Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397
Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R
Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P sports. There is an independent risk of injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport. Growth rate was not related to injury risk. The study data provide guidance for clinicians counseling young athletes and their parents regarding injury risks associated with sports specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Welcome to the first Young Investigator Special Issue of the Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM. The JSSM family is proud to start this new service to the Sport Science community and to young researchers. The background in starting this issue was the observation that large amounts of high-quality research is conducted every year by students and young investigators, but often remains solely in local university libraries and never reaches the scientific community or databases. In addition, most international journals have a high threshold in accepting papers, and it is often hard to reach this level for junior scientists because of lack of experience, supervision or confidence. These are major reasons that delay or in some cases stop young researchers from publishing their valuable work. We all received help from senior colleagues in the beginning of our career. Now it is our turn to help youngsters. With this special issue, the JSSM is now serving young researchers as a channel for publishing their work. Our goal is to motivate young researchers to submit their work to JSSM, but we also aim to motivate supervisors and expert referees to be supportive and constructive towards these young scientists at the very beginning of their career. The Young Investigator Special Issue followed a normal peer-review process, except that there were no straight rejections in the first phase of review. We advised the reviewers of the Young Investigator Special Issue to proceed with constructive advice and remarks for all manuscripts. This offered a great opportunity for the Young Investigators to revise the manuscript, while at the same time contributing to the learning process. Thereafter, if the revisions were properly conducted according to the remarks from reviewers, the manuscripts were accepted for publication. We have received many manuscripts from young researchers with a lot of potential. There has been plenty of evidence of great talent
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; Labella, Cynthia
Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout.
Myer, Gregory D; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam W; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J
There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Nonsystematic review. Clinical review. Level 4. Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. C. © 2015 The Author(s).
Early childhood is a significant time when children begin to develop their place identity. As they discover their environment, young children claim special places in which to construct their own experiences. In exploring ways to connect children with place, particularly nature, caregivers need to consider children's place perspectives in the…
Giesemer, Bernard A
Young athletes may use many products and techniques in an attempt to increase competitive edge in sports. The doping techniques that were previously seen in elite adult athletes are now being noted in increasingly competitive elementary, middle, and high school male and female athletes. The risk of significant morbidity and mortality associated with the use of these products is substantially increased when other risk factors are present. The risk for heat-related illness and possible heat-related mortality is higher in physiologically immature, overweight, and poorly conditioned young athletes. These are the same athletes who may be more likely to use stimulant or anabolic steroid products in attempts to catch up on training and conditioning regimens, improve their competitive advantage, or improve their physiques. The risk for heat-related incidents is higher in young athletes who are predisposed to these events because of a family trait or a previous heat-related adverse event in their own medical histories. Combinations of these factors (eg, high osmotic dietary supplements, stimulants, pre-existing medical factors, adverse ambient conditions) may significantly increase a young athlete's chances of a serious, potentially fatal event. Similarly, the risk of cardiac-related sudden death in a young athlete is significantly increased by the use of stimulants such as methamphetamine. As is the case with heat-related adverse events, the risk of cardiac-related morbidity and mortality may be significantly increased when other variables are present, such as the presence of other medications and pre-existing medical factors. As athletic competition becomes increasingly intense for younger athletes, pediatricians need to be aware of the possibility that their young patients are using ergogenic aids that may increase the risk for sudden death significantly. Pediatricians should be aware of the products available to these young competitors, and of the co-factors that
Shaikh, M.A.; Kumar, R.; Ghori, R.A.
Objective: To assess the body mass index and waist circumferences of high risk non diabetic young individuals and compare them with low risk non diabetic young individuals. Method: A cross sectional, case control comparative study was conducted in the department of medicine, LUMHS from January 2008 to March 2009. Five hundred individuals 20-40 years of age were selected and divided into two groups i.e. Group A: high risk (250 individuals) and Group B: low risk (250 individuals) on the basis of same age and gender. Group A included those who had positive family history of type 2 DM in first degree relatives while group B had no family history of type 2 DM in first degree relatives. The blood pressure, BMI and Waist Circumference was measured and Fasting Blood Sugar was estimated in each individual. In each group 125 (50%) were males and 125 (50%) were females. Results: In group A 58% and in group B 28.8% individuals represented raised BMI whereas 42% in group A and 36% in group B individuals showed an increased waist circumference. Mean fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B (P=0.001). Conclusion: Impaired Fasting Glucose is strongly associated with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Presence of obesity specially in high risk non-diabetic young individuals emphasize the need for routine health screening for early institution of preventive measures. (author)
Hooven, Carole; Snedker, Karen A.; Thompson, Elaine Adams
Young adult suicide is an important social problem, yet little is known about how risk for young adult suicide develops from earlier life stages. In this study the authors report on 759 young adults who were potential high school dropouts as youth. At both adolescence and young adulthood, measures of suicide risk status and related suicide risk…
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante
BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed...... as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and compared with a risk assessment scheme used in Public Dental Service. RESULTS: The drop-outs displayed more risk factors and a significantly higher caries burden at baseline compared with those that remained in the project (p
Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.
Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of young women of…
Medley, Lynn P.; And Others
This article describes the implications of otitis media with effusion (OME) for children with disabilities who are already at risk for speech, language, and learning difficulties. The results of a survey of 189 early childhood special educators on management of young children with OME and the role of the early childhood special educator are…
Lavendels, Jurijs; Sitikovs, Vjaceslavs; Latisheva, Eleonora
Please, cite this publication as: Lavendels, J., Sitikovs, V., & Latisheva, E. (2006). Collaboration Technology for Education of the Young People with Special Needs. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March
Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.
This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…
recipient and aim to include discussions about healthy relationships and female genital ... HIV-prevalence areas might consider developing specially trained ... Preventing new HIV infections in adolescent girls and young SA women is a .... younger siblings. .... Young women's life experiences and perceptions of sexual.
Osofsky, Joy; Kronenberg, Mindy; Bocknek, Erika; Hansel, Tonya Cross
Background: Research suggests that young childhood is a dynamic developmental phase during which risks to attachment figures as well as traumatic events may be particularly important. The loss and disruption associated with Hurricane Katrina highlighted the vulnerabilities and special needs of young children exposed to natural disaster. Objective:…
Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.
While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…
Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Schopman, Esther A.
Sixty-two students from special needs kindergartens were given early mathematics intervention. The early numeracy program was developed for children with disabilities and early numeracy difficulties by basing instruction on perceptual gestalt theory. Children performed better at posttest than controls but failed to transfer their knowledge to…
Pasulka, Jacqueline; Jayanthi, Neeru; McCann, Ashley; Dugas, Lara R; LaBella, Cynthia
Current trends among young athletes towards earlier specialization age and year-round training on multiple teams has raised concern for increased injury risk. Our previous analyses showed higher risk for injury in highly specialized young athletes. The goal of this research was to determine whether sports specialization and injury patterns vary by sports type. In this clinical case-control study, injured athletes (aged 7-18 years) were recruited from sports medicine clinics and compared to similarly aged uninjured athletes recruited from primary care clinics. Participants completed a survey reporting age, gender, sport type, specialization patterns, and details regarding sports-related injuries in the previous 6 months. Clinical diagnoses were collected from patients' medical records. Injuries were classified as acute, overuse, or serious overuse. Of 1,190 athletes enrolled, 26% (313) were single-sport specialized (reported participation in one sport and trained >8 months/year). Sports with the highest proportion of single-sport specialized athletes were tennis (46.7%), gymnastics (30.1%), and dance (26.3%). Single-sport specialized athletes in individual sports started specializing at a younger age (11.2 ± 2.4 vs. 12.0 ± 2.7, p = 0.05) and reported higher training volumes (11.8 vs. 10.3 h/week, p = 0.04) than those in team sports. Sports with the youngest specialization age were gymnastics (8.9 ± 1.7), dance (10.8 ± 3.0), and soccer (10.9 ± 2.4). Single-sport specialized athletes in individual sports accounted for a higher proportion of overuse injuries (44.3% vs 32.2%, OR = 1.67, p = 0.037) and serious overuse injuries (23.4% vs 11.6%, OR = 2.38, p = 0.011), but a lower proportion of acute injuries (28.8% vs 13.8%, OR = 0.37, p = 0.001) compared to single-sport specialized athletes involved in team sports. Athletes in individual sports may be more likely to specialize in a single sport than team sport athletes. Single
This study aimed to examine the risk factors for engaging in transactional sex among young females in Montserrado County, Liberia. Data from an HIV behavioral survey conducted among young people aged 14 – 25 years were used. The analytical sample included 493 sexually-experienced females. Bivariate and ...
McKenna, E.M.; Reed, T.A.
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is proposing to make regulatory changes to the scope of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) requiring special treatment. ''Special treatment requirements'' refers to those specific examples of regulations that are applied in order to provide a high degree of assurance that SSC will be capable of performing their intended functions when needed. The current scope of SSCs covered by the special treatment requirements governing commercial nuclear reactors is deterministically based and stems primarily from the evaluation of selected design basis events, as described in updated final safety analysis reports (UFSARs). This regulatory framework provides reasonable assurance of no undue risk to the health and safety of the public. However, recent advances in technology, coupled with operating reactor experience, have suggested that an alternative approach that would use a risk-informed process for evaluating SSC safety significance, would, in turn, result in a more focused determination of which SSCs should receive special treatment requirements. (author)
T. E. Borovik
Full Text Available Organization of adequate nutrition of children and adolescents actively going in for sports is of the highest importance both for improving sports results and preserving children’s health. On the modern stage of sports neutraceuticals development, it is relevant to substantiate approaches to nutrition on all stages of the training process, develop methodological basis for individual nutrition selection and conduct demonstrative trials in order to evaluate efficacy of nutritional measures. The pediatric nutrition department of the FSBI “Scientific Center of Children’s Health” conducted a controlled trial of efficacy of a new Russian product for nutritive support of children in the training period in 2012 in order to study possibilities of nutrition optimization for young sportsmen. We noticed statistically significant alterations of bioimpedance analysis values – lean and active cell body mass – in the setting of nutrition correction – intake of 200-400 ml/day of the product for 21 days; at the same time, the fat mass remained the same. Psychological testing using WAN questionnaire (well-being, activity, mood conducted in the recovery period of the training process also revealed positive dynamics. The product may be used in the dose of 200-400 ml at any time of day; at the same time, it is most reasonable to take it as an additional food intake in the event of considerable training stress immediately before or after training, when adequate nutrition organization is hindered.
G. A. Novikova
Full Text Available In the article the approach to identification of factors influencing beer consumption by young people. Describes the author’s methodology, identifying biological, social, psychological, pedagogical and economic risk factors of development of beer dependence in young people. The data obtained using the proposed methodology can be used to identify risk groups according to the dependent behavior and planning of preventive measures.
Sankardas, Sulata Ajit; Rajanahally, Jayashree
The research reported here was conducted to investigate the perception that people with disabilities find it a challenge to seek employment (Hernandez et?al., 2007). It is suggested that this situation could be due to a lack of specific employment-based training. Hence young adults with special educational needs (SEN) may require job-specific…
Theory and empirical work suggest inclusion preschool improves the school readiness of young children with special needs, but only 2 studies of the model have used rigorous designs that could identify causality. The present study examined the impacts of the Boston Public prekindergarten program-which combined proven language, literacy, and…
Sluder, R. S.; Luder, Linda C.
Notes that children with special needs often require specific considerations with regard to dental care. Discusses some of the physical disabilities and how they interfere with dental hygiene, and how child caregivers can modify daily routines and assist disabled children with areas of hygiene the children may find difficult. (HTH)
Grace Elisabeth Spencer
Full Text Available Drawing upon current socio-cultural understandings of risk, this study highlights the disjunction between the expert risk discourses that permeate official public health policy and practice, and young people’s own perspectives on health and risk. Data were collected from young people aged 14-16 years through the use of group and individual interviews in a school and community youth centre setting. Findings from this study question the saliency of expert-defined health-related risks to young people’s everyday lives. Young people in this study saw health as closely linked to ‘being happy’. Friendships and a sense of personal achievement were particularly important to participants’ health and well-being. When accounting for their participation in health-related practices identified as ‘risky’ in government policy – such as smoking, alcohol and substance use – young people emphasised the levels of pressure they experienced. Sources of pressure included arguments and bullying, school work, and negative stereotypes of young people in general. These areas indicated young people’s concerns that reach beyond the official prescriptions permeating current health policy.
In recent years, education and family policy in the UK has sought to incorporate the views of children and young people through an active participation agenda, in the fulfilment of children's rights under the obligations of the UN Convention for the Rights of the Child. Drawing on empirical evidence, this paper suggests that this aspiration is…
to accentuate the importance of using PPE to prevent SCA in young athletes. S Afr J SM ... His resting blood pressure was 110/68 mmHg. His first heart ... the intraventricular septum of the left ventricle was 0.99 cm in the ... the medial cusp of the anterior mitral valve leaflet associated with ... assessed as being functional.
Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman
Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jonathan Michael Normand
Full Text Available Background: The overall physical and psychological development of a young athlete is crucial for the enjoyment of physical activity for a lifetime. Children, as well as parents, tend to focus on individual accomplishment in sport despite any other aspect of physical development or appropriate training. Objective: the pressure to excel in sport has all too often brought about negative consequences through specialization at an early age. Method: A review and commentary report on the impact of early sport specialization on the physical and psychological development of a young athlete. Conclusion: A long-term, activity and age-appropriate developmental model is essential to those involved in training young athletes. Sport specialization may be appropriate in unique situations but only after the development of specific skills, abilities, and psychological maturity. As sport professionals, parents and coaches should be educated the pros/cons of early sport specialization. Ultimately, the focus on sport participation should be to increase physical activity, psychological development, and appreciation for a lifetime.
Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.
Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method: Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes...
McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith
Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.
Moskwa, C A; Nicholas, J A; Goldberg, B
In brief: Many children and adolescents participate in sports that put them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Underlying physical conditions, or risk factors, may predispose them to particular types of sports injuries. Research shows that these risk factors fall into five categories: body type, flexibility, muscle strength, inadequate rehabilitation of a previous injury, and skeletal malalignment and anomalies. Some findings show, for example, that youthful football players who are also heavy have an increased rate of injury, sprains and strains are less common in flexible athletes, and patellar pain or subluxation may be related to a variety of malalignment factors. The authors recommend using a systematic, integrated approach to risk assessment of the athlete, both for detecting risk factors and determining their potential for con tribu ting to a sports injury.
Wilhelm, Andrew; Choi, Changryol; Deitch, John
The rate of early sport specialization in professional baseball players is unknown. To report the incidence and age of sport specialization in current professional baseball players and the impact of early specialization on the frequency of serious injuries sustained during the players' careers. We also queried participants about when serious injuries occurred, the players' current position on the field, and their opinions regarding the need for young athletes to specialize early to play at the professional level. Descriptive epidemiological study. A total of 102 current professional baseball players anonymously completed a 7-question written survey. Early sport specialization was defined as "single-sport participation prior to high school." Injury was defined as "a serious injury or surgery that required the player to refrain from sports (baseball) for an entire year." Chi-square tests were used to investigate the risk of injury in those who specialized early in baseball versus those who did not. Independent-sample t tests were used to compare injury rates based on current player position. Fifty (48%) baseball players specialized early. The mean age at initiation of sport specialization was 8.91 years (SD, 3.7 years). Those who specialized early reported more serious injuries (mean, 0.54; SD, 0.838) during their professional baseball career than those who did not (mean, 0.23; SD, 0.425) ( P = .044). Finally, 63.4% of the queried players believed that early sport specialization was not required to play professional baseball. Our study demonstrated a statistically significant higher rate of serious injury during a baseball player's professional career in those players who specialized early. Most current professional baseball players surveyed believed that sport specialization was not required prior to high school to master the skills needed to play at the professional level. Our findings demonstrate an increased incidence of serious injuries in professional baseball
Full Text Available The terms of effective development of force are considered for young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation. The models of urgent and moved aside training effect of the power loadings are certain for young gymnasts 7-13 years. It is set that the process of power preparation of young gymnasts can be separate on two stages. On the first stage by means of the concentrated power loadings the expressed decline of force of group of muscles is arrived at. On the second stage by means of favourable a display maximal efforts of loadings the increase of force of group of muscles is arrived at. Application of the power loadings of different orientation is given by possibility during 10-12 employments on 30-60% to increase force of group of muscles, shorten time of training on development of force in two times.
Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels
BACKGROUND: SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. AIM......: Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? METHODS: We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide...... attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first...
Markidan, Janina; Cole, John W; Cronin, Carolyn A; Merino, Jose G; Phipps, Michael S; Wozniak, Marcella A; Kittner, Steven J
There is a strong dose-response relationship between smoking and risk of ischemic stroke in young women, but there are few data examining this association in young men. We examined the dose-response relationship between the quantity of cigarettes smoked and the odds of developing an ischemic stroke in men under age 50 years. The Stroke Prevention in Young Men Study is a population-based case-control study of risk factors for ischemic stroke in men ages 15 to 49 years. The χ 2 test was used to test categorical comparisons. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio for ischemic stroke occurrence comparing current and former smokers to never smokers. In the first model, we adjusted solely for age. In the second model, we adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, race, education, hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index. The study population consisted of 615 cases and 530 controls. The odds ratio for the current smoking group compared with never smokers was 1.88. Furthermore, when the current smoking group was stratified by number of cigarettes smoked, there was a dose-response relationship for the odds ratio, ranging from 1.46 for those smoking strong dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked daily and ischemic stroke among young men. Although complete smoking cessation is the goal, even smoking fewer cigarettes may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in young men. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Faisal, A.W.; Khan, R.A.A.T.; Ayub, M.; Husnain, S.S.
Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of first Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Results: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us. (author)
Faisal, A W; Khan, R A.A.T. [General Physician Minir Hospital, Sargodha (Pakistan); Ayub, M [Munir Hospital, Sargodha (Pakistan); Husnain, S S [Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore (Pakistan)
Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of first Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Results: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us. (author)
Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Flanigan, Christine M
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize 'risk management' as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV.
Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Flanigan, Christine M.
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize ‘risk management’ as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015
The article reports on the experiences of group activities within an area of Yorkshire that helped young people with special needs to express their views and opinions. Significant issues were raised by the ethics of undertaking work with young people and these are reviewed. The young people involved in the research reported that their participation in the groups developed their self-confidence and advocacy skills. This led them to be more confident in expressing their needs at school and in the community. To establish wider generalizability for the study findings, the Yorkshire group activities were compared with another similar group in London where further data were collected from the young people involved. In facilitating group activities, willing staff were an important addition to the group because their presence provided and encouraged positive reactions to the distinctive achievements of the young people themselves. In both groups, members were committed to participation in project-based activities that raised their self-esteem and helped establish a sense of their own identity and purpose.
Safdar, M.H.K.; Fazal, I.; Ejaz, A.; Awan, Z.I.
The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of risk factors in young patients with acute myocardial infarction and thus with ischemic heart disease (IHD), aged 20 to 40 years, in our population. All patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria who presented to emergency reception of the hospital with a diagnosis of Acute MI were included. The patients were admitted to coronary care unit (CCU) and were managed for Acute myocardial infarction (MI). Their detailed history was then taken including symptoms at presentation and their risk factors were assessed with the help of history and laboratory investigations. A total of 137 patients were included during the study period. Mean age was 36 years (SD=3.67). Majority of patients were males. Smoking was the major risk factor (64.2%) followed by family history of IHD (30.7%). Most frequent risk factor for Acute myocardial infarction (MI) at young age is smoking followed by family history. (author)
Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.
Introduction Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method Participants’ driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18 months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants’ KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Results Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c = −0.034, p = .09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a = −0.040, p = .09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a = −0.053, p = .03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b = 0.376, p = .02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c’ = −0.025, p = .20). Conclusions Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, suffered fewer CNC. Practical Applications Part of the variability in crash-risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage
Ehsani, Johnathon P; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Fox Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne; Perlus, Jessamyn G; O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G
Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate, and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants' KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c=-0.034, p=.09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a=-0.040, p=.09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a=-0.053, p=.03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b=0.376, p=.02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c'=-0.025, p=.20). Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, and suffered fewer CNC. Part of the variability in crash risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage drivers' personality into account when providing guidance, and establishing norms and
Mannie, Z N; Williams, C; Browning, M; Cowen, P J
Major depression is associated with abnormalities in reward processing at neural and behavioural levels. Neural abnormalities in reward have been described in young people at familial risk of depression but behavioural changes in reward-based decision making have been less studied in this group. We studied 63 young people (mean age 18.9 years) with a parent with a diagnosis of major depression but who had never been depressed themselves, that is with a positive family history of depression (the FH+ group). Participants performed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT), which provides several measures of decision making including deliberation time, quality of decision making, risk taking, risk adjustment and delay aversion. A control group of 49 age- and gender-matched young people with no history of mood disorder in a first-degree relative undertook the same task. Both FH+ participants and controls had low and equivalent scores on anxiety and depression self-rating scales. Compared to controls, the FH+ participants showed overall lower risk taking, although like controls they made more risky choices as the odds of a favourable outcome increased. No other measures of decision making differed between the two groups. Young people at increased familial risk of depression have altered risk taking that is not accounted for by current affective symptomatology. Lowered risk taking might represent an impairment in reward seeking, which is one of several changes in reward-based behaviours seen in acutely depressed patients; however, our findings suggest that decreased reward seeking could be part of a risk endophenotype for depression.
R.H.J.M. Staring (Richard)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Young adults heading for Syria to join the jihad and the safety risks associated with their return are currently a topic of debate in the Netherlands and in many other European countries. Around 120 Dutch citizens have gone abroad to join the jihad and the Dutch
Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I
Cross-sectional studies of adult males have shown that intelligence test score and educational level are inversely correlated to obesity. This study prospectively assessed whether school difficulties in the third school grade are related to the risk of overweight and obesity in young adulthood....... In 1974, body weight, height and social background were ascertained in 987 randomly-selected Copenhagen third graders. For each child, information about learning difficulties, scholastic proficiency, special education received, scholarly difficulties, reduced hearing, speech handicap, and speech...... or hearing education received was obtained. When the subjects were 20-21 years old, they reported their height and weight. The risk of being obese (above the 95th percentile of body mass index distribution) in young adulthood was assessed by logistic regression analysis taking social background, body mass...
Full Text Available Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.
Mitchell, Andrew B; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Sparks, Mary J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J
Body mass index has been associated with ischemic stroke in older populations, but its association with stroke in younger populations is not known. In light of the current obesity epidemic in the United States, the potential impact of obesity on stroke risk in young adults deserves attention. A population-based case-control study design with 1201 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of obesity and young onset ischemic stroke. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and ischemic stroke with and without adjustment for comorbid conditions associated with stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.94) although this increased risk was highly attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. These results indicate that obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke and suggest that this association may be partially mediated through hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with these conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Reed, Timothy A.; McKenna, Eileen M.
This paper presents the status of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) rulemaking efforts to risk-inform special treatment requirements that reside in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR Part 21, Part 50, and Part 100. The staff has prepared a proposed rulemaking to add a new section to 10 CFR Part 50 to provide an alternative set of requirements for treatment of structures, systems and components (SSCs), using a risk-informed categorization process to determine safety significance of the SSCs. These requirements can be voluntarily adopted by light-water reactor licensees and applicants. The proposed rule is based upon extensive interactions with stakeholders (including consideration of public comments on draft rule language made available on the NRC rulemaking web site), experience with pilot plants, and guidance development activities. The NRC staff expects that stakeholder input provided in response to the proposed rule issuance will be valuable and support the efforts to issue the final rule. (author)
Nielsen, Mette Lykke; Dyreborg, Johnny; Kines, Pete
Following the work of Bourdieu and Tannock the article argue that different groups of youth workers are highly distinct. Accordingly safety prevention among youth workers needs to be nuanced in ways that include the differences between their different conditions at the workplaces. The article...... presents a categorization of youth workers in retail into five distinct groups and it offers an insight into narratives of risk situations at work, as told by five different young employees. In this part the categorization is explored and expanded according to the situated ways of 'doing' risk and safety...
Dinc, Engin; Kilinc, Bekir Eray; Bulat, Muge; Erten, Yunus Turgay; Bayraktar, Bülent
To increase movement capacity and to reduce injury risk in young soccer players by implementing a special functional exercise program based on functional movement screen (FMS) and correctives. 67 young male athletes 14-19 years of age from a Super League Football Club Academy participated in the study. Functional movement patterns were evaluated with FMS assessment protocol. Deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotatory stability were examined in FMS. Considering the FMS scores the number of intervention and control groups were defined as 24 and 43, respectively. Intervention program was composed of 1 hr twice a week sessions in total of 12 weeks with 4 weeks of mobility, 4 weeks of stability, and 4 weeks of integration exercises. At the end of 12-week intervention and control groups were re-evaluated with FMS protocol. Contact and noncontact sports injuries recorded during one season. In intervention group there was statistically significant difference in increase in total FMS scores ( P effective injury prevention.
Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir
To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Jeffries, Jayne K; Lytle, Leslie; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Golden, Shelley; Aiello, Allison E; Linnan, Laura
To address chronic disease risk holistically from a behavioral perspective, insights are needed to refine understanding of the covariance of key health behaviors. This study aims to identify distinct typologies of young adults based on 4 modifiable risk factors of chronic disease using a latent class analysis approach, and to describe patterns of class membership based on demographic characteristics, living arrangements, and weight. Overall, 441 young adults aged 18-35 attending community colleges in the Minnesota Twin Cities area completed a baseline questionnaire for the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings study, a RCT. Behavioral items were used to create indicators for latent classes, and individuals were classified using maximum-probability assignment. Three latent classes were identified: 'active, binge-drinkers with a healthy dietary intake' (13.1%); 'non-active, moderate-smokers and non-drinkers with poor dietary intake' (38.2%); 'moderately active, non-smokers and non-drinkers with moderately healthy dietary intake' (48.7%). Classes exhibited unique demographic and weight-related profiles. This study may contribute to the literature on health behaviors among young adults and provides evidence that there are weight and age differences among subgroups. Understanding how behaviors cluster is important for identifying groups for targeted interventions in community colleges.
Etminan, Mahyar; Carleton, Bruce; Brophy, James M
The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of gynecomastia with risperidone in adolescent and young adult males. We created a cohort of males 15-25 years of age from the IMS LifeLink database, and conducted a case-control study within the cohort by identifying all new cases of gynecomastia. For each case, 10 controls were selected and matched to the cases by age, follow-up, and calendar times (cases and controls had the same follow up time and cohort entry date). Rate ratios (RR) for current use of risperidone were computed adjusting for potential confounding variables. First diagnosis of gynecomastia was made based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) for gynecomastia. There were 401,924 males ages 15-25 in the primary cohort. There were 1556 cases of gynecomastia and 15,560 corresponding controls. Current users of risperidone had approximately four times the risk of developing gynecomastia than non-users (RR=3.91, 95% CI=2.01-7.62). When the analysis was stratified to children and adolescents (≤18 years of age) taking risperidone, the risk of gynecomastia was five times higher than for non-users (RR=5.44, 95% CI=1.50-19.74). Risperidone is associated with an increase with the risk of gynecomastia in adolescent and young adult males.
Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel
Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Felix F. Widjaja
Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults
Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J; Martin, Aaron M; Bull, Sheana S
Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Young adults (N = 763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared with their nonsexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior, after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks after sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.
Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.
Adolescents attending special education for learning disabilities (SEL), special education for behavioural problems (SEB) and adolescents living in a residential youth care (RYC) institution present a complex risk profile including severe behavioural and emotional problems, deviant peer networks,
Wilhelm, Andrew; Choi, Changryol; Deitch, John
Background: The rate of early sport specialization in professional baseball players is unknown. Purpose: To report the incidence and age of sport specialization in current professional baseball players and the impact of early specialization on the frequency of serious injuries sustained during the players’ careers. We also queried participants about when serious injuries occurred, the players’ current position on the field, and their opinions regarding the need for young athletes to specializ...
Full Text Available Objectives:The role of personality in occupational specialty choices has been explored in many parts of the world. To our knowledge, there is a dearth of such studies in the Arab/Islamic population and Oman is no exception. This study aimed to explore the relationship between personality traits and specialty choice among residents of Oman Medical Specialty Board (OMSB. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among Omani resident physicians working under OMSB. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire–Revised was employed to quantify personality subtypes (e.g., psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism. Specialties were categorized as surgical, medical, and diagnostics as per standard of North American medical specialties. A total of 255 residents in 17 medical specialties participated in the study (m = 40.4%; f = 59.6% of 300 eligible subjects giving a response rate of 85.0%. Results: Respondents who had chosen surgical specialties scored significantly higher on the psychoticism subscale than those who had opted for medical and diagnostic specialties. As for individual specialties, orthopedic respondents had statistically significant higher mean scores on psychoticism and neuroticism compared to radiologists and psychiatrists who scored the lowest in the two personality traits, respectively. Conclusions: This study found statistically significant associations between personality traits and choices of specialty by young Omani doctors. We recommend more detailed studies that examine further psychological and cultural variables that are likely to affect the choices of specializations by young Omani professionals in both medical and non-medical fields.
Al-Alawi, Mohammed; Al-Sinawi, Hamed; Al-Husseini, Salim; Al-Adawi, Samir; Panchatcharam, Sathiya Murthi; Khan, Sahar; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan
The role of personality in occupational specialty choices has been explored in many parts of the world. To our knowledge, there is a dearth of such studies in the Arab/Islamic population and Oman is no exception. This study aimed to explore the relationship between personality traits and specialty choice among residents of Oman Medical Specialty Board (OMSB). A cross-sectional study was carried out among Omani resident physicians working under OMSB. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised was employed to quantify personality subtypes (e.g., psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism). Specialties were categorized as surgical, medical, and diagnostics as per standard of North American medical specialties. A total of 255 residents in 17 medical specialties participated in the study (m = 40.4%; f = 59.6%) of 300 eligible subjects giving a response rate of 85.0%. Respondents who had chosen surgical specialties scored significantly higher on the psychoticism subscale than those who had opted for medical and diagnostic specialties. As for individual specialties, orthopedic respondents had statistically significant higher mean scores on psychoticism and neuroticism compared to radiologists and psychiatrists who scored the lowest in the two personality traits, respectively. This study found statistically significant associations between personality traits and choices of specialty by young Omani doctors. We recommend more detailed studies that examine further psychological and cultural variables that are likely to affect the choices of specializations by young Omani professionals in both medical and non-medical fields.
Full Text Available Purpose . A quantitative analysis of biomechanical force interactions between the foot and the support when the athletes special tests. Material and methods . In the experiment involved 30 young athletes aged 7-8 years who are at the stage of initial training. Subjects performed four tests: jump up from their seats repulsion two feet, jump up and down with one foot repulsion run, stop step, jump stop. Results . As a result of studies to obtain quantitative values of reference indices interactions as the maximum reaction force impulse force, force gradient, the reference duration, and other interactions. Revealed that when jumping forward and upward to run and jump and step stops the horizontal component of force production is from 38 to 73 % of the resulting value. Conclusions . Significant power load on the musculoskeletal system and in particular the foot of young basketball players can lead to abnormalities in the foot. In connection with what the training process should include funds for the correction and prevention of foot function.
Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung
Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35–54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16–2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55–64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56–1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.
M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); S. Jedeloo (Susan); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W. Weimar (Willem)
textabstractBACKGROUND. Young adult renal transplant recipients may display patterns of behavior that affect graft survival. The present study aimed to identify young adults at risk for nonadherent behavior by investigating their attitudes about posttransplant health lifestyle. METHOD. A
Arteaga, Antonio; Bustos, Patricia; Soto, Rodrigo; Velasco, Nicolás; Amigo, Hugo
Physical activity (PA) has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. To quantify PA in young adults and to correlate it with cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed employing the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), to measure the PA of 983 randomly selected young adults from Valparaiso region born between 1974 and 1978. Its results were associated with levels of obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP- ATP III) RESULTS: Mean physical activity among men and women was 3731 ± 3923 and 1360 ± 2303 METs-minutes/week, respectively (p women and 21.5% of men had an insufficient level of physical activity (p men and 23.4% of women had an intense level of physical activity (p physical activity and insulin resistance. A high physical activity was protective, specially among men, against a low HDL cholesterol level and high triglyceride levels with Odds Ratios of 0.59 (confidence interval (CI): 0,35-0.98) and 0.49 (CI: 0,27-0,87) respectively, after adjusting for body mass index and age. In this sample, men had higher levels of physical activity, that was protective against insulin resistance and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors.
Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos A
The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults.
Diniz, Fernando, Comp.; Kropveld, Peter, Comp.
An exploratory study sought to examine the special educational needs of young people with disabilities preparing for the transition from school to adulthood. Major issues addressed were citizenship (social and life skills), the world of work, and recreation. Students aged 14 and above from several European countries who were perceived as having…
Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil; Hebron, Judith
Research has identified multiple risk factors for the development of behaviour difficulties. What have been less explored are the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple risks on behavioural outcomes, with no study specifically investigating these effects within a population of young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). Furthermore, it is unclear whether a threshold or linear risk model better fits the data for this population. The sample included 2660 children and 1628 adolescents with SEND. Risk factors associated with increases in behaviour difficulties over an 18-month period were summed to create a cumulative risk score, with this explanatory variable being added into a multi-level model. A quadratic term was then added to test the threshold model. There was evidence of a cumulative risk effect, suggesting that exposure to higher numbers of risk factors, regardless of their exact nature, resulted in increased behaviour difficulties. The relationship between risk and behaviour difficulties was non-linear, with exposure to increasing risk having a disproportionate and detrimental impact on behaviour difficulties in child and adolescent models. Interventions aimed at reducing behaviour difficulties need to consider the impact of multiple risk variables. Tailoring interventions towards those exposed to large numbers of risks would be advantageous. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Augimeri, Leena; Child Development Institute; Walsh, Margaret; Child Development Institute; Woods, Sarah; Child Development Institute; Jiang, Depeng; University of Manitoba
Centre for Children Committing Offences (CCCO), at Child Development Institute (CDI) in Toronto, Canada, developed Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL-20B for boys; EARL-21G for girls), for young children at-risk for future criminality. In this first EARL prospective longitudinal study, 573 boys and 294 girls who participated in SNAP®, a gender-specific evidencebased model for at-risk children (6-11 years), 8.2% of boys and 3.1% of girls had registered criminal offences at follow up (mean age 1...
Spencer, Michael D; Moorhead, T William J; Gibson, Rod J; McIntosh, Andrew M; Sussmann, Jessika E D; Owens, David G C; Lawrie, Stephen M; Johnstone, Eve C
Although neuroanatomical and cognitive sequelae of low birthweight and preterm birth have been investigated, little is understood as to the likely prevalence of a history of low birthweight or preterm birth, or neuroanatomical correlates of such a history, within the special educational needs population. Our aim was to address these issues in a sample of young people receiving additional learning support. One hundred and thirty-seven participants aged 13-22 years, receiving additional learning support, were recruited via their schools or colleges and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Obstetric records, available in 98 cases, included birthweight and gestational data in 90 and 95 cases, respectively. Both qualitative and quantitative voxel-based analyses of MRI data were conducted. A history of low birthweight and preterm birth was present in 13.3% and 13.7% of cases, respectively. Low birthweight and preterm birth were associated with specific qualitative anomalies, including enlargement of subarachnoid cisterns and thinning of the corpus callosum. Low birthweight was associated with reduced grey matter density (GMD) in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) bilaterally, left inferior temporal gyrus and left insula. Prematurity of birth was associated with reduced GMD in the STG bilaterally, right inferior frontal gyrus and left cerebellar hemisphere. Comparison of subjects with no history of low birthweight or preterm birth with a previously defined control sample of cognitively unimpaired adolescents (n = 72) demonstrated significantly greater scores for several anomalies, including thinning of the corpus callosum, loss of white matter and abnormalities of shape of the lateral ventricles. Although a two-fold increased prevalence of a history of low birthweight and preterm birth exists within the special educational needs population, other aetiological factors must be considered for the overwhelming majority of cases. Neuroanatomical findings
Manaf, Rosliza A; Shamsuddin, Khadijah
This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to determine the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with smoking among young urban women. A cross-sectional study through self-administered questionnaire was conducted on female students enrolled in private higher learning institutions in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia, between July and October 2005. Analysis on 408 respondents showed that current smoker prevalence rate was 18.6%. Adjusted analyses showed significant association between smoking and individual factors, which are the importance of slim image, average monthly allowance, and car ownership. For family factors, analyses showed significant association between smoking and parental marital status and smoking status of male siblings. Strong associations were seen between female smoking and environmental factors, such as having more smoker friends, having smokers as best friends, keeping cigarette-brand items, being offered free cigarette, and perceiving female smoking as normal. The identified risk factors could be used to develop more effective prevention programs to overcome smoking among young urban women.
The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.
Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Qadwai, Saad A; Shah, Jay; Sparks, Mary J; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Phipps, Michael S; Cronin, Carolyn A; Magder, Laurence S; Cole, John W; Kittner, Steven J
Although case reports have long identified a temporal association between cocaine use and ischemic stroke (IS), few epidemiological studies have examined the association of cocaine use with IS in young adults, by timing, route, and frequency of use. A population-based case-control study design with 1090 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of cocaine use and young-onset IS. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between cocaine use and IS with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Ever use of cocaine was not associated with stroke with 28% of cases and 26% of controls reporting ever use. In contrast, acute cocaine use in the previous 24 hours was strongly associated with increased risk of stroke (age-sex-race adjusted odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-18.6). Among acute users, the smoking route had an adjusted odds ratio of 7.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-35.0), whereas the inhalation route had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-16.9). After additional adjustment for current alcohol, smoking use, and hypertension, the odds ratio for acute cocaine use by any route was 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-19.7). Of the 26 patients with cocaine use within 24 hours of their stroke, 14 reported use within 6 hours of their event. Our data are consistent with a causal association between acute cocaine use and risk of early-onset IS. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne
In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.
Jamieson, Lisa M; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Sayers, S M
To determine dental caries risk indicators among a birth cohort of Australian Aboriginal young adults (n=442). Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Models representing demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural, dental service utilization and clinical oral health variables were tested using multivariate regression. The percent DT>0 was 72.9 (95% CI 68.7-77.1), mean DT was 4.19 (95% CI 3.8-4.6), percent DMFT>0 was 77.4 (95% CI 73.5-81.3) and mean DMFT was 4.84 (95% CI 4.4-5.3). After controlling for other covariates, risk indicators for percent DT>0 included soft drink consumption every day or a few times a week (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.45), not consuming milk every day or a few times a week (PR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.30) and sweet consumption every day or a few times a week (PR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33). Risk indicators for mean DT included sweet consumption every day or a few times a week (B=1.14, 95% CI 0.27-2.02), nonownership of a toothbrush (B=0.91, 95% CI 0.10-1.87) and presence of plaque (B=2.46, 95% CI 0.96-3.96). Those with 4 + occupants in their house the previous night had 1.2 times the prevalence of having DMFT>0 than their counterparts with less household occupants (95% CI 1.01-1.49). Percent DMFT>0 was also associated with consumption of soft drink every day or a few times a week (PR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.34) and consumption of sweets every day or a few times a week (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.37). Mean DMFT was higher among those who consumed sweets every day or a few times a week (B = 0.13, 95% CI 0.05-0.22) and who had dental anxiety (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.19). In an Australian Aboriginal young adult cohort, risk indicators for dental caries included social determinants such as household size, dietary behaviours such as regular consumption of soft drink and sweets, dental behaviour such as nonownership of a toothbrush and
Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.
Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…
I. L. Kukovska
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the university students’ views of possible situations and the reasons for the use of substances that can be addictive by their peers. So-called psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs, energy drinks can act as risk factors and contribute to the development of a number of socially significant diseases. The study did not provide for the study of the spread of harmful habits among young people, but only an analysis of the responses concerning the situation and the reasons for these phenomena. The study involved 137 students aged 17 to 21 years. It was found that the majority of respondents can not identify a single best reason, but pointed out a few of these reasons and situations. It is shown that in the opinion of young people, the freer use of psychoactive substances among young people is primarily promoted by visits to discos, meeting with friends who are on the background of the lack of interesting activities and hobbies, as well as the situation, accompanied by an insufficient level of adult supervision, including the holidays period. Analysis of the study results suggests a lack of skill level output from "uncomfortable" psychological situations among young people. The survey results indicate key influence of family and social environment on the degree of the risk-oriented behavior manifestation of young people. Taking into account the significant contribution of risk factors in the state of public health indicators, analysis of the processes of formation and perception of health risks among young people requires special attention. Conducting further systematic sociological studies, which will condition the direction and influence the quality of health preservation programs seems relevant and appropriate.
Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L; Loria, Catherine M; Colangelo, Laura A; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M
A low cardiovascular disease risk profile (untreated cholesterol risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with the presence of the low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study sample consisted of 3154 black and white participants 18 to 30 years of age at year 0 (1985-1986) who attended the year 0, 7, and 20 examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors defined at years 0, 7, and 20 included average body mass index risk profile at year 20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2%, and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 healthy lifestyle factors, respectively (P for trend risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve the adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults.
Tsubokawa, Hiroaki; Nagasaka, Toshinari; Sunaga, Yohei; Lee, Taiyoung; Taguchi, Hitoshi; Usuda, Yuichiro
The Society for Risk Analysis Japan built the special website that reply to the people who are concerning the risk related to the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. Although, there were many risk communication activities between the specialists of the risk research and citizens on the website, there are some significant problems for the risk communication using the website. This report summarizes the result of our activity. (author)
Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.
Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…
Molinaro, Annette M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Cartmel, Brenda; Loftfield, Erikka; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence is increasing, particularly in young people, and can be associated with significant morbidity and treatment costs. To identify young individuals at risk of BCC, we assessed existing melanoma or overall skin cancer risk prediction models and built a novel risk prediction model, with a focus on indoor tanning and the melanocortin 1 receptor gene, MC1R. We evaluated logistic regression models among 759 non-Hispanic whites from a case-control study of patients...
Vertermark, P; Russell, J; Mulvey, N
Since 1989 two Saint Paul, Minnesota agencies have carried on a collaborative effort called the Befriender Volunteer Project. This project is designed to address the risk factors associated with child abuse which are often inherent in families headed by an adolescent. Between November of 1993 and October of 1994 a self-study of this project was conducted. An important objective of this study was to determine how the positive elements of a successful relationship affected the risk factors in these young families. Consistent with what we know about the effects of successful helping relationships, most significant improvements in young mothers were found in the areas of hopefulness, self-esteem, and parenting skills. Of significant note was the observation of the various ways the Befriender/young mother relationship enhanced the young mothers' potential for breaking the generational cycle of risk for child abuse and neglect.
Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A
The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.
Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age group. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinemia seem to be the central pathophysiological mechanism that links PCOS to its associated metabolic derangements. Women with PCOS exhibit a number of risk factors for coronary artery disease. We studied risk of CVD using two surrogate markers, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Aims and objectives: To study cardiovascular disease risk in young women (18-35 years age with PCOS using CIMT and FMD. Materials and Methods: Sixty women with PCOS (age: 23.8 ± 4.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 23.5 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 were compared with 30 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (age: 26.3 ± 5.4 years; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 . Diagnosis of PCOS was made using the Rotterdam criteria. Fasting blood sample was analyzed for glucose, insulin, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWADP, and interleukin 6 (IL6. CIMT and FMD were performed. Results: PCOS patients had a higher waist to hip ratio (W/H [0.86 ± .07 vs. 0.80 ± .05] and free testosterone index (FTI [6.6 ± 6.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0] in comparison to controls. There was no difference in the two groups in lipid profile parameters and HOMA IR. CIMT was significantly higher (0.59 ± .1 mm vs. 0.50 ± .05 mm, P value <.001 and FMD lower (10.3 ± 3.9% vs. 15.2 ± 5.5%, P value < .001 in cases when compared to controls. FMD negatively correlated with W/H ratio (r: -0.257 and hsCRP (r: -0.347, while IMT showed positive correlation with IL6 (r: 0.325 and hsCRP (r: 0.303 and a negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein (HDL [r: -0.224], all P values < .05. Conclusions: Patients with PCOS have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by endothelial dysfunction manifested by increased CIMT and a lower FMD.
Tzivinikou, S.; Papoutsaki, K.
Teaching objectives in special education are different from those in the ordinary classroom. Educational programmes for special needs students are focused on individual learning, achievement and progress. Thus, the instruction in special education classrooms and resource rooms in inclusive schools has to be specific, directed and individualised.…
Lal, Shalini; Dell'Elce, Jennifer; Tucci, Natasha; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Tamblyn, Robyn; Malla, Ashok
Despite the potential and interest of using technology for delivering specialized psychiatric services to young adults, surprisingly limited attention has been paid to systematically assess their perspectives in this regard. For example, limited knowledge exists on the extent to which young people receiving specialized services for a first-episode psychosis (FEP) are receptive to using new technologies as part of mental health care, and to which types of technology-enabled mental health interventions they are amenable to. The purpose of this study is to assess the interest of young adults with FEP in using technology to receive mental health information, services, and supports. This study uses a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. A convenience sample of 67 participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were recruited from two specialized early intervention programs for psychosis. Interviewer-administered surveys were conducted between December 2013 and October 2014. Descriptive statistics are reported. Among the 67 respondents who completed the survey, the majority (85%, 57/67) agreed or strongly agreed with YouTube as a platform for mental health-related services and supports. The top five technology-enabled services that participants were amenable to were (1) information on medication (96%, 64/67); (2) information on education, career, and employment (93%, 62/67); (3) decision-making tools pertaining to treatment and recovery (93%, 62/67); (4) reminders for appointments via text messaging (93%, 62/67); and (5) information about mental health, psychosis, and recovery in general (91%, 61/67). The top self-reported barriers to seeking mental health information online were lack of knowledge on how to perform an Internet search (31%, 21/67) and the way information is presented online (27%, 18/67). Two thirds (67%; 45/67) reported being comfortable in online settings, and almost half (48%; 32/67) reported a preference for mixed formats when viewing mental health
Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer
Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336
Lauren E. Joly
Full Text Available Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45 of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61 of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability.
