WorldWideScience

Sample records for young stars gas-phase

  1. Local anticorrelation between star formation rate and gas-phase metallicity in disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Caon, N.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M.; Cerviño, M.

    2018-06-01

    Using a representative sample of 14 star-forming dwarf galaxies in the local Universe, we show the existence of a spaxel-to-spaxel anticorrelation between the index N2 ≡ log ([N II]λ 6583/H α ) and the H α flux. These two quantities are commonly employed as proxies for gas-phase metallicity and star formation rate (SFR), respectively. Thus, the observed N2 to H α relation may reflect the existence of an anticorrelation between the metallicity of the gas forming stars and the SFR it induces. Such an anticorrelation is to be expected if variable external metal-poor gas fuels the star-formation process. Alternatively, it can result from the contamination of the star-forming gas by stellar winds and SNe, provided that intense outflows drive most of the metals out of the star-forming regions. We also explore the possibility that the observed anticorrelation is due to variations in the physical conditions of the emitting gas, other than metallicity. Using alternative methods to compute metallicity, as well as previous observations of H II regions and photoionization models, we conclude that this possibility is unlikely. The radial gradient of metallicity characterizing disc galaxies does not produce the correlation either.

  2. Young Stars with SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Adric R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, The American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Henry, Todd J., E-mail: arr@caltech.edu [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups.

  3. EXPLORING SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, GAS PHASE METALLICITY, AND STAR FORMATION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, O. Grace; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass–metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of this correlation may be used to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows) in governing chemical evolution. However, all three parameters are susceptible to biases that might affect the observed strength of the relation between them. We analyze possible sources of systematic error, including sample bias, application of signal-to-noise ratio cuts on emission lines, choice of metallicity calibration, uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity, and SFR using strong line abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. for ∼130,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and provide a detailed comparison of these diagnostics in an appendix. Using these new abundance diagnostics yields a 30%–55% weaker anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass than that reported by Mannucci et al. We find that, for all abundance diagnostics, the anti-correlation with SFR is stronger for the relatively few galaxies whose current SFRs are elevated above their past average SFRs. This is also true for the new abundance diagnostic of Dopita et al., which gives anti-correlation between Z and SFR only in the high specific star formation rate (sSFR) regime, in contrast to the recent results of Kashino et al. The poorly constrained strength of the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  4. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a

  5. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  6. Understanding Gas-Phase Ammonia Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lauren; Oberg, Karin I.; Cleeves, Lauren Ilsedore

    2017-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are dynamic regions of gas and dust around young stars, the remnants of star formation, that evolve and coagulate over millions of years in order to ultimately form planets. The chemical composition of protoplanetary disks is affected by both the chemical and physical conditions in which they develop, including the initial molecular abundances in the birth cloud, the spectrum and intensity of radiation from the host star and nearby systems, and mixing and turbulence within the disk. A more complete understanding of the chemical evolution of disks enables a more complete understanding of the chemical composition of planets that may form within them, and of their capability to support life. One element known to be essential for life on Earth is nitrogen, which often is present in the form of ammonia (NH3). Recent observations by Salinas et al. (2016) reveal a theoretical discrepancy in the gas-phase and ice-phase ammonia abundances in protoplanetary disks; while observations of comets and protostars estimate the ice-phase NH3/H2O ratio in disks to be 5%, Salinas reports a gas-phase NH3/H2O ratio of ~7-84% in the disk surrounding TW Hydra, a young nearby star. Through computational chemical modeling of the TW Hydra disk using a reaction network of over 5000 chemical reactions, I am investigating the possible sources of excess gas-phase NH3 by determining the primary reaction pathways of NH3 production; the downstream chemical effects of ionization by ultraviolet photons, X-rays, and cosmic rays; and the effects of altering the initial abundances of key molecules such as N and N2. Beyond providing a theoretical explanation for the NH3 ice/gas discrepancy, this new model may lead to fuller understanding of the gas-phase formation processes of all nitrogen hydrides (NHx), and thus fuller understanding of the nitrogen-bearing molecules that are fundamental for life as we know it.

  7. THE GAS PHASE MASS METALLICITY RELATION FOR DWARF GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND HI GAS MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2015-10-20

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMR{sub SFR}) as well as HI-gas mass (FMR{sub HI}). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMR{sub SFR} and FMR{sub HI} across the stellar mass range 10{sup 6.6}–10{sup 8.8} M{sub ⊙}, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMR{sub SFR} (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMR{sub SFR} is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10{sup −2.4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMR{sub HI}. We also find that the FMR{sub HI} is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FML{sub SFR}) and HI-gas mass (FML{sub HI}). We find that the FML{sub HI} relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FML{sub HI} relation is not improved over the FMR{sub HI} scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMR{sub HI} is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation.

  8. Dusty disks around young stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A.

    2009-01-01

    Stars are formed through the collapse of giant molecular clouds. During this contraction the matter spins up and naturally forms a circumstellar disk. Once accretion comes to a halt, these disks are relatively stable. Some disks are known to last up to 10 Myrs. Most disks however, dissipate on

  9. Understanding young stars - A history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahler, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    The history of pre-main-sequence theory is briefly reviewed. The paper of Henyey et al. (1955) is seen as an important transitional work, one which abandoned previous simplifying assumptions yet failed to incorporate newer insights into the surface structure of late-type stars. The subsequent work of Hayashi and his contemporaries is outlined, with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. Finally, the recent impact of protostar theory is discussed, and speculations are offered on future developments. 56 references

  10. Young star clusters in nearby molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, K. V.; Kuhn, M. A.; Feigelson, E. D.; Broos, P. S.; Bate, M. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    2018-06-01

    The SFiNCs (Star Formation in Nearby Clouds) project is an X-ray/infrared study of the young stellar populations in 22 star-forming regions with distances ≲ 1 kpc designed to extend our earlier MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) survey of more distant clusters. Our central goal is to give empirical constraints on cluster formation mechanisms. Using parametric mixture models applied homogeneously to the catalogue of SFiNCs young stars, we identify 52 SFiNCs clusters and 19 unclustered stellar structures. The procedure gives cluster properties including location, population, morphology, association with molecular clouds, absorption, age (AgeJX), and infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) slope. Absorption, SED slope, and AgeJX are age indicators. SFiNCs clusters are examined individually, and collectively with MYStIX clusters, to give the following results. (1) SFiNCs is dominated by smaller, younger, and more heavily obscured clusters than MYStIX. (2) SFiNCs cloud-associated clusters have the high ellipticities aligned with their host molecular filaments indicating morphology inherited from their parental clouds. (3) The effect of cluster expansion is evident from the radius-age, radius-absorption, and radius-SED correlations. Core radii increase dramatically from ˜0.08 to ˜0.9 pc over the age range 1-3.5 Myr. Inferred gas removal time-scales are longer than 1 Myr. (4) Rich, spatially distributed stellar populations are present in SFiNCs clouds representing early generations of star formation. An appendix compares the performance of the mixture models and non-parametric minimum spanning tree to identify clusters. This work is a foundation for future SFiNCs/MYStIX studies including disc longevity, age gradients, and dynamical modelling.

  11. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  12. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  13. Gas phase pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Andong Liu; Mulac, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Gas phase pulse radiolysis, a technique which can be used to study many different phenomena in chemistry and physics, is discussed. As a source of small radicals, pulse radiolysis is important to the field of chemistry, particularly to combustion and atmospheric kinetics. The reactions of 1,3-butadiene, allene, ethylene and acetylene with OH are presented. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of 1,2,3-oxadithiolan 2-oxide and thiiran 1-oxide have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry (f.v.t.–f.i.m.s.) technique in the temperature range from 1 043 to 1 404 K. The reactions are rationalized in terms of sulp...

  15. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of the four methyl and ethyl monothioacetates (5)–(8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range 883–1 404 K. The types of reactions verified were keten formation, thiono–thiolo rea...

  16. Searching for Young Stars in Cepheus C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam; Rebull, Luisa; Rutherford, Thomas; Stalnaker, Olivia; Taylor, John; Efsits, Gabriel; Harl, Linda; Keil, Shayna; Learman, Duncan; Leonard, Liam; Russell, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    We used archival Herschel Space Observatory data to search for young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Cepheus C region of the molecular cloud Cepheus OB3. Previous work by Gutermuth et al. (2009) identified 114 YSO candidates in this region based on Spitzer/IRAC data. Work by Orr et al. (2016) refined a list of approximately 300 young star candidates to 245 likely YSOs. Our initial search focused on longer infrared wavelength data – Herschel (70, 160, 250, 350, 500 μm) archival data and SCUBA (450, 850 μm) data from the literature (DiFrancesco et al. 2008). Through image inspection and catalog matching, we assembled a list of 54 candidate YSOs detected at wavelengths longer than 22 μm. For each source, we constructed a spectral energy distribution (SED) by aggregating available shorter wavelength data from the literature and assembling photometry from released PACS catalogs, preliminary SPIRE catalogs, and our own photometric measurements. We also created color-color and color-magnitude diagrams to see how these sources compared to each other, other populations of YSOs, and objects in extragalactic regions. Each source was then classified based on its SED shape and its locations on color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. From the initial list of 54 candidates, we suspect all are likely YSOs, some of which are very embedded; ~40% are likely SED Class I or 0. Approximately 20% of the 54 sources have not been previously identified. By beginning the investigation of YSOs in this region, we are adding to the body of YSO knowledge which can be used to understand the process of star formation. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  17. Gas-Phase Thermolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge; Schaumann, Ernst

    1980-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolytic decomposition of three silylated thionocarboxylic acid derivatives (2b), (3), and (8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range from 783 to 1 404 K in order to elucidate its possible...... applicability as a route to thioketens. Only very minor amounts of the expected thioketens were found, whereas the corresponding ketens were obtained as the major products. A possible mechanism for keten formation is discussed....

  18. On Fallback Disks around Young Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, M. Ali; Ertan, Ü.; Erkut, M. H.

    2006-08-01

    Some bound matter in the form of a fallback disk may be an initial parameter of isolated neutron stars at birth, which, along with the initial rotation rate and dipole (and higher multipole) magnetic moments, determines the evolution of neutron stars and the categories into which they fall. This talk reviews the possibilities of fallback disk models in explaining properties of isolated neutron stars of different categories. Recent observations of a fallback disk and observational limits on fallback disks will also be discussed.

  19. Anomalous Eclipses of the Young Star RW Aur A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzin, S.; Cheryasov, D.; Chuntonov, G.; Dodin, A.; Grankin, K.; Malanchev, K.; Nadzhip, A.; Safonov, B.; Shakhovskoy, D.; Shenavrin, V.; Tatarnikov, A.; Vozyakova, O.

    2017-06-01

    Results of UBVRIJHKLM photometry, VRI polarimetry and optical spectroscopy of a young star RW Aur A obtained during 2010-11 and 2014-16 dimming events are presented. During the second dimming the star decreased its brightness to ΔV >4.5 mag, polarization of its light in I-band was up to 30 %, and color-magnitude diagramm was similar to that of UX Ori type stars. We conclude that the reason of both dimmings is an eclipses of the star by dust screen, but the size of the screen is much larger than in the case of UXORs.

  20. Hypervelocity stars from young stellar clusters in the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, G.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.; Kroupa, P.

    2017-05-01

    The enormous velocities of the so-called hypervelocity stars (HVSs) derive, likely, from close interactions with massive black holes, binary stars encounters or supernova explosions. In this paper, we investigate the origin of HVSs as consequence of the close interaction between the Milky Way central massive black hole and a passing-by young stellar cluster. We found that both single and binary HVSs may be generated in a burst-like event, as the cluster passes near the orbital pericentre. High-velocity stars will move close to the initial cluster orbital plane and in the direction of the cluster orbital motion at the pericentre. The binary fraction of these HVS jets depends on the primordial binary fraction in the young cluster. The level of initial mass segregation determines the value of the average mass of the ejected stars. Some binary stars will merge, continuing their travel across and out of the Galaxy as blue stragglers.

  1. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. II. The NGC 6357 star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Kroupa, P.; Oh, S.

    2011-11-01

    Dynamical few-body encounters in the dense cores of young massive star clusters are responsible for the loss of a significant fraction of their massive stellar content. Some of the escaping (runaway) stars move through the ambient medium supersonically and can be revealed via detection of their bow shocks (visible in the infrared, optical or radio). In this paper, which is the second of a series of papers devoted to the search for OB stars running away from young ( ≲ several Myr) Galactic clusters and OB associations, we present the results of the search for bow shocks around the star-forming region NGC 6357. Using the archival data of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite and the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the preliminary data release of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered seven bow shocks, whose geometry is consistent with the possibility that they are generated by stars expelled from the young (~1-2 Myr) star clusters, Pismis 24 and AH03 J1725-34.4, associated with NGC 6357. Two of the seven bow shocks are driven by the already known OB stars, HD 319881 and [N78] 34. Follow-up spectroscopy of three other bow-shock-producing stars showed that they are massive (O-type) stars as well, while the 2MASS photometry of the remaining two stars suggests that they could be B0 V stars, provided that both are located at the same distance as NGC 6357. Detection of numerous massive stars ejected from the very young clusters is consistent with the theoretical expectation that star clusters can effectively lose massive stars at the very beginning of their dynamical evolution (long before the second mechanism for production of runaway stars, based on a supernova explosion in a massive tight binary system, begins to operate) and lends strong support to the idea that probably all field OB stars have been dynamically ejected from their birth clusters. A by-product of our search for bow shocks around NGC 6357 is the detection of three circular

  2. Hyperfast pulsars as the remnants of massive stars ejected from young star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2008-04-01

    Recent proper motion and parallax measurements for the pulsar PSR B1508+55 indicate a transverse velocity of ~1100kms-1, which exceeds earlier measurements for any neutron star. The spin-down characteristics of PSR B1508+55 are typical for a non-recycled pulsar, which implies that the velocity of the pulsar cannot have originated from the second supernova disruption of a massive binary system. The high velocity of PSR B1508+55 can be accounted for by assuming that it received a kick at birth or that the neutron star was accelerated after its formation in the supernova explosion. We propose an explanation for the origin of hyperfast neutron stars based on the hypothesis that they could be the remnants of a symmetric supernova explosion of a high-velocity massive star which attained its peculiar velocity (similar to that of the pulsar) in the course of a strong dynamical three- or four-body encounter in the core of dense young star cluster. To check this hypothesis, we investigated three dynamical processes involving close encounters between: (i) two hard massive binaries, (ii) a hard binary and an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) and (iii) a single stars and a hard binary IMBH. We find that main-sequence O-type stars cannot be ejected from young massive star clusters with peculiar velocities high enough to explain the origin of hyperfast neutron stars, but lower mass main-sequence stars or the stripped helium cores of massive stars could be accelerated to hypervelocities. Our explanation for the origin of hyperfast pulsars requires a very dense stellar environment of the order of 106- 107starspc-3. Although such high densities may exist during the core collapse of young massive star clusters, we caution that they have never been observed.

  3. Observational diagnostics of accretion on young stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Beate; Argiroffi, Costanza

    I present a summary of recent observational constraints on the accretion properties of young stars and brown dwarfs with focus on the high-energy emission. In their T Tauri phase young stars assemble a few percent of their mass by accretion from a disk. Various observational signatures of disks around pre-main sequence stars and the ensuing accretion process are found in the IR and optical regime: e.g. excess emission above the stellar photosphere, strong and broad emission lines, optical veiling. At high energies evidence for accretion is less obvious, and the X-ray emission from stars has historically been ascribed to magnetically confined coronal plasmas. While being true for the bulk of the emission, new insight obtained from XMM-Newton and Chandra observations has unveiled contributions from accretion and outflow processes to the X-ray emission from young stars. Their smaller siblings, the brown dwarfs, have been shown to undergo a T Tauri phase on the basis of optical/IR observations of disks and measurements of accretion rates. Most re-cently, first evidence was found for X-rays produced by accretion in a young brown dwarf, complementing the suspected analogy between stars and substellar objects.

  4. Interactions between exoplanets and the winds of young stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidotto A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topology of the magnetic field of young stars is important not only for the investigation of magnetospheric accretion, but also responsible in shaping the large-scale structure of stellar winds, which are crucial for regulating the rotation evolution of stars. Because winds of young stars are believed to have enhanced mass-loss rates compared to those of cool, main-sequence stars, the interaction of winds with newborn exoplanets might affect the early evolution of planetary systems. This interaction can also give rise to observational signatures which could be used as a way to detect young planets, while simultaneously probing for the presence of their still elusive magnetic fields. Here, we investigate the interaction between winds of young stars and hypothetical planets. For that, we model the stellar winds by means of 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Although these models adopt simplified topologies of the stellar magnetic field (dipolar fields that are misaligned with the rotation axis of the star, we show that asymmetric field topologies can lead to an enhancement of the stellar wind power, resulting not only in an enhancement of angular momentum losses, but also intensifying and rotationally modulating the wind interactions with exoplanets.

  5. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. I. NGC 6611

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Bomans, D. J.

    2008-11-01

    N-body simulations have shown that the dynamical decay of the young (~1 Myr) Orion Nebula cluster could be responsible for the loss of at least half of its initial content of OB stars. This result suggests that other young stellar systems could also lose a significant fraction of their massive stars at the very beginning of their evolution. To confirm this expectation, we used the Mid-Infrared Galactic Plane Survey (completed by the Midcourse Space Experiment satellite) to search for bow shocks around a number of young (⪉several Myr) clusters and OB associations. We discovered dozens of bow shocks generated by OB stars running away from these stellar systems, supporting the idea of significant dynamical loss of OB stars. In this paper, we report the discovery of three bow shocks produced by O-type stars ejected from the open cluster NGC 6611 (M16). One of the bow shocks is associated with the O9.5Iab star HD165319, which was suggested to be one of “the best examples for isolated Galactic high-mass star formation” (de Wit et al. 2005, A&A, 437, 247). Possible implications of our results for the origin of field OB stars are discussed.

  6. A Young Star Cluster in the Leo a Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stonkutė R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a serendipitous discovery of a star cluster in the dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A. Young age (~28 Myr and low mass (~510 M⊙ estimates are based on the isochrone fit assuming a metallicity derived for HII regions (Z = 0.0007. The color-magnitude diagrams of the stars, located in and around the cluster area, and the results of aperture photometry of the cluster itself are presented.

  7. Time-dependent Models of Magnetospheric Accretion onto Young Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, C. E.; Espaillat, C. C. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Owen, J. E. [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Adams, F. C., E-mail: connorr@bu.edu [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Accretion onto Classical T Tauri stars is thought to take place through the action of magnetospheric processes, with gas in the inner disk being channeled onto the star’s surface by the stellar magnetic field lines. Young stars are known to accrete material in a time-variable manner, and the source of this variability remains an open problem, particularly on the shortest (∼day) timescales. Using one-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations that follow the field line geometry, we find that for plausibly realistic young stars, steady-state transonic accretion occurs naturally in the absence of any other source of variability. However, we show that if the density in the inner disk varies smoothly in time with ∼day-long timescales (e.g., due to turbulence), this complication can lead to the development of shocks in the accretion column. These shocks propagate along the accretion column and ultimately hit the star, leading to rapid, large amplitude changes in the accretion rate. We argue that when these shocks hit the star, the observed time dependence will be a rapid increase in accretion luminosity, followed by a slower decline, and could be an explanation for some of the short-period variability observed in accreting young stars. Our one-dimensional approach bridges previous analytic work to more complicated multi-dimensional simulations and observations.

  8. Time-dependent Models of Magnetospheric Accretion onto Young Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C. E.; Espaillat, C. C.; Owen, J. E.; Adams, F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Accretion onto Classical T Tauri stars is thought to take place through the action of magnetospheric processes, with gas in the inner disk being channeled onto the star’s surface by the stellar magnetic field lines. Young stars are known to accrete material in a time-variable manner, and the source of this variability remains an open problem, particularly on the shortest (∼day) timescales. Using one-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations that follow the field line geometry, we find that for plausibly realistic young stars, steady-state transonic accretion occurs naturally in the absence of any other source of variability. However, we show that if the density in the inner disk varies smoothly in time with ∼day-long timescales (e.g., due to turbulence), this complication can lead to the development of shocks in the accretion column. These shocks propagate along the accretion column and ultimately hit the star, leading to rapid, large amplitude changes in the accretion rate. We argue that when these shocks hit the star, the observed time dependence will be a rapid increase in accretion luminosity, followed by a slower decline, and could be an explanation for some of the short-period variability observed in accreting young stars. Our one-dimensional approach bridges previous analytic work to more complicated multi-dimensional simulations and observations.

  9. NEW CANDIDATE ERUPTIVE YOUNG STARS IN LYNDS 1340

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kun, M.; Moór, A.; Szegedi-Elek, E. [Konkoly Observatory, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege út 15-17 (Hungary); Apai, D. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Planetary Sciences, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); O' Linger-Luscusk, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stecklum, B. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Wolf-Chase, G., E-mail: kun@konkoly.hu [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We report on the discovery of three candidate eruptive young stars, found during our comprehensive multi-wavelength study of the young stellar population of the dark cloud L1340. These stars are as follows. (1) IRAS 02224+7227 (2MASS 02270555+7241167, HH 487S) exhibited FUor-like spectrum in our low-resolution optical spectra. The available photometric data restrict its luminosity to 23 L {sub ☉} < L {sub bol} < 59 L {sub ☉}. (2) 2MASS 02263797+7304575, identified as a classical T Tauri star during our Hα survey, exhibited an EXor-type brightening in 2005 November at the time of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations of the region. (3) 2MASS 02325605+7246055, a low-mass embedded young star, associated with a fan-shaped infrared nebula, underwent an outburst between the DSS 1 and DSS 2 surveys, leading to the appearance of a faint optical nebula. Our [S II] and Hα images, as well as the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 4.5 μm images, revealed Herbig-Haro objects associated with this star. Our results suggest that amplitudes and timescales of outbursts do not necessarily correlate with the evolutionary stage of the stars.

  10. A debris disk around an isolated young neutron star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Kaplan, David L

    2006-04-06

    Pulsars are rotating, magnetized neutron stars that are born in supernova explosions following the collapse of the cores of massive stars. If some of the explosion ejecta fails to escape, it may fall back onto the neutron star or it may possess sufficient angular momentum to form a disk. Such 'fallback' is both a general prediction of current supernova models and, if the material pushes the neutron star over its stability limit, a possible mode of black hole formation. Fallback disks could dramatically affect the early evolution of pulsars, yet there are few observational constraints on whether significant fallback occurs or even the actual existence of such disks. Here we report the discovery of mid-infrared emission from a cool disk around an isolated young X-ray pulsar. The disk does not power the pulsar's X-ray emission but is passively illuminated by these X-rays. The estimated mass of the disk is of the order of 10 Earth masses, and its lifetime (> or = 10(6) years) significantly exceeds the spin-down age of the pulsar, supporting a supernova fallback origin. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks seen around ordinary young stars, suggesting the possibility of planet formation around young neutron stars.

  11. Evolution of massive stars in very young clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stothers, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The stellar content of very young galactic clusters and associations with well-determined ages has been analyzed statistically to derive information about stellar evolution at high masses. The adopted approach is semiempirical and uses natural spectroscopic groups of stars on the H-R diagram, together with the stars' apparent magnitudes. Cluster distance moduli are not used. Only the most basic elements of stellar evolution theory are required as input. For stellar aggregates with main-sequence turnups at spectral types between O9 and B2, the following conclusions have emerged: (1) O-type main-sequence stars evolve to a spectral type of B1 during core hydrogen burning; (2) most of the O-type blue stragglers are newly formed massive stars, burning core hydrogen; (3) supergiants lying redward of the turnup, as well as most, or all, of the Wolf-Rayet stars, are burning core helium; (4) Wolf-Rayet stars originally had masses greater than 30--40 M/sub sun/, while known M-type supergiants evolved from star less massive than approx.30 M/sub sun/; (5) phases of evolution following core helium burning are unobservably rapid, presumably on account of copious neutrino emission; and (6) formation of stars of high mass continues vigorously in most young clusters and association for approx.8 x 10 6 yr. The important result concerning the evolutionary status of the supergiants depends only on the total number of these stars and not on how they are distributed between blue and red types; the result, however, may be sensitive to the assumed amount of convective core overshooting. Conclusions in the present work refer chiefly to luminous stars in the mass range 10--40 M/sub sun/, belonging to aggregates in the age range (6--25) x 10 6 yr

  12. Realistic limitations of detecting planets around young active stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current planet hunting methods using the radial velocity method are limited to observing middle-aged main-sequence stars where the signatures of stellar activity are much less than on young stars that have just arrived on the main-sequence. In this work we apply our knowledge from the surface imaging of these young stars to place realistic limitations on the possibility of detecting orbiting planets. In general we find that the magnitude of the stellar jitter is directly proportional to the stellar vsini. For G and K dwarfs, we find that it is possible, for models with high stellar activity and low stellar vsini, to be able to detect a 1 MJupiter mass planet within 50 epochs of observations and for the M dwarfs it is possible to detect a habitable zone Earth-like planet in 10s of observational epochs.

  13. Unveiling hidden properties of young star clusters: differential reddening, star-formation spread, and binary fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, C.; Lima, E. F.; Bica, E.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Usually, important parameters of young, low-mass star clusters are very difficult to obtain by means of photometry, especially when differential reddening and/or binaries occur in large amounts. Aims: We present a semi-analytical approach (ASAmin) that, when applied to the Hess diagram of a young star cluster, is able to retrieve the values of mass, age, star-formation spread, distance modulus, foreground and differential reddening, and binary fraction. Methods: The global optimisation method known as adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) is used to minimise the residuals between the observed and simulated Hess diagrams of a star cluster. The simulations are realistic and take the most relevant parameters of young clusters into account. Important features of the simulations are a normal (Gaussian) differential reddening distribution, a time-decreasing star-formation rate, the unresolved binaries, and the smearing effect produced by photometric uncertainties on Hess diagrams. Free parameters are cluster mass, age, distance modulus, star-formation spread, foreground and differential reddening, and binary fraction. Results: Tests with model clusters built with parameters spanning a broad range of values show that ASAmin retrieves the input values with a high precision for cluster mass, distance modulus, and foreground reddening, but they are somewhat lower for the remaining parameters. Given the statistical nature of the simulations, several runs should be performed to obtain significant convergence patterns. Specifically, we find that the retrieved (absolute minimum) parameters converge to mean values with a low dispersion as the Hess residuals decrease. When applied to actual young clusters, the retrieved parameters follow convergence patterns similar to the models. We show how the stochasticity associated with the early phases may affect the results, especially in low-mass clusters. This effect can be minimised by averaging out several twin clusters in the

  14. PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. XVI. STAR CLUSTER FORMATION EFFICIENCY AND THE CLUSTERED FRACTION OF YOUNG STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L. Clifton; Sandstrom, Karin [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Beerman, Lori C.; Lewis, Alexia R.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Fouesneau, Morgan [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Larsen, Søren S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: lcj@ucsd.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    We use the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey data set to perform spatially resolved measurements of star cluster formation efficiency (Γ), the fraction of stellar mass formed in long-lived star clusters. We use robust star formation history and cluster parameter constraints, obtained through color–magnitude diagram analysis of resolved stellar populations, to study Andromeda’s cluster and field populations over the last ∼300 Myr. We measure Γ of 4%–8% for young, 10–100 Myr-old populations in M31. We find that cluster formation efficiency varies systematically across the M31 disk, consistent with variations in mid-plane pressure. These Γ measurements expand the range of well-studied galactic environments, providing precise constraints in an H i-dominated, low-intensity star formation environment. Spatially resolved results from M31 are broadly consistent with previous trends observed on galaxy-integrated scales, where Γ increases with increasing star formation rate surface density (Σ{sub SFR}). However, we can explain observed scatter in the relation and attain better agreement between observations and theoretical models if we account for environmental variations in gas depletion time ( τ {sub dep}) when modeling Γ, accounting for the qualitative shift in star formation behavior when transitioning from a H{sub 2}-dominated to a H i-dominated interstellar medium. We also demonstrate that Γ measurements in high Σ{sub SFR} starburst systems are well-explained by τ {sub dep}-dependent fiducial Γ models.

  15. THE ERUPTION OF THE CANDIDATE YOUNG STAR ASASSN-15QI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Dong, Subo; Chen, Ping; Jose, Jessy; Gully-Santiago, Michael [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, 100871 Beijing (China); Shappee, Benjamin J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [Caltech, MC 105-24, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Kaplan, Kyle [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mairs, Steve; Johnstone, Doug [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Smith, Martin C. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Bersier, David [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Mulders, Gijs D. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Ayani, Kazuya, E-mail: gherczeg1@gmail.com [Bisei Astronomical Observatory, 1723-70 Okura, Bisei, Ibara, Okayama 714-1411 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-10

    Outbursts on young stars are usually interpreted as accretion bursts caused by instabilities in the disk or the star–disk connection. However, some protostellar outbursts may not fit into this framework. In this paper, we analyze optical and near-infrared spectra and photometry to characterize the 2015 outburst of the probable young star ASASSN-15qi. The ∼3.5 mag brightening in the V band was sudden, with an unresolved rise time of less than one day. The outburst decayed exponentially by 1 mag for 6 days and then gradually back to the pre-outburst level after 200 days. The outburst is dominated by emission from ∼10,000 K gas. An explosive release of energy accelerated matter from the star in all directions, seen in a spectacular cool, spherical wind with a maximum velocity of 1000 km s{sup −1}. The wind and hot gas both disappeared as the outburst faded and the source returned to its quiescent F-star spectrum. Nebulosity near the star brightened with a delay of 10–20 days. Fluorescent excitation of H{sub 2} is detected in emission from vibrational levels as high as v = 11, also with a possible time delay in flux increase. The mid-infrared spectral energy distribution does not indicate the presence of warm dust emission, though the optical photospheric absorption and CO overtone emission could be related to a gaseous disk. Archival photometry reveals a prior outburst in 1976. Although we speculate about possible causes for this outburst, none of the explanations are compelling.

  16. YOUNG, ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT STARS DOMINATE DUST HEATING IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    In star-forming galaxies, dust plays a significant role in shaping the ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) spectrum. Dust attenuates the radiation from stars, and re-radiates the energy through equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), graphite, and silicates contribute to different features in the spectral energy distribution; however, they are all highly opaque in the same spectral region-the UV. Compared to old stellar populations, young populations release a higher fraction of their total luminosity in the UV, making them a good source of the energetic UV photons that can power dust emission. However, given their relative abundance, the question of whether young or old stellar populations provide most of these photons that power the IR emission is an interesting question. Using three samples of galaxies observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope and our dusty radiative transfer model, we find that young stellar populations (on the order of 100 million years old) dominate the dust heating in star-forming galaxies, and old stellar populations (13 billion years old) generally contribute less than 20% of the far-IR luminosity.

  17. Jets from Young Stars in Cygnus-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    How do you spot very young, newly formed stars? One giveaway is the presence of jets and outflows that interact with the stars environments. In a new study, scientists have now discovered an unprecedented number of these outflows in a nearby star-forming region of our galaxy.Young Stars Hard at WorkCO map of the Cygnus-X region of the galactic plane, with the grid showing the UWISH2 coverage and the black triangles showing the positions of the detected outflows. [Makin Froebrich 2018]The birth and evolution of young stars is a dynamic, energetic process. As new stars form, material falls inward from the accretion disks surrounding young stellar objects, or YSOs. This material can power collimated streams of gas and dust that flow out along the stars rotation axes, plowing through the surrounding material. Where the outflows collide with the outside environment, shocks form that can be spotted in near-infrared hydrogen emission.Though weve learned a lot about these outflows, there remain a number of open questions. What factors govern their properties, such as their lengths, luminosities, and orientations? What is the origin of the emission features we see within the jets, known as knots? What roles do the driving sources and the environments play in the behavior and appearance of the jets?A selection of previously unknown outflows discovered as a result of this survey. Click for a closer look. [Makin Froebrich 2018]To answer these questions, we need to build a large, unbiased statistical sample of YSOs from across the galactic plane. Now, a large infrared survey known as the UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for H2 (UWISH2) is working toward that goal.Jackpot in Cygnus-XIn a recent publication, Sally Makin and Dirk Froebrich (University of Kent, UK), present results from UWISH2s latest release: a survey segment targeting a 42-square-degree region in the galactic plane known as the Cygnus-X star-forming region.The teams search for shock-excited emission in Cygnus

  18. DISK-RELATED BURSTS AND FADES IN YOUNG STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, Krzysztof; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Ofek, Eran; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason

    2013-01-01

    We present first results from a new, multiyear, time domain survey of young stars in the North America Nebula complex using the Palomar Transient Factory. Our survey is providing an unprecedented view of aperiodic variability in young stars on timescales of days to years. The analyzed sample covers R PTF ≈ 13.5-18 and spans a range of mid-infrared color, with larger-amplitude optical variables (exceeding 0.4 mag root mean squared) more likely to have mid-infrared evidence for circumstellar material. This paper characterizes infrared excess stars with distinct bursts above or fades below a baseline of lower-level variability, identifying 41 examples. The light curves exhibit a remarkable diversity of amplitudes, timescales, and morphologies, with a continuum of behaviors that cannot be classified into distinct groups. Among the bursters, we identify three particularly promising sources that may represent theoretically predicted short-timescale accretion instabilities. Finally, we find that fading behavior is approximately twice as common as bursting behavior on timescales of days to years, although the bursting and fading duty cycle for individual objects often varies from year to year.

  19. Hierarchical Star Formation in Turbulent Media: Evidence from Young Star Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Adamo, A.; Messa, M. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Aloisi, A.; Bright, S. N.; Lee, J. C.; Ryon, J. E.; Ubeda, L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cook, D. O. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA (United States); Dale, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Fumagalli, M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology and Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Gallagher III, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Kahre, L. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Kim, H. [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Krumholz, M. R., E-mail: kgrasha@astro.umass.edu [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-06-10

    We present an analysis of the positions and ages of young star clusters in eight local galaxies to investigate the connection between the age difference and separation of cluster pairs. We find that star clusters do not form uniformly but instead are distributed so that the age difference increases with the cluster pair separation to the 0.25–0.6 power, and that the maximum size over which star formation is physically correlated ranges from ∼200 pc to ∼1 kpc. The observed trends between age difference and separation suggest that cluster formation is hierarchical both in space and time: clusters that are close to each other are more similar in age than clusters born further apart. The temporal correlations between stellar aggregates have slopes that are consistent with predictions of turbulence acting as the primary driver of star formation. The velocity associated with the maximum size is proportional to the galaxy’s shear, suggesting that the galactic environment influences the maximum size of the star-forming structures.

  20. Young Star May Be Belching Spheres of Gas, Astronomers Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    A young star more than 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Cepheus may be belching out spheres of gas, say astronomers who observed it with the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope. Not only is the star ejecting spheres of gas, the researchers say, but it also may be ejecting them repeatedly, phenomena not predicted by current theories of how young stars shed matter. Cepheus A star-forming region with blowups of detail In order to remain stable while accumulating matter, young stars have to throw off some of the infalling material to avoid "spinning up" so fast they would break apart, according to current theories. Infalling matter forms a thin spinning disk around the core of the new star, and material is ejected in twin "jets" perpendicular to the plane of the disk. "Twin jets have been seen emerging from many young stars, so we are quite surprised to see evidence that this object may be ejecting not jets, but spheres of gas," said Paul T.P. Ho, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The research is reported in the May 17 edition of the scientific journal Nature. The astronomers observed a complex star-forming region in Cepheus and found an arc of water molecules that act like giant celestial amplifiers to boost the strength of radio signals at a frequency of 22 GHz. Such radio-wave amplifiers, called masers, show up as bright spots readily observed with radio telescopes. "With the great ability of the VLBA to show fine detail, we could track the motions of these maser spots over a period of weeks, and saw that this arc of water molecules is expanding at nearly 20,000 miles per hour," said Ho. "This was possible because we could detect detail equivalent to seeing Lincoln's nose on a penny in Los Angeles from the distance of New York," Ho added. "These observations pushed the tremendous capabilities of the VLBA and of modern computing power to their limits. This is an extremely complex

  1. Star-formation history of very young clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    The popular idea that star formation has proceeded sequentially from lowest to highest mass members in open clusters is examined critically. For extremely young clusters, such as NGC 2264 and NGC 6530, this sequential hypothesis is a consequence of the assignment of pre-main-sequence contraction ages to all member stars. However, such ages yield a formation history which is implausible from a physical point of view, since the critical time for the onset of formation at any stellar mass is equal to the pre-main-sequence contraction time for that mass. Moreover, these ages are in conflict with the strong observational evidence that a substantial fraction of cluster members have already reached the main sequence. After reconsideration of the probable main-sequence members, the stellar ages in NGC 2264 and NGC 6530 are consistent with a variety of formation histories, and, in particular, with the view that all stellar masses form in approximately the same interval of time within a given cluster, i.e., that there is no mass-age correlation. A notion closely related to the sequential hypothesis, that the total star-formation rate increases exponentially with time, is subject to the same criticism

  2. Gemini Spectroscopic Survey of Young Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Michael; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2018-01-01

    The majority of stars form in embedded clusters. Current research into star formation has focused on either high-mass star-forming regions or low-mass star-forming regions. We present the results from a Gemini spectroscopic survey of young intermediate-mass star-forming regions. These are star forming regions selected to produce stars up to but not exceeding 8 solar masses. We obtained spectra of these regions with GNIRS on Gemini North and Flamingos-2 on Gemini South. We also combine this with near-infrared imaging from 2MASS, UKIDSS, and VVV to study the stellar content.

  3. THE BRIGHTEST YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN NGC 5253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts—Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Adamo, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Gallagher III, J. S.; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Andrews, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Smith, L. J. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Clayton, G. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S. N.; Whitmore, B. C.; Aloisi, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kim, H. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Thilker, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zackrisson, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mink, S. E. de [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chandar, R., E-mail: calzetti@astro.umass.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); and others

    2015-10-01

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a number of young, massive star clusters, the two youngest of which are centrally concentrated and surrounded by thermal radio emission (the “radio nebula”). To investigate the role of these clusters in the starburst energetics, we combine new and archival Hubble Space Telescope images of NGC 5253 with wavelength coverage from 1500 Å to 1.9 μm in 13 filters. These include Hα, Pβ, and Pα, and the imaging from the Hubble Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey). The extraordinarily well-sampled spectral energy distributions enable modeling with unprecedented accuracy the ages, masses, and extinctions of the nine optically brightest clusters (M{sub V} < −8.8) and the two young radio nebula clusters. The clusters have ages ∼1–15 Myr and masses ∼1 × 10{sup 4}–2.5 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}. The clusters’ spatial location and ages indicate that star formation has become more concentrated toward the radio nebula over the last ∼15 Myr. The most massive cluster is in the radio nebula; with a mass ∼2.5 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙} and an age ∼1 Myr, it is 2–4 times less massive and younger than previously estimated. It is within a dust cloud with A{sub V} ∼ 50 mag, and shows a clear near-IR excess, likely from hot dust. The second radio nebula cluster is also ∼1 Myr old, confirming the extreme youth of the starburst region. These two clusters account for about half of the ionizing photon rate in the radio nebula, and will eventually supply about 2/3 of the mechanical energy in present-day shocks. Additional sources are required to supply the remaining ionizing radiation, and may include very massive stars.

  4. Infrared radiative transfer in dense disks around young stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, W.R.F.

    1988-01-01

    A two-dimensional radiative transfer program has been used to determine the temperature distribution within cylindrically symmetric, centrally heated dust clouds. In particular, the disk-shaped structures observed around young luminous stars have been modeled. Changing the dust distribution in these disks primarily affected the observed morphology in the near-infrared and far-infrared, and at millimeter wavelengths. The overall cloud spectrum, however, was mainly determined by the characteristics of the grains themselves. Comparison with published far-infrared and molecular line data has indicated that the dust density can generally be modeled by a power-law distribution in r with index of -2 and an exponential in z with disk thickness proportional to 1/r. When observed nearly edge-on, scattered direct stellar radiation is observed in the polar regions in the form of comet-shaped lobes of emission. 26 references

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young star groups in NGC 300 (Rodriguez+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M. J.; Baume, G.; Feinstein, C.

    2016-08-01

    Fundamental characteristics of 1147 young star groups identified in 6 ACS/WFC fields of the galaxy NGC 300. For each group: field of the ACS/WFC, equatorial coordinates, radius, number of stars (the suffix bri indicates bright stars with F555W<25, the suffix dct indicate stars belonging to the decontaminated region, the suffixes blue and red refer to blue and red stars respectively), the magnitude of the brightest star in the group, PDMF slope with its error, and galactocentric distance. (1 data file).

  6. Relative Age Dating of Young Star Clusters from YSOVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Gibbs, John C.; Linahan, Marcella; Rebull, Luisa; Bernstein, Alexandra E.; Child, Sierra; Eakins, Emma; Elert, Julia T.; Frey, Grace; Gong, Nathaniel; Hedlund, Audrey R.; Karos, Alexandra D.; Medeiros, Emma M.; Moradi, Madeline; Myers, Keenan; Packer, Benjamin M.; Reader, Livia K.; Sorenson, Benjamin; Stefo, James S.; Strid, Grace; Sumner, Joy; Sundeen, Kiera A.; Taylor, Meghan; Ujjainwala, Zakir L.

    2018-01-01

    The YSOVAR (Young Stellar Object VARiability; Rebull et al. 2014) Spitzer Space Telescope observing program monitored a dozen star forming cores in the mid-infrared (3.6 and 4.5 microns). Rebull et al. (2014) placed these cores in relative age order based on numbers of YSO candidates in SED class bins (I, flat, II, III), which is based on the slope of the SED between 2 and 25 microns. PanSTARRS data have recently been released (Chambers et al. 2016); deep optical data are now available over all the YSOVAR clusters. We worked with eight of the YSOVAR targets (IC1396-N, AFGL 490, NGC 1333, Mon R2, GGD 12-15, L 1688, IRAS 20050+2720, and Ceph C) and the YSO candidates identified therein as part of YSOVAR (through their infrared colors or X-ray detections plus a star-like SED; see Rebull et al. 2014). We created and examined optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams of these YSO candidates to determine if the addition of optical data contradicted or reinforced the relative age dating of the clusters obtained with SED class ratios.This project is a collaborative effort of high school students and teachers from three states. We analyzed data individually and later collaborated online to compare results. This project is the result of many years of work with the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP).

  7. Metallicity of Young and Old Stars in Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Based on archived images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, stellar photometry for 105 irregular galaxies has been conducted. We have shown the red supergiant and giant branches in the obtained Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams. Using the TRGB method, distances to galaxies and metallicity of red giants have been determined. The color index ( V - I) of the supergiant branch at the luminosity level M I = -7 was chosen as the metallicity index of red supergiants. For the galaxies under study, the diagrams have been built, in which the correlation can be seen between the luminosity of galaxies ( M B ) and metallicity of red giants and supergiants. The main source of variance of the results in the obtained diagrams is, in our opinion, uncertainty inmeasurements of galaxy luminosities and star-forming outburst. The relation between metallicity of young and old stars shows that main enrichment of galaxies with metals has taken place in the remote past. Deviations of some galaxies in the obtained relation can possibly be explained with the fall of the intergalactic gas on them, although, this inconsiderably affects metallicities of the stellar content.

  8. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, David

    2017-06-01

    Chapter 2: As part of the Bluedisk survey we analyse the radial gas-phase metallicity profiles of 50 late-type galaxies. We compare the metallicity profiles of a sample of HI-rich galaxies against a control sample of HI-'normal' galaxies. We find the metallicity gradient of a galaxy to be strongly correlated with its HI mass fraction {M}{HI}) / {M}_{\\ast}). We note that some galaxies exhibit a steeper metallicity profile in the outer disc than in the inner disc. These galaxies are found in both the HI-rich and control samples. This contradicts a previous indication that these outer drops are exclusive to HI-rich galaxies. These effects are not driven by bars, although we do find some indication that barred galaxies have flatter metallicity profiles. By applying a simple analytical model we are able to account for the variety of metallicity profiles that the two samples present. The success of this model implies that the metallicity in these isolated galaxies may be in a local equilibrium, regulated by star formation. This insight could provide an explanation of the observed local mass-metallicity relation. Chapter 3 We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies

  9. Studies of Young, Star-forming Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2017-08-01

    Disks of gas and dust around forming stars - circumstellar disks - last only a few million years. This is a very small fraction of the entire lifetime of Sun-like stars, several billion years. Nevertheless, by the time circumstellar disks dissipate stars complete building up their masses, giant planets finish accreting gas, and terrestrial bodies are nearly fully grown and ready for their final assembly to become planets. Understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks are thus crucial in many contexts. Using numerical simulations as the primary tool, my thesis has focused on the studies of various physical processes that can occur throughout the lifetime of circumstellar disks, from their formation to dispersal. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 emphasize the importance of early evolution, during which time a forming star-disk system obtains mass from its natal cloud: the infall phase. In Chapter 2 and 3, I have modeled episodic outbursts of accretion in protostellar systems resulting from disk instabilities - gravitational instability and magnetorotational instability. I showed that outbursts occur preferentially during the infall phase, because the mass addition provides more favorable conditions for gravitational instability to initiate the outburst cycle, and that forming stars build up a significant fraction of their masses through repeated short-lived, episodic outbursts. The infall phase can also be important for the formation of planets. Recent ALMA observations revealed sets of bright and dark rings in circumstellar disks of young, forming stars, potentially indicating early formation of planets. In Chapter 4, I showed that infall streams can create radial pressure bumps near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk, from which vortices can form, collecting solid particles very efficiently to make initial seeds of planets. The next three chapters highlight the role of planets in setting the observational appearance and the evolution of circumstellar disks

  10. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  11. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  12. Herschel Studies of the Evolution and Environs of Young Stars in the DIGIT, WISH, and FOOSH Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; DIGIT OT Key Project Team; WISH GT Key Project Team; FOOSH OT1 Team

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has enabled us to probe the physical conditions of outer disks, envelopes, and outflows of young stellar objects, including embedded objects, Herbig Ae/Be disks, and T Tauri disks. We will report on results from three projects, DIGIT, WISH, and FOOSH. The DIGIT (Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time) program (PI: Neal Evans) utilizes the full spectral range of the PACS instrument to explore simultaneously the solid and gas-phase chemistry around sources in all of these stages. WISH (Water in Star Forming Regions with Herschel, PI Ewine van Dishoeck) focuses on observations of key lines with HIFI and line scans of selected spectral regions with PACS. FOOSH (FU Orionis Objects Surveyed with Herschel, PI Joel Green) studies FU Orionis objects with full range PACS and SPIRE scans. DIGIT includes examples of low luminosity protostars, while FOOSH studies the high luminosity objects during outburst states. Rotational ladders of highly excited CO and OH emission are detected in both disks and protostars. The highly excited lines are more commonly seen in the embedded phases, where there appear to be two temperature components. Intriguingly, water is frequently detected in spectra of embedded sources, but not in the disk spectra. In addition to gas features, we explore the extent of the newly detected 69 um forsterite dust feature in both T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars. When analyzed along with the Spitzer-detected dust features, these provide constraints on a population of colder crystalline material. We will present some models of individual sources, as well as some broad statistics of the emission from these stages of star and planet formation.

  13. FAKE STAR FORMATION BURSTS: BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS MASQUERADE AS YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN OPTICAL INTEGRATED LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocvirk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Model color-magnitude diagrams of low-metallicity globular clusters (GCs) usually show a deficit of hot evolved stars with respect to observations. We investigate quantitatively the impact of such modeling inaccuracies on the significance of star formation history reconstructions obtained from optical integrated spectra. To do so, we analyze the sample of spectra of galactic globular clusters of Schiavon et al. with STECKMAP (Ocvirk et al.), and the stellar population models of Vazdekis et al. and Bruzual and Charlot, and focus on the reconstructed stellar age distributions. First, we show that background/foreground contamination correlates with E(B - V), which allows us to define a clean subsample of uncontaminated GCs, on the basis of an E(B - V) filtering. We then identify a 'confusion zone' where fake young bursts of star formation pop up in the star formation history although the observed population is genuinely old. These artifacts appear for 70%-100% of cases depending on the population model used, and contribute up to 12% of the light in the optical. Their correlation with the horizontal branch (HB) ratio indicates that the confusion is driven by HB morphology: red HB clusters are well fitted by old stellar population models while those with a blue HB require an additional hot component. The confusion zone extends over [Fe/H] = [ - 2, - 1.2], although we lack the data to probe extreme high and low metallicity regimes. As a consequence, any young starburst superimposed on an old stellar population in this metallicity range could be regarded as a modeling artifact, if it weighs less than 12% of the optical light, and if no emission lines typical of an H II region are present. This work also provides a practical method for constraining HB morphology from high signal to noise integrated light spectroscopy in the optical. This will allow post-asymptotic giant branch evolution studies in a range of environments and at distances where resolving stellar populations

  14. Maser Emission Associated with Young High Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Khaled Abdalla Edris

    In this work the maser emission has been used to study the very early stage evolution of the young stars. The maser emission of OH molecule was searched for towards a sample of high mass protostellar objects using the Nançay and GBT telescopes. The sample of objects searched was selected to contain very young forming high mass stars. The results of this survey have been compared with previous H2O and CH3OH masers observations. Then MERLIN has been used to map the OH as well as H2O and CH3OH masers towards one of these sources in high angular resolution. The survey detected OH maser emission towards 63 objects with 37 new detections. There are 56 star forming regions and 7 OH/IR candidates. The detection of OH masers towards 26% of a sample of 217 sources should remove any doubt about the existence of OH maser emission towards these objects of this early evolutionary stage. Nearly half of the detected sources have OH fluxes rates and velocity range support the spatial association of OH and class II CH3OH masers as suggested by Caswell et al. [1995] and modelled by Cragg et al. [2002]. IRAS20126+4104 was mapped in the OH, water and methanol masers using MERLIN. The 1665-MHz OH, 22-GHz H2O and 6.7-GHz CH3OH masers are detected and all originate very close to the central source. The OH and methanol masers appear to trace part of the circumstellar disk around the central source. The positions and velocities of the OH masers are consistent with Keplerian rotation around a central mass of ˜5Msun. The water masers are offset from the OH and CH3OH masers and have significantly changed since they were last observed, but still appear to be associated outflow from the source. All the OH masers components are circular polarized, in some cases reaching 100 percent while some OH components also have low levels of linear polarization. We identified one Zeeman pair and the splitting of this pair indicate the presence of a magnetic field of strength ˜11 mG within ˜0.5" (850 AU

  15. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time: Searching for Young Stars in K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nathan Ryan; Mann, Andrew; Rizzuto, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Observations of planetary systems around young stars provide insight into the early stages of planetary system formation. Nearby young open clusters such as the Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe provide important benchmarks for the properties of stellar systems in general. These clusters are all known to be less than 1 Gyr old, making them ideal targets for a survey of young planetary systems. Few transiting planets have been detected around clusters stars, however, so this alone is too small of a sample. K2, the revived Kepler mission, has provided a vast number of light curves for young stars in clusters and elsewhere in the K2 field. This provides us with the opportunity to extend the sample of young systems to field stars while calibrating with cluster stars. We compute rotational periods from starspot patterns for ~36,000 K2 targets and use gyrochronological relationships derived from cluster stars to determine their ages. From there, we have begun searching for planets around young stars outside the clusters with the ultimate goal of shedding light on how planets and planetary systems evolve in their early, most formative years.

  16. Young Cluster Berkeley 59: Properties, Evolution, and Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Neelam; Pandey, A. K.; Samal, Manash R.; Battinelli, Paolo; Ogura, K.; Ojha, D. K.; Chen, W. P.; Singh, H. P.

    2018-01-01

    Berkeley 59 is a nearby (∼1 kpc) young cluster associated with the Sh2-171 H II region. We present deep optical observations of the central ∼2.5 × 2.5 pc2 area of the cluster, obtained with the 3.58 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. The V/(V–I) color–magnitude diagram manifests a clear pre-main-sequence (PMS) population down to ∼0.2 M ⊙. Using the near-infrared and optical colors of the low-mass PMS members, we derive a global extinction of A V = 4 mag and a mean age of ∼1.8 Myr, respectively, for the cluster. We constructed the initial mass function and found that its global slopes in the mass ranges of 0.2–28 M ⊙ and 0.2–1.5 M ⊙ are ‑1.33 and ‑1.23, respectively, in good agreement with the Salpeter value in the solar neighborhood. We looked for the radial variation of the mass function and found that the slope is flatter in the inner region than in the outer region, indicating mass segregation. The dynamical status of the cluster suggests that the mass segregation is likely primordial. The age distribution of the PMS sources reveals that the younger sources appear to concentrate close to the inner region compared to the outer region of the cluster, a phenomenon possibly linked to the time evolution of star-forming clouds. Within the observed area, we derive a total mass of ∼103 M ⊙ for the cluster. Comparing the properties of Berkeley 59 with other young clusters, we suggest it resembles more closely the Trapezium cluster.

  17. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF YOUNG STARS IN IC 348: THE ROLE OF DISKS IN ANGULAR MOMENTUM EVOLUTION OF YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blanc, Thompson S.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Covey, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical work suggests that a young star's angular momentum content and rotation rate may be strongly influenced by magnetic interactions with its circumstellar disk. A generic prediction of these 'disk-locking' theories is that a disk-locked star will be forced to co-rotate with the Keplerian angular velocity of the inner edge of the disk; that is, the disk's inner-truncation radius should equal its co-rotation radius. These theories have also been interpreted to suggest a gross correlation between young stars' rotation periods and the structural properties of their circumstellar disks, such that slowly rotating stars possess close-in disks that enforce the star's slow rotation, whereas rapidly rotating stars possess anemic or evacuated inner disks that are unable to brake the stars and instead the stars spin up as they contract. To test these expectations, we model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 33 young stars in IC 348 with known rotation periods and infrared excesses indicating the presence of circumstellar disks. For each star, we match the observed SED, typically sampling 0.6-8.0 μm, to a grid of 200,000 pre-computed star+disk radiative transfer models, from which we infer the disk's inner-truncation radius. We then compare this truncation radius to the disk's co-rotation radius, calculated from the star's measured rotation period. We do not find obvious differences in the disk truncation radii of slow rotators versus rapid rotators. This holds true both at the level of whether close-in disk material is present at all, and in analyzing the precise location of the inner disk edge relative to the co-rotation radius among the subset of stars with close-in disk material. One interpretation is that disk locking is unimportant for the IC 348 stars in our sample. Alternatively, if disk locking does operate, then it must operate on both the slow and rapid rotators, potentially producing both spin-up and spin-down torques, and the transition from the

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in disks around young solar-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geers, Vincent Carlo

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we study the dust around solar-type young stars. In particular, we focus on one specific species of dust, namely the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), a family of large molecules, or small grains, that are widely observed in nearby star-forming regions. We address the following

  19. The Structure of the Young Star Cluster NGC 6231. II. Structure, Formation, and Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Michael A.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Sills, Alison; Gromadzki, Mariusz; Medina, Nicolás; Borissova, Jordanka; Kurtev, Radostin

    2017-12-01

    The young cluster NGC 6231 (stellar ages ˜2-7 Myr) is observed shortly after star formation activity has ceased. Using the catalog of 2148 probable cluster members obtained from Chandra, VVV, and optical surveys (Paper I), we examine the cluster’s spatial structure and dynamical state. The spatial distribution of stars is remarkably well fit by an isothermal sphere with moderate elongation, while other commonly used models like Plummer spheres, multivariate normal distributions, or power-law models are poor fits. The cluster has a core radius of 1.2 ± 0.1 pc and a central density of ˜200 stars pc-3. The distribution of stars is mildly mass segregated. However, there is no radial stratification of the stars by age. Although most of the stars belong to a single cluster, a small subcluster of stars is found superimposed on the main cluster, and there are clumpy non-isotropic distributions of stars outside ˜4 core radii. When the size, mass, and age of NGC 6231 are compared to other young star clusters and subclusters in nearby active star-forming regions, it lies at the high-mass end of the distribution but along the same trend line. This could result from similar formation processes, possibly hierarchical cluster assembly. We argue that NGC 6231 has expanded from its initial size but that it remains gravitationally bound.

