Chiyaka, Tarisai; Mushati, Phillis; Hensen, Bernadette; Chabata, Sungai; Hargreaves, James R; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde J; Cowan, Frances M; Busza, Joanna R
Young women (aged 15-24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews. We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics of young women who sell sex, the structure and organisation of their sexual exchanges, interactions with each other and adult sex workers, and engagement with health services. Over a two-week period, we developed a "social map" for each study site, identifying similarities and differences across contexts and their implications for programming and research. Similarities include the concentration of younger women in street-based venues in town centres, their conflict with older sex workers due to competition for clients and acceptance of lower payments, and reluctance to attend existing services. Key differences were found in the 4 university towns included in our sample, where female students participate in diverse forms of sexual exchange but do not identify themselves as selling sex. In smaller towns where illegal gold panning or trucking routes were found, young women migrated in from surrounding rural areas specifically to sell sex. Young women who sell sex are different from each other, and do not work with or attend the same services as adult sex workers. Our findings are being used to inform appropriate intervention activities targeting these vulnerable young women, and to identify effective strategies for recruiting them into the DREAMS process and impact evaluations.
Full Text Available Young women (aged 15-24 who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews. We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics of young women who sell sex, the structure and organisation of their sexual exchanges, interactions with each other and adult sex workers, and engagement with health services. Over a two-week period, we developed a "social map" for each study site, identifying similarities and differences across contexts and their implications for programming and research. Similarities include the concentration of younger women in street-based venues in town centres, their conflict with older sex workers due to competition for clients and acceptance of lower payments, and reluctance to attend existing services. Key differences were found in the 4 university towns included in our sample, where female students participate in diverse forms of sexual exchange but do not identify themselves as selling sex. In smaller towns where illegal gold panning or trucking routes were found, young women migrated in from surrounding rural areas specifically to sell sex. Young women who sell sex are different from each other, and do not work with or attend the same services as adult sex workers. Our findings are being used to inform appropriate intervention activities targeting these vulnerable young women, and to identify effective strategies for recruiting them into the DREAMS process and impact
Chiyaka, Tarisai; Mushati, Phillis; Hensen, Bernadette; Chabata, Sungai; Hargreaves, James R.; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde J.; Cowan, Frances M.; Busza, Joanna R.
Young women (aged 15–24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls’ and young women’s HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a “social mapping” approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews. We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics of young women who sell sex, the structure and organisation of their sexual exchanges, interactions with each other and adult sex workers, and engagement with health services. Over a two-week period, we developed a “social map” for each study site, identifying similarities and differences across contexts and their implications for programming and research. Similarities include the concentration of younger women in street-based venues in town centres, their conflict with older sex workers due to competition for clients and acceptance of lower payments, and reluctance to attend existing services. Key differences were found in the 4 university towns included in our sample, where female students participate in diverse forms of sexual exchange but do not identify themselves as selling sex. In smaller towns where illegal gold panning or trucking routes were found, young women migrated in from surrounding rural areas specifically to sell sex. Young women who sell sex are different from each other, and do not work with or attend the same services as adult sex workers. Our findings are being used to inform appropriate intervention activities targeting these vulnerable young women, and to identify effective strategies for recruiting them into the DREAMS process and impact evaluations
Abraham, S F; Mira, M; Beumont, P J; Sowerbutts, T D; Llewellyn-Jones, D
Disordered eating and weight-control behaviour is becoming increasingly common among adolescent girls. We studied four groups of young women aged between 15 and 27 years (106 school and university students, 50 ballet school students, 22 patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and 44 patients with bulimia). Our results suggest that most young women diet at some time and lose more than three kg in weight; that they may experience episodes of binge eating and "picking" behaviour; and that they wish to be thinner irrespective of their current body weight. Twenty per cent of young women may fulfil the criteria for an eating disorder (bulimia or anorexia nervosa) at some stage, however briefly, and about 7% abuse laxatives or diuretics in order to achieve a fashionably slim figure. We suggest that most young women may pass through a phase of what is currently called disordered eating, and that this is part of normal development and may not necessarily require treatment. The incidence of disordered eating is greater in those young women who are under pressure to maintain a low body weight.
Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Women Young Scientists of INSA. Women Young Scientists of INSA. INSA - Indian National Science Academy .... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young ...
Radecka, Barbara; Litwiniuk, Maria
Breast cancer (BC) in young women is rare, affecting only 4-6% of women under the age of 40. Regardless, BC remains the most common malignancy among younger patients. Recently, a significant increase in BC rates has been observed among pre-menopausal subjects. Breast cancer in young women requires special attention due to its specific morphologic and prognostic characteristics and unique aspects, including fertility preservation and psychosocial issues (e.g. its impact on family life and career). Young women are more likely to have tumors with higher incidence of negative clinicopathologic features (higher histological grade, more lymph node positivity, lower estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, higher rates of Her2/neu overexpression). Also, they tend to be diagnosed at more advanced stages of the disease. That, in turn, contributes to less favorable prognosis as compared to older women. Young women are generally treated similarly to older patients. Surgical management includes mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, followed by radiation therapy (younger women have higher local recurrence rates than older women, especially after breast-conserving therapy). Although the basics of chemotherapy are the same for patients of all ages, younger women have some special considerations. It is important to consider options for fertility preservation before starting systemic treatment. Patients should have access to genetic testing as their results may affect the choice of therapy. Younger women and their families should receive adequate psychological support and counselling.
Sennott, Christie; Yeatman, Sara
This study uses eight waves of data from the population-based Tsogolo la Thanzi study (2009–2011) in rural Malawi to examine changes in young women’s contraceptive practices, including the use of condoms, non-barrier contraceptive methods, and abstinence, following positive and negative HIV tests. The analysis factors in women’s prior perceptions of their HIV status that may already be shaping their behaviour and separates surprise HIV test results from those that merely confirm what was already believed. Fixed effects logistic regression models show that HIV testing frequently affects the contraceptive practices of young Malawian women, particularly when the test yields an unexpected result. Specifically, women who are surprised to test HIV positive increase their condom use and are more likely to use condoms consistently. Following an HIV negative test (whether a surprise or expected), women increase their use of condoms and decrease their use of non-barrier contraceptives; the latter may be due to an increase in abstinence following a surprise negative result. Changes in condom use following HIV testing are robust to the inclusion of potential explanatory mechanisms including fertility preferences, relationship status, and the perception that a partner is HIV positive. The results demonstrate that both positive and negative tests can influence women’s sexual and reproductive behaviours, and emphasise the importance of conceptualizing of HIV testing as offering new information only insofar as results deviate from prior perceptions of HIV status. PMID:26160156
Callegari, Emma T; Reavley, Nicola; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M; Wark, John D
While there is evidence linking vitamin D status with mood, this association and its clinical significance remain uncertain. Moreover, few studies have focused on young, community-dwelling females. The Safe-D study examined the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and mental health in young women. Participants completed an online questionnaire, wore a UV dosimeter to measure personal sun exposure and underwent a comprehensive health assessment. Serum 25OHD was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 353 healthy women aged 16-25 years, living in Victoria, Australia. Mental health measures included: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12), plus any self-reported mental disorder diagnoses or medication use. The prevalence of self-reported mental disorder was 26% and of vitamin D deficiency 27%. The median (Q1, Q3) scores for the PHQ-9, GAD-7, K10 and SF-12 MCS were 6 (3, 9), 5 (2, 8), 19 (15, 25) and 43 (34, 49), respectively. Serum 25OHD levels were not associated with mental health scores. Vitamin D status was not associated with a reported diagnosis of depression or anxiety. There was a low prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency and mental health symptoms, which may reduce study power. Our findings do not support an association between serum 25OHD levels and mental health status in young women. Longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials investigating vitamin D and mood in young women are needed to confirm and extend these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sharon L. Manne
Full Text Available Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement, lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.
Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S
Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.
Purpose: Young women's leadership is an area frequently overlooked in educational leadership development. This paper aims to bring young women's voices into educational leadership conversations and illustrate an alternative approach to young women's leadership development. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative action research study was…
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of the female population, the incidence is increasing mainly statistically between 50. a 60s, 60s and 70s. Recently, however, we meet more often with the occurrence of breast cancer in women in 30 year and significantly between 30 and 40 year. Cases: The following are examples of four young women who had different symptoms who failed primary diagnosis was revalued the importance of sonography and age, did not think the possibility of the presence of cancer. Results: The patients presented were finally correctly diagnosed, treated with a relatively good prognosis. Their diagnosis, however, could be faster and smaller tumors. However, despite the fact that Slovakia has enacted preventive investigation of the breast young women from the 20 to 40th of clinically and sonographically, encountered in practice, often with cases of breast cancer diagnosed late. Conclusion: Case report we highlight the diversity of clinical symptoms and the possibility of imaging diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis of breast disease of young women. We also want to draw attention to some underestimation of clinical symptoms, while revaluation results of sonographic examinations. An important factor is the quality of the ultrasound device and effective consultation and cooperation with other diagnostic departments. (author)
Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.
While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by
Scholars traditionally argued that industrialization, urbanization, and educational expansion lead to a decline in extended families and complementary rise in nuclear families. Some have suggested that such transitions are good for young married women because living in nuclear families benefits their health. However, extended families may also present advantages for young women's health that outweigh any disadvantages. Using the Indian National Family Health Survey, this article examines whether young married women living in nuclear families have better health than those in patrilocal extended families. It also examines whether young married women's living arrangements are changing over time and, if so, how such changes will affect their health. Results show that young married women living in nuclear families do not have better health than those in patrilocal extended families. Of eight health outcomes examined, only five differ significantly by family structure. Further, of the five outcomes that differ, four are patrilocal extended-family advantages and only one is a nuclear-family advantage. From 1992 to 2006, the percentage of young married women residing in nuclear families increased, although the majority remained in patrilocal extended families. This trend toward nuclear families will not benefit young women's health.
Teede, Helena J; Joham, Anju E; Paul, Eldho; Moran, Lisa J; Loxton, Deborah; Jolley, Damien; Lombard, Catherine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-18% of women. The natural history of weight gain in women with PCOS has not been well described. Here we aimed to examine longitudinal weight gain in women with and without PCOS and to assess the association between obesity and PCOS prevalence. The observational study was set in the general community. Participants were women randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme (Medicare) database. Mailed survey data were collected by the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Data from respondents to survey 4, aged 28-33 years (2006, n = 9,145) were analyzed. The main outcome measures were PCOS prevalence and body mass index (BMI). Self-reported PCOS prevalence was 5.8% (95% CI: 5.3%-6.4%). Women reporting PCOS had higher weight, mean BMI [2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 1.9-3.1)], and greater 10-year weight gain [2.6 kg (95% CI: 1.2-4.0)]. BMI was the strongest correlate of PCOS status with every BMI increment increasing the risk of reporting PCOS by 9.2% (95% CI: 6%-12%). This community based observational study with longitudinal reporting of weight shows that weight, BMI, and 10-year weight gain were higher in PCOS. We report the novel finding that obesity and greater weight gain are significantly associated with PCOS status. Considering the prevalence, major health and economic burden of PCOS, the increasing weight gain in young women, and established benefits of weight loss, these results have major public health implications. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Pryor, Zoe; Gray, Tonia
The purpose of this paper is to examine nine Australian young women's embodied experiences of dance. The young women were all amateur dancers involved in weekly jazz, tap, and ballet dance classes at the same dance studio. In this paper, embodiment is defined as multidimensional (Burkitt 1999). The authors explore the ways the corporeal and the…
Hayer, Manvir Kaur
This paper sets out to explore Ugandan young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion. A qualitative study was conducted with seven young women in rural Uganda. Participants filmed videos, wrote stories, made drawings and participated in transect walks before analysing their data through formal and informal discussions. Forced sex is defined narrowly to mean only rape. Verbal forms of sexual coercion were recognised, but only after some discussion. Verbal coercion is referred to as "abusing" or "convincing". Young women are commonly pressured into consenting to have sex, despite what they really want, owing to the socio-cultural circumstances. Young women in Uganda are significantly tolerant of sexual coercion. This tolerance appears to arise from power differentials between genders, and the socio-cultural environment shaping their lives. The paper improves understanding of young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion, which is essential to provide effective violence prevention programmes. It also suggests that further research is warranted in this field.
Hanson, Sandra L.
This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…
... Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... warts at any point in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended ...
Dickerson, Victoria C
In this article, I propose that many young women in today's world are facing an intense internal struggle to find their identity, and that this struggle is an effect of what they experience as enormous pressure to achieve certain goals. My belief is that, in the contemporary atmosphere of postfeminism in which women seemingly have many more options, the young adult woman experiences these options as expectations. The effect of these demands is an enormous self-doubt where women feel worthless, unimportant, and often unable to go forward in their lives. This article focuses on the stories of 3 young women and their struggles: a 25-year-old White middle-class woman whose obsessive longing to find the "right" man leads to eating difficulties; a 23-year-old lesbian, also White, who is just graduating from college and believes that she is terminally depressed; and a 29-year-old Chinese American woman who has fought anxiety and chronic fatigue for most of her adult life. How they find their way clearly exemplifies both the struggle and the road to success--overcoming self-doubt and challenging the expectations that create the conditions for it.
Radovich, Emma; Dennis, Mardieh L; Wong, Kerry L M; Ali, Moazzam; Lynch, Caroline A; Cleland, John; Owolabi, Onikepe; Lyons-Amos, Mark; Benova, Lenka
Despite efforts to expand contraceptive access for young people, few studies have considered where young women (age 15-24) in low- and middle-income countries obtain modern contraceptives and how the capacity and content of care of sources used compares with older users. We examined the first source of respondents' current modern contraceptive method using the most recent Demographic and Health Survey since 2000 for 33 sub-Saharan African countries. We classified providers according to sector (public/private) and capacity to provide a range of short- and long-term methods (limited/comprehensive). We also compared the content of care obtained from different providers. Although the public and private sectors were both important sources of family planning (FP), young women (15-24) used more short-term methods obtained from limited-capacity, private providers, compared with older women. The use of long-term methods among young women was low, but among those users, more than 85% reported a public sector source. Older women (25+) were significantly more likely to utilize a comprehensive provider in either sector compared with younger women. Although FP users of all ages reported poor content of care across all providers, young women had even lower content of care. The results suggest that method and provider choice are strongly linked, and recent efforts to increase access to long-term methods among young women may be restricted by where they seek care. Interventions to increase adolescents' access to a range of FP methods and quality counseling should target providers frequently used by young people, including limited-capacity providers in the private sector. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
They will analyze the historical and current political participation of young women in local and national politics; the strategies women employ in seeking political office; the role of men, civil society organizations and community leadership in advancing young women in politics; and the role of ... Date butoir. 22 mars 2013 ...
Trumpf, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Becker, Eni S.
Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18?25?years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results W...
Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret
Purpose: Heavy episodic drinking in young women has caused concern among many groups including public health professionals. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of young women's alcohol consumption so as to facilitate better health education targeting. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examines…
Mays, Darren; Atkins, Michael B; Ahn, Jaeil; Tercyak, Kenneth P
Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity. Results: Overall, 22.6% of the sample screened positive for indoor tanning dependence. In multivariable analyses, indoor tanning dependence was associated with younger age of indoor tanning initiation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79; P = 0.017], indoor tanning ≥20 times in the past year (aOR = 3.03; P = 0.015), stronger beliefs about the benefits of tanning (aOR = 2.15; P = 0.004), greater perceived susceptibility to indoor tanning risks (aOR = 2.72; P tanning dependence among young, non-Hispanic white women is associated with behaviors that increase the risk of skin cancer, beliefs favoring the perceived benefits of tanning, and comorbid risks such as stronger beliefs about physical appearance and depressed mood. Impact: Comprehensive skin cancer prevention efforts should address indoor tanning dependence among young women and its leading risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1636-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Full Text Available Introduction : Genital human papillomavirus (HPV infections are essentials factors in the development of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus vaccines can contribute to reducing the high incidence of this disease, provided that this form of prophylaxis is commonly accepted. Participation in vaccinations is restricted by the belief that their implementation and consequent feeling of safety will reduce women’s participation in other forms of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis and will encourage them to be sexually promiscuous. Aim of the research study : To determine the awareness of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis among young women vaccinated against HPV by comparing them with a group of unvaccinated women. Material and methods: The survey covered a group of 210 young women in the age range 18 to 20 years, who were vaccinated against HPV. Within the framework of comparison, the survey covered a group of 255 young HPV-unvaccinated women, adequately selected in respect of age and education. Results: The HPVvaccinated women declared participation in medical check-ups and cytological tests no less frequently than the unvaccinated women. In both groups, the usage of condoms, sexual partners hygiene, monogamy and smoking abstinence were determined as behaviours limiting the occurrence of cervical carcinoma. Conclusions: Awareness of the application of supplementary prophylaxis of cervical carcinoma was high among the HPV vaccinated woman and did not differ from the unvaccinated woman’s awareness. Young women did not show a tendency for promiscuous behaviours, and were more likely touse condoms in the prevention of cervical carcinoma than were the unvaccinated woman.
Gurski, Jennifer Sue
This mixed-methods study examined young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM pipeline experiences and their resulting choice to enter and persist in an engineering major. Despite the increase of women in the STEM workforce, women remain underrepresented among engineering majors (Beasley & Fischer, 2012; Heilbronner, 2012; Neihart & Teo, 2013). Few studies exist that utilize a retrospective approach to understand how the culmination of young women's K-14 experiences have influenced their formation of individually held perceptions that lead to engineering persistence. It is this study's aim to utilize a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research question: How do young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM experiences influence their decision to enroll and persist in an engineering major? These perceptions are explored through an ethnographic approach focusing on young women enrolled in engineering programs during their junior and senior years of study at a small private liberal arts university with eight engineering majors. The mixed-methods approach follows a sequential design method (Creswell, 2013) and utilizes questions in a quantitative Likert-type survey from the Academic Pathways for People Learning Engineering (APPLES) survey (Eris, Chachra, Chen, Sheppard, & Ludlow, 2010) and the Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991). The quantitative study results will lead to the development of open-ended, structured questions for conducting a qualitative focus group. Anonymity of all participants is maintained. Keywords: STEM, young women, perceptions, pipeline, intervention, underrepresentation, engineering, persistence, retrospective, self-efficacy.
Chernomas, Wanda M; Rieger, Kendra L; Karpa, Jane V; Clarke, Diana E; Marchinko, Shelley; Demczuk, Lisa
using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) assessment tool. Data were extracted from included papers using the standardized data extraction tool from JBI-QARI. Two reviewers independently reviewed the extracted findings to identify potential categories to pool similar findings. A third member of the team met with the reviewers to collaboratively review these derived categories to create a meta-synthesis that reflected a comprehensive set of synthesized findings. Based on the thematic findings from nine qualitative studies, two synthesized findings were identified: (1) the complexity of living with psychosis and finding health, and (2) the presence of harming and healing relationships in young women's lives. The included studies explored a range of experiences relevant for women within the broader phenomenon of experiences of living with a psychotic illness, including experiences within healthcare and social systems. The systematic exploration of the literature resulted in identification of nine studies of moderate-to-high methodological quality that met the inclusion criteria. The ConQual evaluation of the level of evidence resulted in synthesized finding 1 (the complexity of living with psychosis and finding health) rated as moderate and synthesized finding 2 (the presence of harming and healing relationships in young women's lives) rated as low. Practitioners can use these findings to guide practice. Further research exploring other experiences relevant for this population is needed.
Mosewich, Amber D; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M; Sedgwick, Whitney A; Tracy, Jessica L
Self-compassion has demonstrated many psychological benefits (Neff, 2009). In an effort to explore self-compassion as a potential resource for young women athletes, we explored relations among self-compassion, proneness to self-conscious emotions (i.e., shame, guilt-free shame, guilt, shame-free guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride), and potentially unhealthy self-evaluative thoughts and behaviors (i.e., social physique anxiety, obligatory exercise, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation). Young women athletes (N = 151; Mage = 15.1 years) participated in this study. Self-compassion was negatively related to shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, social physique anxiety, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. In support of theoretical propositions, self-compassion explained variance beyond self-esteem on shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, shame-free guilt proneness, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. Results suggest that, in addition to self-esteem promotion, self-compassion development may be beneficial in cultivating positive sport experiences for young women.
IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is supporting a ... institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality. ... (social, cultural and economic capital) differently than older women and young men?
Moline Jacqueline M.
Full Text Available Objective. Blood lead levels have declined among every age group in the United States, but urban minority residents remain at disproportionate risk for elevated lead levels. Our objective was to measure lead burden in young women of childbearing age in New York City. We also describe successful means of recruiting this population into a cohort study. Material and methods. Healthy women aged 18-25 attending a New York City health care center in 1995-1998 were eligible for participation. Participants were recruited by health care providers, the study coordinator and the participants themselves. Venous blood samples were obtained for whole blood lead, ferritin and hematocrit measurements, and detailed questionnaires were administered. Results. 239 women have been recruited to date. The population is predominately minority: 62% African-American, 33% Hispanic and 5% Caucasian/Asian. The average age of participants is 19.3 years. Recruitment of participants into the study is predominantly (55% through "word of mouth" from previously enrolled participants. Few participants learned of the study through their health care providers. The mean blood lead level among study participants is 2.1 ± 1.7 µg/dl, which is consistent with the most recent United States national survey. Conclusions. Blood lead levels are low in young, urban minority women of childbearing age in New York City. In this population, recruitment efforts were substantially enhanced with the help of enrolled participants and the health care community.
Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech
at an early stage, good knowledge and sensitive measurements of postural stability are essential. In addition, in order to develop effective intervention strategies such knowledge is of major importance. However, no single postural stability parameter has effectively been able to identify individuals at risk...... of falling. Hence, there is a strong need for development and identification of sensitive postural sway parameters in various demographic groups. The aim of this study was to explore differences in postural stability between physically active old (O) and young (Y) women using newly developed sway parameters....... METHODS AND MATERIALS: Center of pressure (CoP) excursion was measured (100 Hz) by force plate (AMTI) analysis in old (72.5±6.3 years) and young (25.8±1.6 years) women during static 2-leg (bilateral) and 1-leg (unilateral) standing (15-s) with eyes opened. RESULTS: O demonstrated elevated CoP sway length...
Shahabuddin, ASM; De Brouwere, Vincent; Adhikari, Ramesh; Delamou, Alexandre; Bardaj, Azucena; Delvaux, Therese
Objectives To identify the determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal. Design Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data sets 2011 were analysed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a subset of 1662 ever-married young women (aged 15–24 years). Outcome measure Place of delivery. Results The rate of institutional delivery among young married women was 46%, which is higher than the national average (35%) among all women of reproductive age. Young women who had more than four antenatal care (ANC) visits were three times more likely to deliver in a health institution compared with women who had no antenatal care visit (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 2.40 to 3.87). The probability of delivering in an institution was 69% higher among young urban women than among young women who lived in rural areas. Young women who had secondary or above secondary level education were 1.63 times more likely to choose institutional delivery than young women who had no formal education (OR: 1.626; 95% CI: 1.171 to 2.258). Lower use of a health institution for delivery was also observed among poor young women. Results showed that wealthy young women were 2.12 times more likely to deliver their child in an institution compared with poor young women (OR: 2.107; 95% CI: 1.53 to 2.898). Other factors such as the age of the young woman, religion, ethnicity, and ecological zone were also associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions Maternal health programs should be designed to encourage young women to receive adequate ANC (at least four visits). Moreover, health programs should target poor, less educated, rural, young women who live in mountain regions, are of Janajati ethnicity and have at least one child as such women are less likely to choose institutional delivery in Nepal. PMID:28408543
Zhang Xiao-song; Zhao Geng-li; Wang Lin-hong; Wu Jiu-ling; Peter Xenos
Objective: To understand the prevalence of RTIs/STIs, the incidence of sex violence and the KAP of the sex and reproductive health among unmarried floating young women.Methods: During Ocb.2002 to Feb.2003, in the maternal and child health hospital of Beijing, Shenzhen, Nanning and Zhengzhou, 1,219 unmarried floating young women who wanted termination of pregnancy and was under 24 years old before induced abortion received gynecological and laboratory examination. At the same time, they also answered a self-questionnaire. Results: The mean age of all respondents was (22.0±1.6) years old. The respondents' average age of having first sexual activity was (20.3±1.8) years old. The rate of induced abortion history was 38.7%. 17.5% of young women had never used contraception. The incidence of sex violence was 15.6%. The prevalence of RTIs and STIs was 56.1% and 9.7%, respectively. Young women were lack of the knowledge about reproductive health care. Conclusions: The reproductive health situation of unmarried floating young women was serious, especially on sex violence and RTIs/STIs and higher rate of induced abortion.
In francophone West Africa, despite judicial and institutional advances, the political participation of young women remains very limited. Moreover, the mechanisms and forms of political participation by young women are still unknown for lack of research on this issue. New information and communication technologies (ITCs) ...
Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.
Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…
Kabiru, Caroline W; Ushie, Boniface A; Mutua, Michael M; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O
Unsafe abortion is a leading cause of death among young women aged 10-24 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Although having multiple induced abortions may exacerbate the risk for poor health outcomes, there has been minimal research on young women in this region who have multiple induced abortions. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the prevalence and correlates of reporting a previous induced abortion among young females aged 12-24 years seeking abortion-related care in Kenya. We used data on 1,378 young women aged 12-24 years who presented for abortion-related care in 246 health facilities in a nationwide survey conducted in 2012. Socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive and clinical histories, and physical examination assessment data were collected from women during a one-month data collection period using an abortion case capture form. Nine percent (n = 98) of young women reported a previous induced abortion prior to the index pregnancy for which they were receiving care. Statistically significant differences by previous history of induced abortion were observed for area of residence, religion and occupation at bivariate level. Urban dwellers and unemployed/other young women were more likely to report a previous induced abortion. A greater proportion of young women reporting a previous induced abortion stated that they were using a contraceptive method at the time of the index pregnancy (47 %) compared with those reporting no previous induced abortion (23 %). Not surprisingly, a greater proportion of young women reporting a previous induced abortion (82 %) reported their index pregnancy as unintended (not wanted at all or mistimed) compared with women reporting no previous induced abortion (64 %). Our study results show that about one in every ten young women seeking abortion-related care in Kenya reports a previous induced abortion. Comprehensive post-abortion care services targeting young women are needed. In particular, post
Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...
Hansen, Dana Lee; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
as the norms for medicine use at home and among peers, and how these perceptions are reflected in their own use of medicine. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young Danish women between the ages of 16 and 20. During the interviews, participants described their perceptions regarding usual medicine...... taking practices and ideas about appropriate medicine use within their family and peer group. Young women possessed a keen awareness of medicine-related norms, although medicine use was a topic only rarely discussed with others. At the interface of these themes pertaining to family and peer norms......, a unifying concept involving growing autonomy in medicine use emerged. This concept consisted of three parts: the great influence of family norms when autonomy was limited, growing autonomy under changing influences and assertion of autonomy and positioning of own behaviour relative to the norm. This study...
Steele, Emily J; Giles, Lynne C; Davies, Michael J; Moore, Vivienne M
The Life Journeys of Young Women Project is the first population-based study to examine the role of economic uncertainty throughout early adulthood on age at first childbirth. A retrospective cross-sectional component was added to an existing cohort study that is based on a birth cohort of women born during 1973-1975 in Adelaide, South Australia (n ∼ 1,000). An event history calendar instrument was used to obtain data regarding a range of life domains including partnering, educational attainment, home ownership, higher education debt, employment, and pregnancies over a 20-year period (sometimes as detailed as at monthly intervals). Interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2009. An analysis framework applying time-varying and time-constant survival analysis techniques within a life-course framework was developed that will guide analyses to examine the role of duration and life-course timing of economic uncertainty on age at first childbirth. This paper discusses study objectives and design, fieldwork procedures, planned statistical analyses, and recruitment outcomes, focusing on novel features that would facilitate analogous epidemiologic research.
Graves, Virginia A
This article presents some alternate views on how young women maintain health and how occupational health nurses can intervene with illness. These interventions are based on relational theories that address the importance of healthy connections for health and growth, and propose disconnections as what (Miller & Stiver, 1977): underlies many of the problems common to women in particular, including depression, various forms of anxiety, eating problems, and so-called personality disorders." (p. 81) Interventions outlined include teaching young women and families how to deconstruct damaging media images and creating groups for young women or parents as a venue to learn (e.g., signs of healthy and unhealthy relationships and knowing how interaction in the group can be an intervention in itself). Offering parents and other adults support and resources to help them discuss health issues with young women will provide a way for young women to examine healthy choices more accurately. The occupational health nurse can teach the importance of keeping connected during an illness and refer clients to an EAP for additional support. Knowing that some young women do not have homes where they receive adequate safe and healthy messages reinforces the value of a nurse and managers to create a caring and respectful climate in the workplace. The effectiveness of applying relational theories to health care is evidenced when professionals offer young women a resonant relationship, with mutuality and respect which fosters a safe environment for voicing health concerns (Slater, Guthrie, & Boyd, 2001). Occupational health nurses can also make a difference for young women within their own communities. Whether taking social action in a town meeting, addressing media influences, writing a letter when offended, or supporting local and national girls' organizations, nurses' input is valuable. Interactions with girls outside the workplace are also important. Young women often consider
Conn, Cath; Modderman, Kristel; Nayar, Shoba
Participation is an accepted means of increasing the effectiveness of public health programs, and as such, it is considered an important component of HIV interventions targeting at-risk youth. The situation of young women sex workers in Thailand is alarming on many fronts, including that of HIV risk. As a result, HIV programs in Thailand are the key interventions undertaken in relation to young women sex workers' health. A small-scale study used semistructured interviews to explore the participation reports of five young women sex workers, as well as the related views of two community support workers, who lived and worked in Bangkok, Thailand. This study is considered in the light of current research on - as well as new opportunities and challenges offered for - participation by vulnerable groups in the context of digital society. Thematic analysis of the interview data identified barriers to participation, including the illegality of sex work, fear, and lack of trust of the authorities, as well as widespread social stigma. Such barriers resulted in young women seeking anonymity. Yet, promisingly, young women positioned themselves as experts; they are involved in peer education and are supportive of greater involvement in HIV programs, such as further educational initiatives and collective actions. There is a need for a more empowerment-oriented participation practice positioning young women sex workers as expert educators and codecision makers within a model of participation that is also accountable, such as including young women as members of program boards. Beyond current norms, there are new opportunities emerging because of the increasing availability of smartphone/Internet technology. These can support activist and codesign participation by young women sex workers in HIV programs. However, any developments in participation must maximize opportunities carefully, taking into consideration the difficult social environment faced by young women sex workers as well
Li, Haijiang; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang
Neuroanatomical abnormalities in patients with major depression disorder (MDD) have been attracted great research attention. However, the structural alterations associated with subthreshold depression (StD) remain unclear and, therefore, require further investigation. In this study, 42 young women with StD, and 30 matched non-depressed controls (NCs) were identified based on two-time Beck Depression Inventory scores. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region of interest method were used to investigate altered gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) among a non-clinical sample of young women with StD. VBM results indicated that young women with StD showed significantly decreased GMV in the right inferior parietal lobule than NCs; increased GMV in the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus; and increased WMV in the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Together, structural alterations in specific brain regions, which are known to be involved in the fronto-limbic circuits implicated in depression may precede the occurrence of depressive episodes and influence the development of MDD.
Imagining the Political : Young Women, Participation and the Crafting of the Political in Egypt. IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democracy and governance institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality.
Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Cooney, Teresa M
In the USA, most pregnancies occurring to teenage women are unplanned, making both the decisions regarding their resolution and the consequences of those decisions important topics of inquiry. Substantial debate surrounds the potential consequences for young women of either carrying an unintended pregnancy to term or voluntarily terminating it. The present study utilises data from The US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health prospectively to examine the predictors of pregnancy resolution decisions in terms of young women's educational goals and their engagement in risk behaviours. Additionally, the long-term consequences of these decisions for education and risk-taking behaviours are identified. Results indicate that young women with strong educational goals have a greater likelihood of terminating an unintended pregnancy than those with low aspirations, and that pregnancy termination predicts higher educational attainment compared to motherhood. Risk behaviours did not predict pregnancy-resolution decisions, but young women who became mothers reported lower rates of subsequent substance use and fewer sexual partners post-pregnancy than those who terminated the pregnancy or who had never been pregnant. Motherhood appears to be a catalyst for lifestyle change among young women, limiting substance use and sexual partnering, in contrast to abortion, which appears to allow adolescents to continue risk-taking trajectories.
Pandowo, Merinda; Darungo, Andrew
The development of entrepreneurship in Manado effected the opportunity of entrepreneurship in Manado is opened. The advantage of business opportunity in Manado should been utilized by all people in Manado young Minahasa women to run a business. But, the entrepreneurial intention of young Minahasa women in Manado is questionable. The objective of this research is to analyze the intention to become entrepreneur among young Minahasa women in Manado, and their view about women entrepreneurship in...
Yoo, Grace J; Sudhakar, Anantha; Le, Mai Nhung; Levine, Ellen G
In recent years, breast cancer rates among young Asian American women have been increasing. Despite increases in breast cancer among young Asian American women, little is known about how this population copes throughout diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. This study was a qualitative exploration of how young Asian American women cope with breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. In-depth interviews with 22 young (under the age of 50) Asian American women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were conducted. Through qualitative data analysis, three major themes emerged including moving from managing the emotions of others to expressing emotional vulnerability, moving from work and productivity to work-life balance, and moving beyond the family and reaching out to breast cancer survivors. At diagnosis, participants worked to maintain normalcy including caring for others and working during treatment. Once treatment was over, women worked to find ways to use their experience as a transformative one and also to develop more positive coping skills including expressing emotional vulnerability and reaching out to others. Further studies are needed to create and test culturally tailored supportive interventions that enhance positive coping tools among young Asian American women diagnosed by breast cancer.
Shabangu, Pinky N; Brear, Michelle R
Addressing discriminatory gender norms is a prerequisite for preventing HIV in women, including young women. However, the gendered expectation that women will perform unpaid childcare-related labour is rarely conceptualised as influencing their HIV risk. Our aim was to learn from members of a rural Swazi community about how gendered childcare norms. We performed sequential, interpretive analysis of focus group discussion and demographic survey data, generated through participatory action research. The results showed that gendered childcare norms were firmly entrenched and intertwined with discriminatory norms regarding sexual behaviour. Participants perceived that caring for children constrained young women's educational opportunities and providing for children's material needs increased their economic requirements. Some young women were perceived to engage in "transactional sex" and depend financially on men, including "sugar daddies", to provide basic necessities like food for the children they cared for. Our results suggested that men were no longer fulfilling their traditional role of caring for children's material needs, despite women's traditional role of caring for their physical and emotional needs remaining firmly entrenched. The results indicate that innovative approaches to prevent HIV in young women should incorporate structural approaches that aim to transform gendered norms, economically empower women and implement policies guaranteeing women equal rights.
Santhya, K G; Zavier, A J Francis
In India, a substantial proportion of young people are growing up in smaller families with fewer siblings than earlier generations of young people. Studies exploring the associations between declines in sibship size and young people's life experiences are limited. Drawing on data from a sub-nationally representative study conducted in 2006-08 of over 50,000 youths in India, this paper examines the associations between surviving sibship size and young women's (age 20-24) transitions to adulthood. Young women who reported no or a single surviving sibling were categorized as those with a small surviving sibship size, and those who reported two or more surviving siblings as those with a large surviving sibship size. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the relationship between sibship size and outcome indicators. Analysis was also done separately for low- and high-fertility settings. Small sibship size tended to have a positive influence in many ways on young women's chances of making successful transitions to adulthood. Young women with fewer siblings were more likely than others to report secondary school completion, participation in vocational skills training programmes, experience of gender egalitarian socialization practices, adherence to gender egalitarian norms, exercise of pre-marital agency and small family size preferences. These associations were more apparent in low- than high-fertility settings.
Hamilton, Rebekah; Hurley, Karen E
To explore the experiences of young, single women who are at increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) because of a BRCA mutation. Qualitative. Seven states and Canada. 11 single women aged 18-35 years who tested positive for a BRCA mutation. Grounded theory with in-depth individual interviews conducted via e-mail or telephone. Analysis resulted in three conditions and three consequences. Conditions were dating or not dating, time in a relationship, and physical impact of surgery or breast cancer treatment. Consequences were explaining their choices, experiencing a sense of urgency, and experiencing a sense of loss. Young women who are at risk for HBOC face a complex array of decisions after finding out that they carry a BRCA mutation. Being single and childless adds to this complexity. Nurses can listen to young women with HBOC risk, help them clarify their fears and understanding of their risk, and provide nonthreatening support that goes beyond simply providing more information and includes a nonjudgmental understanding of the young women's experience.
Hansen, Dana Lee; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme
Little is known about healthy young women's everyday experiences with medicine use and their general perceptions of medicines. In this article, we describe a user-perspective study involving in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark. ...... for their use of medicine, often based on perceptions of need and reduced personal risk.......Little is known about healthy young women's everyday experiences with medicine use and their general perceptions of medicines. In this article, we describe a user-perspective study involving in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Inspired by Schutz's phenomenology, informants' medicine-taking experiences were considered within the context of their life-worlds. Analysis revealed that the young women possessed predominantly negative perceptions of medicines, which were linked to a preference for complete avoidance of medicines...
Elisabeth Dahlborg Lyckhage
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe how young women living with self-identified anorexia narrate about their lives by blogging. Thirteen Swedish blogs were chosen and analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. The results described falling ill, the illness itself, and the path to recovery. Low self-esteem, depressed state of mind, and self-destructive behavior were typical signs at the start of the illness. The women’s lives were characterized by a need for controlling their body by tormenting it and by the illness demanding all their concentration and energy. The women suffered from the feeling of being a disappointment to their family members. The illness was like an enemy that had to be defeated with the help of family members, health care professionals, and by means of therapy. A turning point occurred when the women felt at their worst or had tired of the illness and could concentrate on something other than their body and the eating disorder. Suffering from self-identified anorexia was described as experiencing low self-esteem. The illness took all of the women’s time and energy. For a turning point to be reached, the women needed support from family, friends, and health care professionals, including the use of distractions.
Spitze, G D; Waite, L J
A causal model of changes in women's longrun tastes for paid employment was developed. It is based on the premise that women have a certain preference for market versus home work at the beginning of a year and that during the year some women experience a marital event, which may be a 1st marriage, a 1st birth, or the breakup of an existing marriage. This marital event may then cause some of the women experiencing it to revise their relative tastes for employment and work in the home. It is argued that changes in the level of such resources as time and money and changes in feelings of personal fulfillment that occur as a result of marriage, 1st birth, or divorce are responsible for alterations in market work preferences. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women were used to examine how women's relative preference for market work and home work are affected by the transitions of 1st marriage, marital dissolution, and 1st birth. This survey includes yearly data on over 5000 young women over a recent 5 year period. Personal interviews were conducted with a national probability sample of the noninstitutionalized female population age 14-24 in 1968, with yearly reinterviews through 1973. The impact of a 1st marriage during a year on preference for market work at the end of that year was consistently negative from ages 14 through 23. The likelihood that a young woman prefers market to home work at age 35 decreases from 10-20 percentage points upon 1st marriage. Women who first marry beyond age 24 experience no change in preferences for labor force participation. The positive impact of marital dissolution on a young woman's preference for labor force participation was substantial--between 18 and 29 percentage points--and tended to be higher the later it occurred. The experience of marital dissolution causes women to need to prepare for work. The results suggest that it also increases their desire to work. A 1st birth had no immediate impact but was followed
Despite significant improvements in the last couple of years, women are still under-represented in science and technology, both in the academic and private sector. This is due to a variety of reasons, mostly related to the role allocated to women in modern society as well as pre-existing prejudices that form glass ceilings while encouraging male presence in the workplace. It is also however, a result of information or lack of, which places young women in difficult position of making a career ...
Hansen, Dana Lee; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Holstein, Bjørn E
In this study, the authors explore the context surrounding young women's use of analgesics to deal with headache. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Interviews focused on the young women's experiences with medications within...... performance- and participation-related functions. Accordingly, analgesics were employed as tools to reach these aims. The threshold for turning to analgesics varied across situations and among participants. Some relied heavily on analgesics, whereas others had success with non-medical strategies. This study...... the context of their everyday lives. The central elements in the participants' accounts emerged via a phenomenological approach. Analysis revealed that participants attributed headache to stressful conditions in their everyday lives. Analgesic use in treating headache was found to serve highly valued...
Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F
To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Secondary qualitative content analysis. We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; Pettifor, Audrey; Silverwood, Richard J; Selin, Amanda; MacPhail, Catherine; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Hughes, James P; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Watts, Charlotte
Introduction Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV infection among a cohort of young, rural, sexually active South African women. We also explore whether this relationship is mediated through certain HIV-related risk behaviours. Methods We analyzed baseline data from a phase III trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention of 693 sexually active, school-going young women aged 13–20 years in rural South Africa. We examined the association between young women's engagement in transactional sex and HIV infection. Transactional sex is defined as a non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationship whereby sex is exchanged for money and/or gifts. We explored whether this relationship is mediated by certain HIV-related risk behaviours. We used logistic and multinomial regression and report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. Results Overall, 14% (n=97) of sexually active young women reported engaging in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with an increased risk of being HIV-positive (aOR: 2.5, CI: 95% 1.19–5.25, p=0.01). The effect size of this association remained nearly unchanged when adjusted for certain other dimensions of HIV risk that might help explain the underlying pathways for this relationship. Conclusions This study provides quantitative support demonstrating that transactional
Kawashima, K.; Oohata, H.; Fujimoto, K.; Suzuki, T.
A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was applied to the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) in plasma. The concentration of ACh in plasma sampled from 32 young women was 456.1+-53.1 (mean +-S.E.M.) pg/ml. No significant correlations were observed between plasma concentrations of ACh and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, or gonadal hormones. These data demonstrate that an amount of ACh measurable by radioimmunoassay is present in plasma and plasma ACh is not regulated by AChE activity and the menstrual cycle in young women. The origin and physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of ACh in plasma remain to be clarified. 13 refs. (Author)
Lawler, K A; Schmied, L; Mitchell, V P; Rixse, A
The purpose of this study was to assess the coronary-prone behavior pattern and physiological responses to stress in young women. Thirty-seven women, aged 18-25 yr, were tested; half were studying in nontraditional fields for women, half in traditional. Based on the Jenkins Activity Survey, women in the male-dominated fields of study were more Type A. Subjects were monitored while resting and while solving mental arithmetic problems and visual puzzles; the dependent variables were heart rate, and blood pressure. Comparisons were made based on both the Jenkins Activity Survey and the structured interview, and using both median splits and extreme groups. There were no physiological differences between Types A and B women. Possible methodological issues accounting for the lack of results are considered.
Partridge, Ann H; Gelber, Shari; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sampson, Ebonie; Knudsen, Katherine; Laufer, Marc; Rosenberg, Randi; Przypyszny, Michele; Rein, Alison; Winer, Eric P
Young women with breast cancer often seek advice about whether treatment will affect their fertility. We sought to gain a better understanding of women's attitudes about fertility and how these concerns affect decision making. We developed a survey about fertility issues for young women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. The survey was e-mailed to all registered Young Survival Coalition survivor members (N = 1,702). E-mail reminders were used. Six hundred fifty-seven eligible respondents completed the survey. Mean age at breast cancer diagnosis was 32.9 years; mean current age was 35.8 years. Ninety percent of women were white; 62% were married; 76% were college graduates. Stages at diagnosis were as follows: 0, 10%; I, 27%; II, 47%; III, 13%. Sixty-two percent of women were within 2 years of diagnosis. Fifty-seven percent recalled substantial concern at diagnosis about becoming infertile with treatment. In multivariate logistic regression, greater concern about infertility was associated with wish for children/more children (odds ratio [OR], 120; P women reported that infertility concerns influenced treatment decisions. Seventy-two percent of women reported discussing fertility concerns with their doctors; 51% felt their concerns were addressed adequately. Women seemed to overestimate their risk of becoming postmenopausal with treatment. Fertility after treatment is a major concern for young women with breast cancer. There is a need to communicate with and educate young patients regarding fertility issues at diagnosis and a need for future research directed at preserving fertility for young breast cancer survivors.
Klemp, Jennifer R; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding
When a young woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, there is often a sense of urgency by the patient and her providers to initiate treatment. This article provides guidelines for incorporating the discussion of fertility preservation with newly diagnosed young women with breast cancer....
Krebs, Nancy; Bagby, Susan; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Dewey, Kathryn; Fall, Caroline; Gregory, Fred; Hay, William; Rhuman, Lisa; Caldwell, Christine Wallace; Thornburg, Kent L
An international summit focusing on the difficult challenge of providing adequate nutrition for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries was held in Portland, Oregon in 2015. Sixty-seven delegates from 17 countries agreed on a series of recommendations that would make progress toward improving the nutritional status of girls and young women in countries where their access to nutrition is compromised. Delegate recommendations include: (1) elevate the urgency of nutrition for girls and young women to a high international priority, (2) raise the social status of girls and young women in all regions of the world, (3) identify major knowledge gaps in the biology of adolescence that could be filled by robust research efforts, (4) and improve access to nutrient-rich foods for girls and young women. Attention to these recommendations would improve the health of young women in all nations of the world. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.
Ruhl, U.E.; Rentsch, A.; Bernardi, C.; Türke, V.; Becker, E.S.; Kirch, W.; Margraf, J.; Hach, I.