Owens David GC
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although neuroanatomical and cognitive sequelae of low birthweight and preterm birth have been investigated, little is understood as to the likely prevalence of a history of low birthweight or preterm birth, or neuroanatomical correlates of such a history, within the special educational needs population. Our aim was to address these issues in a sample of young people receiving additional learning support. Methods One hundred and thirty-seven participants aged 13–22 years, receiving additional learning support, were recruited via their schools or colleges and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Obstetric records, available in 98 cases, included birthweight and gestational data in 90 and 95 cases, respectively. Both qualitative and quantitative voxel-based analyses of MRI data were conducted. Results A history of low birthweight and preterm birth was present in 13.3% and 13.7% of cases, respectively. Low birthweight and preterm birth were associated with specific qualitative anomalies, including enlargement of subarachnoid cisterns and thinning of the corpus callosum. Low birthweight was associated with reduced grey matter density (GMD in the superior temporal gyrus (STG bilaterally, left inferior temporal gyrus and left insula. Prematurity of birth was associated with reduced GMD in the STG bilaterally, right inferior frontal gyrus and left cerebellar hemisphere. Comparison of subjects with no history of low birthweight or preterm birth with a previously defined control sample of cognitively unimpaired adolescents (n = 72 demonstrated significantly greater scores for several anomalies, including thinning of the corpus callosum, loss of white matter and abnormalities of shape of the lateral ventricles. Conclusion Although a two-fold increased prevalence of a history of low birthweight and preterm birth exists within the special educational needs population, other aetiological factors must be considered for
... recover loss. 370.8 Section 370.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special... temporary liquidity guarantee program, the Corporation shall impose an emergency special assessment on...
Full Text Available The aim of the Special Issue is to address some of the main challenges individuals and companies face in managing financial and actuarial risks, when dealing with their investment/retirement or business-related decisions [...
Mathur, Sanyukta; Higgins, Jenny A; Thummalachetty, Nityanjali; Rasmussen, Mariko; Kelley, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S
Compared to a large body of work on how gender may affect young women's vulnerability to HIV, we know little about how masculine ideals and practices relating to marriage and fertility desires shape young men's HIV risk. Using life-history interview data with 30 HIV-positive and HIV-negative young men aged 15-24 years, this analysis offers an in-depth perspective on young men's transition through adolescence, the desire for fatherhood and experience of sexual partnerships in rural Uganda. Young men consistently reported the desire for fatherhood as a cornerstone of masculinity and transition to adulthood. Ideally young men wanted children within socially sanctioned unions. Yet, most young men were unable to realise their marital intentions. Gendered expectations to be economic providers combined with structural constraints, such as limited access to educational and income-generating opportunities, led some young men to engage in a variety of HIV-risk behaviours. Multiple partnerships and limited condom use were at times an attempt by some young men to attain some part of their aspirations related to fatherhood and marriage. Our findings suggest that young men possess relationship and parenthood aspirations that - in an environment of economic scarcity - may influence HIV-related risk.
Benjamin W Domingue
Full Text Available To test transethnic replication of a genetic risk score for obesity in white and black young adults using a national sample with longitudinal data.A prospective longitudinal study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Sibling Pairs (n = 1,303. Obesity phenotypes were measured from anthropometric assessments when study members were aged 18-26 and again when they were 24-32. Genetic risk scores were computed based on published genome-wide association study discoveries for obesity. Analyses tested genetic associations with body-mass index (BMI, waist-height ratio, obesity, and change in BMI over time.White and black young adults with higher genetic risk scores had higher BMI and waist-height ratio and were more likely to be obese compared to lower genetic risk age-peers. Sibling analyses revealed that the genetic risk score was predictive of BMI net of risk factors shared by siblings. In white young adults only, higher genetic risk predicted increased risk of becoming obese during the study period. In black young adults, genetic risk scores constructed using loci identified in European and African American samples had similar predictive power.Cumulative information across the human genome can be used to characterize individual level risk for obesity. Measured genetic risk accounts for only a small amount of total variation in BMI among white and black young adults. Future research is needed to identify modifiable environmental exposures that amplify or mitigate genetic risk for elevated BMI.
Domingue, Benjamin W; Belsky, Daniel W; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; McQueen, Matthew B; Boardman, Jason D
To test transethnic replication of a genetic risk score for obesity in white and black young adults using a national sample with longitudinal data. A prospective longitudinal study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Sibling Pairs (n = 1,303). Obesity phenotypes were measured from anthropometric assessments when study members were aged 18-26 and again when they were 24-32. Genetic risk scores were computed based on published genome-wide association study discoveries for obesity. Analyses tested genetic associations with body-mass index (BMI), waist-height ratio, obesity, and change in BMI over time. White and black young adults with higher genetic risk scores had higher BMI and waist-height ratio and were more likely to be obese compared to lower genetic risk age-peers. Sibling analyses revealed that the genetic risk score was predictive of BMI net of risk factors shared by siblings. In white young adults only, higher genetic risk predicted increased risk of becoming obese during the study period. In black young adults, genetic risk scores constructed using loci identified in European and African American samples had similar predictive power. Cumulative information across the human genome can be used to characterize individual level risk for obesity. Measured genetic risk accounts for only a small amount of total variation in BMI among white and black young adults. Future research is needed to identify modifiable environmental exposures that amplify or mitigate genetic risk for elevated BMI.
Russell, Rhonda L.
This research focused on young adults who have disabilities and their transition and career planning for post-secondary life. The study sought to identify best practices in transition planning, transition planning services, and to determine the types of resources and support needed by young adults who have disabilities. For youth who have…
Donoghue, Christopher; Bonillas, Consuelo; Moreno, Jeniffer; Cardoza, Omara; Cheung, Melissa
Sexual and reproductive health indicators for young people in the USA have improved in recent decades, but teenage pregnancies remain high, and large differences between Whites and non-Whites persist in teenage births, abortions, and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Prior research shows that young people are receptive to…
Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret
Purpose: Heavy episodic drinking in young women has caused concern among many groups including public health professionals. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of young women's alcohol consumption so as to facilitate better health education targeting. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examines…
Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Mono, Marie-Luise; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Michel, Patrik; Odier, Celine; Sztajzel, Roman; Lyrer, Philippe; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo; Gensicke, Henrik; Traenka, Christopher; Tettenborn, Barbara; Weder, Bruno; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Jung, Simon; Luedi, Rudolf; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Weck, Anja; Cereda, Carlo W; Baumgartner, Ralf; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel
Ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults has been increasingly recognized as a serious health condition. Stroke aetiology is different in young adults than in the older population. This study aimed to investigate aetiology and risk factors, and to search for predictors of outcome and recurrence in young IS patients. We conducted a prospective multicentre study of consecutive IS patients aged 16-55 years. Baseline demographic data, risk factors, stroke aetiology including systematic genetic screening for Fabry disease and severity were assessed and related to functional neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS), case fatality, employment status, place of residence, and recurrent cerebrovascular events at 3 months. In 624 IS patients (60% men), median age was 46 (IQR 39-51) years and median NIHSS on admission 3 (IQR 1-8). Modifiable vascular risk factors were found in 73%. Stroke aetiology was mostly cardioembolism (32%) and of other defined origin (24%), including cervicocerebral artery dissection (17%). Fabry disease was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.3%). Aetiology remained unknown in 20%. Outcome at 3 months was favourable (mRS 0-1) in 61% and fatal in 2.9%. Stroke severity (p young adults with IS had modifiable vascular risk factors, emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. Outcome was unfavourable in more than a third of patients and was associated with initial stroke severity and diabetes mellitus. Previous cerebrovascular events predicted recurrent ones.
Huss, Ephrat; Magos, Michal
This study used drawing and semi-structured interviews to access the visions of self-actualisation of a group of at-risk young women in an employment support group in Israel. The findings point to the synergetic relationship between the self-defined goals of the young women such as inner peace, self-regulation, assertiveness, good relationships…
Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de
OBJECTIVE: Long-term data on recurrent vascular events after young stroke are limited. Our objective was to examine the long-term risk of recurrent vascular events after young stroke. METHODS: We prospectively included 724 consecutive patients with a first-ever transient ischemic attack (TIA),
Coping Strategies of young mothers at risk of HIV/AIDS in the Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... This qualitative study draws on interpretative principles with emphasis on understanding young mothers' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and explores coping strategies used to ...
Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.
Background A low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile (untreated cholesterol risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with presence of the low CVD risk profile in middle age. Methods and Results The CARDIA study sample consisted of 3,154 black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years at Year 0 (Y0, 1985-86) who attended the Year 0, 7 and 20 (Y0, Y7 and Y20) examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors (HLFs) defined at Y0, Y7 and Y20 included: 1) Average BMI risk profile at Y20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2% and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 HLFs, respectively (p-trend risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults. PMID:22291127
Full Text Available Purpose: to improve performance of special physical qualities of young tennis players at the stage of initial training. Material and Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature, test of physical fitness, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 11 women aged 7–8 years in the group of initial training. In the training sessions of physical training of young tennis players the game has been used teaching method. Results: to investigate the changes in the indices of physical fitness of young tennis players 7–8 years. Analyzed the impact of the development on the physical qualities of assimilation techniques. Pointed out that for the qualitative development of physical qualities necessary to use outdoor games and relay races. Revealed that the results of the physical fitness of young tennis players after the pedagogical experiment and had risen significantly different to those in the beginning of the study (P<0,05, except for indicators exercises "run on 18 meters". Conclusions: it was found that the use of training sessions on physical preparation of mobile games and relays increase the interest and motivation for tennis lessons for children in the group of initial training.
Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D
Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Delnevo, Cristine D.
Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Methods We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (ages 18–34)(n=2871)(including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to non-combustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22–33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and non-users of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being “less risky” and rate cigars and SLT as being “more risky” than older young adults. Conclusion The public’s views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type, and age group. While “less risky” perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are “more risky” than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. PMID:26304709
Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…
Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna
Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…
Lavrysen, Ann; Bertrands, Els; Leyssen, Leene; Smets, Lieve; Vanderspikken, Anja; De Graef, Peter
Recent research indicates that risk competence and perception can be improved through the learning environment. The project "Riscki" examined how risk perception and risk competence in young children between three and eight years of age can be observed and measured within the classroom and school context. An intensive package of…
Dragunov, Yu.G.; Banyuk, G.F.; Denisov, V.P.; Sorokin, S.R.; Safonova, M.A.; Prodon, D.G.
The texts of the reports at the Conference of the young specialists of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise GIDROPRESS Special Designers' Office (January 24-25, 2002, Podolsk) are presented. The subject field of the reports is related to the 0NPPs designing and operation. In particular, the following problems are discussed: the operational safety of the reactors and containers for the radioactive waste storage and transport; the analysis of the WWER-type reactor behavior under different emergency situations; the possibilities of increasing the service life of the reactors at the NPPs [ru
Genetic effects of radiation in man have been tractable such aspects as genes, chromosomes, genomes, individuals and populations. In spite of enormous interest from an academic view point on the mechanism studies, it is rather a little study on incidence or prevalence of genetic diseases as hereditary effects when human population in general have been exposed by radiation. Such studies are valuable for radiation protection as well as radiation public health. In this review, I have attempted to reconcile some fragments evidences to derive an important conclusion: the hereditary effects of radiation could not be detected from examination of disease incidence (or prevalence) for the genetic risk. (J.P.N.)
Copeland, Carol M
... . One such strain is the mobility of military families . Families who have children with special needs encounter specific challenges in managing mobility due to the geographically based differences in service delivery...
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify risk determinants of intimate hygiene (IH for young women (15–22 years regarding the protection and promotion of their sexual health. Design: The study was designed as a descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: A specially designed questionnaire was used – Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.747. The questionnaire was distributed to a sample of female students (n = 360 aged 15–22 years. The response rate was 76% (n = 275. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and the Chi-square (χ2 test (p < 0.05. Results: We identified the determinants of IH in terms of risky behavior, namely: complete hair removal in the intimate area (favored by 94.75%, non-performance of hygiene before and after sexual intercourse (SI (not performed prior to SI by 38.58%, and after SI by 34.36%, not changing a wet swimming costume for dry (not performed by 58.06%, and the wearing of unsuitable undergarments. We identified a statistically significant influence of education and age on certain determinants of IH: the use of special preparations to wash intimate areas while bathing, the wearing of thongs, the changing of wet swimsuits for dry, the frequency of changing tampons during menstruation, and the performance of IH before and after SI (p < 0.05. Younger respondents (15–18 years, and those with lower education demonstrated worse IH habits with respect to the study determinants, which may be associated with lower awareness. Conclusion: We identified possible risk determinants of IH that are associated with sexual health. Our study points toward the need to improve knowledge and habits regarding appropriate and safe IH, with special focus on the risk of vulvovaginal infections. Keywords: young women (15–22 years, Intimate hygiene, Intimate hygiene determinants, Risky behavior, prevention of vulvovaginal infections.
Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali
This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.
Some young people are labelled more "at-risk" of harming themselves through various behaviours, such as having sex, than others. However, such distinctions between young people are ambiguous, as youth itself is imagined as inherently risky. At-risk discourse has fuelled the existing links between youth and risk, and morality and risk. It…
Full Text Available There was analyzed and compared the nutritional posture of the young ostriches of different ages, reside at the farm “Anataction Investagro SRL” in conditions of Republic of Moldavia with offered pastures based on different normative dates and there was held the comparative analysis on the contends of food-value substances in them.
LARISA CAISÎN; NATALIA GROSU
There was analyzed and compared the nutritional posture of the young ostriches of different ages, reside at the farm “Anataction Investagro SRL” in conditions of Republic of Moldavia with offered pastures based on different normative dates and there was held the comparative analysis on the contends of food-value substances in them.
Gargiulo, Richard M.
Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…
Billings, Mary DeWitt
This annotated bibliography lists and describes books in the Educational Materials Review Center (EDMARC) collection for children and young adults which deal with some facet of mental health, physical handicaps, or family life. The mental health category includes books about retardation, severe depression, alcohol and drug abuse, suicide, dealing…
Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the health of young Sami in Sweden and the relationship between health and experience of negative societal treatment due to ethnicity, as well as socio-demographic background factors. Study design. Cross-sectional population-based questionnaire study. Methods. A total of 876 persons aged 18–28 and involved in Sami associated activities were addressed, and 516 (59% responded to a questionnaire investigating physical health, mental health, and stress. Data were analyzed with regard to gender, family situation, occupation, education, enculturation factors and experience of being badly treated because of ethnicity. Results. A majority of the young Sami reported feeling healthy, but close to half of the group reported often having worries, often forgetting things and often experiencing lack of time for doing needed things. Women and those living alone reported a more negative health. Furthermore, half of the group had perceived bad treatment because of Sami ethnicity, and this was negatively associated with some aspects of mental health. Conclusion. The young Sami had a rather good and possibly slightly better health than other young Swedes, except regarding worries and stress. A high degree of bad treatment due to Sami ethnicity and its negative association with health, may partly explain the high degree of some health problems.
Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Alexanderson, K; Westerlund, H; Lange, T
The aim of the present study was to investigate trajectories of suicide attempt risks before and after granting of disability pension in young people. The analytic sample consisted of all persons 16-30 years old and living in Sweden who were granted a disability pension in the years 1995-1997; 2000-2002 as well as 2005-2006 (n = 26,624). Crude risks and adjusted odds ratios for suicide attempt were computed for the 9-year window around the year of disability pension receipt by repeated-measures logistic regressions. The risk of suicide attempt was found to increase continuously up to the year preceding the granting of disability pension in young people, after which the risk declined. These trajectories were similar for women and men and for disability pension due to mental and somatic diagnoses. Still, the multivariate odds ratios for suicide attempts for women and for disability pension due to mental disorders were 2.5- and 3.8-fold increased compared with the odds ratios for men and disability pension due to somatic disorders, respectively. Trajectories of suicide attempts differed for young individuals granted a disability pension during 2005-2006 compared with those granted during 1995-1997 and 2000-2002. We found an increasing risk of suicide attempt up until the granting of a disability pension in young individuals, after which the risk decreased. It is of clinical importance to monitor suicide attempt risk among young people waiting for the granting of a disability pension.
Chliaoutakis, J E; Darviri, C; Demakakos, P T
Young drivers (18-24) both in Greece and elsewhere appear to have high rates of road traffic accidents. Many factors contribute to the creation of these high road traffic accidents rates. It has been suggested that lifestyle is an important one. The main objective of this study is to find out and clarify the (potential) relationship between young drivers' lifestyle and the road traffic accident risk they face. Moreover, to examine if all the youngsters have the same elevated risk on the road or not. The sample consisted of 241 young Greek drivers of both sexes. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Through the principal component analysis a ten factor scale was created which included the basic lifestyle traits of young Greek drivers. The logistic regression analysis showed that the young drivers whose dominant lifestyle trait is alcohol consumption or drive without destination have high accident risk, while these whose dominant lifestyle trait is culture, face low accident risk. Furthermore, young drivers who are religious in one way or another seem to have low accident risk. Finally, some preliminary observations on how health promotion should be put into practice are discussed.
Wood, Erin E.; Kennison, Shelia M.
We investigated how mothers’ parenting behaviors and personal characteristics were related to risk-taking by young children. We tested contrasting predictions from evolutionary and social role theories with the former predicting higher risk-taking by boys compared to girls and the latter predicting that mothers would influence children’s gender role development with risk-taking occurring more in children parented with higher levels of harshness (i.e., authoritarian parenting style). In our st...
Gerking, S.D.; Khaddaria, R.
Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14–22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk,
Singh, Avinainder; Collins, Bradley L; Gupta, Ankur; Fatima, Amber; Qamar, Arman; Biery, David; Baez, Julio; Cawley, Mary; Klein, Josh; Hainer, Jon; Plutzky, Jorge; Cannon, Christopher P; Nasir, Khurram; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Bhatt, Deepak L; Blankstein, Ron
Despite significant progress in primary prevention, the rate of MI has not declined in young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate statin eligibility based on the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for treatment of blood cholesterol and 2016 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for statin use in primary prevention in a cohort of adults who experienced a first-time myocardial infarction (MI) at a young age. The YOUNG-MI registry is a retrospective cohort from 2 large academic centers, which includes patients who experienced an MI at age ≤50 years. Diagnosis of type 1 MI was adjudicated by study physicians. Pooled cohort risk equations were used to estimate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score based on data available prior to MI or at the time of presentation. Of 1,685 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 210 (12.5%) were on statin therapy prior to MI and were excluded. Among the remaining 1,475 individuals, the median age was 45 years, there were 294 (20%) women, and 846 (57%) had ST-segment elevation MI. At least 1 cardiovascular risk factor was present in 1,225 (83%) patients. The median 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score of the cohort was 4.8% (interquartile range: 2.8% to 8.0%). Only 724 (49%) and 430 (29%) would have met criteria for statin eligibility per the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines and 2016 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations, respectively. This finding was even more pronounced in women, in whom 184 (63%) were not eligible for statins by either guideline, compared with 549 (46%) men (p adults who present with an MI at a young age would not have met current guideline-based treatment thresholds for statin therapy prior to their MI. These findings highlight the need for better risk assessment tools among young adults. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by
Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen; Trussell, Robert P.
This study investigated the past special education programs and services provided to children and youth who later became incarcerated. Participants in this study were inmates from a medium security state correctional facility in the southwest region of the United States. All inmates involved in this study were identified as having a disability and…
Dempsey, Ian; Valentine, Megan; Colyvas, Kim
Determining the effectiveness of many special education interventions is most difficult because of the practical and ethical limitations associated with assigning participants to a control or non-treated group. Using Longitudinal Study of Australian Children data, this article utilised eight different propensity score analysis methods to determine…
Intracardiac mass should be considered a possible risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adult, especially in the absence of other risk factors such as connective tissue disorders, HIV/AIDS, hemoglobinopathy or use of recreational drugs. High index of suspicion is required in order not to overlook such source of emboli.
Water, E. de; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Scheres, A.P.J.
Age-related differences in temporal discounting (TD) and risk taking, and their association, were examined in adolescents and young adults (n=337) aged 12-27years. Since monetary rewards are typically used in TD and risk-taking tasks, the association between monetary reward valuation and age and
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
Paulsen, David J; Platt, Michael L; Huettel, Scott A; Brannon, Elizabeth M
Adolescents often make risky and impulsive decisions. Such behavior has led to the common assumption that a dysfunction in risk-related decision-making peaks during this age. Differences in how risk has been defined across studies, however, make it difficult to draw conclusions about developmental changes in risky decision-making. Here, we developed a non-symbolic economic decision-making task that can be used across a wide age span and that uses coefficient of variation (CV) in reward as an index of risk. We found that young children showed the strongest preference for risky compared to sure bet options of equal expected value, adolescents were intermediate in their risk preference, and young adults showed the strongest risk aversion. Furthermore, children's preference for the risky option increased for larger CVs, while adolescents and young adults showed the opposite pattern, favoring the sure bet more often as CV increased. Finally, when faced with two gambles in a risk-return tradeoff, all three age groups exhibited a greater preference for the option with the lower risk and return as the disparity in risk between the two options increased. These findings demonstrate clear age-related differences in economic risk preferences that vary with choice set and risk. Importantly, adolescence appears to represent an intermediate decision-making phenotype along the transition from childhood to adulthood, rather than an age of heightened preference for economic risk.
Bucholz, Emily M.; Gooding, Holly C.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.
Introduction Young adults with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes are at increased risk of developing heart disease later in life. Despite emphasis on early screening, little is known about awareness of these risk factors in young adulthood. Methods Data from the nationally representative cross-sectional survey National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014 were analyzed in 2017 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported awareness of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes in U.S. young adults aged 18–39 years (n=11,083). Prevalence estimates were weighted to population estimates using survey procedures, and predictors of awareness were identified using weighted logistic regression. Results Among U.S. young adults, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes was 8.8% (SE=0.4%), 7.3% (SE=0.3%), and 2.6% (SE=0.2%), respectively. The prevalence of borderline high cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose were substantially higher (21.6% [SE= 0.6%], 26.9% [SE=0.7%], and 18.9% [SE=0.6%], respectively). Awareness was low for hypercholesterolemia (56.9% [SE=2.4%]) and moderate for hypertension and diabetes (62.7% [SE=2.4%] and 70.0% [SE=2.7%]); young adults with borderline levels of these risk factors were aware of their risk. Correlates of risk factor awareness included older age, insurance status, family income above the poverty line, U.S. origin, having a usual source of health care, and the presence of comorbid conditions. Conclusions Despite the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in U.S. young adults, awareness remains less than ideal. Interventions that target access may increase awareness and facilitate achieving treatment goals in young adults. PMID:29433955
Full Text Available Approximately 10% of young adults report non-medical use of stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, which puts them at risk for the development of dependence. This fMRI study investigates whether subjects at early stages of stimulant use show altered decision making processing.158 occasional stimulants users (OSU and 50 comparison subjects (CS performed a "risky gains" decision making task during which they could select safe options (cash in 20 cents or gamble them for double or nothing in two consecutive gambles (win or lose 40 or 80 cents, "risky decisions". The primary analysis focused on risky versus safe decisions. Three secondary analyses were conducted: First, a robust regression examined the effect of lifetime exposure to stimulants and marijuana; second, subgroups of OSU with >1000 (n = 42, or <50 lifetime marijuana uses (n = 32, were compared to CS with <50 lifetime uses (n = 46 to examine potential marijuana effects; third, brain activation associated with behavioral adjustment following monetary losses was probed.There were no behavioral differences between groups. OSU showed attenuated activation across risky and safe decisions in prefrontal cortex, insula, and dorsal striatum, exhibited lower anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsal striatum activation for risky decisions and greater inferior frontal gyrus activation for safe decisions. Those OSU with relatively more stimulant use showed greater dorsal ACC and posterior insula attenuation. In comparison, greater lifetime marijuana use was associated with less neural differentiation between risky and safe decisions. OSU who chose more safe responses after losses exhibited similarities with CS relative to those preferring risky options.Individuals at risk for the development of stimulant use disorders presented less differentiated neural processing of risky and safe options. Specifically, OSU show attenuated brain response in regions critical for performance monitoring
Тамара Василівна Говорун
Full Text Available Social and psychological factors of the appearance of young people of the "risk" group, the best practices of their resocialization have been determined. Children of vulnerable categories from young age have predispositions for acquiring properties and antisocial behavior caused by everyday stress in family life, conflict situations in school interaction. Youth is marked by lag in education, substance abuse, criminal acts, variance of exploitation. Psychocorrectional programs activate subjectivity of undergrads in anger management skills, education and communication
Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T
Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; padulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108
Siegerink, B; Maino, A; Algra, A; Rosendaal, F R
Myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke (IS) are acute forms of arterial thrombosis and share some, but not all, risk factors, indicating different pathophysiological mechanisms. This study aims to determine if hypercoagulability has a differential effect on the risk of MI and IS. We reviewed the results from the Risk of Arterial Thrombosis in Relation to Oral Contraceptives study, a population-based case-control study involving young women ( 1; for 12 (41%), it was > 2; and for 5 (17%), it was > 2.75. The five risk factors with the largest differences in associations were high levels of activated factor XI (FXI) and FXII, kallikrein, the presence of lupus anticoagulans, and a genetic variation in the FXIII gene. In young women, prothrombotic factors are associated more with the risk of IS than with MI risk, suggesting a different role of hypercoagulability in the mechanism leading to these two diseases. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Lawrence, Ryan E; Friesen, Phoebe; Brucato, Gary; Girgis, Ragy R; Dixon, Lisa
Genetic tests for schizophrenia may introduce risks and benefits. Among young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis, little is known about their concerns and how they assess potential risks. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis to ask about their concerns. Participants expressed concerns about test reliability, data interpretation, stigma, psychological harm, family planning, and privacy. Participants' responses showed some departure from the ethics literature insofar as participants were primarily interested in reporting their results to people to whom they felt emotionally close, and expressed little consideration of biological closeness. Additionally, if tests showed an increased genetic risk for schizophrenia, four clinical high-risk persons felt obligated to tell an employer and another three would "maybe" tell an employer, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. These findings suggest opportunities for clinicians and genetic counselors to intervene with education and support.
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.; Nederhof, Esther
Background Some adolescents function poorly in apparently benign environments, while others thrive despite hassles and difficulties. The aim of this study was to examine if adolescents with specialized skills in the recognition of either positive or negative emotions have a context-dependent risk of
Muller, Christoph Michael
Children and adolescents with aggressive and delinquent behaviours are often educated in special needs classes with others who exhibit the same kind of challenging behaviour. Beside the opportunities provided by this approach there are also risks, as several studies point to the problem of negative peer influence among this student population.…
The purpose of this study was to determine if special education and at-risk students educated exclusively in a school-within-a-school setting showed improved high-stakes standardized reading test scores after learning the strategic instruction model (SIM) inference strategy. This study was focused on four groups of eighth-grade students attending…
El-Missiry, Ahmed; Aboraya, Ahmed Sayed; Manseur, Hader; Manchester, Johnna; France, Cheryl; Border, Katherine
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness which poses a tremendous burden on the families, caregivers and the society. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of schizophrenia with a special attention to the clinically important risk factors such as drug abuse, hormonal factors and the new advances in genetic…
It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk ...
Albert, Steven M; Duffy, John
Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision-making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than younger adults (p Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision-making across the lifespan.
Skinner, Asheley C; Perrin, Eliana M; Moss, Leslie A; Skelton, Joseph A
The prevalence of severe obesity among children and young adults has increased over the past decade. Although the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is relatively low among children and young adults who are overweight or obese, those with more severe forms of obesity may be at greater risk. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from overweight or obese children and young adults 3 to 19 years of age who were included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2012 to assess the prevalence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors according to the severity of obesity. Weight status was classified on the basis of measured height and weight. We used standard definitions of abnormal values for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and fasting glucose and report the prevalence of abnormal values in children and young adults according to weight status. Among 8579 children and young adults with a body-mass index at the 85th percentile or higher (according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts), 46.9% were overweight, 36.4% had class I obesity, 11.9% had class II obesity, and 4.8% had class III obesity. Mean values for some, but not all, cardiometabolic variables were higher with greater severity of obesity in both male and female participants, and the values were higher in male participants than in female participants; for HDL cholesterol, the mean values were lower with greater severity of obesity. Multivariable models that controlled for age, race or ethnic group, and sex showed that the greater the severity of obesity, the higher the risks of a low HDL cholesterol level, high systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and high triglyceride and glycated hemoglobin levels. Severe obesity in children and young adults was associated with an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors
OVERWORKED , YOUNG, HOMOGENOUS, & MACHO TO FULFILL THE UNCONVENTIONAL DEMANDS OF THE LONG WAR? SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR...U.S. Joint Special Operations Forces: Two Few, Overworked , Young, Homogenous & Macho to Fulfill the Unconventional Demands of the Long War? 5a...to be the targets of nearly daily mortar, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and occasional suicide vehicle-borne IED (SVBIED) attacks. It
Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Cooney, Teresa M
In the USA, most pregnancies occurring to teenage women are unplanned, making both the decisions regarding their resolution and the consequences of those decisions important topics of inquiry. Substantial debate surrounds the potential consequences for young women of either carrying an unintended pregnancy to term or voluntarily terminating it. The present study utilises data from The US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health prospectively to examine the predictors of pregnancy resolution decisions in terms of young women's educational goals and their engagement in risk behaviours. Additionally, the long-term consequences of these decisions for education and risk-taking behaviours are identified. Results indicate that young women with strong educational goals have a greater likelihood of terminating an unintended pregnancy than those with low aspirations, and that pregnancy termination predicts higher educational attainment compared to motherhood. Risk behaviours did not predict pregnancy-resolution decisions, but young women who became mothers reported lower rates of subsequent substance use and fewer sexual partners post-pregnancy than those who terminated the pregnancy or who had never been pregnant. Motherhood appears to be a catalyst for lifestyle change among young women, limiting substance use and sexual partnering, in contrast to abortion, which appears to allow adolescents to continue risk-taking trajectories.
Cook, Emily C.; Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Connell, Arin M.; Connell, Christian M.
Latent transition analysis was used to identify patterns and trajectories of antisocial behavior (ASB) and their association with young adult outcomes in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 5,422; 53.9% female). Participants were on average 13.96 years of age (SD= 1.06) at wave 1 of the study. Latent class analysis identified four classes of ASB including a non-ASB class, an aggressive class, a petty theft class, and a serious ASB class. In general, youth who were classified as serious stable ASB were the most at risk for problematic functioning in young adulthood. Youth who escalated to more serious patterns of ASB or reduced involvement also were at greater risk of negative outcomes in young adulthood compared to stable non-ASB youth, although they generally fared better than youth involved in stable patterns of more serious ASB. Gender differences indicated that involvement in ASB was a greater risk factor for alcohol use among boys and a greater risk factor for depression among girls in young adulthood. Results are discussed in terms of the predictive validity of classes of ASB to functioning in young adulthood and the implications of this research for prevention efforts. PMID:24893667
Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker
Recent research suggests that psychosocial resources and life stressors are mediating pathways explaining socioeconomic variation in young adults' health risks. However, less research has examined both these pathways simultaneously and their genetic moderation. A nationally representative sample of 11,030 respondents with prospective data collected over 13 years from the National Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was examined. First, the association between early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and young adults' (ages 25-34) cardiometabolic disease risk, as measured by 10 biomarkers, through psychosocial resources (educational attainment) and life stressors (accelerated transition to adulthood) was examined. Second, moderation of these pathways by the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) was examined. There was evidence for the association between early socioeconomic adversity and young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through educational attainment and accelerated transitions. These direct and mediating pathways were amplified by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. These findings elucidate how early adversity can have an enduring influence on young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through psychosocial resources and life stressors and their genetic moderation. This information suggests that effective intervention and prevention programs should focus on early adversity, youth educational attainment, and their transition to young adulthood.
Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Pil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Sang-Cheol
The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence in young adult stone patients in Korea. The medical records of 1532 patients presenting with renal or ureteric stones at our stone clinic between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped according to age (young adult, 18-29 years; intermediate onset, 30-59 years; old age, ≥60 years) at first presentation, and measurements of clinicometabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence were compared. Overall, excretion of urinary stone-forming substances was highest in the intermediate onset group, followed by the young adult and old age groups. Importantly, excretion of urinary citrate was lowest in the young adult group. Kaplan-Meier analyses identified a significant difference between the three age groups in terms of stone recurrence (log rank test, p adult stone patients. Younger age (18-29 years) at first stone presentation was a significant risk factor for stone recurrence, and urinary citrate excretion was an independent risk factor affecting recurrence in this group. Metabolic evaluation and potassium citrate therapy should be considered for young adult stone patients to prevent recurrence.
Nov 8, 2010 ... This work ... The objectives of this study were (1) to identify sexual risk behaviour, (2) to establish the prevalence of substance use before sexual intercourse, .... translated into Xitsonga and back into English to ensure that the.
McCourt, Hannah J; Draffin, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C
Dietary pattern (DP) analysis allows examination of the combined effects of nutrients and foods on the markers of CVD. Very few studies have examined these relationships during adolescence or young adulthood. Traditional CVD risk biomarkers were analysed in 12-15-year-olds (n 487; Young Hearts (YH)1) and again in the same individuals at 20-25 years of age (n 487; YH3). Based on 7 d diet histories, in the present study, DP analysis was performed using a posteriori principal component analysis for the YH3 cohort and the a priori Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated for both YH1 and YH3 cohorts. In the a posteriori DP analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the 'healthy' DP were found to have lower pulse wave velocity (PWV) and homocysteine concentrations, the 'sweet tooth' DP were found to have increased LDL concentrations, and decreased HDL concentrations, [corrected] the 'drinker/social' DP were found to have lower LDL and homocysteine concentrations, but exhibited a trend towards a higher TAG concentration, and finally the 'Western' DP were found to have elevated homocysteine and HDL concentrations. In the a priori dietary score analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the Mediterranean diet were found to exhibit a trend towards a lower PWV. MDS did not track between YH1 and YH3, and nor was there a longitudinal relationship between the change in the MDS and the change in CVD risk biomarkers. In conclusion, cross-sectional analysis revealed that some associations between DP and CVD risk biomarkers were already evident in the young adult population, namely the association between the healthy DP (and the MDS) and PWV; however, no longitudinal associations were observed between these relatively short time periods.
BACKGROUND: As new treatment and research advances continue to improve the prognosis of cancer patients, oncologists and surgeons are increasingly faced with the issue of fertility protection and preservation. Cancer patients are frequently exposed to gonadotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy as a component of their treatment regimens. There are currently various anticipatory techniques available to women who wish to retain future reproductive ability, the most successful of which involves oocyte retrieval followed by in vitro fertilisation and embryo cryopreservation. Innovative methods include oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian follicle cryopreservation and oophoropexy. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine our combined experiences at Mayo General Hospital of treating female patients (<30 years) with non-gynaecologic malignancy and requiring referral to the HARI Unit during a 6-year period (2007-2012). Emphasis was placed on reviewing the fertility-preservation options available. METHODS: The hospital inpatient enquiry system was inspected for all cases of non-gynaecologic malignancy referred for fertility preservation from 2007 to 2012. RESULTS: Three cases of non-gynaecologic malignancy in young females, with an intention to protect and preserve future fertility were identified. The primary treatment plan did not initially incorporate input from a gynaecology or fertility specialist. It was after concerted inquiry and reflection by both physician and patient that oncofertility consultation was sought. CONCLUSION: The responsibility is on both physicians and surgeons to consider a more holistic approach to cancer care in young female patients, which focuses not only on the elimination of malignancy but also on preservation of fertility and quality of life.
Full Text Available Steven M Albert1, John Duffy21Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, 2Department of Economics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than the younger (P < 0.05 and had a higher discount rate (15.6%–21.0% versus 10.3%–15.5%, P < 0.01, indicating lower expected utility from future income. Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision making across the lifespan.Keywords: aging, decision making, risk, time preference, behavioral economics
Kohler, Christian G; Richard, Jan A; Brensinger, Colleen M; Borgmann-Winter, Karin E; Conroy, Catherine G; Moberg, Paul J; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Calkins, Monica E
A large body of literature has documented facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia. More recently, emotion perception has been investigated in persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis. This study compared emotion perception abilities in groups of young persons with schizophrenia, clinical high-risk, genetic risk and healthy controls. Groups, ages 13-25, included 24 persons at clinical high-risk, 52 first-degree relatives at genetic risk, 91 persons with schizophrenia and 90 low risk persons who completed computerized testing of emotion recognition and differentiation. Groups differed by overall emotion recognition abilities and recognition of happy, sad, anger and fear expressions. Pairwise comparisons revealed comparable impairments in recognition of happy, angry, and fearful expressions for persons at clinical high-risk and schizophrenia, while genetic risk participants were less impaired, showing reduced recognition of fearful expressions. Groups also differed for differentiation of happy and sad expressions, but differences were mainly between schizophrenia and control groups. Emotion perception impairments are observable in young persons at-risk for psychosis. Preliminary results with clinical high-risk participants, when considered along findings in genetic risk relatives, suggest social cognition abilities to reflect pathophysiological processes involved in risk of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shuhidan, Shuhaida Mohamed; Rahah Hamidi, Saidatul; Syazwani Saleh, Intan
The advancement of technology and the raise of smart devices ownership in Malaysia has eventually increase the exploration of mobile banking services. Mobile banking has been first commercialized in Malaysia on 2005 and expected to growth. Despite the exponential growth, the mobile banking penetration rate is slow compared to online banking. This study aims to highlight the issues and challenges of mobile banking and to have insight on young adulthood perceived risk towards mobile banking, specifically in Malaysia. In order to support the exploratory study, these risks are surveyed in quantitative study conducted among young adulthood in Malaysia. The self-administered questionnaire distributed through email with 384 respondents indicated that the most impacted facets perceiveed risks are performance risk, following by security risk. The results of this study can be used by the practitioner to address the customer challenges, customer interest and concern for mobile banking service improvement.
Lundgren, M; Morgården, E; Gustafsson, J
Overweight and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There is also an association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability. Since low birth weight is associated with adult metabolic disease, particularly in obese subjects, the question emerges whether obesity has an additional negative effect on cognitive function in subjects with low birth weight. The aim was to analyse whether overweight or obesity influence intellectual performance in young adults with particular focus on those with a low birth weight. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 620,834 males born between 1973 and 1988 and matched to results on intellectual performance and BMI at conscription. The risk for low intellectual performance was higher for those with high BMI compared to those with normal. The highest risk was found among subjects with low birth weight and overweight or obesity in young adulthood (odds ratios, 1.98 [1.73-2.22] and 2.59 [2.00-3.34], respectively). However, subjects with further high birth weight and a high BMI at conscription had no further increased risk. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of subnormal intellectual performance in young adult males. Subjects with low birth weight and adolescent overweight/obesity are at particular risk of subnormal performance. A high birth weight increases the risk for obesity, but a high adult BMI does not further increase the risk for subnormal performance. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Hall, Randon; Barber Foss, Kim; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D
To determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (N = 546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools and 4 high schools. A total of 357 multisport and 189 single-sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer, and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain (PFP) on physical exam. Testing consisted of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of PFP. This study compared self-reported multisport athletes with sport-specialized athletes participating in only 1 sport. The sports-participation data were normalized by sport season, with each sport accounting for 1 season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multisport athletes. Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.0-2.2, P = .038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/ patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) and Osgood Schlatter disease (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) demonstrated a 4-fold greater relative risk in single-sport compared with multisport athletes. Incidence of other specific PFP diagnoses such as fat pad, plica, trauma, pes anserine bursitis, and iliotibial-band tendonitis was not different between single-sport and multisport participants (P > .05). Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee-pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared with multisport athletes.
Full Text Available Objectives. Reports on young patients with ischemic stroke from Eastern Europe have been scarce. This study aimed to assess risk factors and etiology of first-ever and recurrent stroke among young Estonian patients. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged 18–54 years who were treated in our two hospitals from 2003 to 2012. Results. We identified 741 patients with first-ever stroke and 96 patients with recurrent stroke. Among first-time patients, men predominated in all age groups. The prevalence of well-documented risk factors in first-time stroke patients was 83% and in the recurrent group 91%. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension (53%, dyslipidemia (46%, and smoking (35%. Recurrent stroke patients had fewer less well-documented risk factors compared to first-time stroke patients (19.8 versus 30.0%, P=0.036. Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of cardioembolic strokes (48% and large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was the cause in 8% among those aged <35 years. Compared to first-time strokes, recurrent ones were more frequently caused by LAA (14.3 versus 24.0%, P=0.01 and less often by other definite etiology (8.5 versus 1.0%, P=0.01. Conclusions. The prevalence of vascular risk factors among Estonian young stroke patients is high. Premature atherosclerosis is a cause in a substantial part of very young stroke patients.
Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian
= 435) followed for up to 12 years. Adiposity, blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glucose, insulin, and self-reported TV viewing and computer use were obtained in adolescence and in young adulthood. A continuous metabolic syndrome z-score was calculated as the sum...... of standardized values of each risk factor (inverse of HDL). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, TV viewing and total screen time in adolescence were positively associated with adiposity, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome z-score in young adulthood (p ..., computer use, or total screen time with more than 2 hours/day from adolescence to young adulthood had 0.90 (95% CI 0.12 to 1.69), 0.95 (95% CI 0.01 to 1.88), and 1.40 (95% CI 0.28 to 2.51) kg/m(2) higher body mass index, respectively, in young adulthood compared with individuals who remained stable...
Brown, Adrienne; Yung, Alison; Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Killackey, Eóin; Buckby, Joe; Stanford, Carrie; Godfrey, Katherine; McGorry, Patrick
Young people may place themselves and others at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and/or the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through engaging in unprotected sex. Mental health problems may play an important role in sex-related risk behaviour. The current research was an investigation of depressed mood and condom use in a help-seeking sample of young people in Melbourne, Australia. The sample comprised 76 sexually active young people aged 15-24 years who were referred to ORYGEN Youth Health, a public mental health service in Melbourne, Australia. Controlling for demographic characteristics and substance use, multivariate logistic regression examined depressed mood as a predictor of condom use at last sexual intercourse. Half of the sample reported condom use the last time they had sexual intercourse. Depressed mood, female gender and unemployment increased the likelihood that participants engaged in unprotected sex. A high proportion of young people, particularly those who are depressed, are failing to protect themselves from STI/HIV. Mental health services working with young people have the opportunity to implement initiatives aimed at reducing risk of STI/HIV infection.
Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K
Low aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK))) is predictive for poor health in adults. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed if VO(2PEAK) is related to a composite risk factor score for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 243 children (136 boys and 107 girls) aged 8 to 11 years. VO(2PEAK...
Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Bates, Ann; Berne, Jennifer; Bridgman, Teresa; Chaney, Jeanne; Perney, Jan
This study examined the ways in which 18 first-grade teachers and their students in 11 high-risk urban schools began to use literacy-focused technology. The goal of the study was to observe the technology in use by the students, to observe the classroom dynamics and teachers' instructional choices centered around technology use, to look at student…
Examines the contemporary rationales of parents placing their preschool children in organized sports, including: (1) earlier is better; (2) parent peer pressure; (3) contemporary dangers; and (4) learning of self confidence, self esteem, cooperation and competition. Finds little value and much risk in engaging children at an early age in organized…
Charlton, Brittany M; Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Calzo, Jerel P; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S Bryn
Young women who are sexual minorities (eg, bisexual and lesbian) are approximately twice as likely as those who are heterosexual to have a teen pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that risk factors for teen pregnancy would vary across sexual orientation groups and that other potential risk factors exist that are unique to sexual minorities. We used multivariable log-binomial models gathered from 7120 young women in the longitudinal cohort known as the Growing Up Today Study to examine the following potential teen pregnancy risk factors: childhood maltreatment, bullying victimization and perpetration, and gender nonconformity. Among sexual minorities, we also examined the following: sexual minority developmental milestones, sexual orientation-related stress, sexual minority outness, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual social activity involvement. Childhood maltreatment and bullying were significant teen pregnancy risk factors among all participants. After adjusting for childhood maltreatment and bullying, the sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparities were attenuated; these risk factors explained 45% of the disparity. Among sexual minorities, reaching sexual minority developmental milestones earlier was also associated with an increased teen pregnancy risk. The higher teen pregnancy prevalence among sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals in this cohort was partially explained by childhood maltreatment and bullying, which may, in part, stem from sexual orientation-related discrimination. Teen pregnancy prevention efforts that are focused on risk factors more common among young women who are sexual minorities (eg, childhood maltreatment, bullying) can help to reduce the existing sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparity. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cheney, Ann M; Ostrach, Bayla; Marcus, Ruthanne; Frank, Cynthia; Ball, Cassandra; Erickson, Pamela I
In this study we examined how social processes, specifically the acquisition of postsecondary education and capital, shaped perceptions of sexual risk and impacted sexual practices and sexual health among young adults. Using qualitative research methods we collected and analyzed data among students attending a 4-year university in the northeastern region of the United States over a 1-year period. By analyzing participants' narratives, we found that the reproduction of shared norms and values encouraged educated young adults to focus on educational and professional success, pressing many of them to be concerned about preventing pregnancy rather than preventing disease transmission, and increasing their risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Sexual-health educators need to address how social processes shape sexual practices, encourage educated young adults to challenge unequal gender expectations, and consider how sexually transmitted infections might also interfere with life plans. © The Author(s) 2014.