  20. A Multi-Fiber Spectroscopic Search for Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerincs, Jacqueline; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    We present here results of a low resolution spectroscopic followup of candidate low-mass pre-main sequence stars in the Orion OB1 association. Our targets were selected from the CIDA Variability Survey of Orion (CVSO), and we used the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS) on the Magellan Clay 6.5m telescope to obtain spectra of 500 candidate T Tauri stars distributed in seven 0.5 deg diameter fields, adding to a total area of ~5.5 deg2. We identify young stars by looking at the distinctive Hα 6563 Å emission and Lithium Li I 6707 Å absorption features characteristic of young low mass pre-main sequence stars. Furthermore, by measuring the strength of their Hα emission lines, confirmed T Tauri stars can be classified as either Classical T Tauris (CTTS) or Weak-line T Tauris (WTTS), which give indication of whether the star is actively accreting material from a gas and dust disk surrounding the star, which may be the precursor of a planetary system. We confirm a total of 90 T Tauri stars, of which 50% are newly identified young members of Orion; out of the 49 new detections,15 are accreting CTTS, and of these all but one are found in the OB1b sub-region. This result is in line with our previous findings that this region is much younger than the more extended Orion OB1a sub-association. The M2FS results add to our growing census of young stars in Orion, that is allowing us to characterize in a systematic and consistent way the distribution of stellar ages across the entire complex, in order to building a complete picture of star formation in this, one of nearest most active sites of star birth.

  1. An Introduction to the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Claire

    2017-11-01

    'An Introduction to the Gas Phase' is adapted from a set of lecture notes for a core first year lecture course in physical chemistry taught at the University of Oxford. The book is intended to give a relatively concise introduction to the gas phase at a level suitable for any undergraduate scientist. After defining the gas phase, properties of gases such as temperature, pressure, and volume are discussed. The relationships between these properties are explained at a molecular level, and simple models are introduced that allow the various gas laws to be derived from first principles. Finally, the collisional behaviour of gases is used to explain a number of gas-phase phenomena, such as effusion, diffusion, and thermal conductivity.

  2. Periodic light variations of young stars U X Orion and S U Auriga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minikulov, N.Kh.; Abdulloev, S.Kh.

    2007-01-01

    The light curves of young variable stars U X Orion and S U Auriga are created from archive data of Institute of Astrophysics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan and other sources. It is established that periodic light variations of young stars U X Orion and S U Auriga occurs to duration of 36.4 and 29.8 years, accordingly. It is supposed that such periodic light variations are connected with existence a planetary system around these stars

  3. Absence of young white dwarf companions to five technetium stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.V.; Lambert, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    A search for hot companions to five stars of type MS and S has been carried out using the IUE satellite. No hot companions were detected for the MS stars HR 85, 4647, 6702, and 8062, and the S star HR 8714. Limits on the luminosities of possible white dwarf companions provide lower limits of 2-5x10 to the 8th yr to the ages of any degenerate companions. All five stars exhibit strong Tc I lines, and the presence of technetium, with a half-life of 2.1x10 to the 5th yr, signifies recent nucleosynthesis. The limits on the ages of possible white dwarf companions that are equal to or greater than 1000 half-lives of Tc exclude the possibility that the s-process elemental enhancement seen in these MS and S stars resulted from mass transfer from a more highly evolved companion (as is probably the mechanism by which barium stars are created). These MS and S stars represent a sample of true thermally pulsing asymptotic giant-branch stars. 41 references.

  4. X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XMM-Newton View of Eight Young Open Star Clusters. 395 ... Multi-wavelength surveys of young open clusters provide an effective way to iden- tify young cluster .... First, the input images were built in two energy ranges, a soft band (0.3–2.0 keV) and ..... 3.2 Color-magnitude diagram of X-ray sources with NIR counterparts.

  5. A KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE GALACTIC YOUNG STAR CLUSTER NGC 7380

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W. P.; Chen, C. W.; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, Saurabh; Chen Li; Sperauskas, J.; Ogura, K.; Chuang, R. J.; Boyle, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present proper motions, radial velocities, and a photometric study of the Galactic open cluster NGC 7380, which is associated with prominent emission nebulosity and dark molecular clouds. On the basis of the sample of highly probable member stars, the star cluster is found to be at a distance of 2.6 ± 0.4 kpc, has an age of around 4 Myr, and a physical size of ∼6 pc across with a tidal structure. The binary O-type star DH Cep is a member of the cluster in its late stage of clearing the surrounding material, and may have triggered the ongoing star formation in neighboring molecular clouds which harbor young stars that are coeval and comoving with, but not gravitationally bound by, the star cluster.

  6. Observations of Hα-emission stars in the young cluster NGC 2264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydgren, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    UBVRI photometry is given for a sample of 25 late-type Hα-emission stars in the young cluster NGC 2264. The stars are in the magnitude range 12< or =V<16. Some but not all appear to be T Tauri stars. The color--color diagrams support the view that the deviations from normal photospheric colors (due to ''spectral veiling'' and line emission) decrease with increasing wavelength between the U and I filters. In the (V, V-R) diagram, the Hα-emission stars lie in a well-defined pre-main-sequence band. Within this sample, there is a trend toward stronger line emission and spectral veiling with later spectral type. All of the likely legitimate T Tauri stars have inferred spectral types later than about K3. The question of cluster membership for stars in the cluster field with very small proper motions is considered

  7. Intermediate-mass Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Reveal Neutron Star Kicks by Asymmetric Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Morii, Mikio; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei; Mori, Koji; Müller, Ewald; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The birth properties of neutron stars (NSs) yield important information about the still-debated physical processes that trigger the explosion as well as on intrinsic neutron-star physics. These properties include the high space velocities of young neutron stars with average values of several 100 km s‑1, with an underlying “kick” mechanism that is not fully clarified. There are two competing possibilities that could accelerate NSs during their birth: anisotropic ejection of either stellar debris or neutrinos. Here we present new evidence from X-ray measurements that chemical elements between silicon and calcium in six young gaseous supernova remnants are preferentially expelled opposite to the direction of neutron star motion. There is no correlation between the kick velocities and magnetic field strengths of these neutron stars. Our results support a hydrodynamic origin of neutron-star kicks connected to asymmetric explosive mass ejection, and they conflict with neutron-star acceleration scenarios that invoke anisotropic neutrino emission caused by particle and nuclear physics in combination with very strong neutron-star magnetic fields.

  8. Veiling and Accretion Around the Young Binary Stars S and VV Corona Australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kendall; Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian

    2018-01-01

    S CrA and VV CrA are two young binary star systems with separations of 170 AU and 250 AU, respectively, in the southern star-forming region Corona Australis. The spectral types of the four stars in these two systems are similar, approximately K7 to M1, hence the stellar masses are also similar. The study of young stars just emerging from their natal cloud cores at the very limits of observability allows us to probe the extreme environments in which planet formation begins to occur. Stars in this early evolutionary stage can have circumstellar or circumbinary disks, and sometimes remnants of the envelopes which surrounded them during the protostellar stage. Envelopes accrete onto disks and disks in turn accrete onto the central stars, triggering elevated continuum emission, line emission, outflows, and stellar winds. This violent stage marks the onset of the epoch of planet formation. Using high-resolution near-infrared, H-band spectroscopy from the Keck II telescope using the NIRSPEC instrument over 4-6 epochs, we are probing the chaotic environment surrounding the four stars in these systems. We determine the spectral types for VV CrA A and B for the first time, and examine the variable veiling and emission occurring around each of these stars. This research was supported in part by NSF grants AST-1461200 and AST-1313399.

  9. Young stellar population and star formation history ofW4 HII region/Cluster Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Neelam

    2018-04-01

    The HII region/cluster complex has been a subject of numerous investigations to study the feedback effect of massive stars on their surroundings. Massive stars not only alter the morphology of the parental molecular clouds, but also influence star formation, circumstellar disks and the mass function of low-mass stars in their vicinity. However, most of the studies of low-mass stellar content of the HII regions are limited only to the nearby regions. We study the star formation in the W4 HII region using deep optical observations obtained with the archival data from Canada - France - Hawaii Telescope, Two-Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and Chandra. We investigate the spatial distribution of young stellar objects in the region, their association with the remnant molecular clouds, and search for the clustering to establish the sites of recent star formation. Our analysis suggests that the influence of massive stars on circumstellar disks is significant only to thei! r immediate neighborhood. The spatial correlation of the young stars with the distribution of gas and dust of the complex indicate that the clusters would have formed in a large filamentary cloud. The observing facilities at the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT), providing high-resolution spectral and imaging capabilities, will fulfill the major objectives in the study of HII regions.

  10. Dynamical evolution of stars and gas of young embedded stellar sub-clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Alison; Rieder, Steven; Scora, Jennifer; McCloskey, Jessica; Jaffa, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    We present simulations of the dynamical evolution of young embedded star clusters. Our initial conditions are directly derived from X-ray, infrared, and radio observations of local systems, and our models evolve both gas and stars simultaneously. Our regions begin with both clustered and extended distributions of stars, and a gas distribution which can include a filamentary structure in addition to gas surrounding the stellar subclusters. We find that the regions become spherical, monolithic, and smooth quite quickly, and that the dynamical evolution is dominated by the gravitational interactions between the stars. In the absence of stellar feedback, the gas moves gently out of the centre of our regions but does not have a significant impact on the motions of the stars at the earliest stages of cluster formation. Our models at later times are consistent with observations of similar regions in the local neighbourhood. We conclude that the evolution of young proto-star clusters is relatively insensitive to reasonable choices of initial conditions. Models with more realism, such as an initial population of binary and multiple stars and ongoing star formation, are the next step needed to confirm these findings.

  11. DYNAMICAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF THE YOUNG B-STARS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perets, Hagai B.; Gualandris, Alessia

    2010-01-01

    Regular star formation is thought to be inhibited close to the massive black hole (MBH) in the Galactic center. Nevertheless, tens of young main-sequence B-stars have been observed in an isotropic distribution close to it. These stars are observed to have an apparently continuous distribution from very close to the MBH (<0.01 pc) and up to at least ∼0.5 pc, suggesting a common origin. Various models have been suggested for the formation of the B-stars closest to the MBH (<0.05 pc; the S-stars), typically involving the migration of these stars from their original birthplace to their currently observed position. Here, we explore the orbital phase space distribution of the B-stars throughout the central parsec expected from the various suggested models for the origin of the B-stars. We find that most of these models have difficulties in explaining, by themselves, both the population of the S-stars (<0.05 pc) and the population of the young B-stars further away (up to 0.5 pc). Most models grossly overpredict the number of B-stars up to 0.5 pc, given the observed number of S-stars. Such models include the intermediate-mass black hole assisted cluster inspiral scenario, Kozai-like perturbations by two disks, spiral density waves migration in a gaseous disk, and some of the eccentric disk instability models. We focus on one of the other models, the massive perturbers induced binary disruption, which is consistent with both the S-stars and the extended population of B-stars further away. For this model, we use analytical arguments and N-body simulations to provide further observational predictions. These could be compared with future observations to further support this model, constrain it, or refute it. These predictions include the radial distribution of the young B-stars, their eccentricity distribution, and its dependence on distance from the MBH (higher eccentricities at larger distances from the MBH), as well as less specific expectations regarding their mass

  12. PROGRESSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE YOUNG GALACTIC SUPER STAR CLUSTER NGC 3603

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccari, Giacomo; Spezzi, Loredana; De Marchi, Guido; Andersen, Morten; Paresce, Francesco; Young, Erick; Panagia, Nino; Bond, Howard; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C. Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Saha, Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    Early Release Science observations of the cluster NGC 3603 with the WFC3 on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope allow us to study its recent star formation history. Our analysis focuses on stars with Hα excess emission, a robust indicator of their pre-main sequence (PMS) accreting status. The comparison with theoretical PMS isochrones shows that 2/3 of the objects with Hα excess emission have ages from 1 to 10 Myr, with a median value of 3 Myr, while a surprising 1/3 of them are older than 10 Myr. The study of the spatial distribution of these PMS stars allows us to confirm their cluster membership and to statistically separate them from field stars. This result establishes unambiguously for the first time that star formation in and around the cluster has been ongoing for at least 10-20 Myr, at an apparently increasing rate.

  13. M-dwarf rapid rotators and the detection of relatively young multiple M-star systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.

    2014-01-01

    We have searched the Kepler light curves of ∼3900 M-star targets for evidence of periodicities that indicate, by means of the effects of starspots, rapid stellar rotation. Several analysis techniques, including Fourier transforms, inspection of folded light curves, 'sonograms', and phase tracking of individual modulation cycles, were applied in order to distinguish the periodicities due to rapid rotation from those due to stellar pulsations, eclipsing binaries, or transiting planets. We find 178 Kepler M-star targets with rotation periods, P rot , of <2 days, and 110 with P rot < 1 day. Some 30 of the 178 systems exhibit two or more independent short periods within the same Kepler photometric aperture, while several have 3 or more short periods. Adaptive optics imaging and modeling of the Kepler pixel response function for a subset of our sample support the conclusion that the targets with multiple periods are highly likely to be relatively young physical binary, triple, and even quadruple M star systems. We explore in detail the one object with four incommensurate periods all less than 1.2 days, and show that two of the periods arise from one of a close pair of stars, while the other two arise from the second star, which itself is probably a visual binary. If most of these M-star systems with multiple periods turn out to be bound M stars, this could prove a valuable way discovering young hierarchical M-star systems; the same approach may also be applicable to G and K stars. The ∼5% occurrence rate of rapid rotation among the ∼3900 M star targets is consistent with spin evolution models that include an initial contraction phase followed by magnetic braking, wherein a typical M star can spend several hundred Myr before spinning down to periods longer than 2 days.

  14. Detection of X-ray emission from the young low-mass star Rossiter 137B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhu, O.; Linsky, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    Rst 137B, a close M-dwarf companion to the active K-star HD 36705, has been detected in a High Resolution Image in the Einstein Observatory Archive. The X-ray surface fluxes (0.2-4 keV) from both stars are close to the empirical saturation level, F(x)/F(bol) of about 0.001, defined by rapid rotators and very young stars. This supports the earlier results of the youthfulness of the system. This young couple is an excellent subject for studies of dependence of early evolution on stellar mass. Rst 137B is one of the latest spectral types and thus lowest-mass premain-sequence stars yet detected as an X-ray source.

  15. IDENTIFYING THE YOUNG LOW-MASS STARS WITHIN 25 pc. II. DISTANCES, KINEMATICS, AND GROUP MEMBERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Anglada-Escude, Guillem [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Reid, I. Neill [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: shkolnik@lowell.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-10

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of {approx}<300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of {approx}<25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young ({approx}<3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and {beta} Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages {approx}<150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event.

  16. The Hierarchical Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in Six Local Star-forming Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Adamo, A.; Messa, M. [Dept. of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, H. [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hts., NY (United States); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, D. A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Fumagalli, M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology and Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Grebel, E. K.; Shabani, F. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Johnson, K. E. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Kahre, L. [Dept. of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pellerin, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Geneseo, Geneseo NY (United States); Ryon, J. E.; Ubeda, L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Smith, L. J. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thilker, D., E-mail: kgrasha@astro.umass.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We present a study of the hierarchical clustering of the young stellar clusters in six local (3–15 Mpc) star-forming galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey). We identified 3685 likely clusters and associations, each visually classified by their morphology, and we use the angular two-point correlation function to study the clustering of these stellar systems. We find that the spatial distribution of the young clusters and associations are clustered with respect to each other, forming large, unbound hierarchical star-forming complexes that are in general very young. The strength of the clustering decreases with increasing age of the star clusters and stellar associations, becoming more homogeneously distributed after ∼40–60 Myr and on scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. In all galaxies, the associations exhibit a global behavior that is distinct and more strongly correlated from compact clusters. Thus, populations of clusters are more evolved than associations in terms of their spatial distribution, traveling significantly from their birth site within a few tens of Myr, whereas associations show evidence of disruption occurring very quickly after their formation. The clustering of the stellar systems resembles that of a turbulent interstellar medium that drives the star formation process, correlating the components in unbound star-forming complexes in a hierarchical manner, dispersing shortly after formation, suggestive of a single, continuous mode of star formation across all galaxies.

  17. The Hierarchical Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in Six Local Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Dale, D. A.; Fumagalli, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Kahre, L.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Messa, M.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Shabani, F.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.

    2017-05-01

    We present a study of the hierarchical clustering of the young stellar clusters in six local (3-15 Mpc) star-forming galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey). We identified 3685 likely clusters and associations, each visually classified by their morphology, and we use the angular two-point correlation function to study the clustering of these stellar systems. We find that the spatial distribution of the young clusters and associations are clustered with respect to each other, forming large, unbound hierarchical star-forming complexes that are in general very young. The strength of the clustering decreases with increasing age of the star clusters and stellar associations, becoming more homogeneously distributed after ˜40-60 Myr and on scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. In all galaxies, the associations exhibit a global behavior that is distinct and more strongly correlated from compact clusters. Thus, populations of clusters are more evolved than associations in terms of their spatial distribution, traveling significantly from their birth site within a few tens of Myr, whereas associations show evidence of disruption occurring very quickly after their formation. The clustering of the stellar systems resembles that of a turbulent interstellar medium that drives the star formation process, correlating the components in unbound star-forming complexes in a hierarchical manner, dispersing shortly after formation, suggestive of a single, continuous mode of star formation across all galaxies.

  18. The Hierarchical Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in Six Local Star-forming Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Dale, D. A.; Fumagalli, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Shabani, F.; Johnson, K. E.; Kahre, L.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of the hierarchical clustering of the young stellar clusters in six local (3–15 Mpc) star-forming galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey). We identified 3685 likely clusters and associations, each visually classified by their morphology, and we use the angular two-point correlation function to study the clustering of these stellar systems. We find that the spatial distribution of the young clusters and associations are clustered with respect to each other, forming large, unbound hierarchical star-forming complexes that are in general very young. The strength of the clustering decreases with increasing age of the star clusters and stellar associations, becoming more homogeneously distributed after ∼40–60 Myr and on scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. In all galaxies, the associations exhibit a global behavior that is distinct and more strongly correlated from compact clusters. Thus, populations of clusters are more evolved than associations in terms of their spatial distribution, traveling significantly from their birth site within a few tens of Myr, whereas associations show evidence of disruption occurring very quickly after their formation. The clustering of the stellar systems resembles that of a turbulent interstellar medium that drives the star formation process, correlating the components in unbound star-forming complexes in a hierarchical manner, dispersing shortly after formation, suggestive of a single, continuous mode of star formation across all galaxies.

  19. Optical High-resolution Spectroscopy of 14 Young α-rich Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Tadafumi; Yong, David; Aoki, Wako; Ishigaki, Miho N.

    2018-06-01

    We report chemical abundances of 14 young α-rich stars including neutron-capture elements based on high-quality optical spectra from HIRES/Keck I and differential line-by-line analysis. From a comparison of the abundance patterns of young α-rich stars to those of nearby bright red giants with a similar metallicity range (‑0.7 branch stars plays an important role in the formation of young α-rich stars. The high frequency of radial velocity variation (more than 50%) is also confirmed. We argue that mass transfer from low-mass red giants is the likely dominant formation mechanism for young α-rich stars. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  20. GRAVITATIONAL SLINGSHOT OF YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: s.chatterjee@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is the nearest region of massive star formation and thus a crucial testing ground for theoretical models. Of particular interest among the ONC's {approx}1000 members are: {theta}{sup 1} Ori C, the most massive binary in the cluster with stars of masses 38 and 9 M{sub Sun }; the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) object, a 30 km s{sup -1} runaway star of {approx}8 M{sub Sun }; and the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula protostar, a highly obscured, {approx}15 M{sub Sun} object still accreting gas while also driving a powerful, apparently 'explosive' outflow. The unusual behavior of BN and KL is much debated: How did BN acquire its high velocity? How is this related to massive star formation in the KL nebula? Here, we report the results of a systematic survey using {approx}10{sup 7} numerical experiments of gravitational interactions of the {theta}{sup 1}C and BN stars. We show that dynamical ejection of BN from this triple system at its observed velocity leaves behind a binary with total energy and eccentricity matching those observed for {theta}{sup 1}C. Five other observed properties of {theta}{sup 1}C are also consistent with it having ejected BN and altogether we estimate that there is only a {approx}< 10{sup -5} probability that {theta}{sup 1}C has these properties by chance. We conclude that BN was dynamically ejected from the {theta}{sup 1}C system about 4500 years ago. BN then plowed through the KL massive star-forming core within the last 1000 years causing its recently enhanced accretion and outflow activity.

  1. Spectral Characteristics of Young Stars Associated with the Sh2-296 Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Beatriz; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane

    Aiming to contribute to the understanding of star formation and evolution in the Canis Major (CMa R1) Molecular Clouds Complex, we analyze the spectral characteristics of a population of young stars associated with the arc-shaped nebula Sh2-296. Our XMM/Newton observations detected 109 X-ray sources in the region and optical spectroscopy was performed with Gemini telescope for 85 optical counterparts. We identified and characterized 51 objects that present features typically found in young objects, such as Hα emission and strong absorption on the Li I line.

  2. SPIN EVOLUTION OF ACCRETING YOUNG STARS. II. EFFECT OF ACCRETION-POWERED STELLAR WINDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matt, Sean P.; Pinzón, Giovanni; Greene, Thomas P.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar-mass star interacting magnetically with an accretion disk. As in a previous paper (Paper I), the model includes changes in the star's mass and radius as it descends the Hayashi track, a decreasing accretion rate, and a prescription for the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk. Paper I concluded that, for the relatively strong magnetic coupling expected in real systems, additional processes are necessary to explain the existence of slowly rotating pre-main-sequence stars. In the present paper, we extend the stellar spin model to include the effect of a spin-down torque that arises from an accretion-powered stellar wind (APSW). For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, initial spin rates, and mass outflow rates, the modeled stars exhibit rotation periods within the range of 1-10 days in the age range of 1-3 Myr. This range coincides with the bulk of the observed rotation periods, with the slow rotators corresponding to stars with the lowest accretion rates, strongest magnetic fields, and/or highest stellar wind mass outflow rates. We also make a direct, quantitative comparison between the APSW scenario and the two types of disk-locking models (namely, the X-wind and Ghosh and Lamb type models) and identify some remaining theoretical issues for understanding young star spins.

  3. High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2010-02-11

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies.

  4. Young stars in the old galactic cluster NGC 188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veer, F. van 't

    1984-01-01

    We first briefly discuss the age of the oldest known galactic clusters, according to recently published determinations. The now definitely established membership of our W UMa type contact binaries in this cluster is difficult to understand if the age of these stars is that of the cluster. It appears therefore that these binaries are much younger and that the several episodes of star formation took place in NGC 188. This conclusion is reached after a new study of the mean density of the four contact binaries and a critical discussion of the chemical composition and the mixing length parameter. (orig.)

  5. Physical processes in circumstellar disks around young stars

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Circumstellar disks are vast expanses of dust that form around new stars in the earliest stages of their birth. Predicted by astronomers as early as the eighteenth century, they weren't observed until the late twentieth century, when interstellar imaging technology enabled us to see nascent stars hundreds of light years away. Since then, circumstellar disks have become an area of intense study among astrophysicists, largely because they are thought to be the forerunners of planetary systems like our own-the possible birthplaces of planets.            This volume brings

  6. A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Anna F.; Reiter, Megan; Kuiper, Rolf; Klaassen, Pamela D.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2018-02-01

    Highly collimated parsec-scale jets, which are generally linked to the presence of an accretion disk, are commonly observed in low-mass young stellar objects. In the past two decades, a few of these jets have been directly (or indirectly) observed from higher-mass (larger than eight solar masses) young stellar objects, adding to the growing evidence that disk-mediated accretion also occurs in high-mass stars, the formation mechanism of which is still poorly understood. Of the observed jets from massive young stars, none is in the optical regime (massive young stars are typically highly obscured by their natal material), and none is found outside of the Milky Way. Here we report observations of HH 1177, an optical ionized jet that originates from a massive young stellar object located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The jet is highly collimated over its entire measured length of at least ten parsecs and has a bipolar geometry. The presence of a jet indicates ongoing, disk-mediated accretion and, together with the high degree of collimation, implies that this system is probably formed through a scaled-up version of the formation mechanism of low-mass stars. We conclude that the physics that govern jet launching and collimation is independent of stellar mass.

  7. A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Anna F; Reiter, Megan; Kuiper, Rolf; Klaassen, Pamela D; Evans, Christopher J

    2018-02-15

    Highly collimated parsec-scale jets, which are generally linked to the presence of an accretion disk, are commonly observed in low-mass young stellar objects. In the past two decades, a few of these jets have been directly (or indirectly) observed from higher-mass (larger than eight solar masses) young stellar objects, adding to the growing evidence that disk-mediated accretion also occurs in high-mass stars, the formation mechanism of which is still poorly understood. Of the observed jets from massive young stars, none is in the optical regime (massive young stars are typically highly obscured by their natal material), and none is found outside of the Milky Way. Here we report observations of HH 1177, an optical ionized jet that originates from a massive young stellar object located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The jet is highly collimated over its entire measured length of at least ten parsecs and has a bipolar geometry. The presence of a jet indicates ongoing, disk-mediated accretion and, together with the high degree of collimation, implies that this system is probably formed through a scaled-up version of the formation mechanism of low-mass stars. We conclude that the physics that govern jet launching and collimation is independent of stellar mass.

  8. Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-28

    Stars in clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old 'globular' clusters--those with ages greater than ten billion years and masses several hundred thousand times that of the Sun--often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often suggested to be triggers of second-generation star formation. For this to occur, the initial cluster masses need to be greater than a few million solar masses. Here we report observations of three massive relatively young star clusters (1-2 billion years old) in the Magellanic Clouds that show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars if they had orbited in their host galaxies' gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial formation and the more recent bursts of star formation. This process may eventually give rise to the ubiquitous multiple stellar populations in globular clusters.

  9. Accretion Disks around Young Stars: An Observational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, F.; Bertout, C.

    Accretion disks are pivotal elements in the formation and early evolution of solar-like stars. On top of supplying the raw material, their internal conditions also regulate the formation of planets. Their study therefore holds the key to solve this long standing mystery: how did our Solar System form? This chapter focuses on observational studies of the circumstellar environment, and in particular of circumstellar disks, associated with pre-main sequence solar-like stars. The direct measurement of disk parameters poses an obvious challenge: at the distance of the typical star forming regions ( e.g. 140 pc for Taurus), a planetary system like ours (with diameter simeq50 AU out to Pluto, but excluding the Kuiper belt which could extend much farther out) subtends only 0.35''. Yet its surface brightness is low in comparison to the bright central star and high angular and high contrast imaging techniques are required if one hopes to resolve and measure these protoplanetary disks. Fortunately, capable instruments providing 0.1'' resolution or better and high contrast have been available for just about 10 years now. They are covering a large part of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the UV/Optical with HST and the near-infrared from ground-based adaptive optics systems, to the millimetric range with long-baseline radio interferometers. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge of the structure of the disks surrounding low-mass stars has made a gigantic leap forward in the last decade. In the following pages we will attempt to describe, in a historical perpective, the road that led to the idea that most solar-like stars are surrounded by an accretion disk at one point in their early life and how, nowadays, their structural and physical parameters can be estimated from direct observations. We will follow by a short discussion of a few of the constraints available regarding the evolution and dissipation of these disks. This last topic is particularly relevant today

  10. IRAS 06562-0337, The Ironclad Nebula: A New Young Star Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, D.R.; Hoard, D.W.; Rodgers, B.

    1998-01-01

    IRAS 06562-0337 has been the recent subject of a classic debate: is it a proto endash planetary nebula or a young stellar object? We present the first 2 μm image of IRAS 06562-0337, which reveals an extended diffuse nebula containing approximately 70 stars inside a 30 double-prime radius around a bright, possibly resolved, central object. The derived stellar luminosity function is consistent with that expected from a single coeval population, and the brightness of the nebulosity is consistent with the predicted flux of unresolved low-mass stars. The stars and nebulosity are spatially coincident with strong CO line emission. We therefore identify IRAS 06562-0337 as a new young star cluster embedded in its placental molecular cloud. The central object is likely a Herbig Be star, M ∼ 20 M circle-dot , which may be seen in reflection. We present medium-resolution high signal-to-noise ratio 1997 epoch optical spectra of the central object. Comparison with previously published spectra shows new evidence for time-variable permitted and forbidden line emission, including Si ii, Fe ii, [Fe ii], and [O i]. We suggest that the origin is a dynamic stellar wind in the extended stratified atmosphere of the massive central star in IRAS 06562-0337. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  11. YOUNG STARS IN AN OLD BULGE: A NATURAL OUTCOME OF INTERNAL EVOLUTION IN THE MILKY WAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ness, M.; Debattista, Victor P.; Cole, D. R.; Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Roškar, R.; Johnson, J. A.; Freeman, K.

    2014-01-01

    The center of our disk galaxy, the Milky Way, is dominated by a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. Numerous studies of the bulge based on stellar photometry have concluded that the bulge stars are exclusively old. The perceived lack of young stars in the bulge strongly constrains its likely formation scenarios, providing evidence that the bulge is a unique population that formed early and separately from the disk. However, recent studies of individual bulge stars using the microlensing technique have reported that they span a range of ages, emphasizing that the bulge may not be a monolithic structure. In this Letter we demonstrate that the presence of young stars that are located predominantly nearer to the plane is expected for a bulge that has formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. Using an N-body+ smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of a disk galaxy forming out of gas cooling inside a dark matter halo and forming stars, we find a qualitative agreement between our model and the observations of younger metal-rich stars in the bulge. We are also able to partially resolve the apparent contradiction in the literature between results that argue for a purely old bulge population and those that show a population comprised of a range in ages; the key is where to look

  12. Modeling tracers of young stellar population age in star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Emily M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Leitherer, Claus, E-mail: Emily.Levesque@colorado.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The young stellar population of a star-forming galaxy is the primary engine driving its radiative properties. As a result, the age of a galaxy's youngest generation of stars is critical for a detailed understanding of its star formation history, stellar content, and evolutionary state. Here we present predicted equivalent widths for the Hβ, Hα, and Brγ recombination lines as a function of stellar population age. The equivalent widths are produced by the latest generations of stellar evolutionary tracks and the Starburst99 stellar population synthesis code, and are the first to fully account for the combined effects of both nebular emission and continuum absorption produced by the synthetic stellar population. Our grid of model stellar populations spans six metallicities (0.001 < Z < 0.04), two treatments of star formation history (a 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} instantaneous burst and a continuous star formation rate of 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), and two different treatments of initial rotation rate (v {sub rot} = 0.0v {sub crit} and 0.4v {sub crit}). We also investigate the effects of varying the initial mass function. Given constraints on galaxy metallicity, our predicted equivalent widths can be applied to observations of star-forming galaxies to approximate the age of their young stellar populations.

  13. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION W49

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saral, G.; Hora, J. L.; Willis, S. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koenig, X. P. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Saygac, A. T., E-mail: gsaral@cfa.harvard.edu [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Astronomy and Space Sciences Department, Istanbul-Turkey (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    We present the initial results of our investigation of the star-forming complex W49, one of the youngest and most luminous massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We used Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data to investigate massive star formation with the primary objective of locating a representative set of protostars and the clusters of young stars that are forming around them. We present our source catalog with the mosaics from the IRAC data. In this study we used a combination of IRAC, MIPS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) data to identify and classify the young stellar objects (YSOs). We identified 232 Class 0/I YSOs, 907 Class II YSOs, and 74 transition disk candidate objects using color–color and color–magnitude diagrams. In addition, to understand the evolution of star formation in W49, we analyzed the distribution of YSOs in the region to identify clusters using a minimal spanning tree method. The fraction of YSOs that belong to clusters with ≥7 members is found to be 52% for a cutoff distance of 96″, and the ratio of Class II/I objects is 2.1. We compared the W49 region to the G305 and G333 star-forming regions and concluded that W49 has the richest population, with seven subclusters of YSOs.

  14. An infrared view of (candidate accretion) disks around massive young stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bik, A.; Lenorzer, A.; Thi, W.F.; Puga Antolín, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Kaper, L.; Martín-Hernández, L.N.

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared surveys of high-mass star-forming regions start to shed light onto their stellar content. A particular class of objects found in these regions, the so-called massive Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) are surrounded by dense circumstellar material. Several near- and mid-infrared diagnostic

  15. X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I. Membership and X-ray Luminosity. Himali Bhatt, J. C. Pandey, K. P. Singh, Ram Sagar & Brijesh Kumar. J. Astrophys. Astr. 34(4), December 2013, pp. 393–429, c Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary Material. Supplementary Table 3 follows.

  16. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY NEW STAR CANDIDATES IN NEARBY YOUNG STELLAR KINEMATIC GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Gagné, Jonathan; Baron, Frédérique; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method based on a Bayesian analysis to identify new members of nearby young kinematic groups. The analysis minimally takes into account the position, proper motion, magnitude, and color of a star, but other observables can be readily added (e.g., radial velocity, distance). We use this method to find new young low-mass stars in the β Pictoris and AB Doradus moving groups and in the TW Hydrae, Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations. Starting from a sample of 758 mid-K to mid-M (K5V-M5V) stars showing youth indicators such as Hα and X-ray emission, our analysis yields 214 new highly probable low-mass members of the kinematic groups analyzed. One is in TW Hydrae, 37 in β Pictoris, 17 in Tucana-Horologium, 20 in Columba, 6 in Carina, 50 in Argus, 32 in AB Doradus, and the remaining 51 candidates are likely young but have an ambiguous membership to more than one association. The false alarm rate for new candidates is estimated to be 5% for β Pictoris and TW Hydrae, 10% for Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus, and 14% for AB Doradus. Our analysis confirms the membership of 58 stars proposed in the literature. Firm membership confirmation of our new candidates will require measurement of their radial velocity (predicted by our analysis), parallax, and lithium 6708 Å equivalent width. We have initiated these follow-up observations for a number of candidates, and we have identified two stars (2MASSJ01112542+1526214, 2MASSJ05241914-1601153) as very strong candidate members of the β Pictoris moving group and one strong candidate member (2MASSJ05332558-5117131) of the Tucana-Horologium association; these three stars have radial velocity measurements confirming their membership and lithium detections consistent with young age.

  17. Are superluminous supernovae and long GRBs the products of dynamical processes in young dense star clusters?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E. P. J. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Portegies Zwart, S. F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-12-20

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) occur almost exclusively in small galaxies (Small/Large Magellanic Cloud (SMC/LMC)-like or smaller), and the few SLSNe observed in larger star-forming galaxies always occur close to the nuclei of their hosts. Another type of peculiar and highly energetic supernovae are the broad-line Type Ic SNe (SN Ic-BL) that are associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs). Also these have a strong preference for occurring in small (SMC/LMC-like or smaller) star-forming galaxies, and in these galaxies LGRBs always occur in the brightest spots. Studies of nearby star-forming galaxies that are similar to the hosts of LGRBs show that these brightest spots are giant H II regions produced by massive dense young star clusters with many hundreds of O- and Wolf-Rayet-type stars. Such dense young clusters are also found in abundance within a few hundred parsecs from the nucleus of larger galaxies like our own. We argue that the SLSNe and the SNe Ic-BL/LGRBs are exclusive products of two types of dynamical interactions in dense young star clusters. In our model the high angular momentum of the collapsing stellar cores required for the engines of an SN Ic-BL results from the post-main-sequence mergers of dynamically produced cluster binaries with almost equal-mass components. The merger produces a critically rotating single helium star with sufficient angular momentum to produce an LGRB; the observed 'metal aversion' of LGRBs is a natural consequence of the model. We argue that, on the other hand, SLSNe could be the products of runaway multiple collisions in dense clusters, and we present (and quantize) plausible scenarios of how the different types of SLSNe can be produced.

  18. Is the Young Star RZ Piscium Consuming Its Own (Planetary) Offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, K. M.; Kastner, J. H.; Melis, C.; Zuckerman, B.; Pilachowski, C.; Gingerich, L.; Knapp, T.

    2018-01-01

    The erratically variable star RZ Piscium (RZ Psc) displays extreme optical dropout events and strikingly large excess infrared emission. To ascertain the evolutionary status of this intriguing star, we obtained observations of RZ Psc with the European Space Agency’s X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton), as well as high-resolution optical spectroscopy with the Hamilton Echelle on the Lick Shane 3 m telescope and with HIRES on the Keck I 10 m telescope. The optical spectroscopy data demonstrate that RZ Psc is a pre-main sequence star with an effective temperature of 5600 ± 75 K and log g of 4.35 ± 0.10. The ratio of X-ray to bolometric luminosity, {log}{L}X/{L}{bol}, lies in the range ‑3.7 to ‑3.2, consistent with ratios typical of young, solar-mass stars, thereby providing strong support for the young star status of RZ Psc. The Li absorption line strength of RZ Psc suggests an age in the range 30–50 Myr, which in turn implies that RZ Psc lies at a distance of ∼170 pc. Adopting this estimated distance, we find the Galactic space velocity of RZ Psc to be similar to the space velocities of stars in young moving groups near the Sun. Optical spectral features indicative of activity and/or circumstellar material are present in our spectra over multiple epochs, which provide evidence for the presence of a significant mass of circumstellar gas associated with RZ Psc. We suggest that the destruction of one or more massive orbiting bodies has recently occurred within 1 au of the star, and we are viewing the aftermath of such an event along the plane of the orbiting debris.

  19. INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL MANIFESTATIONS OF YOUNG DUSTY SUPER STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiomtz@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution.

  20. INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL MANIFESTATIONS OF YOUNG DUSTY SUPER STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution

  1. NGC 1866: First Spectroscopic Detection of Fast-rotating Stars in a Young LMC Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, A. K.; Dotter, A.; Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P. [Australian National University, The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bailey, J. I. III [Leiden Observatory, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Crane, J. D. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mateo, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Olszewski, E. W. [The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations were taken of 29 extended main-sequence turnoff (eMSTO) stars in the young (∼200 Myr) Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) cluster, NGC 1866, using the Michigan/ Magellan Fiber System and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan -Clay 6.5 m telescope. These spectra reveal the first direct detection of rapidly rotating stars whose presence has only been inferred from photometric studies. The eMSTO stars exhibit H α emission (indicative of Be-star decretion disks), others have shallow broad H α absorption (consistent with rotation ≳150 km s{sup −1}), or deep H α core absorption signaling lower rotation velocities (≲150 km s{sup −1}). The spectra appear consistent with two populations of stars—one rapidly rotating, and the other, younger and slowly rotating.

  2. DD 13 - A very young and heavily reddened early O star in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Peter S.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the Large Magellanic Cloud star DD 13, which is likely the major ionizing source of the nebula N159A. New optical spectroscopy and new estimates of the broadband photometric properties of DD 13 are obtained. A spectral type of O3-O6 V, E(B-V) = 0.64, and M(V) = -6.93 is found. The spectral type cannot be more precisely defined due to contamination of the spectral data by nebular emission, obliterating the important He I classification lines. These results, plus a published estimate of the Lyman continuum photon injection rate into N159A, suggest that DD 13 actually consists of about 2-4 young, early O stars still enshrouded by their natal dust cloud. The star DD 13 may be a younger example of the type of tight cluster represented by the LMC 'star' Sk-66 deg 41, recently revealed to be composed of six or more components.

  3. Hyperfast pulsars as the remnants of massive stars ejected from young star clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent proper motion and parallax measurements for the pulsar PSR B1508+55 indicate a transverse velocity of similar to 1100 km s(-1), which exceeds earlier measurements for any neutron star. The spin-down characteristics of PSR B1508+55 are typical for a non-recycled pulsar, which implies that the

  4. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Microsolvated Anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ditte Linde

    the gas-phase α-effect. The experimental studies are performed by means of the flowing after glow selected ion flow tube technique, and these are supplemented by electronic structure calculations. The α-nucleophile employed is the microsolvated hydrogen peroxide anion whose reactivity is compared......Gas-phase studies of ion-molecule reactions shed light on the intrinsic factors that govern reactivity; and even solvent effects can be examined in the gasphase environment by employing microsolvated ions. An area that has received considerable attention with regard to the interplay between...... to that of a series of microsolvated oxygen centered anions. The association of the nucleophiles with a single water or methanol molecule allows the α-effect to be observed in the SN2 reaction with methyl chloride; this effect was not apparent in the reactions of the unsolvated anions. The results suggest...

  5. COOL YOUNG STARS IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE: β PICTORIS AND AB DORADUS MOVING GROUP CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal; Lépine, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    As part of our continuing effort to identify new, low-mass members of nearby, young moving groups (NYMGs), we present a list of young, low-mass candidates in the northern hemisphere. We used our proven proper-motion selection procedure and ROSAT X-ray and GALEX-UV activity indicators to identify 204 young stars as candidate members of the β Pictoris and AB Doradus NYMGs. Definitive membership assignment of a given candidate will require a measurement of its radial velocity and distance. We present a simple system of indices to characterize the young candidates and help prioritize follow-up observations. New group members identified in this candidate list will be high priority targets for (1) exoplanet direct imaging searches, (2) the study of post-T-Tauri astrophysics, (3) understanding recent local star formation, and (4) the study of local galactic kinematics. Information available now allows us to identify eight likely new members in the list. Two of these, a late-K and an early-M dwarf, we find to be likely members of the β Pic group. The other six stars are likely members of the AB Dor moving group. These include an M dwarf triple system, and three very cool objects that may be young brown dwarfs, making them the lowest-mass, isolated objects proposed in the AB Dor moving group to date.

  6. Photometric search for variable stars in the young open cluster Berkeley 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Sneh; Pandey, A. K.; Maheswar, G.; Mondal, Soumen; Kumar, Brijesh

    2011-12-01

    We present the time series photometry of stars located in the extremely young open cluster Berkeley 59. Using the 1.04-m telescope at Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital, we have identified 42 variables in a field of ˜13 × 13 arcmin2 around the cluster. The probable members of the cluster have been identified using a (V, V-I) colour-magnitude diagram and a (J-H, H-K) colour-colour diagram. 31 variables have been found to be pre-main-sequence stars associated with the cluster. The ages and masses of the pre-main-sequence stars have been derived from the colour-magnitude diagram by fitting theoretical models to the observed data points. The ages of the majority of the probable pre-main-sequence variable candidates range from 1 to 5 Myr. The masses of these pre-main-sequence variable stars have been found to be in the range of ˜0.3 to ˜3.5 M⊙, and these could be T Tauri stars. The present statistics reveal that about 90 per cent T Tauri stars have period dispersal of the discs of relatively massive stars.

  7. A M2FS Spectroscopic Study of Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of pre-main sequence stars in the ~4-10 Myr range provide a window into the decline of the accretion phase of stars and the formation of planets. Nearby star clusters and stellar associations allow for the study of these young stellar populations all the way down to the lowest mass members. One of the best examples of nearby 4-10 Myr old stellar populations is the Orion OB1 association. The CIDA Variability Survey of Orion OB1 (CVSO - Briceño et al. 2001) has used the variability properties of low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars to identify hundreds of K and M-type stellar members of the Orion OB1 association, a number of them displaying IR-excess emission and thought to be representative of more evolved disk-bearing young stars. Characterizing these young, low-mass objects using spectroscopy is integral to understanding the accretion phase in young stars. We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic survey of candidate and confirmed Orion OB1 low-mass members taken during November 2014 and February 2014 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS), a PI instrument on the Magellan Clay Telescope (PI: M. Matteo). Target fields located in the off-cloud regions of Orion were identified in the CVSO, and observed using the low and high-resolution modes of M2FS. Both low and high-resolution spectra are needed in order to confirm membership and derive masses, ages, kinematics and accretion properties. Initial analysis of these spectra reveal many new K and M-type members of the Orion OB1 association in these low extinction, off-cloud areas. These are the more evolved siblings of the youngest stars still embedded in the molecular clouds, like those in the Orion Nebula Cluster. With membership and spectroscopic indicators of accretion we are building the most comprehensive stellar census of this association, enabling us to derive a robust estimate of the fraction of young stars still accreting at a various ages, a key constraint for the end of

  8. Studies of matrix diffusion in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartikainen, K.; Timonen, J.; Vaeaetaeinen, K.; Pietarila, H.

    1994-03-01

    The diffusion of solutes from fractures into rock matrix is an important factor in the safety analysis of disposal of radioactive waste. Laboratory measurements are needed to complement field investigations for a reliable determination of the necessary transport parameters. Measurements of diffusion coefficients in tight rock samples are usually time consuming because the diffusion processes are slow. On the other hand it is well known that diffusion coefficients in the gas phase are roughly four orders of magnitude larger than those in the liquid phase. Therefore, for samples whose structures do not change much upon drying, it is possible to estimate the diffusion properties of the liquid phase when the properties of the gas phase are known. Advantages of the gas method are quick and easy measurements. In the measurements nitrogen was used as the carrier gas and helium as the tracer gas, and standard techniques have been used for helium detection. Techniques have been developed for both channel flow and through-diffusion measurements. The breakthrough curves have been measured in every experiment and all measurements have been modelled by using appropriate analytical models. As a result matrix porosities and effective diffusion coefficients in the gas phase have been determined. (12 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.)

  9. Identifying the Young Low-mass Stars within 25 pc. II. Distances, Kinematics, and Group Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-01

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of lsim300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of lsim25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young (lsim3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and β Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages lsim150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Subaru Telescope. The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial

  10. X-Ray Outburst from Young Star in McNeil's Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory captured an X-ray outburst from a young star, revealing a probable scenario for the intermittent brightening of the recently discovered McNeil's Nebula. It appears the interaction between the young star's magnetic field and an orbiting disk of gas can cause dramatic, episodic increases in the light from the star and disk, illuminating the surrounding gas. "The story of McNeil's Nebula is a wonderful example of the importance of serendipity in science," said Joel Kastner of the Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester, New York, lead author of a paper in the July 22 issue of Nature describing the X-ray results. "Visible-light images were made of this region several months before Jay McNeil made his discovery, so it could be determined approximately when and by how much the star flared up to produce McNeil's Nebula." The small nebula, which lies in the constellation Orion about 1300 light years from Earth, was discovered with a 3-inch telescope by McNeil, an amateur astronomer from Paducah, Kentucky, in January 2004. In November 2002, a team led by Ted Simon of the Institute for Astronomy in Hawaii had observed the star-rich region with Chandra in search of young, X-ray emitting stars, and had detected several objects. Optical and infrared astronomers had, as part of independent surveys, also observed the region about a year later, in 2003. After the announcement of McNeil's discovery, optical, infrared and X-ray astronomers rushed to observe the region again. They found that a young star buried in the nebula had flared up, and was illuminating the nebula. This star was coincident with one of the X-ray sources discovered earlier by Simon. Chandra observations obtained by Kastner's group just after the optical outburst showed that the source had brightened fifty-fold in X-rays when compared to Simon's earlier observation. The visible-light eruption provides evidence that the cause of the X-ray outburst is the

  11. An X-ray outburst from the rapidly accreting young star that illuminates McNeil's nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, J H; Richmond, M; Grosso, N; Weintraub, D A; Simon, T; Frank, A; Hamaguchi, K; Ozawa, H; Henden, A

    2004-07-22

    Young, low-mass stars are luminous X-ray sources whose powerful X-ray flares may exert a profound influence over the process of planet formation. The origin of the X-ray emission is uncertain. Although many (or perhaps most) recently formed, low-mass stars emit X-rays as a consequence of solar-like coronal activity, it has also been suggested that X-ray emission may be a direct result of mass accretion onto the forming star. Here we report X-ray imaging spectroscopy observations which reveal a factor approximately 50 increase in the X-ray flux from a young star that is at present undergoing a spectacular optical/infrared outburst (this star illuminates McNeil's nebula). The outburst seems to be due to the sudden onset of a phase of rapid accretion. The coincidence of a surge in X-ray brightness with the optical/infrared eruption demonstrates that strongly enhanced high-energy emission from young stars can occur as a consequence of high accretion rates. We suggest that such accretion-enhanced X-ray emission from erupting young stars may be short-lived, because intense star-disk magnetospheric interactions are quenched rapidly by the subsequent flood of new material onto the star.

  12. StarPals International Young Astronomers' Network Collaborative Projects for IYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingan, Jessi

    2008-09-01

    StarPals is a nascent non-profit organization with the goal of providing opportunities for international collaboration between students of all ages within space science research. We believe that by encouraging an interest in the cosmos, the one thing that is truly Universal, from a young age, students will not only further their knowledge of and interest in science but will learn valuable teamwork and life skills. The goal is to foster respect, understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity among all StarPals participants, whether students, teachers, or mentors. StarPals aims to inspire students by providing opportunities in which, more than simply visualizing themselves as research scientists, they can actually become one. The technologies of robotic telescopes, videoconferencing, and online classrooms are expanding the possibilities like never before. In honor of IYA2009, StarPals would like to encourage 400 schools to participate on a global scale in astronomy/cosmology research on various concurrent projects. We will offer in-person or online workshops and training sessions to teach the teachers. We will be seeking publication in scientific journals for some student research. For our current project, the Double Stars Challenge, students use the robotic telescopes to take a series of four images of one of 30 double stars from a list furnished by the US Naval Observatory and then use MPO Canopus software to take distance and position angle measurements. StarPals provides students with hands-on training, telescope time, and software to complete the imaging and measuring. A paper will be drafted from our research data and submitted to the Journal of Double Star Observations. The kids who participate in this project may potentially be the youngest contributors to an article in a vetted scientific journal. Kids rapidly adapt and improve their computer skills operating these telescopes and discover for themselves that science is COOL!

  13. Gas phase reactive collisions, experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canosa A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1937 when the first molecule in space has been identified, more than 150 molecules have been detected. Understanding the fate of these molecules requires having a perfect view of their photochemistry and reactivity with other partners. It is then crucial to identify the main processes that will produce and destroy them. In this chapter, a general view of experimental techniques able to deliver gas phase chemical kinetics data at low and very low temperatures will be presented. These techniques apply to the study of reactions between neutral reactants on the one hand and reactions involving charge species on the other hand.

  14. Experimental station for gas phase fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankiewicz, M.; Garcia, E. Melero; Ruiz, J. Alvarez; Erman, P.; Hatherly, P.A.; Kivimaeki, A.; Rachlew, E.; Rius i Riu, J.

    2004-01-01

    The details of an experimental setup for gas phase atomic and molecular fluorescence measurements using synchrotron radiation are described in this article. The most significant part of the apparatus is an optical arrangement, which allows for simultaneous measurements of dispersed as well as total fluorescence intensity using an effusive gas jet and an inbuilt gas cell assembled in a convenient plug and measure configuration. The first measurements concerning fluorescence of the N 2 molecule around the N 1s edge obtained with this setup are presented

  15. Cold CO Gas in the Envelopes of FU Orionis-type Young Eruptive Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Moór, A. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Csengeri, T.; Güsten, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-20

    FU Orionis-type objects (FUors) are young stellar objects experiencing large optical outbursts due to highly enhanced accretion from the circumstellar disk onto the star. FUors are often surrounded by massive envelopes, which play a significant role in the outburst mechanism. Conversely, the subsequent eruptions might gradually clear up the obscuring envelope material and drive the protostar on its way to become a disk-only T Tauri star. Here we present an APEX {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO survey of eight southern and equatorial FUors. We measure the mass of the gaseous material surrounding our targets, locate the source of the CO emission, and derive physical parameters for the envelopes and outflows, where detected. Our results support the evolutionary scenario where FUors represent a transition phase from envelope-surrounded protostars to classical T Tauri stars.

  16. The Mass Function of Young Star Clusters in the "Antennae" Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang; Fall

    1999-12-20

    We determine the mass function of young star clusters in the merging galaxies known as the "Antennae" (NGC 4038/9) from deep images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope. This is accomplished by means of reddening-free parameters and a comparison with stellar population synthesis tracks to estimate the intrinsic luminosity and age, and hence the mass, of each cluster. We find that the mass function of the young star clusters (with ages less, similar160 Myr) is well represented by a power law of the form psi&parl0;M&parr0;~M-2 over the range 104 less, similarM less, similar106 M middle dot in circle. This result may have important implications for our understanding of the origin of globular clusters during the early phases of galactic evolution.

  17. Star Formation and Young Population of the H II Complex Sh2-294

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J.; Pandey, B.

    2012-08-01

    The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H2 (2.12 μm) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H2 emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass (<4 M ⊙) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO (~9 M ⊙) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of ~24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age ~ 4.5 × 106 yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a ~4 × 106 yr B0 main-sequence star.

  18. STAR FORMATION AND YOUNG POPULATION OF THE H II COMPLEX Sh2-294

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J.; Ojha, D. K.; Pandey, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H 2 (2.12 μm) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H 2 emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass ( ☉ ) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO (∼9 M ☉ ) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of ∼24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age ∼ 4.5 × 10 6 yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a ∼4 × 10 6 yr B0 main-sequence star.

  19. Diffuse γ-ray emission in the vicinity of young star cluster Westerlund 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-zhi; de Oña Wilhelmi, Emma; Aharonian, Felix

    2018-04-01

    We report the results of our analysis of the publicly available data obtained by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite towards the direction of the young massive star cluster Westerlund 2. We found significant extended γ-ray emission in the vicinity of Westerlund 2 with a hard power-law energy spectrum extending from 1 to 250 GeV with a photon index of 2.0 ± 0.1. We argue that amongst several alternatives, the luminous stars in Westerlund 2 are likely sites of acceleration of particles responsible for the diffuse γ-ray emission of the surrounding interstellar medium. In particular, the young star cluster Westerlund 2 can provide sufficient non-thermal energy to account for the γ-ray emission. In this scenario, since the γ-ray production region is significantly larger than the area occupied by the star cluster, we conclude that the γ-ray production is caused by hadronic interactions of accelerated protons and nuclei with the ambient gas. In that case, the total energy budget in relativistic particles is estimated of the order of 1050 erg.

  20. SPATIALLY EXTENDED BRACKETT GAMMA EMISSION IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF YOUNG STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Tracy L.; Bary, Jeffery S.; McGregor, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of atomic hydrogen Brγ emission detected in the spectra of young stellar objects is believed to arise from the recombination regions associated with the magnetospheric accretion of circumstellar disk material onto the forming star. In this paper, we present the results of a K-band integral field unit spectroscopic study of Brγ emission in eight young protostars: CW Tau, DG Tau, Haro 6-10, HL Tau, HV Tau C, RW Aur, T Tau, and XZ Tau. We spatially resolve Brγ emission structures in half of these young stars and find that most of the extended emission is consistent with the location and velocities of the known Herbig-Haro flows associated with these systems. At some velocities through the Brγ line profile, the spatially extended emission comprises 20% or more of the integrated flux in that spectral channel. However, the total spatially extended Brγ is typically less than ∼10% of the flux integrated over the full emission profile. For DG Tau and Haro 6-10 S, we estimate the mass outflow rate using simple assumptions about the hydrogen emission region and compare this to the derived mass accretion rate. We detect extended Brγ in the vicinity of the more obscured targets in our sample and conclude that spatially extended Brγ emission may exist toward other stars, but unattenuated photospheric flux probably limits its detectability.