Objective: To evaluate the prevalence rates of Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADHD) and comorbidity in a representative sample of young women. Methods: 2064 young women, aged 18–25 years, living in Dresden (Germany), were interviewed with a structured psychological interview, F-DIPS, for diagnosing
Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the factors that encourage young women to accept, and discourage them from accepting, STI (sexually transmitted infection testing is needed to underpin opportunistic screening programs for the STI Chlamydia trachomatis (opportunistic screening involves healthcare professionals offering chlamydia tests to people while they are attending health services for reasons that are usually unrelated to their sexual health. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore: how young women would feel about being offered opportunistic tests for chlamydia?; how young women would like to be offered screening, and who they wanted to be offered screening by?; and what factors would influence young women's partner notification preferences for chlamydia (who they would notify in the event of a positive diagnosis of chlamydia, how they would want to do this. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 35 young women between eighteen and twenty nine years of age. The study was conducted in the Dublin and Galway regions of the Republic of Ireland. Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services. Results Respondents were worried that their identities would become stigmatised if they accepted screening. Younger respondents and those from lower socio-economic backgrounds had the greatest stigma-related concerns. Most respondents indicated that they would accept screening if it was offered to them, however; accepting screening was seen as a correct, responsible action to engage in. Respondents wanted to be offered screening by younger female healthcare professionals. Respondents were willing to inform their current partners about positive chlamydia diagnoses, but were more ambivalent about informing their previous partners. Conclusions If an effort is not put into reducing young women's stigma-related concerns the
Hinton, Rachael L; Earnest, Jaya
The health of young women in rural Papua New Guinea (PNG) is often examined using individual-based risk factors which are decontextualized from the social and cultural relationships within which women's lives are embedded. Understanding the health meanings and perceptions of rural PNG women is important for bridging the gap between current health program delivery and the real needs of women. The objective of this study was to explore the health perceptions of rural PNG young women and to identify points in the lifespan where support may be required. Thirty-three young women aged between 15 and 29 years were involved in the research. Multiple data collection methods were used within interpretive qualitative methodology and these included in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, photo narrative and ranking exercises. The study was conducted in a rural community in the Wosera district of the East Sepik Province of PNG from mid-2005 to early 2006. Following a community meeting and targeted awareness about the project to female youth, purposive and snowball sampling was used to recruit young women aged 15-24 years. The mean age of participants was 21 years. Single and married participants, unmarried mothers, school leavers and current school attendees were represented. Informed consent was obtained prior to the sharing of women's narratives. Data were categorized and analysed for emerging themes and cross checked with participants for verification. Young women viewed their health in the context of their social and cultural world and in terms of their wider life experiences. The main theme uncovered young women's strong desires for independence. Young women depended on their parents for emotional support and material possessions, and positive parental support provided young women with the opportunity to move towards independence. Freedom from economic constraints was identified as important for autonomy, and having money was discussed as a requisite for good health
Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in young women with breast cancer in the Netherlands, and to assess the relationship between sexual dysfunction, treatment methods and treatment-related complaints. Also, the interest among women with breast cancer in
Yuxin, Pei; Ho Sik Ying, Petula
This study examines views and experiences of young Shanghai women with respect to masturbation. Through in-depth interviews with forty young women in Shanghai aged 22 to 39 from May 2004 to July 2007, the study explores women's understandings of masturbation, their desires and their lives as modern Chinese women. The focus of the analysis is on how women talk about their masturbation experiences and make sense of their experiences in the context of their sexual relationships and lifestyle choices. By analysing women's narratives about masturbation, the paper suggests that women's self-articulation is actually an engagement in self-image construction. The strategies they use to position themselves in relation to different social discourses on masturbation, how they describe and perform the acts and how they articulate their experiences of masturbation are examined to illustrate how young women in Shanghai perform gender and sexual intimacies in a fast changing city.
Hogarth, Harriet; Ingham, Roger
Much research into young people's developing sexuality is concerned with risk avoidance and the reduction of negative outcomes. Little research has been conducted into sexual self-exploration and, in particular, masturbation among young people, and this has generally been concerned merely with its prevalence. Little is known about the potential role of masturbation in relation to young people's developing sexuality, especially among young women. This study aimed to explore, using a qualitative approach, how young women reported their experiences of masturbation and whether and how these related to other aspects of their sexual activity. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was employed to identify the range of reported experiences across participants, as well as the relations between various aspects of sexual development and experiences within participants. The findings revealed a broad continuum of views and opinions on female masturbation, which had strong links with parent and partner communication and the young women's beliefs and values concerning their sexual selves. The article concludes by drawing attention to the apparent relation between positive early childhood communication, young women's positive views of their sexual self, and their subsequent sexual activity.
Redshaw, Maggie; Hennegan, Julie; Miller, Yvette
young parenthood continues to be an issue of concern in terms of clinical and psychosocial outcomes for mothers and their babies, with higher rates of medical complications such as preterm labour and hypertensive disease and a higher risk of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate how young age impacts on women's experience of intrapartum care. secondary analysis of data collected in a population based survey of women who had recently given birth in Queensland, comparing clinical and interpersonal aspects of the intrapartum maternity care experience for 237 eligible women aged 15-20 years and 6534 aged more than 20 years. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were undertaken. in the univariate analysis a number of variables were significantly associated with clinical aspects of labour and birth and perceptions of care: young women were more likely to birth in a public facility, to travel for birth and to live in less economically advantaged areas, to have a normal vaginal birth and to have one carer through labour. They were also less likely to report being treated with respect and kindness and talked to in a way they could understand. In logistic regression models, after adjustment for parity, other socio-demographic factors and mode of birth, younger mothers were still more likely to birth in a public facility, to travel for birth, to be more critical about interpersonal and aspects of care and the hospital or birth centre environment. this study shows how experience of care during labour and birth is different for young women. Young women reported poorer quality interpersonal care which may well reflect an inferior care experience and stereotyping by health professionals, indicating a need for more effective staff engagement with young women at this time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yfantis, Aris; Intas, George; Tolia, Maria; Nikolaou, Michail; Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Lymperi, Maria; Kyrgias, George; Zografos, George; Kontos, Michalis
The purpose of the present article was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL) of young women with breast cancer. For the purposes of this article, we reviewed the literature via the electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar. Key words used were breast cancer, young women, health related quality of life, and quality of life. Young women reported fatigue, pain in the breast and hand problems with lymphedema as the most frequent physical effects of treatment. Other physical problems were the not periodic and painful menses, vaginal dryness and loss of libido. Many young women had depressive symptoms such as depressed mood, helplessness, hopelessness, sleep loss, psychomotor retardation and disorders of appetite. There were often concerns about the health monitoring and self-image, while they were anxious if they will have a baby in the future or if they can nurture the existing ones. Many problems arose in the career of young women. They faced discrimination in the labor supply and/or layoff because they were considered unable to do their job effectively. In addition, they reported isolation problems and feeling different from other women of similar age. Young women consider that their healthrelated QoL is worse compared with older women. Young women worry about their future, with particular reference to their role as mothers and especially to children-bearing. The free screening and non-exclusion of young women is particularly important for breast cancer prevention and women's well-being.
Nayef Saleh Al-Ghamri
Full Text Available Small businesses are considered the backbone of the national economy due to their role in creating job opportunities for young men and women who seek private sector employment. However, a series of obstacles face young Saudi male and female citizens in getting jobs in small businesses sector. The present research focuses on studies which discuss the definitions of small businesses and how they are related to the creation of employment opportunities for young men and women, their effect on improving young adults’ economic and social levels by boosting their morale and kindling their entrepreneurial spirit. The research also sets out the proposed mechanisms for the removal of obstacles faced by young small business would-be entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it endeavors to develop solutions, based on hypotheses and primary assumptions, which may contribute to a better understanding of the employment issue of Saudi young men and women. Solutions are set within a comprehensive strategy framework based on the integration and encouragement of young people to initiate small businesses, raise their standard of living, reduce the unemployment phenomenon and its consequences and repercussions which can result in domestic discord and moral degeneration– which may sometimes lead to misanthropy and suicide, as is the case in some societies such as Japan.
Lipperini, Patricia T.
Motherhood is a complex experience that can be transformative, offering women opportunities for personal enrichment and spiritual development. Because the largest incidence of births occurs to women in the Millennial or late Generation X generations, this complex, potentially transformative experience occurs at a critical time in young adult…
Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth
The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4 years and 30–40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24 years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls. PMID:25072044
Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth
The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4 years and 30-40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24 years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls.
Palm, Anna; Danielsson, Ingela; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Olofsson, Niclas; Högberg, Ulf
Purpose: The association between victimisation and adverse health in children is well established but few studies have addressed the effect of victimisation, especially multiple victimisations, in older adolescents and young adults. The aim of this study was to assess self-reported health in young women (15-22 years) victimised to one or more types of violence, compared with non-victimised.aEuro integral Methods: Young women visiting youth health centres in Sweden answered a questionnaire con...
Theou, Olga; Gareth, Jones R; Brown, Lee E
This study compares the effects of rest intervals on isokinetic muscle torque recovery between sets of a knee extensor and flexor exercise protocol in physically active younger and older women. Twenty young (22.4 +/- 1.7 years) and 16 older (70.7 +/- 4.3 years) women performed three sets of eight maximum repetitions of knee extension/flexion at 60 degrees x s(-1). The rest interval between sets was 15, 30, and 60 seconds and was randomly assigned across three testing days. No significant interaction of rest by set by age group was observed. There was a significant decline in mean knee extensor torque when 15- and 30-second rest intervals were used between sets, but not when a 60-second rest interval was applied for both the young and the old women. No significant decline for mean knee flexor torque was observed in the older women when a 30-second rest interval was used, whereas a longer 60-second rest interval was required in younger women. Active younger and older women require similar rest intervals between sets of a knee extensor exercise (60 seconds) for complete recovery. However, older women recovered faster (30 seconds) than younger women (60 seconds) between sets of a knee flexor exercise. The exercise-to-rest ratio for knee extensors was similar for young and old women (1:2). Old women required only a 1:1 exercise-to-rest ratio for knee flexor recovery, whereas younger women required a longer 1:2 exercise-to-rest ratio. The results of the present study are specific to isokinetic testing and training and are more applicable in rehabilitation and research settings. Practitioners should consider age and gender when prescribing rest intervals between sets.
Fakih, Souhiela; Batra, Peter; Gatny, Heather H; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S; Farris, Karen B
Unintended pregnancy is a major public health problem in the United States.Correct contraceptive use can reduce the rate of unintended pregnancy. Community pharmacies are well positioned to provide contraceptives and advice about contraception. To determine young women's perceptions and experiences with contraception supply in community pharmacies and to identify whether pharmacy characteristics predicted very positive experiences. This study comprised two cross-sectional surveys including an online women's pharmacy perceptions and experiences (PPE) survey and a faxed/observed survey of community pharmacies. One county in Michigan. Young women and community pharmacies. The two surveys were merged to explore pharmacy characteristics that may impact women's perceptions and experiences with community pharmacies. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between pharmacy characteristics and positive outcomes. The response rate for the PPE survey was 54% (n = 343/637). Data from all community pharmacies in the county was retrieved via fax (n = 41/94, 43.6%) or observation (n = 53/94, 56.4%). Women were included in this analysis if they indicated a regular pharmacy (one they go to most often) in the county of interest (n = 210). More than 50% of women (n = 125/210) visited a pharmacy more than once per month. Sixty percent of women were currently using something to prevent pregnancy (n = 124/210, 60.8%). Thirty-five percent of women had a positive experience (n = 73/210, 34.8%). In the multiple logistic regression, women who visited a chain pharmacy had almost 65% lower odds of an overall positive experience with their regular pharmacy compared with women who visited a grocery or mass merchandise pharmacy (odds ratio 0.35 [95% CI 0.16], P = 0.75). Young women visit community pharmacies and use contraceptives frequently. Interventions need to be developed and implemented to improve young women's perceptions and experiences with
Dryden, Amy; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette
Younger women diagnosed with cancer often face compromised fertility as a result of their treatment. However, previous research has adopted a biomedical model of fertility and utilised hypothetico-deductive research methods which have not allowed for full exploration of women's subjectivity. This study explored younger women's construction of their fertility post-cancer, and their discussions of fertility with healthcare professionals, from a social constructionist epistemology. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews were conducted with eight women aged 18-26, across a variety of cancer types. Foucaultian Discourse Analysis identified three subject positions associated with fertility concerns: 'Inadequate woman: Accepting the motherhood mandate'; 'Adequate woman: Resisting the motherhood mandate'; and 'Survival of the fittest: Woman as genetically defective'. Implications of these subject positions included feelings of inadequacy, fear and devastation; feeling undesirable to romantic partners; and concern about passing on cancer-positive genes. In describing healthcare professional interactions, women adopted positions of 'Satisfied patient'; 'Passive recipient patient'; or 'Resisting the passive patient position'. Accounts of inadequate information provision were associated with anger and frustration, whereas feeling adequately informed was associated with satisfaction at making decisions about fertility preservation. These results suggest that fertility is of importance to young women cancer survivors, and that compromised fertility can negatively impact subjectivity.
Catoira, N P; Tapajóz, F; Allegri, R F; Lajfer, J; Rodríguez Cámara, M J; Iturry, M L; Castaño, G O
The prevalence of obesity, as well as evidence about this pathology as a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, is increasing worldwide. Executive functions have been found to be compromised in most studies, although the specific results are dissimilar. Obese young women constitute an interesting study and intervention group, having been found to be unaffected by age and hormonal negative effects on cognition and considering that their health problems affect not only themselves but their families and offspring. The objective of the present study was to compare the executive performance of obese young women with that of a healthy control group. A cross-sectional study was done among premenopausal women from a public hospital in Buenos Aires. The sample comprised 113 participants (32 healthy controls and 81 obese women), who were evaluated for depressive and anxiety symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and executive functioning (Trail-Making Test B, Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and verbal fluency test). Statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS version 20.0 software. Among executive functions, a significant difference was found between groups in inhibition (pcognitive test and 2h post-load glucose level. Inhibition was decreased in our obese young women group, and glucose/lipid metabolism may be involved in this association. The cognitive impairment is comparable with that described in addictive conditions. Our conclusions support the concept of multidisciplinary management of obese patients from the time of diagnosis. Detecting and understanding cognitive dysfunction in this population is essential to providing appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Racialized and class specific as well as gendered heterosexuality is compulsory for young women. Substantial academic literature addressed the incidence of premarital adolescent heterosexual intercourse paying particular attention to young working-class women and (especially in the US) to young women of color. During the 1980s, journals and academic texts in the US debated the so-called black underclass disregarding the effects of Reaganomics: increasing poverty, homelessness, ill health, and unemployment, which affected young African-American women. From a traditional (hetero)patriarchal standpoint, any teenage pregnancy is a problem. Hence pregnancy avoidance and planned parenthood focus on young working-class women and young women of color presumed to constitute the problem of the (hetero)sexually active teenager. The ideology of fetal rights as used in anti-abortion and pro-life arguments represents the life of a pregnant woman as in direct opposition to that of her fetus. The ideology of adolescence constructs all young people as inherently prone to irresponsibility, especially if they are female, working-class, and black. In the Third World, young women considered as irresponsible mothers more likely face enforced sterilization than access to abortion in the guise of genetic counseling for disabilities or without explicit consent during other gynecological operations. Feminists point out that under current legislation in England and Wales, fetuses defined as seriously handicapped can be aborted up to the moment of birth. The legacy of eugenicist ideas lives on in assumptions about the inherent deficiencies of young working-class women, young women of color, and young women with disabilities as potential mothers. Yet despite the institutional, cultural, and ideological force of appropriate heterosexual and reproductive activity, young women continue to challenge common sense definitions of normality and deviance.
González López-Arza, María Victoria; Varela-Donoso, Enrique; Montanero-Fernández, Jesús; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-Sánchez, Blanca; González López-Arza, Luis
Balance problems are common in people of all ages and can lead to falls, thus causing fractures with consequent disability. Qigong practice has long been part of daily life in Chinese culture, and has good effects on physical health maintenance. The present work describes the change in balance in young, healthy women after practising Qigong for eight weeks. The study took the form of a controlled, randomised longitudinal trial, and involved 30 women aged 18-25 years. The subjects had no prior experience of Qigong or Tai Chi and were unaware of the aims of the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a Qigong intervention group or a control group. Those in the Qigong intervention group performed "exercises in 20 figures for health and long-life" (Wang Ziping) for 1 h twice per week, for 4 weeks. The control group undertook no exercise at all. The main outcome measure was the stabilometry values. These were obtained in a unipodal support test, using a plantar pressure platform with optical sensors. The Qigong subjects showed a significant improvement in their stabilometry results (40.1% pre-intervention and 56.4% post-intervention) (Pbalance in healthy, young women.
Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…
Memon, Zahid Ali; Kanwal, Noureen; Sami, Munam; Larik, Parsa Azam; Farooq, Mohammad Zain
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women throughout the world. However, in comparison with Western women, it presents relatively early in women of Asian ethnicity. Early menarche, late menopause, use of OCP's, family history of benign or malignant breast disease, exposure to radiation and BMI in the under-weight range are well known risk factors for the development of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Early detection with the use of breast self-examination (BSE) and breast cancer screening programs can lead to a reduction in the mortality rates due to breast cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the risk factors for breast cancer among young women and to emphasize the importance of early screening among them. We conducted a cross-sectional study among women aged 18 to 25 using a self- administered questionnaire. Data was collected over a period of 6 months from June to December, 2014. A total of 300 young women selected randomly from Dow Medical College and various departments of Karachi University successfully completed the survey. Respondents were 18-25 years of age (mean age=21.5). Out of the 300 young females, 90 (30%) had at least one risk factor, 90 (30%) had two, 40 (13%) had three, 8 (2.7%) had four, 2 (0.7%) had five while one female was found to have six positive risk factors for breast cancer. Some 66 women (22%) experienced symptoms of breast cancer such as non-cyclical pain and lumps. While 222 women (74%) had never performed breast self-examination, 22 (7.3%) had had a breast examination done by a health professional while 32 (10.7%) had participated in breast screening programs. A total of 223 (74.3%) women considered breast cancer screening important for young women. The percentage of young women with risk factors for breast cancer was found to be alarmingly high. Therefore, screening for breast cancer should start at an early age especially in high risk groups. Awareness about breast self-examination should be emphasized
Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Potter, Jennifer T.
In this article we examine the scientific identity formation of two young women of color who attend an urban vocational high school. One young woman lives in an urban setting, while the other lives in a suburban setting. We describe how these young women's identities influence and respond to experiences in school science. In particular, we describe how the experience of marginalization can make membership in a school science community impossible or undesirable. We also describe the advantages that accrue to students who fit well with the ideal identities of an urban school. Finally, we describe some of the difficulties students face who aspire to scientific or technological competence yet do not desire to take on aspects of the identities associated with membership in school science communities.
Weinrib, Rachel; Minnis, Alexandra; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Owino, Fred; Manenzhe, Kgahlisho; Cheng, Helen; van der Straten, Ariane
A multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) that combines HIV and pregnancy prevention is a promising women's health intervention, particularly for young women. However, little is known about the drivers of acceptability and product choice for MPTs in this population. This paper explores approval ratings and stated choice across three different MPT delivery forms among potential end-users. The Trio Study was a mixed-methods study in women ages 18-30 that examined acceptability of three MPT delivery forms: oral tablets, injections, and vaginal ring. Approval ratings and stated choice among the products was collected at baseline. Factors influencing stated product choice were explored using multivariable multinomial logistic regression. The majority (62%) of women in Trio stated they would choose injections, 27% would choose tablets and 11% would choose the ring. Significant predictors of choice included past experience with similar contraceptive delivery forms, age, and citing frequency of use as important. Ring choice was higher for older (25-30) women than for younger (18-24) women (aRR = 3.1; p < 0.05). These results highlight the importance of familiarity in MPT product choice of potential for variations in MPT preference by age.
Perumal, Rubeshan; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Padayatchi, Nesri
The global predominance of tuberculosis in men has received significant attention. However, epidemiological studies now demonstrate that there is an increased representation of young women with tuberculosis, especially in high HIV burden settings where young women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. The role of the HIV epidemic, as well as changes in behavioural, biological, and structural risk factors are explored as potential explanations for the increasing burden of tuberculosis in young women. As young women are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, it is unsurprising that the TB epidemic in this setting has become increasingly feminised. This age-sex trend of TB in South Africa is similar to WHO estimates for other countries with a high HIV prevalence where there are more female than male cases notified up to the age of 25 years. The high prevalence of anaemia of chronic disease in young women with HIV is an additional potential reason for their increased TB risk. The widespread use of injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception, which has been shown to possess selective glucocorticoid effect and oestrogen suppression, in young women may be an important emerging biological risk factor for tuberculosis in young women. Behavioural factors such as alcohol use and tobacco smoking patterns are further factors which may be responsible for the narrowing of the sex gap in TB epidemiology. In comparison to the significantly higher alcohol consumption rates in men globally, there is a narrowing gap in alcohol consumption between the sexes in South Africa with alarming rates of alcohol abuse in young women. There is a similar narrowing of the tobacco smoking gap between the sexes in South Africa, with increasing smoking prevalence in young women. With nearly 70% of all TB patients being co-infected with HIV in our setting, it is not surprising that the age and sex distribution of TB is increasingly resembling the distribution of HIV
Ngabaza, Sisa; Shefer, Tamara
Reproductive rights in South Africa continue to be undermined for young women who fall pregnant and become mothers while still at school. Before 1994, exclusionary practices were common and the majority of those who fell pregnant failed to resume their education. With the adoption of new policies in 2007, young pregnant women and mothers are supposed to be supported to complete school successfully. Notwithstanding these new policies, there are incongruities between policy implementation and young women's lived experience in school. This paper explores the experiences of pregnancy and parenting among a group of 15 young women who fell pregnant and became mothers while attending three high schools in Khayelitsha township, a working-class community in the Western Cape of South Africa. Qualitative, in-depth interviews, conducted between 2007 and 2008, highlighted two key areas of concern: continuing exclusionary practices on the part of schools, based on conservative interpretations of policy, and negative and moralistic responses from teachers and peers. Such practices resulted in secrecy and shame about being pregnant, affecting the young women's emotional and physical well-being and their decisions whether to remain in school during pregnancy and return after having the baby. Further attention is required to ensure appropriate implementation of policies aimed at supporting pregnant and parenting young women to complete their education successfully. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer
Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336
Lauren E. Joly
Full Text Available Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45 of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61 of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability.
Rahman, Atif; Ahmed, Mansoor; Sikander, Siham; Malik, Abid; Tomenson, Barbara; Creed, Francis
The prevalence of depression is very high among adult women in Pakistan but it is not known whether such a high prevalence occurs in younger women. We aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of depression in 16 to 18-year old unmarried women in Pakistan. Population-based survey of all 16 to 18-year old unmarried women in one rural community in Rawalpindi District, Punjab, Pakistan. Depressive disorder and psychological distress were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID) and Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) respectively. 337 eligible women were identified of whom 321 (95%) were interviewed. Fourteen (4.4%) had depressive disorder; one third scored 9 or more on SRQ. On multivariate analysis a high SRQ score was associated with childhood experience of poverty, father's education, stressful life events, disturbed family relationships and mother's depression. The sample was derived from one rural community only and the results should be generalised with caution. Depressive disorder is not common in young women in rural Pakistan though distress appears common and is associated with early and recent adversity and family difficulties. These results suggest future work might aim to understand onset and prevent chronic depression.
Boyd, Elizabeth Reid; Moncrieff-Boyd, Jessica
This preliminary study reviews the promotion of healthy body image to young Australian women, following the 2009 introduction of the voluntary Industry Code of Conduct on Body Image. The Code includes using diverse sized models in magazines. A qualitative content analysis of the 2010 annual 'swimsuit issues' was conducted on 10 Australian young women's magazines. Pictorial and/or textual editorial evidence of promoting diverse body shapes and sizes was regarded as indicative of the magazines' upholding aspects of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image. Diverse sized models were incorporated in four of the seven magazines with swimsuit features sampled. Body size differentials were presented as part of the swimsuit features in three of the magazines sampled. Tips for diverse body type enhancement were included in four of the magazines. All magazines met at least one criterion. One magazine displayed evidence of all three criteria. Preliminary examination suggests that more than half of young women's magazines are upholding elements of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image, through representation of diverse-sized women in their swimsuit issues.
Coulombe, Genevieve; Tyldesley, Scott; Speers, Caroline B.A.; Paltiel, Chuck M.Sc.; Aquino-Parsons, Christina; Bernstein, Vanessa; Truong, Pauline T.; Keyes, Mira; Olivotto, Ivo A.
Purpose: To examine whether modified radical mastectomy (MRM) improves outcomes compared with breast-conserving treatment (BCT) in young women. Methods and Materials: Women aged 20-49 years, diagnosed with early breast cancer between 1989 and 1998, were identified. Management with BCT or MRM was compared for local (L), locoregional (LR), and distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) by age group (20-39 years, 40-49 years). The analysis was repeated for patients considered 'ideal' candidates for BCT: tumor size ≤2 cm, pathologically negative axillary nodes, negative margins, and no reported ductal carcinoma in situ. Results: A total of 1,597 women received BCT, and 801 had MRM. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, the outcomes (L, LR, BCSS) were worse for the younger age group; however, the outcomes were not statistically different by type of local treatment. For women aged 20-39 years considered 'ideal' for BCT, those treated with BCT had slightly lower LRFS compared with those treated with MRM (p = 0.3), but DRFS and BCSS were similar. Conclusions: A difference in LRFS at 10 years potentially favored MRM among women aged 20-39 years considered 'ideal' BCT candidates but was not statistically significant and did not translate into a noticeable difference in DRFS or BCSS. Our data suggest that young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT
McDermott, Liane; Dobson, Annette; Russell, Anne
To examine changes in smoking behaviour among young women over four life stages: leaving home; employment or attending college or university; marriage; and parenthood. Young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health completed postal questionnaires in 1996 and 2000. Unmarried women who moved out of their parents' home between 1996 and 2000 had higher odds of adopting smoking than those who had not lived with their parents at either time (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6). Married women had lower odds of resuming smoking after quitting (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7) than unmarried women. Women who were pregnant in 2000 had higher odds of quitting smoking (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.6) and women who were pregnant in 1996 and not in 2000 had higher odds of starting to smoke again (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.2) than women who were not pregnant. The odds of being a current smoker or adopting smoking were significantly greater for women who binge drank alcohol or used cannabis and other illicit drugs. Adoption, maintenance and cessation of smoking among young women is strongly related to major life stage transitions, illicit drug use and alcohol consumption. Life changes such as marriage and actual or contemplated pregnancy provide opportunities for targeted interventions to help women quit smoking and not relapse after having a baby. Legislation to control smoking on licensed premises would reduce the social pressure on women to smoke.
Free, Caroline; Lee, Raymond M; Ogden, Jane
Objectives To explore young women's accounts of their use and non-use of emergency contraception. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Participants 30 women aged 16-25; participants from socially deprived inner city areas were specifically included. Setting Community, service, and educational settings in England. Results Young women's accounts of their non-use of emergency contraception principally concerned evaluations of the risk conferred by different contraceptive behaviours, their evaluations of themselves in needing emergency contraception, and personal difficulties in asking for emergency contraception. Conclusions The attitudes and concerns of young women, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, may make them less able or willing than others to take advantage of recent increases in access to emergency contraception. Interventions that aim to increase the use of emergency contraception need to address the factors that influence young women's non-use of emergency contraception. What is already known on this topicLimited knowledge of, or poor access to, emergency contraception, and concerns about side effects and moral issues may reduce the use of emergency contraception in women at riskYoung people can be embarrassed about using contraception servicesInterventions to increase knowledge of and access to emergency contraception have had limited success among teenagersWhat this study addsPerceptions of low vulnerability to pregnancy, negative self evaluations about the need for such contraception, and concerns about what others think deter young women from using emergency contraceptionThese women find it difficult to ask for emergency contraceptionThe attitudes and concerns of young women, especially those from deprived inner city areas, may render them least willing and able to obtain emergency contraception PMID:12480855
David A Gunn
Full Text Available The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.
... breast cancer risk, breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in young women... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at heightened risk) and promote the early detection and...
Leonard, Alecia; Hutchesson, Melinda; Patterson, Amanda; Chalmers, Kerry; Collins, Clare
Successful recruitment and retention of participants into research studies is critical for optimising internal and external validity. Research into diet and lifestyle of young women is important due to the physiological transitions experienced at this life stage. This paper aims to evaluate data related to recruitment and retention across three research studies with young women, and present practical advice related to recruiting and retaining young women in order to optimise study quality within nutrition research. Recruitment and retention strategies used in three nutrition studies that targeted young women (18 to 35 years) were critiqued. A randomised controlled trial (RCT), a crossover validation study and a cross-sectional survey were conducted at the University of Newcastle, Australia between 2010 and 2013Successful recruitment was defined as maximum recruitment relative to time. Retention was assessed as maximum participants remaining enrolled at study completion. Recruitment approaches included notice boards, web and social network sites (Facebook and Twitter), with social media most successful in recruitment. The online survey had the highest recruitment in the shortest time-frame (751 participants in one month). Email, phone and text message were used in study one (RCT) and study two (crossover validation) and assisted in low attrition rates, with 93% and 75.7% completing the RCT and crossover validation study respectively. Of those who did not complete the RCT, reported reasons were: being too busy; and having an unrelated illness. Recruiting young women into nutrition research is challenging. Use of social media enhances recruitment, while Email, phone and text message contact improves retention within interventions. Further research comparing strategies to optimise recruitment and retention in young women, including flexible testing times, reminders and incentives is warranted.
Rochele D. Castelli
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD and perceived maternal bonding styles among young women during pregnancy and 30 months after childbirth. Methods: A cohort of young women from the city of Pelotas, Brazil was followed up from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. The Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus was used to assess SAD and the Parental Bonding Instrument was administered to measure maternal bonding styles. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for multivariable analysis. Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, SAD prevalence was 6.39 times higher among young women who perceived their mothers as neglectful (prevalence ratio [PR] 6.39; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2-32.0, and 5.57 times higher in women who perceived their mothers as affectionless controlling (PR = 5.57; 95%CI 1.5-19.7 when compared with those who received optimal care. Conclusion: Maternal bonding style may have an influence on the development of SAD. Therefore, support and early prevention strategies should be offered to the family.
Yukumi, Shungo; Suzuki, Hideaki; Morimoto, Masamitsu; Shigematsu, Hisayuki; Okazaki, Mikio; Abe, Masahiro; Kitazawa, Sohei; Nakamura, Kenji; Sano, Yoshifumi
Pneumothorax associated with thoracic endometriosis (TE) generally occurs in women around 30 years old and it usually affects the right pleural cavity. We herein report two cases of TE associated with left-sided pneumothorax in young women. The prevalence of TE in younger patients may be underestimated if these cases are treated as spontaneous pneumothorax. Pneumothorax occurring in younger patients has not been reported to show laterality. TE-related or catamenial pneumothorax in young women must therefore represent a different clinical entity from the condition seen in older patients.
Full Text Available Compared with natural conception, IVF is an effective form of fertility treatment associated with higher rates of obstetric complications and poorer neonatal outcomes. While some increased risk is intrinsic to the infertile population requiring treatment, the practice of multiple embryo transfer contributes to these complications and outcomes, especially concerning its role in higher order pregnancies. As a result, several jurisdictions (e.g. Sweden, Belgium, Turkey, and Quebec have legally mandated elective single-embryo transfer (eSET for young women. We accept that in very high-risk scenarios (e.g. past history of preterm delivery and poor maternal health, double-embryo transfer (DET should be prohibited due to unacceptably high risks. However, we argue that mandating eSET for all young women can be considered an unacceptable breach of patient autonomy, especially since DET offers certain women financial and social advantages. We also show that mandated eSET is inconsistent with other practices (e.g. ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination–ovulation induction that can expose women and their offspring to risks associated with multiple pregnancies. While defending the option of DET for certain women, some recommendations are offered regarding IVF practice (e.g. preimplantation genetic screening and better support of IVF and maternity leave to incentivise patients to choose eSET.
Full Text Available Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2 in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029. BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057. The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range. There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored.
Gipson, Jessica D; Hicks, Andrew L
Partnership and fertility patterns of young Filipinos have changed dramatically from previous generations, with a widening gap between sexual initiation and marriage, and concurrent increases in teenage pregnancy and unwanted fertility. Further understanding of young adults' social contexts and partnership patterns are needed to inform reproductive health programmes and policies affecting young Filipinos. Multivariate Poisson regression models were conducted with longitudinal and inter-generational data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (1998-2009) to examine the predictors of young women's fertility. Age at first sex, and number and duration of partnerships each independently and significantly predicted women's fertility by 2009 after controlling for contextual influences. Young women with more conservative attitudes towards dating, sex and marriage, and who perceived their mothers to have more conservative attitudes, had higher fertility than their peers, as did young women with mothers who reported more adolescent sexual behaviours. In contrast, fertility was lower among daughters who had higher levels of communication with their mothers. Given high levels of unintended fertility and teenage pregnancy in the Philippines, the findings indicate that the interval between sexual initiation and first and subsequent partnerships may be ideal intervention points for reproductive health services for young Filipinos.
Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Fader, Amanda N
To evaluate the effects of the dependent coverage mandate of the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) on insurance status, stage at diagnosis, and receipt of fertility-sparing treatment among young women with gynecologic cancer. We used a difference-in-differences design to assess insurance status, stage at diagnosis (stage I-II vs III-IV), and receipt of fertility-spearing treatment before and after the 2010 ACA among young women aged 21-26 years vs women aged 27-35 years. We used the National Cancer Database with the 2004-2009 surveys as the pre-ACA years and the 2011-2014 surveys as the post-ACA years. Women with uterine, cervical, ovarian, vulvar, or vaginal cancer were included. We analyzed outcomes for women overall and by cancer and insurance type, adjusting for race, nonrural area, and area-level household income and education level. A total of 1,912 gynecologic cancer cases pre-ACA and 2,059 post-ACA were identified for women aged 21-26 years vs 9,782 cases pre-ACA and 10,456 post-ACA for women aged 27-35 years. The ACA was associated with increased insurance (difference in differences 2.2%, 95% CI -4.0 to 0.1, P=.04) for young women aged 21-26 years vs women aged 27-35 years and with a significant improvement in early stage at cancer diagnosis (difference in differences 3.6%, 95% CI 0.4-6.9, P=.03) for women aged 21-26 years. Receipt of fertility-sparing treatment increased for women in both age groups post-ACA (P for trend=.004 for women aged 21-26 years and .001 for women aged 27-35 years); there was no significant difference in differences between age groups. Privately insured women were more likely to be diagnosed at an early stage and receive fertility-sparing treatment than publicly insured or uninsured women throughout the study period (P<.001). Under the ACA's dependent coverage mandate, young women with gynecologic cancer were more likely to be insured and diagnosed at an early stage of disease.
... as breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in young women; and information... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... ACBCYW meeting Web page to register for this meeting: http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/what_cdc_is_doing...
Hall, Kelli Stidham; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Gatny, Heather; Barber, Jennifer
Prior research linking young women's mental health to family planning outcomes has often failed to consider their social circumstances and the intersecting biosocial mechanisms that shape stress and depression as well as reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood. We extend our previous work to investigate relationships between social discrimination, stress and depression symptoms, and unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women. Data were drawn from 794 women aged 18-20 years in a longitudinal cohort study. Baseline and weekly surveys assessed psychosocial information including discrimination (Everyday Discrimination Scale), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale), and reproductive outcomes. Multilevel, mixed-effects logistic regression and discrete-time hazard models estimated associations between discrimination, mental health, and pregnancy. Baron and Kenny's method was used to test mediation effects of stress and depression on discrimination and pregnancy. The mean discrimination score was 19/45 points; 20% reported moderate/high discrimination. Discrimination scores were higher among women with stress and depression symptoms versus those without symptoms (21 vs. 18 points for both, p women with moderate/high (23%) versus low (11%) discrimination (p Discrimination was associated with stress (adjusted relative risk ratio, [aRR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.4), depression (aRR, 2.4; CI, 1.5-3.7), and subsequent pregnancy (aRR, 1.8; CI, 1.1-3.0). Stress and depression symptoms did not mediate discrimination's effect on pregnancy. Discrimination was associated with an increased risk of mental health symptoms and unintended pregnancy among these young women. The interactive social and biological influences on reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood warrant further study. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published
Coşar, E; Gencer, M; Hacivelioğlu, S O; Güngör, A C; Uysal, A
The aim of the study was to explore the knowledge and the awareness of the young Turkish women regarding cervical cancer and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines. The authors analyze a probable relationship between the overall knowledge level and a few socio-demographic parameters. The authors interviewed with students from Canakkale 18 March University and young women that did not continue with school in the same city from January to September 2011. All the students answered the questionnaire voluntarily and independently. The participants had low level of knowledge about the risk factors for cervical cancer. Smoking is the major risk factor that was known by the participants (65%). Proportion of the participants that were aware of pap smear test and HPV were 65% and 17% respectively. A small proportion of young women had knowledge regarding protection from HPV. Educational stream, educational level, family income, and family size had significant association knowledge level (p level of knowledge so that general public can easily take preventative measures.
Chang, Shu Fang; Yang, Rong Sen
To examine the cut-off point of the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, age, weight and body mass index for osteoporosis among young adult Taiwanese women, using a large-scale health examination database containing bone mineral density tests. The cut-off points of osteoporosis risk factors identified earlier focus on menopausal or senior Caucasian and Asian women. However, young adult Asian women have seldom been identified. A retrospective historical cohort study. Using the 2009-2011 health examination database of a large-scale medical centre in northern Taiwan, this study investigated young adult Asian women (i.e. range in age from 30-49 years) in Taiwan who had received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test. This study also explored the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of receiver operating characteristics of osteoporosis among young adult females in Taiwan. This study collected 2454 young adult Asian women in Taiwan. Cochran-Armitage analysis results indicated that the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with decreasing weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment method quartiles. According to the results of receiver operating characteristics, weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment tool approaches can generally be used as indicators to predict osteoporosis among young adult Asian women. Results of this study demonstrate that Taiwanese women contracting osteoporosis tend to be young and underweight, as well as having a low body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment scores. Those results further suggest that the assessment indicators for cut-off points are appropriately suitable for young adult women in Taiwan. Early detection is the only available means of preventing osteoporosis. Professional nurses should apply convenient and accurate assessment procedures to help young adult women to adopt preventive strategies against osteoporosis early, thus eliminating the probability of osteoporotic
Pavey, Toby G; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J
There is growing evidence that regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of poor mental health. Less research has focused on the relationship between PA and positive wellbeing. The study aims were to assess the prospective associations between PA and optimism, in both young and mid-aged women. 9688 young women (born 1973-1978) completed self-report surveys in 2000 (age 22 to 27), 2003, 2006, and 2009; and 11,226 mid-aged women (born 1946-1951) completed surveys in 2001 (age 50-55) 2004, 2007, and 2010, as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Generalized estimating equation models (with 3-year time lag) were used to examine the relationship between PA and optimism in both cohorts. In both cohorts, women reporting higher levels of PA had greater odds of reporting higher optimism over the 9-year period, (young, OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 3.85-6.59; mid-age, OR = 5.77, 95% CI: 4.76-7.00) than women who reported no PA. Odds were attenuated in adjusted models, with depression accounting for a large amount of this attenuation (young, OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.57-2.55; mid-age, OR = 1.64 95% CI: 1.38-1.94). Physical activity can promote optimism in young and mid-aged women over time, even after accounting for the negative effects of other psychosocial indicators such as depression.
Colby, Pamela G.
This module is directed at personnel working or planning to work in the areas of guidance, counseling, placement and follow-through in junior and senior high school settings, grades 7-12. The module topic is career guidance for young women of junior and senior high school age, aand the focus will be on providing nonbiased career guidance which…
Huss, Ephrat; Magos, Michal
This study used drawing and semi-structured interviews to access the visions of self-actualisation of a group of at-risk young women in an employment support group in Israel. The findings point to the synergetic relationship between the self-defined goals of the young women such as inner peace, self-regulation, assertiveness, good relationships…
Tarrés, Marta Bertran; Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Rovira, Jordi Pàmies
This article examines the lives of pioneering young women from Morocco, the first to enjoy educational and social success in Catalonia, by analyzing the family negotiations entered into during this process. The study is based on the life stories of these young Moroccan women and on ideas that emerge from discussion groups involving the women…
Abraham, S; Fraser, I; Gebski, V; Knight, C; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Mira, M; McNeil, D
The results of a survey of 1377 young Australian women aged 14 to 19 years, conducted to determine their attitudes, state of knowledge and practices with regard to menstruation, are presented. The young women, as a group, lacked sufficient information about menstruation, about the time of ovulation, about menstrual discharge, and about the use of tampons. A high proportion (80%) considered menstruation to be inconvenient or embarrassing. Certain measures aimed at remedial action are suggested.
Flanders, Corey E; Gos, Giselle; Dobinson, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen H
We sought to understand how young bisexual women in Toronto perceive their sexual and reproductive health needs, the challenges to achieving those needs, and the factors contributing both positively and negatively to their sexual and reproductive health. We conducted a community-based research project that included an advisory committee of young bisexual women, academic partners, and a community health centre. Four 2-hour focus group sessions were conducted with a total of 35 participants. Data were analyzed through a constructivist grounded theory approach using Nvivo software. Participants' discussion of their sexual and reproductive health indicated that they perceived social marginalization, particularly biphobia and monosexism, as a significant challenge to their health. Participants also discussed their sexual, reproductive and mental health as interconnected. Young bisexual women in this study perceived their sexual, reproductive and mental health as interconnected and negatively influenced by social marginalization. This perception is in line with syndemic research that illustrates the interrelationship between psychosocial and sexual health. Researchers should further explore the utility of syndemic theory in understanding the complexity of young bisexual women's health.
Full Text Available Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.
Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia
Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.
Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm
The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced young women's career decisions and the program's effect on engineering, physics, and computer science career interests. To test this, a study was mounted to explore how the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition (FRC) program influenced young women's college major and career choices. Career theories suggested that experiential programs coupled with supportive relationships strongly influence career decisions, especially for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. The study explored how and when young women made career decisions and how the experiential program and! its mentors and role models influenced career choice. Online focus groups and interviews (online and face-to-face) with 10 female FRC alumnae and GT processes (inductive analysis, open coding, categorizations using mind maps and content clouds) were used to generate a general systems theory style model of the career decision process for these young women. The study identified gender stereotypes and other career obstacles for women. The study's conclusions include recommendations to foster connections to real-world challenges, to develop training programs for mentors, and to nurture social cohesion, a mostly untapped area. Implementing these recommendations could help grow a critical mass of women in engineering, physics, and computer science careers, a social change worth pursuing.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the grave consequences of sexual violence, and it's persistence both within and outside marriages, this subject has received relatively little attention from researchers, policy makers, and programme managers in Nepal. This paper explores the definition of sexual violence and its various forms and consequences as reported by young married women in Nepal. In addition, it describes the coping mechanisms used by young married women to avoid sexual violence perpetrated against them by their husbands. Methods This paper analyzes data collected during the qualitative study on "Sexual violence among young couples in Nepal", conducted amongst two major ethnic groups - Brahmin/Chhetri and Tharu - between 2006 and 2007. The data is comprised of 39 free-lists and 15 in-depth case histories with married women aged 15-24 years. The average rank and Smith's Salience were calculated from the free-listing data. The thematic analysis approach was used for the analysis of information from the case histories. Results Approximately three-quarters (74% of the young women mentioned 'sex against one's wishes' as sexual violence within marriage (SVWM. Sixty-two percent of respondents described 'forced sex during illness' and 'forced sex after consumption of alcohol' as SVWM. About half of young women (48.7% who participated in the free-listing exercise reported having experienced SVWM. The types of SVWM ranged from unwanted sexual touch to forced sex. Backache, headache, lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and thoughts of suicide were the most commonly reported negative physical and psychological health consequences of SVWM. Women reported various coping strategies including 'trying to convince husbands', 'sleeping in a separate room', 'visiting maternal home', 'waking up the children', and 'using pretexts such as being ill or menstruating', to avoid SVWM. However, in most cases, women reported that these coping strategies were
Interviews and observations focused on experiences of 15 young Asian women at a 5-day summer adventure program in southern England. Participants seemed bored with presentations about future career options, activities lost their challenge through repetition, and debriefing was weak. However, the women connected with the transferable skills of trust…
Łagowska, Karolina; Kazmierczak, Daria; Szymczak, Katarzyna
The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary habits of young women, in order to explore their relationship with the menstrual cycle and to determine the proportion of women with menstrual cycle irregularities. A total of 348 young women aged 15-25 years (19.7 ± 3.7 years) participated in the study and were assigned to a younger group (15-18 years; YG) or an older group (19-25 years; OG). Two subgroups were also distinguished: women with menstrual disorders (MD) and women with regular cycles (RC). Body mass, waist circumference, fat mass (FM), energy and nutrient intakes, and eating behaviour of the subjects were evaluated. In both age groups, women with menstrual cycle disorders were more likely to have higher body weight, higher body mass index, larger waist circumference and higher body FM. The daily diets of these women contained larger quantities of animal protein and fat, including saturated fat (in OG), but were poorer in vitamins B 1 and B 6 (in YG) and in iron. Disinhibition was significantly more common in the MD group. The results of this study suggest that nutritional habits and status can interfere with the course of the menstrual cycle in young women. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.