Putaala, Jukka; Haapaniemi, Elena; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut
We aimed to explore clinical features of young patients with ischemic stroke with no traditional vascular risk factors and to assess the impact of risk factor counts on outcomes. We included 990 patients aged 15 to 49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke followed for a mean of 9.0 ± 3.8 years (survivors). Risk factors were categorized as well-documented and less well-documented. Outcome measures were unfavorable functional outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale 2-6); recurrent ischemic stroke; myocardial infarction or other arterial noncerebrovascular event; and death from any cause. Compared with those with at least 1 well-documented risk factor, the 127 (12.8%) patients without risk factors were younger (median age, 37 versus 44 years; Pischemic strokes (4.7% versus 13.6%; log rank P=0.014), noncerebrovascular arterial events (0% versus 6.1%; P=0.008), and lower long-term mortality (3.4% versus 14.3%; P=0.003) than did those with at least 1 risk factor. Adjusted for demographics and stroke etiology, the number of well-documented risk factors was associated with higher risk for noncerebrovascular events. Increasing count of less well-documented risk factors was, in turn, independently associated with higher long-term mortality. In young adults with first-ever ischemic stroke, risk factor counts added independent prognostic information regarding noncerebrovascular events and mortality.
Chang, Edward C; Wan, Liangqiu; Li, Pengzi; Guo, Yuncheng; He, Jiaying; Gu, Yu; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Zhan; Sun, Yingrui; Batterbee, Casey N-H; Chang, Olivia D; Lucas, Abigael G; Hirsch, Jameson K
This study examined loneliness and future orientation as predictors of suicidal risk, namely, depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, in a sample of 228 college students (54 males and 174 females). Results of regression analyses indicated that loneliness was a significant predictor of both indices of suicidal risk. The inclusion of future orientation was found to significantly augment the prediction model of both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, even after accounting for loneliness. Noteworthy, beyond loneliness and future orientation, the Loneliness × Future Orientation interaction term was found to further augment both prediction models of suicidal risk. Consistent with the notion that future orientation is an important buffer of suicidal risk, among lonely students, those with high future orientation, compared to low future orientation, were found to report significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Some implications of the present findings for studying both risk and protective factors associated with suicidal risk in young adults are discussed.
Manjunath, Dinaker; Uthappa, Chengapp Kechamada; Kattula, Sri Rama; Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Chava, Nalini; Oruganti, Ganesh
We estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults (18-25 years) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), Internation Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Indian consensus statement criteria. We included 473 urban young adults through simple random sampling methodology to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated to be 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-5.8], 6.6% (95% CI 4.6-9.1), and 8.7% (95% CI 6.4-11.6) using the NCEP ATP III, IDF, and Indian consensus statement criteria, respectively. Men had significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides, whereas mean concentrations of both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol were significantly higher among women. Low HDL-C (38.9%), high blood pressure (26%), and central obesity (16.1%) were the most common component risk factors. Although less than 4% of normal weight adults met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, rates increased in overweight individuals and reached a prevalence of 87% in the obese participants. In all, 61.3% of the total population had one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among urban young adults in India, and it increased with increase in body mass index (BMI). Each component risk factor in isolated form-increased BMI, smoking, and history of hypertension--is an associated risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Although it is unclear whether metabolic syndrome screening in young Indians as a means to prevent adverse cardiovascular health outcomes is appropriate, healthy lifestyles should nevertheless be encouraged, and young adults should be considered as an important group for cardiovascular risk reduction programs.
Aravind S.K. Ramanathan
Full Text Available Background: Since the data of primary hypertension (HT in children is scanty in India, this study attempted to evaluate HT by a multidimensional investigation of the various risk factors in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 3906 subjects were recruited, all of whom lived in Chennai, an urban area of Tamil Nadu. The children and adolescents aged from 10 to 17 years were selected by random sampling. The children/adolescents were randomized into one control and further divided into two groups. The National High Blood Pressure Education Program fourth report (2004 and anthropometric body mass index (BMI, food frequency questionnaire (PURE were followed in the study. Results: Out of 3906 children, 2107 were girls and 1799 boys. On screening, we found 9.5% to be hypertensive with the prevalence rate of boys and girls 8% and 10.8%, respectively. Overall obesity was 2.7%, (boys 2%, girls 3.32%; hypertensives and normotensives were 8.4% and 2.1%, respectively. We found that overweight (odds ratio [OR]: 2.06 [1.40-3.01] 95% confidence interval [CI], obese children (OR: 1.21 [2.72-6.48] 95% CI, and those with a family history of HT (OR: 1.66 [1.20-2.30] 95% CI had increased risk of hypertension. Females were 1.39 times (OR: 1.39 [1.11-1.72] 95% CI more at risk of getting HT. Multivariate analysis showed that obese children/adolescent were four times more likely to have HT than children with normal BMI (OR: 4.67 [3.00-7.26] 95% CI]. Conclusion: Family history of HT, obesity, and female gender are associated with a high risk of HT. The prevalence of HT was higher among obese adolescents than among slender subjects. This may be related to their sedentary lifestyle, faulty eating habits, high fat content in the diet and little physical activity.
Pek, Simon; Turner, Nick; Tucker, Sean; Kelloway, E Kevin; Morrish, Jayne
Injunctive safety norms (ISNs) refer to perceptions of others' expectations of one's safety-related conduct. Drawing on a sample of Canadian young workers (n=11,986;M age=17.90years; 55% males), we study the relationships among four sources of non-work-related (i.e., parents, siblings, friends, teachers), two sources of work-related (i.e., supervisors, co-workers) ISNs, young workers' self-reported work-related risk-taking behaviors, and workplace injuries. Structural equation modeling suggests that ISNs from parents, supervisors, and co-workers were related to less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors, and with fewer workplace injuries via less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors. In addition, ISNs from supervisors were directly associated with fewer workplace injuries. In contrast, ISNs from teachers and siblings were not associated with work-related risk-taking behaviors, but ISNs from siblings were associated with fewer work injuries. Finally, ISNs from friends were associated with more frequent work-related risk-taking and more frequent work injuries via more frequent work-related risk-taking. This study draws attention to the relative roles of non-work sources of social influence and provides some evidence of how ISNs might be related to young workers' work-related risk-taking behaviors and their workplace injuries. It also contributes to practice by suggesting specific interventions that parents, supervisors, and co-workers could undertake to reduce young workers' work-related risk-taking and workplace injuries, namely encouraging youth to be safe at work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Pedersen, K E
This study was designed to assess any changes in mononuclear leucocytes from young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension and to determine whether any changes found were associated with borderline hypertension and/or heredity. To this end we used mononuclear leucocytes......, and especially in those borderline hypertensives with at least one hypertensive parent. The latter group was also the group at greatest risk of developing essential hypertension....
E. Rietveld (Edwin)
textabstractRespiratory syncytial virus is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Although almost all children are infected before the age of two years, less than 2% develop severe disease necessitating hospitalisation. Risk factors for severe RSV
Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual ...
Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Lee, Jae Hoon
A latent profile analysis of 323 economically and academically at-risk adolescent and young adult learners yielded two classes: an average literacy class (92%) and a low literacy class (8%). The class profiles significantly differed in their word reading and math skills, and in their processing speeds and self-reported learning disabilities. The…
Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.
Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…
Korn, Liat; Bonny-Noach, Hagit
Deviant and health risk behaviors among young-adults are associated with many adverse outcomes. This study aims to evaluate a broad variety of behaviors by gender differences and their contribution to predicting cannabis use in undergraduate students. This research is based on a structured, self-reported anonymous questionnaire distributed to 1,432 young adult undergraduate students at an Israeli University, 533 males and 899 females (mean age 27.4; SD 6.01). The findings demonstrate a significant proportion of sampled young adults reported to be involved in deviant and health risk behaviors and that all risky behaviors were more frequently significant in males than in females. Among drivers 72% reported speeding, 60% reported failure to keep distance, 44% reported being involved at a car accident as a driver, 40% reported not stopping at a stop sign, and quarter reported driving after drinking alcohol. These findings also expand how certain risk behaviors contribute to predicting cannabis use. The relatively high prevalence of some of these risky behaviors among normative young adults suggests that risky behaviors are considered as normative behavior for this group, especially among man, and therefore, policymakers need to consider prevention and harm reduction interventions relevant to this risk group.
Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Parette, Howard P.
A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) on sight word recognition by young children identified as "at risk" for academic and social-behavior difficulties. Ten pre-primer and 10 primer Dolch words were presented to 23 students in the intervention group and 8 students in the…
Knight, Andrea M; Trupin, Laura; Katz, Patricia; Yelin, Edward; Lawson, Erica F
To compare major depression risk among young adults with juvenile-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to determine demographic and health-related predictors of depression. Young adults with SLE ages 18-45 years (n = 546) in the Lupus Outcomes Study completed annual telephone surveys from 2002-2015, including assessment of depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and self-report measures of sociodemographics and health characteristics. Juvenile-onset SLE was defined as age adult-onset SLE. Older age, lower educational attainment, and physical function, higher disease activity, and a history of smoking were associated with an increased depression risk. Juvenile-onset SLE patients had a higher risk of major depression across all educational groups. Young adults with SLE, particularly those with juvenile-onset disease, are at high risk for major depression, which is associated with increased disease activity, poorer physical functioning, and lower educational attainment. Early depression intervention in young adults with SLE has the potential to improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.
van Abeelen, Annet F. M.; Elias, Sjoerd G.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.
The developmental origins hypothesis proposes that undernutrition during early development is associated with an increased type 2 diabetes risk in adulthood. We investigated the association between undemutrition during childhood and young adulthood and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. We studied 7,837
Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L
OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS: In this...
Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.
Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…
Determinants of Self-Perceived HIV Risk in Young South Africans Engaged in Concurrent Sexual Relationships. C Kenyon, S Zondo, M Badri. Abstract. Concurrent sexual partnerships are increasingly believed to be a key factor explaining the size of the HIV pandemic in Southern and Eastern Africa. Little, however, is ...
Razali, Muzafar Mohd; Kliewer, Wendy
This study investigated risk and protective factors for recreational and hard drug use in Malaysian adolescents and young adults. Participants (n = 859; M age = 17.24 years, SD = 2.75 years, range = 13-25 years; 59% male) were recruited from secondary schools, technical colleges, a juvenile detention center and a national training center in Malaysia. A version of the Communities That Care survey validated for use in Malaysia (Razali & Kliewer, 2015) was used to assess study constructs. One in 6 adolescents and 1 in 3 young adults reported lifetime recreational and hard drug use, with greater use reported by males across all drug categories. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the strongest risk and protective factors for recreational and hard drug use. The overall pattern of findings was similar for recreational and hard drug use. Shared risk factors for lifetime recreational and hard drug use included early initiation of antisocial behavior, peer antisocial behavior, and peer reinforcement for engaging in antisocial behavior; shared protective factors included religious practices and opportunities for prosocial school involvement. Multiple group analyses comparing adolescents and young adults indicated that patterns of risk and protective factors predicting drug use differed across these age groups. There were fewer significant predictors of either recreational or hard drug use for young adults relative to adolescents. Results suggest that interventions should target multiple microsystems (e.g., peer groups, family systems, school environments) and be tailored to the developmental stage of the individual. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Geber, Sarah; Baumann, Eva; Klimmt, Christoph
Speeding is one of the most relevant risk behaviors for serious and fatal accidents, particularly among young drivers. This study presents a tailoring strategy for anti-speeding communication. By referring to their motivational dispositions toward speeding derived from motivational models of health behavior, young car drivers were segmented into different risk groups. In order to ensure that risk communication efforts would actually be capable to target these groups, the linkage between the risk profiles and communication preferences were explored. The study was conducted on the basis of survey data of 1168 German car drivers aged between 17 and 24 years. The data reveal four types of risk drivers significantly differing in their motivational profiles. Moreover, the findings show significant differences in communication habits and media use between these risk groups. By linking the risk profiles and communication preferences, implications for tailoring strategies of road safety communication campaigns are derived. Promising segmentation and targeting strategies are discussed also beyond the current case of anti-speeding campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seyednasrollah, Fatemeh; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pitkänen, Niina; Juonala, Markus; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma; Kelly, Tanika; Li, Changwei; Bazzano, Lydia; Elo, Laura L; Raitakari, Olli T
Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Early prediction of obesity is essential for prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the use of childhood clinical factors and the genetic risk factors in predicting adulthood obesity using machine learning methods. A total of 2262 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in YFS (Young Finns Study) were followed up from childhood (age 3-18 years) to adulthood for 31 years. The data were divided into training (n=1625) and validation (n=637) set. The effect of known genetic risk factors (97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) was investigated as a weighted genetic risk score of all 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS97) or a subset of 19 most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS19) using boosting machine learning technique. WGRS97 and WGRS19 were validated using external data (n=369) from BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study). WGRS19 improved the accuracy of predicting adulthood obesity in training (area under the curve [AUC=0.787 versus AUC=0.744, P obesity. Predictive accuracy is highest among young children (3-6 years), whereas among older children (9-18 years) the risk can be identified using childhood clinical factors. The model is helpful in screening children with high risk of developing obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available Young people with cystic fibrosis (CF are asked to avoid a number of environments associated with increased infection risk, but in practice they need to balance this with competing priorities such as building and sustaining relationships with friends and family. This study explored the process by which young people make these decisions. Mixed methods were used: a vignette study presenting choices around engaging in activities involving a degree of infection risk and a thematic analysis of participant's accounts of their decision making. The eight participants chose to engage in high risk behaviours in 59% of the choices. All participants chose to engage in at least one risky behavior, though this was less likely when the risk was significant. Thematic analysis revealed large areas of misunderstanding and lack of knowledge, leading to some potentially worrying misconceptions about the nature of infections and risk. Young people with CF are not currently making informed decisions around activities that involve increased risk of infection, and there is an urgent need for CF teams to address this in information provision.
Gustavsen, S; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Oturai, D B
and found that shift work at young age is associated with an increased risk of developing MS. In this study we focused on the effect of shift work in the vulnerable period between 15-19 years. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between shift work at young age and the risk...
Conclusion: In young MI cases conventional risk factors like diabetes mellitus, hypertension play less important role as compared to old individuals. Smoking and novel emerging risk factors like hyperhomocysteinemia, protein C & S deficiency play much prominent role in young patients with MI.
Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.
The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…
emotional language to convey information on risk reduction. Common myths concerning transmission are presented and the audience is specifically told that...current study include: ’Can contact with semen (cum) from the penis result In AIDS?’,’ Can a person get AIDS from vaginal fluids in a woman’s vagina ? Can...hands. It doesn’t like being exposed to sunlight or air. Female: The AIDS virus lives inside the human body, in the blood, in a woman’s vagina and
Borschmann, Rohan; Stark, Patrick; Prakash, Chidambaram; Sawyer, Susan M
Self-harm and suicidal behaviour is most prevalent during adolescence, but little is known about the risk profile of adolescents admitted to hospital for suicidal behaviour. Young people who self-harm are at an increased risk of mortality compared to those who do not self-harm; adolescents admitted to hospital for suicidal behaviour are particularly at risk. The aim of this study was to generate a risk profile of adolescents admitted to hospital with suicidal behaviour. We conducted a 12-month retrospective audit of adolescent admissions to the mental health inpatient unit at a tertiary children's hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Routinely collected data were used to generate a risk profile. We found that 212 of 271 (78.2%) admissions were due to suicidal behaviour. Of these, 107 (51%) adolescents were diagnosed with one or more mental disorders at discharge, most commonly major depressive disorder. Beyond known distal determinants of health risk, the proximal risk profile of these adolescents included factors relating to gender, substance use, prior mental health diagnoses and prior admission to hospital. Poor sleep was also a risk factor, with 159 (75%) reporting a recent history of sleeping problems. The very high proportion of admissions to the mental health inpatient unit due to suicidal behaviour reinforces the importance of finding effective methods of identification of the risk processes underpinning suicidal behaviours to reduce the unnecessary waste of young lives by suicide. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Newby, Katie V; Cook, Chloe; Meisel, Susanne F; Webb, Thomas L; Fisher, Bernadette; Fisher, Abi
The primary objective was to explore young people's risk appraisals of bowel cancer, including whether they had a coherent understanding of the protective effects of physical activity (PA). A secondary objective was to examine whether the illness risk representations (IRRs) framework could be used to understand beliefs underlying bowel cancer risk appraisals. Qualitative. Framework analysis of semi-structured interviews with 19 people aged 14-17 years. Participants judged their risk of getting bowel cancer as low. This was based on a lack of family history of cancer and their current lifestyle behaviours, which were viewed as having a protective effect, or because they planned on making change to their lifestyle in the future when disease risk became more relevant. Participants were not aware of, and struggled to understand, the link between PA and bowel cancer. They also lacked knowledge of the effects of, or treatments for, bowel cancer. Beliefs underlying judgements about the risk of bowel cancer fitted the IRR framework reasonably well. The present research suggests that interventions designed to increase PA with a view to reducing the risk of bowel cancer should aim to make the future risk of bowel cancer feel more tangible, help young people to understand the full range of consequences, explain how and why preventative behaviours such as PA are effective in reducing risk, and emphasize that the typical late presentation of symptoms, and therefore investigation by health care services, reduces treatability. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Physical activity (PA) performed throughout the lifespan can have a protective effect on bowel cancer, but levels of PA are low among young people. Changing beliefs about the risk of getting bowel cancer may be a useful strategy in motivating PA. What does this study add? Increased understanding of how young people think about bowel cancer and the relationship between PA and cancer
De Choudens, H.
Following Chernobyl accident which has revealed in France a strong need for information on technological risks among population and a lack in its organization, the Mayor of Grenoble City who was also at this time, Environment Minister in French Government had initiated in lsere Region an important operation of consideration of action, which has to been undertaken to correct theses lacks. Among ten actions retained one of them was the creation of an Association for Information of the public for Prevention of major risks. This Association has first initiated a consultation on the perception by the population of the different major risks (Industrial and Naturals) in view of the results of this consultation, Medical Professions were the first concerned and a publication 'Medicine and Nuclear risk' has been elaborated and distributed to all doctors of the Region. A Memento on Nuclear risk as then been written and largely distributed in the region, especially in the medias. A booklet on nuclear risk and behavior in case of nuclear accident has then been realized and distributed to all people around Electronuclear Reactors of the Region and to children in the schools. In complement, public meetings have been organized in these sectors to inform, and discuss with the population. (author)
Abanoz, Yasin; Gülen Abanoz, Yeşim; Gündüz, Ayşegül; Uludüz, Derya; İnce, Birsen; Yavuz, Burcu; Göksan, Baki
Studies have suggested a possible association of migraine and increased risk of ischemic stroke in young adults, particularly in smokers and in women who use oral contraceptive drugs. We aimed to analyze the association between migraine and ischemic stroke in young population in a hospital-based cohort. We included 202 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke who were between 15 and 50 years and age- and gender-matched 250 volunteers with no history of stroke. All participants were interviewed using a questionnaire for migraine. Localization of ischemic lesion was classified as anterior and posterior circulation according to neuroimaging findings. The cause of ischemic lesion and all risk factors were recorded. Undetermined etiology was the most frequent (43.1%) and the most common determined cause was cardioembolism (22.3%) in young stroke patients. Frequency of migraine was 30.2% among patients with stroke whereas 16.8% of healthy subjects had migraine (p = 0.001). Migraine with aura was significantly more common among patients with stroke compared to healthy subjects (18.3 vs 4.4%; p = 0.000) whereas the frequency of migraine without aura was similar in both groups (11.9 vs 12.4%). Using logistic regression, migraine with aura was shown to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in young population (p = 0.000) and separate analysis for gender demonstrated that it was only a risk factor for women (p = 0.009) but not for men (p = 0.107). Migraine with aura was found to be more common in ischemic stroke in young patients. It was an independent risk factor in women.
Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol
Dating aggression is a prevalent and costly public health concern. Using a relational risk framework, this study examined acute and chronic relational risk factors (negative interactions, jealousy, support, and relationship satisfaction) and their effects on physical and psychological dating aggression. The study also examined the interaction between chronic and acute risk, allowing us to assess how changes in acute risk have differing effects depending on whether the individual is typically at higher chronic risk. A sample of 200 youth (100 female) completed seven waves of data, which spanned 9 years from middle adolescence to young adulthood (M age at Wave 1 = 15.83). Using hierarchical linear modeling, analyses revealed both acute (within-person) and chronic (between-person) levels in jealousy, negative interactions, and relationship satisfaction, were associated with physical and psychological dating aggression. Significant interactions between chronic and acute risk emerged in predicting physical aggression for negative interactions, jealousy, and relationship satisfaction such that those with higher levels of chronic risk are more vulnerable to increases in acute risk. These interactions between chronic and acute risk indicate that risk is not static, and dating aggression is particularly likely to occur at certain times for youth at high risk for dating aggression. Such periods of increased risk may provide opportunities for interventions to be particularly effective in preventing dating aggression or its consequences. Taken together, these findings provide support for the role of relational risk factors for dating aggression. They also underscore the importance of considering risk dynamically.
Paula Borba Rodrigues
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Approximately 22% of all pregnant women are classified as having high-risk pregnancies, which may involve feelings of vulnerability because of having a high-risk pregnancy, resulting in greater exposure to stressful feelings. Objective: To review aspects of high-risk pregnancy that can have a negative impact on the these women's mental health status. Method: Original articles were identified by conducting searches of the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, followed by a manual search of references to select articles and additional bibliographic material. Articles from the last 22 years were included in the review (1992-2014. Results: Fifteen articles were found that specifically studied high-risk pregnancies and mental health outcomes. Women with high-risk pregnancies exhibited a significantly higher level of stress and reported negative emotions as they dealt with stress and had worse emotional status than women with normal pregnancies. Researchers found that hospitalized pregnant women had higher levels of anxiety than non-hospitalized women. Studies of women going through normal and high-risk pregnancies show that women with normal pregnancies had good self-perceived quality of life. Conclusion: Special features of high-risk pregnancies could be factors in development of mental distress, in addition to psychological and social factors. Therefore, only a biopsychosocial research study would be able to identify the factors that can affect the quality of mental health during high-risk pregnancy.
Full Text Available Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury, and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific muscle activation patterns involved during specific risk conditions. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was (1 to describe anatomical aspects, strength aspects and biomechanical aspects relevant for the understanding of ACL non-contact injury mechanisms in young female athletes, and (2 to review the existing literature on lower limb muscle activation in relation to risk of non-contact ACL-injury and prevention of ACL injury in young female athletes. Studies investigating muscle activity patterns associated with sports-specific risk situations were identified, comprising cohort studies, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts, and suggesting young female athletes to be at elevated risk of non-contact ACL injury. Only few studies (n = 6 examined the effect of preventive exercise-based intervention protocols on lower limb muscle activation during sports-specific movements. A general trend toward enhanced hamstring activation was observed during selected injury risk situations (e.g., sidecutting and drop landings. Only a single study examined the association between muscle activation deficits and ACL
Bencke, Jesper; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K
Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury, and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific muscle activation patterns involved during specific risk conditions. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was (1) to describe anatomical aspects, strength aspects and biomechanical aspects relevant for the understanding of ACL non-contact injury mechanisms in young female athletes, and (2) to review the existing literature on lower limb muscle activation in relation to risk of non-contact ACL-injury and prevention of ACL injury in young female athletes. Studies investigating muscle activity patterns associated with sports-specific risk situations were identified, comprising cohort studies, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts, and suggesting young female athletes to be at elevated risk of non-contact ACL injury. Only few studies ( n = 6) examined the effect of preventive exercise-based intervention protocols on lower limb muscle activation during sports-specific movements. A general trend toward enhanced hamstring activation was observed during selected injury risk situations (e.g., sidecutting and drop landings). Only a single study examined the association between muscle activation deficits and ACL injury risk
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of different preventive programs in young adults at high caries risk using Cariogram software. Methods. Sixty-six young adults with high caries risk were evaluated. Dental caries risk for all subjects was determined according to WHO criteria. Subjects were divided into three different preventive groups (control: OH, fluoride varnish: FV, and chlorhexidine varnish: CV. They were followed for 12 weeks (baseline: T0, 1 week: T1, 4 weeks: T2, and 12 weeks: T3. Plaque index, diet frequency, and salivary chairside tests (to record the flow rate, buffer capacity, and mutans streptococci and lactobacillus counts were performed at each visit. Based on these data, ten caries-related variables were collected and inserted into the Cariogram software to calculate the predicted chance of avoiding caries for each subject. Results. Significant changes were obtained about the Cariogram parameters (diet, bacteria, susceptibility, circumstances, and Cariogram risk group. No significant differences were found between the three methods regarding mean Cariogram scores after 3 months (p>0.05. Conclusions. The regular and effective short-term (three months use of 1450 ppm fluoridated toothpaste, one visit application of fluoride, and chlorhexidine varnishes were effective for reducing caries risk in young adults, which can be clearly demonstrated using Cariogram software.
Amanda Marie Dibattista
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD risk genes alter brain structure and function decades before disease onset. Apolipoprotein E (APOE is the strongest known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, and a related gene, apolipoprotein J (APOJ, also affects disease risk. However, the extent to which these genes affect brain structure in young adults remains unclear. Here, we report that AD risk alleles of these two genes, APOE-ε4 and APOJ-C, cumulatively alter brain volume in young adults. Using voxel-based morphometry in 57 individuals, we examined the entorhinal cortex, one of the earliest brain regions affected in AD pathogenesis. APOE-ε4 carriers exhibited higher right entorhinal cortex volume compared to non-carriers. Interestingly, APOJ-C risk genotype was associated with higher bilateral entorhinal cortex volume in non-APOE-ε4 carriers. To determine the combined disease risk of APOE and APOJ status per subject, we used cumulative odds ratios as regressors for volumetric measurements. Higher disease risk corresponded to greater right entorhinal cortex volume. These results suggest that, years before disease onset, two key AD genetic risk factors may exert influence on the structure of a brain region where AD pathogenesis takes root.
DiBattista, Amanda Marie; Stevens, Benson W.; Rebeck, G. William; Green, Adam E.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk genes alter brain structure and function decades before disease onset. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the strongest known genetic risk factor for AD, and a related gene, apolipoprotein J (APOJ), also affects disease risk. However, the extent to which these genes affect brain structure in young adults remains unclear. Here, we report that AD risk alleles of these two genes, APOE-ε4 and APOJ-C, cumulatively alter brain volume in young adults. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 57 individuals, we examined the entorhinal cortex, one of the earliest brain regions affected in AD pathogenesis. Apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers exhibited higher right entorhinal cortex volume compared to non-carriers. Interestingly, APOJ-C risk genotype was associated with higher bilateral entorhinal cortex volume in non-APOE-ε4 carriers. To determine the combined disease risk of APOE and APOJ status per subject, we used cumulative odds ratios as regressors for volumetric measurements. Higher disease risk corresponded to greater right entorhinal cortex volume. These results suggest that, years before disease onset, two key AD genetic risk factors may exert influence on the structure of a brain region where AD pathogenesis takes root. PMID:25339884
Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.
Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974
Bencke, Jesper; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K
, and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific......, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts......Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury...
Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian
BACKGROUND: Whether muscle strength in youth is related to cardiovascular risk later in life independent of cardiorespiratory fitness is unclear. METHODS: We examined the independent association of isometric muscle strength in youth with cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood using data...... -1.03 to -0.20) in young adulthood in multivariable-adjusted analyses including fitness. Associations to triglyceride, diastolic BP and the cardiovascular risk factor score remained with additional adjustment for waist circumference or BMI. Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle strength in youth...... from the Danish European Youth Heart Study; a population-based prospective cohort study among boys and girls (n=332) followed for up to 12 years. In youth maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer...
Shilova, M A; Mamedov, M N
The article contains literature review on the problem of causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among young people as well as results of author's own retrospective study of deaths of persons before 39 years based on forensic autopsies performed during 10 year period. The study of structure and dynamics of causes of death, its risk factors and the role of connective tissue dysplasia in development of terminal symptomocomlexes allowed to establish that main mechanism of SCD in young people was arrhythmogenic developing as a response to provoking factors--physical effort, psychoemotional stress, consumption of light alcoholic beverages.
Financial Risk and Derivatives provides an excellent illustration of the links that have developed in recent years between the theory of finance on one hand and insurance economics and actuarial science on the other. Advances in contingent claims analysis and developments in the academic and practical literature dealing with the management of financial risks reflect the close relationships between insurance and innovations in finance. The book represents an overview of the present state of the art in theoretical research dealing with financial issues of significance for insurance science. It will hopefully provide an impetus to further developments in applied insurance research.
Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E; Clerkin, Elise M
Young men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly young men of color, are experiencing the largest increase in HIV incidence of any risk group in the United States Epidemiological research suggests that the majority of transmissions among MSM are occurring in the context of primary partnerships, but little research has been done on the processes within these dyads that increase HIV risk behaviors. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal partnership-level data to explore the effects of partner and relationship characteristics on the frequency of unprotected sex within young MSM relationships. One hundred twenty-two young MSM (age 16-20 at baseline) were assessed at three time-points six months apart, with 91% retention at the 12-month follow-up wave. Over 80% were racial/ethnic minorities. At each wave, participants reported on characteristics of the relationships and partners for up to three sexual partners. Hierarchical linear modeling was used for analyses. The largest effect was for considering the relationship to be serious, which was associated with nearly an eightfold increase in the rate of unprotected sex. Other factors that increased risk behaviors included older partners, drug use prior to sex, physical violence, forced sex, and partnership lasting more than six months. Partners met online were not associated with significantly more sexual risk. These data provide insight into the relationship processes that should be addressed in prevention programs targeted at young MSM. Relationships may serve as a promising unit for HIV prevention interventions, although more formative research will be required to address potential logistical obstacles to implementing such interventions. The partner-by-partner analytic approach (i.e., evaluating situational variables associated with several partners for a given participant) holds promise for future HIV behavioral research.
Kim, Hyun Gun; Cho, Young-Seok; Cha, Jae Myung; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Koo, Hoon Sup; Joo, Young-Eun; Boo, Sun-Jin
Few prior reports exist that address the appropriate colonoscopy surveillance interval for individuals .1). In the baseline low-risk adenoma group (n = 1869), the 5-year risk of metachronous advanced neoplasia was 4.9% in the younger patients on screening colonoscopy and 5.1% in the older patients (P > .1). Similarly, in the baseline no neoplasia group (n = 7013), the 5-year risk of metachronous advanced neoplasia was 4.1% in the younger patients on screening colonoscopy and 5.6% in the older patients (P > .1). Considering the similar risk of metachronous advanced neoplasia in younger and older individuals, we suggest a 3-year surveillance interval for high-risk adenoma and a 5-year surveillance interval for low-risk adenoma in young individuals without a strong family history. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA children are at higher risk for anxiety, somatization, and depressive problems than their peers. Parents’ level of acculturation (i.e., American identity, English competence), parental negative emotion socialization, conflicted parent–child relationship, child emotional knowledge and adaptive skills, as well as teachers’ ethnic background and school class types were all associated with ASA children’s anxiety. A combination of cultural, family, and school factors explained from 17 to 39 % of the variance in anxiety symptoms. Findings inform prevention services for young ASA children. PMID:22410755
Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela M; Pinzón-Rondón, Ángela M
To compare sexual behaviors and risk perception between young women vaccinated for HPV and unvaccinated Colombian women. In a cross-sectional design study, 1436 women (231 adolescents, Sexual risk behaviors were not associated with vaccination after adjustment for risk perception, age, educational level, and HPV knowledge. By contrast, vaccination was associated with higher routine Pap smear screening (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-3.28), use of modern contraceptives (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.22), and consistent use of condoms (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.11-2.01). Vaccinated young women were more likely to have had sex (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.56-2.78), but sexual debut among adolescents was not associated with vaccination. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, vaccination status was negatively associated with perceived risk of HPV infection, warts, and cervical cancer. There was no association between vaccination and perceived risk of sexually transmitted infections in any model. No association was found between changes in risk perception after HPV vaccination and sexual risk behaviors. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wade, Tracey D; Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn
While perfectionism is widely considered to influence risk for eating disorders, results of longitudinal studies are mixed. The goal of the current study was to investigate a more complex model of how baseline perfectionism (both high personal standards and self-critical evaluative concerns) might influence change in risk status for eating disorders in young adolescent girls, through its influence on ineffectiveness. The study was conducted with 926 girls (mean age of 13 years), and involved three waves of data (baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up). Latent growth curve modelling, incorporating the average rate at which risk changed over time, the intercept (initial status) of ineffectiveness, and baseline perfectionism, was used to explore longitudinal mediation. Personal standards was not supported as contributing to risk but results indicated that the higher mean scores on ineffectiveness over the three waves mediated the relationship between higher baseline self-critical evaluative concerns and both measures of eating disorder risk. The relationship between concern over mistakes and change in risk was small and negative. These results suggest the usefulness of interventions related to self-criticism and ineffectiveness for decreasing risk for developing an eating disorder in young adolescent girls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR). Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland\\'s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs.
Memon, Zahid Ali; Kanwal, Noureen; Sami, Munam; Larik, Parsa Azam; Farooq, Mohammad Zain
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women throughout the world. However, in comparison with Western women, it presents relatively early in women of Asian ethnicity. Early menarche, late menopause, use of OCP's, family history of benign or malignant breast disease, exposure to radiation and BMI in the under-weight range are well known risk factors for the development of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Early detection with the use of breast self-examination (BSE) and breast cancer screening programs can lead to a reduction in the mortality rates due to breast cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the risk factors for breast cancer among young women and to emphasize the importance of early screening among them. We conducted a cross-sectional study among women aged 18 to 25 using a self- administered questionnaire. Data was collected over a period of 6 months from June to December, 2014. A total of 300 young women selected randomly from Dow Medical College and various departments of Karachi University successfully completed the survey. Respondents were 18-25 years of age (mean age=21.5). Out of the 300 young females, 90 (30%) had at least one risk factor, 90 (30%) had two, 40 (13%) had three, 8 (2.7%) had four, 2 (0.7%) had five while one female was found to have six positive risk factors for breast cancer. Some 66 women (22%) experienced symptoms of breast cancer such as non-cyclical pain and lumps. While 222 women (74%) had never performed breast self-examination, 22 (7.3%) had had a breast examination done by a health professional while 32 (10.7%) had participated in breast screening programs. A total of 223 (74.3%) women considered breast cancer screening important for young women. The percentage of young women with risk factors for breast cancer was found to be alarmingly high. Therefore, screening for breast cancer should start at an early age especially in high risk groups. Awareness about breast self-examination should be emphasized
Nguyen, Hoang Minh Tue; Gabrielson, Andrew T; Hellstrom, Wayne J G
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an important health concern that can significantly affect a man's psychosocial well-being. ED has traditionally been considered a disease of old age; however, contemporary evidence suggests a growing incidence of ED in men younger than 40 years. The process of achieving an erection is multifaceted; there are many potential mechanisms that can be disrupted. It is critical to identify the specific causes of ED before proceeding with potentially costly and invasive therapeutic options. Advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities offer opportunities to identify and manage young men with ED. To provide an update on the prevalence and risk factors of ED in young men and to provide a framework to guide clinicians in identifying and managing the affected young man. Comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to ED in young men. ED in young men was assessed by outlining the prevalence according to recent epidemiologic studies. The pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, risk factors, and etiologies were reviewed. Large multinational studies have estimated the prevalence of ED in young men to be as high as 30%. Several studies have stratified the etiologies of ED into psychogenic and organic causes. Psychogenic etiologies of ED include depression, anxiety, and partner-related difficulties. These patients tend to experience sudden onset of symptoms, with decreased libido and good quality of spontaneous or self-stimulated erections. Organic etiologies include vasculogenic, endocrinologic, neurogenic, iatrogenic, and structural components. These patients usually experience gradual onset of symptoms and a low to normal libido. Conservative treatments such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors continue to be the mainstay treatment. ED in young men is an increasingly common condition. A careful diagnostic evaluation should focus on the identification of any underlying etiology to ensure appropriate management of patients. Nguyen HMT
Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A
This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City ( n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.
Amol Prakash Mankar
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of hypertension is not only on the rise in urban population, but its precedence is of concern. Aims & Objective: To identify risk factors associated with hypertension among urban young Indian males. (<40yr. Material & Methods: Young males (<40yr working in Hinjewadi industrial area of Pune, Maharashtra were studied (n=254 for anthropometry, blood pressure and diet, lifestyle, and stress at work. Results: Prevalence of overweight was 72.5% and 48.4 % were obese while 38.2% were centrally obese (WC90. Prevalence of hypertension (HTN was high (25.6% and showed significant association only with BMI. Non vegetarian diet was a risk factor (OR-1.94;p<0.05 for overweight while lifestyle factors increased risk for obesity (OR-2.1;p<0.05 as also central obesity (OR-1.91;p<0.05. Among subjects with high BMI, these factors became non-significant and stress alone showed independent influence on HTN (OR-4.43; p<0.05 indicating that their influence was mediated through adiposity. Conclusion: Promoting good dietary practices, healthy lifestyle and better work environment for reducing obesity and consequent risk of NCDs among young urban males is essential in India.
Amol Prakash Mankar
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of hypertension is not only on the rise in urban population, but its precedence is of concern. Aims & Objective: To identify risk factors associated with hypertension among urban young Indian males. (<40yr. Material & Methods: Young males (<40yr working in Hinjewadi industrial area of Pune, Maharashtra were studied (n=254 for anthropometry, blood pressure and diet, lifestyle, and stress at work. Results: Prevalence of overweight was 72.5% and 48.4 % were obese while 38.2% were centrally obese (WC90. Prevalence of hypertension (HTN was high (25.6% and showed significant association only with BMI. Non vegetarian diet was a risk factor (OR-1.94;p<0.05 for overweight while lifestyle factors increased risk for obesity (OR-2.1;p<0.05 as also central obesity (OR-1.91;p<0.05. Among subjects with high BMI, these factors became non-significant and stress alone showed independent influence on HTN (OR-4.43; p<0.05 indicating that their influence was mediated through adiposity. Conclusion: Promoting good dietary practices, healthy lifestyle and better work environment for reducing obesity and consequent risk of NCDs among young urban males is essential in India.
Jaffre, Aude; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Calviere, Lionel; Viguier, Alain; Ferrieres, Jean; Larrue, Vincent
Studies of risk factors for ischemic stroke in the young have generally considered ischemic stroke as a whole. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association of traditional cardiovascular risk factors with etiological subtypes of ischemic stroke in young adults. Retrospective review of data from patients aged 16-54 years consecutively treated for first-ever ischemic stroke in an academic stroke unit. Definite causes of stroke were classified using the ASCO (A for atherothrombosis, S for small vessel disease, C for cardiac source, O for other cause) classification system. We used multinomial logistic regression analysis to evaluate associations of age, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and blood lipids with each etiological subtype. A total of 400 patients were included: 244 men (61.1%), 156 women (38.9%); mean age (SD) 44.5 (8.5) years. A definite cause of stroke could be identified in 202 (50.5%) patients. Definite causes of stroke included: atherothrombosis, 72 (18.0%) patients; cardioembolism, 37 (9.25%) patients; small vessel disease, 28 (7.0%) patients; other definite cause, 65 (16.25%) patients including 44 patients with carotid or vertebral artery dissection. Atherothrombosis was associated with age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol. Small vessel disease was associated with age and hypertension. Cardioembolism was associated with age. The risk factor profile differs between etiological subtypes of ischemic stroke in young adults. Our findings emphasize the impact of smoking, diabetes, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol as risk factors for atherothrombosis, and of hypertension as a risk factor for small vessel disease in young adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez García de Cortázar, Ainhoa; Hernán García, Mariano; Cabrera León, Andrés; García Calleja, José María; Romo Avilés, Nuria
The objective of this article is to analyse the opinions of adolescents and young people, from gypsy and non-gypsy populations, on the relationship between recreational drug use and sexual practices that increase the risk of HIV infection. A descriptive qualitative research was undertaken. 14 focus groups were conducted with 98 adolescents and young people, and 7 semi-structured interviews with young recreational drug users. Both sort of results were triangulated. Two major discursive lines emerge in the analysis. The first one defends the notion that moderate consumption of alcohol facilitates the sexual encounter, but it does not imply risky behaviours. However, polydrug use or an elevated use of recreational drugs is related to a lack of concern for sexual risks, and in men with the loss of sexual sensitivity that sometimes justifies not using a condom. The second line argues other reasons for the non-use of condoms, such as their lack of availability, confidence in one's sexual partner, a concept of desire as something uncontrollable, infatuation and the state of mind or self-esteem. Some recommendations to prevent sexual transmission of HIV are derived from the results, such as the distribution of condoms in places where alcohol and other drugs are consumed, publicising the use of condoms and other latex barriers for oral genital sexual practices, working with young males on the optimisation of pleasure, designing preventive interventions targeting stable partners, and training adolescent girls in the social skills needed to negotiate the use of condoms.
Fujiwara, Takeo; Yagi, Junko; Homma, Hiroaki; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Nagao, Keizo; Okuyama, Makiko
On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit East Japan. We aim to investigate the impact of trauma experiences related to the earthquake on suicide risk among young children, stratified by child sex. Participants at baseline were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n=198; unaffected area, n=82, total n=280). From July 2013 to May 2014, suicide risk was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID) in a follow-up interview conducted by a child psychiatrist or psychologist (N=210, follow-up rate: 75%). Among young girls in the affected area, 12 out of 65 (18.5%) showed suicidal ideation, which is significantly higher than girls in the unaffected area (4.7%, p for chi-square=0.036). In the multivariate model adjusted for potential confounders and mediators, the odds ratio for 4 or more trauma experiences related to the earthquake was 5.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-39.6, p=0.076) compared to no trauma experience related to the earthquake. Among young boys, trauma exposure was not associated with suicidal ideation. Our findings showed that young girls who experienced earthquake-related trauma at preschool age had a higher suicidal ideation 3 years after the earthquake. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Nieuwint, Aggie W M; Oostra, Anneke B; Joenje, Hans; Flach, Géke B; Graveland, A Peggy; Brakenhoff, Ruud H; Leemans, C René
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may develop in young adults. In contrast to older patients, the well-known etiological factors, exposure to tobacco and alcohol, play a minor role in the carcinogenesis in this patient group. It has been suggested that an intrinsic susceptibility to environmental genotoxic exposures plays a role in the development of OSCC in these patients. The hypothesis was tested whether young OSCC patients have an increased sensitivity to induced chromosomal damage. Fourteen OSCC patients with an average age of 32 years (range 20-42) were selected. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts of patients and 14 healthy controls were subjected to the chromosome breakage test with Mitomycin C. This test is routinely used to identify Fanconi anemia patients, who are well-known for their inherited high sensitivity to this type of DNA damage, but also for the high risk to develop OSCC. Human papilloma virus status of the carcinomas was also determined. None of the 14 young patients with OSCC had an increased response in the MMC-chromosomal breakage test. All tumors tested negative for human papilloma virus. No evidence was obtained for the existence of a constitutional hypersensitivity to DNA chromosomal damage as a potential risk factor for OSCC in young adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hinton, Rachael L; Earnest, Jaya
The health of young women in rural Papua New Guinea (PNG) is often examined using individual-based risk factors which are decontextualized from the social and cultural relationships within which women's lives are embedded. Understanding the health meanings and perceptions of rural PNG women is important for bridging the gap between current health program delivery and the real needs of women. The objective of this study was to explore the health perceptions of rural PNG young women and to identify points in the lifespan where support may be required. Thirty-three young women aged between 15 and 29 years were involved in the research. Multiple data collection methods were used within interpretive qualitative methodology and these included in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, photo narrative and ranking exercises. The study was conducted in a rural community in the Wosera district of the East Sepik Province of PNG from mid-2005 to early 2006. Following a community meeting and targeted awareness about the project to female youth, purposive and snowball sampling was used to recruit young women aged 15-24 years. The mean age of participants was 21 years. Single and married participants, unmarried mothers, school leavers and current school attendees were represented. Informed consent was obtained prior to the sharing of women's narratives. Data were categorized and analysed for emerging themes and cross checked with participants for verification. Young women viewed their health in the context of their social and cultural world and in terms of their wider life experiences. The main theme uncovered young women's strong desires for independence. Young women depended on their parents for emotional support and material possessions, and positive parental support provided young women with the opportunity to move towards independence. Freedom from economic constraints was identified as important for autonomy, and having money was discussed as a requisite for good health
Holsapple, Michael P.; Paustenbach, Dennis J.; Charnley, Gail; West, Lori J.; Luster, Michael I.; Dietert, Rodney R.; Burns-Naas, Leigh Ann
In recent years, there has been increasing regulatory pressure to protect the health of children, with the basic tenet being that children differ significantly from adults in their biological or physiological responses to chemical exposures. In a regulatory context, this has been translated to mean a requirement for an additional 10-fold safety factor for environmental contaminants, specialized tests, or both. Much of the initial focus has been on the developing endocrine and nervous systems; but increasingly, the developing immune system has been identified as a potential target organ for chemically mediated toxicity. More recently, the question has been raised regarding whether the current state of science supports the creation of developmental immunotoxicology (DIT) test guidelines. What is needed is a risk-based evaluation of the biology associated with the proposed differential sensitivity between children and adults and the impact of that assessment on additional regulatory measures to protect children in risk assessment analyses. Additionally, an understanding of whether the developing immune system shows greater susceptibility, either qualitatively or quantitatively, to chemical perturbation is critical. To address the question ''What's so special about the developing immune system?'' a symposium was organized for the 2003 Society of Toxicology annual meeting that brought together risk assessors, clinicians, immunologists, and toxicologists
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are preventable conditions for which treatment failure (specifically in gonorrhea) is becoming problematic. U.S. young adults (20-29 years) have high rates of STD incidence and prevention of these diseases, but reaching them to provide primary prevention educations is challenging due to low perceived…
von Sarnowski, Bettina; Putaala, Jukka; Grittner, Ulrike; Gaertner, Beate; Schminke, Ulf; Curtze, Sami; Huber, Roman; Tanislav, Christian; Lichy, Christoph; Demarin, Vida; Basic-Kes, Vanja; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Neumann-Haefelin, Tobias; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Rothwell, Peter M; Dichgans, Martin; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Heuschmann, Peter U; Kaps, Manfred; Norrving, Bo; Rolfs, Arndt; Kessler, Christof; Tatlisumak, Turgut
Although many stroke patients are young or middle-aged, risk factor profiles in these age groups are poorly understood. The Stroke in Young Fabry Patients (sifap1) study prospectively recruited a large multinational European cohort of patients with cerebrovascular events aged 18 to 55 years to establish their prevalence of Fabry disease. In a secondary analysis of patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, we studied age- and sex-specific prevalences of various risk factors. Among 4467 patients (median age, 47 years; interquartile range, 40-51), the most frequent well-documented and modifiable risk factors were smoking (55.5%), physical inactivity (48.2%), arterial hypertension (46.6%), dyslipidemia (34.9%), and obesity (22.3%). Modifiable less well-documented or potentially modifiable risk factors like high-risk alcohol consumption (33.0%) and short sleep duration (20.6%) were more frequent in men, and migraine (26.5%) was more frequent in women. Women were more often physically inactive, most pronouncedly at ages young patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events, modifiable risk factors were highly prevalent, particularly in men and older patients. These data emphasize the need for vigorous primary and secondary prevention measures already in young populations targeting modifiable lifestyle vascular risk factors.
