patients, 1.3% to 9.4%; Endocrine+ patients, 1.9% to 9.7%. Age influenced treatment selection more than endocrine status: 17% of brachytherapy patients were Age<50 versus 32% of WBI patients (P<.001); whereas 41% of brachytherapy patients were Endocrine–versus 44% of WBI patients (P=.003). Highest absolute 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks occurred in Endocrine−/Age<50 patients (24.4% after brachytherapy vs 9.0% after WBI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.47); intermediate risks in Endocrine−/Age≥50 patients (8.6% vs 4.9%; HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.26-2.46); and lowest risks in Endocrine+ patients of any age: Endocrine+/Age<50 (5.5% vs 4.5%; HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.61-2.31); Endocrine+/Age≥50 (4.2% vs 2

  19. Utilization and Outcomes of Breast Brachytherapy in Younger Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To directly compare (1) radiation treatment utilization patterns; (2) risks of subsequent mastectomy; and (3) costs of radiation treatment in patients treated with brachytherapy versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI), in a national, contemporary cohort of women with incident breast cancer, aged 64 years and younger. Methods and Materials: Using MarketScan health care claims data, we identified 45,884 invasive breast cancer patients (aged 18-64 years), treated from 2003 to 2010 with lumpectomy, followed by brachytherapy (n=3134) or whole-breast irradiation (n=42,750). We stratified patients into risk groups according to age (Age<50 vs Age≥50) and endocrine therapy status (Endocrine− vs Endocrine+). “Endocrine+” patients filled an endocrine therapy prescription within 1 year after lumpectomy. Pathologic hormone receptor status was not available in this dataset. In brachytherapy versus WBI patients, utilization trends and 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks were compared. Stratified, adjusted subsequent mastectomy risks were calculated using proportional hazards regression. Results: Brachytherapy utilization increased from 2003 to 2010: in patients Age<50, from 0.6% to 4.9%; patients Age≥50 from 2.2% to 11.3%; Endocrine− patients, 1.3% to 9.4%; Endocrine+ patients, 1.9% to 9.7%. Age influenced treatment selection more than endocrine status: 17% of brachytherapy patients were Age<50 versus 32% of WBI patients (P<.001); whereas 41% of brachytherapy patients were Endocrine–versus 44% of WBI patients (P=.003). Highest absolute 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks occurred in Endocrine−/Age<50 patients (24.4% after brachytherapy vs 9.0% after WBI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.47); intermediate risks in Endocrine−/Age≥50 patients (8.6% vs 4.9%; HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.26-2.46); and lowest risks in Endocrine+ patients of any age: Endocrine+/Age<50 (5.5% vs 4.5%; HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.61-2.31); Endocrine+/Age≥50 (4.2% vs 2

  20. Glacier-derived climate for the Younger Dryas in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitero, Ramon; Rea, Brice R.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Hughes, Philip; Braithwaite, Roger; Renssen, Hans; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Ribolini, Adriano; Bakke, Jostein; Lukas, Sven

    2016-04-01

    We have reconstructed and calculated the glacier equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) for 120 Younger Dryas palaeoglaciers from Morocco in the south to Svalbard in the north and from Ireland in the west to Turkey in the east. The chronology of these landform were checked and, when derived from cosmogenic dates, these were recalculated based on newer production rates. Frontal moraines/limits for the palaeoglaciers were used to reconstruct palaeoglacier extent by using a GIS tool which implements a discretised solution for the assumption of perfect-plasticity ice rheology for a single flowline and extents this out to a 3D ice surface. From the resulting equilibrium profile, palaeoglaciers palaeo-ELAs were calculated using another GIS tool. Where several glaciers were reconstructed in a region, a single ELA value was generated following the methodology of Osmaston (2005). In order to utilise these ELAs for quantitative palaeo-precipitation reconstructions an independent regional temperature analysis was undertaken. A database of 121 sites was compiled where the temperature was determined from palaeoproxies other than glaciers (e.g. pollen, diatoms, choleoptera, chironimids…) in both terrestrial and offshore environments. These proxy data provides estimates of average annual, summer and winter temperatures. These data were merged and interpolated to generate maps of average temperature for the warmest and coldest months and annual average temperature. From these maps the temperature at the ELA was obtained using a lapse rate of 0.65°C/100m. Using the ELA temperature range and summer maximum in a degree-day model allows determination of the potential melt which can be taken as equivalent to precipitation given the assumption a glacier is in equilibrium with climate. Results show that during the coldest part of the Younger Dryas precipitation was high in the British Isles, the NW of the Iberian Peninsula and the Vosges. There is a general trend for declining precipitation

  1. Cartilage Grown in Lab Might One Day Help Younger Arthritis Sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cartilage Grown in Lab Might One Day Help Younger Arthritis Sufferers Made of patients' stem cells and ... eliminate the need for hip replacement surgery in younger arthritis patients. The cartilage hasn't been tested ...

  2. Estrogen Therapy Has No Long-Term Effect on Cognition in Younger Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has no long-term effect on cognition in younger postmenopausal women NIH-funded study finds neither benefit ... A randomized clinical trial of estrogen therapy in younger postmenopausal women, aged 50–55, has found no ...

  3. Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults But doctors say the concept is not ... two times, the study authors said. Among the younger participants, a high risk score was linked to ...

  4. Kids 14 and Younger Only Need 2 HPV Vaccine Shots: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Kids 14 and Younger Only Need 2 HPV Vaccine Shots: CDC But agency's revised guidelines still recommend ... and younger require only two doses of the HPV vaccine rather than the previously recommended three shots, U.S. ...