Callegari, Emma T; Garland, Suzanne M; Gorelik, Alexandra; Reavley, Nicola J; Wark, John D
Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health concern. Studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) determinants in young women are limited and few include objective covariates. Our aims were to define the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and examine serum 25(OH)D correlates in an exploratory study of women aged 16-25 years. We studied 348 healthy females living in Victoria, Australia, recruited through Facebook. Data collected included serum 25(OH)D assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem MS, relevant serum biochemistry, soft tissue composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, skin melanin density, Fitzpatrick skin type, sun exposure using UV dosimeters and lifestyle factors. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 27) nmol/l and 26 % were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D 2 h in the sun in summer daily, holidaying in the most recent summer period, serum Fe levels, height and multivitamin use were positively associated with 25(OH)D. Fat mass and a blood draw in any season except summer was inversely associated with 25(OH)D. Vitamin D deficiency is common in young women. Factors such as hormonal contraception, sun exposure and sun-related attitudes, as well as dietary supplement use are essential to consider when assessing vitamin D status. Further investigation into methods to safely optimise vitamin D status and to improve understanding of the impact of vitamin D status on long-term health outcomes is required.
Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin
Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Markou, Athina; Androulakis, Ioannis I; Mourmouris, Christos; Tsikkini, Ageliki; Samara, Christianna; Sougioultzis, Stavros; Piaditis, George; Kaltsas, Gregory
To investigate the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in young lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insulin resistance (IR). Case control study. Women with PCOS and healthy controls in a metabolic day ward. Seventeen young lean women with PCOS and 17 matched controls were studied prospectively. Fasting blood and a glucose tolerance test. Ovarian and liver ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT) of the liver (women with PCOS only). Anthropometric variables, biochemical and hormonal parameters, and several IR indices were determined. Hepatic lipid content was assessed with ultrasonography and CT of the liver. Women with PCOS had higher androgen levels, and the IR indices, glucose and insulin area under the curve, QUICKI, MATSUDA, and HOMA, compared to controls. In addition to IR, women with PCOS had normal aminotransferase levels, and higher, although within the normal range, alkaline phosphatase levels compared with controls. Women with PCOS had no evidence of NAFLD by either ultrasonography or CT of the liver. Young lean women with PCOS and IR do not have evidence of NAFLD. Because of the presence of IR, follow-up is required to determine whether they are at risk of developing NAFLD. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oliveira, Carlos R.; Rock, Robert M.; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Xu, Xiao; Lundsberg, Lisbet; Zhang, Liye B.; Gariepy, Aileen; Illuzzi, Jessica L.; Sheth, Sangini S.
BACKGROUND Despite the availability of a safe and efficacious vaccine against human papillomavirus, uptake of the vaccine in the United States is low. Missed clinical opportunities to recommend and to administer human papillomavirus vaccine are considered one of the most important reasons for its low uptake in adolescents; however, little is known about the frequency or characteristics of missed opportunities in the young adult (18–26 years of age) population. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess both the rates of and the factors associated with missed opportunities for human papillomavirus immunization among young adult women who attended an urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. STUDY DESIGN In this cross-sectional study, medical records were reviewed for all women 18–26 years of age who were underimmunized (<3 doses) and who sought care from Feb. 1, 2013, to January 31, 2014, at an urban, hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinic. A missed opportunity for human papillomavirus immunization was defined as a clinic visit at which the patient was eligible to receive the vaccine and a dose was due but not administered. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and missed opportunities. RESULTS There were 1670 vaccine-eligible visits by 1241 underimmunized women, with a mean of 1.3 missed opportunities/person. During the study period, 833 of the vaccine eligible women (67.1%) had at least 1 missed opportunity. Overall, the most common types of visits during which a missed opportunity occurred were postpartum visits (17%) or visits for either sexually transmitted disease screening (21%) or contraception (33%). Of the patients with a missed opportunity, 26.5% had a visit at which an injectable medication or a different vaccine was administered. Women who identified their race as black had higher adjusted odds of having a missed opportunity compared with white women (adjusted odds ratio, 1
Garofalo, Robert; Johnson, Amy K; Kuhns, Lisa M; Cotten, Christopher; Joseph, Heather; Margolis, Andrew
Young transgender women are at increased risk for HIV infection due to factors related to stigma/marginalization and participation in risky sexual behaviors. To date, no HIV prevention interventions have been developed or proven successful with young transgender women. To address this gap, we developed and pilot tested a homegrown intervention "Life Skills," addressing the unique HIV prevention needs of young transgender women aged 16-24 years. Study aims included assessing the feasibility of a small group-based intervention with the study population and examining participant's engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors pre- and 3-months-post-intervention. Fifty-one (N = 51) young transgender women enrolled in the study. Our overall attendance and retention rates demonstrate that small group-based HIV prevention programs for young transgender women are both feasible and acceptable. Trends in outcome measures suggest that participation in the intervention may reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention with a control group is warranted.
Speizer Ilene S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.
Youssef, G; Plancherel, B; Laget, J; Corcos, M; Flament, M F; Halfon, O
- Clinical observations and a review of the literature led us to hypothesize that certain personality and character traits could provide improved understanding, and thus improved prevention, of suicidal behaviour among young women with eating disorders. - The clinical group consisted of 152 women aged between 18 and 24 years, with DSM-IV anorexia nervosa/restrictive type (AN-R = 66), anorexia nervosa/purging type (AN-P = 37), bulimia nervosa/non-purging type (BN-NP = 9), or bulimia nervosa/purging type (BN-P = 40). The control group consisted of 140 subjects. The assessment measures were the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-second version (MMPI-2) scales and subscales, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) used to control for current depressive symptoms, plus a specific questionnaire concerning suicide attempts. - Suicide attempts were most frequent in subjects with purging behaviour (30.0% for BN-P and 29.7% for AN-P). Those attempting suicide among subjects with eating disorders were mostly students (67.8%). For women with AN-R the scales for 'Depression' and 'Antisocial practices' represented significant suicidal risk, for women with AN-P the scales for 'Hysteria', 'Psychopathic deviate', 'Shyness/Self-consciousness', 'Antisocial Practices', 'Obsessiveness' and 'Low self-esteem' were risk indicators and for women with BN-P the 'Psychasthenia', 'Anger' and 'Fears' scales were risk indicators. - This study provides interesting results concerning the personality traits of young women with both eating disorders and suicidal behaviour. Students and those with purging behaviour are most at risk. Young women should be given more attention with regard to the risk of suicide attempts if they: (a). have AN-R with a tendency to self-punishment and antisocial conduct, (b). have AN-P with multiple physical complaints, are not at ease in social situations and have antisocial behaviour, or (c). if they have BN-P and tend to be easily angered with obsessive behaviour
Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Carlson, Camille E; Hlavaty, Kathleen
Guided by a review of the literature on intergenerational transmission of violence, or "the cycle of violence", and Johnson's typology of domestic violence, the current study qualitatively examined the romantic relationship experiences of 23 young adult women who were exposed to father-mother-perpetrated domestic violence (DV) during childhood and adolescence. Findings are partially consistent with the hypothesis that DV exposure is associated with an increased risk of later experiencing dating violence, such that half of the sample reported having abusive partners or relationships during high school. However, none of the young women reported violence or abuse during the early years of college, suggesting the salience of developmental timing when examining transmission of violence. Beyond whether the women experienced dating violence, they described how their earlier DV exposure experiences influence how they entered into, managed, and exited romantic relationships. By comparing their potential, former, and current romantic relationships with their fathers' violence and abuse, their mothers' victimization, and high school relationship partners' behaviors, the young women actively and strategically managed their relationship involvement over time. Although women exposed to both situational couple and coercive controlling violence reported experiencing abuse during high school, only women with coercive controlling exposure experienced reported having nonabusive, healthy, and supportive relationships. Findings suggest that the romantic relationship experiences of DV-exposed young adult women are complex, warranting a holistic approach that takes into consideration the full range of potential relationship experiences, the role of former relationships, and developmental timing when seeking to prevent and intervene in intergenerational transmission processes.
Haber-Curran, Paige; Sulpizio, Lorri
In this chapter, the authors examine the current literature and identify critical areas for future practice to support the needs of girls and young women and their leadership practices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James; Barber, Jennifer
Background We prospectively examined the influence of young women's depression and stress symptoms on their weekly consistency of contraceptive method use. Study Design Women ages 18-20 years (n=689) participating in a longitudinal cohort study completed weekly journals assessing reproductive, relationship and health characteristics. We used data through 12 months follow-up (n=8,877 journals) to examine relationships between baseline depression (CES-D) and stress (PSS-10) symptoms and consistency of contraceptive methods use with sexual activity each week. We analyzed data with random effects multinomial logistic regression. Results Consistent contraceptive use (72% of weeks) was 10-15 percentage points lower among women with moderate/severe baseline depression and stress symptoms than those without symptoms (p-valuescontraceptive consistency each week than those without symptoms, respectively (OR 0.53, CI 0.31-0.91 and OR 0.31, CI 0.18-0.52). Stress predicted inconsistent use of oral contraceptives (OR 0.27, CI 0.12-0.58), condoms (OR 0.40, CI 0.23-0.69) and withdrawal (OR 0.12, CI 0.03-0.50). Conclusion Women with depression and stress symptoms appear to be at increased risk for user-related contraceptive failures, especially for the most commonly used methods. Implications Our study has shown that young women with elevated depression and stress symptoms appear to be at risk for inconsistent contraceptive use patterns, especially for the most common methods that require greater user effort and diligence. Based upon these findings, clinicians should consider women's psychological and emotional status when helping patients with contraceptive decision-making and management. User-dependent contraceptive method efficacy is important to address in education and counseling sessions, and women with stress or depression may be ideal candidates for long-acting reversible methods, which offer highly effective options with less user-related burden. Ongoing research will
... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Notice of Charter..., that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, HHS, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K52, Atlanta...
Jadoul, Pascale; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding
The need for practice guidelines for fertility preservation in young women with hematological malignancies has been increased. To develop recommendations, publications relevant to fertility preservation and hematological cancers were identified through a PubMed database search and reviewed...
Deuba, Keshab; Mainali, Anustha; Alvesson, Helle M; Karki, Deepak K
include, but are not limited to, treatment of alcohol use disorder, raising men's awareness about pregnancy, addressing young women's economic vulnerability, emphasising the role of health care professionals in preventing adverse consequences resulting from gender selection technologies and working with family members of violence survivors.
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Goodman, Suzan R; El Ayadi, Alison M; Rocca, Corinne H; Kohn, Julia E; Benedict, Courtney E; Dieseldorff, Jessica R; Harper, Cynthia C
Unprotected intercourse is common, especially among teens and young women. Access to intrauterine device (IUD) as emergency contraception (EC) can help interested patients more effectively prevent unintended pregnancy and can also offer ongoing contraception. This study evaluated young women's awareness of IUD as EC and interest in case of need. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from young women aged 18-25 years, not desiring pregnancy within 12 months, and receiving contraceptive counseling within a cluster-randomized trial in 40 US Planned Parenthood health centers in 2011-2013 (n=1500). Heath centers were randomized to receive enhanced training on contraceptive counseling and IUD placement, or to provide standard care. The intervention did not focus specifically on IUD as EC. We assessed awareness of IUD as EC, desire to learn more about EC and most trusted source of information of EC among women in both intervention and control groups completing baseline and 3- or 6-month follow-up questionnaires (n=1138). At follow-up, very few young women overall (7.5%) visiting health centers had heard of IUD as EC. However, if they needed EC, most (68%) reported that they would want to learn about IUDs in addition to EC pills, especially those who would be very unhappy to become pregnant (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.6, pContraceptive education should explicitly address IUD as EC. Few young women know that the IUD can be used for EC or about its effectiveness. However, if they needed EC, most reported that they would want to learn about IUDs in addition to EC pills, especially those very unhappy to become pregnant. Contraceptive education should explicitly address IUD as EC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Bergen, D.D.; Smit, J.H.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Saharso, S.
Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of
Elouard, Yajna; Weiss, Carine; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Merten, Sonja
The study aimed to examine associations between experience of sexual violence and family planning-related outcomes. A multi-stage cluster survey was conducted among a representative sample of 744 young women aged 15-24 in eight provinces in Burundi. The prevalence of young women who reported having ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse was 26.1%. Young women who had experienced sexual violence (ever) were 2.5 times more likely not to have used any modern contraceptives in the 12 months preceding the survey. They were also 2.3 times more likely to report that their last pregnancy was unplanned. Higher odds of not being able to negotiate contraceptive use with their partners were only reported by young women having experienced sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the survey when adjusted for confounders. Sexual violence was found to be significantly associated with contraceptive negotiation and use as well as unplanned pregnancy. Weak perceived ability to negotiate contraceptive use highlights gender inequalities leaving young women vulnerable to unprotected sex and thus unplanned pregnancies.
Pronzato, P.; Mustacchi, G.; De Matteis, A.; Di Costanzo, F.; Rulli, E.; Floriani, I; Cazzaniga, M.E.
Background. The present paper described the biological characteristics and clinical behavior of young women in the cohort NORA study Patients and Methods. From 2000-2002, patients (N>3500) were enrolled at 77 Italian hospitals. Women aged =50 years (N=1013) were stratified into age groups (=35, 36-40, 41-45, and 46-50 years). The relationship between age and patient characteristics, cancer presentation, and treatment was analyzed. Results. Younger women more frequently had tumors with ER/PgR-negative(x 2 =7.07; P=.008), HER2 amplification (x 2 =5.76; P=.01), and high (≤10%) Ki67 labelling index (x 2 =9.53; P=.002). Positive nodal status, large tumors, and elevated Ki67 all associated with the choice for chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive patients (P 40 versus =40, P<.0001, resp.). At multivariate analysis, after adjustment for significant clinical and pathological factors, age remains a significant prognostic variable (HR=0.93, P=.0021). Conclusion. This cohort study suggests that age per se is an important prognostic factor. The restricted role of early diagnosis and the aggressive behavior of cancer in this population make necessary the application of targeted medical strategies crucial. human epidermal growth factor receptor
Kang, Hee Sun; Shin, Hyunsook; Hyun, Myung-Sun; Kim, Mi Ja
This paper is a report of a descriptive study of young Korean women's perceptions of use of the human papilloma virus vaccine. In Korea, cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women, and the rate of human papilloma virus infection is increasing. A national media campaign has recently begun to promote human papilloma virus vaccination. However, research addressing the acceptability of this vaccine to women in Korea has been limited. Twenty-five Korean women, 21-30 years of age, participated in seven focus groups. The data were collected in 2007. Participants were concerned about the potential harmful effects of the human papilloma virus vaccine, a possible increase in unsafe sexual behaviours, and the high cost of the vaccine, which is not covered by health insurance. They suggested group vaccination at-cost or free of charge. They discussed ambivalence about the vaccination, the need for more information about the vaccine, and questions about its effectiveness. Most preferred to wait until more people have been vaccinated. There is a need for more aggressive dissemination of information about the safety and efficacy of the human papilloma virus vaccine. More reasonable cost, insurance coverage, or free vaccination using a group approach might increase young Korean women's acceptance and use of the human papilloma virus vaccine.
Vander Schaaf, Emily B; Quinonez, Rocio B; Cornett, Amanda C; Randolph, Greg D; Boggess, Kim; Flower, Kori B
Objectives To determine acceptability and feasibility of a quality improvement (QI) collaborative in safety net dental practices, and evaluate its effects on financial stability, access, efficiency, and care for pregnant women and young children. Methods Five safety net dental practices participated in a 15-month learning collaborative utilizing business assessments, QI training, early childhood oral health training, and prenatal oral health training. Practices collected monthly data on: net revenue, no-show rates, total encounters, and number of encounters for young children and pregnant women. We analyzed quantitative data using paired t-tests before and after the collaborative and collected supplemental qualitative feedback from clinic staff through focus groups and directed email. Results All mean measures improved, including: higher monthly revenue ($28,380-$33,102, p = 0.37), decreased no-show rate (17.7-14.3%, p = 0.11), higher monthly dental health encounters (283-328, p = 0.08), and higher monthly encounters for young children (8.8-10.5, p = 0.65), and pregnant women (2.8-9.7, p = 0.29). Results varied by practice, with some demonstrating largest increases in encounters for young children and others pregnant women. Focus group participants reported that the collaborative improved access for pregnant women and young children, and that QI methods were often new and difficult. Conclusion for practice Participation by safety net dental practices in a QI collaborative is feasible and acceptable. Individual sites saw greater improvements in different outcomes areas, based on their own structures and needs. Future efforts should focus on specific needs of each dental practice and should offer additional QI training.
Kelley, Susan D. M.; English, William; Schwallie-Giddis, Pat; Jones, Lisa M.
This article is intended to provide rehabilitation, career, and mental health counselors with an understanding of how attentional impairments are manifested in young women and how professional counselors may help them most effectively. Treatment guidelines and recommendations are presented for working with these young women through the…
diagnosed late. Case report and presentation represented thighlight the diversity of clinical symptoms and the possibility of imaging diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis of breast disease of young women. We also want to draw attention to some underestimation of clinical symptoms, while revaluation results of sonographic examinations. An important factor is the quality of the ultrasound device and effective consultation and cooperation with other diagnostic departments
Romero Mendoza, Martha P; Gómez-Dantes, Héctor; Manríquez Montiel, Quetzaliztli; Saldívar Hernández, Gabriela J; Campuzano Rincón, Julio C; Lozano, Rafael; Medina-Mora Icaza, María Elena
The increasing burden of interpersonal violence in women in Mexico is a neglected social and health problem that competes with other leading causes of premature death, disability, and health losses in young women. In this article, we focus on revealing the burden of violence in girls and young women and its implications for public policy. This study presents the subnational analysis of Mexico from the Global Burden of Disease study (1990-2015). The global study harmonized information of 195 countries and 79 risk factors. The study analyzed the deaths, years of life lost to premature death (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD), and the healthy years of life lost or disability-adjusted life year (DALY) related to violence. Nationwide, violence in young women accounts for 7% of all deaths in the 10 to 29 years age group and arises as the second most important cause of death in all age groups, except 10 to 14 years old, where it stands in the seventh position from 1990 to 2015. The health losses and social impact related to violence in young women demands firm actions by the government and society. It is urgent for health institutions to focus on the health of girls and young women because gender inequities have an enormous effect on their lives. Girls and women are nearly universally less powerful, less privileged, and have fewer opportunities than men.
Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny
This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zadarko, Emilian; Barabasz, Zbigniew; Nizioł-Babiarz, Edyta; Zadarko Domaradzka, Maraia; Barabasz, Monika; Sobolewski, Marek; Palanska, Andrea; Bergier, Józef; Junger, Jan
Carpathian Euroregion gathers the population of 5 countries, including Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania- the European Union members, as well as Ukraine. Young women are statistically less involved in high-intensity physical activity than young men. The objective of this work was to assess the relation between physical activity of young women aged 18-21 years old and BMI and conditioning factors. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 among 2339 women. The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnarie (MLTPAQ) was applied. It results from the study that 74,2% of young women is considered to have the proper BMI rate (18,5-24,9). As many as 16,2% is considered underweight and almost 10% have higher BMI rate and are overweight. More than one third of respondents did not gain the level of physical activity of 1000 kcal/week, and that is the minimum recommended amount of leisure physical activity time per week. In case of women with low level of physical activity (activity considered low-intensity activity EEPAlight. The character of changes of the BMI index with reference to the level of physical activity is very similar in the women from towns/cities and the women from villages. An increase of BMI along with the total physical activity was related among all to the increase of free fat mass FFM despite of the level of physical.
ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Special Edition ... women. Thus, this study aimed at assessing apparel styles suitable for young Swazi women .... create a balance on other body shapes to be ... composition in the work of a designer by ..... and flared skirt) were found to maintain the.
Gómez-Alarcon, A; Gómez-García, M T; García-de la-Torre, J P; Del Valle-Morón, M; Arones-Collantes, M A; González-de Merlo, G
The vulvar cancer is the fourth more frequent neoplasia after the endometrial, cervix and ovarian cancer. Normally, it has been related to old women of ages from 70 to 80 years old. Rarely, it has been detected cases in adult or young women. However, its incidence has been increased in the last years and in more early years. It is for this change in the incidence and its appearance in early years why a possible etiology has been looked for, opening different hypothesis that go from that related to the HPV to those that study an inflammatory chronic process as the basis for the carcinogenesis. In this article, it has been presented the case of a woman who is 34 years old with negative VPH that made her debut with epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva moderately different and on purpose of the case, we do a revision of the literature existent. Vulvar cancer diagnosed in young women as in older, but with different trends, risk factors and natural history. The case reported here escapes the theories studied so far so needed new lines of inquiry to investigate this form of presentation young woman, without HPV infection.
Mills, Laurel A.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Crosby, Richard A.
Purpose To explore whether sexually related behaviors predict refusal of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among a sample of women aged 18–26 in Appalachian Kentucky. Methods Using a convenience sample, young women attending health clinics and a community college in southeastern Kentucky were recruited to participate in a Women’s Health Study. After completing a questionnaire, women received a free voucher for the three-dose HPV vaccine series. Completion of dose one served as the outcome variable. Results Women with a history of an abnormal Pap test were almost two times more likely to decline the HPV vaccine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–3.20, p = 0.015), and women who reported they had never had a Pap test were four times more likely to decline the vaccine (AOR 4.02, 95% CI 1.13–14.32, p = 0.032). Women engaging in mutual masturbation were nearly two times more likely to decline the free vaccine (AOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.17–3.10, p = 0.009). Use of hormonal birth control showed a protective effect against refusal of the free HPV vaccine (AOR 0.593, 95% CI 0.44–0.80, p = 0.001). Conclusions Among this sample of Appalachian women, those engaging in behaviors that increase their risk for HPV infection were more likely to refuse the vaccine. Conversely, those women engaging in protective health behaviors were more likely to accept the vaccine. These findings suggest that those women not being vaccinated may be the very group most likely to benefit from vaccination. Cervical cancer prevention programs need to be creative in efforts to reach young women most in need of the vaccine based on a higher profile of sexually related behaviors and the proxy measure of this risk (having an abnormal Pap test result). PMID:22136319
Stewart, Jennifer M
To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer
Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women’s information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086
Dellar, Rachael C; Dlamini, Sarah; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool
At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 5-7 years earlier than their male peers. This age-sex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim
Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Ojanen, Timo T; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Iamsilpa, Rachawadee; Topananan, Soifa; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas E
This paper focuses on the experiences of women 15-24 years old living in one suburban district in Bangkok. Its objectives are to analyse processes of building and negotiating social identity and femininity in online spaces by young women; the ways in which young women express their sexuality using online technologies; connections between the 'online' and 'offline' worlds in terms of emotions as well as social and sexual networks; and traditional values regarding female sexuality reproduced through online media and how young women negotiate and resist these. Content and narrative analyses were conducted using qualitative data from 9 focus-group discussions and 14 narrative interviews. Findings indicated that the online media serve as tools that help young women develop and express their gender identities. Mobile phones and the Internet facilitate communication in order to express love, responsibility, intimacy and sexual desires. Discourse on women's chastity, which puts pressure on women to maintain their virginity, still influences online and mobile contents, messages and images among young women. However, women also exerted agency in negotiating and expressing their sexuality, both online and offline.
Chang, Bernard P; Wira, Charles; Miller, Joseph; Akhter, Murtaza; Barth, Bradley E; Willey, Joshua; Nentwich, Lauren; Madsen, Tracy
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the incidence of ischemic stroke is highest in older populations, incidence of ischemic stroke in adults has been rising particularly rapidly among young (e.g., premenopausal) women. The evaluation and timely diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young women presents a challenging situation in the emergency department, due to a range of sex-specific risk factors and to broad differentials. The goals of this concepts paper are to summarize existing knowledge regarding the evaluation and management of young women with ischemic stroke in the acute setting. A panel of six board-certified emergency physicians, one with fellowship training in stroke and one with training in sex- and sex-based medicine, along with one vascular neurologist were coauthors involved in the paper. Each author used various search strategies (e.g., PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar) for primary research and reviewed articles related to their section. The references were reviewed and evaluated for relevancy and included based on review by the lead authors. Estimates on the incidence of ischemic stroke in premenopausal women range from 3.65 to 8.9 per 100,000 in the United States. Several risk factors for ischemic stroke exist for young women including oral contraceptive (OCP) use and migraine with aura. Pregnancy and the postpartum period (up to 12 weeks) is also an important transient state during which risks for both ischemic stroke and cerebral hemorrhage are elevated, accounting for 18% of strokes in women under 35. Current evidence regarding the management of acute ischemic stroke in young women is also summarized including use of thrombolytic agents (e.g., tissue plasminogen activator) in both pregnant and nonpregnant individuals. Unique challenges exist in the evaluation and diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young women. There are still many opportunities for future research aimed at improving detection and treatment
Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Salazar, Laura F; Head, Sara; Rose, Eve; McDermott-Sales, Jessica
The influence that female partners exert regarding condom use is not well known. In the present study, the relative roles of personal sexual agency and relational factors in determining whether young African American women engaged in unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) were studied. A cross sectional study of 713 young, African American women (aged 15-21 years) was conducted. Data were collected using an audio-computer assisted self-interview. Three measures of sexual agency were assessed and three relational factors were assessed. To help assure validity in the outcome measure, condom use was assessed in five different ways. Multivariate analyses were used to determine whether variables independently predicted UVS. Two of the six predictor variables achieved multivariate significance with all five measures of condom use: (1) fear of negotiating condom use with male partners, and (2) indicating that stopping to use condoms takes the fun out of sex. A relational factor (male-dominated power imbalances) achieved multivariate significance for four of the five measures of UVS. A sexual agency factor (whether young women greatly enjoyed sex) achieved multivariate significance for three of the five measures. The results suggest that young African American women at high-risk of sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV acquisition may experience male-dominated power imbalances and also fear the process of negotiating condom use with their male partners. Although these factors were independently associated with UVS, two factors pertaining to sexual agency of these young women were also important predictors of UVS. Intervention efforts designed to avert STI/HIV acquisition among young African American women should therefore include programs to address both sexual agency and relational factors.
Walker, Shelley; Sanci, Lena; Temple-Smith, Meredith
This study addresses a gap in evidence regarding the nature and origins of the phenomenon of sexting from the perspective of young people. A qualitative methodology was used, involving individual semistructured interviews with 33 young people aged 15-20 years. Participants were sourced via youth health, recreational, and educational settings using purposive snowball sampling. Results were organized using NVivo, and themes were generated. Interviews with 15 males and 18 females exposed a number of themes, including the gendered nature of sexting, which is the focus of this article. Of particular concern is the theme of pressure experienced by both young women and young men to be involved in the behavior. Findings highlight important implications for the design of strategies to prevent the potential harmful consequences of sexting. For prevention approaches to be effective, they must consider the underlying origins of the behavior and the online sociocultural context within which young people live. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tavares, Leonor S; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Loucaides, Constantinos
Chronic disease interventions for women have been understudied in the workplace domain. Understanding the role of cognitions in individual behaviour can help motivate change and suggest directions for achieving improvements in health. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial constructs and social-cognitive theories [e.g. Transtheoretical model (TTM), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)] that are most salient for explaining physical activity behaviour among employed women (n = 1183). Demographic information, and social-cognitive measures related to physical activity, intention and behaviours (e.g. stage of change, energy expenditure) were assessed. A series of multiple regression analyses predicting intention, energy expenditure and stage of change were conducted separately for: (1) women with young children (n = 302), and (2) women without young children (n = 881) for each of the respective social-cognitive theories. Although taken as a whole the results were relatively similar between the two sub-groups of women for each of the socio-cognitive theories examined in this study, differences were observed in the relative contributions of the theoretical constructs between the two sub-groups. Results also indicate that self-efficacy and intention were the strongest predictors of behaviour among both women with and without young children. The explained variances (R(2)) for the theories examined in this study for different sub-groups ranged from 16 to 60%, generally reflecting what has been reported in other studies within the physical activity domain. The results of this study could be useful in guiding future research and in designing physical activity intervention programs for these specific population groups. Integrating approaches of individual lifestyle change while addressing issues related to creating supportive environments for women in various life stages is a suggested strategy
Myers, Bronwyn; Carney, Tara; Wechsberg, Wendee M.
Background Poor young women who use alcohol and other drugs (AODs) in Cape Town, South Africa, need access to health services to prevent HIV. Efforts to link young women to services are hampered by limited information on what influences service initiation. We explored perceptions of factors that influence poor AOD-using young women’s use of health services. Methods We conducted four focus groups with young women (aged 16 to 21) who used AODs and were recruited from two township communities in Cape Town. We also conducted 14 in-depth interviews with health and social welfare service planners and providers. Discussion topics included young women’s use of health services and perceived influences on service use. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach. Results The findings highlighted structural, contextual, and systemic influences on the use of health services by young women who use AODs. First, young women were absent from the health agenda, which had an impact on the provision of women-specific services. Resource constraints and gender inequality were thought to contribute to this absence. Second, gender inequality and stigma toward young women who used AODs led to their social exclusion from education and employment opportunities and health care. Third, community poverty resulted in the emergence of perverse social capital and social disorder that limited social support for treatment. Fourth, the health care system was unresponsive to the multiple service needs of these young women. Conclusion To reach young women who use AODs, interventions need to take cognisance of young women’s risk environment and health systems need to adapt to respond better to their needs. For these interventions to be effective, gender must be placed on the policy agenda. PMID:26797188
Recio-Saucedo, Alejandra; Gerty, Sue; Foster, Claire; Eccles, Diana; Cutress, Ramsey I
Young women with breast cancer have poorer prognosis, greater lifetime risk of local recurrence, contralateral recurrence, and distant disease, regardless of surgery received. Here we systematically review published evidence relating to the information requirements and preferences of young women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer offered a choice between mastectomy and Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS). Findings will inform the development of a surgical decision aid for young women. Eight databases were searched to identify research examining information requirements of young women facing breast oncological surgery treatment decisions (MESH headings). Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and summarised in a narrative synthesis. Findings indicate that young women prefer greater and more detailed information regarding treatment side effects, sexuality, and body image. Younger age of diagnosis leads to an increased risk perception of developing a second breast cancer. Young women's choices are influenced by factors associated with family and career. Information is required in a continuum throughout the treatment experience and not only at diagnosis when treatment decisions are made. Young women show differing levels of participation preferences. Young women find decision-making challenging when the characteristics of diagnosis provide a surgical choice between mastectomy and breast conservation surgery. Efforts should be made to provide information regarding sexuality, body image, reconstruction, fertility and likelihood of familial predisposition. Further research is needed to identify the specific level and information requirements of this young-onset group. The low number of studies indicate a need to design studies targeting specifically this age group of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morrison, Lynn; Reza, Angela; Cardines, Ka'imiala; Foutch-Chew, Kristel; Severance, Craig
Our multicultural island community is unique in that many young mothers live in multigenerational households. In this qualitative study, we examined the factors that influenced young mothers' infant-feeding practices in Hilo, a small rural town in the Hawaiian Islands. The study participants consisted of young mothers, health care professionals, and educators. Our findings suggest that both the young mother's mother and her partner are very influential in the infant-feeding decision. Many young women in our study bottle fed to obtain assistance in caretaking, and to facilitate public breastfeeding. Additionally, we explored young mother's views of sexuality and breastfeeding, and their health promotion implications.
Allen, Rebecca S; Petro, Kathryn N; Phillips, Laura L
Although sexuality is valued throughout the lifespan, older women's sexual expression can be influenced by physical, mental and social factors, including attitudes and stereotypes held by younger generations. By gaining an understanding of what influences negative attitudes toward sexuality and beliefs about sexual consent capacity, the stigma associated with sexuality in late life may be reduced. Using vignette methodology in an online survey, we examined older women's health and young adults' (N = 606; mean age = 18.86, SD = 1.42, range 17-36) general knowledge and attitudes toward aging and sexuality, personal sexual behavior, religious beliefs and perceived closeness with an older adult on attitudes towards sexual behavior and perceptions of consent capacity among older women. The health status of older women proved important in determining young adults' acceptance and perception of sexual consent capacity regarding late-life heterosexual/autoerotic and homosexual behaviors. Specifically, young adults expressed lower acceptance and more doubt regarding capacity to consent to sexual expression when the older woman was described as cognitively impaired. Additionally, young adults' personal attitudes toward late-life sexuality, but not knowledge, predicted acceptance toward sexual expression and belief in sexual consent capacity. Attention toward the influence of older women's cognitive health and young adults' attitudes toward late-life sexuality may prove beneficial in designing interventions to decrease the stigma associated with sexual activity in later life.
Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice "disempowering parenting styles," (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications - Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health
Myers, Bronwyn; Carney, Tara; Wechsberg, Wendee M
Poor young women who use alcohol and other drugs (AODs) in Cape Town, South Africa, need access to health services to prevent HIV. Efforts to link young women to services are hampered by limited information on what influences service initiation. We explored perceptions of factors that influence poor AOD-using young women's use of health services. We conducted four focus groups with young women (aged 16-21) who used AODs and were recruited from two township communities in Cape Town. We also conducted 14 in-depth interviews with health and social welfare service planners and providers. Discussion topics included young women's use of health services and perceived influences on service use. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach. The findings highlighted structural, contextual, and systemic influences on the use of health services by young women who use AODs. First, young women were absent from the health agenda, which had an impact on the provision of women-specific services. Resource constraints and gender inequality were thought to contribute to this absence. Second, gender inequality and stigma toward young women who used AODs led to their social exclusion from education and employment opportunities and health care. Third, community poverty resulted in the emergence of perverse social capital and social disorder that limited social support for treatment. Fourth, the health care system was unresponsive to the multiple service needs of these young women. To reach young women who use AODs, interventions need to take cognisance of young women's risk environment and health systems need to adapt to respond better to their needs. For these interventions to be effective, gender must be placed on the policy agenda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Arteaga, Antonio; Bustos, Patricia; Soto, Rodrigo; Velasco, Nicolás; Amigo, Hugo
Physical activity (PA) has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. To quantify PA in young adults and to correlate it with cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed employing the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), to measure the PA of 983 randomly selected young adults from Valparaiso region born between 1974 and 1978. Its results were associated with levels of obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP- ATP III) RESULTS: Mean physical activity among men and women was 3731 ± 3923 and 1360 ± 2303 METs-minutes/week, respectively (p women and 21.5% of men had an insufficient level of physical activity (p men and 23.4% of women had an intense level of physical activity (p physical activity and insulin resistance. A high physical activity was protective, specially among men, against a low HDL cholesterol level and high triglyceride levels with Odds Ratios of 0.59 (confidence interval (CI): 0,35-0.98) and 0.49 (CI: 0,27-0,87) respectively, after adjusting for body mass index and age. In this sample, men had higher levels of physical activity, that was protective against insulin resistance and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors.
Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.
Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893
Moreover, the mechanisms and forms of political participation by young women ... partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and resilience in hot spot regions. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.
Mehak, Adrienne; Friedman, Aliza; Cassin, Stephanie E
Self-objectification and weight bias internalization are two internalization processes that are positively correlated with binge eating among young women. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are understudied. Consistent with objectification theory, this study examined appearance anxiety and body shame as mediators between self-objectification, weight bias internalization and binge eating. Female undergraduates (N=102) completed self-report measures of self-objectification, weight bias internalization, appearance anxiety, body shame, and binge eating. Results indicated that women who self-objectified and internalized negative weight-related attitudes reported greater binge eating (r s =.43 and r s =.57, respectively) and these associations were mediated by the combined effects of body shame and appearance anxiety. The contrast between the two mediators was also significant, such that body shame emerged as a stronger mediator within both mediational models. Results demonstrated that these internalization processes contribute to negative affect in young women, which may in turn lead to binge eating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy
In our secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, we explored predictors of childbirth fear for young women (n = 2,676). Young women whose attitudes toward pregnancy and birth were shaped by the media were 1.5 times more likely to report childbirth fear. Three factors that were associated with reduced fear of birth were women's confidence in reproductive knowledge, witnessing a birth, and learning about pregnancy and birth through friends. Offering age-appropriate birth education during primary and secondary education, as an alternative to mass-mediated information about birth, can be evaluated as an approach to reduce young women's childbirth fear.
Full Text Available This paper considers young people's sexual decision-making in the context of New Labour's policies on teenage pregnancy. In 1999, the newly formed Social Exclusion Unit sought to understand why the UK had the highest number of teenage conceptions in Europe (SEU 1999. One of the conclusions was that young people in the UK are engaging in "risky" rather than "safe" sex. Although New Labour has since developed policies designed to help young people avoid what is seen as risky sexual activity, there is a tension in sexual health policy between the overall aim of providing young people with the knowledge and confidence to practice "safe sex", and an underlying belief amongst many in the undesirability of "underage sex". This is partly a legacy of disagreements evident in the 1980s and 1990s when some organisations argued against sex education and contraceptive provision for young people on the grounds that it encouraged promiscuous and risky behaviour. The paper shows how alternative meanings of risk and responsibility are present in young mothers' own representations of their sexual decision-making. It does this through an analysis of two research projects on Young Women, Sex and Choices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601283
Reid, Allecia E.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Rationale Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. Objective We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Method Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Results Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Conclusion Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. PMID:27038321
young women in the country at large and in Mekane Selam town in particular; to expand domestic job opportunities; to create awareness on the psychological, social and cultural consequences of ... duties outside of their formal contracts.
Dreyer, Rachel P; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Weiwei; Du, Xue; Strait, Kelly M; Bierlein, Maggie; Bucholz, Emily M; Geda, Mary; Fox, James; D'Onofrio, Gail; Lichtman, Judith H; Bueno, Héctor; Spertus, John A; Krumholz, Harlan M
Return to work after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an important outcome and is particularly relevant to young patients. Women may be at a greater risk for not returning to work given evidence of their worse recovery after AMI than similarly aged men. However, sex differences in return to work after AMI has not been studied extensively in a young population (≤ 55 years). We analyzed data from 1680 patients with AMI aged 18 to 55 years (57% women) participating in the Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) study who were working full time (≥ 35 hours) before the event. Data were obtained by medical record abstraction and patient interviews. We conducted multivariable regression analyses to examine sex differences in return to work at 12 months after AMI, and the association of patient characteristics with return to work. When compared with young men, young women were less likely to return to work (89% versus 85%; 85% versus 89%, P=0.02); however, this sex difference was not significant after adjusting for patient sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and health measures. Being married, engaging in a professional or clerical type of work, having more favorable physical health, and having no previous coronary disease or hypertension were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of return to work at 12 months. Among a young population, women are less likely to return to work after AMI than men. This disadvantage is explained by differences in demographic, occupational, and health characteristics. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Siegerink, Bob; Meltzer, Mirjam E.; de Groot, Philip G.; Algra, Ale; Lisman, Ton; Rosendaal, Frits R.
Reduced overall fibrinolytic capacity increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), as demonstrated in studies with predominantly male participants. We determined the influence of altered fibrinolysis on the risk of MI and ischaemic stroke (IS) in young women. The RATIO (Risk of Arterial
Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M
The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely u...
Levin, Roy; Meston, Cindy
The role of nipple/breast stimulation in influencing sexual arousal in men and women during lovemaking has only been the subject of opinion-based comment rather than evidence-based study. No attempt to question people about such sexual behavior has ever been undertaken. The study was designed to ascertain the effects of nipple/breast manipulation in young men and women on their sexual arousal. A short questionnaire about nipple/breast stimulation during sexual activity was administered to 301 (148 men; 153 women) sexually experienced undergraduates (age range 17-29 years, 95% between 18 and 22). Replies to questions in questionnaire. The major findings in regard to the women were that 81.5% reported that stimulation of their nipples/breasts caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 78.2% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, 59.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated during lovemaking, and only 7.2% found that the manipulation decreased their arousal. In regard to the men, 51.7% reported that nipple stimulation caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 39% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, only 17.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated, and only 7.5% found that such stimulation decreased their arousal. Manipulation of the nipples/breasts causes or enhances sexual arousal in approximately 82% of young women and 52% of young men with only 7-8% reporting that it decreased their arousal.
Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Heshmati, Amy; Mishra, Gita
To study social patterning of overeating and symptoms of disordered eating in a general population. A representative, population-based cohort study. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), Survey 1 in 1996 and Survey 2 in 2000. Women (n 12 599) aged 18-23 years completed a questionnaire survey at baseline, of whom 6866 could be studied prospectively. Seventeen per cent of women reported episodes of overeating, 16 % reported binge eating and 10 % reported compensatory behaviours. Almost 4 % of women reported symptoms consistent with bulimia nervosa. Low education, not living with family, perceived financial difficulty (OR=1·8 and 1·3 for women with severe and some financial difficulty, respectively, compared with none) and European language other than English spoken at home (OR=1·5 for European compared with Australian/English) were associated with higher prevalence of binge eating. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses indicated increased risk of persistent binge eating among women with a history of being overweight in childhood, those residing in metropolitan Australia, women with higher BMI, smokers and binge drinkers. Overeating, binge eating and symptoms of bulimia nervosa are common among young Australian women and cluster with binge drinking. Perceived financial stress appears to increase the risk of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. It is unclear whether women of European origin and those with a history of childhood overweight carry higher risk of binge eating because of genetic or cultural reasons.
Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Potter, Jennifer T.
Examines the scientific identity formation of two young women of color who attended an urban vocational high school. Describes how the experience of marginalization can make membership in a science school community impossible or undesirable. (Author/MM)
Wohlert, A B
The perioral reflex in response to innocuous mechanical stimulation of the lip vermilion was studied in 20 young and 20 older women. Responses to stimuli at the right and left sides of both the upper and lower lips were recorded. Results show significant specificity of response, especially for upper lip sites. Reflex response at the site of stimulation was greatest in amplitude and shortest in latency, followed by response at sites ipsilateral to the site of stimulation. Younger subjects showed greater localizing tendency than older subjects. Stimulation was significantly less likely to produce a reflex response in the older group. When reflex responses did occur, they were significantly lower in amplitude and longer in latency than the responses of the younger group. Nonetheless, reflex responses were common in both groups, with responses at the site of stimulation occurring 78% of the time in older women and 90% of the time in younger women. Every participant showed at least one reflex response to lip stimulation. Results suggest decreasing complexity of synaptic drive to the perioral system in old age but also show that reflexive response does not deteriorate completely, remaining an available element for motor control in normal older women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social grants have been found to have an impact on health and wellbeing in multiple settings. Who receives the grant, however, has been the subject of discussion with regards to how the money is spent and who benefits from the grant. Methods Using survey data from 1214 young women who were in the intervention arm and completed at least one annual visit in the HPTN 068 trial, and qualitative interview data from a subset of 38 participants, we examined spending of a cash transfer provided to young women conditioned on school attendance. Results We found that spending was largely determined and controlled by young women themselves and that the cash transfer was predominately spent on toiletries, clothing and school supplies. In interview data, young women discussed the significant role of cash transfers for adolescent identity, specifically with regard to independence from family and status within the peer network. There were almost no negative consequences from receiving the cash transfer. Conclusions We established that providing adolescents access to cash was not reported to be associated with social harms or negative consequences. Rather, spending of the cash facilitated appropriate adolescent developmental behaviours. The findings are encouraging at a time in which there is global interest in addressing the structural drivers of HIV risk, such as poverty, for young women. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01233531 (1 Nov 2010. First participant enrolled 5 March 2011.
Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda
Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…
Löve, Jesper; Dellve, Lotta; Eklöf, Mats; Hagberg, Mats
Because of ageing populations, most high-income countries are facing an imminent scarcity of labour. Maintenance of health and performance in young adults therefore becomes a crucial prerequisite for sustainable societies. One major obstruction to this accomplishment is the striking health inequalities between young women and young men. Previously these inequalities have mainly been studied in a cross-sectional way, focusing on ill-health. In this study, we compared the prevalence of maintained health and performance between young adult women and men and the predictors for this outcome. The cohort consisted of 1266 participants from a homogenous sample of university students in Sweden. A combined assessment of self-rated 'very good' health and un-impaired performance took place at three time points (i.e. maintained health and performance). Potential predictors covered stable conditions in health-related behaviours, conditions at work/school and work-home interference. Young women had less maintained health and performance than young men. No major differences in predictors were found. However, there was a tendency for psychosocial factors to be the most important predictors, especially in women. That young women had less maintained health and performance in a homogenous sample beyond well-known differentiating factors suggests explanations other than observable structural differences between the sexes. This was also indicated by the importance attached to perceived demands, and work-home interference, especially in women. The combination of less scheduled, and more unscheduled, schoolwork (i.e. time-flexibility) negatively affected the maintenance of health and performance in our study population, suggesting a focus for future studies.
María Victoria González López-Arza; Enrique Varela-Donoso; Jesús Montanero-Fernández; Juan Rodríguez-Mansilla; Blanca González-Sánchez; Luis González López-Arza
BACKGROUND:Balance problems are common in people of all ages and can lead to falls,thus causing fractures with consequent disability.Qigong practice has long been part of daily life in Chinese culture,and has good effects on physical health maintenance.OBJECTIVE:The present work describes the change in balance in young,healthy women after practising Qigong for eight weeks.DESIGN,SETTING,PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS:The study took the form of a controlled,randomised longitudinal trial,and involved 30 women aged 18-25 years.The subjects had no prior experience of Qigong or Tai Chi and were unaware of the aims of the study.Subjects were randomly assigned to a Qigong intervention group or a control group.Those in the Qigong intervention group performed "exercises in 20 figures for health and long-life" (Wang Ziping) for 1 h twice per week,for 4 weeks.The control group undertook no exercise at all.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The main outcome measure was the stabilometry values.These were obtained in a unipodal support test,using a plantar pressure platform with optical sensors.RESULTS:The Qigong subjects showed a significant improvement in their stabilometry results (40.1％ pre-intervention and 56.4％ post-intervention) (P＜0.045),while no improvement was seen in the control group (51.2％ pre-intervention and 53.5％ post-intervention).At the beginning of the intervention,the stabilometry values recorded for the Qigong intervention group were worse than those recorded for the control group (40.15％ and 51.21％ respectively; P=0.121).However,a comparison of the post-intervention values between these groups showed that these differences have disappeared (P=0.653).CONCLUSION:Qigong can improve balance in healthy,young women.