  1. Kinematics of the inner thousand AU region around the young massive star AFGL 2591-VLA3: a massive disk candidate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K. -S.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.

    Context. Recent detections of disks around young high-mass stars support the idea of massive star formation through accretion rather than coalescence, but the detailed kinematics in the equatorial region of the disk candidates is not well known, which limits our understanding of the accretion

  2. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuhn, Michael A. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Povich, Matthew S., E-mail: edf@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Ave., Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  3. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Povich, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  4. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN YOUNG STARS IN CYGNUS OB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Thomas S. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 N Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We present the first results from a 124 night J, H, K near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark cloud L 1003 in Cygnus OB7, an active star-forming region. Using three seasons of UKIRT observations spanning 1.5 years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17 mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04 mag. On the basis of near-infrared excesses from disks, we identify 30 pre-main-sequence stars, including 24 which are newly discovered. We analyze those stars and find that the NIR excesses are significantly variable. All 9200 stars were monitored for photometric variability; among the field star population, {approx}160 exhibited near-infrared variability (1.7% of the sample). Of the 30 young stellar objects (YSOs), 28 of them (93%) are variable at a significant level. Of the 30 YSOs, twenty-five have near-infrared excess consistent with simple disk-plus-star classical T Tauri models. Nine of these (36%) drift in color space over the course of these observations and/or since Two Micron All Sky Survey observations such that they cross the boundary defining the NIR excess criteria; effectively, they have a transient near-infrared excess. Thus, time-series JHK observations can be used to obtain a more complete sample of disk-bearing stars than single-epoch JHK observations. About half of the YSOs have color-space variations parallel to either the classical T Tauri star locus or a hybrid track which includes the dust reddening trajectory. This indicates that the NIR variability in YSOs that possess accretion disks arises from a combination of variable extinction and changes in the inner accretion disk: either in accretion rate, central hole size, and/or the inclination of the inner disk. While some variability may be due to stellar rotation, the level of variability on the individual stars can exceed a magnitude. This is a strong empirical suggestion that protoplanetary disks are quite dynamic and exhibit more complex activity on short

  5. A YOUNG ECLIPSING BINARY AND ITS LUMINOUS NEIGHBORS IN THE EMBEDDED STAR CLUSTER Sh 2-252E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, Kathryn V.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao, E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We present a photometric and light curve analysis of an eccentric eclipsing binary in the K2 Campaign 0 field, which resides in Sh 2-252E, a young star cluster embedded in an H ii region. We describe a spectroscopic investigation of the three brightest stars in the crowded aperture to identify which is the binary system. We find that none of these stars are components of the eclipsing binary system, which must be one of the fainter nearby stars. These bright cluster members all have remarkable spectra: Sh 2-252a (EPIC 202062176) is a B0.5 V star with razor sharp absorption lines, Sh 2-252b is a Herbig A0 star with disk-like emission lines, and Sh 2-252c is a pre-main-sequence star with very red color.

  6. Comparative study of dust and young stars in three small galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of dust and young stars in the central regions of the three small galaxies NGC 205, NGC 185, and NGC 3077 in the U, B, V, and K filters, and at six additional optical wavelengths. All three program galaxies have been successfully modeled with the empirical models of Oemler (1976); NGC 205 and NGC 3077 were also modeled with unsharp mask models. Subtracting model galaxies from the data enabled the authors to isolate clusters of young stars and dust clouds in the central regions of each galaxy. A comparison of the colors of the young clusters in NGC 3077 and those in NGC 205 reveals that the colors of the clusters in these two small galaxies are different. In NGC 185, diffuse emission after subtracting an Oemler model was discovered. NGC 205 also showed this remnant emission, with very similar colors to those of the remnant in NGC 185, but NGC 3077 did not. The colors of this diffuse remnant emission in NGC 205 and NGC 185 are interpreted as being due to previous episodes of star formation in the two dwarf ellipticals. A comparison of the author's data with that of Caldwell (1983) on a sample of 33 dwarf elliptical galaxies in Virgo indicates that star formation in dwarf elliptical galaxies is a common phenomenon. The study of dust in NGC 185 and NGC 205 at optical wavelengths shows that the properties of dust in NGC 205 are very similar to those of galactic dust, while the dust in NGC 185 is distinctly different. The optical and 2.2 micron centers of NGC 3077 are found to be different. From comparison of the three galaxies studied here, the author concludes that it is unlikely that NGC 205 and NGC 185 tidally interacted with M31

  7. ASSESSMENT OF STELLAR STRATIFICATION IN THREE YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Rochau, Boyke; Mackey, Dougal; Xin Yu

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of stellar stratification in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We apply our recently developed effective radius method for the assessment of stellar stratification on imaging data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of three young LMC clusters to characterize the phenomenon and develop a comparative scheme for its assessment in such clusters. The clusters of our sample, NGC 1983, NGC 2002, and NGC 2010, are selected on the basis of their youthfulness, and their variety in appearance, structure, stellar content, and surrounding stellar ambient. Our photometry is complete for magnitudes down to m 814 ≅ 23 mag, allowing the calculation of the structural parameters of the clusters, the estimation of their ages, and the determination of their stellar content. Our study shows that each cluster in our sample demonstrates stellar stratification in a quite different manner and at different degree from the others. Specifically, NGC 1983 shows partial segregation, with the effective radius increasing with fainter magnitudes only for the faintest stars of the cluster. Our method on NGC 2002 provides evidence of strong stellar stratification for both bright and faint stars; the cluster demonstrates the phenomenon with the highest degree in the sample. Finally, NGC 2010 is not segregated, as its bright stellar content is not centrally concentrated, the relation of effective radius to magnitude for stars of intermediate brightness is rather flat, and we find no evidence of stratification for its faintest stars. For the parameterization of the phenomenon of stellar stratification and its quantitative comparison among these clusters, we propose the slope derived from the change in the effective radius over the corresponding magnitude range as indicative parameter of the degree of stratification in the clusters. A positive value of this slope indicates mass segregation in the cluster, while a negative or zero value

  8. Young Star Cluster Found Aglow With Mysterious X-Ray Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    A mysterious cloud of high-energy electrons enveloping a young cluster of stars has been discovered by astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These extremely high-energy particles could cause dramatic changes in the chemistry of the disks that will eventually form planets around stars in the cluster. Known as RCW 38, the star cluster covers a region about 5 light years across. It contains thousands of stars formed less than a million years ago and appears to be forming new stars even today. The crowded environment of a star cluster is thought to be conducive to the production of hot gas, but not high-energy particles. Such particles are typically produced by exploding stars, or in the strong magnetic fields around neutron stars or black holes, none of which is evident in RCW 38. "The RCW 38 observation doesn't agree with the conventional picture," said Scott Wolk of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, lead author of an Astrophysical Journal Letters paper describing the Chandra observation. "The data show that somehow extremely high-energy electrons are being produced there, although it is not clear how." RCW 38 RCW 38 X-ray, Radio, Infrared Composite Electrons accelerated to energies of trillions of volts are required to account for the observed X-ray spectrum of the gas cloud surrounding the ensemble of stars, which shows an excess of high-energy X-rays. As these electrons move in the magnetic field that threads the cluster, they produce X-rays. One possible origin for the high-energy electrons is a previously undetected supernova that occurred in the cluster. Although direct evidence for the supernova could have faded away thousands of years ago, a shock wave or a rapidly rotating neutron star produced by the outburst could be acting in concert with stellar winds to produce the high-energy electrons. "Regardless of the origin of the energetic electrons," said Wolk, "their presence would change the chemistry of proto

  9. A survey for variable young stars with small telescopes: First results from HOYS-CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebrich, D.; Campbell-White, J.; Scholz, A.; Eislöffel, J.; Zegmott, T.; Billington, S. J.; Donohoe, J.; Makin, S. V.; Hibbert, R.; Newport, R. J.; Pickard, R.; Quinn, N.; Rodda, T.; Piehler, G.; Shelley, M.; Parkinson, S.; Wiersema, K.; Walton, I.

    2018-05-01

    Variability in Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is one of their primary characteristics. Long-term, multi-filter, high-cadence monitoring of large YSO samples is the key to understand the partly unusual light-curves that many of these objects show. Here we introduce and present the first results of the HOYS-CAPScitizen science project which aims to perform such monitoring for nearby (d < 1 kpc) and young (age < 10 Myr) clusters and star forming regions, visible from the northern hemisphere, with small telescopes. We have identified and characterised 466 variable (413 confirmed young) stars in 8 young, nearby clusters. All sources vary by at least 0.2 mag in V, have been observed at least 15 times in V, R and I in the same night over a period of about 2 yrs and have a Stetson index of larger than 1. This is one of the largest samples of variable YSOs observed over such a time-span and cadence in multiple filters. About two thirds of our sample are classical T-Tauri stars, while the rest are objects with depleted or transition disks. Objects characterised as bursters show by far the highest variability. Dippers and objects whose variability is dominated by occultations from normal interstellar dust or dust with larger grains (or opaque material) have smaller amplitudes. We have established a hierarchical clustering algorithm based on the light-curve properties which allows the identification of the YSOs with the most unusual behaviour, and to group sources with similar properties. We discuss in detail the light-curves of the unusual objects V2492 Cyg, V350 Cep and 2MASS J21383981+5708470.

  10. Chemical Compositions of Young Stars in the Leading Arm of the Magellanic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Moni Bidin, C.; Casetti-Dinescu, D. I.; Mendez, R. A.; Girard, T. M.; Korchagin, V. I.; Vieira, K.; van Altena, W. F.; Zhao, G.

    2017-07-01

    Seven element abundances (He, C, N, O, Mg, Si, and S) and kinematics were determined for eight O-/B- type stars, based on high resolution spectra taken with the MIKE instrument on the Magellan 6.5m Clay telescope (program ID: CN2014A-057). The sample is selected from 42 candidates Casetti-Dinescu et al.(2014, ApJL, 784, L37) of membership in the Leading Arm (LA) of the Magellanic System. After investigating the relationship between abundances and kinematics parameters, we found that five stars have kinematics compatible with LA membership, i.e. RV>100kms-1. For the five possible LA member stars, Mg abundance is significantly lower than that of the remaining two that are kinematical members of the Galactic disk, and is more close to the LMC values. Distances to the LA members indicate that they are at the edge of the Galactic disk, while ages are of the order of ˜ 50-70 Myr, lower than the dynamical age of the LA, suggesting a single star-forming episode in the LA. VLSR of the LA members decreases with decreasing Magellanic longitude, confirming the results of previous LA gas studies (McClure-Griffiths et al.2008, ApJ, 673, L143). Our abundance and kinematic results for the LA member stars demonstrate that parts of the LA are hydrodynamically interacting with the gaseous Galactic disk, forming young stars that are chemically distinct from those in the Galactic disk. These results can provide constraints to future models for the Magellanic leading material.

  11. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Mink, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); De Koter, A.; Sana, H. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek" , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gvaramadze, V. V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetskij Pr. 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Liermann, A., E-mail: fschneid@astro.uni-bonn.de [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M {sub ☉} limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M {sub ☉} in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M {sub ☉} star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range

  12. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B.; De Mink, S. E.; Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" >De Koter, A.; Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" >Sana, H.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Liermann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M ☉ limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M ☉ in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M ☉ star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range 200-500 M ☉ .

  13. Ages of Young Star Clusters, Massive Blue Stragglers, and the Upper Mass Limit of Stars: Analyzing Age-dependent Stellar Mass Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; de Mink, S. E.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Hußmann, B.; Liermann, A.; Sana, H.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M ⊙ limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M ⊙ in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M ⊙ star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range 200-500 M ⊙.

  14. Direct measurement of interstellar extinction toward young stars using atomic hydrogen Lyα absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Matthew; France, Kevin; Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. C. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Herczeg, Gregory J. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hillenbrand, Lynne [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, MC105-24, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schindhelm, Eric [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Edwards, Suzan, E-mail: matthew.mcjunkin@colorado.edu [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Interstellar reddening corrections are necessary to reconstruct the intrinsic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of accreting protostellar systems. The stellar SED determines the heating and chemical processes that can occur in circumstellar disks. Measurement of neutral hydrogen absorption against broad Lyα emission profiles in young stars can be used to obtain the total H I column density (N(H I)) along the line of sight. We measure N(H I) with new and archival ultraviolet observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of 31 classical T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars. The H I column densities range from log{sub 10}(N(H I)) ≈19.6-21.1, with corresponding visual extinctions of A{sub V} =0.02-0.72 mag, assuming an R{sub V} of 3.1. We find that the majority of the H I absorption along the line of sight likely comes from interstellar rather than circumstellar material. Extinctions derived from new HST blue-optical spectral analyses, previous IR and optical measurements, and new X-ray column densities on average overestimate the interstellar extinction toward young stars compared to the N(H I) values by ∼0.6 mag. We discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy in the context of a protoplanetary disk geometry.

  15. NEW BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Markus [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Jayawardhana, Ray; Bonavita, Mariangela [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Girard, Julien H. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Lafreniere, David [Department of Physics, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Gizis, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Brandeker, Alexis, E-mail: janson@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-10-10

    We present the discoveries of three faint companions to young stars in the Scorpius-Centaurus region, imaged with the NICI instrument on Gemini South. We have confirmed all three companions through common proper motion tests. Follow-up spectroscopy has confirmed two of them, HIP 65423 B and HIP 65517 B, to be brown dwarfs, while the third, HIP 72099 B, is more likely a very low mass star just above the hydrogen burning limit. The detection of wide companions in the mass range of {approx}40-100 M{sub jup} complements previous work in the same region, reporting detections of similarly wide companions with lower masses, in the range of {approx}10-30 M{sub jup}. Such low masses near the deuterium burning limit have raised the question of whether those objects formed like planets or stars. The existence of intermediate objects as reported here could represent a bridge between lower-mass companions and stellar companions, but in any case demonstrate that mass alone may not provide a clear-cut distinction for the formation of low-mass companions to stars.

  16. Testing the Young Neutron Star Scenario with Persistent Radio Emission Associated with FRB 121102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Murase, Kohta

    2017-01-01

    Recently a repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 has been confirmed to be an extragalactic event and a persistent radio counterpart has been identified. While other possibilities are not ruled out, the emission properties are broadly consistent with Murase et al. that theoretically proposed quasi-steady radio emission as a counterpart of both FRBs and pulsar-driven supernovae. Here, we constrain the model parameters of such a young neutron star scenario for FRB 121102. If the associated supernova has a conventional ejecta mass of M ej ≳ a few M ⊙ , a neutron star with an age of t age ∼ 10–100 years, an initial spin period of P i ≲ a few ms, and a dipole magnetic field of B dip ≲ a few × 10 13 G can be compatible with the observations. However, in this case, the magnetically powered scenario may be favored as an FRB energy source because of the efficiency problem in the rotation-powered scenario. On the other hand, if the associated supernova is an ultra-stripped one or the neutron star is born by the accretion-induced collapse with M ej ∼ 0.1 M ⊙ , a younger neutron star with t age ∼ 1–10 years can be the persistent radio source and might produce FRBs with the spin-down power. These possibilities can be distinguished by the decline rate of the quasi-steady radio counterpart.

  17. Hot stars in young massive clusters: Mapping the current Galactic metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Diego; Najarro, Francisco; Davies, Ben; Trombley, Christine; Figer, Donald F.; Herrero, Artemio

    2013-06-01

    Young Massive Clusters (YMCs) with ages guarantee that these objects present the same chemical composition than the surrounding environment where they are recently born. Finally, the YMCs host very massive stars whose extreme luminosities allow to accomplish detailed spectroscopic analyses even in the most distant regions of the Milky Way. Our group has carried out ISAAC/VLT spectroscopic observations of hot massive stars belonging to several YMCs in different locations around the Galactic disk. As a result, high signal-to-noise, near-infrared spectra of dozens of blue massive stars (including many OB supergiants, Wolf-Rayet stars and a B hypergiant) have been obtained. These data are fully reduced, and NLTE spherical atmosphere modeling is in process. Several line diagnostics will be combined in order to calculate metal abundances accurately for each cluster. The diverse locations of the clusters will allow us to draw a two-dimensional chemical map of the Galactic disk for the first time. The study of the radial and azimuthal variations of elemental abundances will be crucial for understanding the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. Particularly, the ratio between Fe-peak and alpha elements will constitute a powerful tool to investigate the past stellar populations that originated the current Galactic chemistry.

  18. Testing the Young Neutron Star Scenario with Persistent Radio Emission Associated with FRB 121102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Murase, Kohta [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Recently a repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 has been confirmed to be an extragalactic event and a persistent radio counterpart has been identified. While other possibilities are not ruled out, the emission properties are broadly consistent with Murase et al. that theoretically proposed quasi-steady radio emission as a counterpart of both FRBs and pulsar-driven supernovae. Here, we constrain the model parameters of such a young neutron star scenario for FRB 121102. If the associated supernova has a conventional ejecta mass of M {sub ej} ≳ a few M {sub ⊙}, a neutron star with an age of t {sub age} ∼ 10–100 years, an initial spin period of P{sub i} ≲ a few ms, and a dipole magnetic field of B {sub dip} ≲ a few × 10{sup 13} G can be compatible with the observations. However, in this case, the magnetically powered scenario may be favored as an FRB energy source because of the efficiency problem in the rotation-powered scenario. On the other hand, if the associated supernova is an ultra-stripped one or the neutron star is born by the accretion-induced collapse with M {sub ej} ∼ 0.1 M {sub ⊙}, a younger neutron star with t {sub age} ∼ 1–10 years can be the persistent radio source and might produce FRBs with the spin-down power. These possibilities can be distinguished by the decline rate of the quasi-steady radio counterpart.

  19. DM ORI: A YOUNG STAR OCCULTED BY A DISTURBANCE IN ITS PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Weintraub, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cargile, Phillip [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shappee, Benjamin J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kuhn, Rudolf B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Nucleo de Astronoma de la Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Feldman, Daniel M.; Espaillat, Catherine C. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    In some planet formation theories, protoplanets grow gravitationally within a young star’s protoplanetary disk, a signature of which may be a localized disturbance in the disk’s radial and/or vertical structure. Using time-series photometric observations by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope South project and the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae, combined with archival observations, we present the discovery of two extended dimming events of the young star, DM Ori. This young system faded by ∼1.5 mag from 2000 March to 2002 August and then again in 2013 January until 2014 September (depth ∼1.7 mag). We constrain the duration of the 2000–2002 dimming to be < 860 days, and the event in 2013–2014 to be < 585 days, separated by ∼12.5 years. A model of the spectral energy distribution indicates a large infrared excess consistent with an extensive circumstellar disk. Using basic kinematic arguments, we propose that DM Ori is likely being periodically occulted by a feature (possibly a warp or perturbation) in its circumstellar disk. In this scenario, the occulting feature is located >6 au from the host star, moving at ∼14.6 km s{sup −1} and is ∼4.9 au in width. This localized structure may indicate a disturbance such as that which may be caused by a protoplanet early in its formation.

  20. IDENTIFYING NEARBY, YOUNG, LATE-TYPE STARS BY MEANS OF THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok; Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Bessell, Mike

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been shown that a significant fraction of late-type members of nearby, very young associations (age ∼<10 Myr) display excess emission at mid-IR wavelengths indicative of dusty circumstellar disks. We demonstrate that the detection of mid-IR excess emission can be utilized to identify new nearby, young, late-type stars including two definite new members ('TWA 33' and 'TWA 34') of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). Both new TWA members display mid-IR excess emission in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalog and they show proper motion and youthful spectroscopic characteristics—namely, Hα emission, strong lithium absorption, and low surface gravity features consistent with known TWA members. We also detect mid-IR excess—the first unambiguous evidence of a dusty circumstellar disk—around a previously identified UV-bright, young, accreting star (2M1337) that is a likely member of the Lower-Centaurus Crux region of the Scorpius-Centaurus Complex.

  1. A circumstellar molecular gas structure associated with the massive young star Cepheus A-HW 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelles, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1993-01-01

    We report the detection via VLA-D observations of ammonia of a circumstellar high-density molecular gas structure toward the massive young star related to the object Cepheus A-HW 2, a firm candidate for the powering source of the high-velocity molecular outflow in the region. We suggest that the circumstellar molecular gas structure could be related to the circumstellar disk previously suggested from infrared, H2O, and OH maser observations. We consider as a plausible scenario that the double radio continuum source of HW 2 could represent the ionized inner part of the circumstellar disk, in the same way as proposed to explain the double radio source in L1551. The observed motions in the circumstellar molecular gas can be produced by bound motions (e.g., infall or rotation) around a central mass of about 10-20 solar masses (B0.5 V star or earlier).

  2. Angular Momentum in Disk Wind Revealed in the Young Star MWC 349A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Claus, Brian; Watson, Linda; Moran, James, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Disk winds are thought to play a critical role in star birth. As winds extract excess angular momentum from accretion disks, matter in the disk can be transported inward to the star to fuel mass growth. However, observational evidence of wind carrying angular momentum has been very limited. We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the young star MWC 349A in the H26 α and H30 α recombination lines. The high signal-to-noise ratios made possible by the maser emission process allow us to constrain the relative astrometry of the maser spots to milli-arcsecond precision. Previous observations of the H30 α line with the SMA and the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) showed that masers are distributed in the disk and wind. Our new high-resolution observations of the H26 α line reveal differences in spatial distribution from that of the H30 α line. H26 α line masers in the disk are excited in a thin annulus with a radius of about 25 au, while the H30 α line masers are formed in a slightly larger annulus with a radius of 30 au. This is consistent with expectations for maser excitation in the presence of an electron density variation of approximately R {sup −4}. In addition, the H30 α and H26 α line masers arise from different parts in the wind. This difference is also expected from maser theory. The wind component of both masers exhibits line-of-sight velocities that closely follow a Keplerian law. This result provides strong evidence that the disk wind extracts significant angular momentum, thereby facilitating mass accretion in the young star.

  3. CSI 2264: characterizing accretion-burst dominated light curves for young stars in NGC 2264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean; Baglin, Annie; Alencar, Silvia; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John; Findeisen, Krzysztof; Venuti, Laura; Bouvier, Jerome; Turner, Neal J.; Plavchan, Peter; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderón, María; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob; Hartmann, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Based on more than four weeks of continuous high-cadence photometric monitoring of several hundred members of the young cluster NGC 2264 with two space telescopes, NASA's Spitzer and the CNES CoRoT (Convection, Rotation, and planetary Transits), we provide high-quality, multi-wavelength light curves for young stellar objects whose optical variability is dominated by short-duration flux bursts, which we infer are due to enhanced mass accretion rates. These light curves show many brief—several hours to one day—brightenings at optical and near-infrared wavelengths with amplitudes generally in the range of 5%-50% of the quiescent value. Typically, a dozen or more of these bursts occur in a 30 day period. We demonstrate that stars exhibiting this type of variability have large ultraviolet (UV) excesses and dominate the portion of the u – g versus g – r color-color diagram with the largest UV excesses. These stars also have large Hα equivalent widths, and either centrally peaked, lumpy Hα emission profiles or profiles with blueshifted absorption dips associated with disk or stellar winds. Light curves of this type have been predicted for stars whose accretion is dominated by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the boundary between their magnetosphere and inner circumstellar disk, or where magneto-rotational instabilities modulate the accretion rate from the inner disk. Among the stars with the largest UV excesses or largest Hα equivalent widths, light curves with this type of variability greatly outnumber light curves with relatively smooth sinusoidal variations associated with long-lived hot spots. We provide quantitative statistics for the average duration and strength of the accretion bursts and for the fraction of the accretion luminosity associated with these bursts.

  4. Chandra Detection of an Evolved Population of Young Stars in Serpens South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Gutermuth, R.; Bourke, T. L.

    2018-06-01

    We present a Chandra study of the deeply embedded Serpens South star-forming region, examining cluster structure and disk properties at the earliest stages. In total, 152 X-ray sources are detected. Combined with Spitzer and 2MASS photometry, 66 X-ray sources are reliably matched to an IR counterpart. We identify 21 class I, 6 flat spectrum, 16 class II, and 18 class III young stars; 5 were unclassified. Eighteen sources were variable in X-rays, 8 exhibiting flare-like emission and one source being periodic. The cluster’s X-ray luminosity distance was estimated: the best match was to the nearer distance of 260 pc for the front of the Aquila Rift complex. The ratio of N H to A K is found to be ∼0.68 × 1022, similar to that measured in other young low-mass regions, but lower than that measured in the interstellar medium and high-mass clusters (∼(1.6–2) × 1022). We find that the spatial distribution closely follows that of the dense filament from which the stars have formed, with the class II population still strongly associated with the filament. There are four subclusters in the field, with three forming knots in the filament, and a fourth to the west, which may not be associated but may be contributing to the distributed class III population. A high percentage of diskless class IIIs (upper limit 30% of classified X-ray sources) in such a young cluster could indicate that processing of disks is influenced by the cluster environment and is not solely dependent on timescale.

  5. The First X-shooter Observations of Jets from Young Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Bacciotti, Francesca; Whelan, Emma T.; Alcala', Juan M.; Nisini, Brunella; Podio, Linda; Randich, Sofia; Stelzer, Beate; Cupani, Guido

    2011-01-01

    We present the first pilot study of jets from young stars conducted with X-shooter, on ESO/VLT. As it offers simultaneous, high quality spectra in the range 300-2500 nm X-shooter is uniquely important for spectral diagnostics in jet studies. We chose to probe the accretion/ejection mechanisms at low stellar masses examining two targets with well resolved continuous jets lying on the plane of the sky, ESO-HA 574 in Chamaleon I, and Par-Lup3-4 in Lupus III. The mass of the latter is close to th...

  6. Gyrochronology of Low-mass Stars - Age-Rotation-Activity Relations for Young M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Benjamin; Shkolnik, E.; Skiff, B.

    2014-01-01

    New rotation periods for 34 young understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern angular momentum evolution. Yet, on average, the data still support the predicted trends for spin-up during contraction and spin-down on the main sequence, with the turnover occurring at around 150 Myr for early Ms. This suggests that rotation period distributions can be helpful in evaluating the ages of coeval groups of stars. Many thanks to the National Science Foundation for their support through the Research Experience for Undergraduates Grant AST- 1004107.

  7. Magnetic braking in young late-type stars. The effect of polar spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibéo, A.; Ferreira, J. M.; Lima, J. J. G.

    2007-10-01

    Context: The existence of rapidly rotating cool stars in young clusters implies a reduction of angular momentum loss rate for a certain period of the star's early life. Recently, the concentration of magnetic flux near the poles of these stars has been proposed as an alternative mechanism to dynamo saturation in order to explain the saturation of angular momentum loss. Aims: In this work we study the effect of magnetic surface flux distribution on the coronal field topology and angular momentum loss rate. We investigate if magnetic flux concentration towards the pole is a reasonable alternative to dynamo saturation. Methods: We construct a 1D wind model and also apply a 2-D self-similar analytical model, to evaluate how the surface field distribution affects the angular momentum loss of the rotating star. Results: From the 1D model we find that, in a magnetically dominated low corona, the concentrated polar surface field rapidly expands to regions of low magnetic pressure resulting in a coronal field with small latitudinal variation. We also find that the angular momentum loss rate due to a uniform field or a concentrated field with equal total magnetic flux is very similar. From the 2D wind model we show that there are several relevant factors to take into account when studying the angular momentum loss from a star. In particular, we show that the inclusion of force balance across the field in a wind model is fundamental if realistic conclusions are to be drawn from the effect of non-uniform surface field distribution on magnetic braking. This model predicts that a magnetic field concentrated at high latitudes leads to larger Alfvén radii and larger braking rates than a smoother field distribution. Conclusions: From the results obtained, we argue that the magnetic surface field distribution towards the pole does not directly limit the braking efficiency of the wind.

  8. Transferring pharmaceuticals into the gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Wolfgang; Krause, Tim; Rademann, Klaus

    2008-11-01

    The dissolution of molecules of biological interest in supercritical carbon dioxide is investigated using pulsed molecular beam mass spectrometry. Due to the mild processing temperatures of most supercritical fluids, their adiabatic expansion into vacuum permits to transfer even thermally very sensitive substances into the gas phase, which is particularly attractive for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In addition, supercritical CO2constitutes a chemically inert solvent that is compatible with hydrocarbon-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Here, we report on the dissolution and pulsed supersonic jet expansion of caffeine (C8H10N4O2), the provitamin menadione (C11H8O2), and the amino acid derivative l-phenylalanine tert-butyl ester hydrochloride (C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOC(CH3)3[dot operator]HCl), into vacuum. An on-axis residual gas analyzer is used to monitor the relative amounts of solute and solvent in the molecular beam as a function of solvent densityE The excellent selectivity and sensitivity provided by mass spectrometry permits to probe even trace amounts of solutes. The strong density variation of CO2 close to the critical point results in a pronounced pressure dependence of the relative ion currents of solute and solvent molecules, reflecting a substantial change in solubility.

  9. The Genealogical Tree of Ethanol: Gas-phase Formation of Glycolaldehyde, Acetic Acid, and Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Dimitrios; Balucani, Nadia; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Vazart, Fanny; Puzzarini, Cristina; Barone, Vincenzo; Codella, Claudio; Lefloch, Bertrand

    2018-02-01

    Despite the harsh conditions of the interstellar medium, chemistry thrives in it, especially in star-forming regions where several interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs) have been detected. Yet, how these species are synthesized is a mystery. The majority of current models claim that this happens on interstellar grain surfaces. Nevertheless, evidence is mounting that neutral gas-phase chemistry plays an important role. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for the gas-phase synthesis of glycolaldehyde, a species with a prebiotic potential and for which no gas-phase formation route was previously known. In the proposed scheme, the ancestor is ethanol and the glycolaldehyde sister species are acetic acid (another iCOM with unknown gas-phase formation routes) and formic acid. For the reactions of the new scheme with no available data, we have performed electronic structure and kinetics calculations deriving rate coefficients and branching ratios. Furthermore, after a careful review of the chemistry literature, we revised the available chemical networks, adding and correcting several reactions related to glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, and formic acid. The new chemical network has been used in an astrochemical model to predict the abundance of glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, and formic acid. The predicted abundance of glycolaldehyde depends on the ethanol abundance in the gas phase and is in excellent agreement with the measured one in hot corinos and shock sites. Our new model overpredicts the abundance of acetic acid and formic acid by about a factor of 10, which might imply a yet incomplete reaction network.

  10. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different

  11. Young Stars in Old Galaxies - a Cosmic Hide and Seek Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Surprise Discovery with World's Leading Telescopes [1] Summary Combining data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a group of European and American astronomers [2] have made an unexpected, major discovery. They have identified a huge number of "young" stellar clusters , only a few billion years old [3], inside an "old" elliptical galaxy (NGC 4365), probably aged some 12 billion years. For the first time, it has been possible to identify several distinct periods of star-formation in a galaxy as old as this one . Elliptical galaxies like NGC 4365 have until now been considered to have undergone one early star-forming period and thereafter to be devoid of any star formation. However, the combination of the best and largest telescopes in space and on the ground has now clearly shown that there is more than meets the eye. This important new information will help to understand the early history of galaxies and the general theory of star formation in the Universe . PR Photo 15a/02 : Combined HST+VLT image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4365 PR Photo 15b/02 : Same image, with "old" and "young" stellar clusters indicated PR Photo 15c/02 : Animated GIF image, showing the three cluster populations observed in NGC 4365 Do elliptical galaxies only contain old stars? One of the challenges of modern astronomy is to understand how galaxies, those large systems of stars, gas and dust, form and evolve. In this connection, a central question has always been to learn when most of the stars in the Universe formed. Did this happen at a very early stage, within a few billion years after the Big Bang? Or were a significant number of the stars we now observe formed much more recently? Spectacular collisions between galaxies take place all the time, triggering the formation of thousands or even millions of stars, cf. ESO PR Photo 29b/99 of the dramatic encounter between NGC 6872 and IC 4970. However, when looking at the Universe as a whole, most

  12. A Transient Transit Signature Associated with the Young Star RIK-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Trevor J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Wang, Ji [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Petigura, Erik A.; Benneke, Björn [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie; Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California 94035 (United States); Cameron, Andrew Collier [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Stauffer, John R. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fulton, B. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Isaacson, Howard T. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); West, Richard G.; Pollacco, Don, E-mail: tjd@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    We find transient transit-like dimming events within the K2 time series photometry of the young star RIK-210 in the Upper Scorpius OB association. These dimming events are variable in depth, duration, and morphology. High spatial resolution imaging revealed that the star is single and radial velocity monitoring indicated that the dimming events cannot be due to an eclipsing stellar or brown dwarf companion. Archival and follow-up photometry suggest the dimming events are transient in nature. The variable morphology of the dimming events suggests they are not due to a single spherical body. The ingress of each dimming event is always shallower than egress, as one would expect for an orbiting body with a leading tail. The dimming events are periodic and synchronous with the stellar rotation. However, we argue it is unlikely the dimming events could be attributed to anything on the stellar surface based on the observed depths and durations. Variable obscuration by a protoplanetary disk is unlikely on the basis that the star is not actively accreting and lacks the infrared excess associated with an inner disk. Rather, we explore the possibilities that the dimming events are due to magnetospheric clouds, a transiting protoplanet surrounded by circumplanetary dust and debris, eccentric orbiting bodies undergoing periodic tidal disruption, or an extended field of dust or debris near the corotation radius.

  13. Metallicity fluctuation statistics in the interstellar medium and young stars - I. Variance and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Ting, Yuan-Sen

    2018-04-01

    The distributions of a galaxy's gas and stars in chemical space encode a tremendous amount of information about that galaxy's physical properties and assembly history. However, present methods for extracting information from chemical distributions are based either on coarse averages measured over galactic scales (e.g. metallicity gradients) or on searching for clusters in chemical space that can be identified with individual star clusters or gas clouds on ˜1 pc scales. These approaches discard most of the information, because in galaxies gas and young stars are observed to be distributed fractally, with correlations on all scales, and the same is likely to be true of metals. In this paper we introduce a first theoretical model, based on stochastically forced diffusion, capable of predicting the multiscale statistics of metal fields. We derive the variance, correlation function, and power spectrum of the metal distribution from first principles, and determine how these quantities depend on elements' astrophysical origin sites and on the large-scale properties of galaxies. Among other results, we explain for the first time why the typical abundance scatter observed in the interstellar media of nearby galaxies is ≈0.1 dex, and we predict that this scatter will be correlated on spatial scales of ˜0.5-1 kpc, and over time-scales of ˜100-300 Myr. We discuss the implications of our results for future chemical tagging studies.

  14. A new method for measuring metallicities of young super star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bresolin, Fabio; Davies, Ben; Bastian, Nate; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand; Evans, Chris; Patrick, Lee; Schinnerer, Eva

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of young super star clusters (SSC) can be measured using novel spectroscopic techniques in the J-band. The near-infrared flux of SSCs older than ∼6 Myr is dominated by tens to hundreds of red supergiant stars. Our technique is designed to harness the integrated light of that population and produces accurate metallicities for new observations in galaxies above (M83) and below (NGC 6946) solar metallicity. In M83 we find [Z] = +0.28 ± 0.14 dex using a moderate resolution (R ∼ 3500) J-band spectrum and in NGC 6496 we report [Z] = -0.32 ± 0.20 dex from a low resolution spectrum of R ∼ 1800. Recently commissioned low resolution multiplexed spectrographs on the Very Large Telescope (KMOS) and Keck (MOSFIRE) will allow accurate measurements of SSC metallicities across the disks of star-forming galaxies up to distances of 70 Mpc with single night observation campaigns using the method presented in this paper.

  15. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  16. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  17. Close Stellar Encounters in Young, Substructured, Dissolving Star Clusters: Statistics and Effects on Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  18. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR-FORMING REGION N206

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romita, Krista Alexandra; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Carlson, Lynn Redding; Whitney, B.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Hora, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present analysis of the energetic star-forming region Henize 206 (N206) located near the southern edge of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on photometric data from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-LMC; IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 μm and MIPS 24 μm), Infrared Survey Facility near-infrared survey (J, H, K s ), and the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey (MCPS UBVI) covering a wavelength range of 0.36-24 μm. Young stellar object (YSO) candidates are identified based upon their location in infrared color-magnitude space and classified by the shapes of their spectral energy distributions in comparison with a pre-computed grid of YSO models. We identify 116 YSO candidates: 102 are well characterized by the YSO models, predominately Stage I, and 14 may be multiple sources or young sources with transition disks. Careful examination of the individual sources and their surrounding environment allows us to identify a factor of ∼14.5 more YSO candidates than have already been identified. The total mass of these well-fit YSO candidates is ∼520 M sun . We calculate a current star formation rate of 0.27 x 10 -1 M sun yr -1 kpc -2 . The distribution of YSO candidates appears to follow shells of neutral material in the interstellar medium.

  19. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU PSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Boucher, Anne [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal H3C 3J7 (Canada); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Allard, France; Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574 CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: naud@astro.umontreal.ca [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ∼42'' (∼2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i – z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates T {sub eff} = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M {sub Jup} for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE 9.

  20. Young stellar population and ongoing star formation in the H II complex Sh2-252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jessy; Pandey, A. K.; Samal, M. R.; Ojha, D. K.; Ogura, K.; Kim, J. S.; Kobayashi, N.; Goyal, A.; Chauhan, N.; Eswaraiah, C.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an extensive survey of the star-forming complex Sh2-252 has been undertaken with an aim to explore its hidden young stellar population as well as to understand the structure and star formation history for the first time. This complex is composed of five prominent embedded clusters associated with the subregions A, C, E, NGC 2175s and Teu 136. We used Two Micron All Sky Survey-near-infrared and Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer photometry to identify and classify the young stellar objects (YSOs) by their infrared (IR) excess emission. Using the IR colour-colour criteria, we identified 577 YSOs, of which, 163 are Class I, 400 are Class II and 14 are transition disc YSOs, suggesting a moderately rich number of YSOs in this complex. Spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs shows that they are mostly clustered around the subregions in the western half of the complex, suggesting enhanced star formation activity towards its west. Using the spectral energy distribution and optical colour-magnitude diagram-based age analyses, we derived probable evolutionary status of the subregions of Sh2-252. Our analysis shows that the region A is the youngest (˜0.5 Myr), the regions B, C and E are of similar evolutionary stage (˜1-2 Myr) and the clusters NGC 2175s and Teu 136 are slightly evolved (˜2-3 Myr). Morphology of the region in the 1.1 mm map shows a semicircular shaped molecular shell composed of several clumps and YSOs bordering the western ionization front of Sh2-252. Our analyses suggest that next generation star formation is currently under way along this border and that possibly fragmentation of the matter collected during the expansion of the H II region as one of the major processes is responsible for such stars. We observed the densest concentration of YSOs (mostly Class I, ˜0.5 Myr) at the western outskirts of the complex, within a molecular clump associated with water and methanol masers and we suggest that it

  1. An Observational Study of Blended Young Stellar Clusters in the Galactic Plane - Do Massive Stars form First?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Galarza, Rafael; Protopapas, Pavlos; Smith, Howard A.; Morales, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    From an observational point of view, the early life of massive stars is difficult to understand partly because star formation occurs in crowded clusters where individual stars often appear blended together in the beams of infrared telescopes. This renders the characterization of the physical properties of young embedded clusters via spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting a challenging task. Of particular relevance for the testing of star formation models is the question of whether the claimed universality of the IMF (references) is reflected in an equally universal integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF) of stars. In other words, is the set of all stellar masses in the galaxy sampled from a single universal IMF, or does the distribution of masses depend on the environment, making the IGIMF different from the canonical IMF? If the latter is true, how different are the two? We present a infrared SED analysis of ~70 Spitzer-selected, low mass ($facilities.

  2. Young Stellar Objects in the Massive Star-forming Regions W51 and W43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saral, G.; Audard, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Ch. d’Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Hora, J. L.; Martínez-Galarza, J. R.; Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koenig, X. P. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Motte, F. [Institut de Plantologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, Univ. Grenoble Alpes—CNRS-INSU, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Nguyen-Luong, Q. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Chile Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saygac, A. T. [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Astronomy and Space Sciences Department, Istanbul-Turkey (Turkey)

    2017-04-20

    We present the results of our investigation of the star-forming complexes W51 and W43, two of the brightest in the first Galactic quadrant. In order to determine the young stellar object (YSO) populations in W51 and W43 we used color–magnitude relations based on Spitzer mid-infrared and 2MASS/UKIDSS near-infrared data. We identified 302 Class I YSOs and 1178 Class II/transition disk candidates in W51, and 917 Class I YSOs and 5187 Class II/transition disk candidates in W43. We also identified tens of groups of YSOs in both regions using the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. We found similar cluster densities in both regions, even though Spitzer was not able to probe the densest part of W43. By using the Class II/I ratios, we traced the relative ages within the regions and, based on the morphology of the clusters, we argue that several sites of star formation are independent of one another in terms of their ages and physical conditions. We used spectral energy distribution-fitting to identify the massive YSO (MYSO) candidates since they play a vital role in the star formation process, and then examined them to see if they are related to any massive star formation tracers such as UCH ii regions, masers, or dense fragments. We identified 17 MYSO candidates in W51, and 14 in W43, respectively, and found that groups of YSOs hosting MYSO candidates are positionally associated with H ii regions in W51, though we do not see any MYSO candidates associated with previously identified massive dense fragments in W43.

  3. DISK BRAKING IN YOUNG STARS: PROBING ROTATION IN CHAMAELEON I AND TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duy Cuong Nguyen; Jayawardhana, Ray; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Damjanov, Ivana; Brandeker, Alexis; Scholz, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of rotation, disk, and accretion signatures for 144 T Tauri stars in the young (∼2 Myr old) Chamaeleon I and Taurus-Auriga star-forming regions based on multi-epoch high-resolution optical spectra from the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope supplemented by mid-infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. In contrast to previous studies in the Orion Nebula Cluster and NGC 2264, we do not see a clear signature of disk braking in Tau-Aur and Cha I. We find that both accretors and non-accretors have similar distributions of vsin i. This result could be due to different initial conditions, insufficient time for disk braking, or a significant age spread within the regions. The rotational velocities in both regions show a clear mass dependence, with F-K stars rotating on average about twice as fast as M stars, consistent with results reported for other clusters of similar age. Similarly, we find the upper envelope of the observed values of specific angular momentum j varies as M 0.5 for our sample which spans a mass range of ∼0.16-3 M sun . This power law complements previous studies in Orion which estimated j ∝ M 0.25 for ∼ sun . Furthermore, the overall specific angular momentum of this ∼10 Myr population is five times lower than that of non-accretors in our sample, and implies a stellar braking mechanism other than disk braking could be at work. For a subsample of 67 objects with mid-infrared photometry, we examine the connection between accretion signatures and dusty disks: in the vast majority of cases (63/67), the two properties correlate well, which suggests that the timescale of gas accretion is similar to the lifetime of inner disks.

  4. Young solar-type stars evolution: the lithium and seismology contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piau, Laurent Eric

    2001-01-01

    This PhD thesis is devoted to young low-mass stars. We modeled many of them since their formation until the solar age covering the range between 0.65 and 1.4 solar masses and metallicity values ranging from -0.1 to 0.1 dex. The theoretical computations are related to observations in nearby open-clusters: Hyades, Pleiades... This comparison demonstrates that the lithium evolution is still poorly understood in such stars. In stellar interiors, this nuclide is destroyed by nuclear processes at low temperatures. Its surface abundance evolution traduces mixing phenomena between surface and deeper layers and therefore allows a direct insight into stellar structure and evolution. Both of which depend on microscopic and macroscopic physical phenomena whose effects we systematically examine. As regards microphysics we mainly concentrate upon changes in metallicity, in distribution among metals and their consequences on stellar opacity. We also address atmospheric models while the star still lies close to its Hayashi track. Accretion and convective parameters are the macroscopic phenomena we address during pre-main sequence. The rotational effects are considered along the entire evolution including the much realistic rotation laws. The last part of this PhD thesis makes use of seismology. Today this Discipline allows direct probing of the solar internal structure and motions. Its future application in the realm of stars will substantially improve their understanding. We derive here some relevant seismic variables for the understanding of stellar evolution. Then we show how this powerful tool permits to determine fundamental stellar parameters such as the mass or the helium fraction. (author) [fr

  5. Identifying Young Kepler Planet Host Stars from Keck–HIRES Spectra of Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Travis A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Boesgaard, Ann Merchant

    2018-03-01

    The lithium doublet at 6708 Å provides an age diagnostic for main sequence FGK dwarfs. We measured the abundance of lithium in 1305 stars with detected transiting planets from the Kepler mission using high-resolution spectroscopy. Our catalog of lithium measurements from this sample has a range of abundance from A(Li) = 3.11 ± 0.07 to an upper limit of ‑0.84 dex. For a magnitude-limited sample that comprises 960 of the 1305 stars, our Keck–HIRES spectra have a median signal-to-noise ratio of 45 per pixel at ∼6700 Å with spectral resolution \\tfrac{λ }{{{Δ }}λ } = R = 55,000. We identify 80 young stars that have A(Li) values greater than the Hyades at their respective effective temperatures; these stars are younger than ∼650 Myr, the approximate age of the Hyades. We then compare the distribution of A(Li) with planet size, multiplicity, orbital period, and insolation flux. We find larger planets preferentially in younger systems, with an A–D two-sided test p-value = 0.002, a > 3σ confidence that the older and younger planet samples do not come from the same parent distribution. This is consistent with planet inflation/photoevaporation at early ages. The other planet parameters (Kepler planet multiplicity, orbital period, and insolation flux) are uncorrelated with age. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by the University of Hawaii, the University of California, and Caltech.

  6. NEW DEBRIS DISKS AROUND YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS DISCOVERED WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavchan, Peter; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Chen, C. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Stauffer, J. R.; Song, I.

    2009-01-01

    We present 24 μm and 70 μm Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of 70 A through M-type dwarfs with estimated ages from 8 Myr to 1.1 Gyr, as part of a Spitzer guaranteed time program, including a re-analysis of some previously published source photometry. Our sample is selected from stars with common youth indicators such as lithium abundance, X-ray activity, chromospheric activity, and rapid rotation. We compare our MIPS observations to empirically derived K s -[24] colors as a function of the stellar effective temperature to identify 24 μm and 70 μm excesses. We place constraints or upper limits on dust temperatures and fractional infrared luminosities with a simple blackbody dust model. We confirm the previously published 70 μm excesses for HD 92945, HD 112429, and AU Mic, and provide updated flux density measurements for these sources. We present the discovery of 70 μm excesses for five stars: HD 7590, HD 10008, HD 59967, HD 73350, and HD 135599. HD 135599 is also a known Spitzer IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) excess source, and we confirm the excess at 24 μm. We also present the detection of 24 μm excesses for 10 stars: HD 10008, GJ 3400A, HD 73350, HD 112429, HD 123998, HD 175742, AT Mic, BO Mic, HD 358623 and Gl 907.1. We find that large 70 μm excesses are less common around stars with effective temperatures of less than 5000 K (3.7 +7.6 -1.1 %) than around stars with effective temperatures between 5000 K and 6000 K (21.4 +9.5 -5.7 %), despite the cooler stars having a younger median age in our sample (12 Myr vs. 340 Myr). We find that the previously reported excess for TWA 13A at 70 μm is due to a nearby background galaxy, and the previously reported excess for HD 177724 is due to saturation of the near-infrared photometry used to predict the mid-infrared stellar flux contribution. In the Appendix, we present an updated analysis of dust grain removal timescales due to grain-grain collisions and radiation pressure, Poynting

  7. NGC 2782: A Merger Remnant with Young Stars in its Gaseous Tidal Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Flores, S.; de Oliveira, C. Mendes; de Mello, D. F.; Scarano, S. Jr.; Urrutia-Viscarra, R.

    2012-01-01

    We have searched for young star-forming regions around the merger remnant NGC 2782. By using GALEX FUV and NUV imaging and HI data we found seven UV sources, located at distances greater than 26 kpc from the center of NGG 2782, and coinciding with its western HI tidal tail. These regions were resolved in several smaller systems when Gemini/GMOS r-band images were used. We compared the observed colors to stellar population synthesis models and we found that these objects have ages of l to ll11yr and masses ranging from 10(exp 3.9) to l0(exp 4.6) Solar Mass. By using Gemini/GMOS spectroscopic data we confirm memberships and derive high metallicities for three of the young regions in the tail (12+log(O/H)=8.74+/-0.20, 8.81+/-0.20 and 8.78+/-0.20). These metallicities are similar to the value presented by the nuclear region of NGG 2782 and also similar to the value presented for an object located close to the main body of NGG 2782. The high metallicities measured for the star-forming regions in the gaseous tidal tail of NGG 2782 could be explained if they were formed out of highly enriched gas which was once expelled from the center of the merging galaxies when the system collided. An additional possibility is that the tail has been a nursery of a few generations of young stellar systems which ultimately polluted this medium with metals, further enriching the already pre-enriched gas ejected to the tail when the galaxies collided.

  8. Direct method gas-phase oxygen abundances of four Lyman break analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Pogge, Richard W. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We measure the gas-phase oxygen abundances in four Lyman break analogs using auroral emission lines to derive direct abundances. The direct method oxygen abundances of these objects are generally consistent with the empirically derived strong-line method values, confirming that these objects are low oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation defined by star forming Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We find slightly anomalous excitation conditions (Wolf-Rayet features) that could potentially bias the empirical estimates toward high values if caution is not exercised in the selection of the strong-line calibration. The high rate of star formation and low oxygen abundance of these objects is consistent with the predictions of the fundamental metallicity relation, in which the infall of relatively unenriched gas simultaneously triggers an episode of star formation and dilutes the interstellar medium of the host galaxy.

  9. Young Stars in Orion May Solve Mystery of Our Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Scientists may have to give the Sun a little more credit. Exotic isotopes present in the early Solar System--which scientists have long-assumed were sprinkled there by a powerful, nearby star explosion--may have instead been forged locally by our Sun during the colossal solar-flare tantrums of its baby years. The isotopes--special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26, calcium-41, and beryllium-10--can form in the X-ray solar flares of young stars in the Orion Nebula, which behave just like our Sun would have at such an early age. The finding, based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has broad implications for the formation of our own Solar System. Eric Feigelson, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, led a team of scientists on this Chandra observation and presents these results in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra". "The Chandra study of Orion gives us the first chance to study the flaring properties of stars resembling the Sun when our solar system was forming," said Feigelson. "We found a much higher rate of flares than expected, sufficient to explain the production of many unusual isotopes locked away in ancient meteorites. If the young stars in Orion can do it, then our Sun should have been able to do it too." Scientists who study how our Solar System formed from a collapsed cloud of dust and gas have been hard pressed to explain the presence of these extremely unusual chemical isotopes. The isotopes are short-lived and had to have been formed no earlier than the creation of the Solar System, some five billion years ago. Yet these elements cannot be produced by a star as massive as our Sun under normal circumstances. (Other elements, such as silver and gold, were created long before the creation of the solar system.) The perplexing presence of these isotopic anomalies, found in ancient meteoroids orbiting the Earth, led to the theory that a supernova explosion occurred

  10. A UKIDSS-based search for low-mass stars and small stellar clumps in off-cloud parts of young star-forming regions* **

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrado y Navascués D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The form and universality of the mass function of young and nearby star-forming regions is still under debate. Its relation to the stellar density, its mass peak and the dependency on most recent models shows significant differencies for the various regions and remains unclear up to date. We aim to get a more complete census of two of such regions. We investigate yet unexplored areas of Orion and Taurus-Auriga, observed by the UKIDSS survey. In the latter, we search for low-mass stars via photometric and proper motion criteria and signs for variability. In Orion, we search for small stellar clumps via nearest-neighbor methods. Highlights in Taurus would be the finding of the missing low-mass stars and the detection of a young cluster T dwarf. In Orion, we discovered small stellar associations of its OB1b and OB1c populations. Combined with what is known in literature, we will provide by this investigations a general picture of the results of the star-forming processes in large areas of Taurus and Orion and probe the most recent models.

  11. The Gas-Phase Formation of Methyl Formate in Hot Molecular Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Anne; Møllendal, Harald; Sekiguchi, Osamu; Uggerud, Einar; Roberts, Helen; Herbst, Eric; Viggiano, A. A.; Fridgen, Travis D.

    2004-08-01

    Methyl formate, HCOOCH3, is a well-known interstellar molecule prominent in the spectra of hot molecular cores. The current view of its formation is that it occurs in the gas phase from precursor methanol, which is synthesized on the surfaces of grain mantles during a previous colder era and evaporates while temperatures increase during the process of high-mass star formation. The specific reaction sequence thought to form methyl formate, the ion-molecule reaction between protonated methanol and formaldehyde followed by dissociative recombination of the protonated ion [HCO(H)OCH3]+, has not been studied in detail in the laboratory. We present here the results of both a quantum chemical study of the ion-molecule reaction between [CH3OH2]+ and H2CO as well as new experimental work on the system. In addition, we report theoretical and experimental studies for a variety of other possible gas-phase reactions leading to ion precursors of methyl formate. The studied chemical processes leading to methyl formate are included in a chemical model of hot cores. Our results show that none of these gas-phase processes produces enough methyl formate to explain its observed abundance.

  12. Laboratory astrophysics with high energy and high power lasers: from radiative shocks to young star jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diziere, A.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics are a rapidly developing domain of the High Energy Density Physics. It aims to recreate at smaller scales physical processes that astronomical telescopes have difficulties observing. We shall approach, in this thesis, three major subjects: 1) Jets ejected from young stars, characterized by an important collimation degree and ending with a bow shock; 2) Radiative shocks in which radiation emitted by the shock front itself plays a dominant role in its structure and 3) Accretion shocks in magnetic cataclysmic variables whose important cooling factor allows them to reach stationarity. From the conception to experimental realization, we shall attempt to reproduce in laboratory each of these processes by respecting the scaling laws linking both situations (experimental and astrophysical) established beforehand. The implementation of a large array of visible and X-ray diagnostics will finally allow to completely characterize them and calculate the dimensionless numbers that validate the astrophysical relevance. (author) [fr

  13. The Ultrafast Wolff Rearrangement in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, Andreas; Roeding, Sebastian; Brixner, Tobias; Nuernberger, Patrick

    The Wolff rearrangement of gas-phase 5-diazo Meldrum's acid is disclosed with femtosecond ion spectroscopy. Distinct differences are found for 267 nm and 200 nm excitation, the latter leading to even two ultrafast rearrangement reactions.

  14. Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Electrodes for Gas Phase Pulsed Corona Reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Locke, B

    1998-01-01

    A new design for gas phase pulsed corona reactors incorporating reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is demonstrated to be effective for the removal of nitrogen oxides from synthetic air mixtures...

  15. GAS PHASE ION CHEMISTRY OF COUMARINS: AB INITIO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    The gas phase ion chemistry of coumarins using electron ionization (EI), positive chemical ionization (PCI) and ... Figure 1. Generic chemical structures of the coumarins in this study. ..... Part of this work was conducted using the resources of ...

  16. Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Electrodes for Gas Phase Pulsed Corona Reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LOCKE, B

    1999-01-01

    A new design for gas phase pulsed corona reactors incorporating reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is demonstrated to be effective for the removal of nitrogen oxides from synthetic air mixtures...

  17. Diode Laser Raman Scattering Prototype Gas-Phase Environmental Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benner, Robert

    1999-01-01

    We proposed developing a diode-laser-based, full spectrum Raman scattering instrument incorporating a multipass, external cavity enhancement cell for full spectrum, gas phase analysis of environmental pollutants...