  5. Zircon Senstive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) study of granitoid intrusions in Zhaoye Gold Belt of Shandong Province and its implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗来成; 罗镇宽; 黄佳展; 关康; N.J. McNaughton; D. I. Groves

    1997-01-01

    The zircon Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) results show that granitoid intrusions in Zhaoyc Gold Belt were emplaced at two periods of Mesozoic: Linglong and Luanjiahe types of granitic intrusions were emplaced between 160 Ma and 150 Ma (late Jurassic); Guojialing type of granodioritic intrusions, 130 Ma and 126 Ma (early Cretaceous). All the three types contain at least two major generations of inherited zircons with Precambrian ( >650 Ma) and early Mesozoic ages (200-250 Ma), respectively. The former suggests that these plu-tonic rocks are of crustal origin and that Precambrian basement with component of sialic crust up to 3.4 Ga old ( Middle Archean) exists in the region. The presence of abundant inherited zircons with early Mesozoic age indicates that the Precambrian basement was affected by a major tectono-thermal event, that is the collision of the North and South China blocks, at 250 Ma to 200 Ma. SHRIMP results also indicate that the gold mineralization in the region took place

  6. Structural, Petrographic and Geochemical Characteristics of Mafic Dikes Intrusive in Metasedimentary Rocks of the Crixás Greenstone Belt, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Jost

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mafic dikes and stocks are a common feature in the Archean terrain of Goiás, Central Brazil, where they occur asswarms of 2.3 - 2.5 Ga within the granite-gneiss complexes (2.8 e 2.7 Ga, as well as intrusions related to the komatiite andbasalt flows of the greenstone belts lower stratigraphic units, but were unknown within the upper metasedimentary units.Detailed study of core sections from several drill-sites in the area of the Crixás greenstone belt gold deposits showed thatdike intrusion occurred after the main Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of the metasedimentary units,and literature data indicate that the magmatic zircons from the dikes yielded an age of 2,170 ± 17 Ma. Petrographic andgeochemical data show that they have the composition of epicratonic high-Ti diabases, which are similar to the largecontinental flood basalts of the Paraná Basin. The age of the intrusions may be correlated with the short time-interval of theRhyacian (2.20 to 2.17 Ga, during which successive localized episodes of mantle plume volcanism occurred on the Earth.

  7. Contrasted crustal sources as defined by whole-rock and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of neoproterozoic early post-collisional granitic magmatism within the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt, Camboriú, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florisbal, Luana Moreira; de Assis Janasi, Valdecir; de Fátima Bitencourt, Maria; Stoll Nardi, Lauro Valentim; Heaman, Larry M.

    2012-11-01

    The early phase of post-collisional granitic magmatism in the Camboriú region, south Brazil, is represented by the porphyritic biotite ± hornblende Rio Pequeno Granite (RPG; 630-620 Ma) and the younger (˜610 Ma), equigranular, biotite ± muscovite Serra dos Macacos Granite (SMG). The two granite types share some geochemical characteristics, but the more felsic SMG constitutes a distinctive group not related to RPG by simple fractionation processes, as indicated by its lower FeOt, TiO2, K2O/Na2O and higher Zr Al2O3, Na2O, Ba and Sr when compared to RPG of similar SiO2 range. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes require different sources. The SMG derives from old crustal sources, possibly related to the Paleoproterozoic protoliths of the Camboriú Complex, as indicated by strongly negative ɛNdt (-23 to -24) and unradiogenic Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 16.0-16.3; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.3-15.4) and confirmed by previous LA-MC-ICPMS data showing dominant zircon inheritance of Archean to Paleoproterozoic age. In contrast, the RPG shows less negative ɛNdt (-12 to -15) and a distinctive zircon inheritance pattern with no traces of post-1.6 Ga sources. This is indicative of younger sources whose significance in the regional context is still unclear; some contribution of mantle-derived magmas is indicated by coeval mafic dykes and may account for some of the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the least differentiated varieties of the RPG. The transcurrent tectonics seems to have played an essential role in the generation of mantle-derived magmas despite their emplacement within a low-strain zone. It may have facilitated their interaction with crustal melts which seem to be to a large extent the products of reworking of Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses from the Camboriú Complex.

  8. Use of photovoice with people with younger onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Robertson, Jacinta; Candy, Allen

    2016-07-01

    Photography is a tool that has been used in research for many years. It allows people to create a record of an event, capture a complex phenomenon or to tell a story with pictures. Because it does not rely on language, it can be used with vulnerable populations who might not normally be included in research. This paper discusses the use of photography as one component of the evaluation strategy for a project that provided an opportunity for people with younger onset dementia to return to the workplace one day per week. Participants in the workplace project used photography to create a record of their experience of returning to the workplace. Based on the nature of the participant's comments, photographs were grouped into four broad areas: impact of dementia, impact on family, the work experience and new friends. Issues related to the use of photography with people who have dementia are explored based on the experiences gained during this project. PMID:24962000

  9. Ankle brachial pressure index of normal, healthy, younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblo, Jane; Coull, Alison

    Doppler ultrasound and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) calculations are used in the assessment of lower limb vascularity, specifically to determine arterial deficiency. ABPI is important as it is used as an indicator when deciding management options for the treatment of leg ulceration. This study aimed to investigate the range of ABPI measurement, using Doppler ultrasound and sphygmomanometry in 36 young healthy adults aged 18-55 years. The findings show a mean ABPI in the left leg of 1.19 and a mean ABPI of 1.17 in the right leg which, while within the normal range, are consistently in the upper range and significantly higher than the acknowledged 'normal' midpoint of 1.0. It would appear that younger people will have ABPIs within the upper aspect of the normal range and well above the established norm of 1.0. PMID:24151719

  10. Routine Activities Preceding Adolescent Sexual Abuse of Younger Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Felson, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Adolescent abuse of younger children has long been recognized, but empirical research on the circumstances of this phenomenon is rare. This article examines how adolescent offenders find and gain access to victims, work out time alone with them, and set up or exploit settings for sexual contact. Prior researchers learned that adult sex offenders use certain routine activities to perform these tasks. The current research inquires whether adolescent offenders are similar. We administered Kaufman's Modus Operandi Questionnaire to a sample of 116 Canadian adolescent males undergoing treatment for a sexual offense against a child. Adolescent offenders follow routines similar to adults but are better able to use games and activities as a prelude to sexual abuse. We discuss how routine legal activities set the stage for activities and should be considered when devising situational prevention strategies. PMID:25060598