Yi, Robin H Pugh; Rezende, Lisa F; Huynh, Julie; Kramer, Karen; Cranmer, Melissa; Schlager, Lisa; Dearfield, Craig T; Friedman, Susan J
Women age 45 years or younger with breast cancer, or who are at high-risk for breast cancer due to previously having the disease or to genetic risk, have distinct health risks and needs from their older counterparts. Young women frequently seek health information through the Internet and mainstream media, but often find it does not address their particular concerns, that it is difficult to evaluate or interpret, or even misleading. To help women better understand media coverage about new research, Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE) developed the CDC-funded XRAYS (eXamining Relevance of Articles to Young Survivors) program. To assure that the XRAYS program is responsive to the community's needs, FORCE launched a web-based survey to assess where young women seek information about breast cancer, and to learn their unmet information needs. A total of 1,178 eligible women responded to the survey. In general, the breast cancer survivors and high-risk women between ages 18-45 years who responded to this survey, are using multiple media sources to seek information about breast cancer risk, prevention, screening, and treatment. They place trust in several media sources and use them to inform their medical decisions. Only about one-third of respondents to this survey report discussing media sources with their health care providers. Current survey results indicate that, by providing credible information on the quality of evidence and reporting in media reports on cancer, XRAYS is addressing a key need for health information. Results suggest that it will be useful for XRAYS to offer reviews of articles on a broad range of topics that can inform decisions at each stage of risk assessment and treatment.
Sara S Jarvis
Full Text Available Young black women have higher prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy compared to white women, which may be attributable to differences in blood pressure (BP regulation. We hypothesized that young normotensive black women would demonstrate augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA and renal-adrenal responses to orthostasis. Fifteen white and ten black women (30±4 vs. 32±6 yrs; means±SD had haemodynamics and MSNA measured during baseline (BL, 30° and 60° head-up tilt (HUT, and recovery. Blood was drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone. BL brachial systolic BP (SBP: 107±6 vs. 101±9 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP: 62±4 vs. 56±7 mmHg were higher in white women (both p< 0.05. ΔDBP (60° HUT-BL was greater in black women compared to white (p< 0.05. Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance was similar between groups. MSNA burst frequency was higher in whites (BL: 16±10 vs. 14±9 bursts/min, p< 0.05 and increased in both groups during HUT (60°: 39±8 vs. 34±13 bursts/min, p< 0.05 from BL. Noradrenaline was higher in white women (BL: 210±87 vs. 169±50 pg/ml; 60° HUT: 364±102 vs. 267±89 pg/ml, p< 0.05. Direct renin was higher and vasopressin and Δaldosterone tended to be higher in blacks (BL, direct renin: 12.1±5.0 vs. 14.4±3.7 pg/ml, p< 0.05; BL, vasopressin: 0.4±0.0 vs. 1.6±3.6pg/ml, p=0.065; Δaldosterone: -0.9±5.1 vs. 3.8±7.5 ng/ml; p=0.069. These results suggest that young normotensive white women rely on sympathetic neural more so than black women who have a tendency to rely on the renal-adrenal system to regulate BP during an orthostatic stress.
Jarvis, Sara S.; Shibata, Shigeki; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi
Young black women have higher prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy compared to white women, which may be attributable to differences in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We hypothesized that young normotensive black women would demonstrate augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and renal-adrenal responses to orthostasis. Fifteen white and ten black women (30 ± 4 vs. 32 ± 6 years; means ± SD) had haemodynamics and MSNA measured during baseline (BL), 30 and 60° head-up tilt (HUT), and recovery. Blood was drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone. BL brachial systolic BP (SBP: 107 ± 6 vs. 101 ± 9 mmHg) and diastolic BP (DBP: 62 ± 4 vs. 56 ± 7 mmHg) were higher in white women (both p < 0.05). Δ DBP (60° HUT-BL) was greater in black women compared to white (p < 0.05). Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance were similar between groups. MSNA burst frequency was higher in whites (BL: 16 ± 10 vs. 14 ± 9 bursts/min, main effect p < 0.05) and increased in both groups during HUT (60°: 39 ± 8 vs. 34 ± 13 bursts/min, p < 0.05 from BL). Noradrenaline was higher in white women during 60° HUT (60° HUT: 364 ± 102 vs. 267 ± 89 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Direct renin was higher and vasopressin and Δ aldosterone tended to be higher in blacks (BL, direct renin: 12.1 ± 5.0 vs. 14.4 ± 3.7 pg/ml, p < 0.05; BL, vasopressin: 0.4 ± 0.0 vs. 1.6 ± 3.6 pg/ml, p = 0.065; Δ aldosterone: −0.9 ± 5.1 vs. 3.8 ± 7.5 ng/ml; p = 0.069). These results suggest that young normotensive white women may rely on sympathetic neural activity more so than black women who have a tendency to rely on the renal-adrenal system to regulate BP during an orthostatic stress. PMID:24624092
Zhang, Hong; Teng, Fei; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Denghao
We examined young Chinese women's mate preferences as a function of their self-perceived attractiveness and career attitudes. A total of 264 young Chinese women rated their own attractiveness, reported their attitudes toward career, and rated the importance of 20 mate characteristics. The characteristics encompassed four facets that individuals typically consider when seeking a long-term mate: good-genes indicators, good investment ability indicators, good parenting indicators, and good partner indicators. We found that both self-perceived attractiveness and attitudes toward career were positively associated with the importance attached to several of the characteristics. Moreover, women who had high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to intelligence, ambition, and industriousness than women who had low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness; women with low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to physical attractiveness in a mate than women with high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness. We discussed the limitations of our research and directions for future research.
Full Text Available We examined young Chinese women's mate preferences as a function of their self-perceived attractiveness and career attitudes. A total of 264 young Chinese women rated their own attractiveness, reported their attitudes toward career, and rated the importance of 20 mate characteristics. The characteristics encompassed four facets that individuals typically consider when seeking a long-term mate: good-genes indicators, good investment ability indicators, good parenting indicators, and good partner indicators. We found that both self-perceived attractiveness and attitudes toward career were positively associated with the importance attached to several of the characteristics. Moreover, women who had high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to intelligence, ambition, and industriousness than women who had low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness; women with low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to physical attractiveness in a mate than women with high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness. We discussed the limitations of our research and directions for future research.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to look at the ways in which young European women staying in the city of Varanasi for long periods of time talk about India and how they negotiate their place and role as women there. There is a common travellers’ discourse that sees India as a difficult and dangerous place to a vulnerable traveler, and the encounters of colonial women with “otherness” have been widely analysed. This article brings this discussion to the post colonial era and endeavors to initiate a discussion about how to understand the encounters between visiting Western women and the locals in India today. The article is based on nine interviews which Korpela conducted in Varanasi, and on her participant observation.
Auslander, Beth A; Baker, Jaqwiana; Short, Mary B
Healthy sexuality includes having positive feelings about one's body and developing positive romantic relationships. Previous research predicts that women dissatisfied with their bodies may be less likely to enforce their rights of sexual autonomy (i.e., sexual assertiveness). We assessed whether the body esteem of young women was related to their reports of sexual assertiveness. Young women from local colleges (N = 127) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, self reported weight and height, sexual history, along with body esteem and sexual assertiveness. Overall, body esteem was related to sexual assertiveness regarding condom use when controlling for other variables. Women with less body esteem were less likely to insist that their partner use a condom. Individual components of body esteem did not independently predict insistence of condom use. Body esteem was not related to initiation of sex or refusal of unwanted sex. The current study found relationships between body esteem and sexual assertiveness regarding STI prevention behaviors. Given these findings, implications for STI prevention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bennett, Rachel; Waterhouse, Philippa
Understanding the transition to adulthood has important implications for supporting young adults and understanding the roots of diversity in wellbeing later in life. In South Africa, the end of Apartheid means today's youth are experiencing their transition to adulthood in a changed social and political context which offers opportunities compared to the past but also threats. This paper presents the first national level analysis of the patterning of key transitions (completion of education, entry into the labour force, motherhood and marriage or cohabitation), and the association between the different pathways and health amongst young women. With the use of longitudinal data from the South African National Income Dynamics Study (2008-2015), this paper employs sequence analysis to identify common pathways to adulthood amongst women aged 15-17 years at baseline (n = 429) and logistic regression modelling to examine the association between these pathways and self-rated health. The sequence analysis identified five pathways: 1. 'Non-activity commonly followed by motherhood', 2. 'Pathway from school, motherhood then work', 3. 'Motherhood combined with schooling', 4. 'Motherhood after schooling', and 5. 'Schooling to non-activity'. After controlling for baseline socio-economic and demographic characteristics and health, the regression results show young women who followed pathways characterised by early motherhood and economic inactivity (1, 3 and 4) had poorer self-rated health compared to women whose pathways were characterised by combining motherhood and economic activity (2) and young women who were yet to become economically active or mothers (5). Therefore, policies should seek to prevent adolescent childbearing, support young mothers to continue their educational careers and enable mothers in work and seeking work to balance their work and care responsibilities. Further, the findings highlight the value of taking a holistic approach to health and provide
Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul
Difficult living conditions in urban areas could result in an increased risk of developing depression, particularly among women. One of the strong predictors of depression is poverty, which could lead to inequality in risk of depression. However, previous studies found conflicting results between poverty and depression. This study examines whether depression was unequally distributed among young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities and investigate the factors contributed to the inequality. Data from 1117 young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were analysed. Concentration Index (CI) was calculated to measure the degree of the inequality. The CI was decomposed to investigate the factor contributing most to the inequality. The prevalence of depression was 15% and more concentrated among lower economic group (CI=-0.0545). Compared to the middle-adult group, the prevalence of depression among women in the young-adult group was significantly higher (18% vs 11%, pinequality in both group. Other factors contributing to inequality were smoking in young-adult group and marital status in middle-adult group. Contribution of education to inequality varied for different age groups. Depression is more concentrated among the lower economic groups, with household expenditure being the major factor contributing to the inequality. This finding emphasises the importance of primary care level mental health services, particularly in poorer urban communities. This study is based on a cross-sectional data, and only assesses social determinants of depression. These determinants are important to address in addition to biological determinants and other factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moe, Ingvild T; Hoven, Heidi; Hetland, Eva V; Rognmo, Oivind; Slørdahl, Stig A
Endothelial function is reduced by age, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension or type 2 diabetes, and it is shown that aerobic exercise may reverse this trend. The effect of a high aerobic training status on endothelial function in young, healthy subjects is however less clear. The present study was designed to determine whether endothelial function is improved in highly endurance-trained young women compared to sedentary, healthy controls. Brachial artery diameter was measured in 16 endurance-trained (age: 23.7 +/- 2.5 years, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 60.6 +/- 4.5 ml/kg per min) and 14 sedentary females (age: 23.7 +/- 2.1 years, VO2max: 40.5 +/- 5.6 ml/kg per min) at rest, during flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and after sublingual glycerol trinitrate administration, using high-resolution ultrasound. FMD did not differ between the endurance-trained and the sedentary females (14.8% vs 16.4%, p = NS), despite a substantial difference in VO2max of 50% (p endurance-trained group possessed however, a 9% larger resting brachial artery diameter when adjusted for body surface area. The results of the present study suggest that endothelial function is well preserved in young, healthy women, and that a high aerobic training status due to long term aerobic training does not improve the dilating capacity any further.
Coker-Bolt, Patricia; Jansson, Annika; Bigg, Sherridan; Hammond, Elizabeth; Hudson, Harmony; Hunkler, Sarah; Kitch, Jana; Richardson, Heather; Tiedemann, Erica; O'Flynn, Janet; Laurent, Marie Dominque
Recent studies report that Haitian women are concerned about unmet women's health issues. The Days for Girls (DfG) International program features women's health education and personal hygiene kits to ensure women understand the process of menstruation and sanitary hygiene practices. The aim was to train Haitian seamstresses to produce the DfG kits during an in-country workshop and investigate the perceived benefit of the DfG program in young women who used the DfG kits. Posttest only design was used to measure the effectiveness of DfG workshop and postsurvey to study perception of women using DfG kits. It was found that the workshop participants demonstrated an understanding of the DfG program (90% average). Forty-four young women (89.8%) who used the DfG hygiene kits for 2 months agreed that there is a need for feminine hygiene programs in Haiti and that the kits were easy to use and clean (97.1% and 92.1%, respectively). The DfG program could provide a cost-effective feminine hygiene program for Haiti and decrease waste from traditional hygiene products.
Ela, Elizabeth J; Budnick, Jamie
Non-heterosexual young women have a higher rate of unintended pregnancy than their heterosexual peers, but their fertility behaviors are understudied. We use longitudinal data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study to investigate mechanisms contributing to non-heterosexual women's higher pregnancy risk. These data include weekly reports of relationships, sex, and contraceptive use over 30 months. We compare the relationships and fertility behaviors of three groups: exclusively heterosexual (consistent heterosexual behavior, identity, and attraction); mostly heterosexual (heterosexual identity with same-sex behavior and/or same-sex attraction); and LGBTQ (any non-heterosexual identity). We find that mostly heterosexual and LGBTQ women behave differently from exclusively heterosexual women in ways likely to elevate their risk of unintended pregnancy: more distinct partners during the study period, more sexual intercourse with men, less frequent contraceptive use, less use of a dual method (condom plus hormonal method), and more gaps in contraceptive coverage. Mostly heterosexual women resemble LGBTQ women in their contraceptive behavior but have significantly more intercourse with men, which may increase their pregnancy risk relative to both LGBTQ and exclusively heterosexual women. We conclude by considering implications for LGBTQ health and the measurement of sexual minority populations.
Stidham Hall, Kelli; Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James; Barber, Jennifer
We prospectively examined the influence of young women's depression and stress symptoms on their weekly consistency of contraceptive method use. Women ages 18-20 years (n = 689) participating in a longitudinal cohort study completed weekly journals assessing reproductive, relationship and health characteristics. We used data through 12 months of follow-up (n = 8877 journals) to examine relationships between baseline depression (CES-D) and stress (PSS-10) symptoms and consistency of contraceptive methods use with sexual activity each week. We analyzed data with random effects multivarible logistic regression. Consistent contraceptive use (72% of weeks) was 10-15 percentage points lower among women with moderate/severe baseline depression and stress symptoms than those without symptoms (p contraceptive consistency each week than those without symptoms, respectively (OR 0.53, CI 0.31-0.91 and OR 0.31, CI 0.18-0.52). Stress predicted inconsistent use of oral contraceptives (OR 0.27, CI 0.12-0.58), condoms (OR 0.40, CI 0.23-0.69) and withdrawal (OR 0.12, CI 0.03-0.50). Women with depression and stress symptoms appear to be at increased risk for user-related contraceptive failures, especially for the most commonly used methods. Our study has shown that young women with elevated depression and stress symptoms appear to be at risk for inconsistent contraceptive use patterns, especially for the most common methods that require greater user effort and diligence. Based upon these findings, clinicians should consider women's psychological and emotional status when helping patients with contraceptive decision-making and management. User-dependent contraceptive method efficacy is important to address in education and counseling sessions, and women with stress or depression may be ideal candidates for long-acting reversible methods, which offer highly effective options with less user-related burden. Ongoing research will provide a greater understanding of how young women
Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna
Obesity is a major public health epidemic in the United States. During the past decade, obesity has increased across all education levels, including college graduates. The purpose of this research was to study the health decisions that young women, post-college graduation make regarding their food intake. The subjects in this study completed a…
Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.
We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…
Maughan-Brown, Brendan; George, Gavin; Beckett, Sean; Evans, Meredith; Lewis, Lara; Cawood, Cherie; Khanyile, David; Kharsany, Ayesha B M
Evidence on the role of age-disparate partnerships in high HIV-infection rates among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains inconclusive. This study examined the HIV-infection risk associated with age-disparate partnerships among 15- to 24-year-old women in a hyperendemic setting in South Africa. Face-to-face questionnaire, and laboratory HIV and viral load data were collected during 2014-2015 among a representative sample (15-49 years old) in KwaZulu-Natal. The association between age-disparate partnerships (age difference ≥5 years) and HIV status among 15- to 24-year-old women (N = 1459) was assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Data from the male sample on all on-going partnerships (N = 1229) involving 15- to 24-year-old women were used to assess whether young women's age-disparate male partners were more likely to have a viral load ≥1000 copies per milliliter, a marker of HIV-infection risk. Women reporting an age disparity in any of their 3 most recent partnerships were more likely to test HIV positive compared to women with only age-similar partners [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20 to 2.09, P < 0.01]. Among partnerships men reported with 15- to 24-year-old women, the age-disparate male partners were more likely to be HIV positive and have a viral load ≥1000 copies per milliliter (aOR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.30 to 3.24, P < 0.01) compared with age-similar partners. Results were similar for each category of age disparity: partners 5-9 years older (aOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.18 to 3.43, P = 0.010) and those ≥10 years older (aOR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.01-4.66, P = 0.048). Results indicate that age-disparate partnerships increase young women's HIV risk, although conclusive evidence was not ascertained. Interventions addressing risk from age-disparate sexual partnering, including expanding antiretroviral treatment among older partners, may help to reduce HIV incidence among young women.
Lim, Anita Ww; Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Dudding, Nick; Sasieni, Peter
Cervical cancer in young women presents a diagnostic challenge because gynaecological symptoms are common but underlying disease is rare. To explore the potential for using cytology as a diagnostic aid for cervical cancer in young women. Retrospective review of primary care records and cytology data from the national cervical screening database and national audit of cervical cancers. Four datasets of women aged 20-29 years in England were examined: primary care records and national screening data from an in-depth study of cervical cancers; cytology from the national audit of cervical cancers; whole-population cytology from the national screening database; and general-population primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The authors explored the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of symptomatic cytology (earliest cytology. Cytology has value beyond screening, and could be used as a diagnostic aid for earlier detection of cervical cancer in young women with gynaecological symptoms by ruling in urgent referral. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Castelli, Rochele D; Quevedo, Luciana de Á; Coelho, Fábio M; Lopez, Mariane A; da Silva, Ricardo A; Böhm, Denise M; Souza, Luciano D; de Matos, Mariana B; Pinheiro, Karen A; Pinheiro, Ricardo T
To evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and perceived maternal bonding styles among young women during pregnancy and 30 months after childbirth. A cohort of young women from the city of Pelotas, Brazil was followed up from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. The Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus was used to assess SAD and the Parental Bonding Instrument was administered to measure maternal bonding styles. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for multivariable analysis. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, SAD prevalence was 6.39 times higher among young women who perceived their mothers as neglectful (prevalence ratio [PR] 6.39; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2-32.0), and 5.57 times higher in women who perceived their mothers as affectionless controlling (PR = 5.57; 95%CI 1.5-19.7) when compared with those who received optimal care. Maternal bonding style may have an influence on the development of SAD. Therefore, support and early prevention strategies should be offered to the family.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the reproductive health of young women in developing countries requires access to safe and effective methods of fertility control, but most rely on traditional rather than modern contraceptives such as condoms or oral/injectable hormonal methods. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to examine the limits to modern contraceptive use identified by young women in developing countries. Focusing on qualitative research allows the assessment of complex processes often missed in quantitative analyses. Methods Literature searches of 23 databases, including Medline, Embase and POPLINE®, were conducted. Literature from 1970–2006 concerning the 11–24 years age group was included. Studies were critically appraised and meta-ethnography was used to synthesise the data. Results Of the 12 studies which met the inclusion criteria, seven met the quality criteria and are included in the synthesis (six from sub-Saharan Africa; one from South-East Asia. Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 149 young women (age range 13–19 years. Four of the studies were urban based, one was rural, one semi-rural, and one mixed (predominantly rural. Use of hormonal methods was limited by lack of knowledge, obstacles to access and concern over side effects, especially fear of infertility. Although often more accessible, and sometimes more attractive than hormonal methods, condom use was limited by association with disease and promiscuity, together with greater male control. As a result young women often relied on traditional methods or abortion. Although the review was limited to five countries and conditions are not homogenous for all young women in all developing countries, the overarching themes were common across different settings and contexts, supporting the potential transferability of interventions to improve reproductive health. Conclusion Increasing modern contraceptive method use requires community-wide, multifaceted
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna
Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors.
Manyema, M; Norris, S A; Said-Mohamed, R; Tollman, S T; Twine, R; Kahn, K; Richter, L M
Approximately 25% of the world's population consists of young people. The experience of violence peaks during adolescence and the early adult years. A link between personal experience of violence and mental health among young people has been demonstrated but rural-urban differences in these associations are less well known in low to middle income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women. Data on experiences of violence and psychological distress were collected from a total of 926 non-pregnant young women aged between 18 and 22 years of age in rural and urban sites in South Africa. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess psychological distress as an indicator of mental health. Generalised structural equation models were employed to assess potential pathways of association between interpersonal violence and psychological distress. Thirty-four percent of the urban young women (n = 161) reported psychological distress compared to 18% of rural young women (n = 81). In unadjusted analysis, exposure to interpersonal violence doubled the odds of psychological distress in the urban adolescents and increased the odds 1.6 times in the rural adolescents. In adjusted models, the relationship remained significant in the urban area only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.00). Rural residence seemed protective against psychological distress (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Structural equation modelling did not reveal any direct association between exposure to interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural young women. Stressful household events were indirectly associated with psychological distress, mediated by violence among young women in the urban area. The relationship between violence and psychological distress differs between urban and rural-residing young women in South Africa, and is influenced by individual, household and community
Background According to previous studies, one of the common problems of everyday life of persons with tattoos is risky behavior. However, direct examination of the decision making process, as well as factors which determine women’s risk-taking decisions to get tattoos, have not been conducted. This study investigates whether risk taking decision-making is associated with the self-assessment impulsiveness in tattooed women. Methods Young women (aged 18–35 years) with (N = 60) and without (N = 60) tattoos, performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), as a measure of decision-making processes, as well as completing the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Results Tattooed women showed significantly higher scores in the BIS-11 and preference for disadvantageous decks on the IGT compared to non-tattooed women. There was no significant correlation between risky decision-making in the IGT and BIS-11 impulsivity measures. A significantly higher rate of smoking was observed in the tattooed women. However, the analysis did not reveal a group effect after adjustment for smoking in the IGT and the BIS-11 measures. Conclusions The present study was specifically designed to resolve questions regarding associations between impulsiveness and risky decision-making in tattooed women. It shows that in tattooed women, risky decisions are not a direct result of their self-reported impulsiveness. Smoking does not explain the psychometric differences between tattooed women and controls. PMID:24180254
Goodwin, R J; Swinn, M J; Fowler, C J
Urinary retention occurring in young women as an isolated phenomenon was often thought to be psychogenic in origin. However, in 1988, Fowler et al. described a syndrome in young women in which urinary retention was the predominant feature and in which electromyography (EMG) of the striated urethral sphincter revealed a striking abnormality. This abnormality, it was postulated, would result in an inability of the sphincter to relax and retention would therefore result. Until recently there was no effective treatment for this disorder except management by clean intermittent self-catheterisation. However, preliminary results of neuromodulation using a Medtronic sacral nerve stimulator have been particularly promising in this group of patients. The response is often spectacular; a woman who has not passed urine per urethram for many months or years will frequently find that within a few hours of insertion of the percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) lead, she can void quite normally with little or no residual urine. The precise mechanism of action is yet to be defined, but measurements of the latency of anal sphincter contraction on S3 stimulation during PNE are so prolonged that they can only be the result of an afferent-mediated reflex.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.
This study seeks to explore what young women want from their school-based sex education. Qualitative methods were used to explore the perspectives of two groups of young women from Uganda and Scotland. Of particular importance to all the young women were: a diverse sex education curriculum appropriate to the ages of the students, being taught by an outside female facilitator, single-sex classes and access to a female teacher. Furthermore, they proposed that discussion between small groups of friends is very useful. The Scottish group said that having a young teacher, teaching about emotions and relationships and being guided through their own decision making is also important. The Ugandan group emphasized the importance of being taught by female family members and having written materials provided on sex education. The study showed that young women from different backgrounds have strong opinions about sex education, and are an important resource for policy makers.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common reproductive disorder in young women affecting 5-10% of population. PCOS women are at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. PCOS is now recognised as not only a reproductive disorder, but also a metabolic one with long-term effects on women’s health. With this background, the present study was undertaken to assess the levels of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP in young obese women with PCOS as compared with healthy obese women without PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, in the Department of Cardiology and Gynaecology between January 2016 to December 2016. A total of 56 young obese PCOS patients aged less than 30 years and 25 healthy patients matched for age and BMI were studied. RESULTS Baseline cardiovascular risk factors, hormone variables and lipid profiles and hs-CRP levels are measured in both PCOS patients and control subjects. It has been observed that the median hs-CRP levels are significantly higher in young obese PCOS patients than the control subjects. Obese patients with PCOS had higher levels of hs-CRP compared to healthy obese controls. The mean values of hs-CRP was 5.46 mg/L in PCOS group and 2.8 mg/L in the control group, which is statistically significant. CONCLUSION PCOS patients clearly present a higher risk of CVD due to its peculiar hormonal pattern characterised by insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and inflammatory state. The metabolic disorders in PCOS could possibly be improved by diet and drugs in early periods of their life, so as to decrease the risk of CVD in future. Estimation hs-CRP maybe considered as a reliable predictive marker for future Cardiovascular Disease (CVD in PCOS patients.
Bailey, Lin; Griffin, Christine; Shankar, Avi
This paper investigates young women's alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom within a widespread culture of intoxication in relation to recent debates about postfeminism and contemporary femininity. Young women are faced with an "impossible dilemma," arising from the contradiction between a hedonistic discourse of alcohol consumption and postfeminist discourse around attaining and maintaining the "right" form of hypersexual heterosexual femininity. Drawing on a recent interview study with 24 young white working-class and middle-class women in the South-West of England, we explore how young women inhabit the dilemmas of contemporary femininity in youth drinking cultures, striving to achieve the "right" form of hypersexual femininity and an "optimum" level of drunkenness.
Hall, Kelli Stidham; Manu, Abubakar; Morhe, Emmanuel; Harris, Lisa H; Loll, Dana; Ela, Elizabeth; Kolenic, Giselle; Dozier, Jessica L; Challa, Sneha; Zochowski, Melissa K; Boakye, Andrew; Adanu, Richard; Dalton, Vanessa K
Young women's experiences with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) stigma may contribute to unintended pregnancy. Thus, stigma interventions and rigorous measures to assess their impact are needed. Based on formative work, we generated a pool of 51 items on perceived stigma around different dimensions of adolescent SRH and family planning (sex, contraception, pregnancy, childbearing, abortion). We tested items in a survey study of 1,080 women ages 15 to 24 recruited from schools, health facilities, and universities in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) identified the most conceptually and statistically relevant scale, and multivariable regression established construct validity via associations between stigma and contraceptive use. CFA provided strong support for our hypothesized Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale (chi-square p value < 0.001; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.07; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.06). The final 20-item scale included three subscales: internalized stigma (six items), enacted stigma (seven items), and stigmatizing lay attitudes (seven items). The scale demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.74) and strong subscale correlations (α = 0.82 to 0.93). Higher SRH stigma scores were inversely associated with ever having used modern contraception (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.96, confidence interval [CI] = 0.94 to 0.99, p value = 0.006). A valid, reliable instrument for assessing SRH stigma and its impact on family planning, the Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale can inform and evaluate interventions to reduce/manage stigma and foster resilience among young women in Africa and beyond.
Xenakis, Nancy; Goldberg, Judith
content. Participants are able to integrate and apply the learned concepts to alter aspects of their daily lifestyles and improve their self-confidence, self-worth, and self-competence. The results to date suggest that the YWP addresses the transitional challenges cited in the literature that young women with physical disabilities face from adolescence to adulthood. The structure of the program, which combines individual and group sessions, and the focused content appear to have a positive impact on the participants' lives by exposing them to experiences that promote self-determination and self-competence. By providing opportunities for socialization with peers and mentors and exposure to community resources, and by helping participants to develop self-care skills and to set goals for a healthy lifestyle, the program facilitates leading an independent life. The efficacy of the YWP will be determined by annual follow-up studies as participants enter adulthood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liddon, Nicole C; Leichliter, Jami S; Markowitz, Lauri E
Vaccines to prevent certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated cancers are recommended for routine use among young women. Nationally representative reports of vaccine uptake have not explored the relationship between HPV vaccine initiation and various sexual behaviors. Explore sexual behavior and demographic correlates of HPV vaccine initiation from a nationally representative survey of adolescent and young adult women. In 2007-2008, a total of 1243 girls/women aged 15-24 years responded to questions about receiving HPV vaccine in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). In 2010, demographic and sexual behavior correlates were evaluated in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age. HPV vaccine initiation was higher among those aged 15-19 years than those aged 20-24 years (30.3% vs 15.9%, p19 years. No association was found between HPV vaccination and risky sexual behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Campo, Sebastiano; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Tondi, Paolo; Campo, Vincenzo; Flex, Andrea; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Santoliquido, Angelo
Atherosclerosis is a chronic and degenerative disease developing typically in the elderly; nonetheless, a condition of accelerated atherosclerosis can be observed precociously in the presence of some diseases. Endometriosis, a chronic benign gynecological disorder, shows some characteristics, such as oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and a pro-atherogenic lipid profile, which could increase the risk of developing accelerated atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in young European women with endometriosis. This cross-sectional study included 37 women with endometriosis and 31 control subjects. The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was investigated by ultrasound evaluation of common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD); in addition, serum levels of lipids, inflammatory and coagulation parameters, as well as markers of endothelial inflammation and activation, were determined. Women with endometriosis showed significantly lower values of FMD compared with controls [mean difference: -4.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): -6.52, -2.73; P women with endometriosis had significantly higher values of inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (P women with endometriosis have more subclinical atherosclerosis, resulting in a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction can occur in the absence of structural atherosclerotic changes; its evaluation might be helpful in young women with endometriosis.
van der Graaf, Anouk; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Vissers, Maud N.
Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the development of premature cardiovascular disease. Despite this general statement, data regarding the incidence of cardiovascular disease in young women with familial
Bonomi, Amy E; Nichols, Emily M; Carotta, Christin L; Kiuchi, Yuya; Perry, Samantha
Millions of women are interacting with Fifty Shades of Grey-a best-selling novel and film. Yet, to date, no social science study has been undertaken to examine women's perceptions of the Fifty Shades relationship narrative in its film adaptation-what they deem appealing, what they deem unappealing, and what they would welcome or resist in their own relationship. In the present study, we used focus groups to examine women's perceptions of the relationship patterns in the Fifty Shades of Grey film. Focus groups were conducted with 35 young adult women (randomly sampled from the registrar's office of a large Midwestern university) immediately after watching the Fifty Shades film with the study team at a local theater within two days of the film's release. Seven semistructured questions concentrating on reactions to the relationship patterns between Christian Grey and Anastasia Steele depicted in the Fifty Shades film were asked, including general reactions, appealing and unappealing characteristics, romantic and dangerous elements, and aspects that participants would tolerate (or not tolerate) in their own relationships. While participants assessed parts of the relationship between Christian and Anastasia as exciting and romantic, they consistently indicated an unappealing lack of health in the relationship. Participants expressed grave concerns over Christian's stalking, controlling, manipulative, and emotionally abusive behavior, anger in sexual interactions, and neglect of Anastasia's needs. At the same time, they sympathized with and rationalized Christian's behaviors as a function of his personality, needs, and abilities. A small contingent implicated Anastasia in the unhealthy relationship process, whereas a broader majority of participants highlighted the challenges with trying to "speak up" in an unhealthy relationship like Christian and Anastasia's. When asked where participants would draw the line in their own relationship, participants indicated they would
Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W
The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.
This article considers how time is imagined, lived, and desired in young women's lives as they undertake their final year of secondary school studies in Melbourne, Australia. It argues that economic and competitive imperatives have intensified for many young people in recent times, manifesting in an educational apparatus that increasingly defines…
Kawalilak, C E; Johnston, J D; Cooper, D M L; Olszynski, W P; Kontulainen, S A
Precision errors of cortical bone micro-architecture from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) ranged from 1 to 16 % and did not differ between automatic or manually modified endocortical contour methods in postmenopausal women or young adults. In postmenopausal women, manually modified contours led to generally higher cortical bone properties when compared to the automated method. First, the objective of the study was to define in vivo precision errors (coefficient of variation root mean square (CV%RMS)) and least significant change (LSC) for cortical bone micro-architecture using two endocortical contouring methods: automatic (AUTO) and manually modified (MOD) in two groups (postmenopausal women and young adults) from high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) scans. Second, it was to compare precision errors and bone outcomes obtained with both methods within and between groups. Using HR-pQCT, we scanned twice the distal radius and tibia of 34 postmenopausal women (mean age ± SD 74 ± 7 years) and 30 young adults (27 ± 9 years). Cortical micro-architecture was determined using AUTO and MOD contour methods. CV%RMS and LSC were calculated. Repeated measures and multivariate ANOVA were used to compare mean CV% and bone outcomes between the methods within and between the groups. Significance was accepted at P young adults, postmenopausal women had better precision for radial cortical porosity (precision difference 9.3 %) and pore volume (7.5 %) with MOD. Young adults had better precision for cortical thickness (0.8 %, MOD) and tibial cortical density (0.2 %, AUTO). In postmenopausal women, MOD resulted in 0.2-54 % higher values for most cortical outcomes, as well as 6-8 % lower radial and tibial cortical BMD and 2 % lower tibial cortical thickness. Results suggest that AUTO and MOD endocortical contour methods provide comparable repeatability. In postmenopausal women, manual modification of endocortical contours led to
Softas-nall, B; Bardos, A; Fakinos, M
This paper examines the magnitude and prevalence of fear of crime as a function of seriousness and probability of occurrence among Greek female university students aged 17-29 years. The findings show that rape is the most fear producing of all offenses in young Greek women. Fear of rape is even greater than fear of murder, robbery, threat with a dangerous object, and other serious crimes. Consequently, Greek women distance themselves from possible sources of danger; thus, most of them are deprived of some of their basic freedoms. This finding is interpreted in light of rape's reported likelihood in conjunction with its reported seriousness. The findings are similar to those reported in other countries and in line with the feminist claim regarding the universality of the fear of rape in the daily life of young women. Explanations of high fear in terms of physical and social vulnerability and as a possible reflection of hidden violence against Greek women are also included in the discussion.
Rahman, Mosfequr; Hoque, Md Aminul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Makinoda, Satoru
This study explores the association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adult women using 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data. The analyses are restricted to young women 20 to 24 years old. Logistic regression analyses are constructed to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between adolescent marriage and IPV in the past year. show that there is a strong significant relationship between adolescent marriage and experience of physical IPV in the past year among this population. Association between sexual IPV and adolescent marriage is insignificant. Adolescent marriage puts women at increased risk of physical IPV into their young adult period. Government agencies need to enforce existing law on the minimum age at marriage to reduce IPV among adolescent and young adult girls.
Miller, P Elliott; Brown, Lorrel; Khandheria, Paras; Resar, Jon R
Ischemic stroke occurring during intercourse in young patients is exceedingly rare. We present 2 cases of young women taking oral contraceptives, each presenting with an ischemic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale in one patient and an atrial septal defect in the other. The most likely cause of stroke in both patients is embolic. Despite conflicting evidence, young patients presenting with ischemic stroke and found to have a patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect should be considered for possible device-based closure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Special Edition. Diversifying ... body shapes amongst young Swazi women are ... create a balance on other body shapes to be ... composition in the work of a designer by.
Głąbska, Dominika; Książek, Aneta; Guzek, Dominika
The tools enabling brief assessment of folate intake may be of great value for public health purposes. The aim of the presented study was to design a brief folate-specific food frequency questionnaire for Central and Eastern European population of women, as well as to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Folate-Intake Calculation-Food Frequency Questionnaire (Fol-IC-FFQ) on a group of Polish women aged 20-30 years. Participants collected 3-day dietary records and completed the Fol-IC-FFQ twice (FFQ1: directly after the dietary record; and FFQ2: six weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison of the results of FFQ1 and 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results of FFQ1 and FFQ2). In assessment of validity, a Bland-Altman index of 5.3% was observed. In assessment of reproducibility, a Bland-Altman index of 2.7% was observed, the share of individuals classified into the same intake adequacy category was over 85%, the share of individuals classified into the same tertile was almost 75%, the weighted κ statistic indicated substantial agreement (0.67) and correlation was significant ( p = 0.0000; R = 0.7995). Assessment of the Fol-IC-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and very good level of reproducibility in the population of young Polish women. The Fol-IC-FFQ may be considered a valid tool for the assessment of folate intake in young Polish women and a promising tool for the assessment of folate intake in young women in Central and Eastern Europe.
Krug, Rosemarie; Benedict, Christian; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred
We have previously shown that enhancing brain insulin signaling by intranasal administration of a single dose of the hormone acutely reduces food intake in young men but not women, whereas its improving effects on spatial and working memory are restricted to young women. Against the background of animal studies suggesting that low estrogen concentrations are a prerequisite for the anorexigenic impact of central nervous insulin, we extended our foregoing study by assessing intranasal insulin effects in postmenopausal women with comparatively low estrogen concentrations, expecting them to be more sensitive than young women to the anorexigenic effects of the hormone. In a within-subject, double-blind comparison performed at the University of Lübeck, 14 healthy postmenopausal women (body mass index, 23.71±0.6 kg/m2; age, 57.61±1.14 yr) were intranasally administered 160 IU regular human insulin or vehicle. Subjects performed a working memory task (digit span) and a hippocampus-dependent visuospatial memory task. Subsequently, free-choice food intake from an ad libitum breakfast buffet was measured. Contrary to expectations, results in postmenopausal women mirrored those found in young women (22.44±0.63 yr), i.e. insulin administration did not affect food intake (P>0.46), but did enhance performance in the prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory task (Pwomen do not modulate the effects of intranasal insulin in females, suggesting that in humans as opposed to rats, estrogen signaling does not critically alter central nervous system sensitivity to the effects of insulin on energy homeostasis and cognition.
: The health potential of a person can be improved thanks to recreational physical activity and rational diet. The sense of life satisfaction is also one of significant health resources. The aim of the study was to analyze the relations between the level of life satisfaction and the frequency of consuming selected products in the group of young women who engage in fitness for recreational purposes. The study involved 200 young women (20-30 years old) who regularly do recreational physical activity in fitness clubs in Małopolska. An original questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of consumption of food products, with the following scale: several times a day, once a day, several times a week, once a week, several times a month, and more rarely / never. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) by Diener et al., adapted into Polish by Juczyński, was used to measure life satisfaction. The results were analyzed with the use of U Mann-Whitney test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients in a statistical package PQStat ver. 1.6. Statistical analysis showed that along with higher life satisfaction, women significantly less often consumed: white bread (plife satisfaction (low vs. high according to the SWLS) showed that women who displayed high life satisfaction significantly more often consumed wholemeal bread (plife satisfaction. The study proved the predictive role of life satisfaction in the development of eating habits of young, physically active women, indicating more rational dietary choices of women with higher levels of this individual quality.
Moran, Lisa; Gibson-Helm, Melanie; Teede, Helena; Deeks, Amanda
To assess psychological features in young women with and without PCOS. Observational, cross-sectional pilot study in young women aged 18-25 with (n = 24) or without (n = 22) PCOS (age: 22.41 +/- 0.39 vs. 21.95 +/- 0.47 years, p = 0.46; BMI: 29.17 +/- 1.54 vs. 22.05 +/- 0.83 kg/m(2), p = 0.0003). The main outcome measures were quality of life, anxiety, depression, risk perception and fears on future health. Women with PCOS demonstrated worsened quality of life (p = 0.033) and greater anxiety (p = 0.01) and depression (p = 0.023) than women without PCOS related to BMI status. Women with PCOS were more likely to perceive themselves as at risk of obesity (p = 0.012) and infertility (p heart disease (p = 0.005), obesity (p = 0.0007) and infertility (p = 0.023) than women without PCOS. Women with PCOS were more likely to have fears about future health related to weight gain (p = 0.045), loss of femininity (p = 0.035), loss of sexuality (p = 0.003) and infertility (p = 0.019) than women without PCOS. Worsened quality of life, anxiety and depression in young women with PCOS is related to BMI. Risk perception is appropriately high in PCOS, yet perceived risks of future metabolic complications are less common than those related to weight gain and infertility.
Reid, Allecia E; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Tené T; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.
Talasz, Helena; Kalchschmid, Elisabeth; Kofler, Markus; Lechleitner, Monika
Cross-sectional and interventional study to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in healthy young nulliparous women and to determine the effects of a 3-month PFM training program with emphasis on co-contraction of PFM and anterolateral abdominal muscles and on correctly performed coughing patterns. PFM function was assessed by digital vaginal palpation in 40 volunteers and graded according to the 6-point Oxford grading scale. The PFM training program was comprised theoretical instruction, as well as verbal feedback during hands-on instruction and repeated training sessions focussing on strengthening PFM and anterolateral abdominal muscle co-contraction during forced expiration and coughing. At baseline, 30 women (75%) were able to perform normal PFM contractions at rest (Oxford scale score ≥ 3); only 4 of them (10%) presented additional involuntary PFM contractions before and during coughing. The remaining 10 women (25%) were unable to perform voluntary or involuntary PFM contractions. Mean Oxford scale score in the whole group was 3.3 ± 1.7. After completing the PFM training program, 29 women (72.5%) performed cough-related PFM contractions and group mean Oxford scale score increased significantly to 4.2 ± 1.0. The study shows that PFM dysfunction may be detected even in healthy young women. Multidimensional training, however, may significantly improve PFM function.
Schembre, Susan M; Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl L
In accordance with the sociocultural model, race/ethnicity is considered a major influence on factors associated with body image and body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders are often characterized as problems that are primarily limited to young White women from Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences that exist by race in desired body weight; the importance placed on those ideals; and dieting strategies among White, Asian American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, and other mixed-race young women in Hawai'i. A total of 144 female college students 18-20 years of age were surveyed about body weight as well as eating and exercise habits. Results demonstrated that all the young women wanted to lose weight. However, there were no differences in desired body weight or desired weight change by race after controlling for body mass index suggesting that current weight rather than race/ethnicity is the predominant influence on weight-related concerns. Young White women placed the greatest level of importance on achieving a lower body weight, which corresponded with a greater likelihood to be attempting weight loss (dieting) and greater endorsement of behaviors consistent with weight loss compared to their counterparts. Findings imply that, for young women, race/ethnicity may not have as significant an impact on factors associated with body weight ideals as previously believed. Rather, differences in the value placed on achieving a desired body weight, as it relates to disordered eating, should be further explored among race/ethnic groups.
Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro
The present research investigated the hypothesis that elderly and horizontal body position contribute to impair learning capacity. To this aim, 30 young (mean age: 23.2 years) and 20 elderly women (mean age: 82.8 years) were split in two equal groups, one assigned to the Seated Position (SP), and the other to the horizontal Bed Rest position (hBR). In the Learning Phase, participants were shown 60 words randomly distributed, and in the subsequent Recognition Phase they had to recognize them mixed with a sample of 60 new words. Behavioral analyses showed age-group effects, with young women exhibiting faster response times and higher accuracy rates than elderly women, but no interaction of body position with age group was found. Analysis of the RP component (250-270ms) revealed greater negativity in the left Occipital gyrus/Cuneus of both sitting age-groups, but significantly left-lateralized RP in left Lingual gyrus only in young bedridden women. Elderly hBR women showed a lack of left RP lateralization, the main generator being located in the right Cuneus. Young participants had the typical old/new effect (450-800ms) in different portions of left Frontal gyri/Uncus, whereas elderly women showed no differences in stimulus processing and its location. EEG alpha activity analyzed during a 3min resting state, soon after the recognition task, revealed greater alpha amplitude (i.e., cortical inhibition) in posterior sites of hBR elderly women, a result in line with their inhibited posterior RP. In elderly women the left asymmetry of RP was positively correlated with both greater accuracy and faster responses, thus pointing to a dysfunctional role, rather than a compensatory shift, of the observed right RP asymmetry in this group. This finding may have important clinical implications, with particular regard to the long-term side-effects of forced Bed Rest on elderly patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Coulter, Robert W S; Kinsky, Suzanne M; Herrick, Amy L; Stall, Ron D; Bauermeister, José A
Syndemics, or the co-occurrence and interaction of health problems, have been examined extensively among young men who have sex with men, but their existence remain unexamined, to our knowledge, among sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) women. Thus, we investigated if syndemics were present among young sexual-minority women, and if sexual-orientation discrimination was an independent variable of syndemic production. A total of 467 sexual-minority women between the ages of 18 and 24 completed a cross-sectional online survey regarding their substance use, mental health, sexual behaviors, height, weight, and experiences of discrimination. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the presence of syndemics and their relationship to sexual-orientation discrimination. Heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, ecstasy use, hallucinogen use, depressive symptoms, multiple sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprised syndemics in this population (chi-square=24.989, P=.201; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.946; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.023). Sexual-orientation discrimination is significantly and positively associated with the latent syndemic variable (unstandardized coefficient=0.095, Pdiscrimination (unstandardized coefficient=0.602, P>.05). Syndemics appear to be present and associated with sexual-orientation discrimination among young sexual-minority women. Interventions aimed at reducing discrimination or increasing healthy coping may help reduce substance use, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors in this population.