  18. Three Small Planets Transiting the Bright Young Field Star K2-233

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Trevor J.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Benneke, Björn; Petigura, Erik A.; Gonzales, Erica J.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Yu, Liang; Isaacson, Howard T.; Howard, Andrew W.; Ciardi, David R.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Cody, Ann Marie; Riedel, Adric; Schwengeler, Hans Martin; Tanner, Christopher; Ende, Martin

    2018-05-01

    We report the detection of three small transiting planets around the young K3 dwarf K2-233 (2MASS J15215519‑2013539) from observations during Campaign 15 of the K2 mission. The star is relatively nearby (d = 69 pc) and bright (V = 10.7 mag, K s = 8.4 mag), making the planetary system an attractive target for radial velocity follow-up and atmospheric characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope. The inner two planets are hot super-Earths (R b = 1.40 ± 0.06 {R}\\oplus , R c = 1.34 ± 0.08 {R}\\oplus ), while the outer planet is a warm sub-Neptune (R d = 2.6 ± 0.1 {R}\\oplus ). We estimate the stellar age to be {360}-140+490 Myr based on rotation, activity, and kinematic indicators. The K2-233 system is particularly interesting given recent evidence for inflated radii in planets around similarly aged stars, a trend potentially related to photo-evaporation, core cooling, or both mechanisms.

  19. The young star cluster population of M51 with LEGUS - II. Testing environmental dependences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, Matteo; Adamo, A.; Calzetti, D.; Reina-Campos, M.; Colombo, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Chandar, R.; Dale, D. A.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Fumagalli, M.; Johnson, K. E.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Östlin, G.; Shabani, F.; Smith, L. J.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2018-06-01

    It has recently been established that the properties of young star clusters (YSCs) can vary as a function of the galactic environment in which they are found. We use the cluster catalogue produced by the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) collaboration to investigate cluster properties in the spiral galaxy M51. We analyse the cluster population as a function of galactocentric distance and in arm and inter-arm regions. The cluster mass function exhibits a similar shape at all radial bins, described by a power law with a slope close to -2 and an exponential truncation around 105 M⊙. While the mass functions of the YSCs in the spiral arm and inter-arm regions have similar truncation masses, the inter-arm region mass function has a significantly steeper slope than the one in the arm region, a trend that is also observed in the giant molecular cloud mass function and predicted by simulations. The age distribution of clusters is dependent on the region considered, and is consistent with rapid disruption only in dense regions, while little disruption is observed at large galactocentric distances and in the inter-arm region. The fraction of stars forming in clusters does not show radial variations, despite the drop in the H2 surface density measured as a function of galactocentric distance. We suggest that the higher disruption rate observed in the inner part of the galaxy is likely at the origin of the observed flat cluster formation efficiency radial profile.

  20. X-rays from HD 100546- A Young Herbig Star Orbited by Giant Protoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen

    A protoplanetary system consisting of at least two giant planets has beendetected orbiting the young nearby Herbig Be star HD 100546. The inner protoplanet orbits inside a gap within 14 AU of the star and is exposed to strong stellar UV and X-ray radiation. The detection of very warm disk gas provides evidence that stellar heating is affecting physical conditions in the planet-forming environment. We obtained a deep 74 ksec X-ray observation of HD 100546 in 2015 with XMM-Newton yielding an excellent-quality spectrum. We propose here to analyze the XMM-Newton data to determine the X-ray ionization and heating rates in the disk. X-ray ionization and heating affect the thermal and chemical structure of the disk and are key parameters for constructing realistic planet formation models. We are requesting ADAP funding to support the analysis and publication of this valuable XMM-Newton data set, which is now in the public archive.

  1. Jets from young stars - CCD imaging, long-slit spectroscopy, and interpretation of existing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundt, R.; Brugel, E.W.; Buehrke, T.

    1987-01-01

    High-velocity jets and collimated outflows are now recognized as phenomena commonly associated with young stars. New CCD imaging of five objects, and in particular spatially resolved spectroscopy of eight highly-collimated flows, are discussed. Through the CCD imaging, three new jets have been discovered. It is shown that several previously known Herbig-Haro objects have extended bow-shock-like structures. In most of the latter cases, a jet is pointing from the star toward the bow-shock apex. The concave side of the bow-shock structure is in all cases oriented toward the outflow source. Using a data base of about 20 known jets, a detailed list of observational criteria describing these phenomena is compiled. A physical description and interpretation is presented which discusses the origin of knots in these jets and other structures, the relationship between jets and Herbig-Haro objects, the dissipation of energy along the jet due to internal shocks, the physical parameters, the relationship of optical jets to molecular outflows, and time scales for outflow activity. A short discussion of the driving sources for these jets is also included. 116 references

  2. Laser spectroscopy and gas-phase chemistry in CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental work involves the use of laser spectroscopic techniques for in situ measurements on the gas phase in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. The theoretical part of the program consists of a computer model of the coupled fluid mechanics and gas-phase chemical kinetics of silane decomposition and subsequent reactions of intermediate species. The laser measurements provide extensive data for thoroughly testing the predictive capabilities of the model

  3. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    OpenAIRE

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different properties and extremely different reaction behaviour even if the same Ziegler-Natta (ZN) catalyst is used? Generally, it is known that the reason can be found in the differences of local condition...

  4. SPITZER VIEW OF YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD H II COMPLEXES. II. N 159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Seale, Jonathan P.; Testor, Gerard; Heitsch, Fabian; Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The H II complex N 159 in the Large Magellanic Cloud is used to study massive star formation in different environments, as it contains three giant molecular clouds (GMCs) that have similar sizes and masses but exhibit different intensities of star formation. We identify candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs) using infrared photometry, and model their spectral energy distributions to constrain mass and evolutionary state. Good fits are obtained for less evolved Type I, I/II, and II sources. Our analysis suggests that there are massive embedded YSOs in N 159B, a maser source, and several ultracompact H II regions. Massive O-type YSOs are found in GMCs N 159-E and N 159-W, which are associated with ionized gas, i.e., where massive stars formed a few Myr ago. The third GMC, N 159-S, has neither O-type YSOs nor evidence of previous massive star formation. This correlation between current and antecedent formation of massive stars suggests that energy feedback is relevant. We present evidence that N 159-W is forming YSOs spontaneously, while collapse in N 159-E may be triggered. Finally, we compare star formation rates determined from YSO counts with those from integrated Hα and 24 μm luminosities and expected from gas surface densities. Detailed dissection of extragalactic GMCs like the one presented here is key to revealing the physics underlying commonly used star formation scaling laws.

  5. X-ray sources associated with young stellar objects in the star formation region CMa R1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Thais; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Montmerle, Thierry

    2013-07-01

    In previous works we studied the star formation scenario in the molecular cloud Canis Major R1 (CMa R1), derived from the existence of young stellar population groups near the Be stars Z CMa and GU CMa. Using data from the ROSAT X-ray satellite, having a field-of-view of ~ 1° in diameter, Gregorio-Hetem et al. (2009) discovered in this region young stellar objects mainly grouped in two clusters of different ages, with others located in between. In order to investigate the nature of these objects and to test a possible scenario of sequential star formation in this region, four fields (each 30 arcmin diameter, with some overlap) have been observed with the XMM-Newton satellite, with a sensitivity about 10 times better than ROSAT. The XMM-Newton data are currently under analysis. Preliminary results indicate the presence of about 324 sources, most of them apparently having one or more near-infrared counterparts showing typical colors of young stars. The youth of the X-ray sources was also confirmed by X-ray hardness ratio diagrams (XHRD), in different energy bands, giving an estimate of their Lx/Lbol ratios. In addition to these results, we present a detailed study of the XMM field covering the cluster near Z CMa. Several of these sources were classified as T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars, using optical spectroscopy obtained with Gemini telescopes, in order to validate the use of XHRD applied to the entire sample. This classification is also used to confirm the relation between the luminosities in the near-infrared and X-ray bands expected for the T Tauri stars in CMa R1. In the present work we show the results of the study based on the spectra of about 90 sources found nearby Z CMa. We checked that the X-ray spectra (0.3 to 10 keV) of young objects is different from that observed in field stars and extragalactic objects. Some of the candidates also have light curve showing flares that are typical of T Tauri stars, which confirms the young nature of these X

  6. Formation of stars and star clusters in colliding galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Mergers are known to be essential in the formation of large-scale structures and to have a significant role in the history of galaxy formation and evolution. Besides a morphological transformation, mergers induce important bursts of star formation. These starburst are characterised by high Star Formation Efficiencies (SFEs) and Specific Star Formation Rates, i.e., high Star Formation Rates (SFR) per unit of gas mass and high SFR per unit of stellar mass, respectively, compared to spiral galaxies. At all redshifts, starburst galaxies are outliers of the sequence of star-forming galaxies defined by spiral galaxies. We have investigated the origin of the starburst-mode of star formation, in three local interacting systems: Arp 245, Arp 105 and NGC 7252. We combined high-resolution JVLA observations of the 21-cm line, tracing the HI diffuse gas, with UV GALEX observations, tracing the young star-forming regions. We probe the local physical conditions of the Inter-Stellar Medium (ISM) for independent star-forming regions and explore the atomic-to-dense gas transformation in different environments. The SFR/HI ratio is found to be much higher in central regions, compared to outer regions, showing a higher dense gas fraction (or lower HI gas fraction) in these regions. In the outer regions of the systems, i.e., the tidal tails, where the gas phase is mostly atomic, we find SFR/HI ratios higher than in standard HI-dominated environments, i.e., outer discs of spiral galaxies and dwarf galaxies. Thus, our analysis reveals that the outer regions of mergers are characterised by high SFEs, compared to the standard mode of star formation. The observation of high dense gas fractions in interacting systems is consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations; it results from the increase of the gas turbulence during a merger. The merger is likely to affect the star-forming properties of the system at all spatial scales, from large scales, with a globally enhanced turbulence

  7. Interstellar Gas-phase Element Depletions in the Small Magellanic Cloud: A Guide to Correcting for Dust in QSO Absorption Line Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Edward B. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Wallerstein, George, E-mail: ebj@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: walleg@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Seattle, Dept. of Astronomy, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present data on the gas-phase abundances for 9 different elements in the interstellar medium of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), based on the strengths of ultraviolet absorption features over relevant velocities in the spectra of 18 stars within the SMC. From this information and the total abundances defined by the element fractions in young stars in the SMC, we construct a general interpretation on how these elements condense into solid form onto dust grains. As a group, the elements Si, S, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn exhibit depletion sequences similar to those in the local part of our Galaxy defined by Jenkins. The elements Mg and Ti deplete less rapidly in the SMC than in the Milky Way, and Mn depletes more rapidly. We speculate that these differences might be explained by the different chemical affinities to different existing grain substrates. For instance, there is evidence that the mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the SMC are significantly lower than those in the Milky Way. We propose that the depletion sequences that we observed for the SMC may provide a better model for interpreting the element abundances in low-metallicity Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption systems that are recorded in the spectra of distant quasars and gamma-ray burst afterglows.

  8. NGC 1980 Is Not a Foreground Population of Orion: Spectroscopic Survey of Young Stars with Low Extinction in Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Apai, Dániel; Pascucci, Ilaria; Zhang, Lan; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Alonso-Martínez, Miguel; Eiroa, Carlos; Wang, Hongchi

    2017-01-01

    We perform a spectroscopic survey of the foreground population in Orion A with MMT/Hectospec. We use these data, along with archival spectroscopic data and photometric data, to derive spectral types, extinction values, and masses for 691 stars. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope data, we characterize the disk properties of these sources. We identify 37 new transition disk (TD) objects, 1 globally depleted disk candidate, and 7 probable young debris disks. We discover an object with a mass of less than 0.018–0.030 M ⊙ , which harbors a flaring disk. Using the H α emission line, we characterize the accretion activity of the sources with disks, and confirm that the fraction of accreting TDs is lower than that of optically thick disks (46% ± 7% versus 73% ± 9%, respectively). Using kinematic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and APOGEE INfrared Spectroscopy of the Young Nebulous Clusters program (IN-SYNC), we confirm that the foreground population shows similar kinematics to their local molecular clouds and other young stars in the same regions. Using the isochronal ages, we find that the foreground population has a median age of around 1–2 Myr, which is similar to that of other young stars in Orion A. Therefore, our results argue against the presence of a large and old foreground cluster in front of Orion A.

  9. NGC 1980 Is Not a Foreground Population of Orion: Spectroscopic Survey of Young Stars with Low Extinction in Orion A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Apai, Dániel [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pascucci, Ilaria [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zhang, Lan [Key Lab of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, 100012 Beijing (China); Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Alonso-Martínez, Miguel; Eiroa, Carlos [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Wang, Hongchi [Purple Mountain Observatory and Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, 210008 Nanjing (China)

    2017-04-01

    We perform a spectroscopic survey of the foreground population in Orion A with MMT/Hectospec. We use these data, along with archival spectroscopic data and photometric data, to derive spectral types, extinction values, and masses for 691 stars. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope data, we characterize the disk properties of these sources. We identify 37 new transition disk (TD) objects, 1 globally depleted disk candidate, and 7 probable young debris disks. We discover an object with a mass of less than 0.018–0.030 M {sub ⊙}, which harbors a flaring disk. Using the H α emission line, we characterize the accretion activity of the sources with disks, and confirm that the fraction of accreting TDs is lower than that of optically thick disks (46% ± 7% versus 73% ± 9%, respectively). Using kinematic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and APOGEE INfrared Spectroscopy of the Young Nebulous Clusters program (IN-SYNC), we confirm that the foreground population shows similar kinematics to their local molecular clouds and other young stars in the same regions. Using the isochronal ages, we find that the foreground population has a median age of around 1–2 Myr, which is similar to that of other young stars in Orion A. Therefore, our results argue against the presence of a large and old foreground cluster in front of Orion A.

  10. SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2010-09-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a major class of indoor pollutants. Understanding SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust is important for characterizing the fate of these species indoors and the pathways by which humans are exposed to them. Such knowledge also helps in crafting measurement programs for epidemiological studies designed to probe potential associations between exposure to these compounds and adverse health effects. In this paper, we analyze published data from nineteen studies that cumulatively report measurements of dustborne and airborne SVOCs in more than a thousand buildings, mostly residences, in seven countries. In aggregate, measured median data are reported in these studies for 66 different SVOCs whose octanol-air partition coefficients ( Koa) span more than five orders of magnitude. We use these data to test a simple equilibrium model for estimating the partitioning of an SVOC between the gas phase and settled dust indoors. The results demonstrate, in central tendency, that a compound's octanol-air partition coefficient is a strong predictor of its abundance in settled dust relative to its gas phase concentration. Using median measured results for each SVOC in each study, dustborne mass fractions predicted using Koa and gas-phase concentrations correlate reasonably well with measured dustborne mass fractions ( R2 = 0.76). Combined with theoretical understanding of SVOC partitioning kinetics, the empirical evidence also suggests that for SVOCs with high Koa values, the mass fraction in settled dust may not have sufficient time to equilibrate with the gas phase concentration.

  11. A Study of Inner Disk Gas around Young Stars in the Lupus Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulanantham, Nicole Annemarie; France, Kevin; Hoadley, Keri

    2018-06-01

    We present a study of molecular hydrogen at the surfaces of the disks around five young stars in the Lupus complex: RY Lupi, RU Lupi, MY Lupi, Sz 68, and TYC 7851. Each system was observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and we detect a population of fluorescent H2 in all five sources. The temperatures required for LyA fluorescence to proceed (T ~ 1500-2500 K) place the gas within ~15 AU of the central stars. We have used these features to extract the radial distribution of H2 in the inner disk, where planet formation may already be taking place. The objects presented here have very different outer disk morphologies, as seen by ALMA via 890 micron dust continuum emission, ranging from full disks with no signs of cavities to systems with large regions that are clearly depleted (e.g. TYC 7851, with a cavity extending to 75 and 60 AU in dust and gas, respectively). Our results are interpreted in conjunction with sub-mm data from the five systems in an effort to piece together a more complete picture of the overall disk structure. We have previously applied this multi-wavelength approach to RY Lupi, including 4.7 micron IR-CO emission in our analysis. These IR-CO and UV-H2 observations were combined with 10 micron silicate emission, the 890 micron dust continuum, and 1.3 mm CO observations from the literature to infer a gapped structure in the inner disk. This single system has served as a testing ground for the larger Lupus complex sample, which we compare here to examine any trends between the outer disk morphology and inner disk gas distributions.

  12. CLOSE COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS. I. A LARGE SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN CHAMAELEON I AND TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Brandeker, Alexis; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a multiplicity survey of 212 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I and Taurus-Auriga star-forming regions, based on high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. From these data, we achieved a typical radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼80 m s –1 with slower rotators yielding better precision, in general. For 174 of these stars, we obtained multi-epoch data with sufficient time baselines to identify binaries based on RV variations. We identified eight close binaries and four close triples, of which three and two, respectively, are new discoveries. The spectroscopic multiplicity fractions we find for Chamaeleon I (7%) and Taurus-Auriga (6%) are similar to each other, and to the results of field star surveys in the same mass and period regime. However, unlike the results from imaging surveys, the frequency of systems with close companions in our sample is not seen to depend on primary mass. Additionally, we do not find a strong correlation between accretion and close multiplicity. This implies that close companions are not likely the main source of the accretion shut down observed in weak-lined T Tauri stars. Our results also suggest that sufficient RV precision can be achieved for at least a subset of slowly rotating young stars to search for hot Jupiter planets.

  13. Gas Phase Sulfur, Chlorine and Potassium Chemistry in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løj, Lusi Hindiyarti

    2007-01-01

    Gas Phase Sulfur, Chlorine and Alkali Metal Chemistry in Biomass Combustion Concern about aerosols formation, deposits, corrosion, and gaseous emissions during biomass combustion, especially straw, continues to be a driving force for investigation on S, Cl, K-containing species under combustions...... conditions. These trace species contained in the biomass structure will be released to the gas phase during combustion and contribute to the problems generated during the process. The investigation during this PhD project is done to stepwise improve the understanding in the chemistry and reduce...... the uncertainties. In the present work, the detailed kinetic model for gas phase sulfur, chlorine, alkali metal, and their interaction has been updated. The K/O/H/Cl chemistry, S chemistry, and their interaction can reasonably predict a range of experimental data. In general, understanding of the interaction...

  14. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. I - Models for spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe radiative transfer calculations of infalling, dusty envelopes surrounding pre-main-sequence stars and use these models to derive physical properties for a sample of 21 heavily reddened young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The density distributions needed to match the FIR peaks in the spectral energy distributions of these embedded sources suggest mass infall rates similar to those predicted for simple thermally supported clouds with temperatures about 10 K. Unless the dust opacities are badly in error, our models require substantial departures from spherical symmetry in the envelopes of all sources. These flattened envelopes may be produced by a combination of rotation and cavities excavated by bipolar flows. The rotating infall models of Terebey et al. (1984) models indicate a centrifugal radius of about 70 AU for many objects if rotation is the only important physical effect, and this radius is reasonably consistent with typical estimates for the sizes of circumstellar disks around T Tauri stars.

  15. Photoelectric UBV-photometry of the In(YY) DR Tauri-type young star in 1982-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotilov, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of photoelectric UBV-photometry carried out in 1982-1986 for DR TAU - the star which undergone nova-like brightness increase in 1965-1980 - are presented. The brightness variations of the star during the post-maximum period include several days lasting flares and much more rare deep minima. The averaged colour-brightness relations are as follows: the higher brightness, the bluer B - V colour and the redder U - B colour. However the fast variations on a time scale of days do not always follow this relation. The observed pattern of variability of DR Tau is in agreement with the model of young stars activity (Grinin, 1980) proposing the appearance of hot spots in stellar atmosphere due to accretion of gas. Some arguments for the binarity of DR Tau are presented

  16. Gas-phase photocatalysis in μ-reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Henriksen, Toke Riishøj

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase photocatalysis experiments may benefit from the high sensitivity and good time response in product detection offered by μ-reactors. We demonstrate this by carrying out CO oxidation and methanol oxidation over commercial TiO2 photocatalysts in our recently developed high-sensitivity reac......Gas-phase photocatalysis experiments may benefit from the high sensitivity and good time response in product detection offered by μ-reactors. We demonstrate this by carrying out CO oxidation and methanol oxidation over commercial TiO2 photocatalysts in our recently developed high...

  17. Post-flame gas-phase sulfation of potassium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan

    2013-01-01

    The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously homogene......The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously...

  18. Device to remove hydrogen isotopes from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlock, G.; Wiesemes, J.; Bachner, D.

    1977-01-01

    The device described here guarantees the selective removal of hydrogen isotopes from gas phases in order to prevent the occurence of explosive H 2 gas mixtures, or to separate off radioactive tritium in nuclear plants from the gas phase. It consists of a closed container whose walls are selectively penetrable by hydrogen isotopes. It is simultaneously filled compactly and presssure-resistant with a metal bulk (e.g. powder, sponges or the like of titanium or other hydrogen isotope binding metal). Walling and bulk are maintained at suitable working temperatures by means of a system according to the Peltier effect. The whole thing is safeguarded by protective walling. (RB) [de

  19. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  20. THE HIDDEN MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE YOUNG NEUTRON STAR IN KESTEVEN 79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabaltas, Natalia; Lai Dong

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of the central compact object in the Kesteven 79 supernova remnant show that this neutron star (NS) has a weak dipole magnetic field (a few × 10 10 G) but an anomalously large (∼64%) pulse fraction in its surface X-ray emission. We explore the idea that a substantial sub-surface magnetic field exists in the NS crust, which produces diffuse hot spots on the stellar surface due to anisotropic heat conduction, and gives rise to the observed X-ray pulsation. We develop a general-purpose method, termed 'Temperature Template with Full Transport' (TTFT), that computes the synthetic pulse profile of surface X-ray emission from NSs with arbitrary magnetic field and surface temperature distributions, taking into account magnetic atmosphere opacities, beam pattern, vacuum polarization, and gravitational light bending. We show that a crustal toroidal magnetic field of order a few × 10 14 G or higher, varying smoothly across the crust, can produce sufficiently distinct surface hot spots to generate the observed pulse fraction in the Kes 79 NS. This result suggests that substantial sub-surface magnetic fields, much stronger than the 'visible' dipole fields, may be buried in the crusts of some young NSs, and such hidden magnetic fields can play an important role in their observational manifestations. The general TTFT tool we have developed can also be used for studying radiation from other magnetic NSs.

  1. KEPLER-63b: A GIANT PLANET IN A POLAR ORBIT AROUND A YOUNG SUN-LIKE STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John Asher; Torres, Guillermo; Carter, Joshua A.; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Geary, John C.; Campante, Tiago L.; Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy R.; Lund, Mikkel N.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Everett, Mark E.; Fischer, Debra A.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Horch, Elliott P.

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery and characterization of a giant planet orbiting the young Sun-like star Kepler-63 (KOI-63, m Kp = 11.6, T eff = 5576 K, M * = 0.98 M ☉ ). The planet transits every 9.43 days, with apparent depth variations and brightening anomalies caused by large starspots. The planet's radius is 6.1 ± 0.2 R ⊕ , based on the transit light curve and the estimated stellar parameters. The planet's mass could not be measured with the existing radial-velocity data, due to the high level of stellar activity, but if we assume a circular orbit, then we can place a rough upper bound of 120 M ⊕ (3σ). The host star has a high obliquity (ψ = 104°), based on the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and an analysis of starspot-crossing events. This result is valuable because almost all previous obliquity measurements are for stars with more massive planets and shorter-period orbits. In addition, the polar orbit of the planet combined with an analysis of spot-crossing events reveals a large and persistent polar starspot. Such spots have previously been inferred using Doppler tomography, and predicted in simulations of magnetic activity of young Sun-like stars

  2. KEPLER-63b: A GIANT PLANET IN A POLAR ORBIT AROUND A YOUNG SUN-LIKE STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Torres, Guillermo; Carter, Joshua A.; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Geary, John C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Campante, Tiago L.; Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lund, Mikkel N. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre (SAC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Buchhave, Lars A. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Horch, Elliott P. [Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); and others

    2013-09-20

    We present the discovery and characterization of a giant planet orbiting the young Sun-like star Kepler-63 (KOI-63, m{sub Kp} = 11.6, T{sub eff} = 5576 K, M{sub *} = 0.98 M{sub ☉}). The planet transits every 9.43 days, with apparent depth variations and brightening anomalies caused by large starspots. The planet's radius is 6.1 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊕}, based on the transit light curve and the estimated stellar parameters. The planet's mass could not be measured with the existing radial-velocity data, due to the high level of stellar activity, but if we assume a circular orbit, then we can place a rough upper bound of 120 M{sub ⊕} (3σ). The host star has a high obliquity (ψ = 104°), based on the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and an analysis of starspot-crossing events. This result is valuable because almost all previous obliquity measurements are for stars with more massive planets and shorter-period orbits. In addition, the polar orbit of the planet combined with an analysis of spot-crossing events reveals a large and persistent polar starspot. Such spots have previously been inferred using Doppler tomography, and predicted in simulations of magnetic activity of young Sun-like stars.

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF NEBULAR CONTINUUM AND LINE EMISSION IN OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG MASSIVE STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Nidever, David L.; Whelan, David G.; Johnson, Kelsey E.

    2010-01-01

    In this spectroscopic study of infant massive star clusters, we find that continuum emission from ionized gas rivals the stellar luminosity at optical wavelengths. In addition, we find that nebular line emission is significant in many commonly used broadband Hubble Space Telescope (HST) filters including the F814W I-band, the F555W V-band, and the F435W B-band. Two young massive clusters (YMCs) in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 4449 were targeted for follow-up spectroscopic observations after Reines et al. discovered an F814W I-band excess in their photometric study of radio-detected clusters in the galaxy. The spectra were obtained with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) on the 3.5 m Apache Point Observatory (APO) telescope and have a spectral range of ∼3800-9800 A. We supplement these data with HST and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry of the clusters. By comparing our data to the Starburst99 and GALEV evolutionary synthesis models, we find that nebular continuum emission competes with the stellar light in our observations and that the relative contribution from the nebular continuum is largest in the U- and I-bands, where the Balmer (3646 A) and Paschen jumps (8207 A) are located. The spectra also exhibit strong line emission including the [S III] λλ9069, 9532 lines in the HST F814W I-band. We find that the combination of nebular continuum and line emission can account for the F814W I-band excess previously found by Reines et al. In an effort to provide a benchmark for estimating the impact of ionized gas emission on photometric observations of young massive stellar populations, we compute the relative contributions of the stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines to the total observed flux of a 3 Myr old cluster through various HST filter/instrument combinations, including filters in the Wide Field Camera 3. We urge caution when comparing observations of YMCs to evolutionary synthesis models since nebular continuum and line emission can

  4. Dynamic Young Stars and their Disks: A Temporal View of NGC 2264 with Spitzer and CoRoT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability is a signature feature of young stars. Among the well known light curve phenomena are periodic variations attributed to surface spots and irregular changes associated with accretion or circumstellar disk material. While decades of photometric monitoring have provided a framework for classifying young star variability, we still know surprisingly little about its underlying mechanisms and connections to the surrounding disks. In the past few years, dedicated photometric monitoring campaigns from the ground and space have revolutionized our view of young stars in the time domain. We present a selection of optical and infrared time series from several recent campaigns, highlighting the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 (“CSI 2264”– a joint30-day effort with the Spitzer, CoRoT, and MOST telescopes. The extraordinary photometric precision, high cadence, and long time baseline of these observations is now enabling correlation of variability properties at very different wavelengths, corresponding to locations from the stellar surface to the inner 0.1 AU of the disk. We present some results of the CSI 2264 program, including new classes of optical/infrared behavior. Further efforts to tie observed variability features to physical models will provide insights into the inner disk environment at a time when planet formation may be underway.

  5. AN M DWARF COMPANION TO AN F-TYPE STAR IN A YOUNG MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigmüller, Ph.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Pasternacki, Th.; Rauer, H. [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center Rutherfordstr. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Eislöffel, J.; Lehmann, H.; Hartmann, M.; Hatzes, A. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Tkachenko, A. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Voss, H., E-mail: philipp.eigmueller@dlr.de [Universitat de Barcelona, Department of Astronomy and Meteorology Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Only a few well characterized very low-mass M dwarfs are known today. Our understanding of M dwarfs is vital as these are the most common stars in our solar neighborhood. We aim to characterize the properties of a rare F+dM stellar system for a better understanding of the low-mass end of the Hertzsprung–Russel diagram. We used photometric light curves and radial velocity follow-up measurements to study the binary. Spectroscopic analysis was used in combination with isochrone fitting to characterize the primary star. The primary star is an early F-type main-sequence star with a mass of (1.493 ± 0.073) M{sub ⊙} and a radius of (1.474 ± 0.040) R{sub ⊙}. The companion is an M dwarf with a mass of (0.188 ± 0.014) M{sub ⊙} and a radius of (0.234 ± 0.009) R{sub ⊙}. The orbital period is (1.35121 ± 0.00001) days. The secondary star is among the lowest-mass M dwarfs known to date. The binary has not reached a 1:1 spin–orbit synchronization. This indicates a young main-sequence binary with an age below ∼250 Myr. The mass–radius relation of both components are in agreement with this finding.

  6. SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a major class of indoor pollutants. Understanding SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust is important for characterizing the fate of these species indoors and the pathways by which humans are exposed to them. Such knowledge also helps...

  7. Gas-Phase IR Spectroscopy of Deprotonated Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, J.; Steill, J. D.; Redlich, B.

    2009-01-01

    Gas-phase infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra have been recorded for the conjugate bases of a series of amino acids (Asp, Cys, Glu, Phe, Set, Trp, Tyr). The spectra are dominated by strong symmetric and antisymmetric carboxylate stretching modes around 1300 and 1600 cm(-1),

  8. Gas phase toluene isopropylation over high silica mordenite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mordenite (HM) catalysts with three different Si/Al ratios were compared for their activity and selectivities in gas phase toluene isopropylation with isopropanol. Catalyst with Si/Al ratio 44.9 offered better cumene selectivity, hence, it was chosen for detailed kinetic investigations. The influence of various process parameters ...

  9. Identifying the Young Low-mass Stars within 25 pc. I. Spectroscopic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Liu, Michael C.; Reid, I. Neill

    2009-07-01

    We have completed a high-resolution (R ≈ 60,000) optical spectroscopic survey of 185 nearby M dwarfs identified using ROSAT data to select active, young objects with fractional X-ray luminosities comparable to or greater than Pleiades members. Our targets are drawn from the NStars 20 pc census and the Moving-M sample with distances determined from parallaxes or spectrophotometric relations. We limited our sample to 25 pc from the Sun, prior to correcting for pre-main-sequence overluminosity or binarity. Nearly half of the resulting M dwarfs are not present in the Gliese catalog and have no previously published spectral types. We identified 30 spectroscopic binaries (SBs) from the sample, which have strong X-ray emission due to tidal spin-up rather than youth. This is equivalent to a 16% SB fraction, with at most a handful of undiscovered SBs. We estimate upper limits on the age of the remaining M dwarfs using spectroscopic youth indicators such as surface gravity-sensitive indices (CaH and K I). We find that for a sample of field stars with no metallicity measurements, a single CaH gravity index may not be sufficient, as higher metallicities mimic lower gravity. This is demonstrated in a subsample of metal-rich radial velocity (RV) standards, which appear to have low surface gravity as measured by the CaH index, yet show no other evidence of youth. We also use additional youth diagnostics such as lithium absorption and strong Hα emission to set more stringent age limits. Eleven M dwarfs with no Hα emission or absorption are likely old (>400 Myr) and were caught during an X-ray flare. We estimate that our final sample of the 144 youngest and nearest low-mass objects in the field is less than 300 Myr old, with 30% of them being younger than 150 Myr and four very young (lap10 Myr), representing a generally untapped and well-characterized resource of M dwarfs for intensive planet and disk searches. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory and

  10. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION CYGNUS OB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J Almost-Equal-To 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of {approx}50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source {approx}100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

  11. Neutron Star Population Dynamics. II. Three-dimensional Space Velocities of Young Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J. M.; Chernoff, David F.

    1998-09-01

    We use astrometric, distance, and spindown data on pulsars to (1) estimate three-dimensional velocity components, birth distances from the Galactic plane, and ages of individual objects; (2) determine the distribution of space velocities and the scale height of pulsar progenitors; (3) test spindown laws for pulsars; (4) test for correlations between space velocities and other pulsar parameters; and (5) place empirical requirements on mechanisms than can produce high-velocity neutron stars. Our approach incorporates measurement errors, uncertainties in distances, deceleration in the Galactic potential, and differential Galactic rotation. We focus on a sample of proper motion measurements of young (case-by-case basis assuming that the actual age equals the conventional spindown age for a braking index n = 3, no torque decay, and birth periods much shorter than present-day periods. Every sample member could have originated within 0.3 kpc of the Galactic plane while still having reasonable present-day peculiar radial velocities. For the 49 object sample, the scale height of the progenitors is ~0.13 kpc, and the three-dimensional velocities are distributed in two components with characteristic speeds of 175+19-24 km s-1 and 700+300-132 km s-1, representing ~86% and ~14% of the population, respectively. The sample velocities are inconsistent with a single-component Gaussian model and are well described by a two-component Gaussian model but do not require models of additional complexity. From the best-fit distribution, we estimate that about 20% of the known pulsars will escape the Galaxy, assuming an escape speed of 500 km s-1. The best-fit, dual-component model, if augmented by an additional, low-velocity (The best three-component models do not show a preference for filling in the probability distribution at speeds intermediate to 175 and 700 km s-1 but are nearly degenerate with the best two-component models. We estimate that the high-velocity tail (>1000 km s-1) may

  12. Hot H2O Emission and Evidence for Turbulence in the Disk of a Young Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    matter — infrared: stars — planetary systems: protoplanetary disks — stars: formation — stars: pre–main-sequence 1. INTRODUCTION The presence of hot...in disk gaps . Molecules other than CO are expected to exist at the temperatures and densities in the inner few AU of disks . Water should be very... protoplanetary disks . In addition, non-Gaussian line profiles might be ex- pected, given that a characteristic of turbulence seen in both laboratory experiments

  13. Comparisons between observational color-magnitude diagrams and synthetic cluster diagrams for young star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, S.A.; Brunish, W.M.; Mathews, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Young star clusters ( 8 yr) in the Magellanic Clouds (MC) can be used to test the current status of the theory of stellar evolution as applied to intermediate and massive stars. The color-magnitude diagram of many young clusters in the MC shows large numbers of stars in both the main sequence and post main sequence evolutionary phases. Using a grid of stellar evolution models, synthetic cluster H-R diagrams are constructed and compared to observed color-magnitude diagrams to determine the age, age spread, and composition for any given cluster. In addition, for those cases where the data is of high quality, detailed comparisons between theory and observation can provide a diagnostic of the accuracy of the stellar evolution models. Initial indications of these comparisons suggest that the theoretical models should be altered to include: a larger value for the mixing length parameter, a larger rate of mass loss during the asymptotic giant branch phase, and possibly convective overshoot during the core burning phases. (Auth.)

  14. Effects of the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster formation on the symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H.; Roepke, G.; Blaschke, D.

    2014-01-01

    Various definitions of the symmetry energy are introduced for nuclei, dilute nuclear matter below saturation density and stellar matter, which is found in compact stars or core-collapse supernovae. The resulting differences are exemplified by calculations in a theoretical approach based on a generalized relativistic density functional for dense matter. It contains nucleonic clusters as explicit degrees of freedom with medium-dependent properties that are derived for light clusters from a quantum statistical approach. With such a model the dissolution of clusters at high densities can be described. The effects of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter and of cluster formation in stellar matter on the density dependence of the symmetry energy are studied for different temperatures. It is observed that correlations and the formation of inhomogeneous matter at low densities and temperatures causes an increase of the symmetry energy as compared to calculations assuming a uniform uncorrelated spatial distribution of constituent baryons and leptons. (orig.)

  15. On the absence of young white dwarf companions to five technetium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Verne V.; Lambert, David L.

    1987-01-01

    A search for hot companions to five stars of type MS and S has been carried out using the IUE satellite. No hot companions were detected for the MS stars HR 85, 4647, 6702, and 8062, and the S star HR 8714. Limits on the luminosities of possible white dwarf companions provide lower limits of 2-5x10 to the 8th yr to the ages of any degenerate companions. All five stars exhibit strong Tc I lines, and the presence of technetium, with a half-life of 2.1x10 to the 5th yr, signifies recent nucleosynthesis. The limits on the ages of possible white dwarf companions that are equal to or greater than 1000 half-lives of Tc exclude the possibility that the s-process elemental enhancement seen in these MS and S stars resulted from mass transfer from a more highly evolved companion (as is probably the mechanism by which barium stars are created). These MS and S stars represent a sample of true thermally pulsing asymptotic giant-branch stars.

  16. Long-lived gas-phase radicals from combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Takashi; Furusawa, Koji; Amano, Toshiji; Okubo, Yoichi; Tsuchiya, Jun' ichi; Yoshizawa, Fujiroku; Akutsu, Yoshiaki; Tamura, Masamitsu; Yoshida, Tadao (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-04-20

    On indoor air pollution or fire, it is feared that the gas-phase radicals from the combustion of inflammables or fuel seriously exert an influence on the organisms as harmful matter. The gas-phase radicals were studied using the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique. For the spin trap solution, 0.1 mol solution of {alpha}-phenyl-N-t-butylnitron in benzene was used. As a result, apparently long-lived and highly reactive oxygen-centered radicals were detected in the smoke from polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, kerosene, benzene, acetone, methanol and butylalcohol. It is suggested that the production mechanism for the radicals should be different from olefin-NOx-air system reaction, which is considered for the radicals from cigarette smoke. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Reactions of newly formed fission products in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    A dynamic gas-flow system was constructed which stopped fission products in the gas phase and rapidly separated (in less than 2 sec) volatile compounds from non-volatile ones. The filter assembly designed and used was shown to stop essentially all non-volatile fission products. Between 5 percent and 20 percent of tellurium fission-product isotopes reacted with several hydrocarbon gases to form volatile compounds, which passed through the filter. With carbon monoxide gas, volatile tellurium compound(s) (probably TeCO) were also formed with similar efficiencies. The upper limits for the yields of volatile compounds formed between CO and tin and antimony fission products were shown to be less than 0.3 percent, so tellurium nuclides, not their precursors, reacted with CO. It was found that CO reacted preferentially with independently produced tellurium atoms; the reaction efficiency of beta-produced atoms was only 27 +- 3 percent of that of the independently formed atoms. The selectivity, which was independent of the over-all reaction efficiency, was shown to be due to reaction of independently formed atoms in the gas phase. The gas phase reactions are believed to occur mainly at thermal energies because of the independence of the yield upon argon moderator mole-fraction (up to 80 percent). It was shown in some experiments that about one-half of the TeCO decomposed in passing through a filter and that an appreciable fraction (approximately 20 percent) of the tellurium atoms deposited on the filter reacted agin with CO. Other tellurium atoms on the filter surface (those formed by beta decay and those formed independently but not reacting in the gas phase) also reacted with CO, but probably somewhat less efficiently than atoms formed by TeCO decomposition. No evidence was found for formation of TeCO as a direct result of beta-decay

  18. Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Reid A.; Hill, Jr., Charles G.; Anderson, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

  19. Gas Phase Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to gamma-Valerolactone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonrath, Werner; Castelijns, Anna Maria Cornelia Francisca; de Vries, Johannes Gerardus; Guit, Rudolf Philippus Maria; Schuetz, Jan; Sereinig, Natascha; Vaessen, Henricus Wilhelmus Leonardus Marie

    The gas phase hydrogenation of levulinic acid to gamma-valerolactone over copper and ruthenium based catalysts in a continuous fixed-bed reactor system was investigated. Among the catalysts a copper oxide based one [50-75 % CuO, 20-25 % SiO2, 1-5 % graphite, 0.1-1 % CuCO3/Cu(OH)(2)] gave

  20. Gas phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.; Neiswander, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    D ampersand D of the process facilities at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) will be an enormous task. The EBASCO estimate places the cost of D ampersand D of the GDP at the K-25 Site at approximately $7.5 billion. Of this sum, nearly $4 billion is associated with the construction and operation of decontamination facilities and the dismantlement and transport of contaminated process equipment to these facilities. In situ long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas phase decontamination is being developed and demonstrated at the K-25 site as a technology that has the potential to substantially lower these costs while reducing criticality and safeguards concerns and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The objective of gas phase decontamination is to employ a gaseous reagent to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to form volatile LJF6, which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The LTLT process permits the decontamination of the inside of gas-tight GDP process equipment at room temperature by substituting a long exposure to subatmospheric C1F for higher reaction rates at higher temperatures. This paper outlines the concept for applying LTLT gas phase decontamination, reports encouraging laboratory experiments, and presents the status of the design of a prototype mobile system. Plans for demonstrating the LTLT process on full-size gaseous diffusion equipment are also outlined briefly

  1. GAS PHASE SELECTIVE PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR OXYGEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-Activated Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen Gas phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...

  2. Fundamental thermochemical properties of amino acids: gas-phase and aqueous acidities and gas-phase heats of formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Michele L; Jackson, Virgil E; Matus, Myrna H; Adams, Margaret A; Cassady, Carolyn J; Dixon, David A

    2012-03-08

    The gas-phase acidities of the 20 L-amino acids have been predicted at the composite G3(MP2) level. A broad range of structures of the neutral and anion were studied to determine the lowest energy conformer. Excellent agreement is found with the available experimental gas-phase deprotonation enthalpies, and the calculated values are within experimental error. We predict that tyrosine is deprotonated at the CO(2)H site. Cysteine is predicted to be deprotonated at the SH but the proton on the CO(2)H is shared with the S(-) site. Self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with the COSMO parametrization were used to predict the pK(a)'s of the non-zwitterion form in aqueous solution. The differences in the non-zwitterion pK(a) values were used to estimate the free energy difference between the zwitterion and nonzwitterion forms in solution. The heats of formation of the neutral compounds were calculated from atomization energies and isodesmic reactions to provide the first reliable set of these values in the gas phase. Further calculations were performed on five rare amino acids to predict their heats of formation, acidities, and pK(a) values.

  3. POPULATION SYNTHESIS OF YOUNG ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: THE EFFECT OF FALLBACK DISK ACCRETION AND MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lei; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2013-01-01

    The spin evolution of isolated neutron stars (NSs) is dominated by their magnetic fields. The measured braking indices of young NSs show that the spin-down mechanism due to magnetic dipole radiation with constant magnetic fields is inadequate. Assuming that the NS magnetic field is buried by supernova fallback matter and re-emerges after accretion stops, we carry out a Monte Carlo simulation of the evolution of young NSs, and show that most of the pulsars have braking indices ranging from –1 to 3. The results are compatible with the observational data of NSs associated with supernova remnants. They also suggest that the initial spin periods of NSs might occupy a relatively wide range

  4. Noncovalent Halogen Bonding as a Mechanism for Gas-Phase Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegeberg, Christina; Donald, William A.; McKenzie, Christine

    2017-01-01

    in the crystalline phases of PhIO2 and its derivatives serve as models for the structures of larger gas-phase clusters, and calculations on simple model gas-phase dimer and trimer clusters result in similar motifs. This is the first account of halogen bonding playing an extensive role in gas-phase associations....

  5. The two young star disks in the central parsec of the Galaxy: properties, dynamics, and formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paumard, T; Genzel, R; Martins, F; Nayakshin, S; Beloborodov, A M; Levin, Y; Trippe, S; Eisenhauer, F; Ott, T; Gillessen, S; Abuter, R; Cuadra, J; Alexander, T; Sternberg, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the definite spectroscopic identification of ≅ 40 OB supergiants, giants and main sequence stars in the central parsec of the Galaxy. Detection of their absorption lines have become possible with the high spatial and spectral resolution and sensitivity of the adaptive optics integral Held spectrometer SPIFFI/SINFONI on the ESO VLT. Several of these OB stars appear to be helium and nitrogen rich. Almost all of the ≅80 massive stars now known in the central parsec (central arcsecond excluded) reside in one of two somewhat thick ((|/R) ≅ 0.14) rotating disks. These stellar disks have fairly sharp inner edges (R ≅ 1'') and surface density profiles that scale as R -2 . We do not detect any OB stars outside the central 0.5 pc. The majority of the stars in the clockwise system appear to be on almost circular orbits, whereas most of those in the 'counter-clockwise' disk appear to be on eccentric orbits. Based on its stellar surface density distribution and dynamics we propose that IRS 13E is an extremely dense cluster (ρ core ∼> 3 x 10 8 M o-dot pc -3 ), which has formed in the counter-clockwise disk. The stellar contents of both systems are remarkably similar, indicating a common age of ≅ 6±2 Myr. The K-band luminosity function of the massive stars suggests a top-heavy mass function and limits the total stellar mass contained in both disks to ≅ 1.5 x 10 4 M o-dot . Our data strongly favor in situ star formation from dense gas accretion disks for the two stellar disks. This conclusion is very clear for the clockwise disk and highly plausible for the counter-clockwise system

  6. An UXor among FUors: Extinction-related Brightness Variations of the Young Eruptive Star V582 Aur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ábrahám, P.; Kóspál, Á.; Kun, M.; Fehér, O.; Zsidi, G.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Carnerero, M. I.; García-Álvarez, D.; Moór, A.; Cseh, B.; Hajdu, G.; Hanyecz, O.; Kelemen, J.; Kriskovics, L.; Marton, G.; Mező, Gy.; Molnár, L.; Ordasi, A.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Sárneczky, K.; Sódor, Á.; Szakáts, R.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Szing, A.; Farkas-Takács, A.; Vida, K.; Vinkó, J.

    2018-01-01

    V582 Aur is an FU Ori-type young eruptive star in outburst since ∼1985. The eruption is currently in a relatively constant plateau phase, with photometric and spectroscopic variability superimposed. Here we will characterize the progenitor of the outbursting object, explore its environment, and analyze the temporal evolution of the eruption. We are particularly interested in the physical origin of the two deep photometric dips, one that occurred in 2012 and one that is ongoing since 2016. We collected archival photographic plates and carried out new optical, infrared, and millimeter-wave photometric and spectroscopic observations between 2010 and 2018, with a high sampling rate during the current minimum. Besides analyzing the color changes during fading, we compiled multiepoch spectral energy distributions and fitted them with a simple accretion disk model. Based on pre-outburst data and a millimeter continuum measurement, we suggest that the progenitor of the V582 Aur outburst is a low-mass T Tauri star with average properties. The mass of an unresolved circumstellar structure, probably a disk, is 0.04 M ⊙. The optical and near-infrared spectra demonstrate the presence of hydrogen and metallic lines, show the CO band head in absorption, and exhibit a variable Hα profile. The color variations strongly indicate that both the ∼1 yr long brightness dip in 2012 and the current minimum since 2016 are caused by increased extinction along the line of sight. According to our accretion disk models, the reddening changed from A V = 4.5 to 12.5 mag, while the accretion rate remained practically constant. Similarly to the models of the UXor phenomenon of intermediate- and low-mass young stars, orbiting disk structures could be responsible for the eclipses.

  7. Gas phase spectroscopic study of unstable molecules using FTIR technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, A.W.; Alibrahim, M.; Kassem, M.

    1998-01-01

    A new route has been developed, leading to the production of phosphorus (III) oxycyanide, OPCN and phosphorus (III) oxycyanate, OPOCN by an on-line process using phosphoryl chloride, POCL 3 as a starting material passed over heated silver at 870 Centigrade and then reacted with AgCN and KOCN heated at 270 Centigrade and 590 Centigrade to produce OPCN and OPOCN respectively. The gas phase fourier transform infrared spectra reported for the first time show the two characterized bonds of OPCN and OPOCN at 2165 cm -1 and 2130 cm -1 , assigned to the C≡N stretching fundamentals of OPCN and OPOCN respectively. (Author)

  8. Gas-phase spectroscopy of ferric heme-NO complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, J.A.; Jørgensen, Anders; Pedersen, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    and significantly blue-shifted compared to ferric heme nitrosyl proteins (maxima between 408 and 422 nm). This is in stark contrast to the Q-band absorption where the protein microenvironment is nearly innocent in perturbing the electronic structure of the porphyrin macrocycle. Photodissociation is primarily...... maxima of heme and its complexes with amino acids and NO. Not so innocent: Weakly bound complexes between ferric heme and NO were synthesised in the gas phase, and their absorption measured from photodissociation yields. Opposite absorption trends in the Soret-band are seen upon NO addition to heme ions...

  9. The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)

  10. The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph

    2001-07-01

    In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)

  11. Angular intensity of a gas-phase field ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, J.; Swanson, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    Angular intensities of 1 μA sr -1 have been measured for a gas-phase field ionization source in an optical column under practical operating conditions. The source, which was differentially pumped and cooled to 77 K, utilized a -oriented iridium emitter and precooled hydrogen gas at 10 -2 Torr. The ion beam was collimated with an electrostatic lens and detected below an aperture subtending 0.164 msr. A transmitted current of approx.10 -10 A was measured at voltages corresponding to a field of approx. =2.2 V/A at the emitter

  12. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH SHORT-DURATION PERIODIC FLUX DIPS IN THEIR LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McGinnis, Pauline; Alencar, Silvia H. P. [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Morales-Calderón, María [Centro de Astrobiología, Dpto. de Astrofísica, INTA-CSIC, PO BOX 78, E-28691, ESAC Campus, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura [Université de Grenoble, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy); Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602–2451 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob, E-mail: stauffer@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHMs generally less than 1 day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 < P < 11 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected in successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard “disk-locking” models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSOs in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel-flow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall.

  13. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH SHORT-DURATION PERIODIC FLUX DIPS IN THEIR LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean; McGinnis, Pauline; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John; Turner, Neal J.; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderón, María; Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHMs generally less than 1 day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 < P < 11 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected in successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard “disk-locking” models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSOs in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel-flow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall

  14. THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY STELLAR GENERATIONS IN MASSIVE YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS FROM RAPIDLY COOLING SHOCKED STELLAR WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wünsch, R.; Palouš, J.; Ehlerová, S. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic); Tenorio-Tagle, G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-20

    We study a model of rapidly cooling shocked stellar winds in young massive clusters and estimate the circumstances under which secondary star formation, out of the reinserted winds from a first stellar generation (1G), is possible. We have used two implementations of the model: a highly idealized, computationally inexpensive, spherically symmetric semi-analytic model, and a complex, three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic, simulation; they are in a good mutual agreement. The results confirm our previous findings that, in a cluster with 1G mass 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and half-mass–radius 2.38 pc, the shocked stellar winds become thermally unstable, collapse into dense gaseous structures that partially accumulate inside the cluster, self-shield against ionizing stellar radiation, and form the second generation (2G) of stars. We have used the semi-analytic model to explore a subset of the parameter space covering a wide range of the observationally poorly constrained parameters: the heating efficiency, η {sub he}, and the mass loading, η {sub ml}. The results show that the fraction of the 1G stellar winds accumulating inside the cluster can be larger than 50% if η {sub he} ≲ 10%, which is suggested by the observations. Furthermore, for low η {sub he}, the model provides a self-consistent mechanism predicting 2G stars forming only in the central zones of the cluster. Finally, we have calculated the accumulated warm gas emission in the H30 α recombination line, analyzed its velocity profile, and estimated its intensity for super star clusters in interacting galaxies NGC4038/9 (Antennae) showing that the warm gas should be detectable with ALMA.

  15. Search for variable stars in the young open cluster Stock 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Tirthendu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out multi-epoch deep I band photometry of the open cluster Stock 18 to search for variable stars in star forming regions. In the present study, we report identification of 28 periodic and 165 non-periodic variables stars. The periods of most of the periodic variables are in between 2 to 20 hours and their magnitude varies between 0.05 to 0.6 mag. We have derived spectral energy distributions for 48 probable pre-main sequence variables and the average age and mass is found to be 2.7 ± 0.3 Myrs and 2.7 ± 0.2 M⊙, respectively.

  16. Chemical Composition of Young Stars in the Leading Arm of the Magellanic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lan; Zhao, Gang [Key Lab. of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, 100012 Beijing (China); Moni Bidin, Christian [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angomos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Méndez, Réne A. [Departamento de Astronomia Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio #1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Girard, Terrence M. [14 Dunn Rd, Hamden, Connecticut, CT 06518 (United States); Korchagin, Vladimir I. [Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Stachki st/194, 344090, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Vieira, Katherine; Van Altena, William F. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomiá, Apartado Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Chemical abundances of eight O- and B-type stars are determined from high-resolution spectra obtained with the MIKE instrument on the Magellan 6.5 m Clay telescope. The sample is selected from 42 candidates for membership in the Leading Arm (LA) of the Magellanic System. Stellar parameters are measured by two independent grids of model atmospheres and analysis procedures, confirming the consistency of the stellar parameter results. Abundances of seven elements (He, C, N, O, Mg, Si, and S) are determined for the stars, as are their radial velocities and estimates of distances and ages. Among the seven B-type stars analyzed, the five that have radial velocities compatible with membership of the LA have an average [Mg/H] of −0.42 ± 0.16, significantly lower than the average of the remaining two, [Mg/H] = −0.07±0.06, which are kinematical members of the Galactic disk. Among the five LA members, four have individual [Mg/H] abundance compatible with that in the LMC. Within errors, we cannot exclude the possibility that one of these stars has an [Mg/H] consistent with the more metal-poor, SMC-like material. The remaining fifth star has an [Mg/H] close to Milky Way values. Distances to the LA members indicate that they are at the edge of the Galactic disk, while ages are of the order of ∼50–70 Myr, lower than the dynamical age of the LA, suggesting a single star-forming episode in the LA. V {sub LSR} of the LA members decreases with decreasing Magellanic longitude, confirming the results of previous LA gas studies.

  17. Probing the chemical environments of early star formation: A multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Emily Elizabeth

    Chemical compositions of prestellar and protostellar environments in the dense interstellar medium are best quantified using a multidisciplinary approach. For my dissertation, I completed two projects to measure molecular abundances during the earliest phases of star formation. The first project investigates gas phase CO depletion in molecular cloud cores, the progenitors of star systems, using infrared photometry and molecular line spectroscopy at radio wavelengths. Hydrogenation of CO depleted onto dust is an important first step toward building complex organic molecules. The second project constrains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundances toward young stellar objects (YSO). Band strengths measured from laboratory spectroscopy of pyrene/water ice mixtures were applied to estimate abundances from features attributed to PAHs in observational YSO spectra. PAHs represent a distinct but important component of interstellar organic material that is widely observed but not well quantified in star-forming regions.

  18. Gas phase absorption studies of photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rinza, Toms; Christiansen, Ove; Rajput, Jyoti; Gopalan, Aravind; Rahbek, Dennis B; Andersen, Lars H; Bochenkova, Anastasia V; Granovsky, Alexander A; Bravaya, Ksenia B; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Christiansen, Kasper Lincke; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-08-27

    Photoabsorption spectra of deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid and two of its methyl substituted derivatives have been studied in gas phase both experimentally and theoretically. We have focused on the spectroscopic effect of the location of the two possible deprotonation sites on the trans p-coumaric acid which originate to either a phenoxide or a carboxylate. Surprisingly, the three chromophores were found to have the same absorption maximum at 430 nm, in spite of having different deprotonation positions. However, the absorption of the chromophore in polar solution is substantially different for the distinct deprotonation locations. We also report on the time scales and pathways of relaxation after photoexcitation for the three photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives. As a result of these experiments, we could detect the phenoxide isomer within the deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid in gas phase; however, the occurrence of the carboxylate is uncertain. Several computational methods were used simultaneously to provide insights and assistance in the interpretation of our experimental results. The calculated excitation energies S(0)-S(1) are in good agreement with experiment for those systems having a negative charge on a phenoxide moiety. Although our augmented multiconfigurational quasidegenerate perturbation theory calculations agree with experiment in the description of the absorption spectrum of anions with a carboxylate functional group, there are some puzzling disagreements between experiment and some calculational methods in the description of these systems.