  11. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    ]. Analyses of cores of some zircons from granodiorites of Lupveem batholith indicate Precambrian age of protolith (717, 1070.4 and 1581.5 m.a.) [15]. 40Ar-39Ar age of synmetamorphic biotite varies from 108 to 103 m.a. [15]. Intrusive rocks of Alarmaut dome are represented by wide spectrum of rocks: diorites, Q diorites, Q monzodiorites, granodiorites, tonalites, granites. Granodiorites and granites contain mafic enclaves of monzonites and Q monzonites. SiO2 contents in rocks of Alarmaut dome varies from 58,55% in diorites to 71,3% in granites; in enclaves - from 54,6% in monzonites to 61.89% in Q monzonites. Granitoids are normal and subalkaline rocks according to SiO2 vs K2O+Na2O and belong to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series according to K2O vs SiO2. They are mainly metaluminous rocks (ASI financial support of RFBR (projects № 07-05-00255, 08-05-00547), leading scientific school NSh-3172.2008.5, Programs of basic researches ONZ RAS 6. References 1. Parfenov L.M. Continental margins and island arcs of Mesozoides of North-East Asia. Novosibirsk, 1984. 192 p. (in Russian) 2. Zonenshain L.P., Kuz'min M.I., Natapov L.M. Tectonics of lithospheric plates of USSR territory // М.: Nauka, 1990. V. 2. 327 p. (in Russian) 3. Sokolov S.D. Classification and hierarchy of fold constructions. М. GEOS. 2008. P.71-100. (in Russian) 4. Seslavinsky K.B. South-Anyui suture zone (West Chukotka) // Dokl. AN USSR. 1979. V. 249. P. 1181-1185 (in Russian) 5. Natal'in B.A. Early Mesozoic eugeosynclinal systems in the northern part of Circum-Pacifica. М.: Nauka. 1984. 136 p. (in Russian) 6. Sokolov S.D., Bondarenko G.Ye., Morozov O.L.,. Shekhovtsov V.A., Glotov S.P.,. Ganelin A.V., Kravchenko-Berezhnoy I.R. The South Anyui Suture, NE Arctic Russia: facts and problems to solve. Tectonic Evolution of the Bering Shelf-Chukchi Sea-Arctic Margin and Adjacent Landmasses. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper, 2002, 360. P. 209-224 7. Sokolov S.D., Bondarenko G.E., Morozov O.L., Luchitskaya M

  12. Warm summers during Younger Dryas cold reversal over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Frederik; Muschitiello, Francesco; Heikkilä, Miaja; Väliranta, Minna; Tarasov, Lev; Brandefelt, Jenny; Johansson, Arne; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The Younger Dryas cold reversal (GS-1) sticks out as a major stadial interrupting the mid to late deglaciation with a sharp temperature drop of several degrees around the North Atlantic with global teleconnections. The abrupt return to a very cold glacial-like ocean state introduces a strong temperature anomaly to the climate system contrasting the high solar radiation received by northern summers. Here we show that, in contrast to earlier coarse resolution climate simulations of the Younger Dryas, these competing factors result in rather warm summer conditions over Eurasia comparable to the preceding warm period of the late Allerød (GI-1a). Despite up to 10 K colder sea-surface-temperatures in summer, our high resolution simulation with the Community Earth System Model 1 (CESM1.0.5) suggests that the presence of large ice sheets over Scandinavia, Spitsbergen and the Kara Sea significantly modifies atmospheric flow in summer preventing cold westerly winds from the Atlantic to impact the continent. Instead, fluid dynamics around ice sheets deflect winds to the north or south along the coasts supported by divergent flow from ice domes, stratification and increased tendency to high pressure and atmospheric blocking. Consistent with our model simulation, we show that temperature reconstructions derived from an extended compilation of multi-proxy lake records (chironomids, aquatic pollen, macrofossils) suggest warm July conditions of 13-17° C for continental Europe with exception of coastal and high elevation sites. The analysis of simulated growing degree days, season length and first results from paleo lake modelling driven by climate model output suggests that severe winter to spring conditions significantly delay and shorten the vegetation season but do not produce cold summers as previously simulated.

  13. Otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cantisani Di Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Methods: Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position, type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. Results: 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score <7 and day care attendance. The multivariate analysis showed that artificial feeding is the factor most often associated to otitis media with effusion. Conclusions: Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding.

  14. Habitual fat intake predicts memory function in younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Leigh eGibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old, recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23 and controls (n=15. Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd., i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test. Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA, were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA intake predicted poorer performance on the word recall and recognition measures. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with poorer word recognition only, whereas higher blood total cholesterol was associated only with visuo-spatial learning errors. None of these variables predicted performance on a delayed pattern matching test. The significant nutrient-cognition relationships were tested for mediation by total energy intake: saturated and trans fat intakes, and Sat:UFA, remained significant predictors specifically of visuo-spatial learning errors, whereas total fat and UFA intakes now predicted only poorer word recall. Examination of associations separately for mono- (MUFA and polyunsaturated fats suggested that only MUFA intake was predictive of poorer word recall. Saturated and trans fats, and fasting insulin, may already be associated with cognitive deficits in younger women. The findings need extending but may have important implications for public

  15. Modeling and numerical analysis of granite rock specimen under mechanical loading and fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luc Leroy Ngueyep. Mambou; Joseph Ndop; Jean-Marie Bienvenu Ndjaka

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ISO 834 fire on the mechanical properties of granite rock specimen submitted to uniaxial loading is numerically investigated. Based on Newton’s second law, the rate-equation model of granite rock specimen under mechanical load and fire is established. The effect of heat treatment on the me-chanical performance of granite is analyzed at the center and the ends of specimen. At the free end of granite rock specimen, it is shown that from 20 ?C to 500 ?C, the internal stress and internal strain are weak; whereas above 500 ?C, they start to increase rapidly, announcing the imminent collapse. At the center of specimen, the analysis of the internal stress and internal strain reveals that the fire reduces the mechanical performance of granite significantly. Moreover, it is found that after 3 min of exposure to fire, the mechanical energy necessary to fragment the granite can be reduced up to 80%.