Siegerink, B; Maino, A; Algra, A; Rosendaal, F R
Myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke (IS) are acute forms of arterial thrombosis and share some, but not all, risk factors, indicating different pathophysiological mechanisms. This study aims to determine if hypercoagulability has a differential effect on the risk of MI and IS. We reviewed the results from the Risk of Arterial Thrombosis in Relation to Oral Contraceptives study, a population-based case-control study involving young women ( 1; for 12 (41%), it was > 2; and for 5 (17%), it was > 2.75. The five risk factors with the largest differences in associations were high levels of activated factor XI (FXI) and FXII, kallikrein, the presence of lupus anticoagulans, and a genetic variation in the FXIII gene. In young women, prothrombotic factors are associated more with the risk of IS than with MI risk, suggesting a different role of hypercoagulability in the mechanism leading to these two diseases. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina
This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…
Ranganathan, Meghna; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey; Kahn, Kathleen; Khoza, Nomhle; Twine, Rhian; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori
Evidence shows that HIV prevalence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa increases almost five-fold between ages 15 and 24, with almost a quarter of young women infected by their early-to mid-20s. Transactional sex or material exchange for sex is a relationship dynamic that has been shown to have an association with HIV infection. Using five focus group discussions and 19 in-depth interviews with young women enrolled in the HPTN 068 conditional cash transfer trial (2011-2015), this qualitative study explores young women's perceptions of transactional sex within the structural and cultural context of rural South Africa. The analysis also considers the degree to which young women perceive themselves as active agents in such relationships and whether they recognise a link between transactional sex and HIV risk. Young women believe that securing their own financial resources will ultimately improve their bargaining position in their sexual relationships, and open doors to a more financially independent future. Findings suggest there is a nuanced relationship between sex, love and gifts: money has symbolic meaning, and money transfers, when framed as gifts, indicates a young woman's value and commitment from the man. This illustrates the complexity of transactional sex; the way it is positioned in the HIV literature ignores that "exchanges" serve as fulcrums around which romantic relationships are organised. Finally, young women express agency in their choice of partner, but their agency weakens once they are in a relationship characterised by exchange, which may undermine their ability to translate perceived agency into STI and HIV risk reduction efforts. This research underscores the need to recognise that transactional sex is embedded in adolescent romantic relationships, but that certain aspects make young women particularly vulnerable to HIV. This is especially true in situations of restricted choice and circumscribed employment opportunities. HIV prevention
Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela
Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of maternal health services is an effective means for reducing the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in places where the general health status of women is poor. This study was guided by the following objectives: 1 To determine the relationship between timing of first antenatal care (ANC visit and type of delivery assistance 2 To establish the determinants of timing of first ANC visit and type delivery assistance. Methods Data used were drawn from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with a focus on young women aged 15-24. The dependent variables were: Timing of first ANC visit coded as "None"; "Late" and "Early", and type of delivery assistance coded as "None"; "Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA" and "Skilled professional". Control variables included: education, household wealth, urban-rural residence, ethnicity, parity, age at birth of the last child and marital status. Multivariate ordered logistic regression model was used. Results The study results show that place of residence, household wealth, education, ethnicity, parity, marital status and age at birth of the last child had strong influences on timing of first ANC visit and the type of delivery assistance received. The major finding is an association between early timing of the first ANC visit and use of skilled professionals at delivery. Conclusion This study confirms that timing of first antenatal care is indeed an important entry point for delivery care as young women who initiated antenatal care early were more likely to use skilled professional assistance at delivery than their counterparts who initiated ANC late. The results indicate that a large percentage of young pregnant women do not seek ANC during their first trimester as is recommended by the WHO, which may affect the type of assistance they receive during delivery. It is important that programs aimed at improving maternal health include targeting young women, especially
Tavares, Leonor S; Plotnikoff, Ronald C
This study sets out to determine the main issues employed women with and without young children voice as influencing their physical activity behaviors, and to identify the environmental dimensions (e.g., physical, social, cultural, organizational, policy) within and outside of the workplace surrounding physical activity promotion that are most pertinent to employed women in Canada. Thirty employed women participated in focus groups, and four senior personnel were interviewed. Worksite observations were carried out and a Workplace Physical Activity Audit Tool was administered. Results indicate that time constraints and demands of personal and work life are barriers to achieving more activity. The issues surrounding family obligations and pressures for women with young children illustrate the main differences between groups. Key environmental factors are addressed and considered for future workplace physical activity programming goals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24 years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12 months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12 months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers.
Bangpan, Mukdarut; Operario, Don
This study aims to understand young Thai women's perspectives about family influences on their sexual decisions with the goal of informing the future development of HIV programmes and interventions for young Thai women in urban areas. Eight focus groups were conducted with 40 young single women aged 18-25 years, recruited through a peer network of key informants from four sites across Bangkok: universities, government offices, slums and garment factories. Predetermined topics relating to family, sexual decisions and HIV were discussed with 4-5 participants in each group. Qualitative thematic and framework-analysis techniques were used to explore participants' narratives. Findings suggest that young Thai women's sexual decisions are complex and take place under a wide range of personal, familial and social influences. Parents were perceived as a barrier to parent-child communication about sex and HIV. Young women regarded mothers as more supportive and receptive than fathers when discussing sensitive topics. Young Thai women described a tension between having a strong sense of self and modern sexual norms versus traditionally conservative relational orientations. Future HIV interventions could benefit by developing strategies to consider barriers to parent-child communication, strengthening family relationships and addressing the coexistence of conflicting sexual norms in the Thai context.
Full Text Available We investigated the acute neuromuscular and stress responses to three different high-intensity interval training sessions in young (age 19.5±1.3 years and older (age 65.7±2.8 years women. Cycling exercise comprised either 6 × 5 s or 3 × 30 s all-out, or 3 × 60 s submaximal, efforts each performed 5 weeks apart in randomized order. Peak and average power was higher in young than in older women and was largest during the 6 × 5 s strategy in both groups (p<0.05. The decrease in the ratio of torques evoked by 20 and 100 Hz electrical stimulation, representing low-frequency fatigue, was more evident after the 3 × 30 and 3 × 60 s than the 6 × 5 s bout in both groups and was larger in young than in older women (p<0.05. Both groups preferred 6 × 5 s cycling for further training. In conclusion, in young women, very low volume (6 × 5 s all-out exercise induces significant physiological stress and seems to be an effective means of training. For older women, longer exercise sessions (3 × 60 s are more stressful than shorter ones but are still tolerable psychologically.
The virus continues to spread, particularly in key populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender individuals, sex workers and people who inject drugs. In Africa, young women have the highest HIV incidence rates. Scaling up known efficacious HIV prevention strategies for these groups at high risk is ...
Altuntas, Yuksel; Bilir, Muammer; Ucak, Sema; Gundogdu, Sadi
Reactive hypoglycemia (RH), which is a postprandial hypoglycemic state, occurs within 2-5 h after food intake. It is classified as idiopathic, alimentary, or diabetic reactive hypoglycemia. We studied the incidence of reactive hypoglycemia and looked for any correlations between it and the presence of insulin sensitivity and/or beta cell function in young lean polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study in 64 lean young women with PCOS (BMI lean young women with PCOS. DHEA-S and PRL levels were found to be lower in subjects with RH (P 0.05, respectively). Beta cell function indices such as the insulinogenic index (at 120 min), CIR (at 120 min) and HOMA beta cell index were found to be insignificantly higher in the RH group than the nonreactive hypoglycemia (NRH) group. The 4 h glucose level, but not the 3 h glucose level, was significantly correlated with insulin resistance indices, such as fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, Quicky index, and FIRI in the RH group. Significantly decreased DHEA-S levels were an interesting finding. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to investigate RH in lean young women with PCOS. Our results indicate that more definite insulin resistance occurs in subjects with RH in the fourth hour of the OGTT than those with RH in the third hour. In addition, RH in the fourth hour together with a low DHEA-S level may be predictive of future diabetes in young women with PCOS even when they are not obese.
Krams, Indrikis A; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Krama, Tatjana; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J
Body height and other body attributes of humans may be associated with a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, we have little understanding of the relative role of each, and relationships between indices of physical appearance and general health. In this study we tested relationships between immune function and body height of young men and women. In men, we report a non-linear relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis-B vaccine and body height, with a positive relationship up to a height of 185 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We did not find any significant relationship between body height and immune function in women. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.
Objectives: To study the rising pattern of breast cancer in young women. Design: Retrospective study of cases of breast cancer from histopathological diagnosis. Setting: Department of Pathology, Ilorin Teaching Hospital Subjects: Breast cancer tissues sent to histopathology department for diagnosis Interventions: Tissue ...
Hall, Kelli Stidham; Manu, Abubakar; Morhe, Emmanuel; Harris, Lisa H.; Loll, Dana; Ela, Elizabeth; Kolenic, Giselle; Dozier, Jessica L.; Challa, Sneha; Zochowski, Melissa K.; Boakye, Andrew; Adanu, Richard; Dalton, Vanessa K.
Young women’s experiences with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) stigma may contribute to unintended pregnancy. Thus, stigma interventions and rigorous measures to assess their impact are needed. Based on formative work, we generated a pool of 51 items on perceived stigma around different dimensions of adolescent SRH and family planning (sex, contraception, pregnancy, child-bearing, abortion). We tested items in a survey study of 1,080 women ages 15 to 24 recruited from schools, health facilities, and universities in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) identified the most conceptually and statistically relevant scale, and multivariable regression established construct validity via associations between stigma and contraceptive use. CFA provided strong support for our hypothesized Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale (chi-square p value stigma (six items), enacted stigma (seven items), and stigmatizing lay attitudes (seven items). The scale demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.74) and strong subscale correlations (α = 0.82 to 0.93). Higher SRH stigma scores were inversely associated with ever having used modern contraception (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.96, confidence interval [CI] = 0.94 to 0.99, p value = 0.006). A valid, reliable instrument for assessing SRH stigma and its impact on family planning, the Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale can inform and evaluate interventions to reduce/manage stigma and foster resilience among young women in Africa and beyond. PMID:28266874
Villegas, N.; Santisteban, D.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Ambrosia, T.; Peragallo, N.; Lara, L.
Background Young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age are at high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The literature shows a shortage of STI–HIV prevention interventions focused on this specific high-risk population and a unique set of barriers to receiving prevention messages. Internet-based interventions are promising for delivering STI–HIV prevention interventions and avoiding barriers to services. Aims The study aimed to develop a culturally informed Internet-based STI–HIV prevention intervention for Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age, to investigate its feasibility and acceptability, and to compile recommendations on what would make the intervention more acceptable and feasible for these women. Methods The development of the Internet intervention was facilitated by a process that featured consultation with content and technology experts. A pre-post test design was used to test the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention with 40 young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Results The intervention website consisted of four modules of content and activities that support learning. The intervention was feasible and acceptable for young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Discussion and conclusion This study demonstrated the value of engaging multiple expert panels to develop culturally informed and technology-based interventions. The results of this study support the feasibility and acceptability of conducting an Internet-based intervention with multiple sessions, yielding high participation rates in a population in which there are barriers to discussion of STI–HIV prevention and sex-related content. Implications for nursing and health policy The outcomes have implications for nursing education and clinical practice and they can be used for the legal and judicial systems to promote or reinforce policies that encourage STI–HIV prevention strategies
Stride, Annette; Flintoff, Anne
Young women's relationship with physical activity has been explored extensively, yet the focus is often upon young women who are White. This paper considers South Asian, Muslim young women's experiences of physical activity and how these are influenced by family. A "middle ground" feminist approach is used, drawing upon the work of Hill…
This study explores the ways in which a group of young Muslim refugee women in Adelaide, South Australia, draw upon their experiences of playing in a soccer team as a way of establishing and embellishing a particular cultural identity that both affirms and challenges many of the traditions of Islam. Based primarily on qualitative interviews with the players, this study examines some of the ways in which they construct notions of self, sameness and difference as young Muslim women growing up i...
Florio, Carol; And Others
This document is the coordinator's handbook for a four-day workshop for young women in transition from high school to two-year colleges. The program covers career information, self-awareness and skills assessment (with special regard for mathematics), the many roles of women, and decision making and planning. It includes large- and small-group…
Burke, Gregory L.; And Others
Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)
Newton, Victoria Louise; Hoggart, Lesley
Irregular bleeding is one of the most common side effects of hormonal contraception and a key reason for the discontinuation of hormonal methods. A qualitative study in which 12 young women volunteered to be interviewed in depth, along with six focus group discussions (23 participants). The study had two main research objectives: to document and investigate what young women think and feel about menstruation and contraception, and to explore young women's preferences regarding the intersection of contraceptives and bleeding patterns. Although participants held a broad view that menstruation can be an inconvenience, they did ascribe positive values to having a regular bleed. Bleeding was seen as a signifier of non-pregnancy and also an innate part of being a woman. A preference for a 'natural' menstruating body was a strong theme, and the idea of selecting a hormonal contraceptive that might stop the bleeding was not overly popular, unless the young woman suffered with painful natural menstruation. Contraceptives that mimicked the menstrual cycle were acceptable to most, suggesting that cyclic bleeding still holds a symbolic function for women. When counselling young women about the effect of different contraceptive modalities on their bleeding, practitioners should explore how the women feel about their bleeding, including how they might feel if their bleeding stopped or if they experienced erratic bleeding patterns. Practitioners also need to recognise the subjective understanding of the 'natural body' as held by some women, and in these cases to support them in their seeking out of non-hormonal methods of contraception. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Households with fixed-line telephones have decreased while mobile (cell phone ownership has increased. We therefore sought to examine the feasibility of recruiting young women for a national health survey through random digit dialling mobile phones. Methods Two samples of women aged 18 to 39 years were surveyed by random digit dialling fixed and mobile numbers. We compared participation rates and responses to a questionnaire between women surveyed by each contact method. Results After dialling 5,390 fixed-lines and 3,697 mobile numbers, 140 and 128 women were recruited respectively. Among women contacted and found to be eligible, participation rates were 74% for fixed-lines and 88% for mobiles. Taking into account calls to numbers where eligibility was unknown (e.g. unanswered calls the estimated response rates were 54% and 45% respectively. Of women contacted by fixed-line, 97% reported having a mobile while 61% of those contacted by mobile reported having a fixed-line at home. After adjusting for age, there were no significant differences between mobile-only and fixed-line responders with respect to education, residence, and various health behaviours; however compared to those with fixed-lines, mobile-only women were more likely to identify as Indigenous (OR 4.99, 95%CI 1.52-16.34 and less likely to live at home with their parents (OR 0.09, 95%CI 0.03-0.29. Conclusions Random digit dialling mobile phones to conduct a health survey in young Australian women is feasible, gives a comparable response rate and a more representative sample than dialling fixed-lines only. Telephone surveys of young women should include mobile dialling.
Pollock, Meagan C.
At a time when engineers are in critical demand, women continue to be significantly underrepresented in engineering fields (11.7%) and degree programs (21.3%) in the United States. As a result, there is a national demand for improved K-12 STEM education and targeted efforts to improve equity and access to engineering and science careers for every underrepresented group. High school engineering has become a nascent and growing market for developers and an emergent opportunity for students across the United States to learn introductory engineering skills through strategic career pathways; however there is a disparity in participation at this level as well. Much useful research has been used to examine the problematization of underrepresentation (K Beddoes, 2011), but there is a dearth of literature that helps us to understand the experiences of young women in high school engineering. By examining the experiences of young women in high school engineering, we can learn ways to improve the curriculum, pedagogy, and environment for underrepresented groups such as females to ensure they have equitable access to these programs and are subsequently motivated to persist in engineering. Understanding the needs of marginalized groups is complex, and intersectional feminism seeks to understand gender in relation to other identities such as race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, and nationality. This theory asserts that gender alone is neither a total identity nor a universal experience, and it is thus advantageous to consider each of the intersecting layers of identity so as to not privilege a dominate group as representative of all women. Thus, to understand how female students engage with and experience engineering in grade school, it is useful to examine through the lens of gender, class, race, and sexuality, because this intersection frames much of the human experience. The purpose of this study is to examine high school females' experiences in engineering, with a goal to
Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen
Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…
Remschmidt, Cornelius; Walter, Dietmar; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Deleré, Yvonne; Wichmann, Ole
Many industrialized countries have introduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young women, but vaccine uptake often remains suboptimal. This study aimed to investigate whether a social media site like Facebook is an appropriate tool to assess knowledge, attitude and uptake related to HPV vaccination in young women in Germany. Between December 2012 and January 2013 two different targeting strategies were implemented on Facebook, providing a link to an online questionnaire. Advertisements were displayed to female Facebook users aged 18-25 years living in Germany. During the simple targeting strategy, advertisements comprised health-related images along with various short titles and text messages. During the focused strategy, advertisements were targeted to users who in addition had certain fashion brands or pop stars listed on their profiles. The targeting strategies were compared with respect to participant characteristics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. A total of 1161 women participated. The two targeting strategies resulted in significant differences regarding educational status and migrant background. Overall, awareness of HPV was high, but only 53% received at least one vaccine dose. In multivariate analysis, HPV vaccine uptake was independently associated with a physician's recommendation and trust in vaccine effectiveness. Concerns of adverse effects were negatively associated with vaccine uptake. Social network recruitment permits fast and convenient access to young people. Sample characteristics can be manipulated by adjusting targeting strategies. There is further need for promoting knowledge of HPV vaccination among young women. Physicians have a major role in the vaccination decision-making process of young women.
Lennox, Jemma; Emslie, Carol; Sweeting, Helen; Lyons, Antonia
Research suggests young women view drinking as a pleasurable aspect of their social lives but that they face challenges in engaging in a traditionally 'masculine' behaviour whilst maintaining a desirable 'femininity'. Social network sites such as Facebook make socialising visible to a wide audience. This paper explores how young people discuss young women's drinking practices, and how young women construct their identities through alcohol consumption and its display on social media. We conducted 21 friendship-based focus groups (both mixed and single sex) with young adults aged 18-29 years and 13 individual interviews with a subset of focus group respondents centred on their Facebook practices. We recruited a purposive sample in Glasgow, Scotland (UK) which included 'middle class' (defined as students and those in professional jobs) and 'working class' respondents (employed in manual/service sector jobs), who participated in a range of venues in the night time economy. Young women's discussions revealed a difficult 'balancing act' between demonstrating an 'up for it' sexy (but not too sexy) femininity through their drinking and appearance, while still retaining control and respectability. This 'balancing act' was particularly precarious for working class women, who appeared to be judged more harshly than middle class women both online and offline. While a gendered double standard around appearance and alcohol consumption is not new, a wider online audience can now observe and comment on how women look and behave. Social structures such as gender and social class remain central to the construction of identity both online and offline. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Max; Nielsen, Sussi Bæch; Thomsen, A.D.
The efficacy of intake of iron fortified, wholemeal rye bread on iron status of young women with low iron stores was evaluated in a 5 month single-blind intervention study. Two parallel groups of women (20-38 y) were given 144 g of rye bread/d either fortified with 6 mg iron as ferrous fumarate/100...... stores of young women with poor iron status which were otherwise reduced by intake of the unfortified control bread....
Wong, Li Ping
To investigate the acceptability of the HPV vaccine among a multiethnic sample of young women in Malaysia. A qualitative study of 40 young women aged between 13 and 27 years recruited into 7 focus groups to discuss their knowledge of HPV infection, and their attitudes toward and acceptance of the HPV vaccine. The women were divided into Malay, Chinese, and Indian groups to allow for comparison among ethnicities. Poor knowledge about HPV did not influence the HPV vaccine's acceptability. Although participants were in favor of the vaccine, the majority preferred to delay vaccination because it is newly introduced, they did not perceive themselves to be at risk of HPV infection, or because of cost factors. Concerns were raised regarding the vaccine's safety, the potential to be perceived as promiscuous and sexually active, and whether the vaccine was halal. Promotion of the HPV vaccine should take account of social and cultural acceptability. The findings will help develop strategies for effective vaccination initiatives in a multiethnic and multireligious Asian society.
Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Gelber, Shari I.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Schapira, Lidia; Come, Steven E.; Borges, Virginia F.; Meyer, Meghan E.; Partridge, Ann H.
Purpose Most research regarding fertility in young women with breast cancer has focused on long-term survivors. Little is known about how fertility concerns affect treatment decisions or fertility preservation strategies at the time of initial cancer diagnosis. Patients and Methods As part of an ongoing prospective multicenter cohort study, we surveyed women with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer at age ≤ 40 years. The baseline survey included sociodemographic, medical, and treatment data as well as a modified Fertility Issues Survey, including fertility concern and preservation items. Univariable and multivariable modeling were used to investigate predictors of greater fertility concern. Results Among the first 620 eligible respondents included in this analysis, median age was 37 years (range, 17 to 40 years); 425 women (68%) discussed fertility issues with their physicians before starting therapy, and 319 (51%) were concerned about becoming infertile after treatment. Because of concerns about fertility, four women (1%) chose not to receive chemotherapy, 12 (2%) chose one chemotherapy regimen over another, six (1%) considered not receiving endocrine therapy, 19 (3%) decided not to receive endocrine therapy, and 71 (11%) considered receiving endocrine therapy for < 5 years; 65 (10%) used fertility preservation strategies. Greater concern about fertility was associated with younger age, nonwhite race, not having children, and receipt of chemotherapy. Conclusion Many young women with newly diagnosed breast cancer have concerns about fertility, and for some, these substantially affect their treatment decisions. Only a minority of women currently pursue available fertility preservation strategies in this setting. PMID:24567428
Rawson, Helen A; Liamputtong, Pranee
This paper explores how a group of Vietnamese Australian young women acquire knowledge of sexual issues, and the impact the traditional Vietnamese culture has on the acquisition of this knowledge. It is based on a qualitative study that examined the factors which shape the sexual behaviour of Vietnamese Australian young women living in Australia. A Grounded Theory methodology was employed in this investigation, and involved in-depth interviews with 15 Vietnamese Australian young women aged 18-25 years, who reside in Victoria, Australia. The findings illustrated three key elements involved in the acquisition of knowledge of sexual issues: 'Accepting parental silence', 'Exploring sources of knowledge' and 'Needing culturally targeted information'. The young women desired discussion about sexual issues but accepted that cultural 'barriers' were formidable. Their desire conflicted with the traditional familial norm of 'silence' regarding sexual matters. Consequently, knowledge was sought outside the home, specifically from peers and the media. The importance of culturally appropriate and adequate sexual discussions for Vietnamese Australian young people was stressed, so that informed decisions could be made about their sexual lives. It is imperative for young people to have adequate and appropriate sexual education so that informed and safe sexual choices can be made. For young people from diverse cultural backgrounds, this education must be culturally appropriate and accessible, taking into consideration cultural mores regarding gender and sexual matters, as well as current beliefs in the 'mainstream' youth culture.
Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Russell, R; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH
Objective: To examine health and psychosocial correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young adult women. Research Methods and Procedures: 1830 females (n = 988 black, n = 842 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were asked to
Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F; Basu, Anirban; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Harris, Jeffrey R
Poor balance between work and family can be a major stressor for women with young children and have a negative impact on emotional well-being. Family-friendly workplace attributes may reduce stress and depressive symptoms among this population. However, few studies have analyzed the role of specific workplace attributes on mental health outcomes among women with young children because available data are limited. This study examines the impact of workplace attributes on changes in depressive symptoms among working women with young children between 6 and 24 months of age. This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) collected between 1991 and 1993 to examine the effects of work intensity, work schedule (night/day/variable), schedule flexibility, working from home, and work stress on changes in depressive symptoms among a national US sample of 570 women who returned to work within 6 months after childbirth. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D score. Treatment effects were estimated using fixed effects regression models. Working from home and work stress predicted within-individual changes in depressive symptoms between 6 and 24 months postchildbirth. Women who worked from home reported a statistically significant decrease in depression scores over time (β = -1.36, SE = 0.51, p = 0.002). Women who reported a one-unit increase in job concerns experienced, on average, a 2-point increase in depression scores over time (β = 1.73, SE = 0.37, p Work intensity, work schedule, and schedule flexibility were not associated with changes in depressive symptoms. This study is one of the few to use longitudinal data and causal-inference techniques to examine whether specific workplace attributes influence depressive symptoms among women with young children. Reducing stress in the workplace and allowing women to work from home may improve
Manaf, Rosliza A; Shamsuddin, Khadijah
This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to determine the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with smoking among young urban women. A cross-sectional study through self-administered questionnaire was conducted on female students enrolled in private higher learning institutions in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia, between July and October 2005. Analysis on 408 respondents showed that current smoker prevalence rate was 18.6%. Adjusted analyses showed significant association between smoking and individual factors, which are the importance of slim image, average monthly allowance, and car ownership. For family factors, analyses showed significant association between smoking and parental marital status and smoking status of male siblings. Strong associations were seen between female smoking and environmental factors, such as having more smoker friends, having smokers as best friends, keeping cigarette-brand items, being offered free cigarette, and perceiving female smoking as normal. The identified risk factors could be used to develop more effective prevention programs to overcome smoking among young urban women.
Ortiz, Deedee; Zwicker, Andrew; Greco, Shannon; Dominguez, Arturo
The number of women in STEM careers is staggeringly low; just one in seven engineers are female and only 27% of all computer science jobs are held by women. A recent US Dept. of Commerce report found that between 2000-2011 women experienced no employment growth in STEM jobs. According to the AIP, the percentage of women in physics overall is 26% and women make up less than 7% of the fusion energy workforce. To address this problem we have, since 2001, run a conference to introduce young women to the wide range of careers in STEM fields in a way that is not part of their typical education. By introducing students in a meaningful way to successful women in STEM, from graduate students to senior researchers, the intent of the conference is to foster interest, develop mentoring relationships, and to provide role models that will have a positive influence on future educational and career choices. Data from surveys indicate that this is indeed the impact. For example, 86% of 2015 attendees indicated they are more likely to major in a scientific field after attending the conference then they were before. We are now in the process of expanding and improving the conference in order to reach more students and increase the overall impact.
Belza, A.; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Henriksen, M.
-status parameters in young Fe-depleted women and to investigate the effect of menstrual cycle on these measures. Twelve women (aged 23-30 years), non-anaemic but with low Fe stores, participated in the study. Venous blood samples were collected under standardised conditions on fifteen non-consecutive days during...
Hershberger, Patricia E; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer
Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. The purpose of this article is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semistructured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by 5 dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women's information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care.
Although much research has examined the experience of breast cancer, the distinctive perspectives and lives of young women have been relatively neglected. Women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 45, and who had completed their initial treatment, were interviewed, and social constructionist grounded theory methods were used to analyse the data. The end of initial treatment was accompanied by a sense of unease and uncertainty in relation to recurrence and survival, and also fertility and menopausal status. The young women's perceptions about the future were altered, and their fears about recurrence were magnified by the possibility of many decades ahead during which breast cancer could recur. The implications for the young women's life course, in terms of whether they would be able to have children, would not become clear for several years after initial treatment. This resulted in a liminal state, in which young women found themselves neither cancer-free nor cancer patients, neither pre- nor post-menopausal, neither definitively fertile nor infertile. This liminal state had a profound impact on young women's identities and sense of agency. This extends previous understanding of life after cancer, exploring the age-related dimensions of liminality.
Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Bain, Chris; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Banks, Emily
We investigated risk factors for fracture among young adults, particularly body mass index (BMI) and physical activity, which although associated with fracture in older populations have rarely been investigated in younger people. In 2009, 4 years after initial recruitment, 58 204 Thais aged 19 to 49 years were asked to self-report fractures incident in the preceding 4 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for associations of fracture incidence with baseline BMI and physical activity. Very obese women had a 70% increase in fracture risk (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.21-2.46) as compared with women with a normal BMI. Fracture risk increased by 15% with every 5-kg/m(2) increase in BMI. The effects were strongest for fractures of the lower limbs. Frequent purposeful physical activity was also associated with increased fracture risk among women (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.12-2.06 for 15 episodes/week vs none). Neither BMI nor physical activity was associated with fracture among men, although fracture risk decreased by 4% with every additional 2 hours of average sitting time per day (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). The increase in obesity prevalence will likely increase fracture burden among young women but not young men. While active lifestyles have health benefits, our results highlight the importance of promoting injury prevention practices in conjunction with physical activity recommendations, particularly among women.
Khair, K; Holland, M; Pollard, D
Haemophilia carriers and women with inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) experience menorrhagia, bleed following dentistry, surgery, injury or childbirth. Symptoms are easily treated leading to full and active lives. Nevertheless, some girls and women suffer with abnormal bleeding for many years before diagnosis. We explored the experiences of girls and young women (aged 9-34 years) with IBD by means of focus groups which consisted of moderated discussion addressing specific aspects of bleeding, management and coping strategies. Subsequently, these issues were explored further though a paper-based questionnaire distributed via five specialist haemophilia centres in the UK. The study suggested that young women with IBD who are managed at haemophilia centres receive appropriate care and feel well supported. Although the clinic-based literature available to these women is "fit for purpose", it does not fully address the perceived needs specifically regarding sex, menorrhagia, conception and childbirth, the Pill, tattoos/piercings and so on, leading many to turn to other information sources. Most of those who responded to our survey are confident in their lives, able to manage their IBD and take pragmatic views towards the inherited nature of their condition. But there is a substantial subgroup of women who experience stigmatization, isolation and bullying and express concerns relating to fertility and conception. Overall, this cohort would benefit from opportunities for mutual support. This could be via Internet-based social networking and may be of particular value to those who are unable to seek help from traditional medical services due to religious or other cultural barriers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N
Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and explores the barriers they confronted in fulfilling their aspirations. We highlight the similarities amongst the young women, as well as the distinctive experiences of the Hindu and Muslim interviewees. Financial constraints, lack of safety for women in public space, and gender bias, gossip and social control within the family and the local community affected Hindu and Muslim interviewees in substantially similar ways. For the Muslim interviewees, however, gender disadvantage was compounded by their minority status. This both underlines the importance of incorporating communal politics into our analysis and undermines popular discourses that stereotype Muslims in India as averse to girls' and young women's education.
Cohen, Rachel; Newton-John, Toby; Slater, Amy
The present study aimed to identify the specific social networking sites (SNS) features that relate to body image concerns in young women. A total of 259 women aged 18-29years completed questionnaire measures of SNS use (Facebook and Instagram) and body image concerns. It was found that appearance-focused SNS use, rather than overall SNS use, was related to body image concerns in young women. Specifically, greater engagement in photo activities on Facebook, but not general Facebook use, was associated with greater thin-ideal internalisation and body surveillance. Similarly, following appearance-focused accounts on Instagram was associated with thin-ideal internalisation, body surveillance, and drive for thinness, whereas following appearance-neutral accounts was not associated with any body image outcomes. Implications for future SNS research, as well as for body image and disordered eating interventions for young women, are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.
Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…
May 29, 2014 ... between young women with recurrent urinary tract ... test and Fisher's exact test or t-test as appropriate with data. .... immunosuppressive diseases, use of immunosuppressive drug, ... Serums were removed and stored at А70 °C and used .... Urinary tract infections: new insights into a common problem.
Norman D. Goldstuck
Full Text Available Too few women are aware of the very high efficacy of intrauterine copper devices (IUDs to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Women who frequently engage in unprotected intercourse or seek emergency contraception (EC are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and possible abortion. It is therefore important that these women receive precise and accurate information about intrauterine devices as they may benefit from using an IUD for EC as continuing contraception. Copper IUDs should be used as first choice options given their rapid onset of action and their long-term contraceptive action which require minimal thought or intervention on the part of the user. In the United States, there is only one copper IUD presently available which limits treatment options. There are numerous copper IUDs available for use in EC, however, their designs and size are not always optimal for use in nulliparous women or women with smaller or narrower uteruses. Utilization of frameless IUDs which do not require a larger transverse arm for uterine retention may have distinct advantages, particularly in young women, as they will be suitable for use in all women irrespective of uterine size. This paper provides practical information on EC use with emphasis on the use of the frameless IUD.
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Taylor, Liezel; Basro, Sarinah; Apffelstaedt, Justus P; Baatjes, Karin
Mammography in younger women is considered to be of limited value. In a resource restricted environment without access to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and with a high incidence of breast cancer in the young, mammography remains an important diagnostic tool. Recent technical advances and better regulation of mammography make a reassessment of its value in these conditions necessary. Data of all the mammograms performed at a tertiary hospital and private breast clinic between January 2003 and July 2009 in women less than 40 years of age were collected. Indications were the presence of a mass, follow-up after primary cancer therapy, and screening for patients perceived at high risk due to a family history or the presence of atypical hyperplasia. Data acquired were as follows: Demographics, prior breast surgery, indication for mammography, outcome of mammography, diagnostic procedures, and their results. Of 2,167 mammograms, 393 were performed for a palpable mass, diagnostic mammography. In these, the overall cancer detection rate was 40%. If the mammography was reported as breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS(®)) 5 versus BIRADS(®) 3 and 4 versus BIRADS(®) 1 and 2, a final diagnosis of malignancy was established in 96, 48, and 5%, respectively. Of 367 mammograms done for the follow-up after primary treatment of breast cancer, seven cancers were diagnosed for a detection rate of 1.9%. Of 1,312 mammograms performed for screening, the recall rate was 4%; the biopsy rate 2%, and the cancer diagnosis rate 3/1,000 examinations. In contrast to past series, this series has shown that recent advances in mammography have made it a useful tool in the management of breast problems in young women, notably in a resource-restricted environment. Women for screening should be selected carefully.
Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth
Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in
Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.
Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of young women of…
Full Text Available Maintaining appropriate oral cavity hygiene in a young child is closely related to the health awareness and health-promoting behaviours of their parents/guardians, and especially that of the child’s mother. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding best practice oral hygiene procedures in young children. The survey involved 327 pregnant women aged 16-49 years, and the tool utilized was an anonymous questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included seven one-choice questions concerning basic information on proper oral hygiene procedures as should be practiced by young children. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica PROGRAM 10 (StatSoft. The results of the survey reveal 60.55% of all surveyed had correct knowledge with regard to appropriate cleaning practices for the toothless oral cavity of an infant, that concerning the beginning of tooth brushing - 70.03%, tooth cleaning after night feeding - 39.76%, the duration of tooth brushing (at least 3-4 minutes - 43.12%. What is more, the result of the survey demonstrate that slightly more than a half of the surveyed mothers (53.82% would encourage their children to brush their teeth on their own from the first year of age, while 18.35% believe that children should be assisted in tooth brushing at least to their eighth year of age, and 59.63% would use fluoride toothpaste to brush their child’s teeth before he or she is one year old. Of the participants in this survey, pregnant women with university education, those living in large cities, or who are older, and those who had had previous pregnancies, show greater knowledge regarding suitable oral hygiene practices among young children. Our results reveal that extensive application of modern information technologies can be a means of preventing early childhood caries by facilitating the transmission of knowledge on proper nutrition and oral hygiene practices among young children.
Elias, SG; Onland-Moret, NC; Peeters, PHM; Rinaldi, S; Kaaks, R; Grobbee, DE; van Noord, PAH
We investigated whether the 1944-1945 Dutch famine has affected postmenopausal sex hormone concentrations with data from 163 women (young adults during the famine). Urinary sex hormone concentrations showed modest elevations with increasing famine exposure. Effects were absent in parous women, but
Young Swazi women conform to different body shapes, with the most prevalent body shapes being the triangular and hourglass, yet ready-to-wear apparel is traditionally manufactured using the Western hourglass body shape. Most consumers are not aware of their body shape; hence lack knowledge on apparel styles that ...
Rosenberg, Lynn; Kipping-Ruane, Kristen L; Boggs, Deborah A; Palmer, Julie R
Obesity occurs more commonly among African-American women than among other racial/ethnic groups, and most weight gain occurs before middle age. The study prospectively investigated the relationship of vigorous exercise and brisk walking to the incidence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) among African-American women aged American women who were aged obese at baseline. BMI, exercise, and walking were assessed at baseline and on biennial follow-up questionnaires. Data for BMI were collected through 2009. Data for exercise and walking were collected through 2007. Validation and reproducibility data indicated that reporting was more accurate for vigorous exercise than for brisk walking. Cox proportional hazards models estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs of incident obesity for hours/week of vigorous exercise and walking relative to "little or no exercise" (obesity decreased with increasing vigorous exercise; the IRR was 0.77 (95% CI=0.69, 0.85) for ≥ 7 hours/week relative to little or no exercise; the IRRs were reduced both among women with a healthy weight (BMI obesity among young African-American women. Results for brisk walking were inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ana Maria Casarotti Peirano; EST
The aim of this essay is based on a personal concern and interest in young women. Being in Israel/Palestine my interest gained a fundamental and regional orientation's sit to illustrate this point: the Israeli State celebrates sixty years of its foundation while the Palestinians commemorate sixty years of Nakba - Nakba is an Arabic word that means catastrophe or disaster and it is used to designate the Palestinian exodus due to the Arab-Israeli war in 1948. Both sides are suffering from this ...
Yeatman, Sara; Sennott, Christie; Culpepper, Steven
Dynamic theories of family size preferences posit that they are not a fixed and stable goal but rather are akin to a moving target that changes within individuals over time. Nonetheless, in high-fertility contexts, changes in family size preferences tend to be attributed to low construct validity and measurement error instead of genuine revisions in preferences. To address the appropriateness of this incongruity, the present study examines evidence for the sequential model of fertility among a sample of young Malawian women living in a context of transitioning fertility. Using eight waves of closely spaced data and fixed-effects models, we find that these women frequently change their reported family size preferences and that these changes are often associated with changes in their relationship and reproductive circumstances. The predictability of change gives credence to the argument that ideal family size is a meaningful construct, even in this higher-fertility setting. Changes are not equally predictable across all women, however, and gamma regression results demonstrate that women for whom reproduction is a more distant goal change their fertility preferences in less-predictable ways.
Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Stringer, Bernadette; Haines, Ted
This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status. This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 were recruited at 10 locations in five low-income neighbourhoods. Food security status was the main outcome measure and the main exposure variable, "complex food preparation," combined the preparation of three specific food types (soups, sauces, and baked goods) using basic ingredients. Low-income women preparing a variety of meals using basic ingredients at least three times a week were more than twice as likely to be food secure as were women preparing more complex meals less frequently. Women who prepared more complex meals more frequently had higher food security. Whether this means that preparing more complex foods results in greater food security remains unclear, as this was an exploratory study.
Tanner, Amanda E; Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis
First coitus is considered a major transitional event imbued with cultural relevance. Research has focused on classifying women as virgins, with primary interest in pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention and less on sexuality. This study prospectively explored young women's sexual interest and love at first and subsequent coitus. Daily diary data were collected during a longitudinal study of young women's sexual health (N = 387; 14-17 years at enrollment). Variables of interest included sexual interest, love, and contraceptive and disease prevention behaviors. Analysis of variance and multinomial logistic regression were utilized. For first coital events, love and sexual interest were reported about "half of the day," with sexual interest significantly higher on the day of first coitus. Condom use was nine times more likely than no method at first compared to later coital events. For subsequent coitus, feeling of being in love was significantly higher compared to first coitus, with average sexual interest and love significantly higher with use of no contraceptive method over condoms. Condoms were associated with higher feelings of being in love, but lower sexual interest compared to hormonal contraception. The results indicated that sexual interest and love are independent components of coital behavior. Yet the results also suggest that young women's first coitus does not fully capture the expected significance of "losing one's virginity." Thus, at first coitus, women can actively engage in protective behaviors and focus on pleasure. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this article it is analyzed the way in which the judicial scope has outlined the acceptable sexual behavior of young women in the Mexican society. Since the beginning of the 20th century up to now, the constitutive elements of sexual crimes have served to construct a socially acceptable (moral ideal of sexuality for young people. In this sense, social judgments as much as, judicial decisions agree in defining this ideal under the form of chastity, sexual honesty and purity.
Willie, Tiara C; Kershaw, Trace S; Callands, Tamora A
Gender inequities place women at an increased risk for HIV acquisition, and this association may particularly disenfranchize young pregnant women. Intimate partner violence (IPV) and food insecurity may contribute to gender differences in power, thereby influencing HIV disparities between women and men. Factors influencing gender disparities in HIV are unique and country-specific within sub-Saharan Africa, yet these factors are understudied among women in Liberia. This paper sought to examine the unique contributions and intersections of intimate partner violence (IPV) and food insecurity with HIV-related risk factors among young pregnant women in Liberia. Between March 2016 and August 2016, cross-sectional data collected from 195 women aged 18-30, residing in Monrovia, Liberia who were receiving prenatal services were used to examine the independent and interaction effects of IPV and food insecurity on HIV-related risk factors (i.e., sexual partner concurrency, economically-motivated relationships). IPV (31.3%) and food insecurity (47.7%) were prevalent. Young women who experience IPV are more likely to report food insecurity (p insecurity were more likely to start a new relationship for economic support (ps insecurity were more likely to report engaging in transactional sex (ps insecurity (ps > 0.05). IPV and food insecurity each uniquely heighten young Liberian women's vulnerability to HIV. Intervention and policy efforts are need to promote and empower women's sexual health through integrated sexual and reproductive health services, and reduce IPV and food insecurity among pregnant Liberian women.
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.
Guleria, A K; Syal, S K; Kapoor, A; Kumar, S; Tiwari, P; Dabadghao, P
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) like insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, hypertension and dyslipidemia. We studied CVD risk in young women (18-35 years age) with PCOS using carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) which are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Fifty women with PCOS (age: 24.3 ± 4 years; body mass index [BMI]: 24.6 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were compared with 50 age and BMI matched healthy controls (age: 24.6 ± 5 years; BMI: 23.9 ± 4 kg/m(2)). CIMT was significantly higher (0.55 ± 0.09 mm versus 0.40 ± 0.1 mm, p value PCOS versus obese controls and non obese PCOS versus non-obese controls. In stepwise linear regression PCOS was associated with CIMT and FMD independent of age, BMI and blood pressure. Young women with PCOS irrespective of their BMI have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by increased CIMT and a lower FMD.
Osako, Mai; Takayama, Tomoko; Kira, Shohei
This paper describes dietary habits and attitudes toward body weight control of college women in Japan and examines their relationships with subjective symptoms of fatigue. We also discuss strategies to promote better diets among young adults. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 286 young women aged 18 to 25 years; 275 of these were analyzed. The study found that more than half of the women were concerned about nutritional balance and calories. Yet thirty percent ate "a single-item meal (i.e., bread, rice bowl, noodles) two or more times a day," while roughly one half skipped breakfast "sometimes" or "always." A majority ate vegetables "almost never" and consumed instant foods, confectionery, or sugary drinks "almost daily." Subjective symptoms of fatigue were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of irregular meal-taking, single-item meals, between-meal snacking, missed breakfasts, non-vegetable diets, non-fruit diets, and instant foods and confectionery. About sixty percent of the women in the study considered their bodies to be "slightly fat or overweight" while 79.5% indicated a desire to "lose weight". On average, the participants' ideal BMI was 18.7 (+/- 1.2) while the ideal body weight was 47.2 (+/- 4.1) kg, approximately 4 kg under actual average body weight. Subjective symptoms of fatigue were stronger among women who considered themselves "slightly fat or overweight". Likewise, symptoms were stronger to the extent that a participant's ideal BMI was below her actual BMI. Many women in this study desired to lose weight although they were not overweight by objective measures. The study suggests that subjective symptoms of fatigue are not the result of individual dietary habits, but rather of a lifestyle that reach to series of dietary habits connected to subjective symptoms of fatigue. The study also confirms the importance both of encouraging young women not just to eat well but to lead lifestyles in which they do not skip meals and
Induced abortion is an experience shared by a large number of women in Norway, but we know little about the likely social or mental health-related implications of undergoing induced abortion. International studies suggest an increased risk of adverse outcomes such as depression, but many studies are weakened by poor design. One particular problem is the lack of control for confounding factors likely to increase the risk of both abortion and depression. The aim of the study was to investigate whether induced abortion was a risk factor for subsequent depression. A representative sample of women from the normal population (n=768) was monitored between the ages of 15 and 27 years. Questions covered depression, induced abortion and childbirth, as well as sociodemographic variables, family relationships and a number of individual characteristics, such as schooling and occupational history and conduct problems. Young women who reported having had an abortion in their twenties were more likely to score above the cut-off point for depression (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-6.1). Controlling for third variables reduced the association, but it remained significant (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.7-5.6). There was no association between teenage abortion and subsequent depression. Young adult women who undergo induced abortion may be at increased risk for subsequent depression.