  19. Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munday, E.B.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF 6 , which is generated from the reaction of ClF 3 with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps

  20. Closed-cage tungsten oxide clusters in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D M David Jeba; Pradeep, T; Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2010-05-06

    During the course of a study on the clustering of W-Se and W-S mixtures in the gas phase using laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry, we observed several anionic W-O clusters. Three distinct species, W(6)O(19)(-), W(13)O(29)(-), and W(14)O(32)(-), stand out as intense peaks in the regular mass spectral pattern of tungsten oxide clusters suggesting unusual stabilities for them. Moreover, these clusters do not fragment in the postsource decay analysis. While trying to understand the precursor material, which produced these clusters, we found the presence of nanoscale forms of tungsten oxide. The structure and thermodynamic parameters of tungsten clusters have been explored using relativistic quantum chemical methods. Our computed results of atomization energy are consistent with the observed LDI mass spectra. The computational results suggest that the clusters observed have closed-cage structure. These distinct W(13) and W(14) clusters were observed for the first time in the gas phase.

  1. X-ray Flares Observed from Six Young Stars Located in the Region ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... of plasma confined in loops (Sweet 1958; Parker 1955; Petschek 1964; Yokoyama ... Therefore, analysis of the light curves during flares can ... erties o f stars with flare-like featu res. RA. J2000. DEC. J2000. V(B. −. V). (B. − ...... the financial support for this work through the INSPIRE faculty fellowship granted.

  2. Cold disks : Spitzer spectroscopy of disks around young stars with large gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, G. A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Merin, B.; Augereau, J. C.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Evans, N. J.; Geers, V. C.; Lahuis, F.; Kessler-Silacci, J. E.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Brown, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have identified four circumstellar disks with a deficit of dust emission from their inner 15-50 AU. All four stars have F-G spectral type and were uncovered as part of the Spitzer Space Telescope "Cores to Disks" Legacy Program Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) first-look survey of similar to 100 pre -

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young star systems observed with SALT (Riedel+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, A. R.; Alam, M. K.; Rice, E. L.; Cruz, K. L.; Henry, T. J.

    2017-11-01

    The sample of stars was drawn from the TINYMO survey (Riedel 2012PhDT.......100R). In that survey, nearby low-proper-motion M dwarfs in the southern hemisphere were identified in the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive (Hambly+ 2001MNRAS.326.1279H). We have obtained low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the SALT telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory in Sutherland, South Africa and the Robert Stoble Spectrograph (RSS), which provides optical spectroscopy between 3200 and 9000Å with a resolving power of up to 6000, depending on slit width. Observations were conducted in semesters 2013A and 2013B. In total, there are 165 spectra of the 79 stars: SCR 2237-2622 was only observed once, two stars (SCR 1816-6305, 2MASS 2004-3356) were observed three times, three stars (2MASS 0510-2340B, 2MASS 1207-3247, SCR 1842-5554A) were observed four times, and the remainder were observed twice. (5 data files).

  4. Ages of Young Star Clusters, Massive Blue Stragglers, and the Upper Mass Limit of Stars: Analyzing Age-dependent Stellar Mass Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, F.R.N.; Izzard, R.G.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Gvaramadze, V.V.; Huβman, B.; Liermann, A.; Sana, H.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass

  5. IUE observations of the chromospheric activity-age relation in young solar-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.; Boesgaard, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Except for the synoptic observations of the chromospheric Ca II H-K lines by Wilson (1978), in which he sought evidence for magnetic activity cycles, there is still scant data on stellar activity, especially at UV and X-ray wavelengths where 10 5 K TRs and 10 6 - 10 7 K coronae are expected to radiate. This paper presents new UV data, obtained with the IUE spacecraft, for a dozen solar-type stars in the field. The stars are of spectral type F6 V - G1 V; on the basis of their high Li content, they range in age from 0.1 to 2.8 Gyr. The purpose is to study the evolution of TR and chromospheric emission with stellar age, and also the surface distribution of magnetically active regions as revealed by rotational modulation of UV emission line fluxes. (Auth.)

  6. Core expansion in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, R.A.W.; Freeman, K.C.; Lauer, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    The core radii of 18 rich star clusters in the LMC with ages from 10 Myr to 1 Gyr. Data for an additional 17 clusters with ages from 1 Myr to 10 Gyr are available in the literature. The combined sample shows that the core radii increase from about 0 to about 5 pc between about 1 Myr and 1 Gyr, and then begin to decrease again. The expansion of the cores is probably driven by mass loss from evolving stars. Models of cluster evolution show that the rate of increase in core radius is sensitive to the slope of the initial mass function. The observed core radius-age relation for the LMC clusters favors an intial mass function with slope slightly flatter than the Salpeter value. 20 refs

  7. IRAS 18153-1651: an H II region with a possible wind bubble blown by a young main-sequence B star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Mackey, J.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Langer, N.; Chené, A.-N.; Castro, N.; Haworth, T. J.; Grebel, E. K.

    2017-04-01

    We report the results of spectroscopic observations and numerical modelling of the H II region IRAS 18153-1651. Our study was motivated by the discovery of an optical arc and two main-sequence stars of spectral type B1 and B3 near the centre of IRAS 18153-1651. We interpret the arc as the edge of the wind bubble (blown by the B1 star), whose brightness is enhanced by the interaction with a photoevaporation flow from a nearby molecular cloud. This interpretation implies that we deal with a unique case of a young massive star (the most massive member of a recently formed low-mass star cluster) caught just tens of thousands of years after its stellar wind has begun to blow a bubble into the surrounding dense medium. Our 2D, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the wind bubble and the H II region around the B1 star provide a reasonable match to observations, both in terms of morphology and absolute brightness of the optical and mid-infrared emission, and verify the young age of IRAS 18153-1651. Taken together our results strongly suggest that we have revealed the first example of a wind bubble blown by a main-sequence B star.

  8. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph; Gaidos, Eric; Mann, Andrew W.; Lépine, Sebastien; James, David; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law

  9. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mann, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lépine, Sebastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Riddle, Reed [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law.

  10. Differences in the Gas and Dust Distribution in the Transitional Disk of a Sun-like Young Star, PDS 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zachary C.; Akiyama, Eiji; Sitko, Michael; Fernandes, Rachel B.; Assani, Korash; Grady, Carol A.; Cure, Michel; Danchi, William C.; Dong, Ruobing; Fukagawa, Misato; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Jun; Henning, Thomas; Inutsuka, Shu-Ichiro; Kraus, Stefan; Kwon, Jungmi; Lisse, Carey M.; Baobabu Liu, Hauyu; Mayama, Satoshi; Muto, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Takao; Takami, Michihiro; Tamura, Motohide; Currie, Thayne; Wisniewski, John P.; Yang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    We present ALMA 0.87 mm continuum, HCO+ J = 4–3 emission line, and CO J = 3–2 emission line data of the disk of material around the young, Sun-like star PDS 70. These data reveal the existence of a possible two-component transitional disk system with a radial dust gap of 0.″42 ± 0.″05, an azimuthal gap in the HCO+ J = 4–3 moment zero map, as well as two bridge-like features in the gas data. Interestingly these features in the gas disk have no analog in the dust disk making them of particular interest. We modeled the dust disk using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code HOCHUNK3D using a two-disk component. We find that there is a radial gap that extends from 15 to 60 au in all grain sizes, which differs from previous work.

  11. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; Gestoso, Javier Yañez; De Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions

  12. Spectral Evidence for an Inner Carbon-rich Circumstellar Belt in the Young HD 36546 A-star System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Sitko, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 and Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Russell, R. W. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Marengo, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 12 Physics Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010 (United States); Currie, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Melis, C. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Mittal, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McCone Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Song, I., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: ron.vervack@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: sitkoml@ucmail.uc.edu, E-mail: ray.russell@aero.org, E-mail: mmarengo@iastate.edu, E-mail: currie@naoj.org, E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.edu, E-mail: tmittal2@berkeley.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Using the NASA/IRTF SpeX and BASS spectrometers we have obtained 0.7–13 μ m observations of the newly imaged 3–10 Myr old HD 36546 disk system. The SpeX spectrum is most consistent with the photospheric emission expected from an L {sub *} ∼ 20 L {sub ⊙}, solar abundance A1.5V star with little to no extinction, and excess emission from circumstellar dust detectable beyond 4.5 μ m. Non-detections of CO emission lines and accretion signatures point to the gas-poor circumstellar environment of a very old transition disk. Combining the SpeX + BASS spectra with archival WISE / AKARI / IRAS / Herschel photometry, we find an outer cold dust belt at ∼135 K and 20–40 au from the primary, likely coincident with the disk imaged by Subaru, and a new second inner belt with a temperature ∼570 K and an unusual, broad SED maximum in the 6–9 μ m region, tracing dust at 1.1–2.2 au. An SED maximum at 6–9 μ m has been reported in just two other A-star systems, HD 131488 and HD 121191, both of ∼10 Myr age. From Spitzer , we have also identified the ∼12 Myr old A7V HD 148657 system as having similar 5–35 μ m excess spectral features. The Spitzer data allows us to rule out water emission and rule in carbonaceous materials—organics, carbonates, SiC—as the source of the 6–9 μ m excess. Assuming a common origin for the four young A-star systems’ disks, we suggest they are experiencing an early era of carbon-rich planetesimal processing.

  13. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; Gestoso, Javier Yañez [AEGORA Research Group, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); De Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel [Fac. de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 1, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions.

  14. Roche-lobe overflow systems powered by black holes in young star clusters: the importance of dynamical exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapelli, Michela; Zampieri, Luca, E-mail: michela.mapelli@oapd.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy)

    2014-10-10

    We have run 600 N-body simulations of intermediate-mass (∼3500 M {sub ☉}) young star clusters (SCs; with three different metallicities (Z = 0.01, 0.1, and 1 Z {sub ☉}). The simulations include the dependence of stellar properties and stellar winds on metallicity. Massive stellar black holes (MSBHs) with mass >25 M {sub ☉} are allowed to form through direct collapse of very massive metal-poor stars (Z < 0.3 Z {sub ☉}). We focus on the demographics of black hole (BH) binaries that undergo mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow (RLO). We find that 44% of all binaries that undergo an RLO phase (RLO binaries) formed through dynamical exchange. RLO binaries that formed via exchange (RLO-EBs) are powered by more massive BHs than RLO primordial binaries (RLO-PBs). Furthermore, the RLO-EBs tend to start the RLO phase later than the RLO-PBs. In metal-poor SCs (0.01-0.1 Z {sub ☉}), >20% of all RLO binaries are powered by MSBHs. The vast majority of RLO binaries powered by MSBHs are RLO-EBs. We have produced optical color-magnitude diagrams of the simulated RLO binaries, accounting for the emission of both the donor star and the irradiated accretion disk. We find that RLO-PBs are generally associated with bluer counterparts than RLO-EBs. We compare the simulated counterparts with the observed counterparts of nine ultraluminous X-ray sources. We discuss the possibility that IC 342 X-1, Ho IX X-1, NGC 1313 X-2, and NGC 5204 X-1 are powered by an MSBH.

  15. Detached dust shell around Wolf-Rayet star WR60-6 in the young stellar cluster VVV CL036

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borissova, J.; Amigo, P.; Kurtev, R. [Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 5030 (Chile); Kumar, M. S. N. [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Chené, A.-N. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku Place Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Minniti, D., E-mail: jura.borissova@uv.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Facultad de Física, Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of a detached dust shell around the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR60-6 in the young stellar cluster VVV CL036 is reported. This shell is uncovered through the Spitzer-MIPS 24 μm image, where it appears brightest, and it is invisible at shorter wavelengths. Using new APEX observations and other data available from the literature, we have estimated some of the shell parameters: the inner and outer radii of 0.15 and 0.90 pc, respectively; the overall systemic velocity of the molecular {sup 12}CO(3 → 2) emission of –45.7 ± 2.3 km s{sup –1}; an expansion velocity of the gas of 16.3 ± 1 km s{sup –1}; the dust temperature and opacity of 122 ± 12 K and 1.04, respectively; and an age of 2.8 × 10{sup 4} yr. The WR star displays some cyclic variability. The mass computed for the WR60-6 nebula indicates that the material was probably ejected during its previous stages of evolution. In addition, we have identified a bright spot very close to the shell, which can be associated with the Midcourse Space Experiment source G312.13+00.20.

  16. Young Stars in the Camelopardalis Dust and Molecular Clouds. VI. YSOs Verified by Spitzer and Akari Infrared Photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straižys V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Using photometric data of infrared surveys, young stellar object (YSO status is verified for 141 objects selected in our previous papers in the Cassiopeia and Camelopardalis segment of the Milky Way bounded by Galactic coordinates (l, b = (132-158°, ±12°. The area includes the known star- forming regions in the emission nebulae W3, W4 and W5 and the massive YSO AFGL490. Spectral energy distribution (SED curves between 700 nm and 160 μm, constructed from the GSC 2, 2MASS, IRAS, MSX, Spitzer and AKARI data, are used to estimate the evolutionary stages of these stars. We confirm the YSO status for most of the objects. If all of the investigated objects were YSOs, 45% of them should belong to Class I, 41% to class II and 14% to Class III. However, SEDs of some of these objects can be affected by nearby extended infrared sources, like compact H II regions, infrared clusters or dusty galaxies.

  17. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. II - Models for scattered light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Gomez, Mercedes; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe NIR imaging observations of embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We find a large range in J-K and H-K colors for these class I sources. The bluest objects have colors similar to the reddest T Tauri stars in the cloud; redder objects lie slightly above the reddening line for standard ISM dust and have apparent K extinctions of up to 5 mag. Most of these sources also show extended NIR emission on scales of 10-20 arcsec which corresponds to linear sizes of 1500-3000 AU. The NIR colors and nebular morphologies for this sample and the magnitude of linear polarization in several sources suggest scattered light produces most of the NIR emission in these objects. We present modeling results that suggest mass infall rates that agree with predictions for cold clouds and are generally consistent with rates estimated from radiative equilibrium models. For reasonable dust grain parameters, the range of colors and extinctions require flattened density distributions with polar cavities evacuated by bipolar outflows. These results support the idea that infall and outflow occur simultaneously in deeply embedded bipolar outflow sources. The data also indicate fairly large centrifugal radii and large inclinations to the rotational axis for a typical source.

  18. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  19. SILP catalysis in gas-phase hydroformylation and carbonylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riisager, A.; Fehrmann, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry; Haumann, M.; Wasserscheid, P. [Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Chemische Reaktionstechnik

    2006-07-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts are new materials consisting of an ionic liquid-metal catalyst solution highly dispersed on a porous support. The use of a non-volatile, ionic liquid catalyst phase in SILP catalysts results in a stable heterogeneous-type material with selectivity and efficiency like homogeneous catalysts. The silica-supported SILP Rh-bisphosphine hydroformylation catalyst exhibited good activities and excellent selectivities in gas phase hydroformylation with stability exceeding 700 hours time-on-stream. Spectroscopic and kinetic data confirmed the homogeneous nature of the catalyst. In the Rh- SILP catalysed carbonylation of methanol the formation of undesired by-products could be suppressed by variation of residence time and gas pressure. (orig.)

  20. Raman study of vibrational dynamics of aminopropylsilanetriol in gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volovšek, V.; Dananić, V.; Bistričić, L.; Movre Šapić, I.; Furić, K.

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectrum of aminopropylsilanetriol (APST) in gas phase has been recorded at room temperature in macro chamber utilizing two-mirror technique over the sample tube. Unlike predominantly trans molecular conformation in condensed phase, the spectra of vapor show that the molecules are solely in gauche conformation with intramolecular hydrogen bond N⋯Hsbnd O which reduces the molecular energy in respect to trans conformation by 0.152 eV. The assignment of the molecular spectra based on the DFT calculation is presented. The strong vibrational bands at 354 cm-1, 588 cm-1 and 3022 cm-1 are proposed for verifying the existence of the ring like, hydrogen bonded structure. Special attention was devoted to the high frequency region, where hydrogen bond vibrations are coupled to stretchings of amino and silanol groups.

  1. Synthesis and Gas Phase Thermochemistry of Germanium-Containing Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, Nathan Robert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The driving force behind much of the work in this dissertation was to gain further understanding of the unique olefin to carbene isomerization observed in the thermolysis of 1,1-dimethyl-2-methylenesilacyclobutane by finding new examples of it in other silicon and germanium compounds. This lead to the examination of a novel phenylmethylenesilacyclobut-2-ene, which did not undergo olefin to carbene rearrangement. A synthetic route to methylenegermacyclobutanes was developed, but the methylenegermacyclobutane system exhibited kinetic instability, making the study of the system difficult. In any case the germanium system decomposed through a complex mechanism which may not include olefin to carbene isomerization. However, this work lead to the study of the gas phase thermochemistry of a series of dialkylgermylene precursors in order to better understand the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of dialkylgermylenes. The resulting dialkylgermylenes were found to undergo a reversible intramolecular β C-H insertion mechanism.

  2. Zpif's law in the liquid gas phase transition of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.

    1999-01-01

    Zpif's law in the field of linguistics is tested in the nuclear disassembly within the framework of isospin dependent lattice gas model. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list shows exactly inversely to its rank, i.e., there exists Zpif's law, at the phase transition temperature. This novel criterion shall be helpful to search the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically. In addition, the finite size scaling of the effective phase transition temperature at which the Zpif's law appears is studied for several systems with different mass and the critical exponents of ν and β are tentatively extracted. (orig.)

  3. FLUIDDYNAMIC ASPECTS OF GAS-PHASE ETHYLENE POLYMERIZATION REACTOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardani R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative importance of design variables affecting the fluiddynamic behavior of a fluidized bed reactor for the gas-phase ethylene polymerization is discussed, based on mathematical modeling. The three-phase bubbling fluidized bed model is based on axially distributed properties for the bubble, cloud and emulsion phases, combined with correlations for population balance and entrainment. Under the operating conditions adopted in most industrial processes, the reactor performance is affected mainly by the reaction rate and solids entrainment. Simulation results indicate that an adequate design of the freeboard and particle collecting equipment is of primary importance in order to produce polymeric particles with the desired size distribution, as well as to keep entrainment and catalyst feed rates at adequate levels.

  4. Conformational Study of Taurine in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo, Vanessa; Sanz, M. Eugenia; López, Juan C.; Alonso, José L.

    2009-08-01

    The conformational preferences of the amino sulfonic acid taurine (NH2-CH2-CH2-SO3H) have been investigated in the gas phase by laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW) in the 6-14 GHz frequency range. One conformer has been observed, and its rotational, centrifugal distortion, and hyperfine quadrupole coupling constants have been determined from the analysis of its rotational spectrum. Comparison of the experimental constants with those calculated theoretically identifies the detected conformer unambiguously. The observed conformer of taurine is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond O-H···N between the hydrogen of the sulfonic acid group and the nitrogen atom of the amino group.

  5. Gas phase chromatography of halides of elements 104 and 105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerler, A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Hannink, N.J.; Henderson, R.A.; Hoffman, D.C.; Kacher, C.D.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Kreek, S.A.; Lee, D.M.; Leyba, J.D.; Nurmia, M.J.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Jost, D.T.; Kovacs, J.; Scherer, U.W.; Vermeulen, D.; Weber, A.; Barth, H.; Gober, M.K.; Kratz, J.V.; Bruechle, W.; Schaedel, M.; Schimpf, E.; Gober, M.K.; Kratz, J.V.; Zimmermann, H.P.

    1991-04-01

    On-line isothermal gas phase chromatography was used to study halides of 261 104 (T 1/2 = 65 s) and 262,263 105 (T 1/2 = 34 s and 27 s) produced an atom-at-a time via the reactions 248 Cm( 18 O, 5n) and 249 Bk( 18 O, 5n, 4n), respectively. Using HBr and HCl gas as halogenating agents, we were able to produce volatile bromides and chlorides of the above mentioned elements and study their behavior compared to their lighter homologs in Groups 4 or 5 of the periodic table. Element 104 formed more volatile bromides than its homolog Hf. In contrast, element 105 bromides were found to be less volatile than the bromides of the group 5 elements Nb and Ta. Both 104 and Hf chlorides were observed to be more volatile than their respective bromides. 31 refs., 8 figs

  6. Technical Procedures Management in Gas-Phase Detoxification Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona Garcia, A. I.; Sanchez Cabrero, B.

    2000-01-01

    The natural cycle of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) has been disturbed by the industrial and socioeconomic activities of human beings. This imbalance in the environment has affected the ecosystems and the human health. Initiatives have been planned to mitigate these adverse effects. In order to minimize the hazardous effects, initiatives have been proposed for the treatment of gaseous emissions. The solar photo catalysis appears as a clear and renewable technology in front of the conventional ones.In CIEMAT this line is being investigated as the base of a future implementation at a pre industrial scale.Technical procedures are written in this document for testing Gas-Phase detoxification at lab scale in the Renewable Energy Department (DER) CIEMAT- Madrid to eliminate the VOCs by using the solar photo catalysis technology. (Author) 34 refs

  7. Gas-phase synthesis of magnetic metal/polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starsich, Fabian H. L.; Hirt, Ann M.; Stark, Wendelin J.; Grass, Robert N.

    2014-12-01

    Highly magnetic metal Co nanoparticles were produced via reducing flame spray pyrolysis, and directly coated with an epoxy polymer in flight. The polymer content in the samples varied between 14 and 56 wt% of nominal content. A homogenous dispersion of Co nanoparticles in the resulting nanocomposites was visualized by electron microscopy. The size and crystallinity of the metallic fillers was not affected by the polymer, as shown by XRD and magnetic hysteresis measurements. The good control of the polymer content in the product nanocomposite was shown by elemental analysis. Further, the successful polymerization in the gas phase was demonstrated by electron microscopy and size measurements. The presented effective, dry and scalable one-step synthesis method for highly magnetic metal nanoparticle/polymer composites presented here may drastically decrease production costs and increase industrial yields.

  8. Gas-Phase Thermolysis of a Thioketen-S-Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge; Schaumann, Ernst

    1980-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolytic decomposition of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-2-thiocarbonylcyclohexane S-oxide (3) has been studied as a function of temperature by a flash vacuum thermolysis (f.v.t.) technique. The products detected are the carbenes (4) and (5), the ketone (6), the keten (7......), the thioketone (8), and the thioketen (9). The product ratio is highly dependent on the thermolysis temperature. The thermolysis of (3) is mechanistically rationalized by assuming the existence of only two concurrent primary processes, which are (a) extrusion of atomic oxygen, leading to the thioketen (9...... and CSO leading to the carbenes (5) and (4), respectively, are observed. Owing to an apparently very short half-life of the oxathiiran (10), only the decomposition products of the three-membered ring compound have been detected. These are the thioketone (8), formed by rearrangement of (10) into the α...

  9. Statistical Physics of Nanoparticles in the Gas Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    Thermal processes are ubiquitous and an understanding of thermal phenomena is essential for a complete description of the physics of nanoparticles, both for the purpose of modeling the dynamics of the particles and for the correct interpretation of experimental data. This book has the twofold aim to present coherently the relevant results coming from the recent scientific literature and to guide the readers through the process of deriving results, enabling them to explore the limits of the mathematical approximations and test the power of the method. The book is focused on the fundamental properties of nanosystems in the gas phase. For this reason there is a strong emphasis on microcanonical physics. Each chapter is enriched with exercises and 3 Appendices provide additional useful materials.

  10. Surfactants from the gas phase may promote cloud droplet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Neha; Schwier, Allison N; Lathem, Terry L; Nenes, Athanasios; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-02-19

    Clouds, a key component of the climate system, form when water vapor condenses upon atmospheric particulates termed cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Variations in CCN concentrations can profoundly impact cloud properties, with important effects on local and global climate. Organic matter constitutes a significant fraction of tropospheric aerosol mass, and can influence CCN activity by depressing surface tension, contributing solute, and influencing droplet activation kinetics by forming a barrier to water uptake. We present direct evidence that two ubiquitous atmospheric trace gases, methylglyoxal (MG) and acetaldehyde, known to be surface-active, can enhance aerosol CCN activity upon uptake. This effect is demonstrated by exposing acidified ammonium sulfate particles to 250 parts per billion (ppb) or 8 ppb gas-phase MG and/or acetaldehyde in an aerosol reaction chamber for up to 5 h. For the more atmospherically relevant experiments, i.e., the 8-ppb organic precursor concentrations, significant enhancements in CCN activity, up to 7.5% reduction in critical dry diameter for activation, are observed over a timescale of hours, without any detectable limitation in activation kinetics. This reduction in critical diameter enhances the apparent particle hygroscopicity up to 26%, which for ambient aerosol would lead to cloud droplet number concentration increases of 8-10% on average. The observed enhancements exceed what would be expected based on Köhler theory and bulk properties. Therefore, the effect may be attributed to the adsorption of MG and acetaldehyde to the gas-aerosol interface, leading to surface tension depression of the aerosol. We conclude that gas-phase surfactants may enhance CCN activity in the atmosphere.

  11. Production of gamma ray bursts from asymmetric core combustion of magnetized young neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Lugones, G.; Horvath, J. E.; Ghezzi, C. R.

    2005-09-01

    Many works in the past have explored the idea that the conversion of hadronic matter into strange quark matter in neutron stars may be an energy source for GRBs (see references in Lugones et al. 2002, Lugones and Horvath 2003). These models addressed essentially spherically symmetric conversions of the whole neutron star rendering isotropic gamma emission. Accumulating observational evidence suggests that at least ''long'' GRBs are strongly asymmetric, jet-like outflows. The ''short'' burst subclass is not obviously asymmetric, and they may actually be spherically symmetric if the sources are close enough. A new potentially important feature recently recognized (Lugones et al. 2002) is that if a conversion to strange quark matter actually begins near the center of a neutron star, the presence of a magnetic field with intensity B ˜ 1013 G (see also Ghezi, de Gouveia Dal Pino & Horvath 2004) will originate a prompt collimated gamma emission, which may be observed as a short, beamed GRB after the recovery of a fraction of the neutrino energy via ν {barν} → e+e- → γγ. The calculations show that the neutrino luminosity is ˜ 1053 erg/sec and that the e+e- luminosity is about two orders of magnitude smaller ( tet{Lugones2002grb}). We find that 90 % of the e+e- pairs are injected inside small cylinders located just above the polar caps (with radius δ and height 0.4 R) in a timescale of τi ≃ 0.2 s almost independently of the initial temperature. This provides an interesting suitable explanation for the inner engine of short gamma ray bursts.

  12. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH STOCHASTICALLY VARYING LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Kepler Science Office, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Morales-Calderón, Maria [Centro de Astrobiología, Dpto. de Astrofísica, INTA-CSIC, P.O. BOX 78, E-28691, ESAC Campus, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Alencar, Silvia H. P.; McGinnis, Pauline; Sousa, Alana [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura [Université de Grenoble, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble (France); Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI:48105 (United States); Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy); Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob, E-mail: stauffer@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2016-03-15

    We provide CoRoT and Spitzer light curves and other supporting data for 17 classical T Tauri stars in NGC 2264 whose CoRoT light curves exemplify the “stochastic” light curve class as defined in 2014 by Cody et al. The most probable physical mechanism to explain the optical variability within this light curve class is time-dependent mass accretion onto the stellar photosphere, producing transient hot spots. Where we have appropriate spectral data, we show that the veiling variability in these stars is consistent in both amplitude and timescale with the optical light curve morphology. The veiling variability is also well-correlated with the strength of the He i 6678 Å emission line, predicted by models to arise in accretion shocks on or near the stellar photosphere. Stars with accretion burst light curve morphology also have variable mass accretion. The stochastic and accretion burst light curves can both be explained by a simple model of randomly occurring flux bursts, with the stochastic light curve class having a higher frequency of lower amplitude events. Members of the stochastic light curve class have only moderate mass accretion rates. Their Hα profiles usually have blueshifted absorption features, probably originating in a disk wind. The lack of periodic signatures in the light curves suggests that little of the variability is due to long-lived hot spots rotating into or out of our line of sight; instead, the primary driver of the observed photometric variability is likely to be instabilities in the inner disk that lead to variable mass accretion.

  13. An adaptive optics multiplicity census of young stars in Upper Scorpius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafrenière, David [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Jayawardhana, Ray; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Brandeker, Alexis [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Janson, Markus, E-mail: david@astro.umontreal.ca [Astrophysics Research Center, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-10

    We present the results of a multiplicity survey of 91 stars spanning masses of ∼0.2-10 M {sub ☉} in the Upper Scorpius star-forming region, based on adaptive optics imaging with the Gemini North telescope. Our observations identified 29 binaries, 5 triples, and no higher order multiples. The corresponding raw multiplicity frequency is 0.37 ± 0.05. In the regime where our observations are complete—companion separations of 0.''1-5'' (∼15-800 AU) with magnitude limits ranging from K < 9.3 at 0.''1 to K < 15.8 at 5''—the multiplicity frequency is 0.27{sub −0.04}{sup +0.05}. For similar separations, the multiplicity frequency in Upper Scorpius is comparable to that in other dispersed star-forming regions, but is a factor of two to three higher than in denser star-forming regions or in the field. Our sample displays a constant multiplicity frequency as a function of stellar mass. Among our sample of binaries, we find that both wider (>100 AU) and higher-mass systems tend to have companions with lower companion-to-primary mass ratios. Three of the companions identified in our survey are unambiguously substellar and have estimated masses below 0.04 M {sub ☉} (two of them are new discoveries from this survey—1RXS J160929.1–210524b and HIP 78530B—although we have reported them separately in earlier papers). These three companions have projected orbital separations of 300-900 AU. Based on a statistical analysis factoring in sensitivity limits, we calculate an occurrence rate of 5-40 M {sub Jup} companions of ∼4.0% for orbital separations of 250-1000 AU, compared to <1.8% at smaller separations, suggesting that such companions are more frequent on wider orbits.

  14. The effects of x-rays on star formation and black hole growth in young galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Marco; Aykutalp, Aycin; Wise, John H.; Meijerink, Rowin; Umemura, M; Omukai, K

    We investigate the growth of seed black holes in young galaxies and the impact of their X-ray feedback. We have performed two simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical code Enzo, for the singular collapse scenario in the presence of a UV background radiation field of 105 and 103

  15. Magnetic field topology and chemical abundance distributions of the young, rapidly rotating, chemically peculiar star HR 5624

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhov, O.; Silvester, J.; Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Wade, G. A.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The young, rapidly rotating Bp star HR 5624 (HD 133880) shows an unusually strong non-sinusoidal variability of its longitudinal magnetic field. This behaviour was previously interpreted as the signature of an exceptionally strong, quadrupole-dominated surface magnetic field geometry. Aims: We studied the magnetic field structure and chemical abundance distributions of HR 5624 with the aim to verify the unusual quadrupolar nature of its magnetic field and to investigate correlations between the field topology and chemical spots. Methods: We analysed high-resolution, time series Stokes parameter spectra of HR 5624 with the help of a magnetic Doppler imaging inversion code based on detailed polarised radiative transfer modelling of the line profiles. Results: We refined the stellar parameters, revised the rotational period, and obtained new longitudinal magnetic field measurements. Our magnetic Doppler inversions reveal that the field structure of HR 5624 is considerably simpler and the field strength is much lower than proposed by previous studies. We find a maximum local field strength of 12 kG and a mean field strength of 4 kG, which is about a factor of three weaker than predicted by quadrupolar field models. Our model implies that overall large-scale field topology of HR 5624 is better described as a distorted, asymmetric dipole rather than an axisymmetric quadrupole. The chemical abundance maps of Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Nd obtained in our study are characterised by large-scale, high-contrast abundance patterns. These structures correlate weakly with the magnetic field geometry and, in particular, show no distinct element concentrations in the horizontal field regions predicted by theoretical atomic diffusion calculations. Conclusions: We conclude that the surface magnetic field topology of HR 5624 is not as unusual as previously proposed. Considering these results together with other recent magnetic mapping analyses of early-type stars suggests that

  16. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS. III. A YOUNG DUSTY L DWARF COMPANION AT THE DEUTERIUM-BURNING LIMIT ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J., E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of an L-type companion to the young M3.5V star 2MASS J01225093-2439505 at a projected separation of 1.''45 ( Almost-Equal-To 52 AU) as part of our adaptive optics imaging search for extrasolar giant planets around young low-mass stars. 2MASS 0122-2439 B has very red near-infrared colors similar to the HR 8799 planets and the reddest known young/dusty L dwarfs in the field. Moderate-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 3800) 1.5-2.4 {mu}m spectroscopy reveals a near-infrared spectral type of L4-L6 and an angular H-band shape, confirming its cool temperature and young age. The kinematics of 2MASS 0122-2439 AB are marginally consistent with members of the {approx}120 Myr AB Dor young moving group based on the photometric distance to the primary (36 {+-} 4 pc) and our radial velocity measurement of 2MASS 0122-2439 A from Keck/HIRES. We adopt the AB Dor group age for the system, but the high energy emission, lack of Li I {lambda}6707 absorption, and spectral shape of 2MASS 0122-2439 B suggest a range of {approx}10-120 Myr is possible. The age and luminosity of 2MASS 0122-2439 B fall in a strip where ''hot-start'' evolutionary model mass tracks overlap as a result of deuterium burning. Several known substellar companions also fall in this region (2MASS J0103-5515 ABb, AB Pic b, {kappa} And b, G196-3 B, SDSS 2249+0044 B, LP 261-75 B, HD 203030 B, and HN Peg B), but their dual-valued mass predictions have largely been unrecognized. The implied mass of 2MASS 0122-2439 B is Almost-Equal-To 12-13 M{sub Jup} or Almost-Equal-To 22-27 M{sub Jup} if it is an AB Dor member, or possibly as low as 11 M{sub Jup} if the wider age range is adopted. Evolutionary models predict an effective temperature for 2MASS 0122-2439 B that corresponds to spectral types near the L/T transition ( Almost-Equal-To 1300-1500 K) for field objects. However, we find a mid-L near-infrared spectral type, indicating that 2MASS 0122-2439 B represents another case

  17. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS. III. A YOUNG DUSTY L DWARF COMPANION AT THE DEUTERIUM-BURNING LIMIT ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of an L-type companion to the young M3.5V star 2MASS J01225093-2439505 at a projected separation of 1.''45 (≈52 AU) as part of our adaptive optics imaging search for extrasolar giant planets around young low-mass stars. 2MASS 0122-2439 B has very red near-infrared colors similar to the HR 8799 planets and the reddest known young/dusty L dwarfs in the field. Moderate-resolution (R ≈ 3800) 1.5-2.4 μm spectroscopy reveals a near-infrared spectral type of L4-L6 and an angular H-band shape, confirming its cool temperature and young age. The kinematics of 2MASS 0122-2439 AB are marginally consistent with members of the ∼120 Myr AB Dor young moving group based on the photometric distance to the primary (36 ± 4 pc) and our radial velocity measurement of 2MASS 0122-2439 A from Keck/HIRES. We adopt the AB Dor group age for the system, but the high energy emission, lack of Li I λ6707 absorption, and spectral shape of 2MASS 0122-2439 B suggest a range of ∼10-120 Myr is possible. The age and luminosity of 2MASS 0122-2439 B fall in a strip where ''hot-start'' evolutionary model mass tracks overlap as a result of deuterium burning. Several known substellar companions also fall in this region (2MASS J0103-5515 ABb, AB Pic b, κ And b, G196-3 B, SDSS 2249+0044 B, LP 261-75 B, HD 203030 B, and HN Peg B), but their dual-valued mass predictions have largely been unrecognized. The implied mass of 2MASS 0122-2439 B is ≈12-13 M Jup or ≈22-27 M Jup if it is an AB Dor member, or possibly as low as 11 M Jup if the wider age range is adopted. Evolutionary models predict an effective temperature for 2MASS 0122-2439 B that corresponds to spectral types near the L/T transition (≈1300-1500 K) for field objects. However, we find a mid-L near-infrared spectral type, indicating that 2MASS 0122-2439 B represents another case of photospheric dust being retained to cooler temperatures at low surface gravities, as seen in the spectra of young (8-30 Myr

  18. ON THE HEATING EFFICIENCY DERIVED FROM OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG SUPER STAR CLUSTERS IN M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Torres-Campos, Ana; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Monreal-Ibero, Ana; Melo, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Here, we discuss the mechanical feedback that massive stellar clusters provide to the interstellar medium of their host galaxy. We apply an analytic theory developed in a previous study for M82-A1 to a sample of 10 clusters located in the central zone of the starburst galaxy M82, all surrounded by compact and dense H II regions. We claim that the only way that such H II regions can survive around the selected clusters, is if they are embedded into a high-pressure ISM and if the majority of their mechanical energy is lost within the star cluster volume via strong radiative cooling. The latter implies that these clusters have a low heating efficiency, η, and evolve in the bimodal hydrodynamic regime. In this regime, the shock-heated plasma in the central zones of a cluster becomes thermally unstable, loses its pressure and is accumulated there, whereas the matter injected by supernovae and stellar winds outside this volume forms a high-velocity outflow-the star cluster wind. We calculated the heating efficiency for each of the selected clusters and found that in all cases it does not exceed 10%. Such low heating efficiency values imply a low mechanical energy output and the impact that the selected clusters provide to the ISM of M82 is thus much smaller than what one would expect using stellar cluster synthetic models.

  19. Gas-phase synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rajib

    Luminescent nanomaterials is a newly emerging field that provides challenges not only to fundamental research but also to innovative technology in several areas such as electronics, photonics, nanotechnology, display, lighting, biomedical engineering and environmental control. These nanomaterials come in various forms, shapes and comprises of semiconductors, metals, oxides, and inorganic and organic polymers. Most importantly, these luminescent nanomaterials can have different properties owing to their size as compared to their bulk counterparts. Here we describe the use of plasmas in synthesis, modification, and deposition of semiconductor nanomaterials for luminescence applications. Nanocrystalline silicon is widely known as an efficient and tunable optical emitter and is attracting great interest for applications in several areas. To date, however, luminescent silicon nanocrystals (NCs) have been used exclusively in traditional rigid devices. For the field to advance towards new and versatile applications for nanocrystal-based devices, there is a need to investigate whether these NCs can be used in flexible and stretchable devices. We show how the optical and structural/morphological properties of plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) change when they are deposited on stretchable substrates made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Synthesis of these NCs was performed in a nonthermal, low-pressure gas phase plasma reactor. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of direct deposition of NCs onto stretchable substrates. Additionally, in order to prevent oxidation and enhance the luminescence properties, a silicon nitride shell was grown around Si NCs. We have demonstrated surface nitridation of Si NCs in a single step process using non?thermal plasma in several schemes including a novel dual-plasma synthesis/shell growth process. These coated NCs exhibit SiNx shells with composition depending on process parameters. While measurements including

  20. CN rings in full protoplanetary disks around young stars as probes of disk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoletti, P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Visser, R.; Facchini, S.; Bruderer, S.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Bright ring-like structure emission of the CN molecule has been observed in protoplanetary disks. We investigate whether such structures are due to the morphology of the disk itself or if they are instead an intrinsic feature of CN emission. With the intention of using CN as a diagnostic, we also address to which physical and chemical parameters CN is most sensitive. Methods: A set of disk models were run for different stellar spectra, masses, and physical structures via the 2D thermochemical code DALI. An updated chemical network that accounts for the most relevant CN reactions was adopted. Results: Ring-shaped emission is found to be a common feature of all adopted models; the highest abundance is found in the upper outer regions of the disk, and the column density peaks at 30-100 AU for T Tauri stars with standard accretion rates. Higher mass disks generally show brighter CN. Higher UV fields, such as those appropriate for T Tauri stars with high accretion rates or for Herbig Ae stars or for higher disk flaring, generally result in brighter and larger rings. These trends are due to the main formation paths of CN, which all start with vibrationally excited H_2^* molecules, that are produced through far ultraviolet (FUV) pumping of H2. The model results compare well with observed disk-integrated CN fluxes and the observed location of the CN ring for the TW Hya disk. Conclusions: CN rings are produced naturally in protoplanetary disks and do not require a specific underlying disk structure such as a dust cavity or gap. The strong link between FUV flux and CN emission can provide critical information regarding the vertical structure of the disk and the distribution of dust grains which affects the UV penetration, and could help to break some degeneracies in the SED fitting. In contrast with C2H or c-C3H2, the CN flux is not very sensitive to carbon and oxygen depletion.

  1. Role of isospin in nuclear-matter liquid-gas phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducoin, C.

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear matter presents a phase transition of the liquid-gas type. This well-known feature is due to the nuclear interaction profile (mean-range attractive, short-range repulsive). Symmetric-nuclear-matter thermodynamics is thus analogous to that of a Van der Waals fluid. The study shows up to be more complex in the case of asymmetric matter, composed of neutrons and protons in an arbitrary proportion. Isospin, which distinguishes both constituents, gives a measure of this proportion. Studying asymmetric matter, isospin is an additional degree of freedom, which means one more dimension to consider in the space of observables. The nuclear liquid-gas transition is associated with the multi-fragmentation phenomenon observed in heavy-ion collisions, and to compact-star physics: the involved systems are neutron rich, so they are affected by the isospin degree of freedom. The present work is a theoretical study of isospin effects which appear in the asymmetric nuclear matter liquid-gas phase transition. A mean-field approach is used, with a Skyrme nuclear effective interaction. We demonstrate the presence of a first-order phase transition for asymmetric matter, and study the isospin distillation phenomenon associated with this transition. The case of phase separation at thermodynamic equilibrium is compared to spinodal decomposition. Finite size effects are addressed, as well as the influence of the electron gas which is present in the astrophysical context. (author)

  2. The structure and spectrum of the accretion shock in the atmospheres of young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodin, Alexandr

    2018-04-01

    The structure and spectrum of the accretion shock have been self-consistently simulated for a wide range of parameters typical for Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTS). Radiative cooling of the shocked gas was calculated, taking into account the self-absorption and non-equilibrium (time-dependent) effects in the level populations. These effects modify the standard cooling curve for an optically thin plasma in coronal equilibrium, however the shape of high-temperature (T > 3 × 105 K) part of the curve remains unchanged. The applied methods allow us to smoothly describe the transition from the cooling flow to the hydrostatic stellar atmosphere. Thanks to this approach, it has been found that the narrow component of He II lines is formed predominantly in the irradiated stationary atmosphere (hotspot), i.e. at velocities of the settling gas law via the full energy flux.

  3. Dust around young stars. Observations of the polarization of UX Ori in deep minima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voshchinnikov, N.V.; Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.K.

    1988-01-01

    Photometric and polarimetric monitoring observations of UX Ori begun in 1986 in the Crimea and Bolivia have resulted in the observation of two deep minima of the brightness during which a growth of the linear polarization (to ≅7%) was observed, together with a tendency for the circular polarization to increase (up to ≅1%). Analysis of the observational data shows that the main source of the polarized radiation in the deep minima is the emission of the star scattered by grains of circumstellar dust. On the basis of Mie's theory for a polydisperse graphite-silicate mixtures of particles the optical properties of ellipsoidal dust envelopes have been calculated and a model of the Algol-like minimum constructed

  4. A CENSUS OF YOUNG STARS AND BROWN DWARFS IN IC 348 AND NGC 1333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Loutrel, N. P., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members of the star-forming clusters IC 348 and NGC 1333. We classify 100 and 42 candidates as new members of the clusters, respectively, which brings the total numbers of known members to 478 and 203. We also have performed spectroscopy on a large majority of the previously known members of NGC 1333 in order to provide spectral classifications that are measured with the same scheme that has been applied to IC 348 in previous studies. The new census of members is nearly complete for K {sub s}< 16.8 at A {sub J}< 1.5 in IC 348 and for K {sub s}< 16.2 at A {sub J}< 3 in NGC 1333, which correspond to masses of ≳0.01 M {sub ⊙} for ages of 3 Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. The faintest known members extend below these completeness limits and appear to have masses of ∼0.005 M {sub ⊙}. In extinction-limited samples of cluster members, NGC 1333 exhibits a higher abundance of objects at lower masses than IC 348. It would be surprising if the initial mass functions of these clusters differ significantly given their similar stellar densities and formation environments. Instead, it is possible that average extinctions are lower for less massive members of star-forming clusters, in which case extinction-limited samples could be biased in favor of low-mass objects in the more heavily embedded clusters like NGC 1333. In the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, the median sequences of IC 348 and NGC 1333 coincide with each other for the adopted distances of 300 and 235 pc, which would suggest that they have similar ages. However, NGC 1333 is widely believed to be younger than IC 348 based on its higher abundance of disks and protostars and its greater obscuration. Errors in the adopted distances may be responsible for this discrepancy.

  5. The young star cluster population of M51 with LEGUS - I. A comprehensive study of cluster formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, M.; Adamo, A.; Östlin, G.; Calzetti, D.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Shabani, F.; Chandar, R.; Dale, D. A.; Dobbs, C. L.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kim, H.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Tosi, M.; Ubeda, L.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B. C.; Fedorenko, K.; Mahadevan, S.; Andrews, J. E.; Bright, S. N.; Cook, D. O.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Ahmad, S. D.; Beale, L. P.; Brown, K.; Clarkson, D. A.; Guidarelli, G. C.; Parziale, R.; Turner, J.; Weber, M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently acquired WFC3 UV (F275W and F336W) imaging mosaics under the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS), combined with archival ACS data of M51, are used to study the young star cluster (YSC) population of this interacting system. Our newly extracted source catalogue contains 2834 cluster candidates, morphologically classified to be compact and uniform in colour, for which ages, masses and extinction are derived. In this first work we study the main properties of the YSC population of the whole galaxy, considering a mass-limited sample. Both luminosity and mass functions follow a power-law shape with slope -2, but at high luminosities and masses a dearth of sources is observed. The analysis of the mass function suggests that it is best fitted by a Schechter function with slope -2 and a truncation mass at 1.00 ± 0.12 × 105 M⊙. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm this result and link the shape of the luminosity function to the presence of a truncation in the mass function. A mass limited age function analysis, between 10 and 200 Myr, suggests that the cluster population is undergoing only moderate disruption. We observe little variation in the shape of the mass function at masses above 1 × 104 M⊙ over this age range. The fraction of star formation happening in the form of bound clusters in M51 is ∼ 20 per cent in the age range 10-100 Myr and little variation is observed over the whole range from 1 to 200 Myr.

  6. GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF THE CYANATE ION, OCN−

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Callie A.; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Bierbaum, Veronica M.; Snow, Theodore P.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanate (OCN − ) is the only ion to date whose presence has been confirmed in the icy mantles that coat interstellar dust grains. Understanding the chemical behavior of cyanate at a fundamental level is therefore integral to the advancement of astrochemistry. We seek to unravel the chemistry of this intriguing anion through a combination of gas-phase experiments and theoretical explorations. Our approach is twofold: first, employing a flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube apparatus, the reactions between OCN − and three of the most abundant atomic species in the interstellar medium, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, are examined. Hydrogen atoms readily react by associative detachment, but the remarkable stability of OCN − does not give rise to an observable reaction with either nitrogen or oxygen atoms. To explain these results, the potential energy surfaces of several reactions are investigated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Second, collision induced dissociation experiments involving deprotonated uracil, thymine, and cytosine in an ion trap mass spectrometer reveal an interesting connection between these pyrimidine nucleobase anions and OCN − . Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory are performed to delineate the mechanisms of dissociation and explore the possible role of OCN − as a biomolecule precursor

  7. The Influence of Mixing in High Temperature Gas Phase Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østberg, Martin

    1996-01-01

    by injection of NH3 with carrier gas into the flue gas. NH3 can react with NO and form N2, but a competing reaction path is the oxidation of NH3 to NO.The SNR process is briefly described and it is shown by chemical kinetic modelling that OH radicals under the present conditions will initiate the reaction......The objective of this thesis is to describe the mixing in high temperature gas phase reactions.The Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of NOx (referred as the SNR process) using NH3 as reductant was chosen as reaction system. This in-furnace denitrification process is made at around 1200 - 1300 K...... diffusion. The SNR process is simulated using the mixing model and an empirical kinetic model based on laboratory experiments.A bench scale reactor set-up has been built using a natural gas burner to provide the main reaction gas. The set-up has been used to perform an experimental investigation...

  8. Gas phase reactions of nitrogen oxides with olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altshuller, A P; Cohen, I

    1961-01-01

    The nature of the condensation products formed in the gas phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide with pentene-1, 2-methylbutene-2, and 2-methylbutadiene-1,3 was investigated. The reactants were combined at partial pressures in the range of 0.1 to 2.5 mm with the total pressure at one atmosphere. The products were determined by infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy and colorimetry. The condensates included primary and secondary nitro compounds and alkyl nitrates. Strong hydroxyl and single bond carbon to oxygen stretching vibrations indicate the presence of either nitroalcohols or simple aliphatic alcohols formed through oxidation reactions. Carbonyl stretching frequencies observable in some of the reactions support the conclusion that a portion of the reactants disappear by oxidation rather than by nitration processes. The available results do not indicate the presence of appreciable amounts of tert.-nitro compounds, conjugated nitro-olefins, or gem-dinitro-alkanes. The reactivities of the olefins with the nitrogen oxides are in the decreasing order: 2-methyl-butadiene-1,3, 2-methylbutene-2, pentene-1. 20 references.

  9. Frequency metrology of a photomixing source for gas phase spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Yang, Chun; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Lours, Michel; Rovera, Daniele

    2010-08-01

    The availability of frequency combs has opened new possibilities for the measurement of optical frequencies. Photomixing is an attractive solution for high resolution THz spectroscopy of gases due to the narrow spectral resolution and ability to access the 100 GHz to 3.5 THz range. One limitation of present photomixing spectrometers is the accuracy with which the THz frequency is established. Measurement of the centre frequency gas phase molecular transitions requires an accuracy better than 100 kHz in order to allow spectroscopic constants to be determined. Standard optical techniques like those employed in wavelength meters can only provide accuracies in the order of 50 MHz. We have used a turnkey fibre based frequency comb and a standard photomixing configuration to realize a THz synthesizer with an accuracy of around 50kHz. Two ECDLs used to pump the photomixer are phase locked onto the frequency comb and provide a tuning range of 10 MHz. In order to extend the tuning range an additional phase locked ECLD has been added to obtain a range in excess of 100 MHz. The absorption profiles of many Doppler limited transitions of carbonyl sulphide and formaldehyde have been measured to validate this instrument.

  10. Precursor-Less Coating of Nanoparticles in the Gas Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias V. Pfeiffer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a continuous, gas-phase method for depositing thin metallic coatings onto (nanoparticles using a type of physical vapor deposition (PVD at ambient pressure and temperature. An aerosol of core particles is mixed with a metal vapor cloud formed by spark ablation by passing the aerosol through the spark zone using a hollow electrode configuration. The mixing process rapidly quenches the vapor, which condenses onto the core particles at a timescale of several tens of milliseconds in a manner that can be modeled as bimodal coagulation. Gold was deposited onto core nanoparticles consisting of silver or polystyrene latex, and silver was deposited onto gold nanoparticles. The coating morphology depends on the relative surface energies of the core and coating materials, similar to the growth mechanisms known for thin films: a coating made of a substance having a high surface energy typically results in a patchy coverage, while a coating material with a low surface energy will normally “wet” the surface of a core particle. The coated particles remain gas-borne, allowing further processing.

  11. Nucleation and dissociation of nano-particles in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiden, P.

    2007-09-01

    This work deals with the study of nano-particles formation in gas phase and their dissociation pathways after an optical excitation. The clusters formation decomposes in two steps: a seed is formed (nucleation phase) and sticks atoms during its propagation in a sodium atomic vapor (growth phase). Those two steps have been observed separately for homogeneous Na n and heterogeneous Na n X particles (X = (NaOH) 2 or (Na 2 O) 2 ). The growth mechanism is well interpreted by a Monte Carlo simulation taking into account an accretion mechanism with hard-sphere cross section. The homogeneous nucleation mechanism has been highlighted by a direct comparison with the Classical Nucleation Theory predictions. The clusters fragmentation of ionic Na + (NaOH) p et Na + (NaF) p particles is studied in the second part. The way clusters fragment with size when they are excited optically is compared with theoretical previsions: this highlights the existence of an energetic barrier for special size of clusters. Finally, the fragmentation of doubly charged Na + Na + (NaOH) p clusters shows a competition between the fission into two single charged fragments and the unimolecular evaporation of a neutral fragment. (author)

  12. Atomic and molecular physics in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1990-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of energy deposition by high-linear-energy-transfer radiation play an important role in the subsequent chemical and biological processes leading to radiation damage. Because the spatial structures of energy deposition events are of the same dimensions as molecular structures in the mammalian cell, direct measurements of energy deposition distributions appropriate to radiation biology are infeasible. This has led to the development of models of energy transport based on a knowledge of atomic and molecular interactions process that enable one to simulate energy transfer on an atomic scale. Such models require a detailed understanding of the interactions of ions and electrons with biologically relevant material. During the past 20 years there has been a great deal of progress in our understanding of these interactions; much of it coming from studies in the gas phase. These studies provide information on the systematics of interaction cross sections leading to a knowledge of the regions of energy deposition where molecular and phase effects are important and that guide developments in appropriate theory. In this report studies of the doubly differential cross sections, crucial to the development of stochastic energy deposition calculations and track structure simulation, will be reviewed. Areas of understanding are discussed and directions for future work addressed. Particular attention is given to experimental and theoretical findings that have changed the traditional view of secondary electron production for charged particle interactions with atomic and molecular targets

  13. Tidal interaction, star formation and chemical evolution in blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, A.; Omar, A.; Jaiswal, S.

    2018-02-01

    The optical spectroscopic and radio interferometric H I 21 cm-line observations of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 22 are presented. The Wolf-Rayet (WR) emission-line features corresponding to high ionization lines of He II λ4686 and C IV λ5808 from young massive stars are detected. The ages of two prominent star-forming regions in the galaxy are estimated as ∼10 and ∼ 4 Myr. The galaxy has non-thermal radio deficiency, which also indicates a young starburst and lack of supernovae events from the current star formation activities, consistent with the detection of WR emission-line features. A significant N/O enrichment is seen in the fainter star-forming region. The gas-phase metallicities [12 + log(O/H)] for the bright and faint regions are estimated as 7.98±0.07 and 7.46±0.09, respectively. The galaxy has a large diffuse H I envelop. The H I images reveal disturbed gas kinematics and H I clouds outside the optical extent of the galaxy, indicating recent tidal interaction or merger in the system. The results strongly indicate that Mrk 22 is undergoing a chemical and morphological evolution due to ongoing star formation, most likely triggered by a merger.

  14. Evidence of a massive planet candidate orbiting the young active K5V star BD+20 1790

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-Obispo, M.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Kane, S. R.; Barnes, J. R.; de Castro, E.; Cornide, M.