  16. Attitudes toward Younger and Older Adults: The German Aging Semantic Differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Sebastian; Ebner, Natalie C.; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the German Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) to assess attitudes toward younger and older adults in a heterogeneous sample of n = 151 younger and n = 143 older adults. The questionnaire was administered in two versions, one referring to the evaluation of younger adults, the other to the evaluation of older adults.…

  17. Immunization Uptake in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaik, Ghassan Abu; Roberts, Wendy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Smith, Isabel M.; Szatmari, Peter; Modi, Bonnie M.; Tanel, Nadia; Brian, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental concerns persist that immunization increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder, resulting in the potential for reduced uptake by parents of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder ("younger sibs"). Objective: To compare immunization uptake by parents for their younger child relative to their…

  18. The Experience of Intrusions Scale: a preliminary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn; Vine, Vera; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal; Litz, Brett T

    2009-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts (i.e., unwelcome, distressing, involuntary thoughts) are prevalent in a variety of clinical conditions and are increasingly a focus of translational research. The goal of this study was to develop and preliminarily examine a brief self-report measure designed to assess clinically relevant aspects of the experience of intrusive thoughts related to a particular target. The Experience of Intrusions Scale (EIS) is a five-item measure that assesses the frequency, unpredictability, and unwantedness of intrusive thoughts, as well as the interference and distress caused by the intrusions, each on a five-point Likert-type scale. Five times over a four-] period, female undergraduates (N=160) completed the EIS in response to intrusive thoughts regarding a film clip depicting a sexual assault. On the first and last days, participants completed the EIS five minutes after watching the clip. In between film clip viewings, participants completed the EIS once per day. The EIS demonstrated good internal consistency, good to excellent test-retest reliability using both immediate post-stimulus and 24-hour time intervals, and convergent validity with two existing measures of intrusive phenomena: the White Bear Suppression Inventory (Wegner & Zanakos, 1994) and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993). PMID:18937103

  19. Working memory capacity and suppression of intrusive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Smart, Laura

    2005-03-01

    We sought to show that individual differences in working memory capacity are related to the ability to intentionally suppress personally relevant intrusive thoughts, and that this effect cannot be explained by differences in negative mood. Sixty participants identified their most frequent intrusive thought and then completed a thought suppression task. Better performance on a measure of working memory capacity (OSPAN) was related to having fewer intrusions in the suppression condition but was unrelated to number of intrusions in the expression condition, suggesting a specific association with attempts to inhibit unwanted thoughts. In contrast, a more negative mood was related to having more intrusions in both conditions, suggestive of a more general influence on the accessibility of unwanted thoughts. Working memory capacity was not associated with negative mood or with the frequency of intrusive thoughts reported in everyday life. The findings extend previous results to the domain of personally relevant intrusive thoughts and support the idea that individual differences in the cognitive abilities supporting inhibitory mechanisms are relevant to clinical conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:15687010

  20. A novel interacting multiple model based network intrusion detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ruichi; Venkatasubramanian, Vijay; Leung, Henry

    2006-04-01

    In today's information age, information and network security are of primary importance to any organization. Network intrusion is a serious threat to security of computers and data networks. In internet protocol (IP) based network, intrusions originate in different kinds of packets/messages contained in the open system interconnection (OSI) layer 3 or higher layers. Network intrusion detection and prevention systems observe the layer 3 packets (or layer 4 to 7 messages) to screen for intrusions and security threats. Signature based methods use a pre-existing database that document intrusion patterns as perceived in the layer 3 to 7 protocol traffics and match the incoming traffic for potential intrusion attacks. Alternately, network traffic data can be modeled and any huge anomaly from the established traffic pattern can be detected as network intrusion. The latter method, also known as anomaly based detection is gaining popularity for its versatility in learning new patterns and discovering new attacks. It is apparent that for a reliable performance, an accurate model of the network data needs to be established. In this paper, we illustrate using collected data that network traffic is seldom stationary. We propose the use of multiple models to accurately represent the traffic data. The improvement in reliability of the proposed model is verified by measuring the detection and false alarm rates on several datasets.

  1. A Frequency-Based Approach to Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on network security and intrusion detection strategies presents many challenging issues to both theoreticians and practitioners. Hackers apply an array of intrusion and exploit techniques to cause disruption of normal system operations, but on the defense, firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS are typically only effective in defending known intrusion types using their signatures, and are far less than mature when faced with novel attacks. In this paper, we adapt the frequency analysis techniques such as the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT used in signal processing to the design of intrusion detection algorithms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the frequency-based detection strategy by running synthetic network intrusion data in simulated networks using the OPNET software. The simulation results indicate that the proposed intrusion detection strategy is effective in detecting anomalous traffic data that exhibit patterns over time, which include several types of DOS and probe attacks. The significance of this new strategy is that it does not depend on the prior knowledge of attack signatures, thus it has the potential to be a useful supplement to existing signature-based IDS and firewalls.

  2. ISDTM:An Intrusion Signatures Description Temporal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ou Yang Ming-guang; Zhou Yang-bo

    2003-01-01

    ISDTM, based on an augmented Allen's interval temporal logic (IT1) and first-order predicate calculus, is a formal temporal model for representing intrusion signatures.It is augmented with some real time extensions which enhance the expressivity. Intrusion scenarios usually are the set of events and system states, wherethe temporal sequence is their basic relation. Intrusion signatures description, there-fore, is to represent such temporal relations in a sense. While representing these signatures, ISDTM decomposes the intru-sion process into the sequence of events according to their rel-evant intervals, and then specifies network states in these In-tervals. The uncertain intrusion signatures as well as basic temporal modes of events, which consist of the parallel mode,the sequential mode and the hybrid mode, can be succinctly and naturally represented in ISDTM. Mode chart is the visual-ization of intrusion signatures in ISDTM, which makes the formulas more readable. The intrusion signatures descriptions in ISDTM have advantages of compact construct, concise syn-tax, scalability and easy implementation.

  3. Fault architecture and related distribution of physical properties in granitic massifs: geological and geophysical methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, David; Escuder Viruete, J.; Carbonell, Ramón; I. Flecha; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés

    2006-01-01

    [EN] Geological and geophysical data acquired in several projects aimed to characterization of structures in granitic rocks, make possible to evaluate the efficiency and resolution of several geological and geophysical methodologies for their study. The analysis of the spatial distribution of fracture density in granitic bodies makes possible to identify fault damage zones as well as the central fault cores. Measures of Fracture Index in a granitic massif can be used to generate 3-D ...

  4. Fault architecture and related distribution of physical properties in granitic massifs: geological and geophysical methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, D.; Escuder Viruete, J.; Carbonell, R.; I. Flecha; Pérez Estaún, A.