Erin E. Wood
Full Text Available We investigated how mothers’ parenting behaviors and personal characteristics were related to risk-taking by young children. We tested contrasting predictions from evolutionary and social role theories with the former predicting higher risk-taking by boys compared to girls and the latter predicting that mothers would influence children’s gender role development with risk-taking occurring more in children parented with higher levels of harshness (i.e., authoritarian parenting style. In our study, mothers reported their own gender roles and parenting styles as well as their children’s risk-taking and activities related to gender roles. The results were only partially consistent with the two theories, as the amount of risk-taking by sons and daughters did not differ significantly and risk-taking by daughters, but not sons, was positively related to mothers’ use of the authoritarian parenting style and the girls’ engagement in masculine activities. Risk-taking by sons was not predicted by any combination of mother-related variables. Overall, mothers who were higher in femininity used more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles. Theoretical implications as well as implications for predicting and reducing children’s risk-taking are discussed.
Badía, Mari-Carmen; Giraldo, Esther; Dasí, Francisco; Alonso, Dolores; Lainez, Jose M; Lloret, Ana; Viña, Jose
Oxidative stress is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) but this has not been studied in young healthy persons at risk of the disease. Carrying an Apo ε4 allele is the major genetic risk factor for AD. We have observed that lymphocytes from young, healthy persons carrying at least one Apo ε4 allele suffer from reductive rather than oxidative stress, i.e., lower oxidized glutathione and P-p38 levels and higher expression of enzymes involved in antioxidant defense, such as glutamylcysteinyl ligase and glutathione peroxidase. In contrast, in the full-blown disease, the situation is reversed and oxidative stress occurs, probably because of the exhaustion of the antioxidant mechanisms just mentioned. These results provide insights into the early events of the progression of the disease that may allow us to find biomarkers of AD at its very early stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferguson, Christopher J
Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.
Keehn, Brandon; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.
Behavioral and neuroimaging findings from typically developing infants and children have demonstrated that the right hemisphere becomes specialized for processing faces. Face processing impairments and atypical hemispheric specialization have previously been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of this study was to examine the emergence of the right-lateralized face processing network in infants at high-risk for autism (HRA; defined as having an older sibling with ASD) and low-risk comparison (LRC) infants, defined as having no family history of ASD. To investigate the earliest appearance of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence (a measure of intra-hemispheric connectivity) to faces during the first year of life. Forty-nine HRA and 46 LRC infants contributed a total of 127 data sets at 6- and/or 12-months. EEG was recorded while infants viewed pictures of either their mother or a stranger. Event-related gamma-band (30-50Hz) phase coherence between anterior-posterior regions for left and right hemispheres was computed. HRA infants showed an aberrant pattern of leftward lateralization of intra-hemispheric coherence by the end of the first year of life, suggesting that the network specialized for face processing may develop atypically in these infants. Further, infants with the greatest leftward asymmetry at 12-months were those that later met diagnostic criteria for ASD, providing support to the growing body of evidence that atypical hemispheric specialization may be an early neurobiological marker for ASD. Among the many experimental findings that tend to distinguish those with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are face processing deficits, reduced hemispheric specialization, and atypical neurostructural and functional connectivity. To investigate the earliest manifestations of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence to faces during the first
Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A
Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth.
van Abeelen, Annet F.M.; Elias, Sjoerd G.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.
The developmental origins hypothesis proposes that undernutrition during early development is associated with an increased type 2 diabetes risk in adulthood. We investigated the association between undernutrition during childhood and young adulthood and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. We studied 7,837 women from Prospect-EPIC (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition) who were exposed to the 1944?1945 Dutch famine when they were between age 0 and 21 years. We used Cox propor...
Hänsel Petersson, G; Ericson, E; Twetman, S
OBJECTIVES: To study preventive care provided to young adults in relation to their estimated risk category over a 3-year period. METHODS: The amount and type of preventive treatment during 3 years was extracted from the digital dental records of 982 patients attending eight public dental clinics...... adults attending public dental service. Further research is needed how to reach those with the greatest need of primary and secondary prevention....
Lindfors, A; van Hage-Hamsten, M; Rietz, H; Wickman, M; Nordvall, S L
The increasing prevalence of asthma and allergy in many countries demands evaluation of potential risk factors to improve the possibility of prevention. We studied the association between exposure to cat and dog allergen and allergic sensitization in young children with asthma and interactions with potential environmental risk factors. One hundred eighty-nine young children with asthma were evaluated. IgE antibodies to cat and dog were analyzed. Questionnaires were filled in focusing on exposure to cats and dogs, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and signs of home dampness as indicated by window pane condensation (WPC) during the first years of life. House dust was analyzed for content of cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergen. There was a strong association between the degree of reported exposure to cat and dog and the concentration of the respective allergens in floor dust. A dose-response relationship was found between cat exposure, measured as either reported degree of cat exposure or cat allergen levels in dust, and sensitization both to cat and dog. No such relationship was found between exposure and sensitization to dog. WPC increased the risk for sensitization to cat (odds ratio = 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.8), whereas ETS strongly tended to do so both to cat and dog. Interaction was found between exposure to ETS, WPC, and high levels of cat allergen (>8 microg/g dust). The presence of all 3 risk factors revealed a multiplicative interaction with a high risk of sensitization to cat (odds ratio = 42.0, 95% confidence interval 3.7-472.8). Keeping cats indoors may be a health hazard for infants and young children at risk for development of asthma, particularly when they live in a damp house and their parents smoke.
Malone, K M
Aims. Youth and young adult suicide has increasingly appeared on international vital statistics as a rising trend of concern in age-specific mortality over the past 50 years. The reporting of suicide deaths in 5-year age bands, which has been the international convention to date, may mask a greater understanding of year-on-year factors that may accelerate or ameliorate the emergence of suicidal thoughts, acts and fatal consequences. The study objective was to identify any year-on-year period of increased risk for youth and young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland. Methods. Collation and examination of international epidemiological datasets on suicide (aged 18-35) for the UK and Ireland 2000-2006 (N = 11 964). Outcome measures included the age distribution of suicide mortality in international datasets from the UK and Ireland, 2000-2006. Results. An accelerated pattern of risk up to the age of 20 for the UK and Ireland which levels off moderately thereafter was uncovered, thus identifying a heretofore unreported age-related epidemiological transition for suicide. Conclusions. The current reporting of suicide in 5-year age bands may conceal age-related periods of risk for suicide. This may have implications for suicide prevention programmes for young adults under age 21.
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudesin 2,681 young drivers (1,458 males, 54.4%; aged 18-22 who filled out several scales assessing attitudes towards road safety issues, driving behaviour in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviours are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving; negative attitude towards drugs and alcohol and tolerance toward speeding and in driver behaviour (i.e., errors in inattentive driving and driving violations. This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs.
Beach, Elizabeth; Williams, Warwick; Gilliver, Megan
Several previous studies have attempted to estimate the risk of noise-induced hearing loss from loud leisure noise. Some of these studies may have overestimated the risk because they used noise estimates taken from the higher end of reported levels. The aim of the present study was to provide a realistic estimate of the number of young Australian adults who may be at risk of hearing damage and eventual hearing loss from leisure-noise exposure. Average noise levels at five high-noise leisure activities, (1) nightclubs; (2) pubs, bars, and registered clubs; (3) fitness classes; (4) live sporting events; (5) concerts and live music venues, were calculated using 108 measurements taken from a large database of leisure noise measurements. In addition, an online survey was administered to a convenience sample of 1000 young adults aged 18 to 35 years, who reported the time spent at these leisure activities and the frequency with which they undertook the activities. They also answered questions about tinnitus and their perceived risk of hearing damage. Although the survey data cannot be considered representative of the population of young Australian adults, it was weighted to this population in respect of age, gender, education, and location. The survey data and the average noise levels were used to estimate each individual's annual noise exposure, and in turn, estimate those at risk of hearing damage from leisure-noise exposure. For the majority of participants (n = 868), the accumulated leisure noise level was within the acceptable workplace limit. However, 132 participants or 14.1% (population weighted) were exposed to an annual noise dose greater than the acceptable workplace noise limit. By far, the main source of high-risk leisure noise was from nightclubs. Those with more leisure-noise exposure experienced more tinnitus and perceived themselves to be more at risk than those with lower noise exposures. It is recommended that nightclub operators reduce noise levels
Sullivan, Shannon D; Nash, Mark S; Tefara, Eshetu; Tinsley, Emily; Groah, Suzanne
We reported previously that young men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have a greater prevalence of testosterone deficiency compared with an age-matched, healthy control population. Young men with SCI also are at increased risk for developing cardiometabolic dysfunction after injury. It is unclear whether testosterone deficiency is associated with heightened cardiometabolic risk in men with SCI. To investigate associations among levels of testosterone in young men with chronic SCI and surrogate markers of cardiometabolic risk. Secondary cross-sectional analysis. Rehabilitation research centers in Washington, DC, and Miami, Florida. Men (n = 58) aged 18-45 years with chronic (≥1 year), motor complete SCI without comorbidities or use of testosterone therapy. Plasma concentrations of testosterone, lipids, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), percent hemoglobin A1c, glucose, and insulin were measured in a fasting state using standard assays. A 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test and Framingham Risk Score were assessed for each subject. Body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry scan. Surrogate markers of cardiometabolic risk among men based on the level of total testosterone (TT; ≤300, 301-500, or >500 ng/dL) and free testosterone (fT; ≤9 or >9 ng/dL). Comparisons were made between men with normal and low TT or fT. Framingham Risk Score was significantly greater in men with low fT (P .08), were greater in men with low TT or low fT. Men with low TT or low fT had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P .1) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P > .07). Men with low TT had greater levels of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (P .8). In young men with chronic SCI who undergo an accelerated aging process postinjury, hypogonadism is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile. Further research is needed to determine whether a causal relationship exists between hypogonadism and heightened
Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E
Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood.
Hall, Kelli Stidham; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Gatny, Heather; Barber, Jennifer
Prior research linking young women's mental health to family planning outcomes has often failed to consider their social circumstances and the intersecting biosocial mechanisms that shape stress and depression as well as reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood. We extend our previous work to investigate relationships between social discrimination, stress and depression symptoms, and unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women. Data were drawn from 794 women aged 18-20 years in a longitudinal cohort study. Baseline and weekly surveys assessed psychosocial information including discrimination (Everyday Discrimination Scale), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale), and reproductive outcomes. Multilevel, mixed-effects logistic regression and discrete-time hazard models estimated associations between discrimination, mental health, and pregnancy. Baron and Kenny's method was used to test mediation effects of stress and depression on discrimination and pregnancy. The mean discrimination score was 19/45 points; 20% reported moderate/high discrimination. Discrimination scores were higher among women with stress and depression symptoms versus those without symptoms (21 vs. 18 points for both, p women with moderate/high (23%) versus low (11%) discrimination (p Discrimination was associated with stress (adjusted relative risk ratio, [aRR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.4), depression (aRR, 2.4; CI, 1.5-3.7), and subsequent pregnancy (aRR, 1.8; CI, 1.1-3.0). Stress and depression symptoms did not mediate discrimination's effect on pregnancy. Discrimination was associated with an increased risk of mental health symptoms and unintended pregnancy among these young women. The interactive social and biological influences on reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood warrant further study. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published
Brockamp, T; Koenen, P; Mutschler, M; Probst, C; Bouillon, B; Schmucker, U
Accident prevention strategies aim to inform young people about risk-taking behavior and the consequences of trauma. The Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth (P.A.R.T.Y.) program is an accident prevention program that focuses on the prevention of road traffic accidents among young road users. Initial results of the program were evaluated to find out if the implementation of this prevention program is feasible in Germany. During a 1-day interactive course young road users were introduced to the work carried out in an accident trauma unit and were informed about injury mechanisms and about the consequences of trauma. A systematic evaluation was made by all participants. The results were analyzed to find out whether it is possible to implement the program and the impressions gained by the participants of the program in order to be able to make further adjustments. A total of 219 young road users participated in the P.A.R.T.Y. program between 2011 and 2013. All participants reviewed the structure of the program with the help of school grades. Of the participants 59 % (n = 129) rated the program as "very good" and 41 % gave the rating of "good". Overall, 70 % of all participants advocated that all people of the same age should participate in the program. The structure was described as being well-balanced with respect to the theoretical and practical stations. The P.A.R.T.Y. program is a standardized and well-established concept that can also contribute to accident prevention in Germany. It provides the possibility to implement an accident awareness program throughout Germany. Initial results show that the program can be implemented in German hospitals and that the program appeals to the target group of young road users.
İnci Şule Özer
Full Text Available Objective: Stroke in people aged less than 45 years is less frequent than in older patients, but has major impacts on both the individual and society. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologic subtypes of acute ischemic stroke in the young. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the hospital records of 619 patients who were admitted with acute ischemic stroke between January 2011 and November 2014. Acute ischemic stroke in the young was defined as patients aged 45 years and under. Demographic data, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores at admission and detailed investigations aimed at determining etiologic cause were recorded. Etiologic stroke subtypes were determined using the automated Causative Classification System. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS scores were recorded in the follow-up. Results: There were 32 (5.2% young patients with acute ischemic stroke. The rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and coronary artery disease were significantly lower in young patients compared with patients aged more than 45 years (p<0.05. The mean NIHSS score at admission and hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients aged 45 years and under compared with those older than 45 years (p=0.006, p=0.043. Cardioaortic embolism was the most common etiologic stroke subtype in both groups. Other causes were significantly more frequent in the young acute ischemic stroke group compared with the older patients. The median follow-up mRS was significantly lower in patients aged 45 years and under compared with those older than 45 years (p<0.001. Conclusion: Young patients with ischemic stroke have different risk factors, stroke etiology, stroke severity and prognosis compared with patients older than 45 years with the same condition
Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Alebeek, M.E. van; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Overeem, S.; Drost, G.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Heerde, W.L. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Zwiers, M.P.; Norris, D.G.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de
BACKGROUND: Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term prognosis is extremely important, especially in young stroke patients with a life
Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Alebeek, M.E. van; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Overeem, S.; Drost, G.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Heerde, W.L. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Zwiers, M.P.; Norris, D.G.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, H.F. de
Background Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term prognosis is extremely important, especially in young stroke patients with a life
This paper investigates the reasons why young people in urban and rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania do not attend school, their socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted with 1007 young people between the ages of 13 and 18. Findings suggest that non-attendance is the product…
Chang, Juhea; Kim, Hae-Young
The aim of this study was to correlate the caries-related variables of special needs patients to the incidence of new caries. Data for socio-demographic information and dental and general health status were obtained from 110 patients treated under general anesthesia because of their insufficient co-operation. The Cariogram program was used for risk assessment and other caries-related variables were also analyzed. Within a defined follow-up period (16.3 ± 9.5 months), 64 patients received dental examinations to assess newly developed caries. At baseline, the mean (SD) values of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) and DT (decayed teeth) for the total patients were 9.2 (6.5) and 5.8 (5.3), respectively. During the follow-up period, new caries occurred in 48.4% of the patients and the mean value (SD) of the increased DMFT (iDMFT) was 2.1 (4.2). The patients with a higher increment of caries (iDMFT ≥3) showed significantly different caries risk profiles compared to the other patients (iDMFT dentistry. Past caries experience and inadequate oral hygiene maintenance were largely related to caries development in special needs patients.
Pronyk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Abramsky, Tanya; Phetla, Godfrey; Hargreaves, James R; Morison, Linda A; Watts, Charlotte; Busza, Joanna; Porter, John Dh
To assess effects of a combined microfinance and training intervention on HIV risk behavior among young female participants in rural South Africa. : Secondary analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from a cluster randomized trial, the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity study. Eight villages were pair-matched and randomly allocated to receive the intervention. At baseline and after 2 years, HIV risk behavior was assessed among female participants aged 14-35 years. Their responses were compared with women of the same age and poverty group from control villages. Intervention effects were calculated using adjusted risk ratios employing village level summaries. Qualitative data collected during the study explored participants' responses to the intervention including HIV risk behavior. After 2 years of follow-up, when compared with controls, young participants had higher levels of HIV-related communication (adjusted risk ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.12), were more likely to have accessed voluntary counseling and testing (adjusted risk ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.56), and less likely to have had unprotected sex at last intercourse with a nonspousal partner (adjusted risk ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.96). Qualitative data suggest a greater acceptance of intrahousehold communication about HIV and sexuality. Although women noted challenges associated with acceptance of condoms by men, increased confidence and skills associated with participation in the intervention supported their introduction in sexual relationships. In addition to impacts on economic well being, women's empowerment and intimate partner violence, interventions addressing the economic and social vulnerability of women may contribute to reductions in HIV risk behavior.
Watts, Caroline G; Cust, Anne E; Menzies, Scott W; Coates, Elliot; Mann, Graham J; Morton, Rachael L
Regular surveillance of individuals at high risk for cutaneous melanoma improves early detection and reduces unnecessary excisions; however, a cost analysis of this specialized service has not been undertaken. To determine the mean cost per patient of surveillance in a high-risk clinic from the health service and societal perspectives. We used a bottom-up microcosting method to measure resource use in a consecutive sample of 102 patients treated in a high-risk hospital-based clinic in Australia during a 12-month period. Surveillance and treatment of melanoma. All surveillance and treatment procedures were identified through direct observation, review of medical records, and interviews with staff and were valued using scheduled fees from the Australian government. Societal costs included transportation and loss of productivity. The mean number of clinic visits per year was 2.7 (95% CI, 2.5-2.8) for surveillance and 3.8 (95% CI, 3.4-4.1) for patients requiring surgical excisions. The mean annual cost per patient to the health system was A $882 (95% CI, A $783-$982) (US $599 [95% CI, US $532-$665]); the cost discounted across 20 years was A $11,546 (95% CI, A $10,263-$12,829) (US $7839 [95% CI, US $6969-$8710]). The mean annual societal cost per patient (excluding health system costs) was A $972 (95% CI, A $899-$1045) (US $660 [95% CI, US $611-$710]); the cost discounted across 20 years was A $12,721 (95% CI, A $12,554-$14,463) (US $8637 [95% CI, US $8523-$9820]). Diagnosis of melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancer and frequent excisions for benign lesions in a relatively small number of patients was responsible for positively skewed health system costs. Microcosting techniques provide an accurate cost estimate for the provision of a specialized service. The high societal cost reflects the time that patients are willing to invest to attend the high-risk clinic. This alternative model of care for a high-risk population has relevance for decision making about health policy.
In this special expert opinion, the Environmental Council discusses the problem of how to assess the risk of environment-induced health hazards. In many cases, there is a discrepancy between scientific risk assessment and subjective risk perception of the exposed population in this context. The Environmental Council suggests that communication between all parties concerned should be improved by target-finding models and also proposes an integrative risk assessment procedure. It is particularly important to identify and characterize vulnerable groups by scientific methods. [German] In seinem Sondergutachten Umwelt und Gesundheit - Risiken richtig einschaetzen greift der Umweltrat die Problematik von Risikoabschaetzungen umweltbedingter Gesundheitsbeeintraechtigungen auf. In diesem Zusammenhang ist vielfach eine Diskrepanz zwischen wissenschaftlicher Risikoabschaetzung und der subjektiven Risikowahrnehmung seitens der Betroffenen festzustellen. Der Umweltrat verweist zur Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen den beteiligten Gruppen auf entsprechende Modelle zur Zielfindung und schlaegt einen integrativen Ansatz zur Risikobewertung vor. Von besonderer Bedeutung bei der Bewertung von umweltbedingten Gesundheitsbeeintraechtigungen ist die wissenschaftlich begruendete Identifizierung und Charakterisierung von empfindlichen Gruppen (vulnerablen Gruppen). (orig.)
Soomro, R.R.; Ahmed, S.I.; Khan, M.
To find out the frequency of osteopenia and associated risk factors among young female students. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from August 2011 to January 2012, and comprised young female students. Convenient sampling method was used. Age, residence, sun exposure, menstrual status, level of physical activity, exercise, vitamin D, calcium intake were variables of interest. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was used to measure bone mineral density on the lumbar spine, hip, femur and distal forearm. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 100(76.9%) students were included in this study. The age range was 20-30 years. Overall,70(70%)participants were osteopenic, while 30(30%) were normal. Age<25 years, living with less exposure to sun, less physical activity and diet low in calcium and vitamin D were common risk factors. Conclusion: The frequency of osteopenia was significantly high among young female students. (author)
Hartley, S. L.; Sikora, D. M.; McCoy, R.
Background Children with Autistic Disorder (AD) evidence more co-occurring maladaptive behaviours than their typically developing peers and peers with intellectual disability because of other aetiologies. The present study investigated the prevalence of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours during early childhood and identified at-risk subgroups of young children with AD. Method Parents rated their child’s maladaptive behaviours on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) in 169 children with AD aged 1.5 to 5.8 years. Results One-third of young children with AD had a CBCL Total Problems score in the Clinically Significant range. The highest percentage of Clinically Significant scores were in the Withdrawal, Attention, and Aggression CBCL syndrome scales. There was a high degree of co-morbidity of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours. Several subject characteristic risk factors for maladaptive behaviours were identified. Conclusions Findings highlight the need to include behavioural management strategies aimed at increasing social engagement, sustained attention and decreasing aggressive behaviour in comprehensive intervention programmes for young children with AD. PMID:18444989
James A. McCubbin
Full Text Available Hypertension has been linked to impaired cognitive/CNS function, and some of these changes may precede development of frank essential hypertension. The stress and fatigue of sleep deprivation may exacerbate these cognitive changes in young adults at risk. We hypothesize that individuals at risk for hypertension will show significant declines in cognitive function during a night of sleep deprivation. Fifty-one young adults were recruited for 28-hour total sleep deprivation studies. Hypertension risk was assessed by mildly elevated resting blood pressure and by family history of hypertension. A series of cognitive memory tasks was given at four test sessions across the sleep deprivation period. Although initially comparable in cognitive performance, persons at risk showed larger declines across the night for several indices of working memory, including code substitution, category, and order recall. These results suggest that cognitive/CNS changes may parallel or precede blood pressure dysregulation in the early stages of hypertension development. The role of CNS changes in the etiology of essential hypertension is discussed.
Youssef, G; Plancherel, B; Laget, J; Corcos, M; Flament, M F; Halfon, O
- Clinical observations and a review of the literature led us to hypothesize that certain personality and character traits could provide improved understanding, and thus improved prevention, of suicidal behaviour among young women with eating disorders. - The clinical group consisted of 152 women aged between 18 and 24 years, with DSM-IV anorexia nervosa/restrictive type (AN-R = 66), anorexia nervosa/purging type (AN-P = 37), bulimia nervosa/non-purging type (BN-NP = 9), or bulimia nervosa/purging type (BN-P = 40). The control group consisted of 140 subjects. The assessment measures were the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-second version (MMPI-2) scales and subscales, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) used to control for current depressive symptoms, plus a specific questionnaire concerning suicide attempts. - Suicide attempts were most frequent in subjects with purging behaviour (30.0% for BN-P and 29.7% for AN-P). Those attempting suicide among subjects with eating disorders were mostly students (67.8%). For women with AN-R the scales for 'Depression' and 'Antisocial practices' represented significant suicidal risk, for women with AN-P the scales for 'Hysteria', 'Psychopathic deviate', 'Shyness/Self-consciousness', 'Antisocial Practices', 'Obsessiveness' and 'Low self-esteem' were risk indicators and for women with BN-P the 'Psychasthenia', 'Anger' and 'Fears' scales were risk indicators. - This study provides interesting results concerning the personality traits of young women with both eating disorders and suicidal behaviour. Students and those with purging behaviour are most at risk. Young women should be given more attention with regard to the risk of suicide attempts if they: (a). have AN-R with a tendency to self-punishment and antisocial conduct, (b). have AN-P with multiple physical complaints, are not at ease in social situations and have antisocial behaviour, or (c). if they have BN-P and tend to be easily angered with obsessive behaviour
Sharabi, Y; Grotto, I; Huerta, M; Eldad, A; Green, M S
Assessing the prevalence of relevant risk factors among young adults is a critical step in the process of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) later in life. The Israel Defense Force Periodic Health Examination Center performs a routine check-up for subjects aged 25-45 years. Medical history, physical examination notes, laboratory results and ECG tracings are recorded, computerized and processed to form the Young Adults Periodic Examinations in Israel (YAPEIS) database. Data representing 31,640 subjects (27,769 males and 3871 females) examined between the years 1991-1999 were analyzed. The prevalence of documented risk factors for ASCVD were evaluated. The results of all parameters were graded categorically as low, moderate or high and the Framingham risk score was calculated. Fifty-one percent of the study participants were found to be overweight (body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2), 8.5% had high systolic blood pressure and 14.6% had high diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia was found to be 44.7 and 9.7%, respectively. Thirty-two percent of the subjects smoked cigarettes, and 76.7% reported not performing any routine physical activity. Furthermore, 31.8% had a Framingham score indicating a greater than 5% risk for developing a coronary event within the next 10 years. As expected, the prevalence of these risk factors increased with age and were found to be less frequent among females. Thus we conclude that many young Israeli adults hold significant risk factors for future ASCVD. Many of these risk factors are modifiable, and risk behavior is often amenable to alteration. Awareness to the high prevalence of risk factors among young adults should spark vigorous health-promotion programs as well as screening, education, and interventional measures aimed at altering the expected outcome of future ASCVD.
Skilton, Michael R; Siitonen, Niina; Würtz, Peter; Viikari, Jorma S A; Juonala, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Laitinen, Tomi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Kähönen, Mika; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T
There is some evidence that people born with high birth weight may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Details of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We sought to determine whether people born large for gestational age have poor arterial health, increased adiposity, and a poor cardiovascular risk factor profile. Carotid intima-media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilatation, and cardiovascular risk factors were compared between young adults (24-45 years) born at term who were large for gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile; n=171), and a control group with normal birth weight (50-75th percentile; n=525), in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Those born large for gestational age had higher body mass index throughout childhood, adolescence, and as young adults (26.4 kg/m(2) [SD 4.9], versus normal birth weight 25.1 kg/m(2) [SD 4.6]; P=0.002), and 2-fold greater risk of obesity. Other cardiovascular risk factors and arterial function did not differ; however, carotid intima-media thickness was increased in people born large for gestational age (0.60 mm [SD 0.09], versus normal birth weight 0.57 mm [SD 0.09]; P=0.003), independent of cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.001 after adjustment). Both obesity and high birth weight were independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness in a graded and additive fashion. Young adults born large for gestational age are more likely to be obese, yet have an otherwise healthy cardiovascular risk profile. Nonetheless, they have increased carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Risk Estimation Modeling and Feasibility Testing for a Mobile eHealth Intervention for Binge Drinking Among Young People: The D-ARIANNA (Digital-Alcohol RIsk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and young adults) Project.
Carrà, Giuseppe; Crocamo, Cristina; Schivalocchi, Alessandro; Bartoli, Francesco; Carretta, Daniele; Brambilla, Giulia; Clerici, Massimo
Binge drinking is common among young people but often relevant risk factors are not recognized. eHealth apps, attractive for young people, may be useful to enhance awareness of this problem. We aimed at developing a current risk estimation model for binge drinking, incorporated into an eHealth app--D-ARIANNA (Digital-Alcohol RIsk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and young adults)--for young people. A longitudinal approach with phase 1 (risk estimation), phase 2 (design), and phase 3 (feasibility) was followed. Risk/protective factors identified from the literature were used to develop a current risk estimation model for binge drinking. Relevant odds ratios were subsequently pooled through meta-analytic techniques with a random-effects model, deriving weighted estimates to be introduced in a final model. A set of questions, matching identified risk factors, were nested in a questionnaire and assessed for wording, content, and acceptability in focus groups involving 110 adolescents and young adults. Ten risk factors (5 modifiable) and 2 protective factors showed significant associations with binge drinking and were included in the model. Their weighted coefficients ranged between -0.71 (school proficiency) and 1.90 (cannabis use). The model, nested in an eHealth app questionnaire, provides in percent an overall current risk score, accompanied by appropriate images. Factors that mostly contribute are shown in summary messages. Minor changes have been realized after focus groups review. Most of the subjects (74%) regarded the eHealth app as helpful to assess binge drinking risk. We could produce an evidence-based eHealth app for young people, evaluating current risk for binge drinking. Its effectiveness will be tested in a large trial.
Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Jessica B; Lewis, Tené T; Reid, Allecia E; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Discrimination predicts increased risk for many negative health outcomes, helping explain a variety of racial and socioeconomic health disparities. Recent research suggests discrimination may play a role in disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, this research has focused on risk behaviors and has yet to establish a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis specifically. This investigation tested whether discrimination predicted condom use, risky sexual partners, and self-reported STI diagnosis among a population disproportionately affected by HIV and STIs in the U.S.: young, pregnant, socioeconomically disadvantaged, women of color. During second and third trimesters, 885 mostly Latina and Black pregnant women, 14-21 years old, attending 14 hospitals and health centers in New York City for prenatal care, completed interviews. Greater discrimination during second trimester predicted greater odds of STI diagnosis and having a risky sexual partner during third trimester, but not condom use. Whether discrimination was attributed to race, identifying as Black, or identifying as Latina did not moderate effects. This is the first investigation establishing a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis, not just risk behavior. It does so among a sample of at-risk, young, pregnant, women of color. Findings suggest implications for sexual risk during pregnancy and across the life span, and risks for the pregnancy and fetus. It is vital to reduce discrimination to eliminate disparities in HIV and STIs. Future research should continue examining the role of discrimination in sexual risk among different populations and work to uncover potential mechanisms. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Renna, Rosaria; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Della Marca, Giacomo; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Morosetti, Roberta; Frisullo, Giovanni; Rossi, Elena; De Stefano, Valerio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo
Approximately 10%-14% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. To investigate risk factors and etiologies of strokes of young adults admitted to the "stroke unit" of Policlinico "Gemelli" of Rome from December 2005 to January 2013. In all, 150 consecutive patients younger than 50 years diagnosed with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Clinical evaluation consisted of a complete neurologic examination and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Diagnostic workup consisted of anamnesis, extensive laboratory, radiologic, and cardiologic examination. Stroke etiologies were classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Patients' mean age was 41 ± 8.0 years. The most common risk factors were dyslipidemia (52.7%), smoking (47.3%), hypertension (39.3%), and patent foramen ovale (PFO, 32.8%). Large-artery atherosclerosis was diagnosed as the cause of stroke in 17 patients (11.3%). Cardioembolism was presumed in 36 patients (24%), most of them presented a PFO at transesophageal echocardiography. Small-vessel occlusion was diagnosed in 12 patients (8%); all of them were hypertensive and most of them presented additional risk factors. Forty-one patients (27.3%) presented a stroke of other determined etiology and 44 (29.3%) presented a stroke of undetermined etiology. The 3-year survival was 96.8% and recurrent strokes occurred in only 3 cases. Traditional vascular risk factors are also very common in young adults with ischemic stroke, but such factors increase the susceptibility to stroke dependent to other causes as atherosclerosis and small-artery occlusion represent less than 20% of cases. Prognosis quoadvitam is good, being characterized by low mortality and recurrence rate. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Fang; Yang, Li; Yang, Rui; Xu, Wei; Chen, Fu-Ping; Li, Nan; Zhang, Jin-Biao
Young adults accounted for 10-14% of ischemic stroke patients. The risk factors may differ in this population from elder patients. In addition, the factors associated with stroke recurrence in this population have not been well investigated. The study aimed to investigate the characteristics and risk factors associated with recurrence of ischemic stroke in young adults. Clinical data of 1,395 patients of age 18-45 years who were treated between 2008 and 2014 in 3 centers located in northern China was reviewed. The first onset of stroke was taken as the initial events and recurrent stroke as the end point events. The end point events, age, gender, duration after first onset of stroke, history of disease, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission, Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classifications of the cause of stroke and adherence to medication were recorded. These factors were analyzed and compared between recurrence and non-recurrence group. Information about recurrent stroke was collected through clinical (readmission to hospital with ischemic stroke) or telephone follow-up survey. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of recurrence. The most common causes of stroke were large vessel atherosclerosis and small vessel occlusion, followed by cardioembolism. NIHSS score at admission (OR 1.088; 95% CI 1.028-1.152; p = 0.004) were associated with recurrence. Vascular disease, especially premature atherosclerosis, is the major risk factor for ischemic stroke in the young adult population of northern China. Timely screening of the cause of stroke with severe NIHSS score needs further attention. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian
the prevalence of first intercourse at a young age in various birth cohorts of men and to determine any association with later risky behaviour. Methods: We studied 22,979 randomly selected men aged 18-45 years from the Danish general male population who responded to a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple...... sexual partners over a lifetime, multiple new sexual partners within the past 6 months, intercourse with a commercial sex worker, having an STI, binge drinking and current smoking were considered risky behaviour. Results: First intercourse at the age of 14 years or younger was more prevalent in younger...... (14%) than in older (10%) birth cohorts and among men with shorter schooling. Young age at sexual debut was associated with a more than twofold increase in the risks for subsequent risky behaviour. CONCLUSIONS MORE THAN 10% OF DANISH MEN FIRST HAD SEX AT AN EARLY AGE, AND THIS WAS CLOSELY RELATED...
Maria Alice Tourinho Baptista
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies report that people with young onset Alzheimer's disease (YOAD have higher levels of disease awareness compared to those with late onset AD. We report a case of a man with YOAD who had preserved awareness of disease, depression and risk of suicide associated with the development of the dementia. Cognitive functioning, disease severity, depressive symptoms and awareness of disease were assessed using validated measures. The person with YOAD showed a moderate level of disease severity and high degree of dependence for activities of daily living. There was recognition of memory problems and routine changes with presence of intense pessimism, low self-esteem and suicidal ideation. This case points to the existence of specific issues related to young onset dementia and the clinical importance of identifying and treating patients who might be aware of their condition.
and make sense of it and how they position themselves in regards to this normative demand to blame themselves. Personal branding and networking are identified as strategies enforced by the employment system and can be viewed as technologies of the self (Rose, 1996) encouraging young people to modulate......Young people face the risk of unemployment in a labor market characterized by a drift towards precarious employment (Kalleberg, 2013). Building on governmentality perspectives this study documents how understanding of unemployment is affected by neoliberal discourses reflected in the technologies...... applied by the institutions in the employment area. As a result, responsibility for unemployment is increasingly placed on the individual and self-blame is promoted as the predominant explanation, revitalizing attributional theory in a new way. This qualitative study consists of a combination of ten field...
Petitto, Laura Ann; Holowka, Siobhan
Examines whether early simultaneous bilingual language exposure causes children to be language delayed or confused. Cites research suggesting normal and parallel linguistic development occurs in each language in young children and young children's dual language developments are similar to monolingual language acquisition. Research on simultaneous…
Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
National data for the USA show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults aged 20-34 years. The present study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health-risk behaviours associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviours, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviours, sleep patterns and substance use. Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998-1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, USA and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008-2009. The sample consisted of 2287 participants (55% female, mean age 25·3 years). Results showed 31·0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18·8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (P≤0·01). Energy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviours, trouble sleeping and substance use among men and women (Psports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviours in the design of programmes and services for young adults.
Nuotio, Joel; Pitkänen, Niina; Magnussen, Costan G; Buscot, Marie-Jeanne; Venäläinen, Mikko S; Elo, Laura L; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T
Dyslipidemia is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We examined whether the addition of novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms for blood lipid levels enhances the prediction of adult dyslipidemia in comparison to childhood lipid measures. Two thousand four hundred and twenty-two participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had participated in 2 surveys held during childhood (in 1980 when aged 3-18 years and in 1986) and at least once in a follow-up study in adulthood (2001, 2007, and 2011) were included. We examined whether inclusion of a lipid-specific weighted genetic risk score based on 58 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 71 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for triglycerides improved the prediction of adult dyslipidemia compared with clinical childhood risk factors. Adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, and smoking in childhood, childhood lipid levels, and weighted genetic risk scores were associated with an increased risk of adult dyslipidemia for all lipids. Risk assessment based on 2 childhood lipid measures and the lipid-specific weighted genetic risk scores improved the accuracy of predicting adult dyslipidemia compared with the approach using only childhood lipid measures for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.806 versus 0.811; P =0.01) and triglycerides (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.740 versus area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.758; P dyslipidemia in adulthood. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Mikkilä, Vera; Räsänen, Leena; Raitakari, Olli T; Marniemi, Jukka; Pietinen, Pirjo; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma
Studies on the impact of single nutrients on the risk of CVD have often given inconclusive results. Recent research on dietary patterns has offered promising information on the effects of diet as a whole on the risk of CVD. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up to date. The subjects were children and adolescents at baseline (3-18 years, n 1768) and adults at the latest follow-up study (24-39 years, n 1037). We investigated the associations between two major dietary patterns and several risk factors for CVD. In longitudinal analyses with repeated measurements, using multivariate mixed linear regression models, the traditional dietary pattern (characterised by high consumption of rye, potatoes, butter, sausages, milk and coffee) was independently associated with total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, apolipoprotein B and C-reactive protein concentrations among both genders, and also with systolic blood pressure and insulin levels among women and concentrations of homocysteine among men (P health-conscious food choices (such as high consumption of vegetables, legumes and nuts, tea, rye, cheese and other dairy products, and alcoholic beverages) was inversely, but less strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Our results support earlier findings that dietary patterns have a role in the development of CVD.
Colgan, Yola; Turnbull, Deborah A; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A; Delfabbro, Paul
Numerous researchers studied risk factors associated with smoking uptake, however, few examined protective factors associated with smoking resilience. This study therefore aims to explore determinants of smoking resilience among young people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who are at risk of smoking. Overall, 92 out of 92 vocational education students accepted invitation to participate in this exploratory study. The Adelaide Technical and Further Education (TAFE) Arts campus was chosen for the study given the focus on studying resilience in young people of lower socioeconomic status i.e. resilient despite the odds. A self-report questionnaire comprising a measure of resilience: sense of coherence, sense of humour, coping styles, depression, anxiety and stress, and family, peers and community support, was distributed among participants aged 15 to 29. Additional factors researched are parental approval and disapproval, course type, and reasons for not smoking. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 13.0), analyses were undertaken using frequencies, means, standard deviations, independent sample t-tests, correlations, analysis of variance, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Twenty five (27%) out of 92 students smoked. Young people with peer support tended to smoke (p influence on females not smoking, compared with males. The majority of students chose 'health and fitness' as a reason for not smoking. Students in the Dance course tended to not smoke. The current study showed that most students chose 'health and fitness' as the reason for not smoking. Single anti-smoking messages cannot be generalised to all young people, but should recognise that people within different contexts, groups and subcultures will have different reasons for choosing whether or not to smoke. Future studies should use larger samples with a mixed methods design (quantitative and qualitative).
Watanabe, Akihisa; Ono, Qana; Nishigami, Tomohiko; Hirooka, Takahiko; Machida, Hirohisa
It has been unclear whether the risk factors for rotator cuff tears are the same at all ages or differ between young and older populations. In this study, we examined the risk factors for rotator cuff tears using classification and regression tree analysis as methods of nonlinear regression analysis. There were 65 patients in the rotator cuff tears group and 45 patients in the intact rotator cuff group. Classification and regression tree analysis was performed to predict rotator cuff tears. The target factor was rotator cuff tears; explanatory variables were age, sex, trauma, and critical shoulder angle≥35°. In the results of classification and regression tree analysis, the tree was divided at age 64. For patients aged≥64, the tree was divided at trauma. For patients agedrotator cuff tears in this study. However, these risk factors showed different trends according to age group, not a linear relationship.
Luana Porto Barbosa
Full Text Available Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT, with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults. Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID, whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p < 0.005. Childhood trauma was also associated with lower social classes (p < 0.005. In the group of young adults without MD, the only variable that was associated with CT was the young adult’s (not current work (p < 0.005. Discussion Maternal depression was considered to be a risk factor for CT and MD in young adults. Thus, preventing and treating maternal psychiatric disorders may diminish the risk of offspring childhood trauma, and, consequently, avoid negative effects in the offspring’s adult life.
Carrà, Giuseppe; Crocamo, Cristina; Bartoli, Francesco; Carretta, Daniele; Schivalocchi, Alessandro; Bebbington, Paul E; Clerici, Massimo
Binge drinking (BD) is common among young people. E-Health apps are attractive to them and may be useful for enhancing awareness. We aimed to investigate the impact of a publicly available evidence-based e-Health app (Digital-Alcohol Risk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and Young Adults [D-ARIANNA]), estimating current risk of BD by questions, matching identified risk factors, and providing in percent an overall risk score, accompanied by appropriate images showing mostly contributing factors in summary graphics. A natural, quasi-experimental, pre-/post-test study was conducted. Subjects were recruited in pubs, clubs, discos, or live music events. They were requested to self-administer D-ARIANNA and were re-evaluated after two further weeks. Young (18-24 years) people (N = 590) reported reduced BD at follow-up (18% vs. 37% at baseline). To exclude systematic errors involving those lost at follow-up (14%), the diminution in BD was confirmed in an appropriate generalized estimating equation model with unweighted data on a last observation carried forward basis. Our study provides evidence of population-level benefit at 2 weeks, attained with D-ARIANNA. This can be disseminated easily and economically among young people. However, additional components, including regular feedback and repeated administration by gamification, may be required to make this app suitable for longer term impact. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCloud, Rachel F; Kohler, Racquel E; Viswanath, K
Young adulthood represents a time of myriad transitions, which leave young adults (YAs) more susceptible to the influences of cancer risk-promoting information. The tobacco, alcohol, indoor tanning, and food and beverage industries engage in aggressive marketing strategies through both traditional and social media to target this age group to consume their products, which have known links to cancer. Despite this barrage of messaging, detailed data are lacking on the communication behaviors of subgroups of this diverse age group, particularly those from low SES. This paper explores the available data on media usage among YAs and describes the cancer risk-promoting information environment, with a focus on communication inequalities and their implications for cancer research and control. Nationally representative data on media consumption patterns indicate that the majority of YAs access a diverse range of traditional and social media platforms, but these data do not fully describe differences at the intersection of age and important factors such as SES, gender, race/ethnicity, or urban/rural residence. Meanwhile, risk-promoting information is heavily marketed to YAs across media, with an increasing focus on using social media sites to normalize products and evade marketing restrictions. Gaps in the available data on YAs' media consumption behaviors, coupled with aggressive risk-promoting marketing strategies toward YAs, may impede cancer control efforts. Relationships between exposure to various cancer risk-promoting information, concurrent risk behaviors, SES disparities, and communication inequalities should be investigated to develop innovative and effective control programs and policies to promote cancer control in this important group. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tirosh, Amir; Rudich, Assaf; Shochat, Tzippora; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Henkin, Yaakov; Kochba, Ilan; Shai, Iris
Current triglyceride levels might be only a weak predictor of risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). To assess the association between changes over time in fasting triglyceride levels and CHD risk in young adults. Follow-up study over 5.5 years after 2 measurements of fasting triglycerides 5 years apart. The Staff Periodic Examination Center of the Israel Defense Forces, Zrifin, Israel. 13,953 apparently healthy, untreated, young men (age 26 to 45 years) with triglyceride levels less than 3.39 mmol/L (<300 mg/dL). Two triglyceride measurements (at enrollment [time 1] and 5 years later [time 2]), lifestyle variables, and incident cases of angiography-proven CHD. Within 5.5 years, 158 new cases of CHD were identified. The multivariate model was adjusted for age; family history; fasting glucose; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; blood pressure; body mass index; and changes between time 1 and time 2 in body mass index, physical activity, smoking status, and habit of eating breakfast. Investigators categorized triglyceride levels according to low, intermediate, and high tertiles (as measured at time 1 and time 2 [expressed as tertile at time 1/tertile at time 2]). The risk for CHD in men with high-tertile triglyceride levels at time 1 changed depending on the tertile at time 2 (hazard ratios, 8.23 [95% CI, 2.50 to 27.13] for high/high, 6.84 [CI, 1.95 to 23.98] for high/intermediate, and 4.90 [CI, 1.01 to 24.55] for high/low, compared with the stable low/low group). The risk for CHD in men with low-tertile levels at time 1 also changed depending on the tertile at time 2 (hazard ratios, 3.81 [CI, 0.96 to 15.31] for low/intermediate and 6.76 [CI, 1.34 to 33.92] for low/high, compared with the stable low/low group). Participants were healthy and had a low incidence rate of CHD. The study was observational. Two triglyceride measurements obtained 5 years apart may assist in assessing CHD risk in young men. A decrease in initially elevated triglyceride levels is associated
Schäfer, Ralf B
This Special Issue focuses on the questions if and how biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services could be incorporated into the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). Therefore, three articles provide a framework for the integration of ecosystem services into ERA of soils, sediments and pesticides. Further articles demonstrate ways how stakeholders can be integrated into an ecosystem service-based ERA for soils and describe how the current monitoring could be adapted to new assessment endpoints that are directly linked to ecosystem services. Case studies show that the current ERA may not be protective for biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services and that both pesticides and salinity currently adversely affect ecosystem functions in the field. Moreover, ecological models can be used for prediction of new protection goals and could finally support their implementation into the ERA. Overall, the Special Issue stresses the urgent need to enhance current procedures of ERA if biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services are to be protected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
O'Neil, C E; Nicklas, T A; Myers, L; Johnson, C C; Berenson, G S
The primary purposes of this article are to highlight important issues related to cardiovascular risk factors and behavior life-styles in young women and to examine racial (black-white) differences in risk factors that relate to cardiovascular disease. In childhood, some girls show cardiovascular risk factors of higher blood pressure levels, dyslipidemia, and obesity, all of which continue into young adulthood. Factors that contribute to abnormal risk factors are a high-saturated fat diet, excess energy intake related to inactivity, and cigarette smoking. Trends of obesity are documented; and young white girls are continuing to use tobacco, more so than boys and black girls. Although the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease is delayed in women, the stage is set in childhood for the development of early cardiovascular risk.
Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Kyvik, KO
BACKGROUND: The liability to asthma is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for asthma in young adult twin pairs during an 8-year period. METHODS: From the birth cohorts 1953-1982 of the Danish Twin Registry, 6,090 twin pairs....... Pairs in which only one twin developed asthma -- discordant pairs -- were identified and conditional logistic regression was applied to detect effects of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 126 monozygotic (MZ) and 273 dizygotic (DZ) discordant twin pairs were identified. In MZ twins hay fever (OR = 3...... and females = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36-0.80, P = 0.002), and increasing levels of body mass index (BMI; OR per unit = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20, P = 0.009) were significant predictors of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Hay fever, eczema, female sex, exercise and increasing levels of BMI were risk factors for asthma in young...
Ganle, John Kuumuori
Among the youth in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, a paradoxical mix of adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS and high-risk behavior characterizes their daily lives. Based on original qualitative research in Ghana, I explore in this article the ways in which the social construction of masculinity influences youth's responses to behavior change HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Findings show that although awareness of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the risks of infection is very high among the youth, a combination of hegemonic masculinity and perceptions of personal invulnerability acts to undermine the processes of young people's HIV/AIDS risk construction and appropriate behavioral change. I argue that if HIV/AIDS prevention is to be effective and sustained, school- and community-based initiatives should be developed to provide supportive social spaces in which the construction of masculinity, the identity of young men and women as gendered persons, and perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS infection are challenged. © The Author(s) 2015.
E. Lauren Doss
Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the prevalence of certain risk factors for glaucoma in a healthy, young population and to compare these risk factors between Asian Americans and Caucasians. Methods. 120 healthy graduate students (mean age 24.8±3.0 years underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Regression analyses controlling for age, sex, and refraction, comparing glaucoma risk factors in Asians (n=54 and Caucasians (n=41, were performed. Outcome variables included family history, intraocular pressure (IOP, spherical equivalent, central corneal thickness (CCT, mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD, and disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL parameters. Results. 61% of subjects were female; the mean spherical equivalent was -3.81±3.2 D; and the mean axial length (AL was 25.1±1.7 mm. Regression analysis showed race affected spherical equivalent (P0.05. In this study, we found Asian Americans, compared to Caucasians, had 2.95±0.64 D greater myopia; greater IOP by 2.74±0.62 mmHg; and larger CDAR by 0.12±0.046. Conclusions. In our study population, young, healthy Asian Americans had greater myopia, IOP, and CDAR as compared to Caucasians, suggesting that racial variations can be important when diagnosing glaucoma.
Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, E-J
Backpack palsy (BPP) is a common aetiology of brachial plexopathy in military hospitals. We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of BPP in young Korean soldiers. We identified enlisted patients who were diagnosed with BPP from a review of the medical records of all the Korean military hospitals in 2011 and 2012 and investigated their clinical findings and medical study results. To identify risk factors of BPP, we also surveyed, by questionnaire, healthy recruits of a company in a training centre who had just finished night marches. We divided them according to whether they had paresthaesia and/or weakness in their arm(s) during marching and compared their characteristics. The incidence of BPP in Korean soldiers was 29.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 17.2 to 24.3). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in patients with BPP than it was in healthy recruits. Among healthy recruits, those who had experienced paresthaesia and/or weakness during marching had a significantly lower BMI than did those who had not. We report the incidence of BPP in young Korean soldiers. A low BMI was a risk factor for BPP. These results may be helpful in establishing a strategy for the prevention of BPP in the setting of military training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Ehrlich, Katherine B; Hoyt, Lindsay Till; Sumner, Jennifer A; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K
This study was designed to examine whether family and peer relationships in adolescence predict the emergence of metabolic risk factors in young adulthood. Participants from a large, nationally representative cohort study (N = 11,617 for these analyses) reported on their relationship experiences with parents and close friends during adolescence. Fourteen years later, interviewers collected blood samples, as well as anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Blood samples were analyzed for HbA1c. Ordered logistic regressions revealed that for females, supportive parent-child relationships and close male friendships in adolescence were associated with reduced odds of having elevated metabolic risk markers in young adulthood. These effects remained significant even after controlling for baseline measures of body mass index (BMI) and health and demographic covariates. The protective effects of close relationships were not significant for males, however. Exploratory analyses with 2-parent families revealed that supportive father-child relationships were especially protective for females. These findings suggest that, for females, close and supportive relationships with parents and male friends in adolescence may reduce the risk of metabolic dysregulation in adulthood. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Guleria, A K; Syal, S K; Kapoor, A; Kumar, S; Tiwari, P; Dabadghao, P
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) like insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, hypertension and dyslipidemia. We studied CVD risk in young women (18-35 years age) with PCOS using carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) which are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Fifty women with PCOS (age: 24.3 ± 4 years; body mass index [BMI]: 24.6 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were compared with 50 age and BMI matched healthy controls (age: 24.6 ± 5 years; BMI: 23.9 ± 4 kg/m(2)). CIMT was significantly higher (0.55 ± 0.09 mm versus 0.40 ± 0.1 mm, p value PCOS versus obese controls and non obese PCOS versus non-obese controls. In stepwise linear regression PCOS was associated with CIMT and FMD independent of age, BMI and blood pressure. Young women with PCOS irrespective of their BMI have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by increased CIMT and a lower FMD.
Gourgari, E; Lodish, M; Shamburek, R; Keil, M; Wesley, R; Walter, M; Sampson, M; Bernstein, S; Khurana, D; Lyssikatos, C; Ten, S; Dobs, A; Remaley, A T; Stratakis, C A
Adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the evidence for this is controversial in adolescents and young women with PCOS. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number, measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a novel technology to assess cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study was to evaluate lipoprotein particle number and size in young women with PCOS and its relationship with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. This was a cross-sectional case control study. The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Women with PCOS (n = 35) and normal controls (n = 20) participated in the study. Blood samples and anthropometric measures were obtained. LDL particle size and number were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A secondary outcome was to investigate the correlation of LDL particle number with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, waist to hip ratio, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and adiponectin. Women with PCOS had higher LDL particle number when compared with healthy controls (935 ± 412 vs 735 ± 264, P = .032); LDL particle number correlated strongly with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.37, P = .006) and waist-to-hip (r = 0.57, P = .0003). The higher LDL particle number was driven mainly due to differences in the small LDL particle number (sLDLp), with PCOS patients having more sLDLp (348 ± 305 vs 178 ± 195, P = .015). The sLDLp correlated with the Matsuda index (r = -0.51, P = .0001), homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (r = 0.41, P = .002), and adiponectin (r = -0.46, P = .0004) but not with T. Adolescent and young women with PCOS have an atherogenic lipoprotein profile suggestive of increased cardiovascular risk that appears to be driven by the degree of visceral adiposity and insulin resistance.
Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C
Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; Pyoung adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Frisch, A; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Croisier, J L; Lair, M L; Theisen, D
This study analyzed sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young athletes (n=256) from 12 sport disciplines practicing at the national or the international level in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Injury occurrence as a result of sport practice was analyzed retrospectively over the year 2006 using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Overall incidence was not different between girls and boys (1.20 and 1.21 injuries/1000 athlete-hours, respectively), but in the context of team sport competition girls tended to be at a greater risk (rate ratio 2.05, P=0.053). Girls had a higher proportion of injuries in the ankle/foot region compared with boys (34.8% vs 16.8%). No sex-related differences were found regarding injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression (controlling for age and practice volume) revealed that girls' team sports were associated with a greater injury risk compared with individual sports [odds ratio (OR) of 4.76], while in boys this was observed for racket sports (OR=3.31). Furthermore, physical or emotional stress tended to be a specific risk factor in girls. There was a tendency for injury outside sports to be coupled to a higher injury risk in girls and boys. Consideration of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors could be of importance for effective injury prevention.
Limaye, Tejas Y; Kulkarni, Ravindra L; Deokar, Manisha R; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman
We assessed the burden of cardiometabolic risk factors in Information Technology (IT) employees as they are exposed to adverse lifestyle. In this cross-sectional study, health records were obtained from two IT industries in Pune. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [hyperglycemia, high blood pressure (BP), hypertriglyceridemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and overweight/obesity] was determined using standard cutoffs. We also examined clustering of risk factors (≥two risk factors). Data were available on 1,350 of 5,800 employees (mean age: 33 ± 6 years, 78% men). Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was 2.5% and 13.5%, respectively. Prevalence of prediabetes, borderline high BP, hypertriglyceridemia, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, and overweight/obesity was 6.5%, 20.3%, 21%, 22.1%, 70.1%, and 51.4%, respectively. Risk factor clustering was observed in 63.5% that increased with age (P < 0.001). Given the high burden of risk factors at relatively young age, spreading awareness and promoting healthy lifestyle through workplace interventions are warranted.
Crosby, Richard A.; Mena, Leandro; Ricks, JaNelle
This study applied an 8-item index of recent sexual risk behaviors to young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and evaluated the distribution for normality. The distribution was tested for associations with possible antecedents of sexual risk. YBMSM (N=600), ages 16–29 years, were recruited from an STI clinic, located in the Southern United States. Men completed an extensive audio-computer assisted self-interview. Thirteen possible antecedents of sexual risk, as assessed by the index, were selected for analyses. The 8-item index formed a normal distribution with a mean of 4.77 (sd=1.77). In adjusted analyses, not having completed education beyond high school was associated with less risk, as was having sex with females. Conversely, meeting sex partners online was associated with greater risk, as was reporting that sex partners were drunk during sex. The obtained normal distribution of sexual risk behaviors suggests a corresponding need to “target and tailor” clinic-based counseling and prevention services for YBMSM. Avoiding sex when partners are intoxicated may be an especially valuable goal of counseling sessions. PMID:27875903
Bernays, Sarah; Bukenya, Dominic; Thompson, Claire; Ssembajja, Fatuma; Seeley, Janet
The behaviour of adolescents is recognised increasingly as having substantial and long-term consequences for their health. We examined the meaning of 'adolescence' in southern Uganda with HIV-positive young people aged 11-24 years. Adolescent girls and boys are described differently in the local language (Luganda). Adolescence is described as a behavioural rather than a life course category and an inherently dangerous one. The practices, risks and consequences of 'adolescent' behaviour are highly gendered. Local understandings of adolescence are likely to have a significant impact on the efficacy of interventions designed to minimise their 'risky behaviour'.
Bernays, Sarah; Bukenya, Dominic; Thompson, Claire; Ssembajja, Fatuma; Seeley, Janet
The behaviour of adolescents is recognised increasingly as having substantial and long-term consequences for their health. We examined the meaning of ‘adolescence’ in southern Uganda with HIV-positive young people aged 11–24 years. Adolescent girls and boys are described differently in the local language (Luganda). Adolescence is described as a behavioural rather than a life course category and an inherently dangerous one. The practices, risks and consequences of ‘adolescent’ behaviour are highly gendered. Local understandings of adolescence are likely to have a significant impact on the efficacy of interventions designed to minimise their ‘risky behaviour’. PMID:29472746
Le Thi Kim Thoa
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of health and social consequences. It is also associated with a number of risk taking behaviours. These include illicit drug use and unsafe sex. Alcohol consumption appears to be increasing in Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of alcohol consumption and its relationship with a number of other risk taking behaviours amongst young people. Information was also obtained concerning leisure activities and use of health care. The paper also sets out to examine possible gender differences in relation to alcohol consumption and risk behaviour and to propose the development and implementation of alcohol monitoring and prevention programs in Vietnam. The study involved a cross-sectional, community survey using a standardised interview. This was conducted during face-to-face interviews with 1,408 young people aged 10-19 years. Respondents were recruited randomly through the lists of the households from 12 selected communes in three areas in Northern Vietnam. The findings presented here were part of a larger health risk behaviour survey. Levels of alcohol use were low. Overall, 16.5% of participants were experienced drinkers, and only 4% of them were current drinkers. Males were significantly more likely than females to report drinking. This study also showed that rates of alcohol consumption were associated with age, education, geographical area, gender, tobacco smoking, involvement in violence, watching television, computer use and playing computer games, wearing safety helmets and use of health services. Alcohol consumption tended to increase with age for both males and females. Alcohol and its effects on young people are clearly a growing public health issue in Vietnam. Because of this, more detailed behavioral research should be conducted into the relationship between alcohol consumption and other risky behaviours amongst young people. It is also
Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Salokorpi, Niina; Suo-Palosaari, Maria; Pesälä, Juha; Serlo, Willy
Although the majority of trampoline injuries in children are minor, severe injuries occur as well. We have analyzed the risk factors, treatment and outcome of severe trampoline injuries treated in the Oulu University Hospital in children and the young between April and November 2105. There was a total of eight severe injuries. Five injuries involved a danger of death. Almost all severe trampoline injuries resulted from an unsuccessful trick. A safety net was in use in half of the cases. All cervical spine injuries would have been avoided provided that the children would have refrained from doing a somersault on the trampoline.
Kelly, Caitlin K.
Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% (“high end”) of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages. PMID:27274417
Hussaini, Aliya Esmail; Nicholson, Lisa Marie; Shera, David; Stettler, Nicolas; Kinsman, Sara
Obesity and cigarette smoking are two of the most frequent and preventable causes of disease and death in the United States; both are often established during youth. We hypothesized that obese, adolescent girls would be at higher risk for nicotine addiction in young adulthood, and that particular individual and social factors would mediate this association. Students surveyed in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative school-based and in-home survey conducted in three waves, comprised the sample. More than 4,000 respondents were used for the multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses used to determine the association between obesity and level of nicotine addiction. Potential mediation effects of the association were also examined. Obesity doubled the risk of the highest level of nicotine addiction after controlling for demographic factors, parent and friend smoking, and baseline smoking (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.22-3.68). Family smoking was the strongest predictor of nicotine addiction (OR, 4.72; 95% CI, 2.89-7.72). Grade point average was a partial mediator of this relationship (OR, .48; 95% CI, .32-.74). Obese, adolescent females are at increased risk for high-level nicotine addiction in young adulthood as compared with their nonobese peers. Grade point average partially mediates the association, and may represent a confluence of factors including increased absenteeism, social marginalization, biases, and lack of confidence in academic ability. Obese, adolescent females may require targeted interventions to address their risk of subsequent high-level nicotine addiction, especially if risk factors such as parental smoking and poor school performance are present. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Nielsen, Lillian; Gilliver, Megan
For some young people, nightclubs and other music venues are a major source of noise exposure, arising from a combination of very high noise levels; relatively long attendance duration; and frequent, sustained participation over several years. Responsibility for hearing protection is largely left to individuals, many of whom choose not to wear earplugs. In order to encourage earplug use in these settings, a new approach is needed. The aim of the study was to examine whether presentation of hearing health information would result in increased use of earplugs, or whether provision of earplugs alone would be sufficient to change behaviour. A total of 51 regular patrons of music venues were allocated to either a low-information (lo-info) or high-information (hi-info) group. Both groups completed a survey about their current noise exposure, earplug usage and perceived risk of hearing damage. Both groups were also provided with one-size-fits-all filtered music earplugs. The hi-info group was also provided with audio-visual and written information about the risks of excessive noise exposure. After 4 weeks, and again after an additional 12 weeks, participants were asked about their recent earplug usage, intention to use earplugs in the future, and perceived risk of hearing damage. The results showed that after 4 weeks, the hi-info group's perceived personal risk of hearing damage was significantly higher than that of the lo-info group. After 16 weeks, these differences were no longer evident; however, at both 4 and 16 weeks, both the lo- and hi-info groups were using the earplugs equally often; and both groups intended to use earplugs significantly more often in the future. This suggests that the information was unnecessary to motivate behavioural change. Rather, the simple act of providing access to earplugs appears to have effectively encouraged young at-risk adults to increase their earplug use. © The Author(s) 2015.
Montgomery, Martha E; Fatch, Robin S; Evans, Jennifer L; Yu, Michelle; Davidson, Peter J; Page, Kimberly; Hahn, Judith A
Young injection drug users (IDUs), a highly mobile population, engage in high levels of injecting risk behavior, yet little is understood about how such risk behavior may vary by the characteristics of the cities to which they travel, including the existence of a syringe exchange program (SEP), as well as travel partner characteristics. In 2004-2005, we conducted a 6-month prospective study to investigate the risk behavior of 89 young IDUs as they traveled, with detailed information gathered about 350 city visits. In multivariable analyses, travel to larger urban cities with a population of 500,000-1,000,000 was significantly associated with injecting drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.71; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.56-8.82), ancillary equipment sharing (AES; AOR = 7.05; 95 % CI, 2.25-22.06) and receptive needle sharing (RNS; AOR = 5.73; 95 % CI, 1.11-27.95), as compared with visits to smaller cities with populations below 50,000. Region of the country, and the existence of a SEP within the city visited, were not independently associated with injecting drugs, AES, or RNS during city visits. Traveling with more than one injecting partner was associated with injecting drugs during city visits (AOR = 2.77; 95 % CI, 1.46-5.27), when compared with traveling alone. Additionally, both non-daily and daily/almost daily alcohol use during city visits were associated with AES (AOR = 3.37; 95 % CI, 1.42-7.68; AOR = 3.03; 95 % CI, 1.32-6.97, respectively) as compared with no alcohol consumption. Traveling young IDUs are more likely to inject when traveling with other IDUs and to engage in higher risk injection behavior when they are in large cities. Risk behavior occurring in city visits, including equipment sharing and alcohol consumption, suggests further need for focused interventions to reduce risk for viral infection among this population.
Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.
Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893
Pisetsky, Emily M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Peterson, Carol B.
Currently, research support is strongest for family-based treatment (FBT) for the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescents. However, a strong evidence base for treatments for older adolescents and young adults with AN is lacking. Emphasizing social support in the treatment of AN may be beneficial for older adolescents and young adults with AN. This paper provides a brief review of the literature on FBT for adolescent AN and provides a case example of adolescent AN treated with FBT. We then discuss novel treatments that have incorporated social support for older adolescents and young adults with AN, such as modified FBT and couples-based interventions. We provide case studies of each of these novel treatment approaches as well. Additionally, this paper highlights and discusses developmental considerations and challenges in working with older adolescents and young adults with AN. PMID:27429544
Pirinen, Jani; Putaala, Jukka; Aro, Aapo L; Surakka, Ida; Haapaniemi, Anita; Kaste, Markku; Haapaniemi, Elena; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Lehto, Mika
The diagnostic work-up to reveal etiology in a young ischemic stroke (IS) patient includes evaluation for high-risk source of cardioembolism (HRCE), since this subtype associates with high early recurrence rate and mortality. We investigated the association of ECG findings with a final etiologic subgroup of HRCE in a cohort of young patients with first-ever IS. The Helsinki Young Stroke Registry includes IS patients aged 15 to 49 years admitted between 1994 and 2007. Blinded to other clinical data, we analyzed a 12-lead resting ECG obtained 1-14 days after the onset of stroke symptoms in 690 patients. We then compared the ECG findings between a final diagnosis of HRCE (n=78) and other/undetermined causes (n=612). We used multivariate logistic regression to study the association between ECG parameters and HRCE. Of our cohort (63% male), 35% showed ECG abnormality, the most common being T-wave inversion (16%), left ventricular hypertrophy (14%), prolonged P-wave (13%), and prolonged QTc (12%). 3% had atrial fibrillation (AF), and 4% P-terminal force (PTF). Of the continuous parameters, longer QRS-duration, QTc, and wider QRS-T-angle independently associated with HRCE. After AF, PTF had the strongest independent association with HRCE (odds ratio=44.32, 95% confidence interval=[10.51-186.83]), followed by a QRS-T angle >110° (8.29 [3.55-19.32]), T-wave inversion (5.06, 2.54-10.05), and prolonged QTc (3.02 [1.39-6.56]). Routine ECG provides useful information for directing the work-up of a young IS patient. In addition to AF, PTF in particular showed a strong association with etiology of HRCE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ji, Ruijun; Schwamm, Lee H; Pervez, Muhammad A; Singhal, Aneesh B
Approximately 10% to 14% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. To investigate the yield of diagnostic tests, neuroimaging findings, and treatment of ischemic strokes in young adults. We retrospectively reviewed data from our Get with the Guidelines-Stroke database from 2005 through 2010. University hospital tertiary stroke center. A total of 215 consecutive inpatients aged 18 to 45 years with ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack. The mean (SD) age was 37.5 (7) years; 51% were male. There were high incidence rates of hypertension (20%), diabetes mellitus (11%), dyslipidemia (38%), and smoking (34%). Relevant abnormalities were shown on cerebral angiography in 136 of 203 patients, on cardiac ultrasonography in 100 of 195, on Holter monitoring in 2 of 192; and on hypercoagulable panel in 30 of 189 patients. Multiple infarcts were observed in 31% and were more prevalent in individuals younger than age 35 years. Relevant arterial lesions were frequently detected in the middle cerebral artery (23%), internal carotid artery (13%), and vertebrobasilar arteries (13%). Cardioembolic stroke occurred in 47% (including 17% with isolated patent foramen ovale), and 11% had undetermined stroke etiology. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 3 (interquartile range, 0-9) and 81% had good outcome at hospital discharge. Of the 29 patients receiving thrombolysis (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 14; interquartile range, 9-17), 55% had good outcome at hospital discharge and none developed symptomatic brain hemorrhage. This study shows the contemporary profile of ischemic stroke in young adults admitted to a tertiary stroke center. Stroke etiology can be determined in nearly 90% of patients with modern diagnostic tests. The causes are heterogeneous; however, young adults have a high rate of traditional vascular risk factors. Thrombolysis appears safe and short-term outcomes are favorable.
Salmon, Jo; Tremblay, Mark S; Marshall, Simon J; Hume, Clare
Opportunities for young people to be sedentary have increased during leisure time, study time, and transportation time. This review paper focuses on sedentary behaviors among young people aged 2-18 years and includes evidence of the relationship between sedentary behavior and health risk indicators, an overview of public health recommendations, the prevalence of key sedentary behaviors, evidence of correlates of sedentary behavior and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors. Although this is a narrative style review and not systematic, where possible, findings from relevant review papers were summarized and a search of more recent literature was performed using computer-based databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsycINFO, Social Science Index, SportDiscus, and Health Reference Center - Academic. Young people spend 2-4 hours per day in screen-based behaviors and 5-10 hours per day sedentary. Ethnicity, sociodemographic status, having a TV set in the bedroom, and parental behavior appear to be the most consistent correlates of TV viewing time; however, few recent studies aiming to reduce TV viewing or sedentary time among young people have been successful. A growing body of evidence supports the development of public health recommendations to limit the time spent in screen-based behaviors. More research is needed to examine the prospective and experimental evidence of associations between overall sedentary time and health, determinants of sedentary behaviors other than screen-based behaviors, and interventions to reduce overall sedentary time or even alternative sedentary behaviors, such as transport- or education-related sitting time. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Engelman, Alina; Ivey, Susan L; Tseng, Winston; Neuhauser, Linda
The authors explored the factors influencing risk perception and perceived self-efficacy before and during an emergency for deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) seniors and young adults. The authors collected demographic survey data and conducted four focus groups with 38 Deaf/HH residents of the San Francisco Bay Area; two groups were with young adults (ages 18-35), including one group of college students and one group of young professionals, and two were with older adults (ages 50-90). Significant differences were found between Deaf/HH young adults and seniors in both the sources of self-efficacy and risk perception and their attitudes toward preparedness. All groups demonstrated high resilience. Deaf/HH young professionals expressed more concern about their risk in an emergency than Deaf/HH college students. Alternately, the risk perception of Deaf/HH older adults was often rooted in their past experiences (survival of past emergencies, inaccessibility of communications during drills). Policy implications include the need to dedicate more resources to increasing accessibility and relevance of emergency communications technology for Deaf/HH populations. This could help increase adaptability before, during, and after emergencies among all groups of Deaf/HH people, particularly among young Deaf/HH professionals.
Young, Alison L; Butow, Phyllis N; Vetsch, Janine; Quinn, Veronica F; Patenaude, Andrea F; Tucker, Katherine M; Wakefield, Claire E
Understanding challenges in familial communication of cancer risk has informed genetic service delivery. Parent-child interactions have received considerable attention, but few studies focus on young adulthood experiences within BRCA1/2 families. Young adults are approaching, or at a life stage where awareness of hereditary cancer risk is vital for informed choice of risk management options. This review assesses family communication, risk perception and cancer knowledge held by 18-40 year old individuals who have a parent with a BRCA1/2 gene mutation or carry the gene mutation themselves. Thirteen papers met the inclusion criteria. One utilized a 'mixed methods' methodology and the remaining used a qualitative approach. Findings were synthesized into themes and reported narratively. In general, parents are communicating openly about genetic risk with young adult offspring, but there is evidence that some young adults are withholding information from their parents about their own test results. Risk perception is influenced by a family history of cancer, childbearing plans and health providers' advice. Misconceptions about genetic risk appear to be common and gaps in hereditary cancer knowledge are evident. It is unclear whether incorrect knowledge was passed from parents to offspring. Health providers need to provide developmentally appropriate services for emerging adults (18-25 years old), with particular support in navigating through risk management options.
GROOTHUIS, [No Value; SIMOES, EAF; LEVIN, MJ; HALL, CB; LONG, CE; RODRIGUEZ, WJ; ARROBIO, J; MEISSNER, HC; FULTON, DR; WELLIVER, RC; TRISTRAM, DA; SIBER, GR; PRINCE, GA; VANRADEN, M; HEMMING, VG
Background. Infants with cardiac disease or prematurity are at risk for severe illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Immune globulin with a high titer of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus may offer infants and young children at risk protection from this serious, common
Pereira-Morales, Angela J; Adan, Ana; Camargo, Andrés; Forero, Diego A
Young adults might engage in many risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, which could lead to mental health problems, such as suicide. The aim of this study was to examine specific psychosocial and clinical factors that could influence the possible relationship between polysubstance use (PSU) and suicide risk in a sample of young Colombian participants. A sample of 274 young participants (mean age = 21.3 years) was evaluated with two substance use screening tests (ASSIST and AUDIT) and five scales for clinical and psychosocial factors and suicide risk: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety scale, Family APGAR, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Plutchik Suicide Risk scale. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Use of cannabis and tobacco was significantly correlated with suicide risk in the total sample (p < .05). Depressive and anxiety symptoms, family functioning, and emotional abuse during childhood were significantly associated with suicide risk (p < .001), while alcohol use, anxiety symptoms, and family functioning were variables significantly related to PSU. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a relationship between substance use, several psychosocial factors, and suicide risk in young participants. Our study is one of the first reports the relationship between substance use and suicide risk in a Latin American population. (Am J Addict 2017;26:388-394). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Díez-Fernández, A; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V; Torres-Costoso, A; Cañete García-Prieto, J; Franquelo-Morales, P; Sánchez-López, M
The aim of this study was to analyze the mediation role of cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference in the association between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk. A cross-sectional study involved first-year college students (n = 370) from a Spanish public university was performed. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, biochemical variables, maximum handgrip strength assessment, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We calculated handgrip dynamometry/weight and a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index. Analysis of covariance models was conducted to test differences in cardiometabolic risk values across muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and waist circumference categories, controlling for confounders. Hayes' PROCESS macro was used for the multiple mediation analysis. The relationship between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk did not remain significant (c' = 1.76 [1.4]; P > .05) in a multiple serial bootstrapped mediation model including cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference as mediators when controlling for age and sex. According to the indirect effect, the significant paths in the model mediating this relationship between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk index were as follows: muscular strength → waist circumference → cardiometabolic risk index (-4.899; 95% CI: -6.690; -3.450) and muscular strength → cardiorespiratory fitness → waist circumference → cardiometabolic risk index (-0.720; 95% CI: -1.316; -0.360). Both cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference mediate the association between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk in young adults. Thus, our results place cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference as the main targets of physical activity programmes aimed at preventing cardiometabolic diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Children and young people growing up in a farm environment run a greater risk of being injured or dying in an accident than their non-farming counterparts. This study examines farming parents' attitudes and experiences of having their children grow up on farms, one of the most dangerous work environments as their home, everyday environment and playground. Data were collected using two ethnological methods, a question list and interviews, with a study population of 20 parents. The data were analysed phenomenologically. The analysis pursued four themes: i) the most dangerous places and situations on the farm; ii) children's tasks on the farm; iii) children as a safety risk on the farm; and iv) farm risk education for children. Most parents know the risks on their farm, but are sometimes careless when working under stress or exhaustion. Some parents wanted more information and some wanted compulsory preventative or safety measures by manufacturers, e.g. a safety belt as standard on the extra seat in tractors. Children's friends were described as one of the greatest risks for injury due to peer pressure. Some parents mentioned that people who grow up on farms are sometimes 'blind' to the dangers. Other parents seemed to overlook the risks and had their children carrying out tasks for which they were not mentally or physically equipped. Some of the tasks the children reportedly carried out on farms contravened Swedish legislation. It is thus important for farming parents to be repeatedly reminded of the risks to their children and to increase their awareness of how to prevent and eliminate risks in order to avoid accidents on the farm. The situation for farm children is highlighted in a critical discussion.
Full Text Available Children and young people growing up in a farm environment run a greater risk of being injured or dying in an accident than their non-farming counterparts. This study examines farming parents' attitudes and experiences of having their children grow up on farms, one of the most dangerous work environments as their home, everyday environment and playground.Data were collected using two ethnological methods, a question list and interviews, with a study population of 20 parents. The data were analysed phenomenologically.The analysis pursued four themes: i the most dangerous places and situations on the farm; ii children's tasks on the farm; iii children as a safety risk on the farm; and iv farm risk education for children.Most parents know the risks on their farm, but are sometimes careless when working under stress or exhaustion. Some parents wanted more information and some wanted compulsory preventative or safety measures by manufacturers, e.g. a safety belt as standard on the extra seat in tractors. Children's friends were described as one of the greatest risks for injury due to peer pressure. Some parents mentioned that people who grow up on farms are sometimes 'blind' to the dangers. Other parents seemed to overlook the risks and had their children carrying out tasks for which they were not mentally or physically equipped. Some of the tasks the children reportedly carried out on farms contravened Swedish legislation. It is thus important for farming parents to be repeatedly reminded of the risks to their children and to increase their awareness of how to prevent and eliminate risks in order to avoid accidents on the farm. The situation for farm children is highlighted in a critical discussion.
Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.
Lahatte, Agénor; Le Pape, Marie-Clémence
This article aims to investigate parental influence on high-risk behavior by young people. Although research on the topic of perception of risk demonstrates that it is socially constructed, the role of the family in this construction has rarely been studied. Using a French national survey of more than 1,200 young drivers between the ages of 18 and 25, and their parents, we attempt to understand the transmission of risk within families. Our econometric study shows that parents influence both the practices and representations of their children. When parental norms and values are transmitted, they are by no means accepted in a wholly passive way. Indeed, the parental model is in competition with other models that originate from both inside the family (brothers and sisters) and outside it (instructors). Furthermore, parental influence decreases over time as young people become more experienced drivers and construct their own identity with regard to risk.
Okumura, Megumi J; Hersh, Aimee O; Hilton, Joan F; Lotstein, Debra S
Despite over 500,000 adolescents with special health care needs transitioning to adulthood each year, limited information is available on their health status or their access to care after transition. To describe the change in health status and access to care of a nationally sampled, longitudinal cohort of young adults with special health care needs (ASHCN). We analyzed follow-up data collected in the 2007 Survey of Adult Transition and Health on young adults who were 14-17 years of age when their parents participated in the 2001 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. We describe changes in access to care and health status over time, and used logistic regression to identify characteristics that were associated with declining health status in this cohort. 1,865 participants, aged 19-23 years, completed the Survey of Adult Transition and Health. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 3.6 fold increase in the proportion experiencing delayed or forgone care; 10% reported a decline in health status. There was a 7.7-fold increase in the proportion reporting no insurance. In regression analysis, factors associated with declining health status between 2001 and 2007 included underlying disease severity and delayed or forgone care in young adulthood. We found significant deterioration in insurance coverage, usual source of care and receiving timely health care as ASHCN aged into adulthood, and that this was associated with decline in health status. Our findings suggest that further population-based analyses of health outcomes are needed to plan for interventions to assist this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Geology for Global Development (GfGD) is a not-for-profit organisation working to mobilise and equip geologists to engage in all aspects of sustainable development, including disaster risk reduction (DRR). Geologists have a crucial role to play in DRR, and the recently agreed Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030. This framework aims to significantly reduce loss of lives and livelihoods due to disasters. The geology community have an understanding of the Earth, its physical structure, and the processes by which it is constantly being shaped which are of particular relevance to Priorities for Action 1 and 4 noted within the Sendai Framework. Effective engagement by geologists, however, requires many skills beyond the standard geology curriculum. Cultural understanding, cross-disciplinary communication, diplomacy, community mobilization and participation, knowledge exchange, and an understanding of social science research tools are commonly necessary for effective research and engagement in the science-policy-practice interface. Topical and disciplinary knowledge, such as understanding social vulnerability, international policy frameworks and development theory are also rarely included in the education and professional training of a young geologist. Through the work of GfGD, we are training young geologists with these skills and the supporting knowledge required to make an effective contribution to reducing disaster risk, support civil society, empower communities and help to strengthen resilience. University chapters have been established in 14 major UK and Irish universities, coordinating extra-curricular seminars, workshops and discussion activities. Our work is currently focused on supporting young geologists, but we are increasingly a respected voice at international geoscience forums that gather a wide range of students and professionals. Wider (national and international) activities include conferences, placements and facilitating youth engagement in education
Kelsey, Jennifer L; Bachrach, Laura K; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Nieves, Jeri; Greendale, Gail A; Sowers, Maryfran; Brown, Byron W; Matheson, Kim A; Crawford, Sybil L; Cobb, Kristin L
To identify risk factors for stress fracture among young female distance runners. Participants were 127 competitive female distance runners, aged 18-26, who provided at least some follow-up data in a randomized trial among 150 runners of the effects of oral contraceptives on bone health. After completing a baseline questionnaire and undergoing bone densitometry, they were followed an average of 1.85 yr. Eighteen participants had at least one stress fracture during follow-up. Baseline characteristics associated (Pstress fracture occurrence were one or more previous stress fractures (rate ratio [RR] [95% confidence interval]=6.42 (1.80-22.87), lower whole-body bone mineral content (RR=2.70 [1.26-5.88] per 1-SD [293.2 g] decrease), younger chronologic age (RR=1.42 [1.05-1.92] per 1-yr decrease), lower dietary calcium intake (RR=1.11 [0.98-1.25] per 100-mg decrease), and younger age at menarche (RR=1.92 [1.15-3.23] per 1-yr decrease). Although not statistically significant, a history of irregular menstrual periods was also associated with increased risk (RR=3.41 [0.69-16.91]). Training-related factors did not affect risk. The results of this and other studies indicate that risk factors for stress fracture among young female runners include previous stress fractures, lower bone mass, and, although not statistically significant in this study, menstrual irregularity. More study is needed of the associations between stress fracture and age, calcium intake, and age at menarche. Given the importance of stress fractures to runners, identifying preventive measures is of high priority.
Full Text Available Background:To investigate the predisposing and precipitating risk factors for suicide ideations and suicide attempts in young and adolescent females,we tried to introduce a holistic model of suicidal behavior in young and adolescent girls. Methods: This study is based on the survey studies and was cross-sectional. Considering high rates of suicide attempts in provinces of Iran,three provinces (Kermanshah, Hamedan,Ilam which had the highest rates of completed suicide were selected. Then among female high school students (aged 14 to 21 years, in two stages a representative sample was selected by a multi-clusteral and simple randomized sampling methods. The research data were gathered by administering (1 The inventory of predisposing and precipitating factors of suicide, demographic and family characteristics (based on the literature review (2 Symptom Check List (SCL 90-R (3Suicidality Subscale of the Depressive Symptom Index (DSI-SS (4 Center for Epidemiological Studies (CED- SSI (5 Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and (6 Child Abuse Self Report Scale (CASRS.Then,subjects were characterized by dividing them in to two categories: at risk,and low risk. The scores of 2 categories were analyzed and discussed. Results: Relationships were found between suicide ideations and psychological problems and disorders (especially depression.Also,the students who reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt had a history of being abused. Based on the results,predisposing and precipitating risk factors and also some protective factors of suicide ideations and suicide attempts were found and a theoretical model was presented.Conclusion: Some predisposing,precipitating and protective factors can predict suicide ideation and suicide attempts significantly.
Altenburg, Teatske M; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy; Chinapaw, Mai J M
TV time and total sedentary time have been positively related to biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk in adults. We aim to examine the association of TV time and computer time separately with cardiometabolic biomarkers in young adults. Additionally, the mediating role of waist circumference (WC) is studied. Data of 634 Dutch young adults (18-28 years; 39% male) were used. Cardiometabolic biomarkers included indicators of overweight, blood pressure, blood levels of fasting plasma insulin, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides and a clustered cardiometabolic risk score. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the cross-sectional association of self-reported TV and computer time with cardiometabolic biomarkers, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors. Mediation by WC was checked using the product-of-coefficient method. TV time was significantly associated with triglycerides (B = 0.004; CI = [0.001;0.05]) and insulin (B = 0.10; CI = [0.01;0.20]). Computer time was not significantly associated with any of the cardiometabolic biomarkers. We found no evidence for WC to mediate the association of TV time or computer time with cardiometabolic biomarkers. We found a significantly positive association of TV time with cardiometabolic biomarkers. In addition, we found no evidence for WC as a mediator of this association. Our findings suggest a need to distinguish between TV time and computer time within future guidelines for screen time.
Research involving adolescent and young African American (AA) females has demonstrated that they face uncontrollable obstacles which can interfere with the negotiation of safer sexual behaviors. If these obstacles are perceived as uncontrollable, then these females may be at risk for the development of Learned Helplessness (LH). As the LH model predicts, if these obstacles are believed not to be in their control, it may lead to deficits in motivational or cognitive decision-making, deficits that could certainly influence their sexual risk taking behaviors. Therefore, the primary objective for this pilot study was to trial the Learned Helplessness Scale (LHS) to examine the perceptions of LH in this population. A convenience sample of 50 adolescent and young AA females between the ages of 16 and 21 were recruited from two clinics in Southeast Michigan. Scores on the LHS ranged from 20 to 57, with a mean score of 39.1 (standard deviation = 10.49). The higher range of scores in the sample demonstrates a continuum of LH among the participants in the study.
Garofalo, Robert; Herrick, Amy; Mustanski, Brian S; Donenberg, Geri Rachel
We examined the prevalence of Internet use for meeting sexual partners (Internet partners) and HIV risk behaviors associated with this use among young men who have sex with men (aged 16-24 years). A sample of 270 young men who have sex with men completed a computer-assisted survey. We used bivariate chi(2) analyses and hierarchical logistic regression to assess factors associated with Internet-facilitated sexual encounters. Using the Internet to meet sexual partners was common; 48% of our sample had sexual relations with a partner they met online. Of these, only 53% used condoms consistently, and 47% reported having sexual partners older (>4 years) than themselves. Regression analyses showed increased age, White race/ethnicity, history of unprotected anal intercourse, multiple anal intercourse partners, and engaging in sexual activity at a sex club or a bathhouse were associated with meeting sexual partners through the Internet. Only history of unprotected anal intercourse was associated with risky sexual behaviors with Internet partners (Ppartners online also engage in other behaviors that place them at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
Robustelli, Briana L; Newberry, Raeana E; Whisman, Mark A; Mittal, Vijay A
Studies suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have smaller social networks and less satisfying relationships. However, much is still unknown about the typical quantity and quality of social relationships in young adults during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period. Investigating these relationships holds significant importance for improving understanding of etiological processes, mapping the social environment, and highlighting treatment targets in a critical period. A total of 85 participants (44 UHR and 41 healthy controls) completed measures examining the participants' social relationships, social support, and loneliness. Mean differences between the UHR and healthy control participants and associations between social relationships and symptoms and functioning were examined. Results indicated significant differences between groups on several indices. Specifically, the UHR youth reported fewer close friends, less diverse social networks, less perceived social support, poorer relationship quality with family and friends, and more loneliness. Notably, within the UHR group, being lonely and having fewer and worse quality relationships was associated with greater symptom severity and lower overall functioning. This study suggests that youth at high-risk of developing psychosis have fewer and poorer quality social relationships. Interventions that focus on increasing the quantity and quality of young adults' social networks may be beneficial for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dean, Andy C; Sugar, Catherine A; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D
Cigarette smoking has been linked to real-world risky behavior, but this association has been based largely on retrospective self-reports. Limitations of self-report data can be avoided by using laboratory, performance-based measures, such as the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART; Lejuez et al., J Exp Psychol Appl 8:75-84, 2002). Initial studies have suggested that smokers display greater risk-taking on this task than nonsmokers, but these studies did not account for drug abuse and psychiatric comorbidities, which are commonplace among smokers. We sought to examine the performance of smokers and nonsmokers on the BART after excluding drug abuse and psychiatric comorbidities. We conducted a study of late adolescent/young adult (age 18 to 21) smokers (n = 26) and nonsmokers (n = 38) performing the BART and excluded individuals with positive drug or alcohol toxicology screens, substance abuse or dependence diagnoses, and/or current psychiatric conditions. Contrary to previous findings, smokers did not display greater risk-taking on the BART than nonsmokers. In fact, when performance was examined trial-by-trial, the nonsmokers displayed progressively greater pumping relative to smokers over time (p adaptive.
Calvo, Michele; MacFarlane, Jessica; Zaccaro, Heather; Curtis, Matthew; Cabán, María; Favaro, Jamie; Passannante, Marian R; Frost, Taeko
Little is known about the engagement of young people who use drugs (PWUD) in harm reduction programs (HRPs), and few studies have included non-opioid users and non-injectors. While HRPs have effectively engaged PWUD, young people are under-represented in their services. The Injection Drug Users Health Alliance Citywide Study (IDUCS) is the largest community-based study of PWUD in HRPs in the US. From 2014-2015, 2421 HRP participants across New York City (NYC) completed a cross-sectional survey. We investigated differences in socio-demographics, service utilization, and risk behaviors between young (aged 18-30) and older participants and examined factors associated with overdose among young participants. The study included 257 young participants. They were significantly more likely than older participants to be white, educated, uninsured, unstably housed or homeless, and have a history of incarceration and residential drug treatment. They were more likely to report recent overdose but less likely to report knowledge of naloxone. Young participants also had higher rates of alcohol, marijuana, benzodiazepine, and injection drug use, and related risk behaviors such as public injection. Factors associated with past year overdose among young participants included experiencing symptoms of psychological distress (AOR=9.71), being unstably housed or homeless (AOR=4.39), and utilizing detox (AOR=4.20). Young PWUD who access services at HRPs in NYC differ significantly from their older counterparts. New York City and other urban centers that attract young PWUD should consider implementing harm reduction oriented services tailored to the unique needs of young people. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Falgares, Giorgio; Marchetti, Daniela; Manna, Giovanna; Musso, Pasquale; Oasi, Osmano; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; De Santis, Sandro; Verrocchio, Maria C
Several studies have demonstrated that child maltreatment (psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and neglect) may be a significant factor in the development of pathological personality traits that increase the risk for suicidal ideation and behavior from adolescence to adulthood. Currently, the challenge is to understand how different forms of early negative experiences render an individual prone to develop specific personality traits and, in turn, be more vulnerable to suicide risk. To understand the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality dimensions in suicide risk, our study aims to explore the role of self-criticism and dependency, two different pathological personality traits, as potential mediators of the link between different types of childhood maltreatment and suicide risk in young adults. For this purpose, 306 students from three Italian public universities were recruited. We used the Italian version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) to assess experiences of lack of care by parents (i.e., antipathy and neglect) as well as psychological and physical abuse before the age of 17 years. The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) was used to assess the personality dimensions of self-criticism and dependency, and the Suicide History Self-Rating Screening Scale was administered to assess suicide risk. Results revealed that lack of care and psychological abuse were significantly associated with suicide risk and this association was partially mediated by the maladaptive personality dimension of self-criticism. These findings suggest that the combined effect of specific forms of dysfunctional parental behavior during childhood and the development of rigid and dysfunctional negative personality traits may increase the risk for suicidal ideation and behavior during adulthood.