Friedrich, Mariola; Junak, Magdalena
Metabolic changes caused by hormonal contraception combined with unbalanced diet may pose many threats, and deficiency or excess of nutrients may increase the risk of using such contraceptives. The purpose of the survey was to assess the dietary choices of young women using hormonal contraceptives, taking into account their general knowledge about the contraception and its impact on their bodies. The survey comprised 67 women aged from 18 to 25 years. In of three-day menus (201 daily food rations) of the women under research the content of energy and most of nutritious ingredients wandered away from recommended values in Poland. Each respondent additionally filled in a questionnaire concerning her: anthropometric data, education, place of residence; the type, name and time of taking contraceptives; purpose for using hormonal contraception along with its determinants; duration of use, breaks in contraceptive practice; occurrence of side effects during contraceptive use; stimulants used; physical activity, incidence of diarrhoea and vomiting, and dietary supplements use. The assessment of nutritional status of young women taking hormonal contraceptives has shown a number of nonconformities. The survey has revealed insufficient energy value of the menus, and incorrect proportions of basic nutrients, from recommended values, what was reflected in insufficient intake of vitamins (A, D, E, C, B1, B3, B6, and folates) and minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Fe). An excessive consumption of proteins, animal-based in particular, and insufficient consumption of lipids and carbohydrates, polysaccharides in particular, what resulted in insufficient consumption of dietary fibre. Nutritional choices of the respondents were typical to their gender and age, but were not adjusted to the use of hormonal contraceptives. Side effects observed by the respondents, mainly weight gain, may have been a summary result of improper eating behaviors that facilitated accumulation of body fat and water.
Alena, A.; Ekaterina, A.
BACKGROUND Anorexia nervosa characterized by deliberate weight loss, induced and sustained by the patient. It occurs most commonly in adolescent girls and young women, but adolescent boys and young men may also be affected. The investigation of anorexia is caused by increase of the number of people with this pathology within the last decade, difficulties of its diagnostics and treatment as well as long-lasting and complicated rehabilitation and possible relapsing course. METHODS The intervent...
The Bachelor thesis describes the implementation of surrogate maternity. It observe at it from the ethical and legal perspective. The research shows the attitude of today´s young women to the substitute maternity.
Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl
The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N = 1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Charlton, Brittany M; Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Calzo, Jerel P; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S Bryn
Young women who are sexual minorities (eg, bisexual and lesbian) are approximately twice as likely as those who are heterosexual to have a teen pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that risk factors for teen pregnancy would vary across sexual orientation groups and that other potential risk factors exist that are unique to sexual minorities. We used multivariable log-binomial models gathered from 7120 young women in the longitudinal cohort known as the Growing Up Today Study to examine the following potential teen pregnancy risk factors: childhood maltreatment, bullying victimization and perpetration, and gender nonconformity. Among sexual minorities, we also examined the following: sexual minority developmental milestones, sexual orientation-related stress, sexual minority outness, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual social activity involvement. Childhood maltreatment and bullying were significant teen pregnancy risk factors among all participants. After adjusting for childhood maltreatment and bullying, the sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparities were attenuated; these risk factors explained 45% of the disparity. Among sexual minorities, reaching sexual minority developmental milestones earlier was also associated with an increased teen pregnancy risk. The higher teen pregnancy prevalence among sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals in this cohort was partially explained by childhood maltreatment and bullying, which may, in part, stem from sexual orientation-related discrimination. Teen pregnancy prevention efforts that are focused on risk factors more common among young women who are sexual minorities (eg, childhood maltreatment, bullying) can help to reduce the existing sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparity. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available A decline in HIV incidence has been reported in Zambia and a number of other sub-Saharan countries. The trend of HIV prevalence among young people is a good marker of HIV incidence. In this study, different data sources are used to examine geographical and sub-population group differentials in HIV prevalence trends among men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia.We analysed ANC data for women aged 15-24 years from 22 sentinel sites consistently covered in the period 1994-2008, and HIV data for young men and women aged 15-24 years from the ZDHS 2001/2 and 2007. In addition, we systematically reviewed peer-reviewed articles that have reported findings on HIV prevalence and incidence among young people.Overall trends of the ANC surveillance data indicated a substantial HIV prevalence decline among young women in both urban and rural areas. However, provincial declines differed substantially, i.e. between 10% and 68% among urban women, and from stability to 86% among rural women. Prevalence declines were steeper among those with the highest educational attainments than among the least educated. The ZDHS data indicated a significant reduction in prevalence between the two survey rounds among young women only. Provincial-level ZDHS changes were difficult to assess because the sample sizes were small. ANC-based trend patterns were consistent with those observed in PMTCT-based data (2002-2006, whereas population-based surveys in a selected urban community (1995-2003 suggested that the ANC-based data underestimated the prevalence declines in the general populations of both young both men and women.The overall HIV prevalence declined substantially among young women in Zambia and this is interpreted as indicating a decline in HIV incidence. It is noteworthy that overall national trends masked substantial differences by place and by educational attainment, demonstrating critical limitations in the current focus on overall country-level trends in
Dovis, Vonyca; Setyowati; Kurniawati, Wiwit
Young women face a difficult situation when they live in a prostitution area or red light district. A phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences in maintaining reproductive health of 10 young women living in the prostitution area in Lampung, one of the provinces in Sumatra. Thematic content analysis found 7 themes including: (1) The participants' perception of prostitution as a place of naughty women and free sexual activity that can transmit STDs and influence adolescent psychology; (2) The ways the participants kept their reproductive organs healthy were through maintaining friendships, maintaining personal hygiene, avoiding free sexual activity, eating healthy food, and having routine medical checkups; (3) Information support was gained from family, health workers, media, and teachers; (4) Emotional support from family and friends; (5) Barriers to maintaining good health were inaccessible health facilities and an underfunded health service; (6) The needs of the participants were reproductive health services and clean environment; (7) The participants hoped for health education and intensive health services with friendly nurses. The results of this research illustrate that there is a need for socializing intensive ways to maintain reproductive health, especially in a risky environment.
Conclusion: Endometriosis can cause severe disease even in adolescents and young females. Increased awareness among patients and healthcare providers would raise a higher index of suspicion for endometriosis in these women, with consequent early treatment which may result in better functional and fertility outcomes.
Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna
Objective: To assess the population prevalence and incidence of binge eating disorder (BED) among young women. Method: In a nationwide longitudinal study of Finnish twins born 1975-1979, the women participated in five surveys from age 16 until their mid-thirties. At Wave 4 (mean age 24 years), the
Brown, Kristin; Williams, Daniel B; Kinchen, Steve; Saito, Suzue; Radin, Elizabeth; Patel, Hetal; Low, Andrea; Delgado, Stephen; Mugurungi, Owen; Musuka, Godfrey; Tippett Barr, Beth A; Nwankwo-Igomu, E Amaka; Ruangtragool, Leala; Hakim, Avi J; Kalua, Thokozani; Nyirenda, Rose; Chipungu, Gertrude; Auld, Andrew; Kim, Evelyn; Payne, Danielle; Wadonda-Kabondo, Nellie; West, Christine; Brennan, Elizabeth; Deutsch, Beth; Worku, Anteneh; Jonnalagadda, Sasi; Mulenga, Lloyd B; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Barradas, Danielle T; Cai, Haotian; Gupta, Sundeep; Kamocha, Stanley; Riggs, Margaret A; Sachathep, Karampreet; Kirungi, Wilford; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Biraro, Sam; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Galbraith, Jennifer; Kiyingi, Herbert; Farahani, Mansoor; Hladik, Wolfgang; Nyangoma, Edith; Ginindza, Choice; Masangane, Zandile; Mhlanga, Fortune; Mnisi, Zandile; Munyaradzi, Pasipamire; Zwane, Amos; Burke, Sean; Kayigamba, Felix B; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Sahabo, Ruben; Ao, Trong T; Draghi, Chiara; Ryan, Caroline; Philip, Neena M; Mosha, Fausta; Mulokozi, Aroldia; Ntigiti, Phausta; Ramadhani, Angela A; Somi, Geoffrey R; Makafu, Cecilia; Mugisha, Veronicah; Zelothe, Julius; Lavilla, Kayla; Lowrance, David W; Mdodo, Rennatus; Gummerson, Elizabeth; Stupp, Paul; Thin, Kyaw; Frederix, Koen; Davia, Stefania; Schwitters, Amee M; McCracken, Stephen D; Duong, Yen T; Hoos, David; Parekh, Bharat; Justman, Jessica E; Voetsch, Andrew C
In 2016, an estimated 1.5 million females aged 15-24 years were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Eastern and Southern Africa, where the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (3.4%) is more than double that for males in the same age range (1.6%) (1). Progress was assessed toward the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2020 targets for adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa (90% of those with HIV infection aware of their status, 90% of HIV-infected persons aware of their status on antiretroviral treatment [ART], and 90% of those on treatment virally suppressed [HIV viral load girls and young women aged 15-24 years, the percentage who were aware of their status, and among those persons who were aware, the percentage who had achieved viral suppression were calculated. The target for viral suppression among all persons with HIV infection is 73% (the product of 90% x 90% x 90%). Among all seven countries, the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women was 3.6%; among those in this group, 46.3% reported being aware of their HIV-positive status, and 45.0% were virally suppressed. Sustained efforts by national HIV and public health programs to diagnose HIV infection in adolescent girls and young women as early as possible to ensure rapid initiation of ART should help achieve epidemic control among adolescent girls and young women.
This article builds on long-term anthropological fieldwork among young Muslim women in a social housing area in Copenhagen. It explores how morality, modesty, and gender- and generational relations become reconfigured in the ways in which young women use the Smartphone and social media to navigate their everyday lives. I focus on love and marriage, the imperatives of appearing cool among peers, and keeping the family’s honour intact through the display of virtuous behaviour. Building on Bourd...
Lawental, Maayan; Surratt, Hilary L; Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P
Young women who regularly attend nightclubs are at risk for numerous health and social consequences, including mental distress, sexual and physical victimization and substance dependence. This paper uses a biopsychosocial framework to examine co-occurring mental health problems, victimization, substance dependence, sexual risk and physical pain among a sample of young women who use drugs (N = 222) in Miami's club scene. The majority of women were under 24 years old, Hispanic, and identified as heterosexual. Almost all the women reported past 90-day use of alcohol, ecstasy/MDMA, marijuana, cocaine and prescription opioids and benzodiazepines; 32% of women reported being in a monogamous relationship while 41.9% reported having three or more sexual partners in the past 90 days; 65.3% met DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence; 60.4% met DSM-IV criteria for serious mental illness (SMI) and 59.9% were victimized as minors. Women who had SMI had higher odds of substance dependence, concurrent physical pain, three or more sexual partners in the past 90 days, childhood victimization and severe abuse-related trauma. The high levels of interconnected mental health, victimization, trauma, physical pain, substance dependence and sexual risk factors observed are underreported in the literature, as young women club scene participants appear to be more similar to other marginalized drug-involved populations than previously considered. While further research is needed, it appears these young women are in great need of outreach for primary health, mental health, HIV prevention, increased social support and substance abuse treatment services.
Abu-Hammad Osama A
Full Text Available Abstract Narghile smoking by young females is becoming more acceptable than cigarettes in the conservative societies of Arab countries. Lack of social constraints on narghile smoking has resulted in an increased prevalence of narghile smoking among young Arab females and an earlier age of onset of this habit when compared to cigarette smoking. Documented health hazards of narghile smoking including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neoplastic ailments are consequently expected to affect this vulnerable sector of the population together with their offspring. In this commentary, we shed some light on the changing trend of tobacco use among young Arabic women as shown by an increasing number of studies investigating habits of tobacco use in young people.
Salehi, Asiyeh; Harris, Neil; Sebar, Bernadette; Coyne, Elisabeth
There has been increasing interest in understanding the influence of the living environment on individual and population health. While our understanding of the connection is growing, there has been limited published research focusing on socially and economically transitioning countries such as Iran or specific populations such as young women. This study explores the relationship between the physical and social living environment with well-being outcomes and lifestyle behaviours of young women in Shiraz, Iran, in 2013. Using a cluster convenience sampling technique, 391 young Iranian women with the mean age of 27.3 (SD: 4.8) participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate 93%). A scale adapted from the British General Household Social Capital scale was used to assess living environment characteristics. The International Health and Behaviour survey, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SwL) and WHO Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to measure lifestyle behaviours and well-being. The findings showed a moderate level of satisfaction with participants' living environment, with a mean score of 38.5 (SD: 7.7; score range: 11-45). There were correlations between physical and social neighbourhood environment, lifestyle behaviours and well-being outcomes (P psychological, social and environmental QoL, as well as SwL (P < 0.05). Perceptions of individuals about their living environment issues were associated with demographic variables including ethnicity, income, level of education and occupation status. The current study shows how characteristics of the physical and social living environments play a significant role in shaping well-being and lifestyle behaviours among young Iranian women. Hence, there is a need for more focused attention to the meaning, measurement and building of neighbourhood livability, including both physical and social aspects of neighbourhood, in order to support QoL and SwL among young Iranian women, and enhance their healthy
Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A
Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.
Pettifor, Audrey; Macphail, Catherine; Anderson, Althea D; Maman, Suzanne
Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. We found that the majority of young women reported expectations of power in relationships that conform to a model of femininity marked by financial independence, freedom to make decisions, including over sexuality, and equality (resistant femininity). The majority of young women, however, were in relationships marked by intimate partner violence, infidelity or lack of condom use. In spite of this, more young women who subscribed to a resistant model of femininity were in less risky relationships than young women who subscribed to acquiescent models, in which power was vested in their male partners. Further, young women who subscribed to resistant femininity had more education than women who subscribed to an acquiescent model. The disconnect between expectations of relationships and young women's lived realities emphasises the need for structural changes that afford women greater economic and thus decision making power.
Adler, Marina A.
Using evidence from demographic and survey data, this research examines how one decade of post-socialism has changed the life planning of young East German women. Aggregate data reflect marriage and fertility postponement and increased nonmarital birth rates and cohabitation. The analysis shows East German women's stubbornness (Dolling, 2003) in…
Irvine, Linda; Crombie, Iain K; Swanson, Vivien; Dimova, Elena D; Melson, Ambrose J; Fraser, Tracey M; Barbour, Rosaline; Rice, Peter M; Allan, Sheila
Young women frequently drink alcohol in groups and binge drinking within these natural drinking groups is common. This study describes the design of a theoretically and empirically based group intervention to reduce binge drinking among young women. It also evaluates their engagement with the intervention and the acceptability of the study methods. Friendship groups of women aged 18-35 years, who had two or more episodes of binge drinking (>6 UK units on one occasion; 48g of alcohol) in the previous 30 days, were recruited from the community. A face-to-face group intervention, based on the Health Action Process Approach, was delivered over three sessions. Components of the intervention were woven around fun activities, such as making alcohol free cocktails. Women were followed up four months after the intervention was delivered. The target of 24 groups (comprising 97 women) was recruited. The common pattern of drinking was infrequent, heavy drinking (mean consumption on the heaviest drinking day was UK 18.1 units). Process evaluation revealed that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity and acceptability of the study methods was high. The women engaged positively with intervention components and made group decisions about cutting down. Twenty two groups set goals to reduce their drinking, and these were translated into action plans. Retention of individuals at follow up was 87%. This study successfully recruited groups of young women whose patterns of drinking place them at high risk of acute harm. This novel approach to delivering an alcohol intervention has potential to reduce binge drinking among young women. The high levels of engagement with key steps in the behavior change process suggests that the group intervention should be tested in a full randomised controlled trial.
Szuszkiewicz-Garcia, Magdalene; Li, Rong; Grundy, Scott M; Abate, Nicola; Chandalia, Manisha
Although Asian Indian (people of Indian subcontinent descent) men are shown to have higher total and truncal body fat as well as greater insulin resistance compared to white men matched for total body fat and age, data in women are not conclusive. The objective of this study was to compare total and regional fat distribution and insulin sensitivity between healthy young premenopausal Asian Indian and white women of similar body mass index (BMI). Twenty Asian Indian women (65% immigrants and 35% first generation living in Dallas) and 31 white women of similar age and BMI [age 24±3 vs. 25±4; BMI 22±4 vs. 23±5; mean±standard deviation (SD) in Asian Indian and white, respectively] without diabetes were evaluated with anthropometric measurements, underwater weighing for percentage of total body fat mass, magnetic resonance imaging of whole abdomen for measurement of abdominal subcutaneous and intraperitoneal fat mass, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study for measurement of insulin sensitivity. There were no differences in waist or hip circumference, total body subcutaneous abdominal or intraperitoneal fat mass, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin levels between Asian Indian women and white women. The peripheral glucose disposal rate (Rd) during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was found to be almost identical in the two study groups (median value of 6.9 and 6.8 mg/min per kg of body weight, for Asian Indians and whites, respectively). For similar total or regional fat content, the glucose disposal rate was comparable in the two study groups. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young Asian Indian women do not have excess abdominal or intraperitoneal fat or insulin resistance for similar BMI compared to white women of European descent.
Schaumberg, Mia A; Emmerton, Lynne M; Jenkins, David G; Burton, Nicola W; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K; Skinner, Tina L
Menstruation and menstrual symptoms are commonly cited barriers to physical activity in women. The delay or avoidance of menstruation through extended oral-contraceptive (OC) regimens may mitigate these barriers, yet information on menstrual-manipulation practices in young physically active women is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of, and reasons for, menstrual manipulation with OCs in recreationally and competitively active women. One hundred ninety-one recreationally active (self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity 150-300 min/wk) women (age 23 ± 5 y), 160 subelite recreationally active (self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity >300 min/wk) women (age 23 ± 5 y), and 108 competitive (state-, national- or international-level) female athletes (age 23 ± 4 y) completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing OC-regimen habits and reasons for manipulation of menstruation. The majority (74%) of OC users reported having deliberately manipulated menstruation at least once during the previous year, with 29% reporting having done so at least 4 times. Prevalence of menstrual manipulation (at least once in the previous year) was not different between competitive athletes, subelite recreationally active women, and recreationally active women (77% vs 74% vs 72%; P > .05). The most cited reasons for manipulating menstruation were special events or holidays (rated by 75% as important/very important), convenience (54%), and sport competition (54%). Menstrual manipulation through extended OC regimens is common practice in recreationally and competitively active young women, for a range of reasons relating to convenience that are not limited to physical activity. This strategy may help reduce hormone-related barriers to exercise participation, thereby positively affecting participation and performance.
Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S
Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ali, Mohamed M; Cleland, John; Shah, Iqbal H
Using "calendar" data for single women aged 15-24 from successive Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Colombia and Peru during the 1990s, we document trends, year by year, in sexual activity, the use of contraceptives, and subsequent reproductive outcomes. We provide evidence of the important and hitherto largely untapped potential of DHS calendar data to draw complete sexual and reproductive profiles when data from various surveys are integrated. Over the period 1985-1999, young single women in both Colombia and Peru became sexually active at younger ages. The use of contraceptives, especially the use of condoms, increased but did not fully offset the rise in sexual activity, and thus the incidence of premarital conceptions rose among young single women. In both countries, sharp declines occurred in the proportion of premaritally conceived births that were reported as being wanted.
Cowley, Patrick M; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Sottung, Kyle; Swensen, Thomas
First we tested the reliability of two new field tests of core stability (plank to fatigue test [PFT] and front abdominal power test [FAPT]), as well as established measures of core stability (isokinetic trunk extension and flexion strength [TES and TFS] and work [TEW and TFW]) over 3 days in 8 young men and women (24.0 +/- 3.1 years). The TES, TFS, TFW, and FAPT were highly reliable, TEW was moderately reliable, and PFT were unreliable for use during a single testing session. Next, we determined if age, weight, and the data from the reliable field test (FAPT) were predictive of TES, TEW, TFS, and TFW in 50 young men and women (19.0 +/- 1.2 years). The FAPT was the only significant predictor of TES and TEW in young women, explaining 16 and 15% of the variance in trunk performance, respectively. Weight was the only significant predictor of TFS and TFW in young women, explaining 28 and 14% of the variance in trunk performance, respectively. In young men, weight was the only significant predictor of TES, TEW, TFS, and TFW, and explained 27, 35, 42, and 33%, respectively, of the variance in trunk performance. In conclusion, the ability of weight and the FAPT to predict TES, TEW, TFS, and TFW was more frequent in young men than women. Additionally, because the FAPT requires few pieces of equipment, is fast to administer, and predicts isokinetic TES and TEW in young women, it can be used to provide a field-based estimate of isokinetic TES and TEW in women without history of back or lower-extremity injury.
Alice W Clark; T V Sekher
A Partial reversal of the culture of female devaluation is currently emerging among young women from the urban middle class employed in India’s high-tech sector. India has a very large middle class – estimated as more than 200 million – making it a significant and crucial segment that can act as a harbinger for social change. Studies on employment in the IT sector in India have not adequately considered the important social impacts of this new development on the culture of daughter devaluatio...
Full Text Available as other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and answered a behavioural questionnaire. The age-prevalence of HIV infection differs between men and women with considerably higher rates of increase with age among young women. The age of sexual debut did...
Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn L; Warvadekar, Janardan; Aich, Paramita; Rawat, Amit; Upadhyay, Bimla
Young, rural Indian women lack sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and agency and are at risk of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Youth-focused interventions have been shown to improve agency and self-efficacy of young women to make decisions regarding their sexual and reproductive health. The objectives of this study were to assess young women's sexual and reproductive health knowledge; describe their health-seeking behaviors; describe young women's experiences with sexual and reproductive health issues, including unwanted pregnancy and abortion; and identify sources of information, including media sources. A cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of 1381 married and unmarried women young women (15-24 years) from three rural community development blocks in Jharkhand, India was conducted in 2012. Participants were asked a series of questions related to their SRH knowledge and behavior, as well as questions related to their agency in several domains related to self-efficacy and decision-making. Linear regression was used to assess factors associated with greater or less individual agency and to determine differences in SRH knowledge and behavior between married and unmarried women. Despite national policies, participants married young (mean 15.7 years) and bore children early (53 % with first birth by 17 years). Women achieved low composite scores on knowledge around sex and pregnancy, contraception, and abortion knowledge. Around 3 % of married young women reported experiencing induced abortion; 92 % of these women used private or illegal providers. Married and unmarried women also had limited agency in decision-making, freedom of mobility, self-efficacy, and financial resources. Most of the women in the sample received SRH information by word of mouth. Lack of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health in this context indicates that young rural Indian women would benefit from a youth-friendly SRH intervention to
Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N.
Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and…
Kayeyi, Nkomba; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Fylkesnes, Knut
Investigations of the association between socio-economic position indicators and HIV in East, Central and Southern Africa have chiefly focused on factors that pertain to individual-level characteristics. This study investigated the effect of neighbourhood educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in selected urban and rural areas in Zambia. This study re-analysed data from a cross-sectional population survey conducted in Zambia in 2003. The analyses were restricted to women aged 15-24 years (n = 1295). Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A measure for neighbourhood-level educational attainment was constructed by aggregating individual-level years-in-school. Multi-level mixed effects regression models were run to examine the neighbourhood-level educational effect on HIV prevalence after adjusting for individual-level underlying variables (education, currently a student, marital status) and selected proximate determinants (ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years was 12.5% in the urban and 6.8% in the rural clusters. Neighbourhood educational attainment was found to be a strong determinant of HIV infection in both urban and rural population, i.e. HIV prevalence decreased substantially by increasing level of neighbourhood education. The likelihood of infection in low vs. high educational attainment of neighbourhoods was 3.4 times among rural women and 1.8 times higher among the urban women after adjusting for age and other individual-level underlying variables, including education. However, the association was not significant for urban young women after this adjustment. After adjusting for level of education in the neighbourhood, the effect of the individual-level education differed by residence, i.e. a strong protective effect among urban women whereas tending to be a risk factor among rural women. The findings suggested structural
Full Text Available Abstract Background A majority of women from all cultures and socioeconomic levels experience diverse psychosomatic and behavioral symptoms premenstrually, a phenomenon commonly termed premenstrual syndrome, although symptoms and discomfort levels vary from woman to woman. The underlying pathological mechanisms of premenstrual syndrome remain unknown; however, altered function or even slight disorder of the blood circulation system, which contributes to the orchestrations of the human internal environment, could cause bio-psychological changes leading to complaints and ultimately compromising a woman's overall health. The present study, therefore, investigates to what extent and how the menstrual cyclicity of peripheral circulation is associated with premenstrual symptomatology. Methods Twenty-one eumenorrheic young women participated in this study. All subjects were investigated during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Peripheral circulation was evaluated with the Astrim (Sysmex, Kobe, a portable non-invasive monitoring device using the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy, which calculates the venous oxygenation index (VOI based on the ratio of light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, a proven reliable indicator of peripheral blood circulation. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was applied to measure physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects. Results The oral temperature and urinary ovarian hormones adjusted for creatinine significantly increased in the late luteal phase in all subjects. While 10 subjects experienced no symptoms during the menstrual cycle, 11 subjects had apparent physical and psychological discomfort in the late luteal phase. We found that VOI
Rebecca L. Cook
Full Text Available Limited research addresses links between obesity and cognitive function in young adults. Objective. To investigate the relationship between obesity and cognitive function in young women. Methods. This cross-sectional study recruited healthy, young (18–35 y women of normal (NW: BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg·m−2 or obese (OB: BMI ≥ 30.0 kg·m−2 weight. Participants completed a validated, computer-based cognitive testing battery evaluating impulsivity, attention, information processing, memory, and executive function. Questionnaires on depression and physical activity and a fasting blood sample for C-reactive protein and the Omega-3 Index were also collected. Cognition data are presented as z-scores (mean ± SD, and group comparisons were assessed via ANOVA. Potential confounding from questionnaire and blood variables were evaluated using ANCOVA. Results. 299 women (NW: n = 157; OB: n = 142 aged 25.8 ± 5.1 y were enrolled. Cognition scores were within normal range (±1 z-score, but OB had lower attention (NW: 0.31 ± 1.38; OB: −0.25 ± 1.39; ES: 0.41, CI: 0.17–0.64; p<0.001 and higher impulsivity (NW: 0.36 ± 1.14; OB: −0.07 ± 1.07; ES: 0.39, CI: 0.15–0.62; p=0.033. Confounder adjustment had minimal impact on results. Conclusion. The OB group had normal but significantly lower performance on attention and were more impulsive compared to NW participants. This may indicate early cognitive decline, but longitudinal research confirming these findings is warranted.
Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A
African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.
Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; Twisk, Jos W R; Singh, Amika S; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Mechelen, Willem; Brown, Wendy J
Sitting is associated with health risks. Factors that influence sitting are however not well understood. The aim was to examine the biological, socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle determinants of sitting time (including during transport, work and leisure) in young adult Australian women. Self-reported data from 11,676 participants (aged 22-27 years in 2000) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were collected over 9 years in 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009. Generalised Estimating Equations were used to examine univariable and multivariable associations of body mass index (BMI), country of birth, area of residence, education, marital status, number of children, occupational status, working hours, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake and stress with week- and weekend-day sitting time. Compared with women in the respective referent categories, (1) women with higher BMI, those born in Asia, those with less than University level education, doing white collar work, working 41-48 hours a week, current smokers, non, rare or risky/high risk drinkers and those being somewhat stressed had significantly higher sitting time; and (2) women living in rural and remote areas, partnered women, those with children, those without a paid job and blue collar workers, those working less than 34 hours a week, and active women had significantly lower sitting time. Among young adult Australian women, those with higher BMI, those born in Asia, those with higher level occupations and long working hours, were most at risk of higher sitting time. These results can be used to identify at-risk groups and inform intervention development.
Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela M; Pinzón-Rondón, Ángela M
To compare sexual behaviors and risk perception between young women vaccinated for HPV and unvaccinated Colombian women. In a cross-sectional design study, 1436 women (231 adolescents, Sexual risk behaviors were not associated with vaccination after adjustment for risk perception, age, educational level, and HPV knowledge. By contrast, vaccination was associated with higher routine Pap smear screening (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-3.28), use of modern contraceptives (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.22), and consistent use of condoms (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.11-2.01). Vaccinated young women were more likely to have had sex (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.56-2.78), but sexual debut among adolescents was not associated with vaccination. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, vaccination status was negatively associated with perceived risk of HPV infection, warts, and cervical cancer. There was no association between vaccination and perceived risk of sexually transmitted infections in any model. No association was found between changes in risk perception after HPV vaccination and sexual risk behaviors. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tyler, Crystal P; Whiteman, Maura K; Kraft, Joan Marie; Zapata, Lauren B; Hillis, Susan D; Curtis, Kathryn M; Anderson, John; Pazol, Karen; Marchbanks, Polly A
To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with dual method use (i.e., condom with hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device) among adolescents and young women in the United States. We used 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth data from 2,093 unmarried females aged 15-24 years and at risk for unintended pregnancy. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the associations between dual method use at last sex and sociodemographic, behavioral, reproductive history, and sexual behavior factors. At last sex, 20.7% of adolescents and young women used dual methods, 34.4% used condoms alone, 29.1% used hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device alone, and 15.8% used another method or no method. Factors associated with decreased odds of dual method use versus dual method nonuse included having a previous pregnancy (aOR = .44, 95% CI .27-.69), not having health insurance coverage over the past 12 months (aOR = .41, 95% CI .19-.91), and having sex prior to age 16 (aOR = .49, 95% CI .30-.78). The prevalence of dual method use is low among adolescents and young women. Adolescents and young women who may have a higher risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (e.g., those with a previous pregnancy) were less likely to use dual methods at last sex. Interventions are needed to increase the correct and consistent use of dual methods among adolescents and young women who may be at greater risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Published by Elsevier Inc.
AlGhamdi, Kholoud S; AlSheikh Mona H
To determine the effect of physical and mental stressors on pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pressure pain tolerance (PTOL) values, and to compare these different types of stressors on its ability to affect PPT and PTOL values in young women. We also correlated body mass index (BMI) with PPT and PTOL in young women.This was a self-controlled study carried out on 79 second-year female medical students in the Department of Physiology, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the year 2007. The students were assessed before, and after they were subjected to a mental (exam), and 2 physical stressors. Measurements of PPT and PTOL were carried out using a pressure algometer. The 2 physical stressors used were: cold water immersion and isometric exercise (ISO EX) with a dynamometer. Students' body mass indices were measured in addition to the measurement of blood pressure and heart rate for each student before, and after exposure to the stressors. All 3 stressors significantly increased the PPT values (p=0.000). The PTOL was also significantly increased immediately after exposure to the physical stressors (p=0.000), while for the mental stressor, the PTOL readings were not significantly increased. Among the 3 types of stressors, the cold water immersion was the most effective in increasing PPT and PTOL. Moreover, a significant (p=0.009) negative correlation was demonstrated between the BMI and PTOL readings. Various types of physical and mental stressors significantly increased PPT and PTOL readings in young female adults, in addition to the significant findings that students with higher body mass indices tolerated pain less. (author)
Kok, Jin Kuan; Li, Ming-Chin
This study investigates and presents the narratives of Taiwanese women who have reached the young-old stage. The narrative interview method was used for data collection from 12 Taiwanese women. After analysing the recurring themes emerging from the women's life histories, it is found that the meanings of these Taiwanese women's narratives could not be finalised according to traditional Confucian norms. These women rebelled, resisted, and resumed authorship to make changes to their lives in a patriarchal society. The women were reflexive, and had constant struggles. The findings also reveal a prominent characteristic of Taiwanese culture that emphasises relationships. The women were able to pursue their dreams to involve themselves in self-care, leisure, aesthetic activities, and classes for their personal growth and pleasure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate of Uttar Pradesh is 2.7 with annual growth rate of 16.5. Age specific marital fertility rate (ASMFR in Uttar Pradesh is highest in the age group of 20-24 years (383.9 followed by 15-19 years (271.0 age group. Use of contraceptives is also very low in this most productive age group. Among the Young married women in the age group of 15-24 years the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR is only 27.75% which is quite low than the target CPR of 60%. State level data presents a grim picture of contraceptive use in the slum areas in comparison to non-slum areas. This slum population is the most vulnerable section of our society. Aims & Objectives: i To assess the prevalence of non-use of contraceptives among young married women living in urban slums. ii To understand the reasons for non-use of contraceptives among young married women. iii To explore the factors influencing non-use of contraceptive among young married women. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the urban slums of Lucknow. Out of the eight Nagar-Nigam zones in Lucknow, one Urban-Primary Health Centre was selected randomly from each zone. From each Urban- Primary Health Centre, 2 slums were selected randomly. In selected slum, all the households were visited until at least 33 young married women (15-24 years were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to obtain the desired sample size of 535. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results: Current use of contraceptives was found to be 33.8 % and almost two-thirds (66.2% of the participants were not using any form of contraceptive method. The important reasons for non-use of contraception were embarrassment / hesitancy / shyness regarding family planning, lack of knowledge about the contraceptive method or place of availability of services, opposition to contraceptive use by husband or family members and women’s desire to get pregnant. About one third of the women had no
Full Text Available Young women from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC families face a series of medical decisions regarding their cancer risk management and integrating this information into their life planning. This presents unique medical and psychosocial challenges that exist without comprehensive intervention. To help lay the groundwork for intervention, we conducted a qualitative study among young women from HBOC families (N = 12; Mean age = 22 and cancer genetic counselors (N = 12 to explicate domains most critical to caring for this population. Women and counselors were interviewed by telephone. The predominant interview themes included preventative care planning and risk management, decision making around the pros and cons of cancer risk assessment, medical management, and psychosocial stresses experienced. Young women endorsed psychosocial stress significantly more frequently than did counselors. Both groups noted the short- and long-term decision making challenges and the support and conflict engendered among familial relationships. Our results suggest young women value the support they receive from their families and their genetic counselors, but additional, external supports are needed to facilitate adaptation to HBOC risk. In feedback interviews focused on intervention planning with a subset of these young women (N = 9, they endorsed the predominant interview themes discovered as important intervention content, a structure that would balance discussion of medical information and psychosocial skill-building that could be tailored to the young women’s needs, and delivery by trained peers familiar with HBOC risk.
Gillette, Shana Cecile
In communications, a new approach to the study of online interaction has been suggested by social network analysts. Garton, Haythornthwaite, and Wellman (1997) have outlined the importance of using network analysis to study how media are interconnected with other social aspects of a media user's world. As applied here, this approach to communication when combined with recent network studies from the fields of education and rural development, provides a method for looking at the role of Internet-facilitated ties in the development of resource networks in the learning communities of young women from seven rural schools across the state of Washington. Twenty-six young women (ages 14-16) from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds (approximately half of the participants are Hispanic or Native American, the other half are White) participated in the research. Participants were selected because they shared a common educational orientation through Rural Girls in Science, a NSF-funded program at the Northwest Center for Research on Women at the University of Washington. As part of the school-based component of the Rural Girls in Science program, all 26 participants designed and conducted year-long, community-based research projects in science. Each school in the program was provided an Internet workstation for communication and research. Through the Internet, students could conceivably maintain distant ties with mentors and research scientists whom they met at summer camp as well as seek additional information resources. Toward the conclusion of the long-term research projects, each student participant was interviewed using a participatory form of network analysis that included a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Given the small number of participants and schools in the sample, the results from the analysis can not be generalized to a larger population. However the study of the structure and composition of networks among individuals and school groups provided
Wang, Yu-Jen; Wang, Yi-Zen; Yeh, Mei-Ling
Numerous studies have demonstrated autonomic abnormalities in various pain conditions. However, few have investigated heart rate variability (HRV) in young women with primary dysmenorrhea, and the conclusions have been inconsistent. More evidence is required to confirm the reported trend for consistent fluctuation of HRV parameters in dysmenorrhea. The study's aim was to determine whether significant differences exist between young women with and without dysmenorrhea for heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and HRV parameters during menses. A prospective comparison design with repeated measures was used. Sixty-six women aged 18-25 with dysmenorrhea and 54 eumenorrheic women were recruited from a university in northern Taiwan. High-frequency and low-frequency HRV parameters (HF and LF), LF/HF ratio, BP, and HR were measured daily between 8 p.m. and 10 p.m. from Day 1 to Day 6 during menses. The generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the effects of group, time, and Group × Time interaction on these variables. HF values were significantly lower in the dysmenorrhea than in the eumenorrhea group, but there were no differences in BP, HR, LF, or LF/HF ratio. Reduced HF values reflect reduced parasympathetic activity and autonomic instability in young women with dysmenorrhea. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to examine autonomic regulation in menstrual pain of varying intensities associated with dysmenorrhea-related symptoms and to clarify the causal relationship between dysmenorrhea and HRV fluctuations. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Background: Serum tumor markers are widely used for the preoperative evaluation of an adnexal mass. Elevations of cancer antigen (CA 125 and CA 19-9 have been reported in patients with mature cystic teratoma (MCT. The aim of the study is to investigate the relation of serum tumor markers with tumor characteristics in young women with MCT. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 157 patients under the age of 35 who underwent laparoscopic surgery for ovarian MCT. Patients were divided into two age groups: Group I (n = 80: adolescents/young adults (aged 13–25 years and Group II (n = 77: women aged 26–35 years. Data were analyzed for serum tumor markers, tumor size, and bilaterality. Results: The rates of elevated CA 125 and CA 19-9 were 10.7% and 31.5%, respectively, for Group I, and 13.9% and 26.5%, respectively, for Group II. The bilaterality rate was higher in Group II compared to Group I (19.5% vs. 8.8%, respectively, p = 0.04. Serum CA 125 and CA 19-9 elevations were not related to tumor size in Group I. In Group II, elevated levels of CA 125 were also unrelated to tumor size. However, significant elevation in CA 19-9 levels was observed when tumor size was larger than 4 cm in this age group (p = 0.004. Elevated CA 125 and CA 19-9 levels were not significantly associated with the presence of bilateral MCT in either group. Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that elevations of CA 19-9 are associated with larger tumor size in women aged 26–35 years, but not in adolescents/young adults. However, elevated serum CA 125 levels are not related to tumor size in either age group. Keywords: Adolescents, Mature cystic teratoma, Tumor marker, Tumor size, Young women
Single view mammography may be a less time consuming, more comfortable and radiation reduced alternative for young women, but there are no studies examining this approach after the implementation of digital mammography into clinical practice. Retrospective analysis of all mammographies performed in women younger than 40 years during a 24 month period. The sample consisted of 109 women with 212 examined breasts. All patients initially received standard two- view mammography. In the study setting the MLO- views were read by a single viewer and compared to a composite reference standard. In this sample 7 malignant findings were present and the review of the MLO-view detected 6 of them (85%). In patients with dense breasts 4 out of 5 malignant findings were found on the single-view (sensitivity 80%) and all 2 malignant findings were detected in patients with low breast density (sensitivity 100%). There were 7 false positive findings (3.3%). i.e. in total 8 out of 212 examined breasts were therefore misinterpreted (3.8%). Single view digital mammography detects the vast majority of malignant findings, especially in low density breast tissue and the rate of false-positive findings is within acceptable limits. Therefore this approach may be used in different scenarios (for example in increasing patient throughout in resource poor settings, reducing radiation burden in the young or in combination with ultrasound to use the strengths of both methods). More research on this topic is needed to establish its potential role in breast imaging.
Almeida Bentes, Aline; Comini César, Cibele; Coelho Xavier, César; Teixeira Caiaffa, Waleska; Proietti, Fernando Augusto
Self-rated health (SRH) is the general perception of an individual's own health and a key indicator to measure health in population-based studies. Few studies have examined the association between perceived urban violence and SRH among young adults. There were an estimated 475,000 deaths in 2012 as a result of homicide on the world. Sixty percent of these deaths occurred among males aged 15-44 years, making homicide the third leading cause of death for this population group. This study aimed to determine and quantify the association between sex-specific perception of violence in the neighborhood and SRH among young adults. Participants included 955 young adults (18-29 years) residing in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil between 2008 and 2009. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the strength of the associations. The perceived urban violence score was constructed from variables that assessed the respondents' insecurity and perception of fear and danger of suffering some form of violence in the neighborhood using exploratory factor analysis. 18,3% of respondents rated their health as fair/ poor/very poor. Among women, fair/ poor/very poor SRH was associated with age between 25 and 29 years, low socioeconomic status score, being dissatisfied with weight, not exercising regularly, not having a healthy diet, and having some chronic disease. Men who rated their health as fair/poor/very poor more frequently smoked, were dissatisfied with their weight, did not exercise regularly, consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, and had some chronic disease compared to men who rated their health as very good/good. In the final model, after adjusting for confounding variables, perceived violence in the neighborhood was associated with poor SRH in young women only (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.04-2.21). The results indicate that public and health policies should implement interventions on the neighborhood physical and social environment to improve the perception of safety
Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…
Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina
Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…
Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Kumsta, Robert; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Wüst, Stefan
The aim of the present study was to examine the association between prenatal psychosocial stress exposure and subsequent prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory performance in human adults. Working memory performance was assessed using an item-recognition task under 10 mg hydrocortisone (cortisol) and placebo conditions in a sample of 32 healthy young women (mean age = 25 +/- 4.34 years) whose mothers experienced a major negative life event during their pregnancy (Prenatal Stress, PS group), and in a comparison group of 27 healthy young women (mean age = 24 +/- 3.4 years). The two groups did not differ in the placebo condition, however, subjects in the PS group showed longer reaction times after hydrocortisone administration compared with subjects in the comparison group (p = .02). These findings provide support for an association between prenatal stress exposure and the potential modulatory effect of cortisol on working memory performance in young adults, which may reflect compromised development of the prefrontal cortex in prenatal life. 2009 APA, all rights reserved
Laan, Ellen; Martoredjo, Daphne K; Hesselink, Sara; Snijders, Nóinín; van Lunsen, Rik H W
Many women have doubts about the normality of the physical appearance of their vulvas. This study measured genital self-image in a convenience sample of college-educated women, and assessed whether exposure to pictures of natural vulvas influenced their genital self-image. Forty-three women were either shown pictures of natural vulvas (N = 29) or pictures of neutral objects (N = 14). Genital self-image was measured before and after exposure to the pictures and two weeks later. Sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety were measured to investigate whether these factors influenced genital self-image scores after vulva picture exposure. A majority of the participants felt generally positively about their genitals. Having been exposed to pictures of natural vulvas resulted in an even more positive genital self-image, irrespective of levels of sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety. In the women who had seen the vulva pictures, the positive effect on genital self-image was still present after two weeks. The results of this study seem to indicate that even in young women with a relatively positive genital self-image, exposure to pictures of a large variety of natural vulvas positively affects genital self-image. This finding may suggest that exposure to pictures of natural vulvas may also lead to a more positive genital self-image in women who consider labiaplasty.
Melinda J. Hutchesson
Full Text Available Young women are gaining weight rapidly. Evidence for effective weight loss interventions targeting young women is lacking. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and acceptability of a six-month targeted and tailored eHealth weight loss program for young women (Be Positive Be Healthe (BPBH. Women aged 18–35 years were randomized to BPBH (n = 29 or control (n = 28. BPBH supported participants to modify diet and physical activity behaviours using evidenced-based strategies (e.g., self-monitoring tailored for young women and delivered using e-health (website, social media, smartphone application, email, text messages. The primary outcome was a change in weight (kg at six months. Acceptability was assessed via a process evaluation survey and usage of intervention components. No significant between-group differences were observed for weight, with significant mean differences favouring the intervention group observed for body fat (kg (−3.10 (−5.69, 0.52, p = 0.019 and intakes of alcohol (g (−0.69 (−1.33, 0.04, p = 0.037, vegetables (% energy/day (4.71 (−2.20, 7.22, p < 0.001 and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods (% energy/day (−9.23 (−16.94, 1.52, p = 0.018. Retention, intervention usage and satisfaction were moderate. BPBH facilitated positive improvements in body fat and dietary intake, but not weight. Intervention acceptability findings support the use of some intervention components (e.g., Facebook, Smartphone app with young women.
Chinekwu A. Obidoa
Full Text Available The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.
Chomistek, Andrea K; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Eliassen, A Heather; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B
Overall mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States have declined in recent decades, but the rate has plateaued among younger women. The potential for further reductions in mortality rates among young women through changes in lifestyle is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of CHD cases and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among young women that might be attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. A prospective analysis was conducted among 88,940 women ages 27 to 44 years at baseline in the Nurses' Health Study II who were followed from 1991 to 2011. Lifestyle factors were updated repeatedly by questionnaire. A healthy lifestyle was defined as not smoking, a normal body mass index, physical activity ≥ 2.5 h/week, television viewing ≤ 7 h/week, diet in the top 40% of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, and 0.1 to 14.9 g/day of alcohol. To estimate the proportion of CHD and clinical CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) that could be attributed to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle, we calculated the population-attributable risk percent. During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 456 incident CHD cases. In multivariable-adjusted models, nonsmoking, a healthy body mass index, exercise, and a healthy diet were independently and significantly associated with lower CHD risk. Compared with women with no healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio for CHD for women with 6 lifestyle factors was 0.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.22). Approximately 73% (95% confidence interval: 39% to 89%) of CHD cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Similarly, 46% (95% confidence interval: 43% to 49%) of clinical CVD risk factor cases were attributable to a poor lifestyle. Primordial prevention through maintenance of a healthy lifestyle among young women may substantially lower the burden of CVD. Copyright © 2015 American College
Lambertini, Matteo; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Partridge, Ann H
The purpose of the article is to review the available options for fertility preservation in patients with breast and ovarian cancer, and the special issues faced by BRCA mutation carriers. Future fertility is an important consideration for many young patients with cancer. There are both experimental and standard available strategies for patients with breast and ovarian cancer to preserve fertility, and each has potential advantages and disadvantages. Embryo cryopreservation is widely available with a highly successful track record. Improvements in laboratory techniques have led to oocyte cryopreservation recently being recategorized as nonexperimental. Conservative gynecologic surgery is a standard consideration for patients with stage I ovarian cancer who desire future fertility. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation as well as ovarian suppression with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs during chemotherapy are considered experimental methods at this time, although recent data suggest both safety and efficacy for the use of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs in women receiving (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Special issues should be considered for women with BRCA mutations because of the need to undergo preventive surgery at young age. Multidisciplinary teams and well functioning relationships between the oncology and reproductive units are crucial to manage the fertility issues of young women with cancer.