    2006-01-01

    Geological and geophysical data acquired in several projects aimed to characterization of structures in granitic rocks, make possible to evaluate the efficiency and resolution of several geological and geophysical methodologies for their study. The analysis of the spatial distribution of fracture density in granitic bodies makes possible to identify fault damage zones as well as the central fault cores. Measures of Fracture Index in a granitic massif can be used to generate 3-D stochastic mod...

  5. First evidence for expressive neoproterozoic intraplated mafic rocks and magma mixing in post-collisional A-PA type granites, Southern Brazil: Geochemistry and U-Pb (zircon), Nd-Sr-18O(zircon) isotope investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New and recent geological investigations around Pien-Tijucas suture zone, between Luis Alves and Curitiba Microplates (Basei et al.2000) led to mapping of Palermo, Agudos do Sul and Rio Negro A-PA type Granites with expressive expositions of alkaline felsic ans mafic rocks and, associated mafic and felsic hybrid rocks. The suture zone is formed by subduction arc-related Pien-Mandirituba deformed calc-alkaline I-type granite belt and serpentinized supra subduction zone (SSZ) obducted mantle rocks with intrusive Neoproterozoic (650-630 Ma) very high Cr and Ni tholeitic gabbros. The Pien-Mandirituba calc-alkaline I-type Granite Belt is constituted by three main granite suites. The older emplaced pre-collisional suite is constituted by deformed to highly deformed amphibole and biotite-rich, magmatic epidote-absent quartz-monzodiorites and granodiorites formed between 620 and 610 Ma. The second sincollisional granite suite is constituted by deformed and slightly deformed low content amphibole-biotite-magmatic epidote-bearing, quartz-monzodiorites, granodiorites and leucogranodiorites emplaced between 605 and 595 Ma. The third, also sincollisional, granite suite is deformed to highly deformed biotite ± amphibole monzogranites. The deformation age of the three non-cogenetic granite suites of this granite belt is between 605-595 Ma. The granite rocks of the Pien-Mandirituba Granite Belt are meta-aluminous to slightly peraluminous, high K calc-alkaline, generally with high Ba, high Sr and low Rb contents. Palermo, Agudos do Sul and Rio Negro Granites are components of the expressive Neoproterozoic volcanic and plutonic alkaline-peralkaline Serra do Mar Suite (Kaul 1997), emplaced in extensional post-collisional and anorogenic settings along the central portion and northern border of the Luis Alves Microplate and southern border of the Curitiba Microplate. Magma mixing evidence is rare ou absent in the other components of the Serra do Mar volcanic and plutonic suite. The

  6. Experimental modelling of ground deformation associated with shallow magma intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, O.

    2012-04-01

    Active volcanoes experience ground deformation as a response to the dynamics of underground magmatic systems. The analysis of ground deformation patterns may provide important constraints on the dynamics and shape of the underlying volcanic plumbing systems. Nevertheless, these analyses usually take into account simplistic shapes (sphere, dykes, sills) and the results cannot be verified as the modelled systems are buried. In this contribution, I will present new results from experimental models of magma intrusion, in which both the evolution of ground deformation during intrusion and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored in 3D. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil, simulating low viscosity magma, injected into cohesive fine-grained silica flour, simulating the brittle upper crust; oil injection resulted is sheet intrusions (dykes, sills and cone sheets). The initial topography in the models was flat. While the oil was intruding, the surface of the models slightly lifted up to form a smooth relief, which was mapped through time. After an initial symmetrical development, the uplifted area developed asymmetrically; at the end of the experiments, the oil always erupted at the steepest edge of the uplifted area. After the experiment, the oil solidified, the intrusion was excavated and the shape of its top surface mapped. The comparison between the uplifted zone and the underlying intrusions showed that (1) the complex shapes of the uplifted areas reflected the complex shapes of the underlying intrusions, (2) the time evolution of the uplifted zone was correlated with the evolution of the underlying intrusion, and (3) the early asymmetrical evolution of the uplifted areas can be used to predict the location of the eruption of the oil. The experimental results also suggest that complex intrusion shapes (inclined sheet, cone sheet, complex sill) may have to be considered more systematically in analyses of ground deformation patterns on volcanoes.

  7. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is

  8. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  9. Novel Hybrid Intrusion Detection System For Clustered Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Sedjelmaci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is regularly deployed in unattended and hostile environments. The WSN isvulnerable to security threats and susceptible to physical capture. Thus, it is necessary to use effective mechanisms to protect the network. It is widely known, that the intrusion detection is one of the mostefficient security mechanisms to protect the network against malicious attacks or unauthorized access. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Our intrusion framework uses a combination between the Anomaly Detection based on support vector machine (SVM and the Misuse Detection. Experiments results show that most of routing attacks can be detected with low falsealarm.

  10. Novel hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered wireless sensor network

    CERN Document Server

    Sedjelmaci, Hichem

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is regularly deployed in unattended and hostile environments. The WSN is vulnerable to security threats and susceptible to physical capture. Thus, it is necessary to use effective mechanisms to protect the network. It is widely known, that the intrusion detection is one of the most efficient security mechanisms to protect the network against malicious attacks or unauthorized access. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Our intrusion framework uses a combination between the Anomaly Detection based on support vector machine (SVM) and the Misuse Detection. Experiments results show that most of routing attacks can be detected with low false alarm.