    2010-03-01

    Context. BD+20 1790 is a young active, metal-rich, late-type K5Ve star. We have undertaken a study of stellar activity and kinematics for this star over the past few years. Previous results show a high level of stellar activity, with the presence of prominence-like structures, spots on the surface, and strong flare events, despite the moderate rotational velocity of the star. In addition, radial velocity variations with a semi-amplitude of up to 1 km s-1 were detected. Aims: We investigate the nature of these radial velocity variations, in order to determine whether they are due to stellar activity or the reflex motion of the star induced by a companion. Methods: We have analysed high-resolution echelle spectra by measuring stellar activity indicators and computing radial velocity (RV) and bisector velocity spans. Two-band photometry was also obtained to produce the light curve and determine the photometric period. Results: Based upon the analysis of the bisector velocity span, as well as spectroscopic indices of chromospheric indicators, Ca ii H & K, Hα, and taking the photometric analysis into account, we report that the best explanation for the RV variation is the presence of a substellar companion. The Keplerian fit of the RV data yields a solution for a close-in massive planet with an orbital period of 7.78 days. The presence of the close-in massive planet could also be an interpretation for the high level of stellar activity detected. Since the RV data are not part of a planet search programme, we can consider our results as a serendipitous evidence of a planetary companion. To date, this is the youngest main sequence star for which a planetary candidate has been reported. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo

  15. SHORT- AND LONG-TERM RADIO VARIABILITY OF YOUNG STARS IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER AND MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Chandler, C. J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Forbrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to carry out multi-epoch radio continuum monitoring of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the background Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC; 3 epochs at Q band and 11 epochs at Ka band). Our new observations reveal the presence of 19 radio sources, mainly concentrated in the Trapezium Cluster and the Orion Hot Core (OHC) regions. With the exception of the Becklin–Neugebauer object and source C (which we identify here as dust emission associated with a proplyd) the sources all show radio variability between the different epochs. We have found tentative evidence of variability in the emission from the massive object related to source I. Our observations also confirm radio flux density variations of a factor >2 on timescales of hours to days in five sources. One of these flaring sources, OHC-E, has been detected for the first time. We conclude that the radio emission can be attributed to two different components: (i) highly variable (flaring) non-thermal radio gyrosynchrotron emission produced by electrons accelerated in the magnetospheres of pre-main-sequence low-mass stars and (ii) thermal emission due to free–free radiation from ionized gas and/or heated dust around embedded massive objects and proplyds. Combining our sample with other radio monitoring at 8.3 GHz and the X-ray catalog provided by Chandra, we have studied the properties of the entire sample of radio/X-ray stars in the ONC/OMC region (51 sources). We have found several hints of a relation between the X-ray activity and the mechanisms responsible for (at least some fraction of) the radio emission. We have estimated a radio flaring rate of ∼0.14 flares day −1 in the dense stellar cluster embedded in the OHC region. This suggests that radio flares are more common events during the first stages of stellar evolution than previously thought. The advent of improved sensitivity with the new VLA and ALMA will dramatically increase the number of stars in

  16. Homolytic iodination and nitration of some benzene derivatives in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonk, W.F.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two gas phase reactions, involving the iodination and nitration of benzene derivatives, are described. The experimental techniques of the apparatus and the methods used are outlined. The kinetic H/D isotope effect in the gas phase nitration of benzene with NO 2 is determined. (C.F.)

  17. A Constraint on the Formation Timescale of the Young Open Cluster NGC 2264: Lithium Abundance of Pre-main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Bessell, Michael S.; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-11-01

    The timescale of cluster formation is an essential parameter in order to understand the formation process of star clusters. Pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in nearby young open clusters reveal a large spread in brightness. If the spread were considered to be a result of a real spread in age, the corresponding cluster formation timescale would be about 5-20 Myr. Hence it could be interpreted that star formation in an open cluster is prolonged for up to a few tens of Myr. However, difficulties in reddening correction, observational errors, and systematic uncertainties introduced by imperfect evolutionary models for PMS stars can result in an artificial age spread. Alternatively, we can utilize Li abundance as a relative age indicator of PMS star to determine the cluster formation timescale. The optical spectra of 134 PMS stars in NGC 2264 have been obtained with MMT/Hectochelle. The equivalent widths have been measured for 86 PMS stars with a detectable Li line (3500\\lt {T}{eff}[{{K}}]≤slant 6500). Li abundance under the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) was derived using the conventional curve of growth method. After correction for non-LTE effects, we find that the initial Li abundance of NGC 2264 is A({Li})=3.2+/- 0.2. From the distribution of the Li abundances, the underlying age spread of the visible PMS stars is estimated to be about 3-4 Myr and this, together with the presence of embedded populations in NGC 2264, suggests that the cluster formed on a timescale shorter than 5 Myr.

  18. Probing Signatures of a Distant Planet around the Young T-Tauri Star CI Tau Hosting a Possible Hot Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mihoko; Hashimoto, Jun; Hori, Yasunori

    2018-06-01

    We search for signatures of a distant planet around the two million-year-old classical T-Tauri star CI Tau hosting a hot-Jupiter candidate ({M}{{p}}\\sin i∼ 8.1 {M}Jupiter}) in an eccentric orbit (e ∼ 0.3). To probe the existence of an outer perturber, we reanalyzed 1.3 mm dust continuum observations of the protoplanetary disk around CI Tau obtained by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We found a gap structure at ∼0.″8 in CI Tau’s disk. Our visibility fitting assuming an axisymmetric surface brightness profile suggested that the gap is located at a deprojected radius of 104.5 ± 1.6 au and has a width of 36.9 ± 2.9 au. The brightness temperature around the gap was calculated to be ∼2.3 K lower than that of the ambient disk. Gap-opening mechanisms such as secular gravitational instability (GI) and dust trapping can explain the gap morphology in the CI Tau disk. The scenario that an unseen planet created the observed gap structure cannot be ruled out, although the coexistence of an eccentric hot Jupiter and a distant planet around the young CI Tau would be challenging for gravitational scattering scenarios. The mass of the planet was estimated to be between ∼0.25 M Jupiter and ∼0.8 M Jupiter from the gap width and depth ({0.41}-0.06+0.04) in the modeled surface brightness image, which is lower than the current detection limits of high-contrast direct imaging. The young classical T-Tauri CI Tau may be a unique system for exploring the existence of a potential distant planet as well as the origin of an eccentric hot Jupiter.

  19. CHAOS. III. GAS-PHASE ABUNDANCES IN NGC 5457

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croxall, Kevin V.; Pogge, Richard W. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Berg, Danielle A. [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    We present Large Binocular Telescope observations of 109 H ii regions in NGC 5457 (M101) obtained with the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph. We have robust measurements of one or more temperature-sensitive auroral emission lines for 74 H ii regions, permitting the measurement of “direct” gas-phase abundances. Comparing the temperatures derived from the different ionic species, we find: (1) strong correlations of T [N ii] with T [S iii] and T [O iii], consistent with little or no intrinsic scatter; (2) a correlation of T [S iii] with T [O iii], but with significant intrinsic dispersion; (3) overall agreement between T [N ii], T [S ii], and T [O ii], as expected, but with significant outliers; (4) the correlations of T [N ii] with T [S iii] and T [O iii] match the predictions of photoionization modeling while the correlation of T [S iii] with T [O iii] is offset from the prediction of photoionization modeling. Based on these observations, which include significantly more observations of lower excitation H ii regions, missing in many analyses, we inspect the commonly used ionization correction factors (ICFs) for unobserved ionic species and propose new empirical ICFs for S and Ar. We have discovered an unexpected population of H ii regions with a significant offset to low values in Ne/O, which defies explanation. We derive radial gradients in O/H and N/O which agree with previous studies. Our large observational database allows us to examine the dispersion in abundances, and we find intrinsic dispersions of 0.074 ± 0.009 in O/H and 0.095 ± 0.009 in N/O (at a given radius). We stress that this measurement of the intrinsic dispersion comes exclusively from direct abundance measurements of H ii regions in NGC 5457.

  20. The properties of gas-phase multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newson, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a series of experiments investigating the reactivity of gas-phase molecular dications with various neutral collision partners, at collision energies between 3 and 13 eV in the laboratory frame, using a crossed-beam apparatus. The experiment involves the measurement of product ion intensities, which are determined by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The experimental apparatus and methodology, together with the areas of theory important to ion chemistry, are described in the thesis. The product ions of greatest interest are those ions formed by bond-forming (chemical) reactivity. The relative intensities of such product ions, and those ions formed as a result of electron-transfer reactions, are, when recorded as a function of the collision energy, a powerful probe of the reaction mechanism. Additionally, where appropriate, the reactions are examined for isotope effects by using the isotopic analogue of the neutral collision partner. The results of the experiments indicate that no intermolecular isotope effects are present in the reactions of CF 2 2+ and CF 3 2+ with H 2 and D 2 neutral targets. In addition, the observed collision energy dependence is symptomatic of the absence of a barrier to reaction. These observations suggest that the reactions proceed via an impulsive direct reaction mechanism. Such a conclusion casts doubt on the applicability of the Landau-Zener model of H - /D - transfer reactivity. Other results presented in this thesis include the first reported observation of a bond-forming reaction between a molecular dication (CF2 2+ ) and a polyatomic neutral species (NH 3 ). Finally, the branching ratio of the products of bond-forming reactions between CF 2 2+ with HD indicates the operation of a strong intramolecular isotope effect, favouring the formation of the deuterated product. This observation points to a reaction mechanism in which the bond-formation is preceded by electron-transfer. (author)

  1. Dissociative electron attachment to the gas-phase nucleobase hypoxanthine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawley, M. Michele [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Tanzer, Katrin; Denifl, Stephan, E-mail: Stephan.Denifl@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Sylwia.Ptasinska.1@nd.edu [Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck (CMBI), Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Carmichael, Ian [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Ptasińska, Sylwia, E-mail: Stephan.Denifl@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Sylwia.Ptasinska.1@nd.edu [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    We present high-resolution measurements of the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to isolated gas-phase hypoxanthine (C{sub 5}H{sub 4}N{sub 4}O, Hyp), a tRNA purine base. The anion mass spectra and individual ion efficiency curves from Hyp were measured as a function of electron energy below 9 eV. The mass spectra at 1 and 6 eV exhibit the highest anion yields, indicating possible common precursor ions that decay into the detectable anionic fragments. The (Hyp − H) anion (C{sub 5}H{sub 3}N{sub 4}O{sup −}) exhibits a sharp resonant peak at 1 eV, which we tentatively assign to a dipole-bound state of the keto-N1H,N9H tautomer in which dehydrogenation occurs at either the N1 or N9 position based upon our quantum chemical computations (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) and U(MP2-aug-cc-pVDZ+)) and prior studies with adenine. This closed-shell dehydrogenated anion is the dominant fragment formed upon electron attachment, as with other nucleobases. Seven other anions were also observed including (Hyp − NH){sup −}, C{sub 4}H{sub 3}N{sub 4}{sup −}/C{sub 4}HN{sub 3}O{sup −}, C{sub 4}H{sub 2}N{sub 3}{sup −}, C{sub 3}NO{sup −}/HC(HCN)CN{sup −}, OCN{sup −}, CN{sup −}, and O{sup −}. Most of these anions exhibit broad but weak resonances between 4 and 8 eV similar to many analogous anions from adenine. The DEA to Hyp involves significant fragmentation, which is relevant to understanding radiation damage of biomolecules.

  2. Uptake of Organic Gas Phase Species by 1-Methylnaphthalene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Xia, J.; Davidovits, P.; Jayne, J. T.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    Using a droplet train apparatus, the mass accommodation coefficients (α) on 1-methylnapthalene of gas phase m-xylene, ethylbenzene, butylbenzene, α-pinene, γ-terpinene, and 2-methyl-2-hexanol were measured as a function of temperature (265 K to 296 K). 1-methylnapthalene was selected as a surrogate for hydrophobic and aromatic hydrocarbons found in tropospheric aerosols. The mass accommodation coefficients (α) of all the molecules obtained from these measurements exhibit negative temperature dependence. The upper and lower values of α at 265 K and 296 K respectively are: for m-xylene 0.44 and 0.26; for ethylbenzene 0.37 and 0.22; for butylbenzene 0.47 and 0.31; for α-pinene 0.47 and 0.096; for γ-terpinene 0.39 and 0.12; for 2-methyl-2-hexanol 0.44 and 0.26. The uptake measurements also yielded values for the product HDl1/2 for most of the molecules studied (H = Henry's law constant, Dl = liquid phase diffusion coefficient). Using calculated values of Dl the Henry's law constant is obtained, and expressed in the form ln H (M/atm) = -A + B/T. The A and B values for the molecules studied are listed in Table 1. Table 1: A and B values for the Henry's law constant H expressed as ln H (M/atm) = -A + B/T \\ m-xylene: A=7.20, B=4060\\ethylbenzene: A=5.81, B=3660\\butylbenzene: A=16.95, B=7330α-pinene: A=15.69, B=6360\\2-methyl-2-hexanol: A=9.95, B=4760

  3. Kinetics of the gas-phase tritium oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failor, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Homogeneous gas-phase kinetics of tritium oxidation (2T 2 + O 2 →2T 2 O) have been studied with a model that accounts explicitly for radiolysis of the major species and the kinetics of the subsequent reactions of ionic, excited-state, and neutral species. Results from model calculations are given for 10 -4 -1.0 mol% T 2 in O 2 (298 K, 1 atm). As the reaction evolves three different mechanisms control T 2 O production, each with a different overall rate expression and a different order with respect to the T 2 concentration. The effects of self-radiolysis of pure T 2 on the tritium oxidation reaction were calculated. Tritium atoms, the primary product of T 2 self-radiolysis, altered the oxidation mechanism only during the first few seconds following the initiation of the T 2 -O 2 reaction. Ozone, an important intermediate in T 2 oxidation, was monitored in-situ by U.V. absorption spectroscopy for 0.01-1.0 mol% T 2 an 1 atm O 2 . The shape of the experimental ozone time profile agreed with the model predictions. As predicted, the measured initial rate of ozone production varied linearly with initial T 2 concentration ([T 2 ] 0.6 o ), but at an initial rate one-third the predicted value. The steady-state ozone concentration ([O 3 ]ss) was predicted to be dependent on [T 2 ] 0.3 o , but the measured value was [T 2 ] 0.6 o , resulting in four times higher [O 3 ]ss than predicted for a 1.0% T 2 -O 2 mixture. Adding H 2 to the T 2 -O 2 mixture, to provide insight into the differences between the radiolytic and chemical behavior of the tritium, produced a greater decrease in [O 3 ]ss than predicted. Adjusting the reaction cell surface-to-volume ratio showed implications of minor surface removal of ozone

  4. Dissociative attachment reactions of electrons with gas phase superacids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.

    1992-01-01

    Using the flowing afterglow Langmuir probe (FALP) technique, dissociative attachment coefficients β for reactions of electrons with gas phase superacids HCo(PF 3 ) 4 , HRh(PF 3 ) 4 and carbonyl hydride complexes HMn(CO) 5 , HRe(CO) 5 have been determined under thermal conditions over the approximate temperature range 300∼550 K. The superacids react relatively slowly ( max ) with free electrons in a thermal plasma, and the values of β obtained this far do not show a correlation between acidity and β. The pioneer researchers in this field had speculated that any superacid would be a rapid attacher of electrons; it was found that this speculation is not true in general. The product distribution of electron attachment reaction to HCo(PF 3 ) 4 was found to be independent of temperature even though the β[HCo(PF 3 ) 4 ] increases with temperature. This proposes that the electron attachment process occurs well before the excited complex dissociates. In addition, the activation energy of HCo(PF 3 ) 4 for electron attachment has been derived from the Arrhenius plots. The carbonyl hydride complexes, HMn(CO) 5 and HRe(CO) 5 , react relatively rapidly (>1/4 of β max ) with free electrons in thermal plasma. This indicates that these reactions cannot be significantly endothermic. Observation of rapid attachment for these non-superacids shows that the Mn-CO and Re-CO bonds are weaker than the Mn-H and Re-H bonds, respectively. Comparisons between the carbonyl and trifluorophosphine cases implies that fast electron capture is related more to the CO ligand than to the transition-metal species

  5. Gas-Phase Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Nitride Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelbaum, R. L.; Lottes, C. R.; Huertas, J. I.; Rosen, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to its combined properties of high electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN) is a highly desirable material for electronics applications. Methods are being sought for synthesis of unagglomerated, nanometer-sized powders of this material, prepared in such a way that they can be consolidated into solid compacts having minimal oxygen content. A procedure for synthesizing these powders through gas-phase combustion is described. This novel approach involves reacting AlCl3, NH3, and Na vapors. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations show that 100% yields can be obtained for these reactants with the products being AlN, NaCl, and H2. The NaCl by-product is used to coat the AlN particles in situ. The coating allows for control of AlN agglomeration and protects the powders from hydrolysis during post-flame handling. On the basis of thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, two different approaches were employed to produce the powder, in co-flow diffusion flame configurations. In the first approach, the three reactants were supplied in separate streams. In the second, the AlCl3 and NH3 were premixed with HCl and then reacted with Na vapor. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of as-produced powders show only NaCl for the first case and NaCl and AlN for the second. After annealing at 775 C tinder dynamic vacuum, the salt was removed and XRD spectra of powders from both approaches show only AlN. Aluminum metal was also produced in the co-flow flame by reacting AlCl3 with Na. XRD spectra of as-produced powders show the products to be only NaCl and elemental aluminum.

  6. The Gaia-ESO Survey and CSI 2264: Substructures, disks, and sequential star formation in the young open cluster NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Flaccomio, E.; Bonito, R.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Guarcello, M. G.; Randich, S.; Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M.; Jeffries, R. D.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Alfaro, E. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Frasca, A.; Jofré, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Zaggia, S.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Reconstructing the structure and history of young clusters is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms and timescales of early stellar evolution and planet formation. Recent studies suggest that star clusters often exhibit a hierarchical structure, possibly resulting from several star formation episodes occurring sequentially rather than a monolithic cloud collapse. Aims: We aim to explore the structure of the open cluster and star-forming region NGC 2264 ( 3 Myr), which is one of the youngest, richest and most accessible star clusters in the local spiral arm of our Galaxy; we link the spatial distribution of cluster members to other stellar properties such as age and evolutionary stage to probe the star formation history within the region. Methods: We combined spectroscopic data obtained as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) with multi-wavelength photometric data from the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 (CSI 2264) campaign. We examined a sample of 655 cluster members, with masses between 0.2 and 1.8 M⊙ and including both disk-bearing and disk-free young stars. We used Teff estimates from GES and g,r,i photometry from CSI 2264 to derive individual extinction and stellar parameters. Results: We find a significant age spread of 4-5 Myr among cluster members. Disk-bearing objects are statistically associated with younger isochronal ages than disk-free sources. The cluster has a hierarchical structure, with two main blocks along its latitudinal extension. The northern half develops around the O-type binary star S Mon; the southern half, close to the tip of the Cone Nebula, contains the most embedded regions of NGC 2264, populated mainly by objects with disks and ongoing accretion. The median ages of objects at different locations within the cluster, and the spatial distribution of disked and non-disked sources, suggest that star formation began in the north of the cluster, over 5 Myr ago, and was ignited in its southern region a few Myr later

  7. Elemental gas-phase abundances of intermediate redshift type Ia supernova star-forming host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Galbany, L.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mollá, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Vílchez, J. M.; Carnero, A.

    2018-05-01

    The maximum luminosity of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) depends on the oxygen abundance of the regions of the host galaxies, where they explode. This metallicity dependence reduces the dispersion in the Hubble diagram (HD) when included with the traditional two-parameter calibration of SN Ia light-curve parameters and absolute magnitude. In this work, we use empirical calibrations to carefully estimate the oxygen abundance of galaxies hosting SNe Ia from the SDSS-II/SN (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova) survey at intermediate redshift by measuring their emission-line intensities. We also derive electronic temperature with the direct method for a small fraction of objects for consistency. We find a trend of decreasing oxygen abundance with increasing redshift for the most massive galaxies. Moreover, we study the dependence of the HD residuals (HR) with galaxy oxygen abundance obtaining a correlation in line with those found in other works. In particular, the HR versus oxygen abundance shows a slope of -0.186 ± 0.123 mag dex-1 (1.52σ) in good agreement with theoretical expectations. This implies smaller distance modulii after corrections for SNe Ia in metal-rich galaxies. Based on our previous results on local SNe Ia, we propose this dependence to be due to the lower luminosity of the SNe Ia produced in more metal-rich environments.

  8. GAS PHASE SYNTHESIS OF (ISO)QUINOLINE AND ITS ROLE IN THE FORMATION OF NUCLEOBASES IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Dorian S. N.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Ahmed, Musahid; Mebel, Alexander M.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) have been proposed to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, yet the formation mechanisms of even their simplest prototypes—quinoline and isoquinoline—remain elusive. Here, we reveal a novel concept that under high temperature conditions representing circumstellar envelopes of carbon stars, (iso)quinoline can be synthesized via the reaction of pyridyl radicals with two acetylene molecules. The facile gas phase formation of (iso)quinoline in circumstellar envelopes defines a hitherto elusive reaction class synthesizing aromatic structures with embedded nitrogen atoms that are essential building blocks in contemporary biological-structural motifs. Once ejected from circumstellar shells and incorporated into icy interstellar grains in cold molecular clouds, these NPAHs can be functionalized by photo processing forming nucleobase-type structures as sampled in the Murchison meteorite

  9. Young massive stars and their environment in the mid-infrared at high angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, W J de; Hoare, M G; Oudmaijer, R D; Fujiyoshi, T

    2008-01-01

    We present interferometric and single-dish mid-infrared observations of a sample of massive young stellar objects (BN-type objects), using VLTI-MIDI (10μm) and Subaru-COMICS (24.5 μm). We discuss the regions S140, Mon R2, M8E-IR, and W33A. The observations probe the inner regions of the dusty envelope at scales of 50 milli arcsecond and 0.6'' (∼100-1000 AU), respectively. Simultaneous model fits to spectral energy distributions and spatial data are achieved using self-consistent spherical envelope modelling. We conclude that those MYSO envelopes that are best described by a spherical geometry, the commensurate density distribution is a powerlaw with index -1.0. Such a powerlaw is predicted if the envelope is supported by turbulence on the 100-1000 AU scales probed with MIDI and COMICS, but the role of rotation at these spatial scales need testing.

  10. BANYAN. IV. Fundamental parameters of low-mass star candidates in nearby young stellar kinematic groups—isochronal age determination using magnetic evolutionary models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Gagné, Jonathan [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Riedel, Adric, E-mail: malo@cfht.hawaii.edu, E-mail: doyon@astro.umontreal.ca [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Based on high-resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we determine fundamental parameters (T {sub eff}, R, L {sub bol}, log g, and metallicity) for 59 candidate members of nearby young kinematic groups. The candidates were identified through the BANYAN Bayesian inference method of Malo et al., which takes into account the position, proper motion, magnitude, color, radial velocity, and parallax (when available) to establish a membership probability. The derived parameters are compared to Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models and field stars with the goal of constraining the age of our candidates. We find that, in general, low-mass stars in our sample are more luminous and have inflated radii compared to older stars, a trend expected for pre-main-sequence stars. The Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models show a good fit to observations of field K and M stars, assuming a magnetic field strength of a few kG, as typically observed for cool stars. Using the low-mass members of the β Pictoris moving group, we have re-examined the age inconsistency problem between lithium depletion age and isochronal age (Hertzspring-Russell diagram). We find that the inclusion of the magnetic field in evolutionary models increases the isochronal age estimates for the K5V-M5V stars. Using these models and field strengths, we derive an average isochronal age between 15 and 28 Myr and we confirm a clear lithium depletion boundary from which an age of 26 ± 3 Myr is derived, consistent with previous age estimates based on this method.

  11. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). V. AGE-DATING LOW-MASS COMPANIONS TO MEMBERS AND INTERLOPERS OF YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Flagg, Laura [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Liu, Michael C.; Howard, Andrew W.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Best, William M. J.; Kotson, Michael C.; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Schlieder, Joshua E. [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Mann, Andrew W.; Dupuy, Trent J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Weinberger, Alycia J. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Allers, Katelyn N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J., E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); and others

    2015-06-10

    We present optical and near-infrared adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopy of 13 ultracool (>M6) companions to late-type stars (K7–M4.5), most of which have recently been identified as candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs; 8–120 Myr) in the literature. Three of these are new companions identified in our AO imaging survey, and two others are confirmed to be comoving with their host stars for the first time. The inferred masses of the companions (∼10–100 M{sub Jup}) are highly sensitive to the ages of the primary stars; therefore we critically examine the kinematic and spectroscopic properties of each system to distinguish bona fide YMG members from old field interlopers. The new M7 substellar companion 2MASS J02155892–0929121 C (40–60 M{sub Jup}) shows clear spectroscopic signs of low gravity and, hence, youth. The primary, possibly a member of the ∼40 Myr Tuc-Hor moving group, is visually resolved into three components, making it a young low-mass quadruple system in a compact (≲100 AU) configuration. In addition, Li i λ6708 absorption in the intermediate-gravity M7.5 companion 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B provides unambiguous evidence that it is young (≲200 Myr) and resides below the hydrogen-burning limit. Three new close-separation (<1″) companions (2MASS J06475229–2523304 B, PYC J11519+0731 B, and GJ 4378 Ab) orbit stars previously reported as candidate YMG members, but instead are likely old (≳1 Gyr) tidally locked spectroscopic binaries without convincing kinematic associations with any known moving group. The high rate of false positives in the form of old active stars with YMG-like kinematics underscores the importance of radial velocity and parallax measurements to validate candidate young stars identified via proper motion and activity selection alone. Finally, we spectroscopically confirm the cool temperature and substellar nature of HD 23514 B, a recently discovered M8 benchmark brown dwarf orbiting the

  12. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). V. AGE-DATING LOW-MASS COMPANIONS TO MEMBERS AND INTERLOPERS OF YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Riddle, Reed; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Flagg, Laura; Liu, Michael C.; Howard, Andrew W.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Best, William M. J.; Kotson, Michael C.; Baranec, Christoph; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Mann, Andrew W.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Hinkley, Sasha; Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Herczeg, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopy of 13 ultracool (>M6) companions to late-type stars (K7–M4.5), most of which have recently been identified as candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs; 8–120 Myr) in the literature. Three of these are new companions identified in our AO imaging survey, and two others are confirmed to be comoving with their host stars for the first time. The inferred masses of the companions (∼10–100 M Jup ) are highly sensitive to the ages of the primary stars; therefore we critically examine the kinematic and spectroscopic properties of each system to distinguish bona fide YMG members from old field interlopers. The new M7 substellar companion 2MASS J02155892–0929121 C (40–60 M Jup ) shows clear spectroscopic signs of low gravity and, hence, youth. The primary, possibly a member of the ∼40 Myr Tuc-Hor moving group, is visually resolved into three components, making it a young low-mass quadruple system in a compact (≲100 AU) configuration. In addition, Li i λ6708 absorption in the intermediate-gravity M7.5 companion 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B provides unambiguous evidence that it is young (≲200 Myr) and resides below the hydrogen-burning limit. Three new close-separation (<1″) companions (2MASS J06475229–2523304 B, PYC J11519+0731 B, and GJ 4378 Ab) orbit stars previously reported as candidate YMG members, but instead are likely old (≳1 Gyr) tidally locked spectroscopic binaries without convincing kinematic associations with any known moving group. The high rate of false positives in the form of old active stars with YMG-like kinematics underscores the importance of radial velocity and parallax measurements to validate candidate young stars identified via proper motion and activity selection alone. Finally, we spectroscopically confirm the cool temperature and substellar nature of HD 23514 B, a recently discovered M8 benchmark brown dwarf orbiting the dustiest

  13. A dearth of short-period massive binaries in the young massive star forming region M 17. Evidence for a large orbital separation at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, H.; Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The formation of massive stars remains poorly understood and little is known about their birth multiplicity properties. Here, we aim to quantitatively investigate the strikingly low radial-velocity dispersion measured for a sample of 11 massive pre- and near-main-sequence stars (σ1D= 5.6 ± 0.2 km s-1) in the very young massive star forming region M 17, in order to obtain first constraints on the multiplicity properties of young massive stellar objects. Methods: We compute the radial-velocity dispersion of synthetic populations of massive stars for various multiplicity properties and we compare the obtained σ1D distributions to the observed value. We specifically investigate two scenarios: a low binary fraction and a dearth of short-period binary systems. Results: Simulated populations with low binary fractions () or with truncated period distributions (Pcutoff > 9 months) are able to reproduce the low σ1D observed within their 68%-confidence intervals. Furthermore, parent populations with fbin > 0.42 or Pcutoff < 47 d can be rejected at the 5%-significance level. Both constraints are in stark contrast with the high binary fraction and plethora of short-period systems in few Myr-old, well characterized OB-type populations. To explain the difference in the context of the first scenario would require a variation of the outcome of the massive star formation process. In the context of the second scenario, compact binaries must form later on, and the cut-off period may be related to physical length-scales representative of the bloated pre-main-sequence stellar radii or of their accretion disks. Conclusions: If the obtained constraints for the M 17's massive-star population are representative of the multiplicity properties of massive young stellar objects, our results may provide support to a massive star formation process in which binaries are initially formed at larger separations, then harden or migrate to produce the typical (untruncated) power-law period

  14. Detection methods for atoms and radicals in the gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, W.

    This report lists atoms and free radicals in the gas phase which are of interest for environmental and flame chemistry and have been detected directly. The detection methods which have been used are discussed with respect to their range of application, specificity and sensitivity. In table 1, detection methods for the five atoms of group IV (C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) and about 60 radicals containing at least one atom of group IV are summarized (CH, Cd, Cf, CC1, CBr, Cn, Cs, CSe, CH2, CD2, Chf, Cdf, CHC1, CHBr, CF2, CC12, CBr2, CFC1, CFBr, CH3, CD3, CF3, CH2F, CH2C1, CH2Br, CHF2, CHC12, CHBr2, Hco, Fco, CH30, CD30, CH2OH, CH3S, Nco, CH4N, CH302, CF302; C2, C2N, C2H, C20, C2HO, C2H3, C2F3, C2H5, C2HsO, C2H4OH, CH3CO, CD3CO, C2H3O, C2H502, CH3COO2, C2H4N, C2H6N, C3; Si, SiF, SiF2, SiO, SiC, Si2; Ge, GeC, GeO, GeF, GeF2, GeCl2, Sn, SnF, SnO, SnF2, Pb, PbF, PbF2, PbO, PbS). In table 2 detection methods for about 25 other atoms and 60 radicals are listed: (H, D, O, O2, Oh, Od, HO2, DO2, F, Ci, Br, I, Fo, Cio, BrO, Io, FO2, C1O2, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, N, N3, Nh, Nd, Nf, Nci, NBr, NH2, ND2, Nhd, Nhf, NF2, NC12, N2H3, No, NO2, NO3, Hno, Dno, P, Ph, Pd, Pf, Pci, PH2, PD2, PF2, Po, As, AsO, AsS, Sb, Bi, S, S2, Sh, Sd, Sf, SF2, So, Hso, Dso, Sn, Se, Te, Se2, SeH, SeD, SeF, SeO, SeS, SeN, TeH, TeO, Bh, BH2, Bo, Bn, B02, Cd, Hg, UF5). The tables also cite some recent kinetic applications of the various methods.

  15. Electron-beam synthesis of fuel in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.V.; Holodkova, E.M.; Ershov, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Tendencies of world development focus attention on a vegetative biomass as on the major raw resource for future chemistry and a fuel industry. The significant potential for perfection of biomass conversion processes is concentrated in the field of radiation-chemical methods. Both the mode of post-radiation distillation and mode of electron-beam distillation of biomass have been investigated as well as the mode of gas-phase synthesis of liquid engine fuel from of biomass distillation products. Synergistic action of radiation and temperature has been analyzed at use of the accelerated electron beams allowing to combine radiolysis with effective radiation heating of a material without use of additional heaters. At dose rate above 1 kGy/s the electron-beam irradiation results in intensive decomposition of a biomass and evaporation of formed fragments with obtaining of a liquid condensate (∼ 60 wt%), CO 2 and Co gases (13-18 wt%) and charcoal in the residue. Biomass distillation at radiation heating allows to increase almost three times an organic liquid yield in comparison with pyrolysis. The majority of liquid products from cellulose is represented by the furan derivatives considered among the very perspective components for alternative engine fuels. Distilled-off gases and vapors are diluted with gaseous C 1 -C 5 alkanes and again are exposed to an irradiation to produce liquid fuel from a biomass. This transformation is based on a method of electron-beam circulation conversion of gaseous C 1 -C 5 alkanes (Ponomarev, A.V., Radiat. Phys. Chem., 78, 48, 2009) which consists in formation and removal of liquid products with high degree of carbon skeleton branching. The isomers ratio in a liquid may be controlled by means of change of an irradiation condition and initial gas composition. The irradiation of gaseous alkanes together with vaporous products of biomass destruction allows to synthesize the fuel enriched by conventional

  16. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Sander, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6 mm±0.4 mm exists below which ignition by CO 2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29 W/cm 2 and 38 W/cm 2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials

  17. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. N.; Son, S. F.; Asay, B. W.; Sander, R. K.

    2005-03-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6mm±0.4mm exists below which ignition by CO2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29W /cm2 and 38W/cm2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

  18. THE GEMINI/NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: THE FREQUENCY OF PLANETS AROUND YOUNG MOVING GROUP STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biller, Beth A.; Ftaclas, Christ [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany); Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Close, Laird M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chun, Mark [Institute for Astronomy, 640 North Aohoku Place, 209, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Clarke, Fraser; Thatte, Niranjan [Department of Astronomy, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Reid, I. Neill [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Boss, Alan [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Lin, Douglas [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Alencar, Silvia H. P. [Departamento de Fisica-ICEx-Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, 30270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane [Universidade de Sao Paulo, IAG/USP, Departamento de Astronomia, Rua do Matao 1226, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-10

    We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets around 80 members of the β Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of the Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of ΔH = 13.9 mag at 1'' in combined CH{sub 4} narrowband ADI+SDI mode and median contrasts of ΔH = 15.1 mag at 2'' in H-band ADI mode. We found numerous (>70) candidate companions in our survey images. Some of these candidates were rejected as common-proper motion companions using archival data; we reobserved with Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) all other candidates that lay within 400 AU of the star and were not in dense stellar fields. The vast majority of candidate companions were confirmed as background objects from archival observations and/or dedicated NICI Campaign followup. Four co-moving companions of brown dwarf or stellar mass were discovered in this moving group sample: PZ Tel B (36 ± 6 M{sub Jup}, 16.4 ± 1.0 AU), CD–35 2722B (31 ± 8 M{sub Jup}, 67 ± 4 AU), HD 12894B (0.46 ± 0.08 M{sub ☉}, 15.7 ± 1.0 AU), and BD+07 1919C (0.20 ± 0.03 M{sub ☉}, 12.5 ± 1.4 AU). From a Bayesian analysis of the achieved H band ADI and ASDI contrasts, using power-law models of planet distributions and hot-start evolutionary models, we restrict the frequency of 1-20 M{sub Jup} companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU to <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. Our results strongly constrain the frequency of planets within semi-major axes of 50 AU as well. We restrict the frequency of 1-20 M{sub Jup} companions at semi-major axes from 10-50 AU to <21% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <7% at a 95.4% using COND models. This survey is the deepest search to date for giant planets around young moving group stars.

  19. CHANDRA CHARACTERIZATION OF X-RAY EMISSION IN THE YOUNG F-STAR BINARY SYSTEM HD 113766

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [Planetary Exploration Branch, Space Exploration Sector, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Wolk, S. J. [Chandra X-ray Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Günther, H. M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, NE83-569, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chen, C. H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grady, C. A., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: damian.christian@csun.edu, E-mail: swolk@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: hgunther@mit.edu, E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu, E-mail: carol.a.grady@nasa.gov [Eureka Scientific and Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, NASA-GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Using Chandra , we have obtained imaging X-ray spectroscopy of the 10–16 Myr old F-star binary HD 113766. We individually resolve the 1.″4 separation binary components for the first time in the X-ray and find a total 0.3–2.0 keV luminosity of 2.2 × 10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1}, consistent with previous RASS estimates. We find emission from the easternmost, infrared-bright, dusty member HD 113766A to be only ∼10% that of the western, infrared-faint member HD 113766B. There is no evidence for a 3rd late-type stellar or substellar member of HD 113766 with L {sub x} > 6 × 10{sup 25} erg s{sup −1} within 2′ of the binary pair. The ratio of the two stars’ X-ray luminosity is consistent with their assignments as F2V and F6V by Pecaut et al. The emission is soft for both stars, kT {sub Apec} = 0.30–0.50 keV, suggesting X-rays produced by stellar rotation and/or convection in young dynamos, but not accretion or outflow shocks, which we rule out. A possible 2.8 ± 0.15 (2 σ ) hr modulation in the HD 113766B X-ray emission is seen, but at very low confidence and of unknown provenance. Stellar wind drag models corresponding to L {sub x} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1} argue for a 1 mm dust particle lifetime around HD 113766B of only ∼90,0000 years, suggesting that dust around HD 113766B is quickly removed, whereas 1 mm sized dust around HD 113766A can survive for >1.5 × 10{sup 6} years. At 10{sup 28}–10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1} X-ray luminosity, astrobiologically important effects, like dust warming and X-ray photolytic organic synthesis, are likely for any circumstellar material in the HD 113766 systems.

  20. CHANDRA CHARACTERIZATION OF X-RAY EMISSION IN THE YOUNG F-STAR BINARY SYSTEM HD 113766

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisse, C. M.; Christian, D. J.; Wolk, S. J.; Günther, H. M.; Chen, C. H.; Grady, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Using Chandra , we have obtained imaging X-ray spectroscopy of the 10–16 Myr old F-star binary HD 113766. We individually resolve the 1.″4 separation binary components for the first time in the X-ray and find a total 0.3–2.0 keV luminosity of 2.2 × 10 29 erg s −1 , consistent with previous RASS estimates. We find emission from the easternmost, infrared-bright, dusty member HD 113766A to be only ∼10% that of the western, infrared-faint member HD 113766B. There is no evidence for a 3rd late-type stellar or substellar member of HD 113766 with L x  > 6 × 10 25 erg s −1 within 2′ of the binary pair. The ratio of the two stars’ X-ray luminosity is consistent with their assignments as F2V and F6V by Pecaut et al. The emission is soft for both stars, kT Apec  = 0.30–0.50 keV, suggesting X-rays produced by stellar rotation and/or convection in young dynamos, but not accretion or outflow shocks, which we rule out. A possible 2.8 ± 0.15 (2 σ ) hr modulation in the HD 113766B X-ray emission is seen, but at very low confidence and of unknown provenance. Stellar wind drag models corresponding to L x  ∼ 2 × 10 29 erg s −1 argue for a 1 mm dust particle lifetime around HD 113766B of only ∼90,0000 years, suggesting that dust around HD 113766B is quickly removed, whereas 1 mm sized dust around HD 113766A can survive for >1.5 × 10 6 years. At 10 28 –10 29 erg s −1 X-ray luminosity, astrobiologically important effects, like dust warming and X-ray photolytic organic synthesis, are likely for any circumstellar material in the HD 113766 systems.

  1. Gas Phase Chemistry and Molecular Complexity: How Far Do They Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of organic molecules of increasing complexity is believed to be an important step toward the emergence of life. But how massive organic synthesis could occur in primitive Earth, i.e. a water-dominated environment, is a matter of debate. Two alternative theories have been suggested so far: endogenous and exogenous synthesis. In the first theory, the synthesis of simple organic molecules having a strong prebiotic potential (simple prebiotic molecules SPMs, such as H2CO, HCN, HC3N, NH2CHO) occurred directly on our planet starting from simple parent molecules of the atmosphere, liquid water and various energy sources. Miller's experiment was a milestone in this theory, but it was later recognized that the complexity of a planet cannot be reproduced in a single laboratory experiment. Some SPMs have been identified in the N2-dominated atmosphere of Titan (a massive moon of Saturn), which is believed to be reminiscent of the primitive terrestrial atmosphere. As such, the atmosphere of Titan represents a planetary scale laboratory for the comprehension of SPM formation in an environment close enough to primitive Earth and is the current frontier in the endogenous theory exploration. In the exogenous theory, SPMs came from space, the carriers being comets, asteroids and meteorites. The rationale behind this suggestion is that plenty of SPMs have been observed in interstellar clouds (ISCs), including star-forming regions, and in small bodies like comets, asteroids and meteorites. Therefore, the basic idea is that SPMs were formed in the solar nebula, preserved during the early phases of the Solar System formation in the body of comets/asteroids/meteorites and finally delivered to Earth by cometary and meteoritic falls. In this contribution, the status of our knowledge on how SPMs can be formed in the gas phase, either in the primitive terrestrial atmosphere or in the cold nebula from which the Solar System originated, will be presented. Particular attention

  2. GRAIN GROWTH IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS OF THE YOUNG STARS CY Tau AND DoAr 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Isella, Andrea [Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Carpenter, John M.; Sargent, Anneila I. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Calvet, Nuria [University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Corder, Stuartt A. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Deller, Adam T. [The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Dullemond, Cornelis P. [Heidelberg University, Center for Astronomy, Albert Ueberle Str 2, Heidelberg (Germany); Greaves, Jane S. [University of St. Andrews, Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Harris, Robert J. [University of Illinois, 1002 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kwon, Woojin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Lazio, Joseph [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Mundy, Lee G.; Storm, Shaye [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Tazzari, Marco [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2015-11-01

    We present new results from the Disks@EVLA program for two young stars: CY Tau and DoAr 25. We trace continuum emission arising from their circusmtellar disks from spatially resolved observations, down to tens of AU scales, at λ = 0.9, 2.8, 8.0, 9.8 mm for DoAr 25 and at λ = 1.3, 2.8, 7.1 mm for CY Tau. Additionally, we constrain the amount of emission whose origin is different from thermal dust emission from 5 cm observations. Directly from interferometric data, we find that observations at 7 mm and 1 cm trace emission from a compact disk while millimeter-wave observations trace an extended disk structure. From a physical disk model, where we characterize the disk structure of CY Tau and DoAr 25 at wavelengths shorter than 5 cm, we find that (1) dust continuum emission is optically thin at the observed wavelengths and over the spatial scales studied, (2) a constant value of the dust opacity is not warranted by our observations, and (3) a high-significance radial gradient of the dust opacity spectral index, β, is consistent with the observed dust emission in both disks, with low-β in the inner disk and high-β in the outer disk. Assuming that changes in dust properties arise solely due to changes in the maximum particle size (a{sub max}), we constrain radial variations of a{sub max} in both disks, from cm-sized particles in the inner disk (R < 40 AU) to millimeter sizes in the outer disk (R > 80 AU). These observational constraints agree with theoretical predictions of the radial-drift barrier, however, fragmentation of dust grains could explain our a{sub max}(R) constraints if these disks have lower turbulence and/or if dust can survive high-velocity collisions.

  3. Infrared spectroscopy of gas-phase clusters using a free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnsbergen, D. van; Helden, G. von; Meijer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Most clusters produced in the gas phase, especially those containing metals, remain largely uncharaterized, among these are transition metal - carbide, -oxide and -nitride clusters. A method for recording IR spectra of strongly bound gas-phase clusters is presented. It is based on a free-electron laser called Felix, characterized by wide wavelength tuning range, covering almost the full 'molecular finger print' region, high power and fluence which make it suited to excite gas-phase species i.e. gas -phase clusters. Neutral clusters were generated by laser vaporization technique, ions that were created after the interaction with the free-electron laser were analyzed in a flight mass spectrometer. Experiments were run with titanium carbide clusters and their IR spectra given. It was shown that this method is suited to strongly bound clusters with low ionization energies, a condition met for many pure metal clusters and metal compound clusters. (nevyjel)

  4. Gas-phase water-mediated equilibrium between methylglyoxal and its geminal diol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axson, Jessica L.; Takahashi, Kaito; De Haan, David O.; Vaida, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    In aqueous solution, aldehydes, and to a lesser extent ketones, hydrate to form geminal diols. We investigate the hydration of methylglyoxal (MG) in the gas phase, a process not previously considered to occur in water-restricted environments. In this study, we spectroscopically identified methylglyoxal diol (MGD) and obtained the gas-phase partial pressures of MG and MGD. These results, in conjunction with the relative humidity, were used to obtain the equilibrium constant, KP, for the water-mediated hydration of MG in the gas phase. The Gibbs free energy for this process, ΔG°, obtained as a result, suggests a larger than expected gas-phase diol concentration. This may have significant implications for understanding the role of organics in atmospheric chemistry. PMID:20142510

  5. Gas phase ion/molecule reactions as studied by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is gas phase ion/molecule reactions as studied by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (chapter 2 contains a short description of this method). Three chapters are mainly concerned with mechanistic aspects of gas phase ion/molecule reactions. An equally important aspect of the thesis is the stability and reactivity of α-thio carbanions, dipole stabilized carbanions and homoenolate anions, dealt with in the other four chapters. (Auth.)

  6. An atmospheric pressure flow reactor: Gas phase kinetics and mechanism in tropospheric conditions without wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Davis, Dennis D.; Hansen, Merrill

    1988-01-01

    A new type of gas phase flow reactor, designed to permit the study of gas phase reactions near 1 atm of pressure, is described. A general solution to the flow/diffusion/reaction equations describing reactor performance under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions is presented along with a discussion of critical reactor parameters and reactor limitations. The results of numerical simulations of the reactions of ozone with monomethylhydrazine and hydrazine are discussed, and performance data from a prototype flow reactor are presented.

  7. Defect formation in fluoropolymer films at their condensation from a gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchnikov, P. A.

    2018-01-01

    The questions of radiation defects, factors of influence of electronic high-frequency discharge plasma components on the molecular structure and properties of the fluoropolymer vacuum films synthesized on a substrate from a gas phase are considered. It is established that at sedimentation of fluoropolymer coverings from a gas phase in high-frequency discharge plasma in films there are radiation defects in molecular and supramolecular structure because of the influence of active plasma components which significantly influence their main properties.

  8. Ultrafast electronic relaxation of excited state vitamin B12 in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafizadeh, Niloufar; Poisson, Lionel; Soep, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    The time evolution of electronically excited vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) has been observed for the first time in the gas phase. It reveals an ultrafast decay to a state corresponding to metal excitation. This decay is interpreted as resulting from a ring to metal electron transfer. This opens the observation of the excited state of other complex biomimetic systems in the gas phase, the key to the characterisation of their complex evolution through excited electronic states

  9. Wigner Distribution Functions as a Tool for Studying Gas Phase Alkali Metal Plus Noble Gas Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    WIGNER DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AS A TOOL FOR STUDYING GAS PHASE ALKALI METAL PLUS NOBLE GAS COLLISIONS THESIS Keith A. Wyman, Second Lieutenant, USAF...the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-14-M-39 WIGNER DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AS A TOOL FOR...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENP-14-M-39 WIGNER DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AS A TOOL FOR STUDYING GAS PHASE ALKALI METAL PLUS

  10. A new method for determining gas phase heat of formation of aromatic energetic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad H. [Department of Chemistry, Malek-ashtar University of Technology, Shahin-shahr P. O. Box 83145/115 (Iran); Tehrani, Masoud K. [Department of Physics, Malek-ashtar University of Technology, Shahin-shahr P. O. Box 83145/115 (Iran)

    2007-04-15

    A new correlation is introduced for desk calculation of gas phase heat of formation of aromatic energetic compounds that contain the elements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. Predicted gas phase heats of formation for 26 energetic compounds have a root mean square of deviation from experiment of 20.67 kJ/mol, which is in good agreement with respect to measured values of oxygen-lean and oxygen-rich aromatic energetic compounds. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Molecular structure determination of cyclootane by ab initio and electron diffraction methods in the gas phase

    OpenAIRE

    De Almeida, Wagner B.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of the molecular structure of molecules is of fundamental importance in chemistry. X-rays and electron diffraction methods constitute in important tools for the elucidation of the molecular structure of systems in the solid state and gas phase, respectively. The use of quantum mechanical molecular orbital ab initio methods offer an alternative for conformational analysis studies. Comparison between theoretical results and those obtained experimentally in the gas phase can ma...

  12. CI, CII, and CO as tracers of gas phase carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the dense interstellar medium, we find that about 20 percent of the total carbon abundance is in the form of CO, about 3 percent in C I , and 100 percent in C II with uncertainties of factors of order 2. The abundance of other forms of gaseous carbon is negligible. CO is widespread throughout molecular clouds as is C I . C II has only been observed near bright star-formation regions so far because of its high excitation energy. Further from ultraviolet sources it may be less abundant. Altogether we have accounted for about 1/3 of the total carbon abundance associated with dense molecular clouds. Since the other gaseous forms are thought to have negligible abundances, the rest of the carbon is probably in solid form

  13. Gas-phase spectra of MgO molecules: a possible connection from gas-phase molecules to planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloska, Katherine A.; Fortenberry, Ryan C.

    2018-02-01

    A more fine-tuned method for probing planet-forming regions, such as protoplanetary discs, could be rovibrational molecular spectroscopy observation of particular premineral molecules instead of more common but ultimately less related volatile organic compounds. Planets are created when grains aggregate, but how molecules form grains is an ongoing topic of discussion in astrophysics and planetary science. Using the spectroscopic data of molecules specifically involved in mineral formation could help to map regions where planet formation is believed to be occurring in order to examine the interplay between gas and dust. Four atoms are frequently associated with planetary formation: Fe, Si, Mg and O. Magnesium, in particular, has been shown to be in higher relative abundance in planet-hosting stars. Magnesium oxide crystals comprise the mineral periclase making it the chemically simplest magnesium-bearing mineral and a natural choice for analysis. The monomer, dimer and trimer forms of (MgO)n with n = 1-3 are analysed in this work using high-level quantum chemical computations known to produce accurate results. Strong vibrational transitions at 12.5, 15.0 and 16.5 μm are indicative of magnesium oxide monomer, dimer and trimer making these wavelengths of particular interest for the observation of protoplanetary discs and even potentially planet-forming regions around stars. If such transitions are observed in emission from the accretion discs or absorptions from stellar spectra, the beginning stages of mineral and, subsequently, rocky body formation could be indicated.

  14. The 2014-2017 outburst of the young star ASASSN-13db. A time-resolved picture of a very-low-mass star between EXors and FUors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Oprandi, A.; Froebrich, D.; Fang, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K.; Scholz, A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Henning, Th.; Gredel, R.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Rabus, M.; Shappee, B. J.; Billington, S. J.; Campbell-White, J.; Zegmott, T. J.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Accretion outbursts are key elements in star formation. ASASSN-13db is a M5-type star with a protoplanetary disk, the lowest-mass star known to experience accretion outbursts. Since its discovery in 2013, it has experienced two outbursts, the second of which started in November 2014 and lasted until February 2017. Aims: We explore the photometric and spectroscopic behavior of ASASSN-13db during the 2014-2017 outburst. Methods: We use high- and low-resolution spectroscopy and time-resolved photometry from the ASAS-SN survey, the LCOGT and the Beacon Observatory to study the light curve of ASASSN-13db and the dynamical and physical properties of the accretion flow. Results: The 2014-2017 outburst lasted for nearly 800 days. A 4.15 d period in the light curve likely corresponds to rotational modulation of a star with hot spot(s). The spectra show multiple emission lines with variable inverse P-Cygni profiles and a highly variable blue-shifted absorption below the continuum. Line ratios from metallic emission lines (Fe I/Fe II, Ti I/Ti II) suggest temperatures of 5800-6000 K in the accretion flow. Conclusions: Photometrically and spectroscopically, the 2014-2017 event displays an intermediate behavior between EXors and FUors. The accretion rate ([Ṁ]= 1-3 × 10-7 M⊙/yr), about two orders of magnitude higher than the accretion rate in quiescence, is not significantly different from the accretion rate observed in 2013. The absorption features in the spectra suggest that the system is viewed at a high angle and drives a powerful, non-axisymmetric wind, maybe related to magnetic reconnection. The properties of ASASSN-13db suggest that temperatures lower than those for solar-type stars are needed for modeling accretion in very-low-mass systems. Finally, the rotational modulation during the outburst reveals that accretion-related structures settle after the beginning of the outburst and can be relatively stable and long-lived. Our work also demonstrates the power

  15. From Stars to Superplanets: The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in the Young Cluster IC 348

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    both baryonic dark matter in the Galaxy and, perhaps more importantly, the formation processes governing stars, brown dwarfs, and planets. In the...on the role of physical processes such as fragmentation in the star and planet formation process and the fraction of dark matter in the Galactic halo

  16. Physics of star formation in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, F

    2002-01-01

    Begining with a historical introduction, ""Star Formation: The Early History"", this text then presents two long articles on ""Pre-Main-Sequence Evolution of Stars and Young Clusters"" and ""Observations of Young Stellar Objects"".

  17. Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater Beneath an Occupied Building at the Young-Rainey STAR Center, Pinellas, FL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Joe [Navarro Research and Engineering; Surovchak, Scott [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Legacy Management; Tabor, Charles [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater contamination, consisting of two dissolved-phase plumes originating from chlorinated solvent source areas, in the southeastern portion of the Young- Rainey Star Center (also known as the Pinellas County, Florida, Site) in Largo, Florida, has migrated beyond the property boundary, beneath the roadways, and beneath adjacent properties to the south and east. Groundwater contamination will persist as long as the onsite contaminant source remains. The origin of the contamination appears to be multiple long-term point sources beneath Building 100, a 4.5 ha (11 acre) building that housed manufacturing facilities during US DOE operations at the site. The site is now owned by Pinellas County, and most of the space inside the building is leased to private companies, so DOE chose not to conduct characterization or remediation through the floor of the building, instead choosing to conduct all work from outside the building. Injection of emulsified soybean oil and a microbial culture has been used at other areas of the site to accelerate naturally occurring bacterial processes that degrade groundwater contaminants to harmless compounds, and that same approach was chosen for this task. The technical approach consisted of installing horizontal wells from outside the building footprint, extending through and around the identified subsurface treatment areas, and terminating beneath the building. Two 107 m (350 ft) long wells, two 122 m (400 ft) long wells, and four 137 m (450 ft) long wells have been installed to intersect the inferred source areas and confirmed contaminant plumes beneath the building. DOE then injected emulsified vegetable oil and a microbial culture into the horizontal wells at each of several target areas beneath the building where the highest groundwater contaminant concentrations have been detected. The target areas are the northwest corner of the building between the old drum storage pad locations and monitoring well PIN12-S35B, the vicinity of

  18. On the signatures of companion formation in the spectral energy distributions of Sz54 and Sz59—the young stars with protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhozhay, O. V.

    2017-07-01

    We study spectral energy distributions of two young systems Sz54 and Sz59, that belong to Chameleon II star forming region. The results of the modeling indicate that protoplanetary disks of these systems contain gaps in the dust component. These gaps could be a result of a planetary or brown dwarf companion formation, because the companion would accumulate a disk material, moving along its orbit. In a present work we have determined physical characteristics of the disks. We also discuss possible companion characteristics, based on the geometrical parameters of the gaps.

  19. Interesting star V 627 Cas (=AS 501) is a young object, a Mira variable or a binary symbiotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotilov, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of spectral and photometric observations of the variable star V 627 Cas carried out in optical and infrared range are presented. The combination of all available data shows the following parameters of the star: spectral class corresponds on the average to M4 bearing some features of high-luminocity. In the emission spectrum the most prominent are hydrogen lines. The star shows strong UV and IR excesses, variable linear polarization in the optical range, with the star are also connected maser lines OH and H 2 O. The brightness of V 627 Cas in the photographic region has decreased for at least 50 years on the average by ∼ 0 m .04 per year

  20. A local leaky-box model for the local stellar surface density-gas surface density-gas phase metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Yan, Renbin; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the relation between the stellar surface density, the gas surface density and the gas-phase metallicity of typical disc galaxies in the local Universe with the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, using the star formation rate surface density as an indicator for the gas surface density. We show that these three local parameters form a tight relationship, confirming previous works (e.g. by the PINGS and CALIFA surveys), but with a larger sample. We present a new local leaky-box model, assuming star-formation history and chemical evolution is localized except for outflowing materials. We derive closed-form solutions for the evolution of stellar surface density, gas surface density and gas-phase metallicity, and show that these parameters form a tight relation independent of initial gas density and time. We show that, with canonical values of model parameters, this predicted relation match the observed one well. In addition, we briefly describe a pathway to improving the current semi-analytic models of galaxy formation by incorporating the local leaky-box model in the cosmological context, which can potentially explain simultaneously multiple properties of Milky Way-type disc galaxies, such as the size growth and the global stellar mass-gas metallicity relation.