The prevention access and risk taking in young people (PARTY) project protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of health risk screening and motivational interviewing for young people presenting to general practice.
Sanci, Lena; Grabsch, Brenda; Chondros, Patty; Shiell, Alan; Pirkis, Jane; Sawyer, Susan; Hegarty, Kelsey; Patterson, Elizabeth; Cahill, Helen; Ozer, Elizabeth; Seymour, Janelle; Patton, George
There are growing worldwide concerns about the ability of primary health care systems to manage the major burden of illness in young people. Over two thirds of premature adult deaths result from risks that manifest in adolescence, including injury, neuropsychiatric problems and consequences of risky behaviours. One policy response is to better reorientate primary health services towards prevention and early intervention. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to support this recommendation for young people. This paper describes the design and implementation of a trial testing an intervention to promote psychosocial risk screening of all young people attending general practice and to respond to identified risks using motivational interviewing. clinicians' detection of risk-taking and emotional distress, young people's intention to change and reduction of risk taking. pathways to care, trust in the clinician and likelihood of returning for future visits. The design of the economic and process evaluation are not detailed in this protocol. PARTY is a cluster randomised trial recruiting 42 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Baseline measures include: youth friendly practice characteristics; practice staff's self-perceived competency in young people's care and clinicians' detection and response to risk taking behaviours and emotional distress in 14-24 year olds, attending the practice. Practices are then stratified by a social disadvantage index and billing methods and randomised. Intervention practices receive: nine hours of training and tools; feedback of their baseline data and two practice visits over six weeks. Comparison practices receive a three hour seminar in youth friendly practice only. Six weeks post-intervention, 30 consecutive young people are interviewed post-consultation from each practice and followed-up for self-reported risk taking behaviour and emotional distress three and 12 months post consultation. The PARTY trial is the
The prevention access and risk taking in young people (PARTY project protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of health risk screening and motivational interviewing for young people presenting to general practice
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing worldwide concerns about the ability of primary health care systems to manage the major burden of illness in young people. Over two thirds of premature adult deaths result from risks that manifest in adolescence, including injury, neuropsychiatric problems and consequences of risky behaviours. One policy response is to better reorientate primary health services towards prevention and early intervention. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to support this recommendation for young people. This paper describes the design and implementation of a trial testing an intervention to promote psychosocial risk screening of all young people attending general practice and to respond to identified risks using motivational interviewing. Main outcomes: clinicians’ detection of risk-taking and emotional distress, young people’s intention to change and reduction of risk taking. Secondary outcomes: pathways to care, trust in the clinician and likelihood of returning for future visits. The design of the economic and process evaluation are not detailed in this protocol. Methods PARTY is a cluster randomised trial recruiting 42 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Baseline measures include: youth friendly practice characteristics; practice staff’s self-perceived competency in young people’s care and clinicians’ detection and response to risk taking behaviours and emotional distress in 14–24 year olds, attending the practice. Practices are then stratified by a social disadvantage index and billing methods and randomised. Intervention practices receive: nine hours of training and tools; feedback of their baseline data and two practice visits over six weeks. Comparison practices receive a three hour seminar in youth friendly practice only. Six weeks post-intervention, 30 consecutive young people are interviewed post-consultation from each practice and followed-up for self-reported risk taking
Saffier, I. P.; Kawa, H.; Harling, G.
Background Despite young people being a key population for HIV prevention, the HIV epidemic amongst young Brazilians is perceived to be growing. We therefore reviewed all published literature on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst 10-25 year olds in Brazil. Methods We searched Embase, LILACS, Proquest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to March 2017 and analyzed reference lists of relevant studies. We included published stud...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR. Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland’s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs. Methods Every third new committal to a young offenders prison was interviewed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS to identify the Ultra High Risk (UHR state and a structured interview for assessing drug and alcohol misuse according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, the Developmental Understanding of Drug Misuse and Dependence - Short Form (DUNDRUM-S. Results Over a twelve month period 171 young male offenders aged 16 to 20 were assessed. Of these 39 (23%, 95% confidence interval 18% to 30% met UHR criteria. UHR states peaked at 18 years, were associated with lower SOFAS scores for social and occupational function and were also associated with multiple substance misuse. The relationship with lower SOFAS scores persisted even when co-varying for multiple substance misuse. Conclusions Although psychotic symptoms are common in community samples of children and adolescents, the prevalence of the UHR state in young offenders was higher than reported for community samples. The association with impaired function also suggests that this may be part of a developing disorder. Much more attention should be paid to the relationship of UHR states to substance misuse and to the health needs of young offenders.
Makarenko, M. V.
A high percentage of prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in young age causes urgency of treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissue in young age. Therefore, the research purpose was to investigate the hygienic condition and identification of the main risk factors for gingivitis in patients aged 18-30 years. 286 people aged from 18 to 30 years were observed in the study. To assess hygienic condition of the oral cavity and to determine the thickness of pl...
Results: Phase I is currently underway and has involved identifying an appropriate partner company with expertise in IVR, collecting qualitative data on colon cancer risk perceptions from young people (thematic analyses currently underway, assembling a steering committee, as well as conducting workshops with our Young People’s Partnership Board (YPPB to get continuous feedback on creative ideas. Conclusions: This is a novel exploratory study that is still underway, and the presentation will outline the Innerselfie project and summarise findings to date.
Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A
: Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1220 young men who had been admitted to hospital for concussion between the ages of 16 and 24 (identified in a national register of admissions) and who had also been cognitively tested by the Danish conscription draft board. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Score on the draft board's cognitive......, the rate of dysfunctional scores was higher (30.4% (158/520)). Apart from suggesting cognitive dysfunction as a risk factor for concussion, this higher proportion seems to relate to the fact that they were typically injured as young adults, whereas those men who were tested after concussion had more often......, more so for young adults than for adolescents....
Duong, Cong Thanh; Nguyen, Tran Hien; Hoang, Thi Thanh Ha; Nguyen, Van Vi; Do, Thi Minh Nguyet; Pham, Van Han; Detels, Roger
The risk of the HIV epidemic spreading from high-risk groups to the general population in Vietnam depends on sexual risk and bridging behaviors between high- and low-risk individuals. A cross-sectional study was used to describe sexual activities of youth aged 18-29 years. Nearly half (41.4%) were sexually active. Premarital sex was reported by 43.3% of them; 78.3% of sexually active males and 13.5% of sexually active females. Multiple sex partners were reported by 31.0%; 56.7% of males and 9.2% of females. Almost 27% of males and 5% of females engaged in sexual bridging behaviors. Being unmarried was significantly associated with having sex with non-regular partners. Being unmarried and early age at first intercourse were associated with having sex with a sex worker. Consistent condom use was high with commercial sex workers but low with regular partners. Education to delay early sexual debut, increased employment, and strategies to inform young sexually active people to adopt safer behaviors are urgently needed.
Full Text Available This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI and physical activity (PA amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18–25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students’ lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student’s health.
Raman, Sajani; Guerrero-Duby, Sara; McCullough, Jennifer L; Brown, Miraides; Ostrowski-Delahanty, Sarah; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C
This cross-sectional study assessed associations between social-emotional development in young children and their number of daily routines involving an electronic screen. We hypothesized children with poor social-emotional development have a significant portion of daily routines occurring with a screen. Two hundred and ten female caregivers of typically developing children 12 to 36 months old completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE) and a media diary. Caregivers completed the diary for 1 day around 10 daily routines (Waking Up, Diapering/Toileting, Dressing, Breakfast, Lunch, Naptime, Playtime, Dinner, Bath, and Bedtime). Median number of daily routines occurring with a screen for children at risk and not at risk for social-emotional delay (as defined by the ASQ: SE) was 7 versus 5. Children at risk for social-emotional delay were 5.8 times more likely to have ≥5 routines occurring with a screen as compared to children not at risk for delay (χ 1 2 = 9.28, N = 210, P = .002; 95% confidence interval = 1.66-20.39).
Speizer, Ilene S; Beauvais, Harry; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Outlaw, Theresa Finn; Roussel, Barbara
No previous published research has examined the applicability of varying methods for identifying young people who are at high risk of experiencing unintended pregnancy and acquiring HIV infection. This study compares three surveys of young people aged 15-24 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors and the surveys'usefulness for identifying young people at high risk and for program planning. The surveys consist of responses from: a representative sample of young people in the 2005-06 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (HDHS), a 2004 facility-based study, and a 2006-07 venue-based study that used the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method. The facility-based and PLACE studies included larger proportions of single, sexually experienced young people and people who knew someone with HIV/ AIDS than did the HDHS. More respondents in the PLACE sample had multiple sex partners in the past year and received money or gifts in return for sex, compared with respondents in the facility study. At first and last sex, more PLACE respondents used contraceptives, including condoms. Experience of pregnancy was most commonly reported in the data from the facility-based sample; however, more ever-pregnant PLACE respondents than others reported ever having terminated a pregnancy. Program managers seeking to implement prevention activities should consider using facility- or venue-based methods to identify and understand the behaviors of young people at high risk.
Cole, John W; Brown, David W; Giles, Wayne H; Stine, Oscar C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Sorkin, John D; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Sparks, Mary J; Dobbins, Mark T; Shoffner, Latasha T; Zappala, Nancy K; Reinhart, Laurie J; Kittner, Steven J
Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for vascular disease, the genetic mechanisms that link cigarette smoking to an increased incidence of stroke are not well understood. Genetic variations within the genes of the inflammatory pathways are thought to partially mediate this risk. Here we evaluate the association of several inflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with ischemic stroke risk among young women, further stratified by curre...
Hennell, Kath; Limmer, Mark; Piacentini, Maria
Young people’s very visible and public performances of drunkenness have become a matter of popular and political concern. English alcohol policy, frames this type of harmful alcohol consumption as a problem of individual behaviour, which is underpinned by conceptualisations of risk and rationality. Thus positioning the individual as a rational, risk adverse, decision maker. Consequently, interventions focus on risk factors and individual harm reduction models, despite there being little evide...
Soga, Youji; Shirai, Chika; Ijichi, Akihiro
Appropriate lifestyle modifications through health guidance and other methods are known to be effective in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. Furthermore, early intervention is key. To examine the association between daily lifestyle and the risk of metabolic syndrome among young adults in Japan, we analyzed data from the Kobe City Young Adult Health Examination. We examined 4,912 adults aged 30 to 39 years to identify the association between daily lifestyle and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Daily lifestyle was assessed from 11 lifestyle-related items in the questionnaire administered during the health exam. The Standard Health Exam and Guidance Program by the Ministry of Health and Labor was used to determine the risks of abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Having a risk related to metabolic syndrome was defined as having a risk of abdominal obesity combined with a risk of hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia. We also evaluated the stages of behavioral change in those who possessed a risk of metabolic syndrome, as well as their willingness to receive health guidance. Eating quickly had a significantly greater association with-risk of metabolic syndrome, for both sexes, than eating slowly or at a normal pace. For women, smoking, skipping breakfast more than three days a week, and eating supper within two hours before going to bed for more than three days a week were associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. A multiple regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast (P adults in their thirties in Kobe, irregular eating habits seemed to be associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, their intention to/awareness of the need to change their behavior and their willingness to receive health guidance were rather strong. Thus, for the "Tokutei kenshin (specific national health checkup system)" to achieve its objective of preventing lifestyle-related diseases more effectively than at present, the target
Hankin, Abigail; Wei, Stanley; Foreman, Juron; Houry, Debra
Homicide is the second leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24. Prior cross-sectional studies, in non-healthcare settings, have reported exposure to community violence, peer behavior, and delinquency as risk factors for violent injury. However, longitudinal cohort studies have not been performed to evaluate the temporal or predictive relationship between these risk factors and emergency department (ED) visits for injuries among at-risk youth. The objective was to assess whether self-reported exposure to violence risk factors in young adults can be used to predict future ED visits for injuries over a 1-year period. This prospective cohort study was performed in the ED of a Southeastern US Level I trauma center. Eligible participants were patients aged 18-24, presenting for any chief complaint. We excluded patients if they were critically ill, incarcerated, or could not read English. Initial recruitment occurred over a 6-month period, by a research assistant in the ED for 3-5 days per week, with shifts scheduled such that they included weekends and weekdays, over the hours from 8AM-8PM. At the time of initial contact in the ED, patients were asked to complete a written questionnaire, consisting of previously validated instruments measuring the following risk factors: a) aggression, b) perceived likelihood of violence, c) recent violent behavior, d) peer behavior, e) community exposure to violence, and f) positive future outlook. At 12 months following the initial ED visit, the participants' medical records were reviewed to identify any subsequent ED visits for injury-related complaints. We analyzed data with chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Three hundred thirty-two patients were approached, of whom 300 patients consented. Participants' average age was 21.1 years, with 60.1% female, 86.0% African American. After controlling for participant gender, ethnicity, or injury complaint at time of first visit, return visits for injuries were significantly
Leadebal, Oriana Deyze Correia Paiva; Medeiros, Leidyanny Barbosa de; Morais, Kalline Silva de; Nascimento, João Agnaldo do; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida
Analyzing the provision of actions related to managing clinical risk in managing specialized care for people living with AIDS. A cross-sectional study carried out in a reference outpatient clinic in Paraíba, with a sample of 150 adults with AIDS. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources using a structured questionnaire, analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression model to determine the association between "providing care" and "clinical risk." Actions with satisfactory provision express a biological care focus; the dimensions that most contributed to a satisfactory assessment of care provision were "clinical and laboratory evaluations" and "prevention and self-care incentivization"; 45.3% of participants were categorized into high clinical risk, 34% into average clinical risk, and 20.7% into low clinical risk; a positive association between providing care and clinical risk was found. The need to use risk classification technologies to direct the planning of local care provision became evident considering its requirements, and thus qualifying the care provided in these areas. Analisar a oferta de ações relacionadas ao manejo de risco clínico na gestão do cuidado especializado a pessoas vivendo com aids. Estudo transversal realizado em ambulatório de referência na Paraíba, com amostra de 150 adultos com aids. Os dados foram coletados por meio de fontes primárias e secundárias utilizando-se de formulário estruturado, e analisados através de estatística descritiva, análise de correspondência múltipla e modelo de regressão logística para averiguar a associação entre "oferta" e "risco clínico". As ações de oferta satisfatória expressam foco biologicista do cuidado; as dimensões que mais contribuíram para o julgamento satisfatório da oferta foram "avaliação clínica e laboratorial" e "prevenção e estímulo ao autocuidado"; 45,3% dos participantes foram categorizados em risco
Mendoza, Jeanne; And Others
The program is intended to increase skills in parents of young handicapped children. The coordinator's guide traces the background and development of the parent involvement materials, presents suggestions for workshop planning and actual implementation, and discusses training approaches for developing small group facilitation skills. The companion…
Bos, Ellen; Krol, Boudien; van der Star, Lex; Groothoff, Johan
Objectives: To gain more insight into the prevalence rates of musculoskeletal complaints of neck-shoulder and low back and to determine the relation between physical and psychosocial work-related risk factors and the complaints mentioned in non-specialized nurses, operation room nurses, Intensive
Kouts, H.J.C.; Apostolakis, G.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Birkhofer, E.H.A.; Hoegberg, L.G.; LeSage, L.G.; Rasmussen, N.C.; Teague, H.J.; Taylor, J.J.
In April 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) published a draft report ''Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Power Plants,'' NUREG-1150. This report updated, extended and improved upon the information presented in the 1974 ''Reactor Safety Study,'' WASH-1400. Because the information in NUREG-1150 will play a significant role in implementing the NRC's Severe Accident Policy, its quality and credibility are of critical importance. Accordingly, the Commission requested that the RES conduct a peer review of NUREG-1150 to ensure that the methods, safety insights and conclusions presented are appropriate and adequately reflect the current state of knowledge with respect to reactor safety. To this end, RES formed a special committee in June of 1989 under the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The Committee, composed of a group of recognized national and international experts in nuclear reactor safety, was charged with preparing a report reflecting their review of NUREG-1150 with respect to the adequacy of the methods, data, analysis and conclusions it set forth. The report which precedes reflects the results of this peer review
Beecher, S; O'Leary, D P; McLaughlin, R
The pressures on tertiary hospitals with increased volume and complexity related to regionalization and specialization has impacted upon availability of operating theatres with consequent displacement of emergencies to high risk out of hours settings. A retrospective review of an electronic emergency theatre list prospectively maintained database was performed over a two year period. Data gathered included type of operation performed, Time to Theatre (TTT), operation start time and length of stay (LOS). Of 7041 emergency operations 25% were performed out of hours. 2949 patient had general surgical emergency procedures with 910 (30%) performed out of hours. 53% of all emergency laparotomies and 54% of appendicectomies were out of hours. 57% of cases operated on out of hours had been awaiting surgery during the day. Mean TTT was shorter for those admitted at the weekend compared to those admitted during the week (15.6 vs 24.9 h) (p emergency surgery is performed out of hours in a way unfavorable to good clinical outcomes. It is of concern that more than half of the most life threating procedures involving laparotomy, take place out of hours. Regionalization needs to be accompanied by infrastructure planning to accommodate emergency surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth
The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.
The overall objective of this research program is to predict the risk to humans following exposure to 239 Pu. The beagle was originally selected for this program because it is relatively long-lived and has skeletal functions and structure analogous to young adults humans, simulating that of a young adult radium dial painter or occupationally exposed person. Young adult (17 month-old) beagles from the moderately inbred colony at the University of Utah were administered one intravenous injection of 239 Pu (0.0007-2.88 μCi/kg in 238 dogs) or 226 Ra (0.007-10.4 μCi/kg in 119 dogs), and compared to appropriate age-matched control beagles. All beagles have been and are being observed clinically throughout their expected 12 to 15 year post-injection lifespan. A thorough clinical and post-mortem survey is conducted to determine causes of death or lesions at death. The clinical findings are being encoded using SNOMED terminology and entered into a computerized database. All beagles in the 226 Ra study are dead and the data are being analyzed and published. The shape of the curve for dose vs. bone tumor incidence is highly linear up to average skeletal doses of 2200 rads. In higher dose groups, the time to tumor appearance is decreased and skeletal tumors occur in almost all animals. The 226 Ra response is being compared with the 239 Pu response in beagles. This toxicity ratio will allow use of the bone tumor response in the radium dial painters to predict the toxicity of plutonium for bone tumor induction in man
Wesołowska, Karolina; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Pitkänen, Niina; Lipsanen, Jari; Tukiainen, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with depressive symptoms, but the causal direction of this association and the underlying mechanisms, such as increased glucose levels, remain unclear. We used instrumental-variable regression with a genetic instrument (Mendelian randomization) to examine a causal role of increased glucose concentrations in the development of depressive symptoms. Data were from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 1217). Depressive symptoms were assessed in 2012 using a modified Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I). Fasting glucose was measured concurrently with depressive symptoms. A genetic risk score for fasting glucose (with 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used as an instrumental variable for glucose. Glucose was not associated with depressive symptoms in the standard linear regression (B = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.12, 0.04], p = .34), but the instrumental-variable regression showed an inverse association between glucose and depressive symptoms (B = -0.43, 95% CI [-0.79, -0.07], p = .020). The difference between the estimates of standard linear regression and instrumental-variable regression was significant (p = .026) CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the association between T2D and depressive symptoms is unlikely to be caused by increased glucose concentrations. It seems possible that T2D might be linked to depressive symptoms due to low glucose levels.
Morris, S E; Thomson, A O; Jarup, L; de Hoogh, C; Briggs, D J; Elliott, P
A recent study showed small excess risks of low birth weight, very low birth weight and certain congenital anomalies in populations living near landfill sites in Great Britain. The objective of the current study was to investigate the risk of adverse birth outcomes associated with residence near special waste landfill sites in Scotland. We studied risks of adverse birth outcomes in populations living within 2 km of 61 Scottish special waste landfill sites operational at some time between 1982 and 1997 compared with those living further away. 324,167 live births, 1,849 stillbirths, and 11,138 congenital anomalies (including terminations) were included in the study. Relative risks were computed for all congenital anomalies combined, some specific anomalies and prevalence of stillbirth and low and very low birth weight (special waste landfill sites was 0.96 (99% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.02) adjusted for confounders. Adjusted risks were 0.71 (0.36 to 1.42) for neural tube defects, 1.03 (0.85 to 1.26) for cardiovascular defects, 0.84 (0.58 to 1.22) for hypospadias and epispadias (with no excess of surgical corrections), 0.78 (0.27 to 2.23) for abdominal wall defects (1.32 (0.42-4.17) for hospital admissions), 1.22 (0.28 to 5.38) for surgical correction of gastroschisis and exomphalos and 1.01 (0.96 to 1.07) and 1.01 (0.90 to 1.15) for low and very low birth weight respectively. There was no excess risk of stillbirth. In conclusion, we found no statistically significant excess risks of congenital anomalies or low birth weight in populations living near special waste landfill sites in Scotland.
Leppänen, Mari; Pasanen, Kati; Kujala, Urho M; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannus, Pekka; Äyrämö, Sami; Krosshaug, Tron; Bahr, Roald; Avela, Janne; Perttunen, Jarmo; Parkkari, Jari
Few prospective studies have investigated the biomechanical risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. To investigate the relationship between biomechanical characteristics of vertical drop jump (VDJ) performance and the risk of ACL injury in young female basketball and floorball players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. At baseline, a total of 171 female basketball and floorball players (age range, 12-21 years) participated in a VDJ test using 3-dimensional motion analysis. The following biomechanical variables were analyzed: (1) knee valgus angle at initial contact (IC), (2) peak knee abduction moment, (3) knee flexion angle at IC, (4) peak knee flexion angle, (5) peak vertical ground-reaction force (vGRF), and (6) medial knee displacement. All new ACL injuries, as well as match and training exposure, were then recorded for 1 to 3 years. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Fifteen new ACL injuries occurred during the study period (0.2 injuries/1000 player-hours). Of the 6 factors considered, lower peak knee flexion angle (HR for each 10° increase in knee flexion angle, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.88) and higher peak vGRF (HR for each 100-N increase in vGRF, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45) were the only factors associated with increased risk of ACL injury. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.6 for peak knee flexion and 0.7 for vGRF, indicating a failed-to-fair combined sensitivity and specificity of the test. Stiff landings, with less knee flexion and greater vGRF, in a VDJ test were associated with increased risk of ACL injury among young female basketball and floorball players. However, although 2 factors (decreased peak knee flexion and increased vGRF) had significant associations with ACL injury risk, the ROC curve analyses revealed that these variables cannot be used for screening of athletes.
Full Text Available The present study sought to determine whether certain personality traits associated with problematic substance use may also characterize young adults who report problematic internet use. An index of internet addiction as well as measures of traits previously linked to problematic substance use were administered to a sample of 86 young adults aged 18–30 years. Measures included the Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21, Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, and the Fear of Intimacy Scale (FIS. Results indicated that IAT scores were significantly positively correlated with TAS-20, DASS-21, SPSRQ and FIS scores, as predicted. When age, gender and negative mood were controlled in a hierarchical regression, sensitivity to punishment (SP, sensitivity to reward (SR and FIS significantly contributed to variance in IAT in the final model. SP partially mediated the relationship between TAS-20 and IAT, whereas no such mediation was indicated for SR or FIS. Present findings suggest that alexithymia and reward sensitivity may be important risk factors for internet addiction as for problematic substance use, whereas sensitivity to punishment may account for at least part of the association between alexithymia and problematic use of the internet.
Full Text Available This study determined whether perceived parental monitoring is associated with any of twelve selected outcomes related to sexual risk behaviors of young Black males. Recruitment occurred in clinics diagnosing and treating sexually transmitted infections. Young Black males living with a parent or guardian (N = 324 were administered a 9-item scale assessing level of perceived parental monitoring. The obtained range was 10–45, with higher scores representing more frequent monitoring. The mean was 29.3 (sd = 7.0. Eight of the twelve outcomes had significant associations with perceived parental monitoring (all in a direction indicating a protective effect. Of these eight, five retained significance in age-adjusted models were ever causing a pregnancy, discussing pregnancy prevention, safer sex, and condom use with sex partners, and using a condom during the last act of penile–vaginal sex. Monitoring by a parent figure may be partly protective against conceiving a pregnancy for Black males 15–23 years of age.
Husson, Olga; Zebrack, Bradley J; Aguilar, Christine; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve
The objective of the current study was to examine social functioning among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) within the first 2 years after a cancer diagnosis and compare their scores with population norms and identify trajectories of social functioning over time and its correlates. A multicenter, longitudinal study was conducted among 215 AYA patients with cancer aged 14 to 39 years. A total of 141 patients completed a self-report measure of social functioning within the first 4 months of diagnosis and again at 12 months and 24 months later. AYA patients with cancer were found to have significantly worse social functioning scores around the time of diagnosis (52.0 vs 85.1; Pcancer who had consistently low social functioning were more often off treatment at the time of follow-up, reported more physical symptoms and higher levels of distress at baseline and follow-up, and perceived less social support at baseline compared with the other 3 groups. Although improved over time, social functioning still was found to be compromised 24 months after the primary diagnosis. Nearly one-third of these patients remain at risk of poor social functioning. Reducing physical symptoms and psychological distress and enhancing social support by interventions during the period after treatment may potentially help these young survivors to better reintegrate into society. Cancer 2017;123:2743-51. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand trends in sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, specifically low prevalence of condom use with temporary partners, the aim of this study was to examine factors associated with condom use and perceptions of STI risk amongst individuals at risk, with the underlying assumption that STI risk perceptions and STI prevention behaviors are correlated. METHODS: A national population-based survey on human papillomavirus (HPV and sexual habits of young adults aged 18-30 was conducted in Sweden in 2007, with 1712 men and 8855 women participating. Regression analyses stratified by gender were performed to measure condom use with temporary partners and STI risk perception. RESULTS: Men's condom use was not associated with STI risk perception while women's was. Awareness of and disease severity perceptions were not associated with either condom use or risk perception though education level correlated with condom use. Women's young age at sexual debut was associated with a higher risk of non-condom use later in life (OR 1.95 95% CI: 1.46-2.60. Women with immigrant mothers were less likely to report seldom/never use of condoms with temporary partners compared to women with Swedish-born mothers (OR 0.53 95% CI: 0.37-0.77. Correlates to STI risk perception differ substantially between sexes. Number of reported temporary partners was the only factor associated for both men and women with condom use and STI risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions advocating condom use with new partners could consider employing tactics besides those which primarily aim to increase knowledge or self-perceived risk if they are to be more effective in STI reduction. Gender-specific prevention strategies could be effective considering the differences found in this study.
DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R
Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem.
Fox, Christine K; Hills, Nancy K; Vinson, David R; Numis, Adam L; Dicker, Rochelle A; Sidney, Stephen; Fullerton, Heather J
To quantify the incidence, timing, and risk of ischemic stroke after trauma in a population-based young cohort. We electronically identified trauma patients (trauma and 3 controls per case. A physician panel reviewed medical records, confirmed cases, and adjudicated whether the stroke was related to trauma. We calculated the 4-week stroke incidence and estimated stroke odds ratios (OR) by injury location using logistic regression. From 1,308,009 trauma encounters, we confirmed 52 trauma-related ischemic strokes. The 4-week stroke incidence was 4.0 per 100,000 encounters (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-5.2). Trauma was multisystem in 26 (50%). In 19 (37%), the stroke occurred on the day of trauma, and all occurred within 15 days. In 7/28 cases with cerebrovascular angiography at the time of trauma, no abnormalities were detected. In unadjusted analyses, head, neck, chest, back, and abdominal injuries increased stroke risk. Only head (OR 4.1, CI 1.1-14.9) and neck (OR 5.6, CI 1.03-30.9) injuries remained associated with stroke after adjusting for demographics and trauma severity markers (multisystem trauma, motor vehicle collision, arrival by ambulance, intubation). Stroke risk is elevated for 2 weeks after trauma. Onset is frequently delayed, providing an opportunity for stroke prevention during this period. However, in one-quarter of stroke cases with cerebrovascular angiography at the time of trauma, no vascular abnormality was detected. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Delgado Floody, Pedro; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe
obesity is one of the most serious not transmissible illnesses and prevalent at present, it is considered a major risk factor for the cardiovascular disease and is associated with the development of insulin resistance, intolerance to the glucose, arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome. the purpose of the study is to analyze the nutritional status in young university students and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. there were evaluated 153 university students, 51 men and 102 women between 17 and 33 years old. Anthropometric measurements were made by BMI and waist circumference, systolic and diastolic pressure, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDL), LDL cholesterol (LDL), triglycerides and blood glucose. the variables HDL cholesterol (p = 0.000) and systolic pressure (p = 0.043) showed significant differences in comparison by gender. The 35.29% presented overweight or obesity. In the comparison by nutritional status; the contour waist, systolic and diastolic pressure showed significant differences (p university students; in addition it is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, being the obese students those who present major deterioration in all the evaluated variables. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Reilly, Norelle R; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Mollazadegan, Kaziwe; Michaëlsson, Karl; Green, Peter HR; Ludvigsson, Jonas F
Objectives To examine the risk of any fractures in patients with both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) vs patients with T1D only. Study design We performed a population-based cohort study. We defined T1D as individuals aged ≤30 years who had a diagnosis of diabetes recorded in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1964–2009. Individuals with CD were identified through biopsy report data between 1969–2008 from any of Sweden’s 28 pathology departments. Some 958 individuals had both T1D and CD and were matched for sex, age and calendar period with 4,598 reference individuals with T1D only. We then used a stratified Cox regression analysis, where CD was modeled as a time-dependent covariate, to estimate the risk of any fractures and osteoporotic fractures (hip, distal forearm, thoracic and lumbar spine, and proximal humerus) in patients with both T1D and CD compared with that in patients with T1D only. Results During follow-up, 12 patients with T1D and CD had a fracture (1 osteoporotic fracture). CD did not influence the risk of any fracture (adjusted Hazard Ratio=0.77; 95%CI=0.42–1.41) or osteoporotic fractures (adjusted Hazard Ratio=0.46; 95%CI=0.06–3.51) in patients with T1D. Stratification for time since CD diagnosis did not affect risk estimates. Conclusion Having a diagnosis of CD does not seem to influence fracture risk in young patients with T1D. Follow-up in this study was, however, too short to ascertain osteoporotic fractures which traditionally occur in old age. PMID:26589343
Ehrhardt, Jennifer; Xu, Yingying; Khoury, Jane; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce; Phelan, Kieran
Residential injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in US children. Rates and types of injury vary by child age but little is known about injury risk based on child cognitive and motor abilities. The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive or motor development in young children is associated with residential injury. We employed data from Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. Parent report of medically attended injury was obtained at regular intervals from 0 to 42 months. Child development was assessed at 12, 24 and 36 months using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 2nd edition, which generates both mental developmental index (MDI) and a psychomotor developmental index (PDI). Injury risk was modelled using multivariable logistic regression as function of child's MDI or PDI. Effects of MDI and PDI on injury risk were examined separately and jointly, adjusting for important covariates. Children with cognitive delay (MDI cognitive delay (OR=3.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 10.5, p=0.012). There was no significant association of PDI with injury. There was, however, significant interaction of MDI and PDI (p=0.02); children with cognitive delay but normal motor development were at significantly higher risk of injury than children with normal cognitive and motor development (OR=9.6, 95% CI 2.6 to 35.8, p=0.001). Children with cognitive delays, especially those with normal motor development, are at elevated risk for residential injuries. Injury prevention efforts should target children with developmental delays. NCT00129324; post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV risk perceptions are a key determinant of HIV testing. The success of efforts to achieve an AIDS-free generation – including reaching the UNAIDS 90–90-90 target – thus depends critically on the content of these perceptions. We examined the accuracy of HIV-risk perceptions and their correlates among young black women in South Africa, a group with one of the highest HIV incidence rates worldwide. Methods We used individual-level longitudinal data from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS from 2005 to 2009 on black African women (20–30 years old in 2009 to assess the association between perceived HIV-risk in 2005 and the probability of testing HIV-positive four years later. We then estimated multivariable logistic regressions using cross-sectional data from the 2009 CAPS wave to assess the relationship between risk perceptions and a wide range of demographic, sexual behaviour and psychosocial covariates of perceived HIV-risk. Results We found that the proportion testing HIV-positive in 2009 was almost identical across perceived risk categories in 2005 (no, small, moderate, great (χ 2 = 1.43, p = 0.85. Consistent with epidemiologic risk factors, the likelihood of reporting moderate or great HIV-risk perceptions was associated with condom-use (aOR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.89; p < 0.01; having ≥3 lifetime partners (aOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.73; p < 0.01; knowledge of one’s partner’s HIV status (aOR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.07; p = 0.09; and being in an age-disparate partnerships (aOR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.76; p = 0.02. However, the likelihood of reporting moderate or great self-perceived risk did not vary with sexually transmitted disease history and respondent age, both strong predictors of HIV risk in the study setting. Risk perceptions were associated with stigmatising attitudes (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.26, 1.09; p = 0.09; prior HIV testing (aOR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.35; p < 0.01; and having heard
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bové, Kira Bang; Larsen, Katrine Strandberg
intervals (CI) 1.1-2.4), 1.7 (CI 1.1-2.6), and 2.3 (CI 0.9-5.9), respectively. Age at sexual debut modified the effect of smoking, and women with a debut before the age of 15 years had an adjusted OR of 2.9 (CI 1.1-3.9) compared to never-smokers while there seemed to be no effect among women with a sexual......AIM: To address the association between smoking habits and the risk of later heavy drinking among young women. METHODS: Repeated assessments of alcohol and smoking habits were obtained in 1991-93 and 1999-2000 in a Danish representative cohort in Copenhagen. A total of 6369 non- to moderate...
Fiorentino, Dary D; Berger, Dale E; Ramirez, Juan R
Determinants of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) were explored among a sample of relatively young Mexican-American males with limited income and education, high levels of alcohol consumption, and regular vehicle use. Data were collected using questionnaires (N=104) and focus groups (N=27), including a focus group with wives and girlfriends (N=4). Four mechanisms that may contribute to the high rate of DUI behavior in this population were identified: (1) a subculture of permissiveness toward drinking and driving for men, (2) heavy drinking, promoted by machismo and a propensity to measure masculinity with alcohol intake, (3) inadequate knowledge of DUI statutes and inadequate understanding of the relationships between BAC, impairment, and crash risk, and (4) for undocumented drivers, lack of accountability in case of an alcohol-related incident.
Thomsen, S F; Ulrik, C S; Kyvik, K O
and females = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36-0.80, P = 0.002), and increasing levels of body mass index (BMI; OR per unit = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20, P = 0.009) were significant predictors of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Hay fever, eczema, female sex, exercise and increasing levels of BMI were risk factors for asthma in young...... who were initially unaffected with respect to asthma at a nationwide questionnaire-based study in 1994 participated in a similar follow-up study in 2002. Subjects were regarded incident asthma cases when responding affirmatively to the question 'Do you have, or have you ever had asthma'? in 2002...
Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Hansen, Lone; da Silva, Leontina I
OBJECTIVETwins in Africa may be at increased risk of metabolic disorders due to strained conditions in utero, including high exposure to infections. We studied metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThe study...... was cross-sectional and occurred from October 2009 until August 2011 at the Bandim Health Project, a demographic surveillance site in the capital Bissau. Twins and singleton controls between 5 and 32 years were visited at home. Fasting blood samples for metabolic measurements were collected. Zygosity...... was established genetically for a subset. DM was defined as HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) and MS by the International Diabetes Federation criteria.RESULTSHbA1c was available for 574 twins and 463 singletons. Mean age was 15.3 years versus 15.8 years, respectively. Eighteen percent of twins were monozygotic...
McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby; Markulev, Connie
Rating Scale (MADRS) (range, 0-60), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (range, 0-44), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) (range, 0-100), and the Global Functioning: Social and Role scale (range, 0-10). For SOFAS and Global Functioning: Social and Role scale, higher scores were...... better; for other measures, lower scores were better. Results: In this study of 304 adults at ultrahigh risk for psychotic disorders, 153 (50.3%) received ω-3 PUFAs and 151 (49.7%) received placebo. In all, 139 (45.7%) were male; mean (SD) age was 19.1 (4.6) years. The Kaplan-Meier-estimated 6-month...... outcome was transition to psychosis status at 6 months. The secondary outcomes were general levels of psychopathology and functioning, as assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (range, 24-168), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) (range, 0-125), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression...
Gilbert, Tony; Farrand, Paul; Lankshear, Gloria
This article reports on interview data gathered from 27 young people involved with a street-level service for young people considered "at risk" of diagnosis of personality disorder. Interviews with a self-selecting sample of young people explored the events that led to their initial contact with the service. Using Silverman's twin-track…
Kuklina, Elena V; Yoon, Paula W; Keenan, Nora L
Previous studies have reported low rates of screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults in the United States. Although recommendations for screening young adults without risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) differ, all guidelines recommend screening adults with CHD, CHD equivalents, or 1 or more CHD risk factors. This study examined national prevalence of CHD risk factors and compliance with the cholesterol screening guidelines among young adults. National estimates were obtained using results for 2,587 young adults (men aged 20 to 35 years; women aged 20 to 45 years) from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We defined high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as levels higher than the goal specific for each CHD risk category outlined in the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. About 59% of young adults had CHD or CHD equivalents, or 1 or more of the following CHD risk factors: family history of early CHD, smoking, hypertension, or obesity. In our study, the overall screening rate in this population was less than 50%. Moreover, no significant difference in screening rates between young adults with no risk factors and their counterparts with 1 or more risk factors was found even after adjustment for sociodemographic and health care factors. Approximately 65% of young adults with CHD or CHD equivalents, 26% of young adults with 2 or more risk factors, 12% of young adults with 1 risk factor, and 7% with no risk factor had a high level of LDL-C. CHD risk factors are common in young adults but do not appear to alter screening rates. Improvement of risk assessment and management for cardiovascular disease among young adults is warranted.
Kolstad, Eivind; Bjørk, Marte; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Alfstad, Kristin; Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Lossius, Morten
To investigate whether adolescents with epilepsy are at increased risk of having self-reported eating disorder symptoms and poor quality diet compared to young people from the general population. We used data from the Health Profile for Children and Youth in Akershus Study, a cross-sectional population-based study based on a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. There were 19,995 participants (response rate 85%) aged 13-19 years; 247 (1.2%) reported a lifetime diagnosis of epilepsy. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for eating disorders, unhealthy diet, dieting, satisfaction with looks, and participation in sports were estimated by using a logistic regression model. All estimates were adjusted for single parents and poor family economy. Children and adolescents with epilepsy had more eating disorders than their peers (OR 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0, p = 0.03). They were less satisfied with their own appearance (OR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.9, p = 0.02), and they eat more unhealthily (OR 1.7, CI 1.3-2.2, p = 0.001). Males with epilepsy were more likely to have been dieting (OR 3.1, CI 1.2-7.9, p = 0.02) and less satisfied with their own appearance (OR 0.4, CI 0.3-0.7, p < 0.001). Females with epilepsy were more likely to eat unhealthily (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5, p = 0.01). Adolescents with epilepsy are at increased risk of having eating disorder symptoms. They eat less healthily and are less satisfied with their looks. Health workers should be aware of this and bring diet and lifestyle into the dialogue with young people with epilepsy.
Антоніна Михайлівна Політун
Full Text Available The prognostication of caries in youth is important for determination and prescription of individual prophylactic arrangements and its further influence on mineralization of the hard dental tissues.Aim of the work: the study of the prevalence and intensity of caries among the young people and determination of possible connection with the risk factor of caries development for further choice of the reasonable prophylactic arrangement.Materials and methods of research: epidemiological, clinical, statistic ones.Results of research: The article describes results of the comprehensive dental examination of 135 persons18-25 years old. There was determined the high prevalence of caries (96,3±0,74 % with considerable intensity (8,87±0,39. The main etiological factors among youth are: poor nutrition with prevalence of carbohydrate (74,81±0,56 %, lack of oral hygiene (59,27±0,73 %, quantitative and qualitative composition of oral fluid, presence of somatic diseases (40±0,30 %, bad habits (31,85±0,24 %, neglect of the sport (48,88±0,36 %, chronic emotional stress (38,51±0,29 %, due to the increased workload and related stress factors.Conclusions: the high prevalence (96,3±0,74 % and intensity of carious process (8,87±0,39 is caused by the unsatisfactory state of oral cavity, (1,91±0,06, under the influence of general factors (somatic diseases, stress, poor nutrition the reactivity of protective mechanisms is lowered and the risk of dental morbidity of youth increases. So, it proves the necessity of elaboration and introduction of the active arrangements of primary prophylaxis directed on the raise of caries resistance of the hard dental tissues in young people
Scott, Stephanie; Baker, Rachel; Shucksmith, Janet; Kaner, Eileen
To identify shared patterns of views in young people relating to the influence of industry-driven alcohol marketing (price, promotion, product and place of purchase/consumption) on their reported drinking behaviour. Q methodology harnessed qualitative and quantitative data to generate distinct clusters of opinions as follows: 39 opinion statements were derived from earlier in-depth qualitative interviews with 31 young people; by-person factor analysis was carried out on 28 participants' (six previous interviewees and 22 new recruits) rank orderings of these statements (most-to-least agreement); interpretation of the factor arrays was aided by 10-15-minute debriefing interviews held immediately following each Q-sort. Northeast England Young people aged 14-17 years purposively recruited from high schools, higher education colleges, youth centres and youth offending teams. Centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation of factors generated three distinct accounts: factor one ('autonomous, sophisticated consumers') illustrated a self-defined sense of individuality and autonomy in alcohol choices; factor two ('price-driven consumers') appeared price-led, choosing to drink what was most accessible or cheapest; and factor three ('context-focused consumers') described drinking practices where products were chosen to serve specific functions such as being easy to carry while dancing. Considering young people's views on alcohol marketing, different perspectives can be identified. These include perceived imperviousness to maketing, responsiveness to price and affordability and responsiveness to marketing focusing on youth lifestyles. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Voigt, L F; White, E; Weiss, N S
Certain events of reproductive life, especially completed pregnancies, have been found to influence a woman's risk of breast cancer. Prior studies of the relationship between breast cancer and a history of incomplete pregnancies have provided inconsistent results. Most of these studies included women beyond the early part of their reproductive years at the time induced abortion became legal in the United States. We conducted a case-control study of breast cancer in young women born recently enough so that some or most of their reproductive years were after the legalization of induced abortion to determine if certain aspects of a woman's experience with abortion might be associated with risk of breast cancer. Female residents of three counties in western Washington State, who were diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 845) from January 1983 through April 1990, and who were born after 1944, were interviewed in detail about their reproductive histories, including the occurrence of induced abortion. Case patients were obtained through our population-based tumor registry (part of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute). Similar information was obtained from 961 control women identified through random digit dialing within these same counties. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals (CIs). Among women who had been pregnant at least once, the risk of breast cancer in those who had experienced an induced abortion was 50% higher than among other women (95% CI = 1.2-1.9). While this increased risk did not vary by the number of induced abortions or by the history of a completed pregnancy, it did vary according to the age at which the abortion occurred and the duration of that pregnancy. Highest risks were observed when the abortion was done at ages younger than 18 years--particularly if it took place after 8 weeks' gestation--or at 30 years of age or older. No increased risk of breast
Barrow, Donna Marie
Over the past two decades reported rates of autism have steadily risen. The current incidence is 1 in 68 children. While autism can be reliably diagnosed at 18 months in most children with the condition, specialized autism treatment rarely begins before a child's third or fourth birthday. As screening and diagnosis procedures improve so does the…
Frega, Antonio; Stentella, Patrizia; De Ioris, Andrea; Piazze, Juan Josè; Fambrini, Massimiliano; Marchionni, Mauro; Cosmi, Ermelando Vinicio
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young women. They can occur in one or multiple areas of the female genitalia. Usually, the vulva is the initial site of implantation for HPV. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the epidemiological aspects, incidence of single or multiple lesions in the lower genital tract, correlation between sexual behaviour and their localization and behaviour risk factors for persistence and recurrence of HPV lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) in a long-term follow-up among young women. We recruited 268 patients aged 11-21 years who previously had cytology and/or physical examination suspicious for HPV infection. The women were interviewed and asked information about lifestyle, sexual behaviour, work, personal or family history of genital warts and school attendance. We considered individuals to be 'smokers' if they smoked more than five cigarettes/day. No specific data were recorded about oral contraception, nevertheless, no woman had used oral contraceptives (OCs) for more than 2 years. Young women included in the study were between the age of 12 and 21 years who had HVP lesions after entry examinations and had undergone no treatment for HPV lesions prior to entry. Other exclusion criteria relevant to this study included cervical excisional treatment prior to entry or later. Two hundred and thirty-four young women were included in our study group. Our diagnostic schedule for a complete evaluation included exo- and endocervical cytology, colposcopy, directed biopsy and microcolpohysteroscopy. The treatment was performed with a LASER CO2 Coherent 400, model 451, with Zeiss photocolposcopy attachment. The finding that, among 126/234 (53.8%) adolescents using contraceptives, only 85 (36.3%) have used condom, the only barrier form of contraceptive effectively protecting against virus, shows a low awareness of the high risk for contracting HPV infection among
Olatunde, Oluwatoyin; Balogun, Folusho
Sending and receiving sexually suggestive or explicit images or texts (sexting) have been shown to be associated with health risk behaviors but literature about this phenomenon is scarce in Nigeria. This study looked at the prevalence, predictors, and associated sexual risk behaviors of sexting among postsecondary school young persons in Ibadan, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were obtained for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual orientation, sexting behavior, personality assessment (using the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five factor markers), indicators for problematic phone use (using Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale), and sexual behavior. Chi square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis with p = 0.05. Five hundred seventy-five participants were recruited, age range 14-24 years, and 46.0% were males. Twenty percent had sent sexts, while 33.2% had received sexts. Fifty-four percent had high scores in extraversion, 46.5% had moderate-severe problematic phone use. Sixteen percent had ever had sex, and 40.0% of these had multiple sexual partners. Males were more likely than females to have sent sexts (OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.68-4.24). Having a high extraversion score (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.35-4.41) and moderate-severe problematic phone use (OR = 5.56, 95% CI: 2.73-11.32) was predictive of sexting. Sending and receiving of sext were significantly associated with ever having sexual intercourse (OR = 4.01, 95% CI: 2.25-7.17 and OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.72-5.12, respectively). Sexting was prevalent among postsecondary school young persons in Ibadan and was associated with male sex and problematic phone use. Intervention targeted at the identified susceptible group of young people may reduce its associated problems in this study group.