  11. Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, G; Lourenço, P B; Alves, C A S; Pamplona, J

    2008-09-01

    Masonry is the oldest building material that survived until today, being used all over the world and being present in the most impressive historical structures as an evidence of spirit of enterprise of ancient cultures. Conservation, rehabilitation and strengthening of the built heritage and protection of human lives are clear demands of modern societies. In this process, the use of nondestructive methods has become much common in the diagnosis of structural integrity of masonry elements. With respect to the evaluation of the stone condition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity is a simple and economical tool. Thus, the central issue of the present paper concerns the evaluation of the suitability of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method for describing the mechanical and physical properties of granites (range size between 0.1-4.0 mm and 0.3-16.5 mm) and for the assessment of its weathering state. The mechanical properties encompass the compressive and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, and the physical properties include the density and porosity. For this purpose, measurements of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity with distinct natural frequency of the transducers were carried out on specimens with different size and shape. A discussion of the factors that induce variations on the ultrasonic velocity is also provided. Additionally, statistical correlations between ultrasonic pulse velocity and mechanical and physical properties of granites are presented and discussed. The major output of the work is the confirmation that ultrasonic pulse velocity can be effectively used as a simple and economical nondestructive method for a preliminary prediction of mechanical and physical properties, as well as a tool for the assessment of the weathering changes of granites that occur during the serviceable life. This is of much interest due to the usual difficulties in removing specimens for mechanical characterization. PMID:18471849

  12. Brand umbrella and made in the international competitiveness of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José García Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain, like Italy, the traditional leader of granite sector, has seen how China, India or Brazil have risen several positions on global production and export rankings. In a globalized context, it's necessary a good differentiation from international competitors, much more when this is a generic product that offers suitable prices and quality. One way to identify and differentiate it, is providing value by creating a brand. In this paper we study the utility of a strategy based on made in for Galicia, major production location for the industry in Spain; an alternative that seems attractive to enterprises, but whose implementation requires strong collaboration between firms and public and private institutions.

  13. Heat transfer in underground heating experiments in granite, Stipa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical heater experiments have been conducted underground in granite at Stripa, Sweden, to investigate the effects of heating associated with nuclear waste storage. Temperature data from these experiments are compared with closed-form and finite-element solutions. Good agreement is found between measured temperatures and both types of models, but especially for a nonlinear finite-element heat conduction model incorporating convective boundary conditions, measured nonuniform initial rock temperature distribution, and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity. In situ thermal properties, determined by least-squares regression, are very close to laboratory values. A limited amount of sensitivity analysis is undertaken

  14. Manganese oxides as biominerals in a granitic subterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, A.; Dionísio, A.; Braga, M. A. Sequeira; Afonso, M. J.; Jurado, V.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Cuezva, S.; S. Sanchez-Moral; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Chaminé, H.

    2011-01-01

    Black coatings were detected on granite surfaces in groundwater catch work tunnels from Porto city (NW Portugal). XRD, FTIR, Micro-Raman, ICP-MS, TEM-EDS, SEM-EDS and SEM-FIB were the analytical procedures carried out to investigate the origin of the black coatings. In this subterranean environment, the enrichment in metals and other trace elements, such as Mn and Fe, and clay minerals characterize the black microbial mats, mainly composed of Mn/Fe-oxidising bacteria. Fundação para a Ciênc...

  15. Radon release from granites in south-west England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon release from granitic samples from different sites in Cornwall was examined in an attempt to model the emanation mechanisms. Large samples were taken and cut into cuboid shapes of readily determinable surface area in order to measure the 222Rn flux. The flux from the granite samples shows that the high radon levels observed in houses in Cornwall cannot be attributable to building material alone and demonstrates the importance of large scale radon transport for the elevated levels in living quarters. Crushed chips of various sizes were also taken from selected sites (Carnsew quarry and Castle-an-Dinas quarry) to investigate the effect of specific surface area on radon release. It was found that radon release per gram increased as particle size decreased and declined again at small particle sizes. The samples were characterised in terms of physical properties, chemical composition and mineralogy. The radon release trend for the Carnsew samples was mirrored in the uranium and associated element concentrations. This was, however, not the case for the Castle-an-Dinas samples, and insufficient to explain the trend for both sets of samples. A model is proposed, based on spherical particles and uniform uranium distribution, to relate the radon release to specific surface area. The modelled specific surface areas for the chips was too low by 2-3 orders of magnitude as measured by gas adsorption techniques, and the uranium was concentrated in small accessory minerals. The enhancement of surface area was attributed to the alteration of feldspar to sericite. This has implications for the release of radon. It is thought that the large surface area provides a sink for the adsorption of radon, retaining it in the rock structure. This radon retention explains the paradoxical decline in radon release at small particle size/large specific surface area. Various mechanisms for radon emanation are discussed with reference to the Cornubian granites. It is shown that, based on

  16. An oxygen buffer for some peraluminous granites and metamorphic rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, E.

    1985-01-01

    The mineral assemblage biotite-garnet-muscovite-magnetite-quartz and its sub-sets are common in many peraluminous granites, schists and gneisses. If the biotite and garnet are reasonably iron-rich, then the system is a useful buffer for fO2. Available thermochemical data indicate that, in T-fO2 space, the buffer curve is located between the hematite-magnetite curve and the quartz-magnetite-fayalite curve, in a region that previously had no buffer curve applicable to peraluminous rocks. -J.A.Z.

  17. Study of deep fracturation of granitic rock mass. Documentary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documentary study realized with the financial support of the European Communities and the CEA aims at the utilization of available data for the understanding of the evolution of natural fractures in granitic rocks from the surface to deep underground. The Mt Blanc road tunnel, the EDF's Arc-Isere gallerie, the Auriat deep borehole and the Pyrenean rock mass of Bassies are studied because detailed structural and geological studies have been realized these last 20 years. In this study are more particularly analyzed the relationship between small fractures and large faults, evolution with depth of fracture density and direction, consequences of rock decompression and relationship between fracturation and groundwater

  18. Spent fuel test project, Climax granitic stock, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of dry geologic storage of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The SFT-C is located at a depth of 420 m in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Eleven canisters of spent commercial PWR fuel assemblies are to be stored for 3 to 5 years. Additional heat is supplied by electrical heaters, and more than 800 channels of technical information are being recorded. The measurements include rock temperature, rock displacement and stress, joint motion, and monitoring of the ventilation air volume, temperature, and dewpoint

  19. Salinity intrusion modeling for Sungai Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (Author)

  20. KUROSHIO INTRUSION INTO THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-hua; FAN Hai-mei; QU Yuan-yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the circulation of the South China Sea (SCS), which is idealized as the rectangular basin with constant depth, is studied under Kuroshio boundary forces. Starting from the linearly quasi-geostrophic vorticity equation, the solution of the SCS circulation is given in the form of corrected Fourier series under proper boundary conditions. The results show that the intruded current flows westward and separates into the northward branch and the southward branch before arriving at the western boundary. The southward branch flows out of the SCS through the southwestern passage, at the same time, the induced cyclonic (anti-clockwise) ring almost occupies the middle and southern parts, and concomitant anti-cyclonic (clockwise) vortex appears between the cyclone and the western boundary. While the northward branch outflows through the northeastern passage, the anti-cyclonic (clockwise) ring is triggered at the northern part of the SCS. The above two vortexes are both intensified if the south-entering and the north-leaving current loop intrusion are superposed. The outer flow of the northern vortex flows westward, then northward, and then eastward, and it is very similar to the configuration of the SCS Warm Current (SCSWC) at the northern part of the SCS, thus, a kind of generating mechanism of the SCSWC is presented.