  1. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). I. A SUBSTELLAR COMPANION TO THE YOUNG M DWARF 1RXS J235133.3+312720

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-07-10

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the young M dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720 as part of a high contrast imaging search for planets around nearby young low-mass stars with Keck-II/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO. The 2.''4 ({approx}120 AU) pair is confirmed to be comoving from two epochs of high-resolution imaging. Follow-up low- and moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of 1RXS J2351+3127 B with IRTF/SpeX and Keck-II/OSIRIS reveals a spectral type of L0{sup +2}{sub -1}. The M2 primary star 1RXS J2351+3127 A exhibits X-ray and UV activity levels comparable to young moving group members with ages of {approx}10-100 Myr. UVW kinematics based the measured radial velocity of the primary and the system's photometric distance (50 {+-} 10 pc) indicate it is likely a member of the {approx}50-150 Myr AB Dor moving group. The near-infrared spectrum of 1RXS J2351+3127 B does not exhibit obvious signs of youth, but its H-band morphology shows subtle hints of intermediate surface gravity. The spectrum is also an excellent match to the {approx}200 Myr M9 brown dwarf LP 944-20. Assuming an age of 50-150 Myr, evolutionary models imply a mass of 32 {+-} 6 M{sub Jup} for the companion, making 1RXS J2351+3127 B the second lowest-mass member of the AB Dor moving group after the L4 companion CD-35 2722 B and one of the few benchmark brown dwarfs known at young ages.

  2. BANYAN. V. A SYSTEMATIC ALL-SKY SURVEY FOR NEW VERY LATE-TYPE LOW-MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-01-10

    We present the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) catalog, consisting of 228 new late-type (M4-L6) candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs) with an expected false-positive rate of ∼13%. This sample includes 79 new candidate young brown dwarfs and 22 planetary-mass objects. These candidates were identified through the first systematic all-sky survey for late-type low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in YMGs. We cross-matched the Two Micron All Sky Survey and AllWISE catalogs outside of the galactic plane to build a sample of 98,970 potential ≥M5 dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and calculated their proper motions with typical precisions of 5-15 mas yr{sup –1}. We selected highly probable candidate members of several YMGs from this sample using the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II). We used the most probable statistical distances inferred from BANYAN II to estimate the spectral type and mass of these candidate YMG members. We used this unique sample to show tentative signs of mass segregation in the AB Doradus moving group and the Tucana-Horologium and Columba associations. The BASS sample has already been successful in identifying several new young brown dwarfs in earlier publications, and will be of great interest in studying the initial mass function of YMGs and for the search of exoplanets by direct imaging; the input sample of potential close-by ≥M5 dwarfs will be useful to study the kinematics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs and search for new proper motion pairs.

  3. Liquid-gas phase transition and isospin fractionation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yongzhong; Liu Jianye; Guo Wenjun

    2004-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in the heavy ion collisions and nuclear matter has been an important topic and got achievements, such as, based on the studies by H.Q. Song et al the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition enhances with increasing the mass of system and reduces as the increase of the neutron proton ratio of system. As authors know that both the liquid-gas phase transition and the isospin fractionation occur in the spinodal instability region at the nuclear density below the normal nuclear density. In particular, these two dynamical processes lead to the separation of nuclear matter into the liquid phase and gas phase. In this case to compare their dynamical behaviors is interested. The authors investigate the dependence of isospin fractionation degree on the mass and neutron proton ratio of system by using the isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The authors found that the degree of isospin fractionation (N/Z) n /(N/Z) imf decreases with increasing the mass of the system. This is just similar to the enhance of the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition T c as the increase of system mass. Because the enhance of T c is not favorable for the liquid-gas transition taking place, which reduces the isospin fractionation process and leads to decrease of (N/Z) n /(N/Z) imf . However the degree of isospin fractionation enhances with increasing the neutron proton ratio of the system. It is just corresponding to the reduce of T c of the liquid-gas phase transition as the increase of the isospin fractionation of the system. Because the reduce of T c enhances the liquid-gas phase transition process and also prompts the isospin fractionation process leading the increase of the isospin fractionation degree. To sum up, there are very similar dynamical behaviors for the degree of isospin fractionation and the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition. So dynamical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition can

  4. Finite size effects in liquid-gas phase transition of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Since the nuclear equation of state has been studied in astrophysical context as an element of neutron star or super-nova theories - a call for an evidence was produced in experimental nuclear physics. Heavy-ion collisions became a tool of study on thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter. A particular interest has been inspired here by critical behavior of nuclear systems, as a phase transition of liquid-gas type. A lot of efforts was put to obtain an experimental evidence of such a phenomenon in heavy-ion collisions. With the use of radioactive beams and high performance identification systems in a near future it will be possible to extend experimental investigation to asymmetric nuclear systems, where neutron-to-proton ratio is far from the stability line. This experimental development needs a corresponding extension of theoretical studies. To obtain a complete theory of the liquid-gas phase transition in small nuclear systems, produced in violent heavy-ion collisions, one should take into account two facts. First, that the nuclear matter forming nuclei is composed of protons and neutrons; this complicates the formalism of phase transitions because one has to deal with two separate, proton and neutron, densities and chemical potentials. The second and more important is that the surface effects are very strong in a system composed of a few hundreds of nucleons. This point is especially difficult to hold, because surface becomes an additional, independent state parameter, depending strongly on the geometrical configuration of the system, and introducing a non-local term in the equation of state. In this presentation we follow the recent calculation by Lee and Mekjian on the finite-size effects in small (A = 10 2 -10 3 ) asymmetric nuclear systems. A zero-range isospin-dependent Skyrme force is used to obtain a density and isospin dependent potential. The potential is then completed by additional terms giving contributions from surface and Coulomb

  5. SPECTRAL TYPING OF LATE-TYPE STELLAR COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS FROM LOW-DISPERSION NEAR-INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD UNIT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Burruss, Rick; Ligon, E. Robert; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Shao, Michael [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Rice, Emily L.; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Crepp, Justin R.; Dekany, Richard G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hinkley, Sasha [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); King, David; Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Metchev, Stanimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi, E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2012-07-15

    We used the Project 1640 near-infrared coronagraph and integral field spectrograph to observe 19 young solar-type stars. Five of these stars are known binary stars and we detected the late-type secondaries and were able to measure their JH spectra with a resolution of R {approx} 30. The reduced, extracted, and calibrated spectra were compared to template spectra from the IRTF spectral library. With this comparison, we test the accuracy and consistency of spectral-type determination with the low-resolution near-infrared spectra from P1640. Additionally, we determine effective temperature and surface gravity of the companions by fitting synthetic spectra calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. We also present several new epochs of astrometry of each of the systems. Together, these data increase our knowledge and understanding of the stellar make up of these systems. In addition to the astronomical results, the analysis presented helps validate the Project 1640 data reduction and spectral extraction processes and the utility of low-resolution, near-infrared spectra for characterizing late-type companions in multiple systems.

  6. GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. II. THE GRAND-DESIGN GALAXY M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gas (Σ gas ), molecular gas (Σ H 2 ), neutral gas (Σ H I ), and star formation rate (Σ SFR ) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.4±0.2 , whereM 3rd is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation withΣ gas ,Σ H2 , orΣ SFR . For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.6±0.1 and M 3rd ∝Σ gas 0.5±0.2 ; there is no correlation with either Σ H 2 orΣ SFR . The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M 3rd ∝Σ gas 3.8±0.3 , M 3rd ∝Σ H 2 1.2±0.1 , and M 3rd ∝Σ SFR 0.9±0.1 . For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet traveled too far from their birth sites, the poor resolution of the radio data compared to the physical sizes of the clusters results in measuredΣ that are likely quite diluted compared to the actual densities relevant for the formation of the clusters.

  7. The gas phase structure of α -pinene, a main biogenic volatile organic compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, Elias M.; Avilés Moreno, Juan Ramón; Huet, Thérèse R.

    2017-12-01

    The gas phase structure of the bicyclic atmospheric aerosol precursor α-pinene was investigated employing a combination of quantum chemical calculation and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy coupled to a supersonic jet expansion. The very weak rotational spectra of the parent species and all singly substituted 13C in natural abundance have been identified, from 2 to 20 GHz, and fitted to Watson's Hamiltonian model. The rotational constants were used together with geometrical parameters from density functional theory and ab initio calculations to determine the rs, r0, and rm(1 ) structures of the skeleton, without any structural assumption in the fit concerning the heavy atoms. The double C=C bond was found to belong to a quasiplanar skeleton structure containing 6 carbon atoms. Comparison with solid phase structure is reported. The significant differences of α-pinene in gas phase and other gas phase bicyclic monoterpene structures (β-pinene, nopinone, myrtenal, and bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane) are discussed.

  8. Photoresponse of the protonated Schiff-base retinal chromophore in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toker, Jonathan; Rahbek, Dennis Bo; Kiefer, H V

    2013-01-01

    The fragmentation, initiated by photoexcitation as well as collisionally-induced excitation, of several retinal chromophores was studied in the gas phase. The chromophore in the protonated Schiff-base form (RPSB), essential for mammalian vision, shows a remarkably selective photoresponse. The sel......The fragmentation, initiated by photoexcitation as well as collisionally-induced excitation, of several retinal chromophores was studied in the gas phase. The chromophore in the protonated Schiff-base form (RPSB), essential for mammalian vision, shows a remarkably selective photoresponse...... modifications of the chromophore. We propose that isomerizations play an important role in the photoresponse of gas-phase retinal chromophores and guide internal conversion through conical intersections. The role of protein interactions is then to control the specificity of the photoisomerization in the primary...

  9. Radical Reactions in the Gas Phase: Recent Development and Application in Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent literature describing the use of gas phase radical reactions for structural characterization of complex biomolecules other than peptides. Specifically, chemical derivatization, in-source chemical reaction, and gas phase ion/ion reactions have been demonstrated as effective ways to generate radical precursor ions that yield structural informative fragments complementary to those from conventional collision-induced dissociation (CID. Radical driven dissociation has been applied to a variety of biomolecules including peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phospholipids. The majority of the molecules discussed in this review see limited fragmentation from conventional CID, and the gas phase radical reactions open up completely new dissociation channels for these molecules and therefore yield high fidelity confirmation of the structures of the target molecules. Due to the extensively studied peptide fragmentation, this review focuses only on nonpeptide biomolecules such as nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phospholipids.

  10. Molecular structure determination of cyclooctane by Ab Initio and electron diffraction methods in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Wagner B. de

    2000-01-01

    The determination of the molecular structure of molecules is of fundamental importance in chemistry. X-rays and electron diffraction methods constitute in important tools for the elucidation of the molecular structure of systems in the solid state and gas phase, respectively. The use of quantum mechanical molecular orbital ab initio methods offer an alternative for conformational analysis studies. Comparison between theoretical results and those obtained experimentally in the gas phase can make a significant contribution for an unambiguous determination of the geometrical parameters. In this article the determination for an unambiguous determination of the geometrical parameters. In this article the determination of the molecular structure of the cyclooctane molecule by electron diffraction in the gas phase an initio calculations will be addressed, providing an example of a comparative analysis of theoretical and experimental predictions. (author)

  11. Neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: introduction (resume of stellar evolution, gross characteristics of neutron stars); pulsars (pulsar characteristics, pulsars as neutron stars); neutron star temperatures (neutron star cooling, superfluidity and superconductivity in neutron stars); the exterior of neutron stars (the magnetosphere, the neutron star 'atmosphere', pulses); neutron star structure; neutron star equations of state. (U.K.)

  12. A gas-phase reactor powered by solar energy and ethanol for H2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampelli, Claudio; Genovese, Chiara; Passalacqua, Rosalba; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    In the view of H 2 as the future energy vector, we presented here the development of a homemade photo-reactor working in gas phase and easily interfacing with fuel cell devices, for H 2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation. The process generates acetaldehyde as the main co-product, which is more economically advantageous with respect to the low valuable CO 2 produced in the alternative pathway of ethanol photoreforming. The materials adopted as photocatalysts are based on TiO 2 substrates but properly modified with noble (Au) and not-noble (Cu) metals to enhance light harvesting in the visible region. The samples were characterized by BET surface area analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV–visible Diffusive Reflectance Spectroscopy, and finally tested in our homemade photo-reactor by simulated solar irradiation. We discussed about the benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a conventional slurry photo-reactor (minimization of scattering phenomena, no metal leaching, easy product recovery, etc.). Results showed that high H 2 productivity can be obtained in gas phase conditions, also irradiating titania photocatalysts doped with not-noble metals. - Highlights: • A gas-phase photoreactor for H 2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation was developed. • The photocatalytic behaviours of Au and Cu metal-doped TiO 2 thin layers are compared. • Benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a slurry reactor are presented. • Gas phase conditions and use of not-noble metals are the best economic solution

  13. Research in Korea on Gas Phase Synthesis and Control of Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mansoo

    2001-01-01

    Research activity into the gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles has witnessed rapid growth on a worldwide basis, which is also reflected by Korean research efforts. Nanoparticle research is inherently a multi-disciplinary activity involving both science and engineering. In this paper, the recent studies undertaken in Korea on the gas phase synthesis and control of nanoparticles are reviewed. Studies on the synthesis of various kinds of nanoparticles are first discussed with a focus on the different types of reactors used. Recent experimental and theoretical studies and newly developed methods of measuring and modeling nanoparticle growth are also reviewed

  14. FORTRAN program for calculating liquid-phase and gas-phase thermal diffusion column coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program (COLCO) was developed for calculating thermal diffusion column coefficients from theory. The program, which is written in FORTRAN IV, can be used for both liquid-phase and gas-phase thermal diffusion columns. Column coefficients for the gas phase can be based on gas properties calculated from kinetic theory using tables of omega integrals or on tables of compiled physical properties as functions of temperature. Column coefficients for the liquid phase can be based on compiled physical property tables. Program listings, test data, sample output, and users manual are supplied for appendices

  15. Direct gas-phase epoxidation of propylene to propylene oxide through radical reactions: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilkaya, Ali Can; Fellah, Mehmet Ferdi; Onal, Isik

    2010-03-01

    The gas-phase radical chain reactions which utilize O 2 as the oxidant to produce propylene oxide (PO) are investigated through theoretical calculations. The transition states and energy profiles were obtained for each path. The rate constants were also calculated. The energetics for the competing pathways indicate that PO can be formed selectively due to its relatively low activation barrier (9.3 kcal/mol) which is in a good agreement with the experimental value (11 kcal/mol) of gas-phase propylene epoxidation. The formation of the acrolein and combustion products have relatively high activation barriers and are not favored. These results also support the recent experimental findings.

  16. Acrolein Production by Gas-Phase Glycerol Dehydration Using PO₄/Nb₂O5 Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Am; Ryoo, HeeKyoung; Ma, Byung Chol; Kim, Youngchul

    2018-02-01

    In this study, modified niobium oxide were prepared to study the addictive effects on the catalytic performance for gas-phase glycerol dehydration. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD, NH3-TPD, FT-IR. The amount of phosphoric acid was up to 50 wt% in niobium. As a result, the highest glycerol conversion was achieved over 20 wt% PO4/Nb2O5. It indicates that the optimal amount of phosphoric acid leads the catalyst to have appropriate acidity which is an important factor for gas-phase glycerol dehydration.

  17. Laser spectroscopy of a halocarbocation in the gas phase: CH2I+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chong; Mukarakate, Calvin; Reid, Scott A

    2006-07-26

    We report the first gas-phase observation of the electronic spectrum of a simple halocarbocation, CH2I+. The ion was generated rotationally cold (Trot approximately 20 K) using pulsed discharge methods and was detected via laser spectroscopy. The identity of the spectral carrier was confirmed by modeling the rotational contour observed in the excitation spectra and by comparison of ground state vibrational frequencies determined by single vibronic level emission spectroscopy with Density Functional Theory (DFT) predictions. The transition was assigned as 3A1 gas phase should open new avenues for study of the structure and reactivity of these important ions.

  18. Gas phase THz spectroscopy of toxic agent simulant compounds using the AILES synchrotron beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, A.; Smirnova, I.; Bocquet, R.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Yang, C.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.

    2010-02-01

    A new study is currently underway aiming at recording and assigning the gas phase rovibrational spectra of several organophosphorus and organosulphur compounds in the THz frequency domain. Thanks to the exceptional properties of flux, brilliance and spectral range of the AILES beamline coupled to the FTIR spectrometer, the gas phase vibrational spectra of low volatility organophosphorous compounds have been recorded across the entire THz frequency range. High resolution FTIR spectroscopy was used to record the pure rotational and the low-frequency rovibrational spectrum of DMSO. A comparison between the spectra measured with the AILES beamline and the spectra obtained with optoelectronic THz sources is possible.

  19. Studies of gas phase ion/molecule reactions by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleingeld, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    An important field in which Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance has useful applications is that of gas phase ion chemistry, the subject of this thesis. First, the general picture of ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase is discussed. Next, some positive ion-molecule reactions are described, whereas the remaining chapters deal with negative ion-molecule reactions. Most of these studies have been performed using the FT-ICR method. Reactions involving H 3 O - and NH 4 - ions are described whereas the other chapters deal with larger organic complexes. (Auth.)

  20. Fischer Indole Synthesis in the Gas Phase, the Solution Phase, and at the Electrospray Droplet Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ryan M; Ayrton, Stephen T; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-07-01

    Previous reports have shown that reactions occurring in the microdroplets formed during electrospray ionization can, under the right conditions, exhibit significantly greater rates than the corresponding bulk solution-phase reactions. The observed acceleration under electrospray ionization could result from a solution-phase, a gas-phase, or an interfacial reaction. This study shows that a gas-phase ion/molecule (or ion/ion) reaction is not responsible for the observed rate enhancement in the particular case of the Fischer indole synthesis. The results show that the accelerated reaction proceeds in the microdroplets, and evidence is provided that an interfacial process is involved. Graphical Abstract GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT TEXT HERE] -->.

  1. Optical processes in the performance and recovery of gas-phase switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundersen, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper several optical processes that may be used to affect gas-phase switch performance and operation are discussed, and approaches using a laser to increase recovery rates of switches are presented. In the latter the laser is used during the recovery phase rather than the conductive or closure phase. This papper suggests that it should be possible to use a low-power laser (e.g., one that is technologically feasible to use as part of a switch) to assist in opening the switch by quenching excited atomic and/or molecular species. The application of laser-induced energy extraction to gas-phase switches is also discussed

  2. The electron spectrum of UF6 recorded in the gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mârtensson, N.; Malmquist, P.-Å.; Svensson, S.; Johansson, B.

    1984-06-01

    Gas phase core and valence electron spectra from UF6, excited by AlKα monochromatized x rays, in the binding energy range 0-1000 eV are presented. It is shown that the AlKα excited valence electron spectrum can be used to reassign the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) in UF6. Many-body effects on the core levels are discussed and core level lifetimes are determined. The shift between solid phase and gas phase electron binding energies for core lines is used to discuss the U5 f population in UF6.

  3. The K2 M67 Study: A Curiously Young Star in an Eclipsing Binary in an Old Open Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Pollack, Maxwell L.; Latham, David W.; Brown, Timothy M.; Esselstein, Rebecca; Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Vanderburg, Andrew; Stello, Dennis; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Tayar, Jamie; Orosz, Jerome A.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Libralato, Mattia; Malavolta, Luca; Nardiello, Domenico

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of a slightly eccentric (e = 0.05), partially eclipsing, long-period (P = 69.73 days) main-sequence binary system (WOCS 12009, Sanders 1247) in the benchmark old open cluster M67. Using Kepler K2 and ground-based photometry, along with a large set of new and reanalyzed spectra, we derived highly precise masses (1.111 ± 0.015 and 0.748 ± 0.005 M ⊙) and radii (1.071 ± 0.008 ± 0.003 and 0.713 ± 0.019 ± 0.026 R ⊙, with statistical and systematic error estimates) for the stars. The radius of the secondary star is in agreement with theory. The primary, however, is approximately 15% smaller than reasonable isochrones for the cluster predict. Our best explanation is that the primary star was produced from the merger of two stars, as this can also account for the nondetection of photospheric lithium and its higher temperature relative to other cluster main-sequence stars at the same V magnitude. To understand the dynamical characteristics (low measured rotational line broadening of the primary star and low eccentricity of the current binary orbit), we believe that the most probable (but not the only) explanation is the tidal evolution of a close binary within a primordial triple system (possibly after a period of Kozai–Lidov oscillations), leading to merger approximately 1 Gyr ago. This star appears to be a future blue straggler that is being revealed as the cluster ages and the most massive main-sequence stars die out. Based on observations made at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5 m Tillinghast telescope, located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins in Arizona; the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Italian Telescopio Nazionale

  4. Planet Formation in Action? - Astronomers may have found the first object clearing its path in the natal disc surrounding a young star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope an international team of astronomers has been able to study the short-lived disc of material around a young star that is in the early stages of making a planetary system. For the first time a smaller companion could be detected that may be the cause of the large gap found in the disc. Future observations will determine whether this companion is a planet or a brown dwarf. Planets form from the discs of material around young stars, but the transition from dust disc to planetary system is rapid and few objects are caught during this phase [1]. One such object is T Chamaeleontis (T Cha), a faint star in the small southern constellation of Chamaeleon that is comparable to the Sun, but very near the beginning of its life [2]. T Cha lies about 350 light-years from the Earth and is only about seven million years old. Up to now no forming planets have been found in these transitional discs, although planets in more mature discs have been seen before (eso0842, heic0821). "Earlier studies had shown that T Cha was an excellent target for studying how planetary systems form," notes Johan Olofsson (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany), one of the lead authors of two papers in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics that describe the new work. "But this star is quite distant and the full power of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) was needed to resolve very fine details and see what is going on in the dust disc." The astronomers first observed T Cha using the AMBER instrument and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) [3]. They found that some of the disc material formed a narrow dusty ring only about 20 million kilometres from the star. Beyond this inner disc, they found a region devoid of dust with the outer part of the disc stretching out into regions beyond about 1.1 billion kilometres from the star. Nuria Huélamo (Centro de Astrobiología, ESAC, Spain), the lead author of the second paper takes up the story: "For us the

  5. Do medium heavy fragments give evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trockel, R.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Rabe, H.J.; Sann, H.; Stelzer, H.; Wada, R.; Brummund, N.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Santo, R.; Pelte, D.; Pochodzalla, J.; Eckert, E.

    1985-09-01

    Light and medium heavy fragments have been measured in light ion induced reactions at intermediate energies. The energy spectra have been parametrized with moving source fits. The resulting temperatures and yields do not confirm the expectations of a liquid-gas phase transition. (orig.)

  6. Electron Attachment to the Gas Phase DNA Bases Cytosine and Thymine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Denifl, S.; Ptasiňska, S.; Probst, M.; Hrušák, Jan; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 31 (2004), s. 6562-6569 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : gas-phase * cytosine * thymine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.639, year: 2004

  7. How Pt nanoparticles affect TiO2-induced gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.D.; Amrollahi Buky, Rezvaneh; Mul, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Pt nanoparticles on the gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation activity of TiO2 is shown to be largely dependent on the molecular functionality of the substrate. We demonstrate that Pt nanoparticles decrease rates in photocatalytic oxidation of propane, whereas a strong beneficial effect

  8. A gas phase work station for the Brazilian National Synchrotron Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, G.G.B. de

    1988-01-01

    A gas phase work station which has been proposed to the Brazilian National Synchrotron Laboratory is described with emphasis on the broad spectrum of physical and chemical processes which can be studied with the incorporated instrumentation. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  9. Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in vehicle exhaust: A method for collection and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigl, W.O.; Chladek, E.

    1990-01-01

    Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted at low levels in vehicle exhaust compared to other hydrocarbon emissions. A method has been developed involving the trapping of gas phase emissions on Tenax, a macrorecticular porous polymer, followed by thermal desorption onto a capillary gas chromatography column. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the chemical analysis. A detection limit of 0.05 ng was achieved for several gas-phase PAH. This high sensitivity enables the speciation and quantitation of gas-phase PAH collected from a dilution tube during standard driving (test) cycles. The method was demonstrated for the analysis of 9 PAH in the exhaust from a 1987 vehicle (with and without catalyst) during the hot start transient phase of the EPA urban dynamometer driving schedule. The PAH measured include naphthalene, 2-methyl- and 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The four most abundant PAH observed are naphthalene, 2-methyl and 1-methylnaphthalene, and biphenyl, in that order

  10. C-terminal peptide extension via gas-phase ion/ion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhou; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of peptide bonds is of great importance from both a biological standpoint and in routine organic synthesis. Recent work from our group demonstrated the synthesis of peptides in the gas-phase via ion/ion reactions with sulfo-NHS reagents, which resulted in conjugation of individual amino acids or small peptides to the N-terminus of an existing ‘anchor’ peptide. Here, we demonstrate a complementary approach resulting in the C-terminal extension of peptides. Individual amino acids or short peptides can be prepared as reagents by incorporating gas phase-labile protecting groups to the reactive C-terminus and then converting the N-terminal amino groups to the active ketenimine reagent. Gas-phase ion/ion reactions between the anionic reagents and doubly protonated “anchor” peptide cations results in extension of the “anchor” peptide with new amide bond formation at the C-terminus. We have demonstrated that ion/ion reactions can be used as a fast, controlled, and efficient means for C-terminal peptide extension in the gas phase. PMID:26640400

  11. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELI ECO Logic International, Inc.'s Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) is specifically designed for use with Eco Logic's Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Process. The technology uses an externally heated bath of molten tin in a hydrogen atmosphere to desorb hazardous organic compounds fro...

  12. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION - ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patented Eco Logic Process employs a gas-phase reduction reaction of hydrogen with organic and chlorinated organic compounds at elevated temperatures to convert aqueous and oily hazardous contaminants into a hydrocarbon-rich gas product. After passing through a scrubber, the ...

  13. Structure Elucidation of Dimethylformamide-Solvated Alkylzinc Cations in the Gas Phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreiocker, F.; Oomens, J.; Meijer, Ajhm; Pickup, B. T.; Jackson, R. F. W.; Schafer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Organozinc iodides, useful for the synthesis of nonproteinogenic amino acids, are investigated in the gas phase by a combination of electrospray (ESI)-MS/MS, accurate ion mass measurements, and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy employing a free electron laser. ESI allowed the

  14. Gas-phase infrared spectrum of the anionic GFP-chromophore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almasian, M.; Grzetic, J.; G. Berden,; Bakker, B.; Buma, W. J.; Oomens, J.

    2012-01-01

    The gas-phase IR spectrum of the anionic chromophore of the green fluorescent protein (p-hydroxy-benzylidene-2,3-dimethylimidazolidinone, HBDI) is recorded in the 800–1800 cm−1 frequency range using the free electron laser FELIX in combination with an electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier

  15. Structure elucidation of dimethylformamide-solvated alkylzinc cations in the gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreiocker, F.; Oomens, J.; Meijer, A.J.H.M.; Pickup, B.T.; Jackson, R.F.W.; Schäfer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Organozinc iodides, useful for the synthesis of nonproteinogenic amino acids, are investigated in the gas phase by a combination of electrospray (ESI)-MS/MS, accurate ion mass measurements, and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy employing a free electron laser. ESI allowed the

  16. Gas phase hydrogen peroxide production in atmospheric pressure glow discharges operating in He - H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasko, C.A.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Bruggeman, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The gas phase production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a RF atmospheric pressure glow discharge with helium and water vapour has been investigated as a function of the gas flow. It is shown that the production of H2O2 is through the recombination of two OH radicals in a three body collision and the

  17. Highly Selective Continuous Gas-Phase Methoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology was applied for the first time to the Pd-catalyzed continuous, gas-phase methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to selectively produce methyl propanoate (MP) in high yields. The influence of catalyst and reaction parameters such as, for example, ionic liquid...

  18. Gas-phase salt bridge interactions between glutamic acid and arginine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeqx, S.; Oomens, J.; Rijs, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The gas-phase side chain-side chain (SC-SC) interaction and possible proton transfer between glutamic acid (Glu) and arginine (Arg) residues are studied under low-temperature conditions in an overall neutral peptide. Conformation-specific IR spectra, obtained with the free electron laser FELIX, in

  19. Humidity independent mass spectrometry for gas phase chemical analysis via ambient proton transfer reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Huang, Guangming

    2015-03-31

    In this work, a humidity independent mass spectrometric method was developed for rapid analysis of gas phase chemicals. This method is based upon ambient proton transfer reaction between gas phase chemicals and charged water droplets, in a reaction chamber with nearly saturate humidity under atmospheric pressure. The humidity independent nature enables direct and rapid analysis of raw gas phase samples, avoiding time- and sample-consuming sample pretreatments in conventional mass spectrometry methods to control sample humidity. Acetone, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene were used to evaluate the analytical performance of present method. The limits of detection for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene are in the range of ∼0.1 to ∼0.3 ppbV; that of benzene is well below the present European Union permissible exposure limit for benzene vapor (5 μg m(-3), ∼1.44 ppbV), with linear ranges of approximately two orders of magnitude. The majority of the homemade device contains a stainless steel tube as reaction chamber and an ultrasonic humidifier as the source of charged water droplets, which makes this cheap device easy to assemble and facile to operate. In addition, potential application of this method was illustrated by the real time identification of raw gas phase chemicals released from plants at different physiological stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ab initio study of gas phase and water-assisted tautomerization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Water-assisted tautomerization in maleimide and formamide showed that difference in energy barrier reduces to 2⋅83 kcal/mol from 10⋅41 kcal/mol (in gas phase) at B3LYP level, which resulted that maleimide readily undergoes tautomerization in water molecule. Keywords. Ab Initio calculations; maleimide; formamide; ...

  1. Continuous gas-phase hydroformylation of 1-butene using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haumann, Marco; Dentler, Katharina; Joni, Joni

    2007-01-01

    The concept of supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysis has been extended to 1-butene hydroformylation. A rhodium-sulfoxantphos complex was dissolved in [BMIM][n-C8H17OSO3] and this solution was highly dispersed on silica. Continuous gas-phase experiments in a fixed-bed reactor revealed...

  2. Gas-phase UF6 enrichment monitor for enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, R.B.; Tape, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    An in-line enrichment monitor is being developed to provide real-time enrichment data for the gas-phase UF 6 feed stream of an enrichment plant. The nondestructive gamma-ray assay method can be used to determine the enrichment of natural UF 6 with a relative precision of better than 1% for a wide range of pressures

  3. Mid-IR spectra of different conformers of phenylalanine in the gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Helden, G.; Compagnon, I.; Blom, M. N.; Frankowski, M.; Erlekam, U.; Oomens, J.; Brauer, B.; Gerber, R. B.; Meijer, G.

    2008-01-01

    The experimental mid- and far-IR spectra of six conformers of phenylalanine in the gas phase are presented. The experimental spectra are compared to spectra calculated at the B3LYP and at the MP2 level. The differences between B3LYP and MP2 IR spectra are found to be small. The agreement between

  4. Operando Spectroscopy of the Gas-Phase Aldol Condensation of Propanal over Solid Base Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-giménez, Ana M.; Ruiz-martínez, Javier; Puértolas, Begoña; Pérez-ramírez, Javier; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2017-01-01

    The gas-phase aldol condensation of propanal, taken as model for the aldehyde components in bio-oils, has been studied with a combined operando set-up allowing to perform FT-IR & UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with on-line mass spectrometry (MS). The selected solid base catalysts, a

  5. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol by Nanoparticle Vanadia/Anatase Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The gas-phase oxidation of aqueous ethanol with dioxygen has been examined with a new nanoparticle V2O5/TiO2 catalyst. Product selectivity could to a large extent be controlled by small alterations of reaction parameters, allowing production of acetaldehyde at a selectivity higher than 90%, near...

  6. Study of Iodine Behavior in the Gas Phase during a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hanchul; Cho, Yeonghun; Ryu, Myunghyun

    2014-01-01

    Among the iodine species, the organic iodides produced from the reaction between iodine and organics such as paint, are not easily trapped by the filters during the containment venting following a severe accident. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has been studying this issue, joining international research programs such as ISTP-EPICUR, OECDBIP and OECD-STEM. In the course of this study, a simple iodine model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) has been developed (Oh et al., 2011), based on the IMOD methodology, and other previous studies. This paper deals with our recent activities on this study, including the development of the model for the iodine reactions in gas phase. Iodine reactions in gas phase were modeled and added to the RAIM code, taking into account several relevant reactions such as formation of ARP, iodine oxide, and organic iodides in gas phase. RAIM was then applied to analyze the S2-6-5-2 test for which iodine-loaded coupons were tested in gas phase. The analysis results show a reasonable estimation of volatile iodine concentration with the desorption rate constant of about 10 -6 s -1 , while those of the other iodine species overestimated for the whole period of the test. It reveals the need to determine appropriate values for the rate constants for formation of iodine oxides and organic iodides

  7. Biofilm structure and mass transfer in a gas phase trickle-bed biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Suidan, M T; Alonso, C; Yu, T; Kim, B J; Kim, B R

    2001-01-01

    Mass transport phenomena occurring in the biofilms of gas phase trickle-bed biofilters are investigated in this study. The effect of biofilm structure on mass transfer mechanisms is examined using experimental observation from the operating of biofilters, microelectrode techniques and microscopic examination. Since the biofilms of biofilters used for waste gas treatment are not completely saturated with water, there is not a distinguishable liquid layer outside the biofilm. Results suggest that due to this characteristic, gas phase substrates (such as oxygen or volatile organic compounds) may not be limited by the aqueous phase because transport of the compound into the biofilm can occur directly through non-wetted areas. On the other hand, for substrates that are present only in the liquid phase, such as nitrate, the mass transfer limitation is more serious because of the limited liquid supply. Microscopic observations show that a layered structure with void spaces exists within the biofilm. Oxygen concentration distributions along the depth of the biofilms are examined using an oxygen microelectrode. Results indicate that there are some high dissolved oxygen zones inside the biofilm, which suggests the existence of passages for oxygen transfer into the deeper sections of the biofilm in a gas phase trickle-bed biofilter. Both the low gas-liquid mass transfer resistance and the resulting internal structure contribute to the high oxygen penetration within the biofilms in gas phase trickle-bed biofilters.

  8. Multiple Multidentate Halogen Bonding in Solution, in the Solid State, and in the (Calculated) Gas Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Stefan H; Schindler, Severin; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Keller, Sandro; Huber, Stefan M

    2015-09-21

    The binding properties of neutral halogen-bond donors (XB donors) bearing two multidentate Lewis acidic motifs toward halides were investigated. Employing polyfluorinated and polyiodinated terphenyl and quaterphenyl derivatives as anion receptors, we obtained X-ray crystallographic data of the adducts of three structurally related XB donors with tetraalkylammonium chloride, bromide, and iodide. The stability of these XB complexes in solution was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and the results were compared to X-ray analyses as well as to calculated binding patterns in the gas phase. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the gas-phase complexes indicated that the experimentally observed distortion of the XB donors during multiple multidentate binding can be reproduced in 1:1 complexes with halides, whereas adducts with two halides show a symmetric binding pattern in the gas phase that is markedly different from the solid state structures. Overall, this study demonstrates the limitations in the transferability of binding data between solid state, solution, and gas phase in the study of complex multidentate XB donors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Gas-phase synthesis of magnesium nanoparticles : A high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B.J.; Palasantzas, G.; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium nanoparticles with size above 10 nm, prepared by gas-phase syntheses, were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The dominant particle shape is a hexagonal prism terminated by Mg(0002) and Mg{1010} facets. Oxidation of Mg yields a MgO shell (similar to 3 nm

  10. Supported Rh-phosphine complex catalysts for continuous gas-phase decarbonylation of aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malcho, Phillip; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous silica supported rhodium-phosphine complex catalysts are employed for the first time in the catalytic decarbonylation of aldehydes in continuous gas-phase. The reaction protocol is exemplified for the decarbonylation of p-tolualdehyde to toluene and further extended to other aromatic...

  11. Hydrocarbon fuels from gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng; Roberts, William L.; Stikeleather, Larry F.

    2012-01-01

    Gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) from canola oil has beeninvestigated in two fix-bed reactors by changing reaction parameters such as temperatures,FFA feed rates, and H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. FFA, which contains mostly C

  12. Gas phase polymerization of propylene. Reaction kinetics and molecular weight distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, G.B.; Weickert, G.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2001-01-01

    Gas-phase polymerizations have been executed at different temperatures, pressures, and hydrogen concentrations using Me2Si[Ind]2ZrCl2 / methylaluminoxane / SiO2(Pennsylvania Quarts) as a catalyst. The reaction rate curves have been described by a kinetic model, which takes into account the initially

  13. Why do disk galaxies present a common gas-phase metallicity gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.; Zhang, Shuhui; Shen, Shiyin; Yin, Jun; Hou, Jinliang

    2017-03-01

    CALIFA data show that isolated disk galaxies present a common gas-phase metallicity gradient, with a characteristic slope of -0.1dex/re between 0.3 and 2 disk effective radius re (Sanchez et al. 2014). Here we construct a simple model to investigate which processes regulate the formation and evolution.

  14. Gas-phase photoemission with soft x-rays: cross sections and angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.; Kobrin, P.H.; Truesdale, C.M.; Lindle, D.W.; Ferrett, T.A.; Heimann, P.A.; Becker, U.; Kerkhoff, H.G.; Southworth, S.H.

    1983-09-01

    A summary is presented of typical gas-phase photoemission studies based on synchrotron radiation in the 50-5000 eV range, using beam lines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Three topics are addressed: atomic inner-shell photoelectron cross sections and asymmetries, correlation peaks in rare gases, and core-level shape resonances in molecules

  15. Imaging Molecular Structure through Femtosecond Photoelectron Diffraction on Aligned and Oriented Gas-Phase Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Rebecca; Rouzee, Arnaud; Adolph, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an account of our progress towards performing femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron diffraction on gas-phase molecules in a pump-probe setup combining optical lasers and an X-ray Free-Electron Laser. We present results of two experiments aimed at measuring photoelectron angular...

  16. From Stars to Superplanets: The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in the Young Cluster IC 348

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najita, Joan R; Tiede, Glenn P; Carr, John S

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the low-mass population of the young cluster IC 348 down to the deuterium-burning limit, a fiducial boundary between brown dwarf and planetary mass objects, using a new and innovative...

  17. Pinellas County, Florida, Site Environmental Restoration Project Sitewide Environmental Monitoring Semiannual Progress Report for the Young - Rainey STAR Center June Through November 2016, January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovchak, Scott [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Daniel, Joe [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Young - Rainey STAR Center (Science, Technology, and Research Center) at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site is a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility constructed in the mid-1950s. The 96-acre STAR Center is located in Largo, Florida, and lies in the northeast quarter of Section 13, Township 30 South, Range 15 East (Figure 1). While it was owned by DOE, the purpose of the site was to develop and manufacture components for the nation’s nuclear weapons program. In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Assessment (EPA 1988) at the site to gather information on potential releases of hazardous materials. In February of 1990, EPA issued a Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments permit to DOE, requiring DOE to investigate and perform remediation activities in those areas designated as solid-waste management units (SWMUs) contaminated by hazardous materials resulting from DOE operations. A total of 17 SWMUs were identified and investigated at the STAR Center. By 1997, 13 of the 17 SWMUs had been remediated or approved for no further action. More recently, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) executed Conditional Site Rehabilitation Completion Orders for the Northeast Site and the Wastewater Neutralization Area on July 27, 2016, stating that no further action is required for those SWMUs. The Building 100 Area (a combination of the Old Drum Storage Site and the Building 100-Industrial Drain Leaks SWMUs) comprises the only two active SWMUs at the STAR Center (Figure 2). This document serves as the semiannual progress report for the SWMUs by providing the results of recent monitoring activities and a summary of ongoing and projected work. The STAR Center is owned by the Pinellas County Industrial Development Authority, but DOE is responsible for remediation activities at the site. Additional background information for the site is contained in the Long-Term Surveillance

  18. Diffusion Monte Carlo simulations of gas phase and adsorbed D2-(H2)n clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto, E.; Mella, M.

    2018-03-01

    We have computed ground state energies and analyzed radial distributions for several gas phase and adsorbed D2(H2)n and HD(H2)n clusters. An external model potential designed to mimic ionic adsorption sites inside porous materials is used [M. Mella and E. Curotto, J. Phys. Chem. A 121, 5005 (2017)]. The isotopic substitution lowers the ground state energies by the expected amount based on the mass differences when these are compared with the energies of the pure clusters in the gas phase. A similar impact is found for adsorbed aggregates. The dissociation energy of D2 from the adsorbed clusters is always much higher than that of H2 from both pure and doped aggregates. Radial distributions of D2 and H2 are compared for both the gas phase and adsorbed species. For the gas phase clusters, two types of hydrogen-hydrogen interactions are considered: one based on the assumption that rotations and translations are adiabatically decoupled and the other based on nonisotropic four-dimensional potential. In the gas phase clusters of sufficiently large size, we find the heavier isotopomer more likely to be near the center of mass. However, there is a considerable overlap among the radial distributions of the two species. For the adsorbed clusters, we invariably find the heavy isotope located closer to the attractive interaction source than H2, and at the periphery of the aggregate, H2 molecules being substantially excluded from the interaction with the source. This finding rationalizes the dissociation energy results. For D2-(H2)n clusters with n ≥12 , such preference leads to the desorption of D2 from the aggregate, a phenomenon driven by the minimization of the total energy that can be obtained by reducing the confinement of (H2)12. The same happens for (H2)13, indicating that such an effect may be quite general and impact on the absorption of quantum species inside porous materials.

  19. The Stability of CI02 as a Product of Gas Phase Decontamination Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    The gas phase decontamination project is investigating the use of chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to produce uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) gas. The potential existence of chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) during gas phase decontamination with ClF 3 has been the subject of recent safety discussions. Some of the laboratory data collected during feasibility studies of the gas phase process has been evaluated for the presence of ClO 2 in the product gas stream. The preliminary evidence to date can be summarized as follows: (1) ClO 2 was not detected in the flow loop in the absence of ClF 3 ; (2) ClO 2 was not detected in the static reactors in the absence of both ClF 3 and ClF; and (3) ClO 2 was detected in a static reactor in the absence of all fluorinating gases. The experimental evidence suggests that ClO 2 will not exist in the presence of ClF 3 , ClF, or UF 6 . The data analyzed to date is insufficient to determine the stability of ClO 2 in the presence of ClO 2 F. Thermodynamic calculations of the ClF 3 + H 2 O system support the experimental evidence, and suggest that ClO 2 will not exist in the presence of ClO 2 F. Additional experimental efforts are needed to provide a better understanding of the gas phase ClF 3 treatments and the product gases. However, preliminary evidence to date suggests that ClO 2 should not be present as a product during the normal operations of the gas phase decontamination project

  20. The Stability of CI02 as a Product of Gas Phase Decontamination Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Simmons

    1994-09-01

    The gas phase decontamination project is investigating the use of chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to produce uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) gas. The potential existence of chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) during gas phase decontamination with ClF{sub 3} has been the subject of recent safety discussions. Some of the laboratory data collected during feasibility studies of the gas phase process has been evaluated for the presence of ClO{sub 2} in the product gas stream. The preliminary evidence to date can be summarized as follows: (1) ClO{sub 2} was not detected in the flow loop in the absence of ClF{sub 3}; (2) ClO{sub 2} was not detected in the static reactors in the absence of both ClF{sub 3} and ClF; and (3) ClO{sub 2} was detected in a static reactor in the absence of all fluorinating gases. The experimental evidence suggests that ClO{sub 2} will not exist in the presence of ClF{sub 3}, ClF, or UF{sub 6}. The data analyzed to date is insufficient to determine the stability of ClO{sub 2} in the presence of ClO{sub 2}F. Thermodynamic calculations of the ClF{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system support the experimental evidence, and suggest that ClO{sub 2} will not exist in the presence of ClO{sub 2}F. Additional experimental efforts are needed to provide a better understanding of the gas phase ClF{sub 3} treatments and the product gases. However, preliminary evidence to date suggests that ClO{sub 2} should not be present as a product during the normal operations of the gas phase decontamination project.

  1. The formation of secondary stellar generations in massive young star clusters from rapidly cooling shocked stellar winds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wünsch, Richard; Palouš, Jan; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 835, č. 1 (2017), 60/1-60/15 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06012S Grant - others:Ga MŠk(CZ) LM2015070 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies * ISM * star clusters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  2. Planets around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). I. A Substellar Companion to the Young M Dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Kraus, Adam L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-07-01

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the young M dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720 as part of a high contrast imaging search for planets around nearby young low-mass stars with Keck-II/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO. The 2farcs4 (~120 AU) pair is confirmed to be comoving from two epochs of high-resolution imaging. Follow-up low- and moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of 1RXS J2351+3127 B with IRTF/SpeX and Keck-II/OSIRIS reveals a spectral type of L0+2 -1. The M2 primary star 1RXS J2351+3127 A exhibits X-ray and UV activity levels comparable to young moving group members with ages of ~10-100 Myr. UVW kinematics based the measured radial velocity of the primary and the system's photometric distance (50 ± 10 pc) indicate it is likely a member of the ~50-150 Myr AB Dor moving group. The near-infrared spectrum of 1RXS J2351+3127 B does not exhibit obvious signs of youth, but its H-band morphology shows subtle hints of intermediate surface gravity. The spectrum is also an excellent match to the ~200 Myr M9 brown dwarf LP 944-20. Assuming an age of 50-150 Myr, evolutionary models imply a mass of 32 ± 6 M Jup for the companion, making 1RXS J2351+3127 B the second lowest-mass member of the AB Dor moving group after the L4 companion CD-35 2722 B and one of the few benchmark brown dwarfs known at young ages. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  3. Probing the Binding Interfaces of Protein Complexes Using Gas-Phase H/D Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mistarz, Ulrik H; Brown, Jeffery M; Haselmann, Kim F

    2016-01-01

    Fast gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange mediated by ND3 gas and measured by mass spectrometry (gas-phase HDX-MS) is a largely unharnessed, fast, and sensitive method for probing primary- and higher-order polypeptide structure. Labeling of heteroatom-bound non-amide hydrogens in a sub-milliseco......Fast gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange mediated by ND3 gas and measured by mass spectrometry (gas-phase HDX-MS) is a largely unharnessed, fast, and sensitive method for probing primary- and higher-order polypeptide structure. Labeling of heteroatom-bound non-amide hydrogens in a sub......-millisecond time span after electrospray ionization by ND3 gas can provide structural insights into protein conformers present in solution. Here, we have explored the use of gas-phase HDX-MS for probing the higher-order structure and binding interfaces of protein complexes originating from native solution...

  4. Determination of gas phase protein ion densities via ion mobility analysis with charge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisser, Anne; Premnath, Vinay; Ghosh, Abhimanyu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Attoui, Michel; Hogan, Christopher J

    2011-12-28

    We use a charge reduction electrospray (ESI) source and subsequent ion mobility analysis with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA, with detection via both a Faraday cage electrometer and a condensation particle counter) to infer the densities of single and multiprotein ions of cytochrome C, lysozyme, myoglobin, ovalbumin, and bovine serum albumin produced from non-denaturing (20 mM aqueous ammonium acetate) and denaturing (1 : 49.5 : 49.5, formic acid : methanol : water) ESI. Charge reduction is achieved through use of a Po-210 radioactive source, which generates roughly equal concentrations of positive and negative ions. Ions produced by the source collide with and reduce the charge on ESI generated drops, preventing Coulombic fissions, and unlike typical protein ESI, leading to gas-phase protein ions with +1 to +3 excess charges. Therefore, charge reduction serves to effectively mitigate any role that Coulombic stretching may play on the structure of the gas phase ions. Density inference is made via determination of the mobility diameter, and correspondingly the spherical equivalent protein volume. Through this approach it is found that for both non-denaturing and denaturing ESI-generated ions, gas-phase protein ions are relatively compact, with average densities of 0.97 g cm(-3) and 0.86 g cm(-3), respectively. Ions from non-denaturing ESI are found to be slightly more compact than predicted from the protein crystal structures, suggesting that low charge state protein ions in the gas phase are slightly denser than their solution conformations. While a slight difference is detected between the ions produced with non-denaturing and denaturing ESI, the denatured ions are found to be much more dense than those examined previously by drift tube mobility analysis, in which charge reduction was not employed. This indicates that Coulombic stretching is typically what leads to non-compact ions in the gas-phase, and suggests that for gas phase

  5. A classification scheme for young stellar objects using the wide-field infrared survey explorer AllWISE catalog: revealing low-density star formation in the outer galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, X. P. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Leisawitz, D. T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We present an assessment of the performance of WISE and the AllWISE data release for a section of the Galactic Plane. We lay out an approach to increasing the reliability of point-source photometry extracted from the AllWISE catalog in Galactic Plane regions using parameters provided in the catalog. We use the resulting catalog to construct a new, revised young star detection and classification scheme combining WISE and 2MASS near- and mid-infrared colors and magnitudes and test it in a section of the outer Milky Way. The clustering properties of the candidate Class I and II stars using a nearest neighbor density calculation and the two-point correlation function suggest that the majority of stars do form in massive star-forming regions, and any isolated mode of star formation is at most a small fraction of the total star forming output of the Galaxy. We also show that the isolated component may be very small and could represent the tail end of a single mechanism of star formation in line with models of molecular cloud collapse with supersonic turbulence and not a separate mode all to itself.

  6. Prevalence of Refractive Error in Singaporean Chinese Children: The Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Refractive Error in Young Singaporean Children (STARS) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dirani, Mohamed; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Gazzard, Gus; Hornbeak, Dana Marie; Leo, Seo-Wei; Selvaraj, Prabakaran; Zhou, Brendan; Young, Terri L.; Mitchell, Paul; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Using population-based data, the authors report, for the first time, the prevalence of refractive error in Singaporean Chinese children aged 6 to 72 months. In selected regions of Singapore, myopia has been shown to affect more than 80% of adults; therefore, this paper provides insights into the development of refractive error at a very young age.

  7. VLBA DETERMINATION OF THE DISTANCE TO NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS. VI. THE DISTANCE TO THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT HW 9 IN CEPHEUS A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio; Loinard, Laurent; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Torres, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), we have observed the radio continuum emission from the young stellar object HW 9 in the Cepheus A star-forming region at 10 epochs between 2007 February and 2009 November. Due to its strong radio variability, the source was detected at only four of the ten epochs. From these observations, the trigonometric parallax of HW 9 was determined to be π = 1.43 ± 0.07 mas, in excellent agreement with a recent independent determination by Moscadelli et al. of the trigonometric parallax of a methanol maser associated with the nearby young stellar source HW 2 (π = 1.43 ± 0.08 mas). This concordance in results, obtained in one case from continuum and in the other from line observations, confirms the reliability of VLBA trigonometric parallax measurements. By combining the two results, we constrain the distance to Cepheus A to be 700 +31 - 28 pc, an uncertainty of 3.5%.

  8. Multimolecular studies of Galactic star-forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, W. A.; Loenen, A. F.; Spaans, M.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular emission-line observations of isolated Galactic star-forming regions are used to model the physical properties of the molecular interstellar medium in these systems. Observed line ratios are compared with the results predicted by models that incorporate gas-phase chemistry and the heating

  9. How chemistry influences cloud structure, star formation, and the IMF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocuk, S.; Cazaux, S.; Spaans, M.; Caselli, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the earliest phases of star-forming clouds, stable molecular species, such as CO, are important coolants in the gas phase. Depletion of these molecules on dust surfaces affects the thermal balance of molecular clouds and with that their whole evolution. For the first time, we study the effect of

  10. ICR studies of some anionic gas phase reactions and FTICR software design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noest, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis consists of two parts. Part one (Chs. 1-5) reports experimental results from mostly drift-cell ICR studies of negative ion-molecule reactions; part two (Chs. 6-11) concerns the design of software for an FTICR instrument. The author discusses successively: 1. ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry; 2. the gas phase allyl anion; 3. the (M-H) and (M-H2) anions from acetone; 4. negative ion-molecule reactions of aliphatic nitrites studied by cyclotron resonance; 5. homoconjugation versus charge-dipole interaction effects in the stabilization of carbanions in the gas phase; 6. the Fourier Transform ICR method; 7. the FTICR-software; 8. an efficient adaptive matcher filter for fast transient signals; 9. reduction of spectral peak height errors by time-domain weighing; 10. Chirp excitation; 11. Compact data storage. The book concludes with a Dutch and English summary (G.J.P.)

  11. Experimental redetermination of the gas-phase enthalpy of formation of ethyl 2-thiophenecarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The condensed phase standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of ethyl-2-thiophenecarboxylate was derived from the remeasured standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry and the standard molar enthalpy of vaporization, at T = 298.15 K, remeasured by Calvet microcalorimetry. Combining these two values, the following enthalpy of formation in the gas phase, at T = 298.15 K, was then derived for ethyl-2-thiophenecarboxylate: −(277.7 ± 2.9) kJ · mol −1 . The calculated gas-phase enthalpy of formation of the title compound, through the G3(MP2)//B3LYP approach was found to be 278.9 kJ · mol −1 , in excellent agreement with the experimental measured value

  12. Gas-phase infrared spectrum of phosphorus (III) oxycyanide, OPCN: experimental and theoretical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaf, Abdul. W.; Kassem, M.; Alibrahim, M.; Boustani, Ihsan

    1999-03-01

    An attempt was made to observe the gas-phase infrared spectrum of Phosphorus (III) oxycyanide, OPCN for the first time. This molecule was produced by an on-line process using phosphorus (III) oxychloride, OPCl as precursor passed over heated AgCN. The products were characterised by the infrared spectra of their vapours. The low resolution gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectrum shows two bands centered at 2165 and 1385 cm -1. These bands are assigned to, ν1 (CN stretch) and ν2 (OP stretch), respectively. Ab initio self-consistent-field (SCF) molecular orbital (MO) and Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (MP2) calculations were performed to determine the geometry, total energy and vibrational frequencies of OPCN.

  13. Gas-phase infrared spectrum of phosphorus (III) oxycyanide, OPCN: Experimental and theoretical and theoretical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, A.W.; Kassem, M.; Alibrahim, M.

    1999-01-01

    An attempt was made to observe the gas-phase infrared spectrum of phosphorus (III) oxycyanide, OPCN for the first time. This molecule was produced by on-line process using phosphorus (III) oxychloride, OPCI as precursor passed over heated Ag CN. The products were characterised by the infrared spectra of their vapours. The low resolution gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectrum shows two bands at 2165 and 1385 cm -1 . These bands are assigned to ν 1 (C≡N stretch) and ν 2 (O=P stretch), respectively. Ab initio self-consistent-field (SCF) molecular orbital (MO) and Moeller - Plesset second order perturbation theory (MP2) calculations were performed to determine the geometry, total energy and vibrational frequencies of OPCN. (authors)

  14. Effect of duty-cycles on the air plasma gas-phase of dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, R.; Biganzoli, I.; Dell'Orto, E. C.; Riccardi, C.