'It's because I like things… it's a status and he buys me airtime': exploring the role of transactional sex in young women's consumption patterns in rural South Africa (secondary findings from HPTN 068).
Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; MacPhail, Catherine; Stöckl, Heidi; Silverwood, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Selin, Amanda; Xavier Gómez-Olivé, F; Watts, Charlotte; Pettifor, Audrey
'Transactional sex', defined as a non-marital, non-commercial sexual relationship in which money or material goods are exchanged for sex, is associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV infection. Existing research illustrates that the motivations for transactional sex are complex. The fulfilment of psycho-social needs such as the need to belong to a peer group are important factors underlying young women's desires to obtain certain consumption items and thus engage in transactional sex. We use a mixed-methods approach to explore the relationship between transactional sex and consumption patterns among young women in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. In the secondary analysis of 693 sexually active young women, we use factor analysis to group the different consumption items and we use multivariable logistic regression to demonstrate the relationship between transactional sex and consumption patterns. The qualitative study uses five focus group discussions and 19 in-depth interviews to explore further young women's motivations for acquiring different consumption items. The quantitative results show that young women that engage in transactional sex have higher odds of consuming items for entertainment (e.g., movie tickets) than on practical items (e.g., food and groceries). The qualitative findings also revealed that young women's perceptions of items that were considered a 'need' were strongly influenced by peer pressure and a desire for improved status. Further, there was a perception that emerged from the qualitative data that relationships with sugar daddies offered a way to acquire consumer goods associated with a 'modern lifestyle', such as items for personal enhancement and entertainment. However, young women seem aware of the risks associated with such relationships. More importantly, they also develop relationship with partners of similar age, albeit with the continued expectation of material exchange, despite engaging in the
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) Cancellation: This notice was published in the Federal..., Ph.D., Designated Federal Official, Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control...
Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A
Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Dakanalis, Antonios; Clerici, Massimo; Bartoli, Francesco; Caslini, Manuela; Crocamo, Cristina; Riva, Giuseppe; Carrà, Giuseppe
Recent research with young women attending colleges, who are at the average age of eating disorder (ED) onset, established that the ED symptoms are not only prevalent but also relatively stable over the college period. Nonetheless, our knowledge regarding the course and modifiable factors associated with both the onset and maintenance of diagnosable (DSM-5) EDs in this population is limited. The objective of this report was to address these key research gaps. Data were examined from 2713 women who completed assessments of potential vulnerability factors and EDs in the autumn semester of the first (baseline) and fourth (follow-up) college years. A total of 13.1% of the sample met DSM-5 criteria for an ED diagnosis at baseline. At 4-year follow-up, 7.6% of the sample met DSM-5 criteria for an ED, with 67.5% of these cases representing women who had maintained an ED diagnosis from baseline, and 32.5% representing new onset EDs. Elevated appearance-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, dieting, and negative affectivity at baseline as well as changes in these factors between assessments all predicted onset and maintenance of DSM-5 EDs at 4-year follow-up. Self-objectification (thinking about and monitoring the body's appearance from an external observer's perspective) was the largest contributor to both ED onset and maintenance. In addition to enhancing our knowledge about the course of young women's (DSM-5) EDs during college, this work highlights potentially similar psychological foci for prevention and treatment efforts. Implications for improving existing preventive and treatment approaches are outlined.
Rickert, Vaughn I; Sanghvi, Rupal; Wiemann, Constance M
Understanding young women's sexual assertiveness is critical to developing effective interventions to promote sexual health and reduce sexual risk-taking and violence. Young women's perception of their sexual rights may vary according to demographic characteristics, sexual health behaviors and victimization history. Data were collected from 904 sexually active 14-26-year-old clients of two family planning clinics in Texas, reflecting their perceptions of their right to communicate expectations about or control aspects of their sexual encounters. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess which characteristics were independently associated with believing that one never has each specified sexual right. Almost 2096 of women believed that they never have the right to make their own decisions about contraception, regardless of their partner's wishes; to tell their partner that they do not want to have intercourse without birth control, that they want to make love differently or that their partner is being too rough; and to stop foreplay at any time, including at the point of intercourse. Poor grades in school, sexual inexperience, inconsistent contraceptive use and minority ethnicity were independently associated with lacking sexual assertiveness. Many sexually active young women perceive that they do not have the right to communicate about or control aspects of their sexual behavior. Interventions to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancy and coercive sexual behaviors should include strategies to evaluate and address these perceptions.
Auerbach, M V; Heckman, C J; Darlow, S
We aimed to further the understanding of the low rates of sun protection in young women at risk for skin cancer. Six-hundred-sixty-one daily diary entries were received via text message over 14 days from 56 young women at moderate to high risk of developing skin cancer. Women reported whether or not they used sun protection and also listed what their reasons were for using protection or not using sun protection each day. Multi-level modeling was used to examine the influence of study variables when predicting daily sun protection or lack of protection. The number of days in which sun protection was reported was positively associated with "habit" and "prevention" as reasons for protection and negatively associated with "not-needed" and "unprepared" as reasons for non-protection. Self-reported sun protection increased over the 14-day study period. Results of this study suggest the potential value of interventions aimed at motives for sun-protection behaviors.
Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne
To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Full Text Available Linda S Jonsson,1 Carl Göran Svedin,1 Margareta Hydén2 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden Abstract: The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9. Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help
Iwasaki, Eriko; Morakote, Nuntana; Chaovistsaree, Somsak; Matsuo, Hiroya
The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of lifestyle on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. A total of 177 young women affiliated with Chiang Mai University hospital were enrolled. Firstly, questionnaires about their lifestyle and the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) were examined. The measurement of BMD was assessed by Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). Secondly, based on the measurement of BMD, the subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Low BMD group (L group: less than YAM-1.0SD) and a Normal BMD group (N group: more than YAM-1.0SD). L group (n=23) and N group (n=23) were examined using Osteocalcine (OC), type 1 collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) as bone turnover markers, and serum Ca, 1,25-(OH)2Vitamin D, Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2 (MK-4) as bone turnover related factors. Based on the results, the percentage of Low BMD group was 23.2%. Concerning lifestyle and BMD, the BMD of the low cheese intake group was 99.7± 17.0 and the BMD of the high cheese intake one was 110.0± 23.3 (pChiang Mai, Thailand.
Ferguson, Christopher J
Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.
.../practitioners regarding topics such as breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal..., development, implementation and evaluation of evidence-based activities designed to prevent breast cancer...
.../practitioners regarding topics such as breast cancer risk, breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... evaluation of evidence-based activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...
Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V
High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the
Ireland, Jane L; Power, Christina L; Bramhall, Sarah; Flowers, Catherine
Few studies have attempted to explore attitudes towards bullying among prisoners, despite acknowledgement that attitudes may play an important role. To evaluate the structure of a new attitudinal scale, the Prison Bullying Scale (PBS), with adult men and women in prison and with young male prisoners. That attitudes would be represented as a multidimensional construct and that the PBS structure would be replicated across confirmatory samples. The PBS was developed and confirmed across four independent studies using item parceling and confirmatory factor analysis: Study I comprised 412 adult male prisoners; Study II, 306 adult male prisoners; Study III, 171 male young offenders; and Study IV, 148 adult women prisoners. Attitudes were represented as a multidimensional construct comprising seven core factors. The exploratory analysis was confirmed in adult male samples, with some confirmation among young offenders and adult women. The fit for young offenders was adequate and improved by factor covariance. The fit for women was the poorest overall. The study notes the importance of developing ecologically valid measures and statistically testing these measures prior to their clinical or research use. The development of the PBS holds value both as an assessment and as a research measure and remains the only ecologically validated measure in existence to assess prisoner attitudes towards bullying.
Abou-Rizk, Zeina; Rail, Geneviève
Our interest stems from the dramatic increase in the number of obesity studies, which expose Canadian women to a huge amount of information that links health to weight. Using feminist poststructuralist and postcolonial lenses, this paper investigates young Lebanese-Canadian women's constructions of the body and "health" practices within the context of the dominant obesity discourse. Participant-centered conversations were held with 20 young Christian Lebanese-Canadian women. A thematic analysis was first conducted and was followed by a poststructuralist discourse analysis to further our understanding of how the participants construct themselves as subjects within various discourses surrounding health, obesity, and the body. Our findings reveal that most participants conflate the "healthy" body and the "ideal" body, both of which they ultimately portray as thin. The young women construct the "healthy"/"ideal" body as a solely individual responsibility, thus reinforcing the idea of "docile bodies." The majority of participants report their frequent involvement in disciplinary practices such as rigorous physical activity and dietary restrictions, and a few young women mention the use of other extreme forms of bodily monitoring such as detoxes, dieting pills, and compulsive exercise. We discuss the language employed by participants to construct their multiple and shifting subjectivities. For instance, many of these Lebanese-Canadian women use the term "us" to dissociate themselves from Lebanese women ("them"), whom they portray as overly focused on thinness and beauty and engaged in physical activity and other bodily practices for "superficial" purposes. The participants also use the "us/them" trope to distance themselves from "Canadian" women (read: white Euro-Canadian women), whom they portray as very physically active for purposes beyond the improvement of the physical appearance of the body. We discuss the impacts of the young Christian Lebanese-Canadian women
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Cunningham, Shayna D; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Stasko, Emily; Tobin, Jonathan; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Group models of prenatal care continue to grow in popularity. However, little is known about how group composition (similarity or diversity between members of groups) relates to care-related outcomes. The current investigation aimed to explore associations between prenatal care group composition with patient satisfaction, engagement, and group attendance among young, urban women of color. Data were drawn from two studies conducted in New Haven and Atlanta (2001-2004; n = 557) and New York City (2008-2011; n = 375) designed to evaluate group prenatal care among young, urban women of color. Women aged 14 to 25 were assigned to group prenatal care and completed surveys during their second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Group attendance was recorded. Data were merged and analyzed guided by the Group Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using multilevel regression. Analyses explored composition in terms of age, race, ethnicity, and language. Women in groups with others more diverse in age reported greater patient engagement and, in turn, attended more group sessions, b(se) = -0.01(0.01); p = .04. The composition of prenatal care groups seems to be associated with young women's engagement in care, ultimately relating to the number of group prenatal care sessions they attend. Creating groups diverse in age may be particularly beneficial for young, urban women of color, who have unique pregnancy needs and experiences. Future research is needed to test the generalizability of these exploratory findings. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tinago, Chiwoneso B; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Frongillo, Edward A; Blake, Christine E; Engelsmann, Barbara; Simmons, David
Zimbabwe has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality, yet little is understood about adolescent girls' and young women's perspectives on pregnancy or planning for pregnancy. The research study took an emic approach to understand and describe how adolescent girls and young women (14-24 years) in Harare, Zimbabwe, conceptualize pregnancy and planning for pregnancy and how these conceptualizations inform pregnancy decisions. Semi-structured, in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with adolescent girls and young women ( N = 48) and data were analyzed thematically using NVivo 10. Pregnancy was conceptualized across nine themes: carrying a child and oneself, growing a family, motherhood, the best time for pregnancy, pregnancy decision makers, who is responsible for the pregnancy, pregnancy burden, pregnancy dangers, and increase in social status with pregnancy. Planning for pregnancy was conceptualized during the prepregnancy, pregnancy, and postpregnancy phases. Findings emphasize considering sociocultural views concerning pregnancy and including social networks in maternal health efforts.
Pearson, Veronica; Phillips, Michael R.; He, Fengsheng; Ji, Huiyu
Reports on a sample of 147 young women living in rural areas in China who had attempted suicide. The women's suicidal behavior was characterized by high levels of impulsivity and low rates of mental illness, including depression. Detailed suggestions are made about ways to implement suicide prevention strategies within the particular social and…
Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina
This study investigated psychosocial predictors of early pregnancy and childbearing in single young women, consistent with the Eriksonian developmental perspective. Two mail-out surveys assessing reproductive behaviour and sociodemographic, education/competence, psychosocial well-being, and aspiration factors were completed 4 years apart by 2635…
Sakai, Hiroka; Murakami, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi
Only a few studies have focused on the association between overall diet, rather than intakes of individual nutrients or foods, and depressive symptoms in Japanese. This cross-sectional study examined associations between a diet quality score and depressive symptoms in 3963 young (age 18 years) and 3833 middle-aged (mean age 47·9 (sd 4·2) years) Japanese women. Dietary information was collected using a diet history questionnaire. A previously developed diet quality score was computed mainly based on the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22·0 % for young women and 16·8 % for middle-aged women, assessed as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score ≥23 and ≥19, respectively. As expected, the diet quality score was associated positively with intakes of 'grain dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'milk' and 'fruits' and inversely with intakes of energy from 'snacks, confection and beverages' and Na from seasonings. After adjustment for potential confounders, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest v. lowest quintiles of the diet quality score was 0·65 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·84) in young women (P for trend=0·0005). In middle-aged women, the corresponding value was 0·59 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·78) (P for trenddiet quality and CES-D scores were treated as continuous variables also showed inverse associations. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that a higher diet quality score was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in young and middle-aged Japanese women. Prospective studies are needed to confirm a public health relevance of this finding.
Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral
Byrskog, Ulrika; Hussein, Ifrah Hashi; Yusuf, Farah Mohamed; Egal, Jama Ali; Erlandsson, Kerstin
The aim of the study is to elucidate young women's perceptions of the situation for female survivors of non-partner sexual violence in Somaliland. Young Somali women with diverse backgrounds (n = 25) shared views, knowledge and opinions about non partner sexual violence in focus group discussions held in urban settings. Data was analysed using content analysis. A main category "Bound by culture and community perceptions" with four subcategories comprises the informants' perceptions of non-partner sexual violence among young women in Somaliland. Illuminated is the importance of protecting oneself and the family dignity, a fear of being rejected and mistrusted, how the juridical system exists in the shadow of tradition and potential keys to healthcare support. The study raises awareness of the dilemmas which may be faced by young women subjected to non-partner sexual violence and healthcare providers in the intersection between state and traditional norms. Education is a key when it comes to a young woman considering the use of the services available in a society where traditional problem-solving is relied on parallel to state-based support. State-based functions, communities and families need to work together to provide comprehensive support to young female survivors of non-partner sexual violence in Somaliland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Orio, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; Spinelli, Letizia; Cascella, Teresa; Tauchmanovà, Libuse; Zullo, Fulvio; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria
To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we investigated lipid profile, metabolic pattern, and echocardiography in 30 young women with PCOS and 30 healthy age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched women. PCOS women had higher fasting glucose and insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment score of insulin sensitivity, total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and lower HDL-C levels than controls. Additionally, PCOS women had higher left atrium size (32.0 +/- 4.9 vs. 27.4 +/- 2.1 mm; P index (80.5 +/- 18.1 vs. 56.1 +/- 5.4 g/m(2); P 18 and 30 kg/m(2))], the differences between PCOS women and controls were maintained in overweight and obese women. In normal weight PCOS women, a significant increase in left ventricular mass index and a decrease in diastolic filling were observed, notwithstanding no change in TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C ratio, and TG compared with controls. In conclusion, our data show the detrimental effect of PCOS on the cardiovascular system even in young women asymptomatic for cardiac disease.
Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne
The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The…
Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel
The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…
Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J
The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context.
Gourgari, E; Lodish, M; Shamburek, R; Keil, M; Wesley, R; Walter, M; Sampson, M; Bernstein, S; Khurana, D; Lyssikatos, C; Ten, S; Dobs, A; Remaley, A T; Stratakis, C A
Adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the evidence for this is controversial in adolescents and young women with PCOS. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number, measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a novel technology to assess cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study was to evaluate lipoprotein particle number and size in young women with PCOS and its relationship with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. This was a cross-sectional case control study. The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Women with PCOS (n = 35) and normal controls (n = 20) participated in the study. Blood samples and anthropometric measures were obtained. LDL particle size and number were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A secondary outcome was to investigate the correlation of LDL particle number with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, waist to hip ratio, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and adiponectin. Women with PCOS had higher LDL particle number when compared with healthy controls (935 ± 412 vs 735 ± 264, P = .032); LDL particle number correlated strongly with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.37, P = .006) and waist-to-hip (r = 0.57, P = .0003). The higher LDL particle number was driven mainly due to differences in the small LDL particle number (sLDLp), with PCOS patients having more sLDLp (348 ± 305 vs 178 ± 195, P = .015). The sLDLp correlated with the Matsuda index (r = -0.51, P = .0001), homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (r = 0.41, P = .002), and adiponectin (r = -0.46, P = .0004) but not with T. Adolescent and young women with PCOS have an atherogenic lipoprotein profile suggestive of increased cardiovascular risk that appears to be driven by the degree of visceral adiposity and insulin resistance.
Supametaporn, Pinhatai; Stern, Phyllis Noerager; Rodcumdee, Branom; Chaiyawat, Waraporn
Nineteen young Thai women were purposively selected from networks of nongovernmental organizations involving children and youths in Bangkok. Our grounded theory findings indicated that these young women used the basic social process they called "waiting for the right time" in order to maintain heterosexual abstinence. Waiting for the right time involved one overarching condition, honoring parental love, and included three overlapping properties: learning rules, planning life path, and ways of preserving virginity. The findings provide information that may lead to the development of culturally competent interventions for middle-class Thai youths to remain healthy and avoid pregnancy.
This dissertation has been greatly concerned with the impact of the advertising images in international mass media, mainly womenÃ¢Â�Â�s fashion magazines. Three advertisements, two from Cosmopolitan and one from Elle magazine, United Kingdom were used in order to test the impact of beauty and body image concerns in young Indian women. Literature has mainly concentrated on the portrayal of white women as advertising and cultural stereotypes in a global environment. Many studies have revealed t...
Krugu, John Kingsley; Mevissen, Fraukje; Münkel, Meret; Ruiter, Robert
Globally, an estimated 16 million young women aged 15 to 19 years give birth every year. Most teenage pregnancies are unintended and being pregnant or delivering a baby as a teenager can have serious adverse consequences. Knowledge of the environmental factors and social cognitive determinants influencing young women's failure to protect against unintended pregnancy is necessary to address the high rate of teenage pregnancies. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 young women, who had experience of pregnancy, in Bolgatanga, Ghana. The interview protocol included themes (relationships, sex, pregnancy, family planning) and determinants (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, norms, risk perceptions) derived from empirical studies and theories related to sexuality behaviour. Findings show that young women's motivations for sexual relationships are mostly 'beyond love' and seem to focus on economic factors. The main means of sexual protection seems to be condom use. Other forms of contraception were believed to be linked to infertility. Sexuality remains a largely taboo topic for open discussion and sex education in schools seems limited to abstinence-only messages. The need for more open communication on matters of sexuality with young people and the provision of a more comprehensive sexuality education in school to address teenage pregnancies in Ghana, is discussed.
Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz
Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070
Peter, P; Dhillon, R; Bose, S; Bourke, A
To analyse the value of targeted second-look ultrasound and imaging-guided biopsy in high-risk young women eligible for screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a tertiary referral centre in Perth, Western Australia. A retrospective analysis of eligible high-risk young women who underwent screening breast MRI and targeted second-look ultrasound between June 2012 and June 2014 was performed with review of data. Over a 2-year period, 139 women underwent high-risk screening MRI. Of these, 30 women (with a total of 45 lesions) were recalled for targeted second-look ultrasound. Thirty-four MRI-detected lesions were identified on targeted ultrasound with 19 of them proceeding to ultrasound-guided biopsy, while the remaining 15 lesions were considered benign on ultrasound, were not biopsied, and were stable on follow-up imaging 12 months later. One lesion proceeded to an MRI-guided biopsy to confirm a benign result. Of the 11 lesions not seen on ultrasound, nine underwent MRI biopsy, one proceeded directly to hook wire localisation and excision, and one did not return for biopsy and was lost to follow-up. The overall biopsy rate was 14.4%. The cancer detection rate was 1.4%. The results of this study indicate that targeted second-look ultrasound and ultrasound-guided biopsy is a cost-effective and time-efficient approach for MRI-detected lesions in young women at high risk of developing breast cancer. MRI-guided biopsy should be considered for ultrasonographically occult suspicious lesions as there is a low, but definite, risk of cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Engels, Rutger C M E
Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem. Seventy-one college women either received norm-confirming, norm-challenging, or no information regarding the sociocultural norms for appearance. Subsequently, participants' visual attention to appearance-related and neutral advertisements was measured using an eye-tracker. The results demonstrate that when no information or norm-confirming information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid more attention to the appearance-related advertisements than women with higher self-esteem. Importantly however, when norm-challenging information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid significantly less attention to the appearance-related ads than women with lower self-esteem who did not receive this manipulation. These findings indicate that challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance can attenuate the amount of attention women give to appearance-related media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Toohey, Susan M.
The purpose of this study was to discover what variables from the home and the high school may be related to a student having a high resilience score. The participants for the current research were all young women who attended the same all-girls, Catholic high school in the Midwest and were alumnae of the school. Resilience is defined as the…
Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.
Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…
Hall, Kelli Stidham; Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James
Building upon previous work describing declining rates and socioeconomic disparities in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service use among young women in the United States, we reexamined patterns and determinants of SRH service use in 2006-2010. We used the latest data from the National Survey of Family Growth to evaluate SRH service use including contraceptive, sexually transmitted infection (STI) and other gynecological exam services among 3780 women ages 15-24 years. We compared proportions of service use across survey years and employed multiple logistic regression to estimate the influence of time and women's sociodemographic characteristics on the likelihood of SRH service use. The proportion of women using SRH services increased from 50% (2006-2007) to 54% (2007-2008) and 57% (2008-2010) [all year odds ratios (ORs) 1.4, p valuessexually experienced women, the proportions using SRH and contraceptive services were unchanged, while STI service use increased from 22% (2006-2007) to 33% (2008-2009) (OR 1.7, confidence interval 1.1-2.4, p=.009). Differentials in service use existed across sociodemographic groups, largely with lower proportions of service use among women of social disadvantage. Our results suggest a reversal of negative trends but continuing social disparities in young women's use of SRH services in the United States. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rex Katharine M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The phase of a circadian rhythm reflects where the peak and the trough occur, for example, the peak and trough of performance within the 24 h. Light exposure can shift this phase. More extensive knowledge of the human circadian phase response to light is needed to guide light treatment for shiftworkers, air travelers, and people with circadian rhythm phase disorders. This study tested the hypotheses that older adults have absent or weaker phase-shift responses to light (3000 lux, and that women's responses might differ from those of men. Methods After preliminary health screening and home actigraphic recording baselines, 50 young adults (ages 18–31 years and 56 older adults (ages 59–75 years remained in light-controlled laboratory surroundings for 4.7 to 5.6 days, while experiencing a 90-min ultra-short sleep-wake cycle. Following at least 30 h in-lab baseline, over the next 51 h, participants were given 3 treatments with 3000 lux white light, each treatment for 3 h, centered at one of 8 clock times. The circadian rhythms of urinary aMT6s (a melatonin metabolite, free cortisol, oral temperature, and wrist activity were assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results Light (3000 lux for 3 h on 3 days induced maximal phase shifts of about 3 h. Phase shifts did not differ significantly in amplitude among older and young groups or among women and men. At home and at baseline, compared to the young, the older adults were significantly phase-advanced in sleep, cortisol, and aMT6s onset, but not advanced in aMT6s acrophase or the temperature rhythm. The inflection from delays to advances was approximately 1.8 h earlier among older compared to young participants in reference to their aMT6s rhythm peaks, and it was earlier in clock time. Conclusion In these experimental conditions, 3000 lux light could shift the phase of circadian rhythms to about the same extent among older and young adults, but the optimal light timing for
Angarita, Ana Milena; Johnson, Cynae A.; Fader, Amanda Nickles; Christianson, Mindy S.
Fertility preservation in the young cancer survivor is recognized as a key survivorship issue by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Thus, health-care providers should inform women about the effects of cancer therapy on fertility and should discuss the different fertility preservation options available. It is also recommended to refer women expeditiously to a fertility specialist in order to improve counseling. Women’s age, diagnosis, presence of male partner, time available, and preferences regarding use of donor sperm influence the selection of the appropriate fertility preservation option. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are the standard techniques used while ovarian tissue cryopreservation is new, yet promising. Despite the importance of fertility preservation for cancer survivors’ quality of life, there are still communication and financial barriers faced by women who wish to pursue fertility preservation. PMID:27200291
Ana M Angarita
Full Text Available Fertility preservation in the young cancer survivor is recognized as a key survivorship issue by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Thus, health care providers should inform women about the effects of cancer therapy on fertility and should discuss the different fertility preservation options available. It is also recommended to refer women expeditiously to a fertility specialist in order to improve counseling. Women’s age, diagnosis, presence of male partner, time available and preferences regarding use of donor sperm influence the selection of the appropriate fertility preservation option. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are the standard techniques used while ovarian tissue cryopreservation is new, yet promising. Despite the importance of fertility preservation for cancer survivors’ quality of life, there are still communication and financial barriers faced by women who wish to pursue fertility preservation.
.../practitioners regarding topics such as breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal.... Please go to the ACBCYW meeting Web page to register for this meeting: http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast...
Miranda, Jeanne; Green, Bonnie L.
Despite the fact that the relationship between poverty and increased risk for a broad spectrum of mental disorders has been documented for several decades, very little is known about providing mental health treatments to poor individuals. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of developing, and empirically evaluating, sensitive and appropriate interventions for poor young women who suffer from common mental disorders. WHO ARE THE US POOR?: In the US, nearly 14% of individuals live in poverty, and another 20% in near poverty. The poor are disproportionally women and children such that 63% of female-headed households are poor. Young women and ethnic minorities are over-represented among the poor also, with 55% of those living below the poverty level being minorities. NEEDS AND BARRIERS TO CARE AMONG POOR, YOUNG WOMEN: The poor have more mental disorders than those with more resources. Further, women are twice as likely as men to have a mood or anxiety disorder, including major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with younger women at higher risk than older women. Research alos indicates that poor women have high exposure to traumatic events and cumulative adversity that is directly related to their mental health. This history may serve, in part, as a barrier to seeking mental health care. Other barriers in this population include lack of insurance, lack of access to primary care where mental disorders might be detected, practical problems like lack of childcare or transportation, and the inflexibility of low-income service jobs. Religious beliefs and attitudes about mental health treatment may play a role as well. Recent policy changes in the US have contributed to the vulnerability of this group as eligibility for welfare programs has reduced, and time limits have decreasd. Services for immigrants are also severely limited, and managed care strategies for those in the public sector may be confusing. IMPORTANT, UNANSWERED QUESTION: More needs
Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J
Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corney, Roslyn; Puthussery, Shuby; Swinglehurst, Jane
Marital or partnership status is seldom investigated as a primary contributing factor to women's wellbeing after a diagnosis of breast cancer. It has been suggested, however, that single childless women with breast cancer may face unique stressors. This paper explores the stressors and vulnerabilities of young single childless women with a first episode of breast cancer. A qualitative descriptive method was used. As part of a larger study examining fertility concerns of young childless women with first episode of breast cancer, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 single women. Recorded interviews were analysed using the framework approach. Findings cover three main themes: partnership worries; fertility concerns; and views about emotional and practical support received. Partnership worries included concerns about having to undergo treatment without a partner to support them; the fear of rejection by potential partners; and feelings about the precious time lost in diagnosis and treatment. Fertility concerns included dilemmas about having children and feelings about the options of pursuing Assisted Reproductive Techniques. Views about the emotional and practical support received included the overall support received as well as perceptions about the attitudes of health professionals towards fertility issues. Findings indicate that single childless women with breast cancer face additional vulnerabilities and may benefit from tailored support from health care professionals and interventions specifically targeted at them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article builds on long-term anthropological fieldwork among young Muslim women in a social housing area in Copenhagen. It explores how morality, modesty, and gender- and generational relations become reconfigured in the ways in which young women use the Smartphone and social media to navigate their everyday lives. I focus on love and marriage, the imperatives of appearing cool among peers, and keeping the family’s honour intact through the display of virtuous behaviour. Building on Bourdieu’s writings on the split habitus, I introduce the term composite habitus, as it underscores the aspect of a habitus that is split between (sometimes contradictory composite parts. The composite habitus of the young women is more than a hysteresis effect (where disposition and field are in mismatch and the habitus misfires, as the composite habitus also opens up to a range of possible strategies. I present examples of how intimate and secret uses of Smartphones have played out and show how social media have allowed for multiple versions of the self through managing public and secret relationships locally and across long distances.
Rahman, Juma; Fakhruddin, S H M; Rahman, A K M Fazlur; Halim, M A
Heat waves are increasing significantly in frequency and severity and threaten the health and income of outdoor workers. Pregnant women workers are particularly at risk due to their delicate physiological systems and accountabilities to future generations. Animal and human studies propose that elevated body temperatures during pregnancy can induce adverse pregnancy outcomes. To measure the change in internal body temperature (Tcore) in young working women before, after, and during work (both outdoor and indoor) on hot humid days and relate threshold temperature to the upshot adverse effects of pregnancy (teratogenicity and related miscarriage). Tympanic temperatures were measured using infrared ear thermometers and workplace temperatures were collected using Lascar Data Logger. Brief exploratory interviews were conducted to gather qualitative data, and content analysis was also carried out. Body temperatures were found elevated among outdoor women workers compared with that of indoor women workers. The present study found that outdoor work during pregnancy in hot, humid days might increase body temperature up to levels that could induce fetal destruction or anomaly. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stöckl, Heidi; March, Laura; Pallitto, Christina; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia
Little is known about the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its associated factors among adolescents and younger women. This study analyzed data from nine countries of the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women, a population based survey conducted in ten countries between 2000 and 2004. The lifetime prevalence of IPV ranged from 19 to 66 percent among women aged 15 to 24, with most sites reporting prevalence above 50 percent. Factors significantly associated with IPV across most sites included witnessing violence against the mother, partner's heavy drinking and involvement in fights, women's experience of unwanted first sex, frequent quarrels and partner's controlling behavior. Adolescent and young women face a substantially higher risk of experiencing IPV than older women. Adolescence and early adulthood is an important period in laying the foundation for healthy and stable relationships, and women's health and well-being overall. Ensuring that adolescents and young women enjoy relationships free of violence is an important investment in their future.
Darney, Blair G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Lozano, Rafael; Rodriguez, Maria I
Associations between age and patient-reported quality of family planning services were examined among young women in Mexico. A repeated cross-sectional analysis of survey data collected in 2006, 2009, and 2014 was performed. Data from women aged 15-29years who had not undergone sterilization and were currently using a modern contraceptive method were included. The primary outcome was high-quality care, defined as positive responses to all five quality items regarding contraceptive services included in the survey. Multivariable logistic regression and marginal probabilities were used to compare adolescents and women aged 20-29years. The responses of respondents using different contraceptive methods were compared. Data were included from 15 835 individuals. The multivariable analysis demonstrated lower odds of reporting high-quality care among women aged 15-19years (odds ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.88) and 20-24years (odds ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.96) compared with women aged 25-29years. Adolescents using hormonal and long-acting reversible contraception had significantly lower odds of reporting high-quality care compared with women aged 25-29. Adolescents in Mexico reported a lower quality of family planning services compared with young adult women. Continued research and policies are needed to improve the quality of contraceptive services. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela
Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.
This research explores autobiographies of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education as counter-stories to the official, institutional stories of their lives. The context of the study is a private detention facility in the United States; the participants are young women aged 15-19 years in a detention classroom; and data for the study…
Hanson, J; Khong, T Y
A retrospective audit of hysterectomies in young women (age 30 years and under) was conducted. Forty-one hysterectomies, representing 4% of all hysterectomies at the hospital, were performed in women of this age group. The main clinical indications were abnormal uterine bleeding (44%), pelvic pain (20%) and endometriosis (15%). None were performed for invasive malignant conditions. Most women had some prior therapy for their symptoms. Thirty-seven of the operations were total abdominal hysterectomies and 4 women had a unilateral oophorectomy. Complications were found in 17 women. Causal pathology, though not always what was predicted clinically or on the basis of operative findings, was identified. Further studies would be worthwhile to document the experience from other institutions and to provide long-term follow-up.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV burden is a predictor for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. The natural history of HPV load in young women being recently exposed to HPV is described in this paper. Methods A total of 636 female university students were followed for 2 years. Cervical specimens with HPV-16, -18, -31, or -45 DNA by consensus PCR were further evaluated with type-specific and β-globin real-time PCR assays. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR of infection clearance. Generalized estimating equations assessed whether HPV loads was predictive of HPV infection at the subsequent visit. Results HPV loads were consistently higher among women Conclusions The association between HPV load and persistence is not uniform across high-risk genital genotypes. HPV-16 integration was only rarely demonstrated in young women.
Full Text Available Despite the relevance of behavior in understanding individual differences in the strategies used to cope with stressors, behavioral responses and their relationships with psychobiological changes have received little attention. In this study on young women, we aimed at analyzing the associations among different components of the stress response and behavioral coping using a laboratory psychosocial stressor. The Ethological Coding System for Interviews, as well as neuroendocrine, autonomic and mood parameters, were used to measure the stress response in 34 young women (17 free-cycling women in their early follicular phase and 17 oral contraceptive users subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and a control condition in a crossover design. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic, negative mood and anxiety responses to the stressor were observed between the two groups of women. However, women in the follicular phase showed a higher cortisol response and a larger decrease in positive mood during the social stress episode, as well as greater anxiety overall. Interestingly, the amount of displacement behavior exhibited during the speaking task of the TSST was positively related to anxiety levels preceding the test, but negatively related to baseline and stress response values of heart rate. Moreover, the amount of submissive behavior was negatively related to basal cortisol levels. Finally, eye contact and low-aggressiveness behaviors were associated with a worsening in mood. Overall, these findings emphasize the close relationship between coping behavior and psychobiological reactions, as well as the role of individual variations in the strategy of coping with a psychosocial stressor.
McWilliams, Rita; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Objective. We investigated the long-term effect of weight teasing during childhood. Methods. Young adult women (n = 1533; aged 18–26 years) from 3 large universities participated in a survey (Fall 2009 to Spring 2010) that assessed disturbed eating behaviors; weight status at ages 6, 12, and 16 years; and weight-teasing history. Results. Nearly half of the participants were weight-teased as a child. Participants who experienced childhood weight teasing were significantly more likely to have disturbed eating behaviors now than non–weight-teased peers. As the variety of weight teasing insults recalled increased, so did disturbed eating behaviors and current body mass index. Those who recalled their weight at ages 6, 12, or 16 years as being heavier than average endured weight teasing significantly more frequently and felt greater distress than their lighter counterparts. Conclusions. Weight teasing may contribute to the development of disturbed eating and eating disorders in young women. Health care professionals, parents, teachers, and other childcare givers must help shift social norms to make weight teasing as unacceptable as other types of bullying. To protect the health of children, efforts to make weight teasing unacceptable are warranted. PMID:23327257
Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…
Stroup, A. M.; Harrell, C. J.; Herget, K. A.
Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) are one of the most common and survivable cancers diagnosed in women. We examine factors associated with long-term survival and competing risks of death in women diagnosed with DTC under the age of 40 (<40) and aged 40 and older (40+). Methods. SEER data was used to identify DTCs diagnosed in women from 1975 to 2009. We examined overall (OS), disease-specific (DSS), other cancer (OCS), and non-cancer-related (NCS) survival using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results. Observed survival was 97.2% for <40 (n=14,540) and 82.5% for 40+ (n=20,513). Distant stage (HR=1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.07), non-Hispanic Black (HR=2.04, 95% CI 1.45-2.87), being unmarried (HR=1.26, 95% 1.03-1.54), and subsequent primary cancers (HR=4.63, 95% CI 3.76-5.71) were significant for OS in women <40. Age was an effect modifier for all survival outcomes. Racial disparities in NCS were most pronounced for young non-Hispanic black women (HR=3.36, 95% CI 2.17-5.22). Women in both age groups were more likely to die from other causes. Conclusions. Age at diagnosis remains one of the strongest prognostic factors for thyroid cancer survival. More directed efforts to ensure effective care for co morbid conditions are needed to reduce mortality from other causes.
O'Neil, C E; Nicklas, T A; Myers, L; Johnson, C C; Berenson, G S
The primary purposes of this article are to highlight important issues related to cardiovascular risk factors and behavior life-styles in young women and to examine racial (black-white) differences in risk factors that relate to cardiovascular disease. In childhood, some girls show cardiovascular risk factors of higher blood pressure levels, dyslipidemia, and obesity, all of which continue into young adulthood. Factors that contribute to abnormal risk factors are a high-saturated fat diet, excess energy intake related to inactivity, and cigarette smoking. Trends of obesity are documented; and young white girls are continuing to use tobacco, more so than boys and black girls. Although the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease is delayed in women, the stage is set in childhood for the development of early cardiovascular risk.
Frega, Antonio; Stentella, Patrizia; De Ioris, Andrea; Piazze, Juan Josè; Fambrini, Massimiliano; Marchionni, Mauro; Cosmi, Ermelando Vinicio
young sexually active women. The sites most frequently affected in our study were vulva, perianus and perineum (194/234), 82.9% and the cervix (125/234), 53.4%. Vaginal lesions were detected only in 29/234 patients (12.3%). According to our data, in 161 patients, sexual habits, age at the first intercourse (P=0.68), frequency of intercourses (P=0.49) and number of lifetime partners (P=0.27) as well as age (P=0.26) play a role in transmission and incidence of HPV infection but not on the location of the lesions. This can be due to a coexistent clinical and subclinical multiple infection as well as a transmission via intercourse or from other sources, including tampons. Abnormal Pap test was related to HPV infection, but the low correlation with colposcopic and histological findings in this study justify the support of other examinations such as colposcopy and punch biopsy for diagnosis. Moreover, according to our data, cytology alone shows to be not suitable to exclude CIN (seven underestimated cases of CIN) and a closer correspondence were found between colposcopy and the result of histological sample after punch biopsy in CIN detection. More attention must be paid to psychological aspect of diagnoses and treatment among adolescents, more than older women as the high rate of patients lost shows in our study: 75/234 (32.05%) before LASER surgery and 55/159 (34.59%) during follow-up. International data shows that only 12-45% of sexually active adolescent girls have obtained Pap smear screening. In our study, we found no correlation between treatment failure and cigarette smoking or between the use of oral contraceptives and persistence/recurrence after LASER CO2 surgery. Because the small sample of our study group, further analyses were required.
Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini
Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training with different intensities on serum myostatin and follistatin levels in sedentary young women. Materials and Methods: In this practical and semi experimental study, 24 sedentary young women with range of 20-30 years and BMI 22-25 kg/m2 were selected by convenience sampling. Then, the volunteers were randomly assigned into two groups, [resistance training group with low intensity (40-60% of one repetition maximum and high intensity (70-90% of one repetition maximum]. The training protocols included: 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Blood samples (5cc were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after at the end of the study; Also Serum levels of myostatin and follistatin were measured by ELISA methods. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance of repeated measures test by SPSS at the significant level (p<0.05. Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of follistatin and follistatin to myostatin ratio in high intensity group (p≤0.05. Also there was a significant decrease in the levels of myostatin in high intensity group (p≤0.05; however, there was no significant change in the levels of follistatin, myostatin and follistatin to myostatin ratio in low intensity group (p≥0.05. Also there was no significant change in these variables in high intensity group compared to low intensity group (p≥0.05. Conclusion: It’s seems that the activation of important myogenic and myostatic factors in sedentary young women need to do high intensity resistance training.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, 16% of the women aged 15–19 years are married. Many get married shortly after they attain menarche. This study explores the preparedness for and actual experiences of married life (inter-spousal relationship, sexual activity and pregnancy among adolescent women. Methods Among married adolescent women residing in a slum of Islamabad ten were selected with the help of a community health worker and interviewed qualitatively till saturation was reached. They were interviewed three times at different occasions. Narrative structuring was used to explore how the participants represented their background, social situation, decision making and spousal communication and how they explained, understood and managed married life and bore children. Results Two categories identifying the respondents as either submissive-accepting or submissive-victims emerged. The married young women who belonged to the accepting group lived under compromised conditions but described themselves as satisfied with their situation. They were older than the other group identifying themselves as victims. However, none of the respondents felt prepared for marriage. Women belonging to the victimized group experienced physical and verbal abuse for their inability to cope with the duties of a wife, caretaker of the home and bearer of children. Their situation was compounded by the power dynamics within the household. Conclusion Knowledge about sexuality could prepare them better for the future life and give them more control of their fertility. Adolescent development and life skills education need to be addressed at a national level. There is need for innovative interventions to reach out and provide support to young women in disadvantaged homes.
Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Ridder, Elizabeth M
The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children. Information was obtained on: a) the history of pregnancy/abortion for female participants over the interval from 15-25 years; b) measures of DSM-IV mental disorders and suicidal behaviour over the intervals 15-18, 18-21 and 21-25 years; and c) childhood, family and related confounding factors. Forty-one percent of women had become pregnant on at least one occasion prior to age 25, with 14.6% having an abortion. Those having an abortion had elevated rates of subsequent mental health problems including depression, anxiety, suicidal behaviours and substance use disorders. This association persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. The findings suggest that abortion in young women may be associated with increased risks of mental health problems.
Mainhood, Lindsay Ann
In nearly all countries of the world, at every level of education, physics as a field of science is failing to recruit and retain women. This phenomenon is believed to relate to girls' educational experiences from K-12, but the reasons for the gender gap in physics are not fully understood. The purpose of this phenomenological research is to explore and understand the barriers encountered by Ontario female high school students during their physics education and the meanings attributed to those barriers by these young women. This research is guided by social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and uses the concept of physics identity as a lens through which the influence of contextual barriers can be understood. Nine participants, selected via snowball sampling from an Eastern Ontario university, together participated in four semi-structured focus group meetings and individually participated in a single in-depth, one-on-one interview. Audio data was transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a general inductive approach. Emergent themes are descriptively presented as the findings of the research study: perceiving the high school physics experience, experiencing high school physics education, and identity and gender in the high school physics experience. Sub-themes presented include limited prior experiences, negative perceptions of physics, images of physics learners, decision-making, reactions to pedagogy, learning needs, physics identity, gender-dependent influences, and making meaning of the experiences in high school physics. The shared experience of high school physics education for young women is understood as both a richly challenging and rewarding experience. Based on the findings of this research, recommendations are made for practical and research settings, and for future work in this area. Drawing on literature on underrepresentation of women in physics, this research contributes to the physics education research community and beyond; it offers voices of Ontario
Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem.
Coates, R J; Uhler, R J; Hall, H I; Potischman, N; Brinton, L A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Gammon, M D; Brogan, D R; Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Schoenberg, J B; Swanson, C A
Findings have been inconsistent on effects of adolescent body size and adult weight gain on risk of breast cancer in young women. These relations were examined in a population-based case control study of 1590 women less than 45 years of age newly diagnosed with breast cancer during 1990-1992 in three areas of the US and an age-matched control group of 1390 women. Height and weight were measured at interview and participants asked to recall information about earlier body size. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of breast cancer adjusted for other risk factors. Women who were either much heavier or lighter than average in adolescence or at age 20 were at reduced risk. Weight gain after age 20 resulted in reduced risk, but the effect was confined to early-stage and, more specifically, lower grade breast cancer. Neither the risk reduction nor the variation by breast cancer stage or grade was explained by the method of cancer detection or by prior mammography history. These findings suggest that relations between breast cancer risk in young women and body weight at different ages is complex and that the risk reduction with adult weight gain is confined to less aggressive cancers.
Kaptoge, S.; Silva, J.A. da; Brixen, K.
We collected population-based young normal hip and spine BMD data from 17 centres across Europe to assess between centre differences and to compare reference values with the US NHANES-III data. There was strong evidence of between country heterogeneity, but not between centres within countries. Hip...... values specific to an American population can be validly used for T-score calculation in Europeans. METHODS: We collected population based BMD data from 1163 men and 329 women aged 19-29 years from 17 centres across Europe to compare mean and SD values with the NHANES-III study USA results. BMD(g/cm2......, the cross-calibrated BMD values were converted using the ESP equations to Hologic QDR 1000 units. RESULTS: In men, the overall mean(SD) BMD values expressed in Hologic-QDR1000 units of measurement, were: femoral neck 0.912(0.132); trochanter 0.793(0.124); and L2-L4 spine 1.027(0.123). The respective...
Lambrecht, Jeanne L; Cuevas, Jacqueline L
To estimate association between field dependence-independence measured by scores on the Group Embedded Figures Test and young women's participation in sports activity. Participants were 37 undergraduate college women between the ages of 18 and 25 years (M=21). Participants were categorized into two groups, one high in participation in sports activity and one low. A one-tailed independent samples t test yielded no significant difference. Correlations of .36 and .18 were significant but account for little common variance. An ad hoc analysis performed without participants who reported softball activity but who were highly involved in sport activities was significant.
Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.
The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if
Williams, Laura Jane; Butler, John S; Molloy, Anna; McGovern, Eavan; Beiser, Ines; Kimmich, Okka; Quinlivan, Brendan; O'Riordan, Sean; Hutchinson, Michael; Reilly, Richard B
The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which two sensory stimuli presented sequentially are detected as asynchronous by the observer. TDTs are known to increase with age. Having previously observed shorter thresholds in young women than in men, in this work we sought to systematically examine the effect of sex and age on temporal discrimination. The aims of this study were to examine, in a large group of men and women aged 20-65 years, the distribution of TDTs with an analysis of the individual participant's responses, assessing the "point of subjective equality" and the "just noticeable difference" (JND). These respectively assess sensitivity and accuracy of an individual's response. In 175 participants (88 women) aged 20-65 years, temporal discrimination was faster in women than in men under the age of 40 years by a mean of approximately 13 ms. However, age-related decline in temporal discrimination was three times faster in women so that, in the age group of 40-65 years, the female superiority was reversed. The point of subjective equality showed a similar advantage in younger women and more marked age-related decline in women than men, as the TDT. JND values declined equally in both sexes, showing no sexual dimorphism. This observed sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination is important for both (a) future clinical research assessing disordered mid-brain covert attention in basal-ganglia disorders, and (b) understanding the biology of this sexual dimorphism which may be genetic or hormonal.