  1. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  2. Abstracting audit data for lightweight intrusion detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    High speed of processing massive audit data is crucial for an anomaly Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to achieve real-time performance during the detection. Abstracting audit data is a potential solution to improve the efficiency of data processing. In this work, we propose two strategies of data abstraction in order to build a lightweight detection model. The first strategy is exemplar extraction and the second is attribute abstraction. Two clustering algorithms, Affinity Propagation (AP) as well as traditional k-means, are employed to extract the exemplars, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed to abstract important attributes (a.k.a. features) from the audit data. Real HTTP traffic data collected in our institute as well as KDD 1999 data are used to validate the two strategies of data abstraction. The extensive test results show that the process of exemplar extraction significantly improves the detection efficiency and has a better detection performance than PCA in data abstraction. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, Malcolm [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australian, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro [ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Montagna, Paolo [LSCE, Av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mortimer, Graham [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short ({approx} 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had {Delta}{sup 14}C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 {+-} 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had {Delta}{sup 14}C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T{sub isol}) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low {Delta}{sup 14}C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at {approx} 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds

  4. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco; Montagna, Paolo; López Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro; Mortimer, Graham

    2010-09-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480,000 years, especially during cool interstadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12,900 to 11,700 years BP followed by a short (~ 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11,230 to 10,900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had Δ 14C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12,500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had Δ 14C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (τ isol) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low Δ 14C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ~ 10,900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in a thin veneer

  5. Intrusion Prevention/Intrusion Detection System (IPS/IDS for Wifi Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Korcak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature of wireless networks itself created new vulnerabilities that in the classical wired network s do not exist. This results in an evolutional requireme nt to implement new sophisticated security mechanis m in form of Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems. This paper deals with security issues of small off ice and home office wireless networks. The goal of our work is to design and evaluate wireless IDPS with u se of packet injection method. Decrease of attacker’s traffic by 95% was observed when compared to attacker’s traffic without deployment of proposed I DPS system.

  6. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ASRI proposes to develop an advanced and commercially viable Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System (NI-VMS) which can provide effective on-line/off-line engine...

  7. SVM Intrusion Detection Model Based on Compressed Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanxiong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection needs to deal with a large amount of data; particularly, the technology of network intrusion detection has to detect all of network data. Massive data processing is the bottleneck of network software and hardware equipment in intrusion detection. If we can reduce the data dimension in the stage of data sampling and directly obtain the feature information of network data, efficiency of detection can be improved greatly. In the paper, we present a SVM intrusion detection model based on compressive sampling. We use compressed sampling method in the compressed sensing theory to implement feature compression for network data flow so that we can gain refined sparse representation. After that SVM is used to classify the compression results. This method can realize detection of network anomaly behavior quickly without reducing the classification accuracy.

  8. Intrusive memories in perpetrators of violent crime: emotions and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ceri; Ehlers, Anke; Mezey, Gillian; Clark, David M

    2007-02-01

    The authors investigated factors that may determine whether perpetrators of violent crime develop intrusive memories of their offense. Of 105 young offenders who were convicted of killing or seriously harming others, 46% reported distressing intrusive memories, and 6% had posttraumatic stress disorder. Intrusions were associated with lower antisocial beliefs before the assault, greater helplessness, fear, dissociation, data-driven processing and lack of self-referent processing during the assault, more disorganized assault narratives, and greater negative view of the self, negative interpretations of intrusive memories, perceived permanent change, and self-blame. In a logistic regression analysis, the cognitive and emotional variables explained substantial variance over and above demographic factors. The results suggest that cognitive factors that predict reexperiencing symptoms in victims of crime generalize to perpetrators. PMID:17295572

  9. Intrusion resistant underground structure (IRUS) - safety assessment and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the safety goals, human exposure scenarios and critical groups, the syvac-nsure performance assessment code, groundwater pathway safety results, and inadvertent human intrusion of the IRUS. 2 tabs

  10. Effectiveness of Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) in Fast Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shafi, Muhammad Imran; Hayat, Sikandar; Sohail, Imran

    2010-01-01

    Computer systems are facing biggest threat in the form of malicious data which causing denial of service, information theft, financial and credibility loss etc. No defense technique has been proved successful in handling these threats. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPSs) being best of available solutions. These techniques are getting more and more attention. Although Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPSs) show a good level of success in detecting and preventing intrusion attempts to networks, they show a visible deficiency in their performance when they are employed on fast networks. In this paper we have presented a design including quantitative and qualitative methods to identify improvement areas in IPSs. Focus group is used for qualitative analysis and experiment is used for quantitative analysis. This paper also describes how to reduce the responding time for IPS when an intrusion occurs on network, and how can IPS be made to perform its tasks successfully without effecting network speed nega...

  11. Combining Naive Bayes and Decision Tree for Adaptive Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Farid, Dewan Md; Rahman, Mohammad Zahidur; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2202

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new learning algorithm for adaptive network intrusion detection using naive Bayesian classifier and decision tree is presented, which performs balance detections and keeps false positives at acceptable level for different types of network attacks, and eliminates redundant attributes as well as contradictory examples from training data that make the detection model complex. The proposed algorithm also addresses some difficulties of data mining such as handling continuous attribute, dealing with missing attribute values, and reducing noise in training data. Due to the large volumes of security audit data as well as the complex and dynamic properties of intrusion behaviours, several data miningbased intrusion detection techniques have been applied to network-based traffic data and host-based data in the last decades. However, there remain various issues needed to be examined towards current intrusion detection systems (IDS). We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm with existing learn...