    2015-10-01

    An experimental investigation concerning the effects of a duty-cycle in the supply of a dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure air has been performed. Electrical characteristics of the discharge have been measured, focusing mainly on the statistical properties of the current filaments and on dielectric surface charging, both affected by the frequent repetition of breakdown imposed by the duty-cycle. Information on the gas-phase composition was gathered too. In particular, a strong enhancement in the ozone formation rate is observed when suitable long pauses separate the active discharge phases. A simulation of the chemical kinetics in the gas-phase, based on a simplified discharge modeling, is briefly described in order to shed light on the observed increase in ozone production. The effect of a duty-cycle on surface modification of polymeric films in order to increase their wettability has been investigated too.

  15. Exploring the Photoreduction of Au(III) Complexes in the Gas-Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Jesse C.; Kaufman, Sydney H.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2010-06-01

    We have used photodissociation spectroscopy to probe the electronic structure and photoreduction of Au(III) in gas-phase complexes containing Cl- and OH-. The gas-phase electronic spectrum of [AuCl_4]- closely resembles the aqueous solution spectrum, showing a lack of strong solvatochromic shifts. Substitution of Cl- ligands with OH- results in a strong blue shift, in agreement with ligand-field theory. Upon excitation, [AuCl_4]- can dissociate by loss of either one or two neutral Cl atoms, resulting in the reduction of gold from Au(III) to Au(II) and Au(I) respectively. The hydroxide substituted complex, [AuCl_2(OH)_2]-, demonstrates similar behavior but the only observable fragment channel is the loss of two neutral OH ligands, leading only to Au(I).

  16. Ab initio treatment of gas phase GeO{sup 2+} doubly charged ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogren Al Mogren, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ben Abdallah, D. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Atomique, Moléculaire et Applications – LSAMA, Université de Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia); Department of General Studies, Riyadh Corporation of Technology, Technical and Vocational Training Corporation, PO Box 42826, Riyadh 11551 (Saudi Arabia); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France)

    2015-01-13

    Highlights: • Theoretical investigation of the novel gas-phase molecular species GeO{sup 2+}. • Spectroscopic parameters of this dication in its electronic ground and exited states. • Theoretical double ionization spectrum of GeO. - Abstract: Using multi reference configuration interaction methodology in connection with a large basis set, we show that GeO{sup 2+} is a metastable species either in the ground or in the electronically excited states. This confirms the observation of this dication in gas phase by mass spectrometry. In addition, we derived a set of accurate spectroscopic terms for GeO{sup 2+} bound states. At the MRCI/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory, the adiabatic double ionization energy of GeO is computed to be ∼28.93 eV.

  17. Treatment of reduced sulphur compounds and SO2 by Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meusinger, Carl; Bluhme, Anders Brostrøm; Ingemar, Jonas L.

    2017-01-01

    Reduced sulphur compounds (RSCs) emitted from pig farms are a major problem for agriculture, due to their health and environmental impacts and foul odour. This study investigates the removal of RSCs, including H2S, and their oxidation product SO2 using Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation (GPAO). GPAO...... is a novel air cleaning technique which utilises accelerated atmospheric chemistry to oxidise pollutants before removing their oxidation products as particles. Removal efficiencies of 24.5% and 3.9% were found for 461 ppb of H2S and 714 ppb of SO2 in a laboratory system (volumetric flow Q = 75 m3/h......). A numerical model of the reactor system was developed to explore the basic features of the system; its output was in fair agreement with the experiment. The model verified the role of OH radicals in initiating the oxidation chemistry. All sulphur removed from the gas phase was detected as particulate matter...

  18. Photoelectron spectroscopy an introduction to ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase

    CERN Document Server

    Eland, J H D

    2013-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Ultraviolet Photoelectronspectroscopy in the Gas Phase, Second Edition Photoelectron Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Ultraviolet PhotoelectronSpectroscopy in the Gas Phase, Second Edition aims to give practical approach on the subject of photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as provide knowledge on the interpretation of the photoelectron spectrum. The book covers topics such as the principles and literature of photoelectron microscopy; the main features and analysis of photoelectron spectra; ionization techniques; and energies from the photoelectron spectra. Also covered in the book are topics suc as photoelectron band structure and the applications of photoelectron spectroscopy in chemistry. The text is recommended for students and practitioners of chemistry who would like to be familiarized with the concepts of photoelectron spectroscopy and its importance in the field.

  19. The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition: Present status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochodzalla, J.; Imme, G.; Maddalena, V.

    1996-07-01

    More than two decades ago, the van der Waals behavior of the nucleon -nucleon force inspired the idea of a liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter. Heavy-ion reactions at relativistic energies offer the unique possibility for studying this phase transition in a finite, hadronic system. A general overview of this subject is given emphasizing the most recent results on nuclear calorimetry. (orig.)

  20. Conformational Study of DNA Sugars: from the Gas Phase to Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Iciar; Vallejo-López, Montserrat; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Corzana, Francisco; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2017-06-01

    Sugars are versatile molecules that play a variety of roles in the organism. For example, they are important in energy storage processes or as structural scaffolds. Here, we focus on the monosaccharide present in DNA by addressing the conformational and puckering properties in the gas phase of α- and β-methyl-2-deoxy-ribofuranoside and α- and β-methyl-2-deoxy-ribopiranoside. Other sugars have been previously studied in the gas phase The work presented here stems from a combination of chemical synthesis, ultrafast vaporization methods, supersonic expansions, microwave spectroscopy (both chirped-pulsed and Balle-Flygare cavity-based spectrometers) and NMR spectroscopy. Previous studies in the gas phase had been performed on 2-deoxyribose, but only piranose forms were detected. However, thanks to the combination of these techniques, we have isolated and characterized for the first time the conformational landscape of the sugar present in DNA in its biologically relevant furanose form. Our gas phase study serves as a probe of the conformational preferences of these biomolecules under isolation conditions. Thanks to the NMR experiments, we can characterize the favored conformations in solution and extract the role of the solvent in the structure and puckering of the monosaccharides. E. J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. Écija, F. J. Basterretxea, J.-U. Grabow, J. A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 2012, 51, 3119. P. Écija, I. Uriarte, L. Spada, B. G. Davis, W. Caminati, F. J. Basterretxea, A. Lesarri, E. J. Cocinero, Chem. Commun. 2016, 52, 6241. I. Peña, E. J. Cocinero, C. Cabezas, A. Lesarri, S. Mata, P. Écija, A. M. Daly, Á. Cimas, C. Bermúdez, F. J. Basterretxea, S. Blanco, J. A. Fernández, J. C. López, F. Castaño, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 2013, 52, 11840.

  1. Gas Phase Transport, Adsorption and Surface Diffusion in Porous Glass Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, J.; Čermáková, Jiřina; Uchytil, Petr; Hamel, Ch.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 104, 2-4 (2005), s. 344-351 ISSN 0920-5861. [International Conference on Catalysis in Membrane Reactors /6./. Lahnstein, 06.07.2004-09.07.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : gas phase transport * vycor glass * adsorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2005

  2. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF 6 gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF 6 -handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D ampersand D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D ampersand D, as will the other UF 6 -handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF 6 . These reagents include ClF 3 , F 2 , and other compounds. The scope of D ampersand D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs

  3. Mechanisms of gas phase decomposition of C-nitro compounds from quantum chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapkovskii, Grigorii M; Shamov, Alexander G; Nikolaeva, E V; Chachkov, D V

    2009-01-01

    Data on the mechanisms of gas-phase monomolecular decomposition of nitroalkanes, nitroalkenes and nitroarenes obtained using modern quantum chemical methods are described systematically. The attention is focused on the discussion of multistage decomposition of nitro compounds to elementary experimentally observed products. Characteristic features of competition of different mechanisms and the effect of molecular structure on the change in the Arrhenius parameters of the primary reaction step are considered.

  4. Origin of Asymmetric Charge Partitioning in the Dissociation of Gas-Phase Protein Homodimers

    OpenAIRE

    Jurchen, John C.; Williams, Evan R.

    2003-01-01

    The origin of asymmetric charge and mass partitioning observed for gas-phase dissociation of multiply charged macromolecular complexes has been hotly debated. These experiments hold the potential to provide detailed information about the interactions between the macromolecules within the complex. Here, this unusual phenomenon of asymmetric charge partitioning is investigated for several protein homodimers. Asymmetric charge partitioning in these ions depends on a number of factors, including ...

  5. Dynamics of gas-phase transient species studied by dissociative photodetachment of molecular anions

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Gas-phase transient species, such as the CH₃CO₂ and HOCO free radicals, play important roles in combustion and environment chemistry. In this thesis work, the dynamics of these two radicals were studied by dissociative photodetachment (DPD) of the negative ions, CH₃CO₂-С and HOCO⁻, respectively. The experiments were carried out with a fast-ion-beam photoelectron-photofragment coincidence (PPC) spectrometer. Mass-selected molecular anions in a fast ion beam were intercepted by a linearly polar...

  6. Isospin and momentum dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Ma, Hongru; Chen, Liewen; Li, Baoan

    2008-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using different interactions with or without isospin and/or momentum dependence. The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy as well as the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction. (author)

  7. LIAD-fs: A novel method for studies of ultrafast processes in gas phase neutral biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, C R; Kelly, O; Duffy, M J; Belshaw, L; King, R B; Williams, I D; Greenwood, J B

    2012-01-01

    A new experimental technique for femtosecond (fs) pulse studies of gas phase biomolecules is reported. Using Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption (LIAD) to produce a plume of neutral molecules, a time-delayed fs pulse is employed for ionisation/fragmentation, with subsequent products extracted and mass analysed electrostatically. By varying critical laser pulse parameters, this technique can be used to implement control over molecular fragmentation for a range of small biomolecules, with specific studies of amino acids demonstrated.

  8. Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D [Kennewick, WA

    2011-06-21

    A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

  9. Mechanisms of gas phase decomposition of C-nitro compounds from quantum chemical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrapkovskii, Grigorii M; Shamov, Alexander G; Nikolaeva, E V; Chachkov, D V [Kazan State Technological University, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-31

    Data on the mechanisms of gas-phase monomolecular decomposition of nitroalkanes, nitroalkenes and nitroarenes obtained using modern quantum chemical methods are described systematically. The attention is focused on the discussion of multistage decomposition of nitro compounds to elementary experimentally observed products. Characteristic features of competition of different mechanisms and the effect of molecular structure on the change in the Arrhenius parameters of the primary reaction step are considered.

  10. Thermodynamic Functions of Yttrium Trifluoride and Its Dimer in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osina, E. L.; Kovtun, D. M.

    2018-05-01

    New calculations of the functions for YF3 and Y2F6 in the gas phase using quantum-chemical calculations by MP2 and CCSD(T) methods are performed in connection with the ongoing work on obtaining reliable thermodynamic data of yttrium halides. The obtained values are entered in the database of the IVTANTERMO software complex. Equations approximating the temperature dependence of the reduced Gibbs energy in the T = 298.15-6000 K range of temperatures are presented.

  11. Multiple star formation : chemistry, physics and coevality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murillo, Mejias N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stars, that is two or more stars composing a gravitationally bound system, are common in the universe.They are the cause of many interesting phenomena, from supernovae and planetary nebulae, to binary black hole mergers. Observations of main sequence stars, young stars and forming

  12. Shear viscosity of neutron-rich nucleonic matter near its liquid–gas phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An; Ma, Yu Gang

    2013-01-01

    Within a relaxation time approach using free nucleon–nucleon cross sections modified by the in-medium nucleon masses that are determined from an isospin- and momentum-dependent effective nucleon–nucleon interaction, we investigate the specific shear viscosity (η/s) of neutron-rich nucleonic matter near its liquid–gas phase transition. It is found that as the nucleonic matter is heated at fixed pressure or compressed at fixed temperature, its specific shear viscosity shows a valley shape in the temperature or density dependence, with the minimum located at the boundary of the phase transition. Moreover, the value of η/s drops suddenly at the first-order liquid–gas phase transition temperature, reaching as low as 4–5 times the KSS bound of ℏ/4π. However, it varies smoothly for the second-order liquid–gas phase transition. Effects of the isospin degree of freedom and the nuclear symmetry energy on the value of η/s are also discussed

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  14. Heavy haze in winter Beijing driven by fast gas phase oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, K.; Tan, Z.; Wang, H.; Li, X.; Wu, Z.; Chen, Q.; Wu, Y.; Ma, X.; Liu, Y.; Chen, X.; Shang, D.; Dong, H.; Zeng, L.; Shao, M.; Hu, M.; Fuchs, H.; Novelli, A.; Broch, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Rohrer, F.; Bohn, B.; Georgios, G.; Schmitt, S. H.; Schlag, P.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy haze conditions were frequently presented in the airsheds of Beijing and surrounding areas, especially during winter time. To explore the trace gas oxidation and the subsequent formation of aerosols, a comprehensive field campaign was performed at a regional site (in the campus of University of Chinese Academy of Science, UCAS) in Beijing winter 2016. Serious haze pollution processes were often observed with the fast increase of inorganic salt (especially nitrate) and these pollutions were always associated with enhanced humidity and the concentrations of PAN (PeroxyAcyl Nitrates) which is normally a marker of gas phase oxidations from NOx and VOCs. Moreover, based on the measurements of OH, HO2, RO2, total OH reactivity, N2O5, NO, NO2, SO2, particle concentrations/distributions/chemical compositions, and meteorological parameters, the gas phase oxidation rates that leads to the formation of sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols were estimated. These determined formation rates were clearly enhanced by several folds during pollution episodes compared to that of the clean air masses. Preliminary analysis result showed that the gas phase formation potential of nitrate and secondary organic aerosols were larger than the observed concentrations of nitrate and SOA of which the excess production may be explained by deposition and dilution.

  15. Improved machine learning method for analysis of gas phase chemistry of peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Natalie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate peptide identification is important to high-throughput proteomics analyses that use mass spectrometry. Search programs compare fragmentation spectra (MS/MS of peptides from complex digests with theoretically derived spectra from a database of protein sequences. Improved discrimination is achieved with theoretical spectra that are based on simulating gas phase chemistry of the peptides, but the limited understanding of those processes affects the accuracy of predictions from theoretical spectra. Results We employed a robust data mining strategy using new feature annotation functions of MAE software, which revealed under-prediction of the frequency of occurrence in fragmentation of the second peptide bond. We applied methods of exploratory data analysis to pre-process the information in the MS/MS spectra, including data normalization and attribute selection, to reduce the attributes to a smaller, less correlated set for machine learning studies. We then compared our rule building machine learning program, DataSqueezer, with commonly used association rules and decision tree algorithms. All used machine learning algorithms produced similar results that were consistent with expected properties for a second gas phase mechanism at the second peptide bond. Conclusion The results provide compelling evidence that we have identified underlying chemical properties in the data that suggest the existence of an additional gas phase mechanism for the second peptide bond. Thus, the methods described in this study provide a valuable approach for analyses of this kind in the future.

  16. All-gas-phase synthesis of UiO-66 through modulated atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausund, Kristian Blindheim; Nilsen, Ola

    2016-11-01

    Thin films of stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as UiO-66 have enormous application potential, for instance in microelectronics. However, all-gas-phase deposition techniques are currently not available for such MOFs. We here report on thin-film deposition of the thermally and chemically stable UiO-66 in an all-gas-phase process by the aid of atomic layer deposition (ALD). Sequential reactions of ZrCl4 and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid produce amorphous organic-inorganic hybrid films that are subsequently crystallized to the UiO-66 structure by treatment in acetic acid vapour. We also introduce a new approach to control the stoichiometry between metal clusters and organic linkers by modulation of the ALD growth with additional acetic acid pulses. An all-gas-phase synthesis technique for UiO-66 could enable implementations in microelectronics that are not compatible with solvothermal synthesis. Since this technique is ALD-based, it could also give enhanced thickness control and the possibility to coat irregular substrates with high aspect ratios.

  17. Conformational Preferences of Glycerol in the Gas Phase and in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Keun Hong [Korea Military Academy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Byung Jin; Kang, Young Kee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The conformational study of glycerol has been carried out using the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory in the gas phase and the SMD M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory in water in order to understand its conformational preferences and solvation effects. Most of the preferred conformers of glycerol have two C{sub 5} hydrogen bonds in the gas phase, as found by the analysis of calorimetric data. It has been known that the solvation drove the hydrogen bonds of glycerol to be weaker and its potential surface to be fatter and that glycerol exists as an ensemble of many feasible local minima in water. The calculated populations of glycerol in the gas phase and in water are consistent with the observed values, which are better than the previously calculated ones at the G2(MP2), CBS-QB3, and SM5.42 HF/6-31G(d) levels of theory

  18. Statistical parameter characteristics of gas-phase fluctuations for gas-liquid intermittent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Takaguchi, M. [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    This study deals with theoretical analysis on the general behaviour of statistical parameters of gas-phase fluctuations and comparison of statistical parameter characteristics for the real void fraction fluctuations measured with those for the wave form modified the real fluctuations. In order to investigate the details of the relation between the behavior of the statistical parameters in real intermittent flow and analytical results obtained from information on the real flow, the distributions of statistical parameters for general fundamental wave form of gas-phase fluctuations are discussed in detail. By modifying the real gas-phase fluctuations to a trapezoidaly wave, the experimental results can be directly compared with the analytical results. The analytical results for intermittent flow show that the wave form parameter, and the total amplitude of void fraction fluctuations, affects strongly on the statistical parameter characteristics. The comparison with experiment using nitrogen gas-water intermittent flow suggests that the parameters of skewness and excess may be better as indicators of flow pattern. That is, the macroscopic nature of intermittent flow can be grasped by the skewness and the excess, and the detailed flow structure may be described by the mean and the standard deviation.

  19. Systematic Search for Chemical Reactions in Gas Phase Contributing to Methanol Formation in Interstellar Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez-Garcia, Victoria G; Galano, Annia

    2017-10-05

    A massive search for chemical routes leading to methanol formation in gas phase has been conducted using computational chemistry, at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. The calculations were performed at five different temperatures (100, 80, 50, 20, and 10 K) and at three pressures (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 atm) for each temperature. The search was focused on identifying reactions with the necessary features to be viable in the interstellar medium (ISM). A searching strategy was applied to that purpose, which allowed to reduce an initial set of 678 possible reactions to a subset of 11 chemical routes that are recommended, for the first time, as potential candidates for contributing to methanol formation in the gas phase of the ISM. They are all barrier-less, and thus they are expected to take place at collision rates. Hopefully, including these reactions in the currently available models, for the gas-phase methanol formation in the ISM, would help improving the predicted fractional abundance of this molecule in dark clouds. Further investigations, especially those dealing with grain chemistry and electronic excited states, would be crucial to get a complete picture of the methanol formation in the ISM.

  20. Statistical parameter characteristics of gas-phase fluctuations for gas-liquid intermittent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Takaguchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    This study deals with theoretical analysis on the general behaviour of statistical parameters of gas-phase fluctuations and comparison of statistical parameter characteristics for the real void fraction fluctuations measured with those for the wave form modified the real fluctuations. In order to investigate the details of the relation between the behavior of the statistical parameters in real intermittent flow and analytical results obtained from information on the real flow, the distributions of statistical parameters for general fundamental wave form of gas-phase fluctuations are discussed in detail. By modifying the real gas-phase fluctuations to a trapezoidaly wave, the experimental results can be directly compared with the analytical results. The analytical results for intermittent flow show that the wave form parameter, and the total amplitude of void fraction fluctuations, affects strongly on the statistical parameter characteristics. The comparison with experiment using nitrogen gas-water intermittent flow suggests that the parameters of skewness and excess may be better as indicators of flow pattern. That is, the macroscopic nature of intermittent flow can be grasped by the skewness and the excess, and the detailed flow structure may be described by the mean and the standard deviation

  1. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew A. Adnew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO systems treat volatile organic compounds, reduced sulfur compounds, amines, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particles and odor. While the method covers a wide range of pollutants, effective treatment becomes difficult when temperature is outside the range of 0 to 80 °C, for anoxic gas streams and for pollution loads exceeding ca. 1000 ppm. Air residence time in the system and the rate of reaction of a given pollutant with hydroxyl radicals determine the removal efficiency of GPAO. For gas phase compounds and odors including VOCs (e.g. C6H6 and C3H8 and reduced sulfur compounds (e.g. H2S and CH3SH, removal efficiencies exceed 80%. The method is energy efficient relative to many established technologies and is applicable to pollutants emitted from diverse sources including food processing, foundries, water treatment, biofuel generation, and petrochemical industries.

  2. Oxidative potential of gas phase combustion emissions - An underestimated and potentially harmful component of air pollution from combustion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, S.; Vaughan, A.; Hedayat, F.; Salimi, F.; Rahman, M. M.; Zare, A.; Brown, R. A.; Brown, R. J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, X.; Bottle, S. E.; Yang, I. A.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2017-06-01

    The oxidative potential (OP) of the gas phase is an important and neglected aspect of environmental toxicity. Whilst prolonged exposure to particulate matter (PM) associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to lead to negative health effects, the potential for compounds in gas phase to cause similar effects is yet to be understood. In this study we describe: the significance of the gas phase OP generated through vehicle emissions; discuss the origin and evolution of species contributing to measured OP; and report on the impact of gas phase OP on human lung cells. The model aerosol for this study was exhaust emitted from a Euro III Common-rail diesel engine fuelled with different blends of diesel and biodiesel. The gas phase of these emissions was found to be potentially as hazardous as the particle phase. Fuel oxygen content was found to negatively correlate with the gas phase OP, and positively correlate with particle phase OP. This signifies a complex interaction between reactive species present in gas and particle phase. Furthermore, this interaction has an overarching effect on the OP of both particle and gas phase, and therefore the toxicity of combustion emissions.

  3. The E-MOSAICS project: simulating the formation and co-evolution of galaxies and their star cluster populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Joel; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Crain, Robert A.; Bastian, Nate

    2018-04-01

    We introduce the MOdelling Star cluster population Assembly In Cosmological Simulations within EAGLE (E-MOSAICS) project. E-MOSAICS incorporates models describing the formation, evolution, and disruption of star clusters into the EAGLE galaxy formation simulations, enabling the examination of the co-evolution of star clusters and their host galaxies in a fully cosmological context. A fraction of the star formation rate of dense gas is assumed to yield a cluster population; this fraction and the population's initial properties are governed by the physical properties of the natal gas. The subsequent evolution and disruption of the entire cluster population are followed accounting for two-body relaxation, stellar evolution, and gravitational shocks induced by the local tidal field. This introductory paper presents a detailed description of the model and initial results from a suite of 10 simulations of ˜L⋆ galaxies with disc-like morphologies at z = 0. The simulations broadly reproduce key observed characteristics of young star clusters and globular clusters (GCs), without invoking separate formation mechanisms for each population. The simulated GCs are the surviving population of massive clusters formed at early epochs (z ≳ 1-2), when the characteristic pressures and surface densities of star-forming gas were significantly higher than observed in local galaxies. We examine the influence of the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies on their cluster populations, finding that (at similar present-day mass) earlier-forming galaxies foster a more massive and disruption-resilient cluster population, while galaxies with late mergers are capable of forming massive clusters even at late cosmic epochs. We find that the phenomenological treatment of interstellar gas in EAGLE precludes the accurate modelling of cluster disruption in low-density environments, but infer that simulations incorporating an explicitly modelled cold interstellar gas phase will overcome

  4. MOLECULAR SPECTROSCPY AND REACTIONS OF ACTINIDES IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaven, Michael C.; Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2009-02-01

    In this chapter we review the spectroscopic data for actinide molecules and the reaction dynamics for atomic and molecular actinides that have been examined in the gas phase or in inert cryogenic matrices. The motivation for this type of investigation is that physical properties and reactions can be studied in the absence of external perturbations (gas phase) or under minimally perturbing conditions (cryogenic matrices). This information can be compared directly with the results from high-level theoretical models. The interplay between experiment and theory is critically important for advancing our understanding of actinide chemistry. For example, elucidation of the role of the 5f electrons in bonding and reactivity can only be achieved through the application of experimentally verified theoretical models. Theoretical calculations for the actinides are challenging due the large numbers of electrons that must be treated explicitly and the presence of strong relativistic effects. This topic has been reviewed in depth in Chapter 17 of this series. One of the goals of the experimental work described in this chapter has been to provide benchmark data that can be used to evaluate both empirical and ab initio theoretical models. While gas-phase data are the most suitable for comparison with theoretical calculations, there are technical difficulties entailed in generating workable densities of gas-phase actinide molecules that have limited the range of species that have been characterized. Many of the compounds of interest are refractory, and problems associated with the use of high temperature vapors have complicated measurements of spectra, ionization energies, and reactions. One approach that has proved to be especially valuable in overcoming this difficulty has been the use of pulsed laser ablation to generate plumes of vapor from refractory actinide-containing materials. The vapor is entrained in an inert gas, which can be used to cool the actinide species to room

  5. New CCD photometric investigation of the early-type overcontact binary BH Cen in the young star-forming Galactic cluster IC 2944

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Er-Gang; Qian, Sheng-Bang; Zejda, Miloslav; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jia

    2018-05-01

    BH Cen is a short-period early-type binary with a period of 0.792d in the extremely young star-forming cluster IC 2944. New multi-color CCD photometric light curves in U, B, V, R and I bands are presented and are analyzed by using the Wilson-Devinney code. It is detected that BH Cen is a high-mass-ratio overcontact binary with a fill-out factor of 46.4% and a mass ratio of 0.89. The derived orbital inclination i is 88.9 degrees, indicating that it is a totally eclipsing binary and the photometric parameters can be determined reliably. By adding new eclipse times, the orbital period changes in the binary are analyzed. It is confirmed that the period of BH Cen shows a long-term increase while it undergoes a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of A 3 = 0.024 d and a period of P 3 = 50.3 yr. The high mass ratio, overcontact configuration and long-term continuous increase in the orbital period all suggest that BH Cen is in the evolutionary state after the shortest-period stage of Case A mass transfer. The continuous increase in period can be explained by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of Ṁ 2 = 2.8 × 10‑6 M ⊙ per year. The cyclic change can be plausibly explained by the presence of a third body because both components in the BH Cen system are early-type stars. Its mass is determined to be no less than 2.2 M ⊙ at an orbital separation of about 32.5 AU. Since no third light was found during the photometric solution, it is possible that the third body may be a candidate for a compact object.

  6. Symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarchuk, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    There are some arguments that the symbiotic stars are binary, where one component is a red giant and the other component is a small hot star which is exciting a nebula. The symbiotic stars belong to the old disc population. Probably, symbiotic stars are just such an evolutionary stage for double stars as planetary nebulae for single stars. (Auth.)

  7. Connecting the small scale to the large scale: young massive stars and their environments from the Red MSX Source Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, James S.; Morgan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed multi-wavelength investigation of a variety of massive star forming regions in order to characterise the impact of the interactions between the substructure of the dense protostellar clumps and their local environment, including feedback from the embedded proto-cluster.A selection of 70 MYSOs and HII regions identified by the RMS survey have been followed up with observations of the ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the KFPA on the GBT. These maps have been combined with archival CO data to investigate the thermal and kinematic structure of the extended envelopes down to the dense clumps. We complement this larger-scale picture with high resolution near- and mid-infrared images to probe the properties of the embedded objects themselves.We present an overview of several sources from this sample that illustrate some of the the interactions that we observe. We find that high molecular column densities and kinetic temperatures are coincident with embedded sources and with shocks and outflows as exhibited in gas kinematics.

  8. Modeling of gas-phase chemistry in the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Trachtenberg, I. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    The relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to deposition processes is an important issue both from the standpoint of operation and modeling of these processes. In polysilicon deposition from thermally activated silane in a cold wall rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) system, the relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to the overall deposition rate was examined by a mass-balance model. Evaluating the process at conditions examined experimentally, the model indicated that gas-phase reactions may be neglected to good accuracy in predicting polysilicon deposition rate. The model also provided estimates of the level of gas-phase generated SiH[sub 2] associated with deposition on the cold-process chamber walls.

  9. Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Lassen, Rune Nørbæk; Sakaki, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    sands. Soil moisture sensors were utilized to observe the formation of gas phase near the porous media interfaces. Results indicate that the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution can be successfully predicted through analysis of simple parameters, including the dissolved CO2......, it is important to understand the physical processes that CO2 will undergo as it moves through naturally heterogeneous porous media formations. Previous studies have shown that heterogeneity can enhance the evolution of gas phase CO2 in some cases, but the conditions under which this occurs have not yet been...... quantitatively defined, nor tested through laboratory experiments. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of geologic heterogeneity on the process of gas phase CO2 evolution in shallow aquifers through an extensive set of experiments conducted in a column that was packed with layers of various test...

  10. The Solar Neighborhood. XXXX. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: New Young Stars Near the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Finch, Charlie T. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States); Lurie, John C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Riedel, Adric [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ianna, Philip A.; Henry, Todd J. [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA 17201 (United States); Jao, Wei-Chun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); Winters, Jennifer G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Subasavage, John P., E-mail: jennifer.bartlett@navy.mil, E-mail: charlie.finch@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: lurie@uw.edu, E-mail: adric.riedel@gmail.com, E-mail: philianna3@gmail.com, E-mail: thenry@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jennifer.winters@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jsubasavage@nofs.usno.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    As a step toward completing and characterizing the census of the solar neighborhood, we present astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic observations of 32 systems observed with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 0.9 m and 1.5 m telescopes. Astrometry from the 0.9 m indicates that among the 17 systems that had no previous published trigonometric parallaxes, 14 are within 25 pc. In the full sample, nine systems have proper motions larger than 0.″5 yr{sup −1}, including 2MASS J02511490-0352459, which exceeds 2.″0 yr{sup −1}. VRI photometry from the 0.9 m and optical spectra from the 1.5 m indicate that the targets have V  = 11–22 mag and spectral types M3.0V–L3.0V. For 2MASS J23062928-0502285 (TRAPPIST-1), we present updated astrometry and photometric variability based on over 12 years of observations. Of the nine binaries in the sample, two promise mass determinations in the next decade: LHS 6167AB, an M4.5V system for which we present an accurate parallax placing the binary at 9.7 pc, and 2MASS J23515048-2537367AB, an M8.5V system at 21.1 pc for which we present the first evidence of an unseen, low-mass companion. Most importantly, Na i and K i gravity indicators, H α measurements, long-term photometric variability, locations on the H-R diagram, and kinematic assessments indicate that as many as 13 of the systems are young, including candidate members of young moving groups, with ages less than ∼120 Myr.

  11. The Solar Neighborhood. XXXX. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: New Young Stars Near the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Lurie, John C.; Riedel, Adric; Ianna, Philip A.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Finch, Charlie T.; Subasavage, John P.

    2017-10-01

    As a step toward completing and characterizing the census of the solar neighborhood, we present astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic observations of 32 systems observed with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 0.9 m and 1.5 m telescopes. Astrometry from the 0.9 m indicates that among the 17 systems that had no previous published trigonometric parallaxes, 14 are within 25 pc. In the full sample, nine systems have proper motions larger than 0.″5 yr-1, including 2MASS J02511490-0352459, which exceeds 2.″0 yr-1. VRI photometry from the 0.9 m and optical spectra from the 1.5 m indicate that the targets have V = 11-22 mag and spectral types M3.0V-L3.0V. For 2MASS J23062928-0502285 (TRAPPIST-1), we present updated astrometry and photometric variability based on over 12 years of observations. Of the nine binaries in the sample, two promise mass determinations in the next decade: LHS 6167AB, an M4.5V system for which we present an accurate parallax placing the binary at 9.7 pc, and 2MASS J23515048-2537367AB, an M8.5V system at 21.1 pc for which we present the first evidence of an unseen, low-mass companion. Most importantly, Na I and K I gravity indicators, Hα measurements, long-term photometric variability, locations on the H-R diagram, and kinematic assessments indicate that as many as 13 of the systems are young, including candidate members of young moving groups, with ages less than ˜120 Myr.

  12. Do All O Stars Form in Star Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, C.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    The question whether or not massive stars can form in isolation or only in star clusters is of great importance for the theory of (massive) star formation as well as for the stellar initial mass function of whole galaxies (IGIMF-theory). While a seemingly easy question it is rather difficult to answer. Several physical processes (e.g. star-loss due to stellar dynamics or gas expulsion) and observational limitations (e.g. dust obscuration of young clusters, resolution) pose severe challenges to answer this question. In this contribution we will present the current arguments in favour and against the idea that all O stars form in clusters.

  13. Delivering Transmembrane Peptide Complexes to the Gas Phase Using Nanodiscs and Electrospray Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Richards, Michele R.; Kitova, Elena N.; Klassen, John S.

    2017-10-01

    The gas-phase conformations of dimers of the channel-forming membrane peptide gramicidin A (GA), produced from isobutanol or aqueous solutions of GA-containing nanodiscs (NDs), are investigated using electrospray ionization-ion mobility separation-mass spectrometry (ESI-IMS-MS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The IMS arrival times measured for (2GA + 2Na)2+ ions from isobutanol reveal three different conformations, with collision cross-sections (Ω) of 683 Å2 (conformation 1, C1), 708 Å2 (C2), and 737 Å2 (C3). The addition of NH4CH3CO2 produced (2GA + 2Na)2+ and (2GA + H + Na)2+ ions, with Ω similar to those of C1, C2, and C3, as well as (2GA + 2H)2+, (2GA + 2NH4)2+, and (2GA + H + NH4)2+ ions, which adopt a single conformation with a Ω similar to that of C2. These results suggest that the nature of the charging agents, imparted by the ESI process, can influence dimer conformation in the gas phase. Notably, the POPC NDs produced exclusively (2GA + 2NH4)2+ dimer ions; the DMPC NDs produced both (2GA + 2H)2+ and (2GA + 2NH4)2+ dimer ions. While the Ω of (2GA + 2H)2+ is similar to that of C2, the (2GA + 2NH4)2+ ions from NDs adopt a more compact structure, with a Ω of 656 Å2. It is proposed that this compact structure corresponds to the ion conducting single stranded head-to-head helical GA dimer. These findings highlight the potential of NDs, combined with ESI, for transferring transmembrane peptide complexes directly from lipid bilayers to the gas phase. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  15. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  16. Photoisomerization action spectroscopy of the carbocyanine dye DTC+ in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Brian D; Coughlan, Neville J A; da Silva, Gabriel; Bieske, Evan J

    2013-12-19

    Molecular photoisomerization plays a crucial role in diverse biological and technological contexts. Here, we combine ion mobility spectrometry and laser spectroscopy to characterize the photoisomerization of molecular cations in the gas phase. The target molecular ions, polymethine dye cations 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine (DTC(+)), are propelled through helium buffer gas by an electric field and are photoisomerized by light from a tunable laser. Photoexcitation over the 450-570 nm range converts trans-DTC(+) to cis-DTC(+), noticeably modifying the ions' arrival time distribution. The photoisomerization action spectrum, which has a maximum at 535 nm, resembles the absorption spectrum of DTC(+) in solution but is shifted 25 nm to shorter wavelength. Comparisons between measured and calculated mobilities suggest that the photoisomer involves a twist about the second C-C bond in the methine chain (8,9-cis isomer) rather than a twist about the first methine C-C bond (2,8-cis isomer). It is postulated that the excited gas-phase ions internally convert from the S1 Franck-Condon region to the S0 manifold and explore the conformational landscape as they cool through He buffer gas collisions. Master equation simulations of the relaxation process in the S0 manifold suggest that the 8,9-cis isomer is preferred over the 2,8-cis isomer because it lies lower in energy and because it is separated from the trans isomer by a substantially higher barrier. The study demonstrates that the photoisomerization of molecular ions can be probed selectively in the gas phase, providing insights into photoisomerization mechanisms and information on the solvent-free absorption spectrum.

  17. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadullah G. Aziz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I and imidazole-5-acetic (II acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital–Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO–LUMO energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750–0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8→σ*O14–H15. This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS, TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67–49.92 and 49.55–52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp3-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed.

  18. The Gas-Phase Photophysics of Eosin Y and its Maleimide Conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Steven; Kulesza, Alexander; Knight, Geoffrey; MacAleese, Luke; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2016-05-26

    The use of the xanthene family of dyes as fluorescent probes in a wide range of applications has provided impetus for the studying of their photophysical properties. In particular, recent advances in gas-phase techniques such as FRET that utilize such chromophores have placed a greater importance on the characterization of these properties in the gas phase. Additionally, the use of synthetic linker chains to graft the chromophores in a site-specific manner to their target system is ubiquitous. There is, however, often limited information on how the addition of such a linker chain may affect the photophysical properties of the chromophores, which is of fundamental importance for interpretation of experimental data reliant on grafted chromophores. Here, we present data on the optical spectroscopy of different protonation states of Eosin Y, a fluorescein derivative. We compare the photophysics of Eosin Y to its maleimide conjugate, and to the thioether product of the reaction of this conjugate with cysteamine. Comparison of the mass spectra following laser irradiation shows that very different relaxation takes place upon addition of the maleimide moiety but that the photophysics of the bare chromophore are restored upon addition of cysteamine. This radical change in the photophysics is interpreted in terms of charge-transfer states, whose energy relative to the S1 ← S0 transition of the chromophore is dependent on the conjugation of the maleimide moiety. We also show that the shape of the absorption band is unchanged in the gas-phase as compared to the solution-phase, showing a maximum with a shoulder toward the blue, and examination of isotope distributions of the isolated ions show that this shoulder cannot be due to the presence of dimers. Consideration of the fluorescence emission spectrum allows a tentative assignment of the shoulder to be due to a vibrational progression with a high Franck-Condon factor.

  19. Aqueous nitrite ion determination by selective reduction and gas phase nitric oxide chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, A. J.; Barkley, R. M.; Sievers, R. E.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An improved method of flow injection analysis for aqueous nitrite ion exploits the sensitivity and selectivity of the nitric oxide (NO) chemilluminescence detector. Trace analysis of nitrite ion in a small sample (5-160 microL) is accomplished by conversion of nitrite ion to NO by aqueous iodide in acid. The resulting NO is transported to the gas phase through a semipermeable membrane and subsequently detected by monitoring the photoemission of the reaction between NO and ozone (O3). Chemiluminescence detection is selective for measurement of NO, and, since the detection occurs in the gas-phase, neither sample coloration nor turbidity interfere. The detection limit for a 100-microL sample is 0.04 ppb of nitrite ion. The precision at the 10 ppb level is 2% relative standard deviation, and 60-180 samples can be analyzed per hour. Samples of human saliva and food extracts were analyzed; the results from a standard colorimetric measurement are compared with those from the new chemiluminescence method in order to further validate the latter method. A high degree of selectivity is obtained due to the three discriminating steps in the process: (1) the nitrite ion to NO conversion conditions are virtually specific for nitrite ion, (2) only volatile products of the conversion will be swept to the gas phase (avoiding turbidity or color in spectrophotometric methods), and (3) the NO chemiluminescence detector selectively detects the emission from the NO + O3 reaction. The method is free of interferences, offers detection limits of low parts per billion of nitrite ion, and allows the analysis of up to 180 microL-sized samples per hour, with little sample preparation and no chromatographic separation. Much smaller samples can be analyzed by this method than in previously reported batch analysis methods, which typically require 5 mL or more of sample and often need chromatographic separations as well.

  20. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  1. Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabran Zahid, H.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting; Conroy, Charlie; Andrews, Brett

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relations obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.

  2. Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabran Zahid, H. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Andrews, Brett, E-mail: zahid@cfa.harvard.edu [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relations obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.

  3. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). II. A LOW-MASS COMPANION TO THE YOUNG M DWARF GJ 3629 SEPARATED BY 0.''2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    We present the discovery of a 0.''2 companion to the young M dwarf GJ 3629 as part of our high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets around low-mass stars with the Keck-II and Subaru telescopes. Two epochs of imaging confirm that the pair is comoving and reveal signs of orbital motion. The primary exhibits saturated X-ray emission which, together with its UV photometry from GALEX, points to an age younger than {approx}300 Myr. At these ages the companion lies below the hydrogen burning limit with a model-dependent mass of 46 {+-} 16 M{sub Jup} based on the system's photometric distance of 22 {+-} 3 pc. Resolved YJHK photometry of the pair indicates a spectral type of M7 {+-} 2 for GJ 3629 B. With a projected separation of 4.4 {+-} 0.6 AU and an estimated orbital period of 21 {+-} 5 yr, GJ 3629 AB is likely to yield a dynamical mass in the next several years, making it one of only a handful of brown dwarfs to have a measured mass and an age constrained from the stellar primary.

  4. NanoVipa: a miniaturized high-resolution echelle spectrometer, for the monitoring of young stars from a 6U Cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdarot, G.; Le Coarer, E.; Bonfils, X.; Alecian, E.; Rabou, P.; Magnard, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce to astrophysical instrumentation and space optics the use of virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) to shrink échelle spectrometers and/or increase their resolution. Here, we report on both a concept of an echelle spectrometer with resolution R=50{,}000 (@653nm), which fits a 6U nanosatellite platform ({{1U= 10 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm}}), and on our laboratory tests on a R=200{,}000 demonstrator. The outline of our paper is as follows: Sect. 1 introduces our concept of a 6U payload comprising an échelle spectrometer based on the VIPA. We present also the science cases of monitoring young stars, and the wider science landscape amenable with larger telescopes. Section 2 gives a more detailed description of the VIPA and of its implementation in a cross-dispersed spectrometer. Section 3 shows the first results at R=200{,}000 we already achieved at the Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG). Finally, Sect. 4 is a discussion on the remaining technical points to study.

  5. Deliberate and Accidental Gas-Phase Alkali Doping of Chalcogenide Semiconductors: Cu(In,Ga)Se2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Diego; Berner, Ulrich; Ciccioli, Andrea; Malaquias, João C; Bertram, Tobias; Crossay, Alexandre; Schöneich, Michael; Meadows, Helene J; Regesch, David; Delsante, Simona; Gigli, Guido; Valle, Nathalie; Guillot, Jérome; El Adib, Brahime; Grysan, Patrick; Dale, Phillip J

    2017-02-24

    Alkali metal doping is essential to achieve highly efficient energy conversion in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) solar cells. Doping is normally achieved through solid state reactions, but recent observations of gas-phase alkali transport in the kesterite sulfide (Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 ) system (re)open the way to a novel gas-phase doping strategy. However, the current understanding of gas-phase alkali transport is very limited. This work (i) shows that CIGSe device efficiency can be improved from 2% to 8% by gas-phase sodium incorporation alone, (ii) identifies the most likely routes for gas-phase alkali transport based on mass spectrometric studies, (iii) provides thermochemical computations to rationalize the observations and (iv) critically discusses the subject literature with the aim to better understand the chemical basis of the phenomenon. These results suggest that accidental alkali metal doping occurs all the time, that a controlled vapor pressure of alkali metal could be applied during growth to dope the semiconductor, and that it may have to be accounted for during the currently used solid state doping routes. It is concluded that alkali gas-phase transport occurs through a plurality of routes and cannot be attributed to one single source.

  6. Gas-Phase Photocatalytic Oxidation of Dimethylamine: The Reaction Pathway and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kachina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO and thermal catalytic oxidation (TCO of dimethylamine (DMA on titanium dioxide was studied in a continuous flow simple tubular reactor. Volatile PCO products of DMA included ammonia, formamide, carbon dioxide, and water. Ammonia was further oxidized in minor amounts to nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Effective at 573 K, TCO resulted in the formation of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water. The PCO kinetic data fit well to the monomolecular Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, whereas TCO kinetic behaviour matched the first-order process. No deactivation of the photocatalyst during the multiple long-run experiments was observed.

  7. Gas Phase Chromatography of some Group 4, 5, and 6 Halides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylwester, Eric Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Gas phase chromatography using The Heavy Element Volatility Instrument (HEVI) and the On Line Gas Apparatus (OLGA III) was used to determine volatilities of ZrBr4, HfBr4, RfBr4, NbBr5, TaOBr3, HaCl5, WBr6, FrBr, and BiBr3. Short-lived isotopes of Zr, Hf, Rf, Nb, Ta, Ha, W, and Bi were produced via compound nucleus reactions at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and transported to the experimental apparatus using a He gas transport system. The isotopes were halogenated, separated from the other reaction products, and their volatilities determined by isothermal gas phase chromatography. Adsorption Enthalpy (ΔHa) values for these compounds were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation program modeling the gas phase chromatography column. All bromides showed lower volatility than molecules of similar molecular structures formed as chlorides, but followed similar trends by central element. Tantalum was observed to form the oxybromide, analogous to the formation of the oxychloride under the same conditions. For the group 4 elements, the following order in volatility and ΔHa was observed: RfBr4 > ZrBr4 > HfBr4. The ΔHa values determined for the group 4, 5, and 6 halides are in general agreement with other experimental data and theoretical predictions. Preliminary experiments were performed on Me-bromides. A new measurement of the half-life of 261Rf was performed. 261Rf was produced via the 248Cm(18O, 5n) reaction and observed with a half-life of 74-6+7 seconds, in excellent agreement with the previous measurement of 78-6+11 seconds. We recommend a new half-life of 75±7 seconds for 261Rf based on these two measurements. Preliminary studies in transforming HEVI from an isothermal (constant

  8. Enantioselective supramolecular devices in the gas phase. Resorcin[4]arene as a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Fraschetti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the state-of-art in the field of the gas-phase reactivity of diastereomeric complexes formed between a chiral artificial receptor and a biologically active molecule. The presented experimental approach is a ligand-displacement reaction carried out in a nano ESI-FT-ICR instrument, supported by a thermodynamic MS-study and molecular-mechanics and molecular-dynamics (MM/MD computational techniques. The noncovalent ion–molecule complexes are ideal for the study of chiral recognition in the absence of complicating solvent and counterion effects.

  9. Zwitterionic states in gas-phase polypeptide ions revealed by 157-nm ultra-violet photodissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Silivra, Oleg A; Zubarev, Roman A

    2006-01-01

    carboxylic groups relative to competing COOH losses (45 Da) from neutral carboxylic groups. Loss of CO2 is a strong indication of the presence of a zwitterionic [(+)...(-)...(+)] salt bridge in the gas-phase polypeptide cation. This method provides a tool for studying, for example, the nature of binding...... of the fragment formation should be taken into account. Cations of Trp-cage proteins exist preferentially as zwitterions, with the deprotonation position divided between the Asp9 residue and the C terminus in the ratio 3:2. The majority of dications of the same molecule are not zwitterions. Furthermore, 157-nm...

  10. Liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-gas phase transition is discussed in warm asymmetric nuclear matter. Some peculiar features are figured out from the viewpoint of the basic thermodynamics about the phase equilibrium. We treat the mixed phase of the binary system based on the Gibbs conditions. When the Coulomb interaction is included, the mixed phase is no more uniform and the sequence of the pasta structures appears. Comparing the results with those given by the simple bulk calculation without the Coulomb interaction, we extract specific features of the pasta structures at finite temperature.

  11. Wettability in the liquid Cu-Ag alloy – fireproof material – gas phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siwiec

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, results of wettability studies on the liquid metal – fireproof material – gas phase system using copper and Cu-Ag alloys as well as typical fireproof materials, i.e. aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide and graphite, are presented. Contact angle measurements were conducted at 1 373–1 573 K by means of a high-temperature microscope coupled with a camera and a computer equipped with a program for recording and analysing images. For the measurements, the sessile drop method was used.

  12. Solvation of ions in the gas-phase: a molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarcos, Orlando M.; Lisy, James M.

    1996-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on the collision between a cesium ion and a cluster of twenty methanol molecules. This process, generating a solvated ion, was studied over a range (1 to 25 eV) of eight collision energies. Preliminary analysis of this gas phase solvation has included the distribution of final ion cluster sizes, fragmentation patterns, solvation timescales and energetics. Two distinct patterns have emerged: a ballistic penetration of the neutral cluster at the higher collision energies and an evaporative evolution of the cluster ion at lower collision energies.

  13. Fluorometric method for the determination of gas-phase hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gregory L.; Lazrus, Allan L.

    1986-01-01

    The fluorometric gas-phase hydrogen peroxide procedure is based on the technique used by Lazrus et. al. for the determination of H2O2 in the liquid phase. The analytical method utilizes the reaction of H2O2 with horseradish peroxidase and p-hydroxphenylacetic acid (POPHA) to form the fluorescent dimer of POPHA. The analytical reaction responds stoichiometrically to both H2O2 and some organic hydroperoxides. To discriminate H2O2 from organic hydroperoxides, catalase is used to preferentially destroy H2O2. Using a dual-channel flow system the H2O2 concentration is determined by difference.

  14. A tetrapositive metal ion in the gas phase: Thorium(IV) coordinated by neutral tridentate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Yu; Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng; Gibson, John K.; Hu, Han-Shi; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Sheltering thorium ions: A Th 4+ ion supported by three neutral tetramethyl-3-oxaglutaramide ligands (L=TMOGA) is produced in the gas phase by electrospray ionization. The thorium in chiral Th(L) 3 4+ is coordinated by nine oxygen atoms. Quantum chemical studies revealed a decrease in Th-O binding energies and bond orders and an increase in bond lengths, as the number of coordinating ligands increases. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. A tetrapositive metal ion in the gas phase: Thorium(IV) coordinated by neutral tridentate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng; Gibson, John K. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hu, Han-Shi [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University (China); Li, Jun [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University (China); William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sheltering thorium ions: A Th{sup 4+} ion supported by three neutral tetramethyl-3-oxaglutaramide ligands (L=TMOGA) is produced in the gas phase by electrospray ionization. The thorium in chiral Th(L){sub 3}{sup 4+} is coordinated by nine oxygen atoms. Quantum chemical studies revealed a decrease in Th-O binding energies and bond orders and an increase in bond lengths, as the number of coordinating ligands increases. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Detection of OH on photolysis of styrene oxide at 193 nm in gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awadhesh; SenGupta, Sumana; Pushpa, K. K.; Naik, P. D.; Bajaj, P. N.

    2006-10-01

    Photodissociation of styrene oxide at 193 nm in gas phase generates OH, as detected by laser-induced fluorescence technique. Under similar conditions, OH was not observed from ethylene and propylene oxides, primarily because of their low absorption cross-sections at 193 nm. Mechanism of OH formation involves first opening of the three-membered ring from the ground electronic state via cleavage of either of two C sbnd O bonds, followed by isomerization to enolic forms of phenylacetaldehyde and acetophenone, and finally scission of the C sbnd OH bond of enols. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations support the proposed mechanism.

  17. CASCADER: An m-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Been, K.B.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-06-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or diffusion. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. This is volume two to the CASCADER series, titled CASCADR8. It embodies the concepts presented in volume one of this series. To properly understand how the CASCADR8 model works, the reader should read volume one first. This volume presents the input and output file structure for CASCADR8, and a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas

  18. CASCADER: An M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or dispersion. Additionally during the transport of parent and daughter radionuclides in soil, radionuclide decay may occur. This version of CASCADER called CASCADR9 starts with the concepts presented in volumes one and three of this series. For a proper understanding of how the model works, the reader should read volume one first. Also presented in this volume is a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas, and the input and output file structure for CASCADER9

  19. Liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    Liquid-gas phase transition is discussed in warm asymmetric nuclear matter. Some peculiar features are figured out from the viewpoint of the basic thermodynamics about the phase equilibrium. We treat the mixed phase of the binary system based on the Gibbs conditions. When the Coulomb interaction is included, the mixed phase is no more uniform and the sequence of the pasta structures appears. Comparing the results with those given by the simple bulk calculation without the Coulomb interaction, we extract specific features of the pasta structures at finite temperature.

  20. Gas Phase Vibrational Spectroscopy of Weakly Volatil Safe Taggants Using a Synchrotron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Gruet, Sebastien; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2013-06-01

    The high performances of the AILES beamline of SOLEIL allow to study at medium resolution (0.5 cm^{-1}) the gas phase THz vibrational spectra of weakly volatil compounds. Between 2008 and 2010 we recorded and analyzed the THz/Far-IR spectra of phosphorous based nerve agents thanks to sufficient vapour pressures from liquid samples at room temperature. Recently, we extended these experiments towards the vibrational spectroscopy of vapour pressures from solid samples. This project is quite challenging since we target lower volatile compounds, and so requires very high sensitive spectrometers. Moreover a specially designed heated multipass-cell have been developped for the gas phase study of very weak vapor pressures. Thanks to skills acquired during initial studies and recent experiments performed on AILES with solid PAHs, we have recorded and assigned the gas phase vibrational fingerprints from the THz to the NIR spectral domain (10-4000 cm-1) of a set of targeted nitro-derivatives. The study was focused onto the para, ortho-mononitrotoluene (p-NT, o-NT), the 1,4 Dinitrobenzene (1,4 DNB), the 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB), and 2,4 and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4-2,6 DNT), which are safe taggants widely used for the detection of commercial explosives. These taggants are usually added to plastic explosives in order to facilitate their vapour detection. Therefore, there is a continuous interest for their detection and identification in realistic conditions via optical methods. A first step consists in the recording of their gas phase vibrational spectra. These expected spectra focused onto molecules involved into defence and security domains are not yet available to date and will be very useful for the scientific community. This work is supported by the contract ANR-11-ASTR-035-01. A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, F. Cazier, H. Nouali, J. Demaison, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2008, 112:, 12516-12525 I. Smirnova, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O

  1. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: Theoretical Studies In Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu H. G.; Muckerman, J.T.

    2012-05-29

    The main goal of this program is the development and application of computational methods for studying chemical reaction dynamics and molecular spectroscopy in the gas phase. We are interested in developing rigorous quantum dynamics algorithms for small polyatomic systems and in implementing approximate approaches for complex ones. Particular focus is on the dynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions and on the rovibrational spectra of species involved in combustion processes. This research also explores the potential energy surfaces of these systems of interest using state-of-the-art quantum chemistry methods, and extends them to understand some important properties of materials in condensed phases and interstellar medium as well as in combustion environments.

  2. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: Theoretical Studies in Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.G.; Muckerman, J.T.

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this program is the development and application of computational methods for studying chemical reaction dynamics and molecular spectroscopy in the gas phase. We are interested in developing rigorous quantum dynamics algorithms for small polyatomic systems and in implementing approximate approaches for complex ones. Particular focus is on the dynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions and on the rovibrational spectra of species involved in combustion processes. This research also explores the potential energy surfaces of these systems of interest using state-of-the-art quantum chemistry methods.

  3. Gas-phase isotope fractionation factor for the proton-bound dimer of the ethoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellenberger, M.R.; Farneth, W.E.; Dixon, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The gas-phase isotope fractionation factor, phi/sub gp/, for A 2 L - where A = EtO and L = H or D has been measured by using ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy. Two approaches to the formation of the A 2 L - dimers are presented. The value for phi/sub gp/ is 0.46 +- 0.1. This low value for phi/sub gp/ is consistent with motion of a proton in a potential with a small central maximum or no maximum

  4. A combined heating cooling stage for cluster thermalization in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ievlev, D.N.; Kuester, A.; Enders, A.; Malinowski, N.; Schaber, H.; Kern, K.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the design and performance of a combined heating/cooling stage for the thermalization of clusters in a gas phase time-of-flight mass spectrometer. With this setup the cluster temperature can sensitively be adjusted within the range from 100 up to 800 K and higher. The unique combination of a heating stage with a subsequent cooling stage allows us to perform thermodynamic investigations on clusters at very high temperatures without quality losses in the spectra due to delayed fragmentation in the drift tube of the mass spectrometer. The performance of the setup is demonstrated by the example of (C 60 ) n clusters