Laura Jane Williams
Full Text Available The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two sensory stimuli presented sequentially are detected as asynchronous by the observer. Temporal discrimination thresholds are known to increase with age. Having previously observed shorter thresholds in young women than in men, in this work we sought to sytematically examine the effect of sex and age on temporal discrimination. The aims of this study were to examine, in a large group of men and women aged 20 to 65 years, the distribution of temporal discrimination thresholds with an analysis of the individual participant’s responses, assessing the point of subjective equality (PSE and the just noticeable difference (JND. These respectively assess sensitivity and accuracy of an individual’s response. In 175 participants (88 women aged 20-65 years, temporal discrimination was faster in women than in men under the age of 40 years by a mean of approximately 13ms. However age-related decline in temporal discrimination was three times faster in women so that, in the age group of 40-65 years, the female superiority was reversed. The point of subjective equality showed a similar advantage in younger women and more marked age-related decline in women than men, as the temporal discrimination threshold. Just noticeable difference values declined equally in both sexes showing no sexual dimorphism. This observed sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination is important for both a future clinical research assessing disordered mid-brain covert attention in basal-ganglia disorders and b understanding the biology of this sexual dimorphism which may be genetic or hormonal.
Zembe, Yanga Z; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Ekström, Anna Mia
Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa's history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country.In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16-24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the world also prioritize: fashionable clothing
Austin, S. Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.
Objectives. We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of “mostly heterosexual” and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Methods. In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Results. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported “mostly heterosexual” women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence that “mostly heterosexual” women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, “mostly heterosexual” women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse. PMID:17901440
Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques
. Because of the correlational design and use of self-report measures, causal relations cannot be established between personality disorder characteristics and sexual functioning. Overall, the results indicate that personality disorder characteristics can play an important associative role in the development and maintenance of sexual functioning problems in women. Grauvogl A, Pelzer B, Radder V, van Lankveld J. Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women. J Sex Med 2018;15:192-200. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leech, Tamara G J
This study examines the association between gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior among young women. Previous studies have posed seemingly contradictory arguments: that either traditional attitudes or egalitarian attitudes are associated with riskier behavior. Data are based on the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, representing 520 sexually active 18-19-year-old women. Propensity radius matching was used to assess differences in rates of multiple sexual partners and sex outside of a committed relationship. Relative to moderate gender role attitudes, both egalitarian gender role attitudes and traditional gender role attitudes are associated with higher rates of risky sexual behavior. Both women with egalitarian role attitudes and those with traditional role attitudes have about a 10% higher prevalence of risky behavior compared to women with more moderate gender role attitudes. Existing, seemingly contradictory contentions about the relationship between gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior may be more coherent than they seem. By shifting focus from risk to protection, the results suggest that moderate gender role attitudes are protective against risky sexual behavior. Future studies should investigate the causal mechanisms and intervention implications of this protective relationship. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vryonidou, Andromachi; Papatheodorou, Athanasios; Tavridou, Anna; Terzi, Thomais; Loi, Vasiliki; Vatalas, Ioannis-Anastasios; Batakis, Nikolaos; Phenekos, Constantinos; Dionyssiou-Asteriou, Amalia
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrinopathy of women of reproductive age, is associated with the early appearance of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. However, premature atherosclerosis of the carotid artery has not yet been demonstrated in young women with PCOS. Measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is considered an easy and reliable index of subclinical atherosclerosis, which is predictive of subsequent myocardial infarction and stroke. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of PCOS and the participation of the hyperandrogenemic and metabolic pattern, we measured carotid IMT by B-mode ultrasound as well as hormonal and several cardiovascular disease-associated parameters in 75 young women with PCOS and 55 healthy, age- and body mass index-matched women. The PCOS women had significantly increased carotid IMT (0.58 vs. 0.47 mm, P PCOS status, age, body mass index, and parental history of coronary heart disease were strong positive predictors of carotid IMT, whereas dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was a strong negative predictor. In PCOS patients lower delta4-androstenedione and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were additionally strong positive predictors of carotid IMT, whereas in control women only total cholesterol was the additional positive predictor of carotid IMT. In conclusion, young women with PCOS have an early increase of cardiovascular risk factors and greater carotid IMT, both of which may be responsible for subclinical atherosclerosis. The hyperandrogenemic phenotype of the syndrome may attenuate the consequences of the dysmetabolic phenotype on the vascular wall.
Full Text Available Breast cancer in young women is quite uncommon and shows more aggressive characteristics with major disparities between worldwide populations. Prognosis and outcome of breast cancer in young patients are widely studied, but still no consensus is available.We retrospectively included 716 cases of breast cancer women diagnosed in 2009 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their age: women aged ≤40 years (Group 1 and women aged >40 years (Group 2. Data were recorded from patients' medical files and analyzed using SPSS 13.0 software (IBM.Young patients represent 24.9% of all patients with breast cancer. The comparison between the two groups displayed significant differences regarding nulliparity (p = 0.001 and progesterone receptor negativity (p = 0.01. Moreover, more progression (Metastases/Relapse was registered in young women as compared to older women with breast cancer (p = 0.03. The estimated median follow-up period was 31 months. The 5-years Event-Free Survival (EFS of patients with local disease was 64.6% in young women and 71.5% in older women with breast cancer (p = 0.04. Multivariate analysis in young women showed that nulliparity (HR: 7.2; 95%CI: 1.16-44.54; p = 0.03, T3 tumors (HR: 17.39; 95%CI: 1.74-173.34; p = 0.01 and negative PgR status (HR: 19.85; 95%CI: 1.07-366.54; p = 0.04 can be considered as risk factors for poorer event free survival while hormone therapy was associated with better EFS (HR: 0.11; 95%CI: 0.00-0.75; p = 0.03. In Group 2, multivariate analysis showed that patients with inflammatory breast cancer, N+ status, absence of radiotherapy, absence of chemotherapy, and absence of hormone therapy are at increased risk of recurrence.In Morocco, breast cancer is more frequent in young women as compared to western countries. Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive and is diagnosed late, leading to an intensive treatment. Moreover, the main factors
Daugherty, Michael; Blakely, Stephen; Shapiro, Oleg; Vourganti, Srinivas; Mollapour, Mehdi; Bratslavsky, Gennady
The renal cell cancer incidence is relatively low in younger patients, encompassing 3% to 7% of all renal cell cancers. While young patients may have renal tumors due to hereditary syndromes, in some of them sporadic renal cancers develop without any family history or known genetic mutations. Our recent observations from clinical practice have led us to hypothesize that there is a difference in histological distribution in younger patients compared to the older cohort. We queried the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) 18-registry database for all patients 20 years old or older who were surgically treated for renal cell carcinoma between 2001 and 2008. Patients with unknown race, grade, stage or histology and those with multiple tumors were excluded from study. Four cohorts were created by dividing patients by gender, including 1,202 females and 1,715 males younger than 40 years old, and 18,353 females and 30,891 males 40 years old or older. Chi-square analysis was used to compare histological distributions between the cohorts. While clear cell carcinoma was still the most common renal cell cancer subtype across all genders and ages, chromophobe renal cell cancer was the most predominant type of nonclear renal cell cancer histology in young females, representing 62.3% of all nonclear cell renal cell cancers (p renal cell cancer remained the most common type of nonclear renal cell cancer. It is possible that hormonal factors or specific pathway dysregulations predispose chromophobe renal cell cancer to develop in younger women. We hope that this work provides some new observations that could lead to further studies of gender and histology specific renal tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bavil, Dina Abadi; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh
Introduction Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecologic disorders that affects women’s quality of life and social activities. Lifestyle, eating behaviors, and general health are essential to the management of menstrual symptoms. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between lifestyle and primary dysmenorrhea in students at Sari University of Medical Sciences in 2015 in order to facilitate the performance of lifestyle-improving interventions among young women. Methods This study was conducted on 250 students with and without primary dysmenorrhea at Sari University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Data were collected using personal-social and lifestyle questionnaires (addressing nutrition, physical activity, stress, social relationships, improper health behaviors, and self-care). The data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 18, using the independent-samples t-test, the chi-squared test, and logistic regression analysis. Results Given the scores obtained on the lifestyle questionnaire, significant differences were observed between the groups with and without dysmenorrhea in terms of eating behavior (p=0.008), physical activity (p=0.011), stress (p=0.041), and social relationships (p=0.000). No differences were observed in terms of self-care (p=0.115) and smoking, drinking, and drug use (p=0.355). According to the logistic regression analysis, age (OR=1.208, p=0.014), physical activity (OR=1.008, p=0.040) and social relationship (OR=0.952, p=0.002) were different in the two groups, but there was no statistical differences in their eating behavior, self-care, and stress. Conclusion To prevent and reduce the incidence of primary dysmenorrhea, knowledge and awareness should be raised in young women through proper lifestyle education and health promotion measures. PMID:27123219
Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small-scale doctoral research…
This study examined the cognitive skills and attitudes toward self and others in samples of independent seniors and young men and women. Three proceedings were used to address questions of age or gender differences. Study 1 (N=95) compared the scores of older adults (approximate age range, 64-95 years) on the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and…
Jones, Shelley K.
This paper presents findings from the third stage of a longitudinal, qualitative study involving nine female participants from a class cohort in a secondary school in rural Uganda. Since 2004-05, this study has tracked the progress of these young women's lives, and the present aspect of the study explores the ways in which they have found that…
Stoner, Marie C D; Edwards, Jessie K; Miller, William C; Aiello, Allison E; Halpern, Carolyn T; Julien, Aimée; Selin, Amanda; Hughes, James P; Wang, Jing; Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier; Wagner, Ryan G; MacPhail, Catherine; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey
Attending school may have a strong preventative association with sexually transmitted infections among young women, but the mechanism for this relationship is unknown. One hypothesis is that students who attend school practice safer sex with fewer partners, establishing safer sexual networks that make them less exposed to infection. We used longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial of young women aged 13-20 years in the Bushbuckridge district, South Africa, to determine whether the percentage of school days attended, school dropout, and grade repetition are associated with having a partner 5 or more years older (age-disparate) and with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months. Risks of having an age-disparate relationship and number of sexual partners were compared using inverse probability of exposure weighted Poisson regression models. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures. Young women who attended fewer school days (age-disparate relationship (risk difference 9.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.9% to 16.0%; risk difference (%) dropout 17.2%, 95% CI: 5.4% to 29.0%) and those who dropped out reported having fewer partners (count difference dropout 0.343, 95% CI: 0.192 to 0.495). Grade repetition was not associated with either behavior. Young women who less frequently attend school or who drop out are more likely to have an age-disparate relationship. Young women who drop out have overall more partners. These behaviors may increase the risk of exposure to HIV infection in young women out of school.
Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghadam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hamdieh, Mostafa; Montazeri, Ali
Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women's health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women's sexual abstinence.
Matthews, Evan L; Greaney, Jody L; Wenner, Megan M
What is the central question of this study? Alterations in blood pressure control at exercise onset are apparent in older adults with established cardiovascular disease. It is currently not known whether these alterations are evident in young adults with a family history of hypertension. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that young women with a family history of hypertension display a larger change in blood pressure within the first 10 s of isometric exercise. These data suggest altered blood pressure control in young women with a family history of hypertension. Hypertensive adults demonstrate atypical increases in blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at the immediate onset of static muscle contraction. However, it is unknown whether these abnormal responses occur in young, otherwise healthy adults at risk for developing future disease, such as those with a family history of hypertension (+FH). We tested the hypothesis that +FH young women have exaggerated increases in BP and MSNA at the onset of static muscle contraction compared with those without a family history of hypertension (-FH). We retrospectively examined beat-by-beat BP and MSNA during the initial 30 s of isometric handgrip exercise (30% of maximal voluntary contraction) in 16 +FH (22 ± 2 years old, 22 ± 3 kg m -2 ) and 16 -FH (22 ± 3 years old, 22 ± 3 kg m -2 ) women. Resting mean arterial pressure (+FH 80 ± 11 mmHg versus -FH 84 ± 13 mmHg), MSNA burst frequency (+FH 7 ± 3 bursts min -1 versus -FH 9 ± 5 bursts min -1 ) and burst incidence [+FH 12 ± 4 bursts (100 heart beats) -1 versus -FH 12 ± 8 bursts (100 heart beats) -1 ] were similar between groups (all P > 0.05). Within the first 10 s of exercise, changes in mean arterial pressure (+FH Δ8 ± 6 mmHg versus -FH Δ3 ± 2 mmHg, P exercise was not different between groups (-FH 7 ± 5 bursts min -1 versus +FH 9 ± 3 bursts min -1
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.
Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Kong, Byung-Sun; Yoo, Kyung-Tae
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of various shoes on the static and dynamic balance of young women in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 15 healthy young women and repeated measured design. The subjects walked on the treadmill at a speed of 4 km/h for 30 minutes wearing three types of shoes: sneaker, rain boots, and combat boots. Balance was measured by a Romberg test and a limits of stability test. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. [Results] As the results of the Romberg test, the main effect of time was shown in the EO-COG area, EO-COG length, and EO-COG velocity. As the results of the limits of stability test, the main effects of time in LT, RT, FW, and total. There were significant differences in the LT in the sneaker group, the rain boots group, and the LT and RT in the combat boots group between the pre- and post-test. [Conclusion] The characteristics of shoes such as the materials, hardness, and thickness of the soles, the coefficient of friction of the outsoles, and the collar height affected the static and dynamic balance.
Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos la relación entre el feminismo y las jóvenes en México. El eje rector responde a la interrogante de si existen jóvenes feministas y, de ser así, cuál es su participación y papel en los movimientos feministas del país. Si bien percibimos con toda claridad, por una parte, que el feminismo ha impactado directamente las vidas de las jóvenes; por otro lado, sólo un número minúsculo se asume como feminista. La situación en este sentido es inquietante, sin embargo, ya sea desde la política o la academia observamos que algunas jóvenes sí se comprometen con los feminismos, y son ellas quienes se integran a espacios establecidos o bien generan propuestas autónomas e independientes para dar expresión a sus posturas, entre otras, mediante la generación de redes.In this article we analyze the relationship between feminism and young women in Mexico. Our central purpose consists of analyzing whether there are young feminist women and, if so, what their participation and role in the Mexican feminist and women's movements are. We argue that while feminism has undoubtedly impacted young women's lives, only a small number of them self-identifies as feminists. This situation is disquieting; however, by participating either in local political movements or in the academia, some young women do commit themselves with feminisms, and thus, strengthen and/or generate autonomous and independent projects that allow them to express their points of view, among other means, by creating networks.
Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu
Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular phase, meal intake in the luteal phase, fasting in the follicular phase, and fasting in the luteal phase. All subjects participated in a total of four experimental sessions during two successive phases (follicular and luteal phase in the same menstrual cycle, or luteal phase and follicular phase in the next menstrual cycle) according to a randomized crossover design. R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed. Other physiological data were obtained before and 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after meal intake or after the corresponding time point of meal intake (fasting in the follicular or luteal phase). Heart rate decreased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. High frequency power increased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. In addition, salivary cortisol concentrations decreased during fasting in the luteal phase. In the present study, short-term fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and lower cortisol levels in the luteal phase in these young women. These results indicate a possibility to produce an anti-stress effect in the luteal phase, which may reduce menstrual symptoms.
Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH
Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were
Clark, Shelley; Bruce, Judith; Dude, Annie
In most developing countries, the majority of sexually active female adolescents are married. Although married adolescents are often assumed to be at low risk for HIV infection, little is known about the actual HIV risks these adolescents face or about ways to minimize these risks. Demographic and Health Survey data from 29 countries in Africa and Latin America were used to examine the frequency of factors that may increase HIV risk in married women aged 15-19. Several behavioral and social factors may increase the vulnerability of married female adolescents to HIV infection. First, these young women engage in frequent unprotected sex: In most countries, more than 80% of adolescents who had had unprotected sex during the previous week were married. Second, women who marry young tend to have much older husbands (mean age difference, 5-14 years) and, in polygamous societies, are frequently junior wives, factors that may increase the probability that their husbands are infected and weaken their bargaining power within the marriage. Third, married adolescents have relatively little access to educational and media sources of information about HIV. Finally, the most common AIDS prevention strategies (abstinence, condom use) are not realistic options for many married adolescents. New policies and interventions, tailored to the sexual and behavioral profiles of women in each country, are needed to address the vulnerabilities of adolescent wives. In some countries, delaying age at marriage may be an important strategy; in others, making intercourse within marriage safer may be more valuable.
Wang, Ming-Fu; Huang, Sheng-Chi; Chung, Hei-Mei; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Haeno, Fumiyo; Nomura, Satomi; Ikemiyasiro, Midori; Shinjo, Sumie; Asato, Liu; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, Taichung, Taiwan; Research Center of Comprehensive Medicine. Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
This study was designed to find when to eat for better weight control. Five experiments of 10 days duration were done with 7 young women volunteers. The daily energy intake was 33 kcal/kg in all the experiments but the time or size of meals was different in each experiment. We observed that the later the time of dinner, the more the weight gain; breakfast did not have any effect on the weight gain and an evening snack before dinner prevented weight gain due to a late dinner. These results sug...
Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Jessica B; Lewis, Tené T; Reid, Allecia E; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Discrimination predicts increased risk for many negative health outcomes, helping explain a variety of racial and socioeconomic health disparities. Recent research suggests discrimination may play a role in disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, this research has focused on risk behaviors and has yet to establish a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis specifically. This investigation tested whether discrimination predicted condom use, risky sexual partners, and self-reported STI diagnosis among a population disproportionately affected by HIV and STIs in the U.S.: young, pregnant, socioeconomically disadvantaged, women of color. During second and third trimesters, 885 mostly Latina and Black pregnant women, 14-21 years old, attending 14 hospitals and health centers in New York City for prenatal care, completed interviews. Greater discrimination during second trimester predicted greater odds of STI diagnosis and having a risky sexual partner during third trimester, but not condom use. Whether discrimination was attributed to race, identifying as Black, or identifying as Latina did not moderate effects. This is the first investigation establishing a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis, not just risk behavior. It does so among a sample of at-risk, young, pregnant, women of color. Findings suggest implications for sexual risk during pregnancy and across the life span, and risks for the pregnancy and fetus. It is vital to reduce discrimination to eliminate disparities in HIV and STIs. Future research should continue examining the role of discrimination in sexual risk among different populations and work to uncover potential mechanisms. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Miller, William C; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Emch, Michael; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen
Sexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa. Using longitudinal demographic surveillance data from the rural Agincourt sub-district, we reconstructed the school enrolment status from 2000 through 2011 for 15 457 young women aged 12-18 years and linked them to the estimated conception date for each pregnancy during this time. We examined the effect of time-varying school enrolment on teen pregnancy using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for: age; calendar year; household socioeconomic status; household size; and gender, educational attainment and employment of household head. A secondary analysis compared the incidence of pregnancy among school enrolees by calendar time: school term vs school holiday. School enrolment was associated with lower teen pregnancy rates [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.57 (0.50, 0.65)].This association was robust to potential misclassification of school enrolment. For those enrolled in school, pregnancy occurred less commonly during school term than during school holidays [incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.90 (0.78, 1.04)]. Young women who drop out of school may be at higher risk for teen pregnancy and could likely benefit from receipt of accessible and high quality sexual health services. Preventive interventions designed to keep young women in school or addressing the underlying causes of dropout may also help reduce the incidence of teen pregnancy. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Julia Ruiz Di Giovanni
Full Text Available The proposal of this text is to present the questions raised by the World March of Women participation in the III Intercontinental Youth Camp. The activities and actions put forward by young feminists from all continents reveal that the experiences of this new political generation update and renew the fundamental questions of womens movements organising.
Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina
This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose. Hypercholesterolaemia is a highly prevalent condition that has major health- and cost-related implications for the society. Aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in healthy young women. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the impact of 9 weeks of low-high aerobic-type exercise on the lipid profile among young women. Methods. On the basis of the lipid profile, 64 women (median age, 21.8 years; range, 19.0-24.7 years were divided into two groups: with low (LRH and intermediate (IRH risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. The participants completed a 9-week-long low-high aerobic exercise programme. Before and after the training programme, we determined the lipid profile: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipoprotein cholesterol: HDL-C and LDL-C, and glucose levels. Selected cardiorespiratory fitness variables and body composition were also determined. Results. It was found that aerobic-type fitness exercise in the IRH group caused statistically significant decreases in TC and TG levels in comparison with baseline values. Significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake and decrease in HDL-C in the LRH group were also observed. Conclusions. Aerobic fitness exercises, a combination of two alternating styles, could influence the blood lipid profile by decreasing plasma TC and TG levels. In non-athlete women, physical activity may be a good tool to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Basro, Sarinah; Apffelstaedt, Justus P
Despite the higher incidence of breast cancer in young women in developing countries, there is a paucity of data on their management. We present the clinicopathological features and outcome of treatment of women 35 years or younger with breast cancer in a resource-restricted environment. A total of 141 patients who were diagnosed with primary breast cancer at 35 years or younger from January 2000 to June 2008 were retrieved from the cancer registry of a breast clinic at a tertiary hospital and a private breast health center in South Africa. Clinicopathological features, treatment, and survival were analyzed. Two patients presented with TNM stage 0 (1.4%), 14 with stage I (9.9%), 47 with stage II (33.35%), 47 with stage III (33.3%), and 31 with stage IV (21.9%). Tumor grade was 3 in 47%, grade 2 in 37%, and grade 1 in 16% of patients. One hundred and four patients with stage 0-III disease underwent treatment with curative intent, 83 had a mastectomy, and 12 had breast-conserving surgery. Ninety patients (86.5%) had chemotherapy, 68 (65.4%) had radiotherapy, and 50 (48.1%) had hormonal therapy. Of 93 patients who completed primary therapy, 4 developed contralateral cancers, 3 had locoregional recurrence, 8 developed synchronous locoregional and distant recurrence, and 19 relapsed with distant metastasis only. The 2-year disease-free and overall survival for stage 0-III disease was 48 and 56%, respectively. Young women with breast cancer in a resource-limited environment have similar adverse clinicopathological features to those in developed countries. Their disease is more advanced at presentation with poorer outcome. Increased awareness, better systemic therapy, and more comprehensive genetic studies are essential to improve the dismal outcome.
Beadle, Beth M.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Tucker, Susan L.; Outlaw, Elesyia D.; Allen, Pamela K.; Oh, Julia L.; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Tereffe, Welela; Yu, Tse-Kuan; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Litton, Jennifer K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.
Purpose Young women with breast cancer have higher locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates than older patients. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of locoregional treatment strategy, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), mastectomy alone (M), or mastectomy with adjuvant radiation (MXRT), on LRR for patients 35 years or younger. Methods and Materials Data for 668 breast cancers in 652 young patients with breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed; 197 patients were treated with BCT, 237 with M, and 234 with MXRT. Results Median follow-up for all living patients was 114 months. In the entire cohort, 10-year actuarial LRR rates varied by locoregional treatment: 19.8% for BCT, 24.1% for M, and 15.1% for MXRT (p = 0.05). In patients with Stage II disease, 10-year actuarial LRR rates by locoregional treatment strategy were 17.7% for BCT, 22.8% for M, and 5.7% for MXRT (p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, M (hazard ratio, 4.45) and Grade III disease (hazard ratio, 2.24) predicted for increased LRR. In patients with Stage I disease, there was no difference in LRR rates based on locoregional treatment (18.0% for BCT, 19.8% for M; p = 0.56), but chemotherapy use had a statistically significant LRR benefit (13.5% for chemotherapy, 27.9% for none; p = 0.04). Conclusions Young women have high rates of LRR after breast cancer treatment. For patients with Stage II disease, the best locoregional control rates were achieved with MXRT. For patients with Stage I disease, similar outcomes were achieved with BCT and mastectomy; however, chemotherapy provided a significant benefit to either approach. PMID:18707822
Beadle, Beth M.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Tucker, Susan L.; Outlaw, Elesyia D.; Allen, Pamela K.; Oh, Julia L.; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Tereffe, Welela; Yu, T.-K.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Litton, Jennifer K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.
Purpose: Young women with breast cancer have higher locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates than older patients. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of locoregional treatment strategy, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), mastectomy alone (M), or mastectomy with adjuvant radiation (MXRT), on LRR for patients 35 years or younger. Methods and Materials: Data for 668 breast cancers in 652 young patients with breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed; 197 patients were treated with BCT, 237 with M, and 234 with MXRT. Results: Median follow-up for all living patients was 114 months. In the entire cohort, 10-year actuarial LRR rates varied by locoregional treatment: 19.8% for BCT, 24.1% for M, and 15.1% for MXRT (p = 0.05). In patients with Stage II disease, 10-year actuarial LRR rates by locoregional treatment strategy were 17.7% for BCT, 22.8% for M, and 5.7% for MXRT (p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, M (hazard ratio, 4.45) and Grade III disease (hazard ratio, 2.24) predicted for increased LRR. In patients with Stage I disease, there was no difference in LRR rates based on locoregional treatment (18.0% for BCT, 19.8% for M; p = 0.56), but chemotherapy use had a statistically significant LRR benefit (13.5% for chemotherapy, 27.9% for none; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Young women have high rates of LRR after breast cancer treatment. For patients with Stage II disease, the best locoregional control rates were achieved with MXRT. For patients with Stage I disease, similar outcomes were achieved with BCT and mastectomy; however, chemotherapy provided a significant benefit to either approach
Johnson, Stephen; Lang, Abigail; Sturm, Mollie; O'Brien, Sarah H
To assess the proportion of iron deficiency that is not detected with a screening hemoglobin or complete blood count (CBC) alone in young women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Retrospective review of electronic medical records. Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. One hundred fourteen young women aged 9-19 years consecutively referred to a young women's hematology clinic with a complaint of heavy menstrual bleeding. Fifty-eight (50.9%) of all patients had ferritin iron deficiency. Of the 58 patients with iron deficiency, only 24 (41.4%) were anemic and 25 (46.3%) were microcytic. The sensitivity of hemoglobin alone and CBC alone for identifying women with ferritin iron deficiency if they were overweight or obese (odds ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.25-6.29) compared with patients with normal body mass index. Age at presentation for heavy menstrual bleeding, presence of an underlying bleeding disorder, and median household income were not significantly associated with iron deficiency. In adolescents with heavy menstrual bleeding, fewer than half of iron deficiency cases are detected when screening is performed with hemoglobin or blood count alone. Measuring ferritin levels in at-risk patients might allow for earlier implementation of iron therapy and improvement in symptoms. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Normal levels of ghrelin and insulin hormones play an important role in energy-balance, weight control and preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of twelve weeks physical activity with omega-3 supplementation consumption on insulin and ghrelin hormones in young women. Materials and methods: In this semi-experimental study 60 young women aged 19-25 years randomly divided into four groups including. (Exercise with supplementation, exercise alone, supplementation alone and control group. Exercise group and exercise- supplementation group followed the basketball training for 12 weeks under the supervision of skillful trainers. Supplementation group and exercise- supplementation group were asked to take 3gram omega-3 capsules per day for 12 weeks. Anthropometric indicators and blood samples were obtained in the morning after an 8-12 hr fast prior to the start of the study and again 12weeks after at the end of the study under the same conditions to measure plasma ghrelin and insulin hormones (Elisa method. Data analysis using tests of Kolmogorov-Smirnov t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA conducted through SPSS-16 software. Results: The results of ANOVA test showed that after 12 weeks of study ghrelin and insulin levels in exercise-supplement group, (P=0.000, P=0.000, exercise group (P=0.000, P=0.000, and supplement group (P=0.044, P=0.017 significantly increase and decrease respectively. But no significant changes were observed in control group for ghrelin (P=0.740 and insulin (P= 0.108 levels before and after the study. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, physical activity with omega-3 supplementation can create significant changes on the levels of ghrelin and insulin hormones in young women. These changes may help to control and prevent diabetes and its, complications.
Shelkovnikova, N V; Neimark, A I; Taranina, T S; Pichigina, A K; Molodyh, O P; Lushnikova, E L
We examined 11 women aged 19-26 years (mean age 22.5±3.5 years) with secondary amenorrhea complaining frequent urination over 1.5 years and repeatedly, but unsuccessful treated for overactive bladder and chronic cystitis. The rare cause of sustained urination disorders in young female patients of reproductive age was established: development of secondary amenorrhea caused by weight loss ("cosmetic" amenorrhea) with subsequent estrogene deficit and urogenital atrophy. Morphological examination of the bladder mucosa, an important clue to the diagnosis, helps to identify the true cause of dysuria, urogenital atrophy of the bladder mucosa, in secondary ("cosmetic") amenorrhea, and determine future course of etiopathogenic treatment of sustained dysuria in young women. The treatment is often effective in case of proper and timely diagnosis and the absence of irreversible changes.
Petersen, K R; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, S O
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine key variables in the regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during intake of low-dose oral contraceptives containing newly developed progestogens. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-four healthy young women were allocated to 12 consecutive cycles of treat......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine key variables in the regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during intake of low-dose oral contraceptives containing newly developed progestogens. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-four healthy young women were allocated to 12 consecutive cycles...... and concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor. Thrombin-antithrombin III complexes and fibrin degradation products were unchanged, signifying no effect of hormonal intake on the degree of activation of the coagulation system or the efficacy of fibrinolysis. CONCLUSION: The overall dynamic balance between...
Young British Bangladeshi women are often perceived as a marginalised, vulnerable group unlikely to succeed within the UK education system. Although achievement at GCSE level has improved significantly in recent years, female British Bangladeshis continue to be identified as an under-performing group at A-level and in higher education (Dale, 2002; Hussain, 2005). This article examines the educational experiences of a group of young British Bangladeshi women at one east London secondary school...
Hammarström, A; Janlert, U
The aim of this 5-year prospective study was to investigate the risk of future unemployment among young people who had experienced early unemployment, and to examine whether this risk was influenced by their health status. A total of 1,083 pupils in the final year of compulsory schooling were included in the cohort. The non-participation rate was 2%. At the time of a five-year follow-up, of those who were unemployed during the first two-year period, 71% of the men and 49% of the women were unemployed, had recent experience of unemployment, or were outside the labour market. The relative risk of being unemployed was 2.39 for men (95% CI 1.85-3.10) and 1.76 for women (95% CI 1.25-2.48) among those who had experienced early unemployment compared with those who had been in Youth Opportunities Programmes (YOP) or in work. Young women in YOP had the same risk of later unemployment as those who had experienced early unemployment, while young men in YOP did not have increased risk. Health status and health behaviour had only a minor influence on the risk of unemployment.
Veronika Andreevna Sumerkina
Full Text Available Aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the laboratory parameters of hemostasis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in women with metabolic syndrome, isolated abdominal obesity or with hypertension. Materials and methods. The study included 71 women aged 30 – 44 years and was conducted at laboratory study of hemostasis system, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Results. In women with abdominal obesity and arterial hypertension we found an increased levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides and a decrease in a concentration of HDL-C compared to healthy women. The study of hemostasis revealed prothrombotic changes in the form of activation of coagulation hemostasis and fibrinolysis system activity. Conclusions. The disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are very prevalent in young women with abdominal obesity and hypertension with every second woman meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome. The most pronounced signs of activation of blood coagulation markes was seen in women with abdominal obesity and hypertension. In women with the individual components of the metabolic syndrome there were no significant changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, although we saw an early signs of activation of hemocoagulation.
Ángela María Ruiz-Sternberg
Full Text Available Background: A 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58; 9vHPV vaccine was developed to expand coverage of the previously developed quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18; qHPV vaccine. Methods: Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety outcomes were assessed in Latin American participants enrolled in 2 international studies of the 9vHPV vaccine, including a randomized, double-blinded, controlled with qHPV vaccine, efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety study in young women aged 16–26 years, and an immunogenicity and safety study in girls and boys aged 9–15 years. Participants (N=5312 received vaccination at Day 1, Month 2, and Month 6. Gynecological swabs were collected regularly in young women for cytological and HPV DNA testing. Serum was analyzed for HPV antibodies in all participants. Adverse events (AEs were also monitored in all participants. Results: The 9vHPV vaccine prevented HPV 31-, 33-, 45-, 52-, and 58-related high-grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal dysplasia with 92.3% efficacy (95% confidence interval 54.4, 99.6. Anti-HPV6, 11, 16, and 18 geometric mean titers at Month 7 were similar in the 9vHPV and qHPV vaccination groups. Anti-HPV antibody responses following vaccination were higher among girls and boys than in young women. Most (>99% 9vHPV vaccine recipients seroconverted for all 9 HPV types at Month 7. Antibody responses to the 9 HPV types persisted over 5 years. The most common AEs were injection-site related, mostly of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusions: The 9vHPV vaccine is efficacious, immunogenic, and well tolerated in Latin American young women, girls, and boys. These data support 9vHPV vaccination programs in Latin America, a region with substantial cervical cancer burden. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Vaccine, Cervical cancer, Persistent infection, 9vHPV
Basnyat, Iccha; Lim, Cheryl
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake in Singapore is low among young women. Low uptake has been found to be linked to low awareness. Thus, this study aimed to understand active and passive vaccine information-seeking behavior. Furthermore, guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), this study examined young women's (aged 21-26 years) processing of information they acquired in their decision to get vaccinated. ELM postulates that information processing could be through the central (i.e., logic-based) or peripheral (i.e., heuristic-based) route. Twenty-six in-depth interviews were conducted from January to March 2016. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two meta-themes-information acquisition and vaccination decision-revealed the heuristic-based information processing was employed. These young women acquired information passively within their social network and actively in healthcare settings. However, they used heuristic cues, such as closeness and trust, to process the information. Similarly, vaccination decisions revealed that women relied on heuristic cues, such as sense of belonging and validation among peers and source credibility and likability in medical settings, in their decision to get vaccinated. The findings of this study highlight that intervention efforts should focus on strengthening social support among personal networks to increase the uptake of the vaccine.
Zhang, J G; Wang, Z H; Wang, H J; Du, W W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H R; Zhai, F Y; Zhang, B
Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods and efficaciously illustrate the impact of diet on health outcomes. This study identified the dietary patterns and determined their relationships with obesity among young Chinese women. In 2011, the China Health and Nutrition Survey included 2363 young women aged 18-44 years. Factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls identified the dietary patterns. Weight, height and waist circumstance (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. General obesity was defined as BMI ⩾28 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as WC ⩾85 cm. Four dietary patterns were identified: traditional south; traditional north; snack; and high protein. After adjusting for confounders and energy intake, women in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional south pattern were less likely to have general obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.78) and abdominal obesity (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.46-0.90). Subjects in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional north pattern had significantly greater risk of general obesity (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.38-3.74) and of abdominal obesity (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.66-3.24). The traditional south pattern of rice as the major staple food with pork and vegetable dishes is associated with lower risk of general and abdominal obesity. The traditional north pattern of high intake of wheat, other cereals and tubers is positively associated with general and abdominal obesity. This provides important information for interventions and policies addressing obesity prevention among young Chinese women.
Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela
Although substantial literature discusses sensation seeking as playing a role in the relationship between baseline heart rate and aggression, few published studies have tested the relationships among these variables. Furthermore, most prior studies have focused on risk factors of aggression in men and have largely ignored this issue in women. Two samples (n = 104; n = 99) of young adult women completed measures of resting heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression. Across the two samples of females there was no evidence for the relationships of baseline heart rate with sensation seeking or with aggression that has been consistently shown in males. Boredom susceptibility and disinhibition subscales of sensation seeking were consistently significantly correlated with aggression. The lack of significance and the small effect sizes indicate that other mechanisms are also at work in affecting aggression in young adult women. Finally, it is important to consider the type of sensation seeking in relation to aggression, as only boredom susceptibility and disinhibition were consistently replicated across samples. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Smith, Whitney; Turan, Janet M; White, Kari; Stringer, Kristi L; Helova, Anna; Simpson, Tina; Cockrill, Kate
Social norms and stigma may play important roles in reproductive health behavior and decision making among young women in the U.S. South, who disproportionately experience unintended pregnancies. No research has described the presence and manifestations of social norms and stigmas associated with unintended pregnancy and related decision making from the perspective of this population. Six focus groups and 12 cognitive interviews were conducted between December 2013 and July 2014 with 46 low-income women aged 19-24 living in Birmingham, Alabama; respondents were recruited from two public health department centers and a community college. Semistructured interview guides were used to facilitate discussion about social perceptions of unintended pregnancy and related pregnancy decisions. Sessions were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed using a theme-based approach. Participants described community expectations that pregnancy occur in the context of monogamous relationships, in which both partners are mature, educated and financially stable. However, respondents reported that unintended pregnancy outside of these circumstances was common, and that the community expected young women faced with unintended pregnancies to bear and raise their children. Women who chose to do so were viewed more positively than were women who chose abortion or adoption. The community generally considered these alternatives to parenting unacceptable, and participants discussed them in terms of negative labels, social judgment and nondisclosure. Findings suggest a need to reduce stigma and create a social environment in which young women are empowered to make the best reproductive decisions for themselves. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Gilliam, Melissa L; Berlin, Amy; Kozloski, Mike; Hernandez, Maida; Grundy, Maureen
The purpose of this study is to better understand factors influencing the age of sexual initiation among Latina youth. Prior qualitative research with young women from the target population and the existing literature determined the theoretical framework for this study. A quantitative instrument was then developed and pre-tested. We enrolled a convenience sample of predominantly Mexican-American adolescent and young adult women from the west side of Chicago. A total of 271 participants were included in the analysis. Bi-variate and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with age of first sexual intercourse. We found that personal, family, and peer/partner related factors influence the sexual decision making of these young women. Strong family expectations regarding educational attainment, negative parental messages about premarital sex and pregnancy, resistance to the influence of peers and partners, greater sense of personal control over sexual behaviors, preference for speaking Spanish, and small age difference between the young woman and her first sexual partner were all positively associated with age of sexual initiation. Among these, greater sense of personal control over behaviors was the strongest factor influencing age of sexual initiation. This study provides a model that can be used to better understand Latina sexual decision making. Our findings might also inform future programs for Latinas, as they suggest that increasing girls' feelings of personal control over decisions regarding sexual debut and helping Latino parents to communicate strong messages about educational achievement, pregnancy, and sexuality may lead to positive health behaviors.
Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann
In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.
Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan
Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…
Ito, Sanae; Ishida, Hiromi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro
Phosphorus homeostasis is determined by dietary intake, intestinal absorption, and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is considered to be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in both patients with chronic kidney diseases and healthy subjects. However, the number of studies evaluating serum FGF-23 concentrations in healthy subjects is limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between serum FGF-23 concentrations and phosphorus related factors in 182 young Japanese women (mean age, 19.5±0.4 years). We found that higher serum concentrations of inorganic phosphorus and lower serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D as well as lower fat but higher phosphorus and calcium intake were weakly but significantly associated with high serum concentrations of FGF-23, adjusted for postmenarcheal age and body weight. These results suggested that in young Japanese women, serum FGF-23 might be indicative of phosphorus nutrition status. However, it is worthy of note that maturity factors, including postmenarcheal age and physical attributes, such as body weight, might be related to serum FGF-23 concentrations.
van Bergen, D.D.; Saharso, S.
Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had
van Bergen, Diana D.; Saharso, Sawitri
Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had
Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L
OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS: In this...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young women in conflict-affected regions are at risk of a number of adverse outcomes as a result of violence, economic deterioration and the breakdown of community structures and services. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of quantitative literature reporting how key sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes among young women under the age of 20 years are affected by exposure to armed conflict; namely, sexual debut, first marriage and first birth. Increases in these outcomes among young women are all associated with potential negative public health consequences. It also examines and documents possible causal pathways for any changes seen. Methods To fit with our inclusion criteria, all reviewed studies included outcomes for comparable populations not exposed to conflict either temporally or spatially. A total of 19 studies with results from 21 countries or territories met our inclusion criteria; seven presented findings on marriage, four on fertility and eight on both of these outcomes. Only one study reporting on sexual debut met our criteria. Results Findings show clear evidence of both declines and increases in marriage and childbirth among young women in a range of conflict-affected settings. Several studies that showed increases in marriage below the age of 20 years reported that such increases were concentrated in the younger teenagers. Trends in fertility were predominantly driven by marriage patterns. Suggested causal pathways for the changes observed could be grouped into three categories: involuntary, gender and psycho-social and economic and material factors. Conclusion The review reveals a paucity of literature on the impact of conflict on SRH outcomes of young women. Further quantitative and qualitative studies are needed to explore how conflict influences SRH events in young women over both the short- and longer-term.
Rottenstreich, Misgav; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Rottenstreich, Amihai
Performance of urine pregnancy test in general adolescents' clinic reflects caregiver or woman's concern that there might be a pregnancy. We aimed to assess whether young-unmarried women in whom a negative urine pregnancy test was registered would be at increased risk of a future unintended pregnancy. The study cohort included consecutive women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015. The risk of unintended pregnancy was compared between women with a negative urine pregnancy test (n = 2774), the study group, and those in whom urine pregnancy test was not carried out (n = 126,659), the control group. During the study period, 2147 (1.7%) women experienced an unintended pregnancy. The risk of unintended pregnancy was significantly higher in patients in whom a past pregnancy test was negative 4.3% (n = 118), as compared with the control group 1.6% (n = 2028) (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.23-3.26). In multivariate analysis history of a negative pregnancy test results was an independent predictor for a future unintended pregnancy (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.63-2.52). A history of a negative pregnancy test among young conscripted women is a significant risk indicator for a future unintended pregnancy. Directed efforts should be made in this particular vulnerable group of patients.
Mossa, B; Schimberni, M; Di Benedetto, L; Mossa, S
Ovarian transposition is a highly effective surgical procedure used to preserve ovarian function in premenopausal patients with cancers requiring postoperative or primary pelvic radiotherapy. Pelvic irradiation determines severe damage of ovarian DNA and iatrogenic ovarian failure with premature menopause, necessity of long-term hormone replacement therapy and infertility. We conducted an extensive research of the literature in Medline between January 2000 and April 2015 using the key-words "ovarian transposition radiotherapy", "radiotherapy gonadal function", radiotherapy fertility sparing". The population included young women with normal ovarian function affected by cancers that required pelvic radiotherapy. We have examined 32 articles reporting on 1189 women undergoing ovarian transposition. Median age was 32.5 years, follow up was median 48 months. The procedure has been performed in patients less than 40 years of age. Surgery has been achieved by laparotomy or laparoscoy. We have analyzed effects of radiotherapy on ovarian function. The proportion of women treated by ovarian transposition preserved ovarian function was 70%. About 86% of patients did not develop ovarian cysts and in 98-99% of cases did not occur any metastatic disease. Ovarian transposition is associated with significant preservation of ovarian function and a low frequency of complications as cysts and metastasis. In 31% of cases the procedure can fail. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of ovarian transposition and the follow up. Ovarian transposition should be discussed at the time of cancer diagnosis in every premenopausal woman requiring pelvic radiotherapy.
Pompili, Assunta; Arnone, Benedetto; D'Amico, Mario; Federico, Paolo; Gasbarri, Antonella
It is well accepted that emotional content can affect memory, interacting with the encoding and consolidation processes. The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of estrogens in the interplay of cognition and emotion. Images from the International Affective Pictures System, based on valence (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral), maintaining arousal constant, were viewed passively by two groups of young women in different cycle phases: a periovulatory group (PO), characterized by high level of estrogens and low level of progesterone, and an early follicular group (EF), characterized by low levels of both estrogens and progesterone. The electrophysiological responses to images were measured, and P300 peak was considered. One week later, long-term memory was tested by means of free recall. Intra-group analysis displayed that PO woman had significantly better memory for positive images, while EF women showed significantly better memory for negative images. The comparison between groups revealed that women in the PO phase had better memory performance for positive pictures than women in the EF phase, while no significant differences were found for negative and neutral pictures. According to the free recall results, the subjects in the PO group showed greater P300 amplitude, and shorter latency, for pleasant images compared with women in the EF group. Our results showed that the physiological hormonal fluctuation of estrogens during the menstrual cycle can influence memory, at the time of encoding, during the processing of emotional information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bracken, Jennifer; Graham, Cynthia A
To identify factors involved in women's decisions to choose particular contraceptive methods and more specifically, incentives and disincentives to use three long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods: injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices/systems (IUDs/IUSs). A total of 502 women aged 18 to 30 completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire. The three most important factors in choosing a contraceptive method were: high efficacy at preventing pregnancy, protection against sexually transmitted infections, and non-interference with sexual intercourse. The most common incentives for LARC use were the high efficacy and long duration of action. Disincentives included the possibility of irregular bleeding and concerns about effects on fertility; fear of needles and pain was a particular disincentive for IUD/IUS use. Only 93 (18%) of the participants reported ever having used a LARC. Reported disincentives to LARC use (e.g., concern about effects on future fertility) indicated that many young women hold inaccurate beliefs about these methods. The relatively high proportions of women who held neutral attitudes about LARCs (21-40%, depending on the method) highlight the importance of education and contraceptive counselling to improve knowledge about the advantages of these methods.
Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C
muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (ppostural control performance (ppostural control shown by these women.