  12. An Isolation Intrusion Detection System for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rung-Ching Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A wireless sensor network (WSN is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor environmental conditions, such as battlefield data and personal health information, and some environment limited resources. To avoid malicious damage is important while information is transmitted in wireless network. Thus, Wireless Intrusion Detection Systems are crucial to safe operation in wireless sensor networks. Wireless networks are subject to very different types of attacks compare to wired networks. In this paper, we propose an isolation table to detect intrusion by hierarchical wireless sensor networks and to estimate the effect of intrusion detection. The primary experiment proves that isolation table intrusion detection can prevent attacks effectively.

  13. An expert system application for network intrusion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Dubois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a prototype intrusion detection system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) differs in one respect from most intrusion detection systems. It tries to address the intrusion detection problem on a network, as opposed to a single operating system. NADIR design intent was to copy and improve the audit record review activities normally done by security auditors. We wished to replace the manual review of audit logs with a near realtime expert system. NADIR compares network activity, as summarized in user profiles, against expert rules that define network security policy, improper or suspicious network activities, and normal network and user activity. When it detects deviant (anomalous) behavior, NADIR alerts operators in near realtime, and provides tools to aid in the investigation of the anomalous event. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Vapor Intrusion Facility Boundaries - Approximate Extent of Contamination

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Theses polygons represent the approximate extent of contamination for Vapor Intrusion facilities. Polygons for non-Federal Facility sites were updated in January,...

  15. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; La Marca, Roberto; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-03-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  16. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AI Signal Research, Inc. proposes to develop a Non-Intrusive Vibration Measurement System (NI-VMS) for turbopumps which will provide effective on-board/off-board...

  17. Intrusion Detection and Security Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, S.; Jaime Lloret; Jonathan Loo

    2014-01-01

    Khan, S.; Lloret, J.; Loo, J. (2014). Intrusion Detection and Security Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks. 2014:1-3. doi:10.1155/2014/747483.

  18. Signalprint-Based Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rob; Chen, Ing-Ray; Eltoweissy, Mohamed

    Wireless networks are a critical part of global communication for which intrusion detection techniques should be applied to secure network access, or the cost associated with successful attacks will overshadow the benefits that wireless networks offer. In this paper we investigate a new scheme called Nodeprints to extend the existing centralized Signalprints design for authentication to a distributed voting-based design for intrusion detection. We analyze the effect of voting-based intrusion detection designs, the probability of an individual node voting incorrectly, the ratio of mobile nodes to base stations, and the rate at which nodes are compromised, on the system performance measured by the probability that the intrusion detection system yields a false result. We develop a performance model for evaluating our Nodeprints design and identify conditions under which Nodeprints outperforms the existing Signalprints design.

  19. Origin and tectonic implications of the ∼200 Ma, collision-related Jerai pluton of the Western Granite Belt, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Azmiah; Ghani, Azman A.; Zaw, Khin; Osman, Syamir; Quek, Long Xiang

    2016-09-01

    Triassic granitoids (∼200-225 Ma) are widespread in the Western Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. The Main Range granite is the biggest batholith in the Western Belt composed of peraluminous to metaluminous granite and granodiorite and displays typical ilmenite-series characteristics. Jerai granitic pluton occurs at the northwestern part of the Main Range granite batholith. The Jerai granite can be divided into three facies: (i) biotite-muscovite granite; (ii) tourmaline granite; and (iii) pegmatite and aplopegmatite. Biotite-muscovite granite accounts for 90% of the Jerai pluton, and the rest is tourmaline granite. Geochemical data reveal that pegmatite and tourmaline granite are more differentiated than biotite-muscovite granite. Both pegmatite and tourmaline granite have a higher SiO2 content (70.95-83.94% versus 69.45-73.35%) and a more pronounced peraluminous character. The U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Jerai granite gave an age ranging from 204 ± 4.3 Ma, 205 ± 4 Ma and 205 ± 2 Ma for pegmatite biotite-muscovite granite and tourmaline granite, respectively. The biotite-muscovite Jerai granites are similar to S-type Main Range granite, but the tourmaline granite has a signature of late-stage hydrothermal fluid interaction such as tourmaline quartz pods, the accumulation of large pegmatitic K-feldspar, pronounced peraluminous character, higher SiO2 content. Age evidence of these two granitic facies suggest that they are from the same magma.

  20. 2.8-Ma ash-flow caldera at Chegem River in the northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), contemporaneous granites, and associated ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Bogatikov, O.A.; Tsvetkov, A.A.; Gazis, C.; Gurbanov, A.G.; Hon, K.; Koronovsky, N.V.; Kovalenko, V.I.; Marchev, P.

    1993-01-01

    Diverse latest Pliocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the north-central Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia are newly interpreted as components of a large caldera system that erupted a compositionally zoned rhyolite-dacite ash-flow sheet at 2.83 ?? 0.02 Ma (sanidine and biotite 40Ar/39Ar). Despite its location within a cratonic collision zone, the Chegem system is structurally and petrologically similar to typical calderas of continental-margin volcanic arcs. Erosional remnants of the outflow Chegem Tuff sheet extend at least 50 km north from the source caldera in the upper Chegem River. These outflow remnants were previously interpreted by others as erupted from several local vents, but petrologic similarities indicate a common origin and correlation with thick intracaldera Chegem Tuff. The 11 ?? 15 km caldera and associated intrusions are superbly exposed over a vertical range of 2,300 m in deep canyons above treeline (elev. to 3,800 m). Densely welded intracaldera Chegem Tuff, previously described by others as a rhyolite lava plateau, forms a single cooling unit, is > 2 km thick, and contains large slide blocks from the caldera walls. Caldera subsidence was accommodated along several concentric ring fractures. No prevolcanic floor is exposed within the central core of the caldera. The caldera-filling tuff is overlain by andesitic lavas and cut by a 2.84 ?? 0.03-Ma porphyritic granodiorite intrusion that has a cooling age analytically indistinguishable from that of the tuffs. The Eldjurta Granite, a pluton exposed low in the next large canyon (Baksan River) 10 km to the northwest of the caldera, yields variable K-feldspar and biotite ages (2.8 to 1.0 Ma) through a 5-km vertical range in surface and drill-hole samples. These variable dates appear to record a prolonged complex cooling history within upper parts of another caldera-related pluton. Major W-Mo ore deposits at the Tirniauz mine are hosted in skarns and hornfels along the roof of the Eldjurta Granite