Full Text Available Background and aimsSending and receiving sexually suggestive or explicit images or texts (sexting have been shown to be associated with health risk behaviors but literature about this phenomenon is scarce in Nigeria. This study looked at the prevalence, predictors, and associated sexual risk behaviors of sexting among postsecondary school young persons in Ibadan, Nigeria.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were obtained for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual orientation, sexting behavior, personality assessment (using the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five factor markers, indicators for problematic phone use (using Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale, and sexual behavior. Chi square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis with p = 0.05.ResultsFive hundred seventy-five participants were recruited, age range 14–24 years, and 46.0% were males. Twenty percent had sent sexts, while 33.2% had received sexts. Fifty-four percent had high scores in extraversion, 46.5% had moderate–severe problematic phone use. Sixteen percent had ever had sex, and 40.0% of these had multiple sexual partners. Males were more likely than females to have sent sexts (OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.68–4.24. Having a high extraversion score (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.35–4.41 and moderate–severe problematic phone use (OR = 5.56, 95% CI: 2.73–11.32 was predictive of sexting. Sending and receiving of sext were significantly associated with ever having sexual intercourse (OR = 4.01, 95% CI: 2.25–7.17 and OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.72–5.12, respectively.ConclusionSexting was prevalent among postsecondary school young persons in Ibadan and was associated with male sex and problematic phone use. Intervention targeted at the identified susceptible group of young people may reduce its associated problems in this study group.
Asmyhr, Øyvind; Grytten, Jostein; Holst, Dorthe
The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of risk factors for dental erosion for a group of young adults who are particularly susceptible to erosion. Another aim was to describe the awareness of erosion and distribution of risk factors according to the educational background of the parents. The sample (n = 2004 individuals) was randomly drawn from the population of 19-20-year-old Norwegians. The data were collected using telephone interviews. We measured awareness about erosion using the following question: 'Have you ever heard about dental erosion?' We obtained information about the frequency of intake of the following risk factors: soft drinks with and without sugar, and juice. Soft drinks with sugar included lemonade (Coca-Cola, Solo, Pepsi, Mozell and ice tea) and sport drinks (XL1, Maxim). Soft drinks without sugar included Cola light, Zero, PepsiMax, Solo light and ice tea light. Juice included orange, grapefruit, apple and kiwi juice. The parents' level of education was based on the Norwegian school system, which has three levels: compulsory schooling (10 years), upper secondary school education (up to 13 years) and university/college education. The data were analysed using logistic regressions analyses. Awareness of erosion was high - 93.5% of respondents were aware of the problem. The majority of respondents believed that erosion can be prevented - altogether 84.9%. They also believed that soft drinks with and without sugar are equally important for the development of erosion. 17.5% of respondents drank soft drinks with sugar daily or several times a day. The corresponding figures for soft drinks without sugar and juice were 4.9% and 34.1%, respectively. Young adults with mothers with high education drank soft drinks both with and without sugar less frequently than those who had mothers with low education. This pattern was the opposite for juice. Consumption of soft drinks and juice is high, even though awareness and knowledge about the causes
Rauschert, Sebastian; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Jacoby, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Koletzko, Berthold; Oddy, Wendy H; Hellmuth, Christian
Noncommunicable diseases such as obesity have become a serious global public health epidemic. This study aimed to examine whether there was an association between early life factors (with a special focus on breastfeeding) BMI, waist circumference, and the metabolome in offspring at 20 years. Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were analyzed using 1,024 plasma samples from the 20-year follow-up. A liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used to measure metabolites. Multiple linear regression models were performed and adjusted for relevant confounders. Inverse probability weighting was used to adjust the 20-year data for differences in socioeconomic variables between participants and nonparticipants since the commencement of the study. An inverse association between breastfeeding and BMI or waist circumference at 20 years was lost after adjusting for parental prepregnancy BMI and maternal smoking during pregnancy. There was no significant effect of breastfeeding on metabolite concentrations at 20 years. Although other studies have shown associations between breastfeeding, obesity, and metabolite concentrations at younger ages, this was not evident in our study in young adults. We found no association of metabolites previously associated with waist circumference at 20 years and breastfeeding in early life. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Andersen, Lars Bo; Boreham, Colin A.G.; Young, Ian S.
risk factor. Subjects with clustered risk were defined as those displaying four or more risk factors. Blood glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting state and 2 h after ingestion of a 75 g glucose load. Results. Fasting insulin and the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance score (HOMA......) were strong, graded predictors of clustered risk. The odds ratio (OR) for having clustered risk was 10.8 (95% CI: 3.6-32.4) for the upper quartile of fasting insulin compared to the lowest quartile, and the corresponding OR for HOMA was 23.2 (95% CI: 5.3-101.6). Conclusion. HOMA score predicts...
Staten, Lisa K; Rodgers, Rylin Christine; Denne, Scott C
Background When parents of young children with special health care needs (CSHCN) receive their child’s diagnosis, they encounter information they may not understand, emotions they may not know how to cope with, and questions about their child’s immediate and long-term future that frequently lack answers. The challenge of health care providers is how to prepare parents for caring for their CSHCN, for coping with any resulting challenges, and for accessing the systems and services that can assist them. Objective The purpose of this work was to review evidence of the information and support needs of parents of young CSHCN and to determine whether online social support can serve as an avenue for learning and empowerment for these parents. Methods A scoping review identified the challenges, coping mechanisms, and support needs among parents of CSHCN, and the reach and effectiveness of digital technologies with these families and health care providers. We also conducted interviews with professionals serving parents of CSHCN. Results The literature review and interviews suggested that parents best learn the information they need, and cope with the emotional challenges of raising a CSHCN, with support from other parents of CSHCN, and that young parents in recent years have most often been finding this parent-to-parent support through digital media, particularly social media, consistent with the theory of online social support. Evidence also shows that social media, particularly Facebook, is used by nearly all women aged 18-29 years across racial and socioeconomic lines in the United States. Conclusions Parents of young CSHCN experience significant stress but gain understanding, receive support, and develop the ability to care for and be advocates for their child through parent-to-parent emotional and informational social support. Online social support is most effective with young adults of childbearing age, with social media and apps being the most useful within the
DeHoff, Beth A; Staten, Lisa K; Rodgers, Rylin Christine; Denne, Scott C
When parents of young children with special health care needs (CSHCN) receive their child's diagnosis, they encounter information they may not understand, emotions they may not know how to cope with, and questions about their child's immediate and long-term future that frequently lack answers. The challenge of health care providers is how to prepare parents for caring for their CSHCN, for coping with any resulting challenges, and for accessing the systems and services that can assist them. The purpose of this work was to review evidence of the information and support needs of parents of young CSHCN and to determine whether online social support can serve as an avenue for learning and empowerment for these parents. A scoping review identified the challenges, coping mechanisms, and support needs among parents of CSHCN, and the reach and effectiveness of digital technologies with these families and health care providers. We also conducted interviews with professionals serving parents of CSHCN. The literature review and interviews suggested that parents best learn the information they need, and cope with the emotional challenges of raising a CSHCN, with support from other parents of CSHCN, and that young parents in recent years have most often been finding this parent-to-parent support through digital media, particularly social media, consistent with the theory of online social support. Evidence also shows that social media, particularly Facebook, is used by nearly all women aged 18-29 years across racial and socioeconomic lines in the United States. Parents of young CSHCN experience significant stress but gain understanding, receive support, and develop the ability to care for and be advocates for their child through parent-to-parent emotional and informational social support. Online social support is most effective with young adults of childbearing age, with social media and apps being the most useful within the theoretical framework of social support. This opens new
Full Text Available Abstract Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p p Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children.
Muchiri, Evans; Odimegwu, Clifford; Banda, Pamela; Ntoimo, Lorreta; Adedini, Sunday
Studies in South Africa have reported unsafe levels of risky sexual behvaiours among adolescents and young adults, with the country reporting the highest burden of HIV/AIDS globally, as well as a high rate of teenage pregnancy. While determinants of risky sexual behaviours have been investigated for factors occurring at the individual and household levels, not fully explored in the literature is the effect of community level factors. Furthermore, it is unclear whether risk factors occurring within the ecology of adolescents and young adults act cumulatively to influence their sexual practices. This article aims to address this knowledge gap using a case study of the Cape Area Panel Study of adolescents and young adults in urban Cape Town, South Africa. The ecological framework was adopted to guide the selection of risk factors at the individual, household, and community levels. Multivariate linear discriminant function analyses were used to select significant risk factors for multiple sexual partnerships and used to produce risk indices for the respondents. The cumulative risk approach was applied to test whether significant risk factors acted cumulatively. Findings point to the importance of ecological factors in influencing outcomes of multiple sexual partnerships among respondents and further demonstrate that ecological risk factors may act cumulatively. These findings are important for South Africa that is grappling with teenage pregnancy and disproportionate HIV epidemic among the youth.
Ganzola, Rossana; Maziade, Michel; Duchesne, Simon
Studies have reported hippocampal and amygdala volume abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. It is necessary to explore the potential for these structures as early disease markers in subjects at high risk (HR) of schizophrenia. We performed a review of 29 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies measuring hippocampal and amygdala volumes in subjects at HR for schizophrenia. We reclassified subjects in 3 new HR categories: presence of only risk symptoms (psychotic moderate symptoms), presence of only risk factors (genetic, developmental or environmental), and presence of combined risk symptoms/factors. Hippocampal volume reductions were detected in subjects with first episode (FE) of psychosis, in all young adults and in adolescents at HR of schizophrenia. The loss of tissue was mainly located in the posterior part of hippocampus and the right side seems more vulnerable in young adults with only risk symptoms. Instead, the anterior sector seems more involved in HR subjects with genetic risks. Abnormal amygdala volumes were found in FE subjects, in children with combined risk symptoms/factors and in older subjects using different inclusion criteria, but not in young adults. Hippocampal and amygdala abnormalities may be present before schizophrenia onset. Further studies should be conducted to clarify whether these abnormalities are causally or effectually related to neurodevelopment. Shape analysis could clarify the impact of environmental, genetic, and developmental factors on the medial temporal structures during the evolution of this disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guadamuz, Thomas E; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun
Crystal methamphetamine (ice) has become the substance of choice among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in urban Thailand. Yet, there is scarce data on this phenomenon, partly due to the difficulty in accessing men who will disclose and openly discuss the social contexts, meanings and risks surrounding ice practice. We present an ethnography of ice parties, critically discussing the in-depth social meanings of ice; the sexual socialities and the secrecy surrounding its use; the transactions between older and younger men; and the role of the Internet and mobile technology. Forty repeated narrative interviews (life stories), ten focus group discussions, as well as systematic online and offline observations were conducted over a three-year period. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants in a variety of online and offline spaces and through working closely with local Thai community-based organizations serving MSM. To be eligible, participants had to be between 18 and 29 years, able to converse in Thai, had used ice, and had anal sex with another man in the past 6 months. We also strived for sample variability with respects to socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., age, educational attainment and living situation). Data analysis was conducted in Thai by two researchers using the constant comparative method based on grounded theory. On surface, participants described ice parties as exclusive, in trend, luxurious, fun and pleasurable-a kind of modern camaraderie among beautiful men. In reality, however, this group phenomenon was a social hierarchy containing several important players with relational power to one another, to the ice itself and to the physical space where ice was being consumed. These players included ice suppliers, party hosts, party guests and "icetenders." The paper also discusses the sociality of secrecy that surrounds ice parties as well as the power relations between older relatively rich men who provide ice and the younger
Fawad, A.; Alvi, S.F.D.; Hakeem, R.; Basit, A.; Ahmedani, M.Y.
Objective: To observe changing pattern in the risk factors for diabetes as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes in young adults in the rural area of Baluchistan. Methods: A community based observational study was carried out in the rural area of Baluchistan by conducting two surveys, in the years 2002 and 2009 respectively. The survey was further subdivided into two groups i.e. young adults (15-25 years) and adults (>25 years). In this study, data of young adults was analyzed. Data obtained in 2002 was also analyzed according to the current guidelines and compared with 2009 survey. Results: A total of 230 and 197 young adults participated in 2002 and 2009 surveys respectively. Obesity increased significantly (p <0.001) from 20 (10.15%) young adults in the year 2002 to 64 (27.82%) in 2009. Similarly 15 (7.61%) young adults were overweight in 2002 which increased to 24 (10.43%) in 2009 (p <0.317). Smoking increased from 8 (4.06%) to 49 (21.3%) in 2009 (p <0.001). Family history of diabetes mellitus also showed a significant increase (p <0.005). Hypertension increased from 13 (6.6%) young adults in 2002 survey to 17 (7.39%) in 2009, the increase was not statistically significant (p <0.749). Conclusion: The present study showed that risk factors for diabetes such as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes increased over time in the young adults of rural Baluchistan. (author)
Yano, Yuichiro; Reis, Jared P; Levine, Deborah A; Bryan, R Nick; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Tedla, Yacob G; Allen, Norrina B; Schreiner, Pamela J; Bancks, Michael P; Sidney, Stephen; Pletcher, Mark J; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Launer, Lenore J
The aims of this study are to assess the relationships of visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability in young adulthood to hippocampal volume and integrity at middle age. We used data over 8 examinations spanning 25 years collected in the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) of black and white adults (age, 18-30 years) started in 1985 to 1986. Visit-to-visit BP variability was defined as by SD BP and average real variability (ARV BP , defined as the absolute differences of BP between successive BP measurements). Hippocampal tissue volume standardized by intracranial volume (%) and integrity assessed by fractional anisotropy were measured by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging at the year-25 examination (n=545; mean age, 51 years; 54% women and 34% African Americans). Mean systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP levels were 110/69 mm Hg at year 0 (baseline), 117/73 mm Hg at year 25, and ARV SBP and SD SBP were 7.7 and 7.9 mm Hg, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, higher ARV SBP was associated with lower hippocampal volume (unstandardized regression coefficient [standard error] with 1-SD higher ARV SBP : -0.006 [0.003]), and higher SD SBP with lower hippocampal fractional anisotropy (-0.02 [0.01]; all P young adulthood may be useful in assessing the potential risk for reductions in hippocampal volume and integrity in midlife. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Elena Yu. Glotova
Full Text Available The frequency characteristics of the gene polymorphisms (FVL G1691A, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTRR A66G associated with thrombophilia, hyperhomocysteinemia risk and different perinatal or pregnancy complications were studied. This examination was conducted among 130 planned-pregnancy healthy young women aged between 19 and 29 years. A gene mutation analysis was performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR. Factor V Leiden (FVL G1691A and prothrombin gene (FII G20210A mutations were not identified in the women surveyed. The frequency of the occurrence of the heterozygous FVL 1691G/A genotype associated with the risk of thrombosis during pregnancy was very low in these women (0.8%. The frequency of the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1298C/С mutant genotype was 11.5%, MTHFR 677T/Т – 5.4%, and MTRR (methionine synthase reductase 66G/G – 31.5%. A combination of the MTHFR 677TT/1298CC and MTHFR 677TТ/MTRR 66GG mutant genotypes, which significantly increased the risk of pregnancy loss and neural tube defects, were found to occur in 0.8% of the cases.We concluded that selective thrombophilia screening (FVL G1691A and FII G20210A based on prior personal and/or family history of venous thromboembolism was more cost-effective than a universal preconception screening in all planning pregnancy women. However, in order to decrease the risk of congenital anomalies and pregnancy complications associated with folate dependent homocysteine metabolism, preconception care should include folate supplementation
Nakayama, Takashi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Uehara, Hirofumi; Matsutani, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Masafumi
To investigate the risk factors of recurrence of pneumothorax following thoracoscopic bullectomy in young adults. Between January, 2005 and September, 2015, 167 patients aged ≤40 years underwent initial thoracoscopic bullectomy for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) at our hospital. Recurrence-free probability was calculated from the date of surgery to recurrence or last follow-up, using the Kaplan-Meier method. Sixteen (9.6%) of the 167 patients suffered a recurrence (collective total, 16 recurrences). The recurrence-free intervals were 3-107 months (median 25.8 months), and the 5-year recurrence-free probability was 85.9%. Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that age ≤23 years (p = 0.029) and a history of ipsilateral pneumothorax before surgery (p = 0.029) were significantly associated with higher risk of recurrence. The 5-year recurrence-free probability was 72.3% for patients aged ≤23 years and a history of ipsilateral pneumothorax before surgery and 94.1% for those with neither of these factors (p = 0.001). Recurrence developed within 3 years after surgery in 14 of the 16 patients. Patients ≤23 years of age with a history of ipsilateral pneumothorax before surgery are at significantly high risk of its recurrence, frequently within 3 years; thus, the risk of postoperative recurrence of a pneumothorax must be kept in mind.
Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Hill, Brandon; Mena, Leandro
This study compared sexually transmitted infection (STI)-associated risks between young Black cisgender men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and young Black transwomen who have sex with men (YBTWSM). Comparisons pertained to: (1) prevalence of infections; (2) sexual risk; (3) partner-related risks; and (4) socioeconomic marginalization. YBMSM (n = 577) and YBTWSM (n = 32) were recruited from an STI clinic in the USA. Volunteers completed a computer-assisted self-interview and medical records were abstracted for STI/HIV information. Significantly greater prevalence of pharyngeal Chlamydia ( P < .001) and pharyngeal gonorrhea ( P = .04) occurred among YBTWSM; however, both associations were moderated and only significant for HIV-uninfected volunteers. YBTWSM had more oral sex partners and more frequent engagement in oral sex. The number of new sex partners for anal receptive sex was greater in YBTWSM. YBTWSM were more likely to exchange sex for money/drugs ( P < .001), have sex with men recently in prison ( P < .001), who were "anonymous" ( P = .004), or who were "one night stands" ( P < .001). YBTWSM were more likely to depend on sex partners for money food, etc. ( P < .001), to miss meals due to lack of money ( P = .01), and to report having ever being incarcerated ( P = .009). Compared to cisgender YBMSM, YBTWSM experience multiple risk factors relative to the acquisition/transmission of STIs and HIV.
Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Paul, Roddia J
Literature indicates that unlicensed driving (UD) offenders report substance use risk behaviours, yet data related to sexual risk behaviours is unknown. This study examined sexual and other risk behaviours among young adults in Miami, Florida, comparing UD and non-UD offenders (n=498). Compared with others, UD offenders were more likely to report group sex history, being high for sex half the time or more, purchasing sex and sexually transmissible infection history. Results suggest that locating sexual risk reduction interventions inside of the justice system would benefit UD offenders.
Crocamo, Cristina; Bartoli, Francesco; Montomoli, Cristina; Carrà, Giuseppe
Binge drinking (BD) among young people has significant public health implications. Thus, there is the need to target users most at risk. We estimated the discriminative accuracy of an innovative model nested in a recently developed e-Health app (Digital-Alcohol RIsk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and young adults [D-ARIANNA]) for BD in young people, examining its performance to predict short-term BD episodes. We consecutively recruited young adults in pubs, discos, or live music events. Participants self-administered the app D-ARIANNA, which incorporates an evidence-based risk estimation model for the dependent variable BD. They were re-evaluated after 2 weeks using a single-item BD behavior as reference. We estimated D-ARIANNA discriminative ability through measures of sensitivity and specificity, and also likelihood ratios. ROC curve analyses were carried out, exploring variability of discriminative ability across subgroups. The analyses included 507 subjects, of whom 18% reported at least 1 BD episode at follow-up. The majority of these had been identified as at high/moderate or high risk (65%) at induction. Higher scores from the D-ARIANNA risk estimation model reflected an increase in the likelihood of BD. Additional risk factors such as high pocket money availability and alcohol expectancies influence the predictive ability of the model. The D-ARIANNA model showed an appreciable, though modest, predictive ability for subsequent BD episodes. Post-hoc model showed slightly better predictive properties. Using up-to-date technology, D-ARIANNA appears an innovative and promising screening tool for BD among young people. Long-term impact remains to be established, and also the role of additional social and environmental factors.
Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Shakoor, Najia; Ageberg, Eva
Vibratory perception threshold (VPT) is impaired in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is, however, not known if sensory deficits precede or follow as a consequence of OA. The aim of this study was to investigate VPT in 2 independent groups of patients with high risk of future OA (young a...
Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.
A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…
Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.
The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking…
Vervaeke, H.K.E.; Benschop, A.; van den Brink, W.; Korf, D.J.
Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged ≥ 18 who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in
Vervaeke, Hylke K. E.; Benschop, Annemieke; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.
Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged > or = 18 who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy
Vervaeke, Hylke K.E.; Benschop, Annemieke; Van Den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.
Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged up to 18 years who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in the near future. After an 11- to…
van Hilst, Jony; Hilgersom, Nick F. J.; Kuilman, Miriam C.; F M Kuijer, P. Paul; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Low back pain (LBP) hampers performance and experiencing an episode of LBP is strongly associated with recurrent episodes. The prevalence of LBP and associated risk factors among young elite athletes in popular sports in the Netherlands were studied. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was
Giménez, Ana M.; Luengo, José A.; Bartrina, M. José
Introduction: Current research emphasizes young people's access to and use of social networks, chat and WhatsApp. However, this situation is not associated with active parental mediation to protect them from the risks involved. This study analyzes Murcian students' perception of cell phone and computer use, parental mediation strategies and their…
Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Glozier, Nick; Patton, George C.; Lam, Lawrence T.; Boufous, Soufiane; Senserrick, Teresa; Williamson, Ann; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn
Background: Some motor vehicle crashes, particularly single-vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. Methods: We prospectively linked survey data
Hille, E.T.M.; Dorrepaal, C.; Perenboom, R.; Gravenhorst, J.B.; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Objective: To assess social lifestyle, risk-taking behavior, and psychopathology in young adults born very preterm or with a very low birthweight. Study design: This study was part of the 19-year follow-up in a large ongoing collaborative study in the Netherlands (the POPS study) on the long-term
Hille, Elysée T. M.; Dorrepaal, Caroline; Perenboom, Rom; Gravenhorst, Jack Bennebroek; Brand, Ronald; Verloove-Vanhorick, S. Pauline; Hille, E. T. M.; de Groot, C. H.; Kloosterboer-Boerrigter, H.; den Ouden, A. L.; Rijpstra, A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P.; Vogelaar, J. A.; Kok, J. H.; Ilsen, A.; van der Lans, M.; Boelen-van der Loo, W. J. C.; Lundqvist, T.; Heymans, H. S. A.; Duiverman, E. J.; Geven, W. B.; Duiverman, M. L.; Geven, L. I.; Vrijlandt, E. J. L. E.; Mulder, A. L. M.; Gerver, A.; Kollée, L. A. A.; Reijmers, L.; Sonnemans, R.; Wit, J. M.; Dekker, F. W.; Finken, M. J. J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Keijzer-Veen, M. G.; van der Heijden, A. J.; van Goudoever, J. B.; van Weissenbruch, M. M.; Cranendonk, A.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H. A.; de Groot, L.; Samsom, J. F.; de Vries, L. S.; Rademaker, K. J.; Moerman, E.; Voogsgeerd, M.; de Kleine, M. J. K.; Andriessen, P.; Dielissen-van Helvoirt, C. C. M.; Mohamed, I.; van Straaten, H. L. M.
OBJECTIVE: To assess social lifestyle, risk-taking behavior, and psychopathology in young adults born very preterm or with a very low birthweight. STUDY DESIGN: This study was part of the 19-year follow-up in a large ongoing collaborative study in The Netherlands (the POPS study) on the long-term
Pedersen, K E; Nielsen, J R; Klitgaard, N A
Mononuclear leucocytes were used as a cellular model for the in vitro measurements of volume, sodium and potassium content, sodium efflux rate constants and absolute sodium efflux in order to assess any cellular changes in young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension...
Full Text Available Background: Transactional sex is associated with the HIV epidemic among young people in Uganda. Few quantitative studies based on nationally representative survey data explored the relationship between sexual behaviors, HIV infection, and transactional sex. Objective: This study aimed to determine the associations between risky sexual behaviors, participation in transactional sex, and HIV sero-status among men and women aged 15–24 in Uganda. Design: The study uses data from the Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, a cross-sectional national HIV serological study conducted in 2011. We analyzed data on 1,516 men and 2,824 women aged 15–24 who had been sexually active in the 12 months preceding the survey. Private, face-to-face interviews were also conducted to record the sociodemographics, sexual history, and experiences of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analysis was performed to measure associations between sexual behaviors and transactional sex, and associations between HIV sero-status and transactional sex. Results: Among young people who had been sexually active in the 12 months prior to the survey, 5.2% of young men reported paying for sex while 3.7% of young women reported receiving gifts, favors, or money for sex. Lower educational attainment (ORadjusted 3.25, CI 1.10–9.60 and experience of sexual coercion (ORadjusted 2.83, CI 1.07–7.47 were significantly associated with paying for sex among men. Multiple concurrent sexual relationships were significantly associated with paying for sex among young men (ORadjusted 5.60, CI 2.08–14.95 and receiving something for sex among young women (ORadjusted 8.04, CI 2.55–25.37. Paying for sex among young men and having three to five lifetime sexual partners among young women were associated with increased odds of testing positive for HIV. Conclusions: Transactional sex is associated with sexual coercion and HIV risk behaviors such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among young people
Macnab, A J; Cadman, R E; Greenlaw, J V
Earlier studies of ski injury indicated that youths were at increased risk of injury, that males were most likely to injure the head or face, and that females were most likely to injure the knee. To obtain information about safety knowledge and risk behaviour that might contribute to injury among young skiers and snow-boarders. Survey of knowledge and behaviour in injured and noninjured cohorts. Blackcomb Mountain, Whistler, British Columbia. A total of 863 noninjured and 118 injured skiers and snowboarders aged five to 17 years using Blackcomb during 1993/94. Skier Knowledge Inventory Questionnaire. The injured cohort had less knowledge of the Skiers Responsibility Code. In both groups, almost half had had no lessons, 31% had had bindings adjusted by nonprofessionals and chair lift safety bars were used one ride in four by children age 13 to 17 years. The injuried cohort wore helmets slightly less often. Both groups regularly skied through the trees (60% to 70%), and one-thirds had skied on closed runs. Excessive speed was identified as the major cause of injury. Skiers did not recognize jumping as contributing to injury. Lack of knowledge of safety rules was more prevalent among the injured cohort. Skiing without due care - including skiing through tress, skiing on closed runs, skiing with excessive speed and jumping, particularly by snowboarders - were identified as potential causes of injury.
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis (AgP, and to investigate the association between demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral risk indicators with AgP in an untreated and isolated young population in Southeastern Brazil. For this cross-sectional survey, 134 subjects aged 12-29 years were selected by a census. Of those eligible, 101 subjects received a full-mouth clinical examination, and were interviewed using a structured written questionnaire. Cases were defined as individuals with 4 or more teeth with attachment loss > 4 mm or > 5 mm in the age groups 12-19 and 20-29, respectively. Overall, 9.9% of the subjects presented AgP (10.3% of the 12-19-year-olds and 9.7% of the 20-29-year-olds. The only risk indicator significantly associated with AgP in this isolated population was a high proportion of sites (> 30% presenting supragingival calculus [OR = 23.2]. Having experienced an urgency dental treatment was a protective factor for AgP [OR = 0.1]. The authors concluded that this isolated and untreated population from Brazil presented a high prevalence of AgP. Local plaque-retaining factors played a major role in the prevalence of AgP in this isolated population, and should be included in further studies evaluating this destructive periodontal disease form.
Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.
Li, Na; Wang, Yumei; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Ji, Chunpeng
Introduction The aim of the study was to study the long-term effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors of stress from direct experience of an earthquake as a young person. Material and methods We selected workers born between July 1, 1958 and July 1, 1976 who were examined at Kailuan General Hospital between May and October of 2013. Data on cardiovascular events were taken during the workers’ annual health examination conducted between 2006 and 2007. All subjects were divided into three groups according to their experience of the Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976, as follows: control group; exposed group 1 and exposed group 2. We compared cardiovascular disease risk factors between the three groups as well as by gender and age. Results One thousand one hundred and ninety-six workers were included in the final statistical analysis. Among all subjects, resting heart rate (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p earthquake compared with unexposed controls, but were unrelated to loss of relatives. No significant difference in triglyceride levels was observed between the three groups (p = 0.900). Further refinement showed that the effects were restricted to males 40 years of age or older at the time of analysis, but were due primarily to age at the time of earthquake exposure (p = 0.002, p Earthquake experience in the early years of life has long-term effects on adult resting heart rate, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, especially among men. PMID:28144258
In very young pediatric patients CT-investigations require sedative-hypnotic drug treatment to ensure complete immobilisation during scanning. The case report of a neonate with respiratory arrest after a repeated CT-premedication underlines the high risk of these procedures, especially in patients with central nervous system disorders. We compared organisational requirements, risks and complication rates of 146 oral and intramuscular promazine medications for CT-scanning of the head in 146 infants and neonates (93,8% adequate sedation response) to those of reported alternative methods. Oral promazine proved to be a very effective and safe medication (average dosage in 57 patients without complications: 5,2 mg/kg body weight/90 minutes before CT-scanning; 96% successful sedation procedures) in comparison to 89 patients with i.m. promazine (average dosage: 2,3 mg/kg body weight/45 min before CT with 92% adequate sedations but a complication rate of 7,9%). For neuropediatric examinations of outpatients fast recovery and EEG-compatibility are further important advantages of oral promazine CT-medication. (orig.) [de
Stern Barney J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American and 211 age-matched control subjects (43.1% African-American. Neuroserpin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs chosen through HapMap were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke. Results Of the five SNPs analyzed, the A allele (frequency; Caucasian = 0.56, African-American = 0.42 of SNP rs6797312 located in intron 1 was associated with stroke in an age-adjusted dominant model (AA and AT vs. TT among Caucasians (OR = 2.05, p = 0.023 but not African-Americans (OR = 0.71, p = 0.387. Models adjusting for other risk factors strengthened the association. Race-specific haplotype analyses, inclusive of SNP rs6797312, again demonstrated significant associations with stroke among Caucasians only. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that neuroserpin is associated with early-onset ischemic stroke among Caucasian women.
Bunting, Laura; Boivin, Jacky
Previous research has highlighted a lack of fertility awareness in the general population especially in relation to the optimal fertile period during the menstrual cycle, incidence of infertility and duration of the reproductive life span. The current study assessed fertility knowledge more broadly in young people and investigated three areas of knowledge, namely risk factors associated with female infertility (e.g. smoking), beliefs in false fertility myths (e.g. benefits of rural living) and beliefs in the illusory benefits of healthy habits (e.g. exercising regularly) on female fertility. The sample (n = 149) consisted of 110 female and 39 male postgraduate and undergraduate university students (average age 24.01, SD = 7.81). Knowledge scores were based on a simple task requiring the participants to estimate the effect a factor would have on a group of 100 women trying to get pregnant. Items (n = 21) were grouped according to three categories: risk factors (e.g. smoking; 7 items), myths (e.g. living in countryside; 7 items) and healthy habits (e.g. being normal weight; 7 items). An analysis of variance showed a significant main effect of factor (P healthy habits (P healthy habits. We suggest that the public education campaigns should be directed to erroneous beliefs about pseudo protective factors.
McCormack, C; Green, M J; Rowland, J E; Roberts, G; Frankland, A; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Joslyn, C; Lau, P; Wright, A; Levy, F; Lenroot, R K; Mitchell, P B
Impairments in key neuropsychological domains (e.g. working memory, attention) and social cognitive deficits have been implicated as intermediate (endo) phenotypes for bipolar disorder (BD), and should therefore be evident in unaffected relatives. Neurocognitive and social cognitive ability was examined in 99 young people (age range 16-30 years) with a biological parent or sibling diagnosed with the disorder [thus deemed to be at risk (AR) of developing BD], compared with 78 healthy control (HC) subjects, and 52 people with a confirmed diagnosis of BD. Only verbal intelligence and affective response inhibition were significantly impaired in AR relative to HC participants; the BD participants showed significant deficits in attention tasks compared with HCs. Neither AR nor BD patients showed impairments in general intellectual ability, working memory, visuospatial or language ability, relative to HC participants. Analysis of BD-I and BD-II cases separately revealed deficits in attention and immediate memory in BD-I patients (only), relative to HCs. Only the BD (but not AR) participants showed impaired emotion recognition, relative to HCs. Selective cognitive deficits in the capacity to inhibit negative affective information, and general verbal ability may be intermediate markers of risk for BD; however, the extent and severity of impairment in this sample was less pronounced than has been reported in previous studies of older family members and BD cases. These findings highlight distinctions in the cognitive profiles of AR and BD participants, and provide limited support for progressive cognitive decline in association with illness development in BD.
Ryan, Jaymee; Graham, Anne; Nelson, Barnaby; Yung, Alison
The association between borderline personality disorder and the ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis state is unclear. The following study aimed to investigate the type of attenuated psychotic symptoms and prevalence of borderline personality pathology in a sample of UHR young people. Additionally, the study aimed to explore whether borderline personality pathology influenced the transition rate to psychosis. Medical records from Orygen Youth Health between 2007 and 2009 were examined. There were 180 patients who met UHR criteria and were included for analysis. Most patients were females (62.8%) and age ranged from 15 to 24 years. A quarter (25.2%) of UHR patients endorsed items consistent with borderline personality pathology. UHR patients with borderline personality pathology experienced a range of attenuated psychotic symptoms and could not be statistically differentiated from UHR patients with less significant or without borderline personality pathology. Borderline personality pathology did not increase or decrease the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. The absence of depression was the only predictor of psychosis. Many UHR patients present with concurrent borderline personality features. The psychotic experiences reported by UHR patients with borderline personality features were not limited to paranoid ideation, supporting the idea that borderline personality disorder may include a wider range of psychotic symptoms than previously thought. It is further possible that the psychotic symptoms experienced in this group could also be indicative of an emerging psychotic disorder. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Vetterli, D C M; Lava, S A G; Essig, S; Milosevic, G; Cajöri, G; Uehlinger, D E; Moor, M B
Lack of donor organs remains a major obstacle in organ transplantation. Our aim was to evaluate (1) the association between engaging in high-risk recreational activities and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) the degree of reciprocity between organ acceptance and donation willingness in young men. A 17-item, close-ended survey was offered to male conscripts ages 18 to 26 years in all Swiss military conscription centers. Predictors of organ donation attitudes were assessed in bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Reciprocity of the intentions to accept and to donate organs was assessed by means of donor card status. In 1559 responses analyzed, neither motorcycling nor practicing extreme sports reached significant association with donor card holder status. Family communication about organ donation, student, or academic profession and living in a Latin linguistic region were predictors of positive organ donation attitudes, whereas residence in a German-speaking region and practicing any religion predicted reluctance. Significantly more respondents were willing to accept than to donate organs, especially among those without family communication concerning organ donation. For the first time, it was shown that high-risk recreational activities do not influence organ donation attitudes. Second, a considerable discrepancy in organ donation reciprocity was identified. We propose that increasing this reciprocity could eventually increase organ donation rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chinekwu A. Obidoa
Full Text Available The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.
Friesen, Phoebe; Lawrence, Ryan E; Brucato, Gary; Girgis, Ragy R; Dixon, Lisa
Genetic tests for schizophrenia could introduce both risks and benefits. Little is known about the hopes and expectations of young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis concerning genetic testing for schizophrenia, despite the fact that these youth could be among those highly affected by such tests. We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis to ask about their interest, expectations, and hopes regarding genetic testing for schizophrenia. Most participants reported a high level of interest in genetic testing for schizophrenia, and the majority said they would take such a test immediately if it were available. Some expressed far-reaching expectations for a genetic test, such as predicting symptom severity and the timing of symptom onset. Several assumed that genetic testing would be accompanied by interventions to prevent schizophrenia. Participants anticipated mixed reactions on finding out they had a genetic risk for schizophrenia, suggesting that they might feel both a sense of relief and a sense of hopelessness. We suggest that genetic counseling could play an important role in counteracting a culture of genetic over-optimism and helping young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis understand the limitations of genetic testing. Counseling sessions could also invite individuals to explore how receiving genetic risk information might impact their well-being, as early evidence suggests that some psychological factors help individuals cope, whereas others heighten distress related to genetic test results.
Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin
There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation).
Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H
Some of the country's highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease are found in lower-income black communities in the rural Southeast. Research suggests these disparities originate in the early decades of life, and partly reflect the influence of broader socioeconomic forces acting on behavioral and biological processes that accelerate cardiovascular disease progression. However, this hypothesis has not been tested explicitly. Here, we examine metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rural black young adults as a function of their family's economic conditions before and after the Great Recession. In an ongoing prospective study, we followed 328 black youth from rural Georgia, who were 16 to 17 years old when the Great Recession began. When youth were 25, we assessed MetS prevalence using the International Diabetes Federation's guidelines. The sample's overall MetS prevalence was 18.6%, but rates varied depending on family economic trajectory from before to after the Great Recession. MetS prevalence was lowest (10.4%) among youth whose families maintained stable low-income conditions across the Recession. It was intermediate (21.8%) among downwardly mobile youth (ie, those whose families were lower income before the Recession, but slipped into poverty). The highest MetS rates (27.5%) were among youth whose families began the Recession in poverty, and sank into more meager conditions afterwards. The same patterns were observed with 3 alternative MetS definitions. These patterns suggest that broader economic forces shape cardiometabolic risk in young blacks, and may exacerbate disparities already present in this community. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Saddam Husen Meman
Full Text Available Aims: To find the relationship of several physical risk factors on the occurrence of low back pain (LBP over a period of 6 months among young sedentary individuals. Settings and Design: Yenepoya University, Mangaluru, India; prospective cohort design. Methods and Material: In this study, total number of 187 students of Yenepoya University, aged 18 to 30 years, with the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ score of less than 600 metabolic equivalent (MET minutes /week were recruited through convenience sampling. Participants were assessed for body mass index (BMI, hamstring and iliopsoas muscle tightness, abdominal and back muscle strength and endurance, and trunk range of motion (ROM at baseline. All measurements were taken by using standardized procedures. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency distribution, Karl Pearson's correlation test by SPSS. Results: The Logistic regression analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between low back pain and trunk flexion ROM with odds ratio of 1.671 (P < 0.001, LBP and trunk extension ROM with odds ratio of 1.602 (P < 0.001, LBP and abdominal endurance with odds ratio of 1.602 (P < 0.001, LBP and BMI of overweight with odds ratio of 1.534 (P < 0.001, LBP and BMI of obese with odds ratio of 1.429 (P < 0.001. Conclusions: The study shows that there is a statistically significant correlation between trunk flexion and extension ROM, abdominal muscle endurance and BMI of obese & overweight category with low back pain, among young sedentary individuals.
Arriaza, Rafael; Inman, David; Arriaza, Alvaro; Saavedra, Miguel A
Prospective studies on injuries in martial arts competition are scarce, especially those involving young practitioners, but the upsurge of children and adolescents taking part in organized training and competition in these sports requires clarification of the injury risk that they represent for youths. Top-level karate competition for young adolescents (cadets, or 14- to 15-year-olds) has a low injury rate and can be safely promoted. Descriptive epidemiological study. Prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all bouts in 3 consecutive World Karate Championships (2009, 2011, and 2013) for cadets was performed. Data were collected prospectively in situ with checklists that described competitor sex, bout category, and weight as well as injured area, diagnosis, mechanism of injury, severity, and treatment. A total of 1020 bouts were reviewed, 671 in the male category and 349 in the female category. A total of 61 injuries were recorded. Of those, only 3 were time-loss injuries. During the 2009 and 2011 championships, there was 1 injury per 25.6 fights, while during the 2013 championship the number of injuries increased, with 1 injury per 10 fights (P = .003). There was no statistical difference in the total injury rate between the male and female categories (P = .71), with an odds ratio of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.52-2.55). The injury rate for cadet top-level karate competition found in this prospective study is much lower than the rates previously published for karate or other martial arts competitions, but there seems to be a marked increase as more championships are held, which is a matter of concern. © 2015 The Author(s).
Davis-Temple, Janet; Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M
We investigated the effects of a least to most prompting procedure on the performance of board game steps and game-related on-task behavior of young children with special needs and their typically developing peers. This study was conducted employing a concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. After teaching the board game steps using a systematic prompting strategy, the participants demonstrated increases in the performance of board game steps and game-related on-task behavior. In addition, the participants maintained high levels of performance and game-related on-task behavior during post-game training. The effects of teaching board games using prompting strategies, implications for practice, and areas for future study are presented.
Okafor, Uchenna Onyekachi; Crutzen, Rik; Ifeanyi, Okekearu; Adebajo, Sylvia; Van den Borne, Hubertus
Female sex workers (FSWs) have been identified as a core group in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Young FSWs are particularly more vulnerable to HIV due to the combination of vulnerabilities associated with their youth and the sex work they engage in. This study aims to give more insight into HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviour of young FSWs in Nigeria, by focusing on the differences between BB and NBB young FSWs. Data was obtained from the Nigeria Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey (IBBSS) for high-risk groups conducted in 2010. IBBSS is a quantitative survey conducted amongst identified high-risk sub populations within Nigeria. HIV prevalence and risk behaviour data for young BB and NBB FSWs aged 15-24 years for nine states was extracted and analysed. A total of 1796 FSWs aged 15-24 years were interviewed during the survey, 746 (41.5%) were BB while 1050 (58.5%) were NBB. The HIV prevalence was higher among BB FSWs compared to the NBB FSWs (21.0% vs. 15.5%). BB FSWs reported less condom use with boyfriends and casual partners than NBB FSWs (26.3% vs. 45.5%) and (55.1% vs. 61.1%) respectively while risk of HIV infection due to injecting drug use was higher in NBB compared to BB FSWs (6.6% vs. 1.2%). Existing and future interventions on HIV prevention should focus on empowering young FSWs with innovative and sustainable approaches aimed at improving their health and wellbeing.
Yi, Robin H Pugh; Rezende, Lisa F; Huynh, Julie; Kramer, Karen; Cranmer, Melissa; Schlager, Lisa; Dearfield, Craig T; Friedman, Susan J
Women age 45 years or younger with breast cancer, or who are at high-risk for breast cancer due to previously having the disease or to genetic risk, have distinct health risks and needs from their older counterparts. Young women frequently seek health information through the Internet and mainstream media, but often find it does not address their particular concerns, that it is difficult to evaluate or interpret, or even misleading. To help women better understand media coverage about new research, Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE) developed the CDC-funded XRAYS (eXamining Relevance of Articles to Young Survivors) program. To assure that the XRAYS program is responsive to the community's needs, FORCE launched a web-based survey to assess where young women seek information about breast cancer, and to learn their unmet information needs. A total of 1,178 eligible women responded to the survey. In general, the breast cancer survivors and high-risk women between ages 18-45 years who responded to this survey, are using multiple media sources to seek information about breast cancer risk, prevention, screening, and treatment. They place trust in several media sources and use them to inform their medical decisions. Only about one-third of respondents to this survey report discussing media sources with their health care providers. Current survey results indicate that, by providing credible information on the quality of evidence and reporting in media reports on cancer, XRAYS is addressing a key need for health information. Results suggest that it will be useful for XRAYS to offer reviews of articles on a broad range of topics that can inform decisions at each stage of risk assessment and treatment.
Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Bitzur, Rafael; Kochba, Ilan; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Shochat, Tzippora; Rudich, Assaf
The association between changes in triglyceride concentrations over time and diabetes is unknown. We assessed whether two triglyceride determinations obtained 5 years apart can predict incident type 2 diabetes. Triglyceride levels at baseline (time 1) and 5 years later (time 2), followed by subsequent follow-up of 5.5 years, were measured in 13,953 apparently healthy men (age 26-45 years) with triglycerides <300 mg/dl (<3.39 mmol/l). During 76,742 person-years, 322 cases of diabetes occurred. A multivariate model adjusted for age, BMI, total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, family history of diabetes, fasting glucose, blood pressure, physical activity, and smoking status revealed a continuous independent rise in incident diabetes with increasing time 1 triglyceride levels (P(trend) < 0.001). Men in the lowest tertile of time 1 triglyceride levels who progressed to the highest tertile over follow-up (low-high) exhibited a hazard ratio (HR) of 12.62 (95% CI 3.52-31.34) compared with those remaining in the lowest tertile at both time points (reference group: low-low). Whereas men who were at the top triglyceride level tertile throughout follow-up (high-high) had a HR for diabetes of 7.08 (2.52-14.45), those whose triglyceride level decreased to the lowest tertile (high-low) exhibited a HR of 1.97 (0.67-6.13). Alterations in triglyceride levels during follow-up were associated with changes in BMI, physical activity, and eating breakfast habit (P < 0.05), but remained an independent modifier of diabetes risk even after adjustment for such changes. Two measurements of fasting triglyceride levels obtained 5 years apart can assist in identifying apparently healthy young men at increased risk for diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors and of associated changes in BMI and lifestyle parameters.
Broderick, Joseph P; Viscoli, Catherine M; Brott, Thomas; Kernan, Walter N; Brass, Lawrence M; Feldmann, Edward; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Wilterdink, Janet Lee; Horwitz, Ralph I
To identify risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage, we designed a case-control study of men and women 18 to 49 years of age (the Hemorrhagic Stroke Project [HSP]). This report focuses on SAH. Patients were recruited from 44 hospitals in the United States. Cases with SAH must have had a ruptured aneurysm documented by angiography or surgery. Two controls, identified by random digit dialing and matched to each patient for age, sex, race, and telephone exchange, were sought for each case subject. Between 1994 and 1999, 425 patients with SAH were enrolled in HSP, and 312 cases met the criteria for aneurysmal SAH. The present analyses also included 618 matched controls. Of the 312 cases, 66% were current cigarette smokers compared with 30% of controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 2.67 to 5.21). Cocaine use within the previous 3-day period was reported by 3% of cases and no controls (bivariate exact OR, 24.97; 95% exact CI, 3.95 to infinity; adjusted estimate not calculable). Other independent risk factors in the multivariable model included hypertension (adjusted OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.29), low body mass index (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.35), primary family history of hemorrhagic stroke (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.73 to 8.46), caffeine in pharmaceutical products (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.19 to 5.20), lower educational achievement (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.44 to 3.87), and nicotine in pharmaceutical products (adjusted estimate not calculable). Aneurysmal SAH may be largely a preventable disease among the young and middle-aged because several prevalent risk factors can be modified by medication (eg, hypertension) or behavioral change (eg, cigarette smoking, cocaine use). The association of caffeine and nicotine in pharmaceutical products and aneurysmal SAH warrants further study.
The HIV epidemic has had a profound impact on people's everyday life in most African societies. A large proportion of all new HIV infections involves young people between 15 and 25 years. The objective of this paper is to explore local moral worlds of young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and discuss how the HIVS epidemic affects their reflections on their everyday life and their perceptions of sexual relationships. Based on anthropological fieldwork, including focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews and participant observation, a total of 57 young people between 15 and 25 years were followed over a 3-month period. Using the notion of 'lifestyle', the paper shows how structural factors of unemployment and poverty paired with global discourse on AIDS present the young people with frustrations and quandaries in relation to their hopes and images of love, faithfulness and modern living. The data shows that the HIV epidemic contributes to and accelerates their feeling of living in a risk society and of being at risk. In order to cope with these uncertainties and contingencies, local discourses of trust and fidelity become extremely important and to most young people HIV prevention is synonymous with finding a faithful partner and/or using condoms.
The relationship between exposure to extreme physical and mental activities and adverse environments to the susceptibility to injuries, disease, and death has not been examined for Special Operations Forces (SOF) personnel...
Stenbacka, Marlene; Jokinen, Jussi
There is a paucity of studies on the role of early risk factors for the choice of methods for violent suicide attempts. Adolescent risk factors for the choice of violent or non-violent methods for suicide attempts and the risk of subsequent suicide were studied using a longitudinal design. A national Swedish cohort of 48 834 18-20-year-old young men conscripted for military service from 1969 to 1970 was followed through official registers during a 37-year period. Two questionnaires concerning their psychosocial background were answered by each conscript. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the risk for different methods of attempted suicide and later suicide. A total of 1195 (2.4 %) men had made a suicide attempt and of these, 133 (11.1 %) committed suicide later. The number of suicide victims among the non-attempters was 482 (1 %). Half of the suicides occurred during the same year as the attempt. Suicide victims had earlier onset of suicidal behaviour and had more often used hanging as a method of attempted suicide than those who did not later commit suicide. The early risk factors for both violent and non-violent methods of suicide attempt were quite similar. Violent suicide attempts, especially by hanging, are associated with a clearly elevated suicide risk in men and require special clinical and public health attention. The early risk factors related to the choice of either a violent or a non-violent suicide attempt method are interlinked and circumstantial factors temporally close to the suicide attempt, such as access to a specific method, may partly explain the choice of method.
DESHENG DASH WU; DAVID L. OLSON; LUIS A. SECO; JOHN BIRGE
Risks are traditionally defined as the combination of probability and severity, but are actually characterized by additional factors. We believe the characteristics of risks include uncertainties, dynamics, dependence, clusterings and complexities, which motivate the utilization of various operational research tools. The objective of this issue is to survey the practice of using operational research tools in risk management, especially Asian risk management.
He, Ying; Yang, Dong Zhi; Yu, Hui; Li, Man Yu; Feng, Qing Chuan; Zheng, Hong
Previous studies have shown that the phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene is a susceptibility gene for ischemic stroke (IS) primarily in elder populations. However, few studies have reported the role of the PDE4D gene polymorphisms in a young cohort. To investigate the association between the PDE4D gene polymorphisms and young-onset IS in Chinese population. A total of 186 young patients (18-45 years) with IS and 232 matched control subjects were recruited. Two SNPs (rs918592 and rs2910829) in PDE4D gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to test the association between the genetic factors and IS. The rs918592A/A genotype frequency and A allele frequency, rs2910829 CT/TT genotype frequency and T allele frequency of young IS group were significantly higher than those of the control group ( P young patients than that in the controls (OR =4.047, 95% CI: 3.521-4.652). Hap (A-C) and Hap (G-C) were associated with decreased risk of IS (OR =0.640, 95% CI: 0.452-0.906; OR =0.675, 95% CI: 0.466-0.978, respectively). Our findings suggest that the rs918592 and rs2910829 polymorphisms and haplotypes of PDE4D gene are significantly associated with IS in Chinese young population.
Koivunen, R-J; Satopää, J; Meretoja, A; Strbian, D; Haapaniemi, E; Niemelä, M; Tatlisumak, T; Putaala, J
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common and severe form of stroke but is scarcely studied in young adults. Our aim was to study risk factors, clinical presentation and early mortality of ICH in the young and compare these features with older patients. All consecutive patients aged between 16 and 49 diagnosed with a first-ever ICH at the Departments of Neurology or Neurosurgery of the Helsinki University Central Hospital between January 2000 and March 2010 (n = 336) were analyzed retrospectively. Comparisons were performed amongst demographic subgroups and with patients over 49 years of age enrolled between January 2005 and March 2010 (n = 921). In the young patients, median age was 42 years (interquartile range 34-47), 59.5% were male, and annual incidence was 4.9 (95% confidence interval 4.5-5.3) per 100 000. The most prevalent risk factors were hypertension (29.8%) and smoking (22.3%). Compared with older patients hypertensive microangiopathy was less common (25.0% vs. 34.3%, P = 0.002) and structural lesions more common (25.0% vs. 4.9%, P young patients and in 22.5% of those who underwent magnetic resonance imaging and any angiography (n = 89, P = 0.023). Three-month mortality rate was lower in young patients compared with older ones (17.0% vs. 32.7%, P ages (P = 0.324) and independently predicted mortality in older patients but not in the young. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the young appears less fatal and has a different spectrum of causes and factors associated with short-term mortality than for the elderly. © 2014 EAN.
Full Text Available Hypertension is developed easily in Asian adults with normal body mass index (BMI (~23 kg/m2, compared with other ethnicities with similar BMI. This study tested the hypothesis that slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men by historical cohort study.The study participants were 636 male alumni of the physical education school. They had available data on their physical examination at college age and follow-up investigation between 2007 and 2011. The participants were categorized into six categories: BMI at college age of <20.0 kg/m2, 20.0-21.0kg/m2, 21.0-22.0kg/m2, 22.0-23.0kg/m2, 23.0-24.0kg/m2, and ≥24.0kg/m2, and the incidence of hypertension was compared.This study covered 27-year follow-up period (interquartile range: IQR: 23-31 which included 17,059 person-years of observation. Subjects were 22 (22-22 years old at graduated college, and 49 (45-53 years old at first follow-up investigation. During the period, 120 men developed hypertension. The prevalence rates of hypertension for lowest to highest BMI categories were 9.4%, 14.6%, 16.1%, 17.5%, 30.3%, and 29.3%, respectively (p<0.001 for trend, and their hazard ratios were 1.00 (reference, 1.80 (95%CI: 0.65-4.94, 2.17 (0.83-5.64, 2.29 (0.89-5.92, 3.60 (1.37-9.47 and 4.72 (1.78-12.48, respectively (p<0.001 for trend. This trend was similar after adjustment for age, year of graduation, smoking, current exercise status and current dietary intake.Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.
Roberts-Thomson Kaye F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings
Price, Joan T; Rosenberg, Nora E; Vansia, Dhrutika; Phanga, Twambilile; Bhushan, Nivedita L; Maseko, Bertha; Brar, Savvy K; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Tang, Jennifer H; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Pettifor, Audrey
Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa have high HIV prevalence and incidence. We sought to understand which HIV risk factors individually and in combination contribute to risk, and whether these factors are associated with HIV worry and risk perception. This study is ongoing at 4 public health centers in Lilongwe, Malawi (2016-2017). AGYW of 15-24 years old were recruited to participate in a study assessing 4 models of service delivery. At each health center, participants completed a baseline survey assessing socioeconomic, behavioral, biomedical, and partnership characteristics; self-reported HIV status; and, if HIV-uninfected, HIV risk perception (high versus low or none) and HIV worry (any versus none). We analyzed associations between baseline characteristics and HIV prevalence, risk perception, and worry. Among 1000 AGYW, median age was 19 years (IQR: 17-21). Thirty-three participants reported being HIV-infected. Fifteen characteristics were associated with HIV infection. Having more risk factors was associated with higher HIV prevalence (≤4 factors, 0.5%; 5-8 factors, 6%; >8 factors, 21%). Having more risk factors was also associated with higher risk perception (P risk factors, 52% did not consider themselves to be at high risk and 21% did not report any HIV worry. Most AGYW perceive little risk of HIV acquisition, even those at highest risk. As a critical gap in the HIV prevention cascade, accurate risk perception is needed to tailor effective and sustained combination prevention strategies for this vulnerable population.
Coates, R J; Uhler, R J; Hall, H I; Potischman, N; Brinton, L A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Gammon, M D; Brogan, D R; Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Schoenberg, J B; Swanson, C A
Findings have been inconsistent on effects of adolescent body size and adult weight gain on risk of breast cancer in young women. These relations were examined in a population-based case control study of 1590 women less than 45 years of age newly diagnosed with breast cancer during 1990-1992 in three areas of the US and an age-matched control group of 1390 women. Height and weight were measured at interview and participants asked to recall information about earlier body size. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of breast cancer adjusted for other risk factors. Women who were either much heavier or lighter than average in adolescence or at age 20 were at reduced risk. Weight gain after age 20 resulted in reduced risk, but the effect was confined to early-stage and, more specifically, lower grade breast cancer. Neither the risk reduction nor the variation by breast cancer stage or grade was explained by the method of cancer detection or by prior mammography history. These findings suggest that relations between breast cancer risk in young women and body weight at different ages is complex and that the risk reduction with adult weight gain is confined to less aggressive cancers.
Saffier, Igor Pedrosa; Kawa, Hélia; Harling, Guy
Background Despite young people being a key population for HIV prevention, the HIV epidemic amongst young Brazilians is perceived to be growing. We therefore reviewed all published literature on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst 10-25 year olds in Brazil. Methods We searched Embase, LILACS, Proquest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to March 2017 and analyzed reference lists of relevant studies. We included published studies from any...
Rovio, Suvi P; Pahkala, Katja; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Juonala, Markus; Salo, Pia; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Päivi; Viikari, Jorma; Rinne, Juha O; Raitakari, Olli T
Age, education, and sex associate with cognitive performance. We investigated associations between age, sex, education, and cognitive performance in young or middle-aged adults and evaluated data reduction methods to optimally capture cognitive performance in our population-based data. This study is part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The 3,596 randomly selected subjects (aged 3-18 years in 1980) have been followed up for 30 years. In 2011, a computer-based cognitive testing battery (the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery [CANTAB]) was used to assess several cognitive domains. Principal component analysis, categorical and standardized classifications were applied to the cognitive data. Among 34- to 49-year-old participants, cognitive performance declined with age, while education associated with better cognitive functions in several cognitive domains. Men had higher performance on all cognitive domains except visual or episodic memory, in which women outperformed men. The results were similar regardless of the data reduction method used. The associations between sex, age, education, and cognitive performance are already apparent in young adulthood or middle age. Principal component analyses, categorical and standardized classifications are useful tools to analyze CANTAB cognitive data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Stephen E. Lankenau
Full Text Available Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA and New York (NY, which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs; homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.
Green, Adam E.; Gray, Jeremy R.; DeYoung, Colin G.; Mhyre, Timothy R.; Padilla, Robert; DiBattista, Amanda M.; Rebeck, G. William
A recent history of failed clinical trials suggests that waiting until even the early stages of onset of Alzheimer’s disease may be too late for effective treatment, pointing to the importance of early intervention in young people. Early intervention will require markers of Alzheimer’s risk that track with genotype but are capable of responding to treatment. Here, we sought to identify a functional MRI signature of combined Alzheimer’s risk imparted by two genetic risk factors. We used a task...
Kohorst, John J; Bos, J Martijn; Hagler, Donald J; Ackerman, Michael J
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common heritable cardiovascular disease and a common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young adolescents and athletes. Clinical risk stratification for SCD is predicated on the presence of established risk factors; however, this assessment is far from perfect. Herein, we present a 16-year-old male who was resuscitated successfully from his sentinel event of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Prior to this event, he was asymptomatic and lacked all traditional SCD-predisposing risk factors for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hänsel Petersson, Gunnel; Ericson, Ewa; Isberg, Per-Erik
Abstract Objectives. To investigate the caries risk profiles in young adults and to compare the risk classification using the Public Dental Service (PDS) guidelines with a risk assessment program, the Cariogram. Materials and methods. All 19-year-old patients registered at eight public dental...... clinics were invited to participate (n = 1699). The study group who completed the baseline examination consisted of 1295 subjects representing 10% of all 19 year-olds attending dental care at the PDS in Skåne, Sweden. A risk classification of each patient was made by the patient's regular team according...... to the PDS guidelines. A research team collected whole saliva samples and information from a questionnaire and a structured interview in order to calculate risk according to the Cariogram model. Results. The mean DFS value was 4.9 and 23% of the patients were registered as caries-free (DFS = 0). The PDS risk...
Manchester, Julianne; Eshel, Inbal; Marion, Donald W
Energy drinks (EDs) have become an integral part of the young adult, athletic, and military culture. Many athletes are convinced that EDs enhance performance, and service members as well as college students frequently use EDs as stimulants to counter sleep deprivation, or to improve academic performance. However, concerns have been raised by some military leaders about potential adverse effects of EDs. A needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of military health care providers was conducted and identified EDs as a top knowledge need for those providers working in the area of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The instrument demonstrated high interitem consistency (Cronbach's α > .80). To further explore the state of knowledge on EDs, and to prompt further discussion of ED use and how it may related to military treatment protocols and supporting educational products, we conducted a literature review of English language publications listed in the National Library of Medicine using the search term "energy drinks" and published during the last 5 years to determine what is known about EDs in terms of their potential benefits and health risks. The active ingredients in most EDs are caffeine, and to a lesser extent taurine and sugars. Several reports suggest that the combination of these ingredients is more active than the caffeine alone. Despite the positive attributes of EDs, there are increasing reports of serious and potentially life-threatening side effects. Most recently there also has been a dramatic increase in the use of ED/alcohol combination drinks, and there are preliminary studies that suggest important adverse effects with this combination. A 2013 National Institutes of Health expert workshop concluded that more clinical studies are needed to clearly define the health risks associated with ED use. The needs assessment points to a desire for more ED knowledge of health providers working with TBI patients. A few key themes emerged from the exploratory
Krepler, P; Vana, N; Havranek, C
A special lead shield of 1,5 mm Pb, with a fenestration was used for gonad protection during X-Ray of the hips for detection of dysplasia. The window allows the delineation of all parts of the skeleton required to make a correct diagnosis and check the standardized position of the pelvis, while all other parts, especially the gonads are safely shielded. The scattered radiation for the testes was further reduced by a trough-shaped lead shield behind the scrotum. The effectiveness of this gonad protection was measured by direct dosimetric studies on the infant with LiF and CaF2: Dy dosimeters at different adjustments of the X-ray generator and with medium and ultra high speed screen-film combinations.
Stroup, A. M.; Harrell, C. J.; Herget, K. A.
Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) are one of the most common and survivable cancers diagnosed in women. We examine factors associated with long-term survival and competing risks of death in women diagnosed with DTC under the age of 40 (<40) and aged 40 and older (40+). Methods. SEER data was used to identify DTCs diagnosed in women from 1975 to 2009. We examined overall (OS), disease-specific (DSS), other cancer (OCS), and non-cancer-related (NCS) survival using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results. Observed survival was 97.2% for <40 (n=14,540) and 82.5% for 40+ (n=20,513). Distant stage (HR=1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.07), non-Hispanic Black (HR=2.04, 95% CI 1.45-2.87), being unmarried (HR=1.26, 95% 1.03-1.54), and subsequent primary cancers (HR=4.63, 95% CI 3.76-5.71) were significant for OS in women <40. Age was an effect modifier for all survival outcomes. Racial disparities in NCS were most pronounced for young non-Hispanic black women (HR=3.36, 95% CI 2.17-5.22). Women in both age groups were more likely to die from other causes. Conclusions. Age at diagnosis remains one of the strongest prognostic factors for thyroid cancer survival. More directed efforts to ensure effective care for co morbid conditions are needed to reduce mortality from other causes.
This study explored attitudes toward leisure noise, use of hearing protection, and perceived susceptibility to leisure-noise damage in young adults with hearing problems. Twelve participants aged between 18 and 35 years took part in a semistructured interview. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. The results showed that a positive attitude to noise, a passion for loud music, a lack of knowledge of the consequences of noise damage, and perceived low risk of hearing problems were associated with people not using earplugs. The aesthetics, comfort, perceived effects on music quality and attitude of others were all barriers to earplug use. Of those who had used earplugs, previous hearing-related symptoms and concern about future hearing damage were the main motivators for use. Four types of people were identified to describe the variation in attitudes and behaviors: those who had no change in behavior or concern about damage; those who were concerned and used earplugs; those who were concerned and avoided loud venues; and those who were concerned about communication difficulties only. Considering the wide variability, it may be more effective to shift attention from trying to change individual attitudes and behaviors to considering systemic changes to protect hearing, through ensuring the music industry and relevant authorities take greater responsibility.
Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Palmer, Julie R
The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21-39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995-2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of > or = 2 times/week compared with or = 2 drinks/day compared with obesity among young African American women.
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Wang, Christine H; Strickland, Jennifer; Almirall, Daniel; Stein, Mark A
Young children of mothers with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for ADHD by virtue of genetics and environmental factors. Moreover, parent ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting and poor child behavioral treatment response. Thus, a combined approach consisting of behavioral parent training (BPT) and maternal stimulant medication (MSM) may be needed to effectively treat ADHD within families. However, providing combined BPT+MSM initially to all families may be unnecessarily burdensome because not all families likely need combined treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for these multiplex families in order to yield benefits to both the parent and child, thereby impacting the course of child ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms. This article presents our rationale for, design of, and preliminary experiences (based on 26 participants) with an ongoing pilot Sequential Multiple Assessment Randomized Trial (SMART) designed to answer questions regarding the feasibility and acceptability of study protocols and interventions. This article also describes how the subsequent full-scale SMART might change based on what is learned in the SMART pilot and illustrates how the full-scale SMART could be used to inform clinical decision making about how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for complex children and families in which a parent has ADHD.
May, Ross W; Seibert, Gregory S; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Fincham, Frank D
Emerging research documents the relationship between school burnout and some indicators of increased cardiovascular risk. Indicators of cardiovascular functioning assessed via ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV) have not been thoroughly explored in this research domain. Therefore, the current study examined relationships between school burnout and indicators of cardiac functioning via 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram monitoring in a sample of young adult female undergraduates (N = 88). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that independent of related negative affective symptomology (depression and anxiety), increased school burnout would be related to greater systolic and diastolic BP, higher low frequency (LF) HRV and lower very low frequency (VLF) HRV, and (2) that lower VLF would be related to greater school burnout independently of LF HRV. Hierarchical multiple regression analyzes showed that school burnout was significantly related to elevated ambulatory BP (systolic and diastolic) and HRV markers of increased cardiac sympathovagal tone. These findings support the hypotheses and suggest that school burnout might be implicated in the development of pre-hypertension or early cardiovascular disease. Study limitations and the need for future longitudinal research are discussed.
Dhurandhar, Emily J; Pavela, Gregory; Kaiser, Kathryn A; Dutton, Gareth R; Fontaine, Kevin R; Kim, Daniel; Shikany, James M; Allison, David B; Lewis, Cora E
Subjective social status (SSS), or perceived social status, may explain, in part, the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity. The objective of this study was to test whether SSS mediates the relationship between two indicators of SES (income and education) and body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional, structural equation path analysis was applied to the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n = 2,624). The analysis tested whether SSS (MacArthur scale), education, and income were associated with BMI at the year 20 examination (adjusting for sex, age, and race), and it was hypothesized that the associations of education and income with BMI would be at least partly mediated by SSS. SSS had a significant direct effect on BMI (-0.21, P = 0.018). Education had a significant direct relationship with SSS (0.11, P SSS (-0.02, P = 0.022). Although income did not have a significant direct relationship with BMI, it did have a significant indirect relationship through SSS (b = -0.05, P = 0.019). Results are consistent with the hypothesized model in which SSS partially mediates the relationship between SES indicators and BMI. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Sullivan, Amanda L.; Bal, Aydin
We examined the risk of disability identification associated with individual and school variables. The sample included 18,000 students in 39 schools of an urban K-12 school system. Descriptive analysis showed racial minority risk varied across 7 disability categories, with males and students from low-income backgrounds at highest risk in most…
Supanc, Visnja; Sonicki, Zdenko; Vukasovic, Ines; Solter, Vesna V; Zavoreo, Iris; Kes, Vanja B
In young individuals, a genetically predisposing hypercoagulability and classic modifying risk factors can act synergistically on the ischemic stroke risk development. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of classic vascular risk factors and polymorphisms of the G20210A coagulation factor II (prothrombin), Arg506Glu coagulation factor V Leiden, C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and the impact of these gene mutations and classic vascular risk factors on the overall stroke risk in individuals aged 55 years or younger. The study included 155 stroke patients aged 55 years or younger and 150 control subjects. Stroke prevalence and odds ratio (OR) were assessed for the following parameters: G20210A prothrombin, Arg506Glu factor V Leiden, C677T MTHFR, and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms; total number of study polymorphisms in a particular subject (genetic sum); and classic vascular risk factors of hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension (P stroke patients. The following parameters were found to act as independent risk factors for ischemic stroke: decreased HDL cholesterol level (P ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged individuals. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Armour, J; Bairden, K; Duncan, J L; Jennings, F W; Parkins, J J
The epidemiology of ostertagiasis in south west Scotland was studied in groups of cattle grazed through two successive grazing seasons separated by a period of winter housing. Towards the end of the first grazing season (September) the numbers of infective larvae (L3) on the pasture had increased to high levels (up to 24,000 L3 per kg) which resulted in high faecal egg counts, worm burdens, plasma pepsinogen levels and the occurrence of clinical ostertagiasis in the calves. By late spring (May) at the onset of the second grazing season, there was an almost complete mortality of the overwintered L3 on the pasture followed by the appearance of moderately high numbers of a new population of L3 in September (up to 9000 L3 per kg). The latter increase in the numbers of L3 was reflected by negligible faecal egg counts, low worm burdens and a moderate elevation of plasma pepsinogens in the second year animals. It therefore seems that although young cattle acquire a good immunity to Ostertagia ostertagi after one season at grass the small infections established in the early part of the second season are capable of contaminating the pasture to levels which could be dangerous for susceptible stock. An allergic reaction in the abomasal mucosa could be the basis of the elevated pepsinogens present in the second year animals.
Padaki, Ajay S.; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Hodgins, Justin L.; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Popkin, Charles A.
Background: Youth athlete specialization has been linked to decreased enjoyment, burnout, and increased injury risk, although the impact of specialization on athletic success is unknown. The extent to which parents exert extrinsic influence on this phenomenon remains unclear. Purpose/Hypothesis: The goal of this study was to assess parental influences placed on young athletes to specialize. It was hypothesized that parents generate both direct and indirect pressures on specialized athletes. S...
Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
In relation to treatment-related research in the United States, there is relatively little systematic effort focused on the combination of risk and prevention for anxiety pathology. This article broadly discusses risk factor research and prevention program development for anxiety psychopathology. The authors also specifically discuss papers in…
Feeley, Brian T; Agel, Julie; LaPrade, Robert F
Over the past 15 years, there has been an increase in youth sports participation with a concomitant increase in early year-round training in a single sport. Many factors contribute to the desire of parents and coaches to encourage early single sport specialization, including the desire to give the young athlete an edge in competition, pursuit of scholarships, and potential professional status, and the ability to label a young athlete as elite at an early age. Despite these perceived advantages, some data suggest that early sport specialization does not lead to a competitive advantage over athletes who participate in multiple sports. Although the data are limited, there is some evidence that early sport specialization may put the young athlete at risk for overuse injuries. The focus of this review is to highlight the evidence regarding early sport specialization and risk for injury; discuss the risk factors for overuse injury in high-risk sports including ice hockey, swimming, gymnastics, and baseball; and discuss future potential research that would help define the risk of injury for young athletes who participate in early sport specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available AIM - This article explores how young Danish drunk (and drug drivers relate to the risk of driving under the influence (DUI. DESIGN - The study is based on qualitative interviews with 25 convicted drunk drivers who in 2010 participated in mandatory alcohol and traffic safety courses. The analysis follows Stephen Lyng’s concept of “edgework”, focusing on volitional risk taking and its effect on the acting individual’s self-identity. RESULTS - Drawing on the interviewees’ accounts of being arrested for drunk driving, the analysis discusses three different categories of young drunk drivers. Those in the first category view a DUI arrest as a loss of control and a reminder of the risk of DUI. Those in the second present DUI as a reaction to what they perceive as untenable social demands. Those in the third see loss of control - such as causing a traffic accident - as the ultimate way of claiming control over their lives. CONCLUSION - The study shows that young drunk drivers have different associations with DUI-related risks. The more constrained they feel in relation to society, the more likely it is that they will divorce negative experiences related to DUI such as being arrested or causing a traffic accident.
Heflin, L. Juane; Rudy, Kathryn
This booklet examines the plight of homeless families who have children who need special educational services. It explores the magnitude of homelessness among families, provides empirical descriptions of homeless populations, and identifies factors contributing to the rising incidence of homelessness in the United States. Specific effects of…
Gooding, Holly C; Ning, Hongyan; Gillman, Matthew W; Shay, Christina; Allen, Norrina; Goff, David C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Chiuve, Stephanie
Few tools exist for assessing the risk for early atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events in young adults. To assess the performance of the Healthy Heart Score (HHS), a lifestyle-based tool that estimates ASCVD events in older adults, for ASCVD events occurring before 55 years of age. This prospective cohort study included 4893 US adults aged 18 to 30 years from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants underwent measurement of lifestyle factors from March 25, 1985, through June 7, 1986, and were followed up for a median of 27.1 years (interquartile range, 26.9-27.2 years). Data for this study were analyzed from February 24 through December 12, 2016. The HHS includes age, smoking status, body mass index, alcohol intake, exercise, and a diet score composed of self-reported daily intake of cereal fiber, fruits and/or vegetables, nuts, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red and/or processed meats. The HHS in the CARDIA study was calculated using sex-specific equations produced by its derivation cohorts. The ability of the HHS to assess the 25-year risk for ASCVD (death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke) in the total sample, in race- and sex-specific subgroups, and in those with and without clinical ASCVD risk factors at baseline. Model discrimination was assessed with the Harrell C statistic; model calibration, with Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino statistics. The study population of 4893 participants included 2205 men (45.1%) and 2688 women (54.9%) with a mean (SD) age at baseline of 24.8 (3.6) years; 2483 (50.7%) were black; and 427 (8.7%) had at least 1 clinical ASCVD risk factor (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes types 1 and 2). Among these participants, 64 premature ASCVD events occurred in women and 99 in men. The HHS showed moderate discrimination for ASCVD risk assessment in this diverse population of mostly healthy young adults (C statistic, 0
Full Text Available There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial.We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models.The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49, had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01, had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03 and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97. A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97.The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation.
Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin
Background There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. Methods We followed 1,147 men aged 15–26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. Results The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation). PMID:22675449
Full Text Available A high percentage of prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in young age causes urgency of treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissue in young age. Therefore, the research purpose was to investigate the hygienic condition and identification of the main risk factors for gingivitis in patients aged 18-30 years. 286 people aged from 18 to 30 years were observed in the study. To assess hygienic condition of the oral cavity and to determine the thickness of plaque indices OHI-S (simplified oral hygiene index Green Vermilyona and Silness Loe were used. Studies of oral hygiene status suggests that in patients with different etiologies of periodontal tissue inflammation, oral hygienic condition ranged from "satisfactory" to "poor." Therefore the results of study of hygiene and periodontal indices and samples confirmed presence of moderately expressed inflammation in the gums in young adults with chronic catarrhal gingivitis. Most often inflammation in the gums, namely, chronic catarrhal gingivitis was determined in patients with fixed prosthesis designs in the mouth or in violation of the bite, related to the major risk factors for periodontal disease occurring in young adults aged from 18 to 30 years.
Costa, Jamille Oliveira; Vásquez, Cecília M Passos; Santana, Gleiciane de Jesus; Silva, Natanael de Jesus; Braz, Juciene de Matos; Jesus, Amélia M Ribeiro de; Silva, Danielle Góes da; Cunha, Luana Celina Seraphim; Barbosa, Kiriaque Barra Ferreira
The oxidative biomarkers play an important role in the genesis of cardiometabolic risk-related processes. To investigate the total antioxidant capacity of plasma and its association with cardiometabolic risk in non-obese and clinically healthy young adults. University students of the state of Sergipe, Brazil, aged between 18 and 25 years, were recruited for this study from May of 2013 and October of 2014. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters were measured and analyzed using protocols which were previously standardized and described in the literature. The measurement of plasma total antioxidant capacity was based on the ability that all the antioxidants present in the sample (plasma) have to inhibit the oxidation of the oxidizable substrate ABTS (2,2`- Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate]) to ABTS•+ by metmyoglobin. Approximately 25% of the sample presented more than one component of cardiometabolic risk. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent component. Compared to absence of components, the subjects with at least one component presented greater body weight and waist circumference, higher levels of diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose, greater total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, and lower levels of HDL-c (p literatura. A medida da capacidade antioxidante total do plasma baseou-se na capacidade de todos os antioxidantes presentes na amostra (plasma) em inibir a oxidação do substrato oxidável ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis-(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfonato) a ABTS•+ pela metamioglobina. Aproximadamente 25% da amostra apresentaram mais de um componente do risco cardiometabólico. Valores baixos de HDL foram o componente mais prevalente. Em comparação à ausência de componentes, os indivíduos com pelo menos um componente apresentou valores mais altos de peso corporal, circunferência da cintura, pressão sanguínea diastólica, glicemia de jejum e razão colesterol total/HDL-c, e valores mais baixos de HDL-c (p < 0,05). A glicemia de jejum
Garrido-Miguel, Miriam; Torres-Costoso, Ana; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente
To analyze the independent relationship between the risk of eating disorders and bone health and to examine whether this relationship is mediated by body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). In this cross-sectional study, bone-related variables, lean mass, fat mass (by DXA), risk of eating disorders (SCOFF questionnaire), height, weight, waist circumference and CRF were measured in 487 university students aged 18-30 years from the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. ANCOVA models were estimated to test mean differences in bone mass categorized by body composition, CRF or risk of eating disorders. Subsequently, linear regression models were fitted according to Baron and Kenny's procedures for mediation analysis. The marginal estimated mean ± SE values of total body bone mineral density for the categories "no risk of eating disorders" and "risk of eating disorders" were 1.239 ± 0.126 eating disorders and bone health in young adults. Body composition and CRF mediate the association between the risk of eating disorders and bone health. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a healthy weight and good CRF for the prevention of the development of eating disorders and for the maintenance of good bone health in young adults. Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.
Byrne, Rory; Morrison, Anthony P
The aim of the present study was to qualitatively explore experiences and perceptions of interpersonal relationships and interpersonal communication among young people at risk of psychosis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using a qualitative grounded theory approach. Participants had entered into a service providing psychological interventions for young people assessed to be at a high risk of developing psychosis (Northwest UK). Our sample comprised one female and seven male participants (n = 8), ranging in age from 16 to 28 years, with a mean age of 22.4 years. Analyses identified three central themes: difficulty with interpersonal relationships and reduced opportunities for helpful communication, difficulty talking to others about psychological problems, and experiences of talking to others about psychological problems. Individuals at risk of psychosis may have experienced significant difficulties with interpersonal relationships. Such difficulties may contribute directly to the development of unusual psychological experiences, and to an inability or reluctance to communicate these to others. In addition, commonly held stigmatizing ideas associated with unusual psychological experiences may contribute to a fear among at-risk individuals that they are 'going mad', and this may lead to concealment of their difficulties, and to delayed help-seeking. For at-risk individuals, helpful communication of psychological distress offers significant benefits, including improved psychological and emotional well-being and reduced risk of psychosis. Thus, while concealment of distress may directly impact on the development of unusual psychological difficulties, communication of such difficulties may be central to recovery.
Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.
Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina J; Hill, Lauren M; Balvanz, Peter; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne
Research on network-level influences on HIV risk behaviors among young men in sub-Saharan Africa is severely lacking. One significant gap in the literature that may provide direction for future research with this population is understanding the degree to which various HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs cluster within men's social networks. Such research may help us understand which HIV-related norms and behaviors have the greatest potential to be changed through social influence. Additionally, few network-based studies have described the structure of social networks of young men in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the structure of men's peer networks may motivate future research examining the ways in which network structures shape the spread of information, adoption of norms, and diffusion of behaviors. We contribute to filling these gaps by using social network analysis and multilevel modeling to describe a unique dataset of mostly young men (n = 1249 men and 242 women) nested within 59 urban social networks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the means, ranges, and clustering of men's HIV-related normative beliefs and behaviors. Networks in this urban setting varied substantially in both composition and structure and a large proportion of men engaged in risky behaviors including inconsistent condom use, sexual partner concurrency, and intimate partner violence perpetration. We found significant clustering of normative beliefs and risk behaviors within these men's social networks. Specifically, network membership explained between 5.78 and 7.17% of variance in men's normative beliefs and between 1.93 and 15.79% of variance in risk behaviors. Our results suggest that social networks are important socialization sites for young men and may influence the adoption of norms and behaviors. We conclude by calling for more research on men's social networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and map out several areas of future inquiry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All
Thoma, Brian C.; Huebner, David M.
Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including “coming out” to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically d...
Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.
The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples’ interpersonal stress related to not liking partners’ friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples’ psychological partner violence and determined whet...
Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne
Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…
Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Wong, Man-Ting; Yu, Yu-Chung; Ju, Yan-Ying
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have become increasingly common among health-related professionals. Special education personnel who serve students with disabilities often experience physical strains; however, WMSDs have been overlooked in this population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the work-related ergonomics-associated factors in this population and to evaluate their correlation with the WMSDs prevalence. A questionnaire with three domains, namely demographics, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and ergonomic factors, designed by our research team was delivered to educators who work in special education schools. Approximately 86 % of the 388 special education school teachers and teacher's aides in this study experienced musculoskeletal disorders. The lower back, shoulder, and wrist were the three most affected regions. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the participants' background factors, namely >5.5 years of experience (odds ratio [OR] = 4.090, 95 % CI: 1.350-12.390), students with multiple disorders (OR = 2.412, 95 % CI: 1.100-5.287), and other work-related ergonomic factors (assistance in diaper changing and others duties), were strongly associated with the prevalence of WMSD. Nap habit (OR = 0.442, 95 % CI: 0.230-0.851) and having teaching partners in the same class (OR = 0.486, 95 % CI: 0.250-0.945) resulted in low possibility of acquiring WMSDs. The use of supportive devices was associated with a low WMSD prevalence. The present study revealed an association between WMSDs and specific job features among teachers and teacher's aides in special education schools. Future efforts should emphasize examining safe student-handling ergonomics, formulating policies regarding student-teacher ratio, incorporating mandatory break times at the workplaces, and promoting personal health for preventing work-related injuries.
Puchau, Blanca; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3) are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-α. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.
Ganesan, Sudhir; Acharya, Anita Shankar; Chauhan, Ravi; Acharya, Shankar
Cross-sectional study. To evaluate the prevalence and various risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in young adults in India. LBP is an emerging problem in adolescents, with an incidence that is the highest in the third decade of life worldwide. Various risk factors such as obesity, smoking, family history, stress, and exercise have been described in the literature. This study was conducted because of paucity of data in the Indian literature. A total of 1,355 (741 males and 641 females) young Indian Administrative Service aspirants and medical postgraduate aspirants aged 18-35 years were enrolled in the study. The subjects completed a detailed, semi-structured questionnaire that gathered data regarding their sociodemographic profile and factors considered to be risk factors for LBP. Anthropometric measurements, including height and weight, were measured and body mass index was calculated. Most subjects (90.6%) were aged 20-29 years (mean, 24.49; range, 18-35 years). Results indicated that the following factors were associated with LBP in young adults: marital status, previous history of spine problems, strenuous exercise, job satisfaction, monotony, stress, daily number of studying hours, and family history of spine problems ( p productivity.
Baer, Tamara E; Milliren, Carly E; Walls, Courtney; DiVasta, Amy D
To review the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB) adolescent and young adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a 2-year follow-up. Retrospective chart review. One hundred seventy-three adolescent and young adult women, aged 12-22 years, diagnosed with PCOS. Demographic, health data, and laboratory measures were abstracted from 3 clinic visits: baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-up. Subjects were classified as NW, OW, or OB. Longitudinal data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Body mass index, self-reported concerns, and lifestyle changes. Most patients (73%) were OW or OB. Family history of type 2 diabetes was greater in OW (38%) and OB (53%) patients compared with NW (22%) patients (P = .002). Acanthosis nigricans was identified in OW (62%) and OB (21%) patients but not in NW patients (0%; P insulin (P PCOS were OW or OB. Substantial clinical variability existed in cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening; among those screened, OW and OB patients had greater CVD risk factors. Despite self-reported concerns about weight and diabetes risk among OW and OB patients, no clinically significant change in body mass index percentile occurred. Evidence-based interventions and recommendations for screening tests are needed to address CVD risk in adolescents and young adults with PCOS. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mikkilä, V; Räsänen, L; Raitakari, O T; Pietinen, P; Viikari, J
Dietary patterns are useful in nutritional epidemiology, providing a comprehensive alternative to the traditional approach based on single nutrients. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up. At baseline, detailed quantitative information on subjects' food consumption was obtained using a 48 h dietary recall method (n 1768, aged 3-18 years). The interviews were repeated after 6 and 21 years (n 1200 and n 1037, respectively). We conducted a principal component analysis to identify major dietary patterns at each study point. A set of two similar patterns was recognised throughout the study. Pattern 1 was positively correlated with consumption of traditional Finnish foods, such as rye, potatoes, milk, butter, sausages and coffee, and negatively correlated with fruit, berries and dairy products other than milk. Pattern 1 type of diet was more common among male subjects, smokers and those living in rural areas. Pattern 2, predominant among female subjects, non-smokers and in urban areas, was characterised by more health-conscious food choices such as vegetables, legumes and nuts, tea, rye, cheese and other dairy products, and also by consumption of alcoholic beverages. Tracking of the pattern scores was observed, particularly among subjects who were adolescents at baseline. Of those originally belonging to the uppermost quintile of pattern 1 and 2 scores, 41 and 38 % respectively, persisted in the same quintile 21 years later. Our results suggest that food behaviour and concrete food choices are established already in childhood or adolescence and may significantly track into adulthood.
Cynthia Yursun Yoon
Full Text Available ObjectiveHigher circulating concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs can be used as markers of endothelial dysfunction. Given that the brain is highly vascularized, we assessed whether endothelial function is associated with cognitive performance.MethodWithin the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study, excluding N = 54 with stroke before year 25, we studied CAMs among N = 2,690 black and white men and women in CARDIA year 7 (1992–1993, ages 25–37 and N = 2,848 in CARDIA year 15 (2000–2001, ages 33–45. We included subjects with levels of circulating soluble CAMs measured in year 7 or 15 and cognitive function testing in year 25 (2010–2011, ages 43–55. Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the association between CAMs and year 25 cognitive test scores: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, memory, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, speed of processing, and the Stroop Test (executive function.ResultAll CAM concentrations were greater in year 15 vs. year 7. Adjusting for age, race, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity, participants in the fourth vs. the first quartile of CARDIA year 7 of circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 scored worse on RAVLT, DSST, and Stroop Test (p ≤ 0.05 in CARDIA year 25. Other CAMs showed little association with cognitive test scores. Findings were similar for ICAM-1 assessed at year 15. Adjustment for possibly mediating physical factors attenuated the findings.ConclusionHigher circulating ICAM-1 at average ages 32 and 40 was associated with lower cognitive skills at average age 50. The study is consistent with the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction is associated with worse short-term memory, speed of processing, and executive function.
Heinonen, I; Helajärvi, H; Pahkala, K; Heinonen, O J; Hirvensalo, M; Pälve, K; Tammelin, T; Yang, X; Juonala, M; Mikkilä, V; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T
Objective Sedentary behaviour may contribute to the development of obesity. We investigated the relations between different types of sedentary behaviour and adiposity markers in a well-characterised adult population after controlling for a wide range of potential confounders. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Multicenter Study. Participants Sedentary time (TV viewing, computer time, reading, music/radio listening and other relaxation) was assessed with a questionnaire for 1084 women and 909 men aged 30–45 years. Other study variables included occupational and leisure-time physical activity, sleep duration, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, adherence to the recommended diet, multiple individual food items, age and genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI). Primary outcome measures BMI in kg/m2 and waist circumference (WC in cm). Results Of the different sedentary behaviour types, TV viewing was most consistently related to higher BMI and WC, both in men and women. One additional daily TV hour was associated with a 1.81±0.44 cm larger WC in women and 2 cm±0.44 cm in men (both psedentary behaviour remained associated with adiposity indices only in women. Conclusions Out of the different types of sedentary behaviour, TV viewing was most consistently associated with adiposity markers in adults. Partial dilution of these associations after adjustments for covariates suggests that the obesogenic effects of TV viewing are partly mediated by other lifestyle factors. PMID:23794543
Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes
Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mahendra Narain Mishra
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Arterial thrombosis may occur consequent to hereditary thrombophilia and increased lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] and fibrinogen. Our aim was to study the prevalence of common thrombophilia markers in 85 consecutive cases of arterial thrombosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective study was conducted from 85 consecutive young patients treated as outpatients or admitted due to stroke or myocardial infarction at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Eighty-five Indian patients (age < 45 years presenting ischemic stroke (n = 48 or myocardial infarction (n = 37 and 50 controls were studied for seven thrombophilia markers including antithrombin (AT, factor V, protein C, protein S, activated protein C resistance (APC-R, fibrinogen and Lp(a. Functional assays for protein C, protein S, factor V and APC-R were performed using clotting-based methods. Semi-quantitative estimation of fibrinogen was done using Clauss's method and Lp(a using immunoturbidimetry. Statistical analysis was done using the Epi Info 6 software. RESULTS: Thirty-three samples (38.8% tested positive for one or more thrombophilia markers. The three commonest abnormalities were elevated Lp(a (20%, fibrinogen (17.6% and low APC-R (14.2%. Low levels of protein C, protein S and AT were present in 4.7, 9.4 and 7% of the patients, respectively. Overall, the risk factor profile was: smoking (33%, positive family history (15.3%, hyperlipidemia (7%, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity (2.3% each. CONCLUSIONS: An association was found between low levels of protein C, protein S and AT and arterial thrombosis, but only elevated fibrinogen levels, smoking, positive family history and hyperlipidemia showed statistical significance.
Yoon, Cynthia Yursun; Steffen, Lyn M; Gross, Myron D; Launer, Lenore J; Odegaard, Andrew; Reiner, Alexander; Sanchez, Otto; Yaffe, Kristine; Sidney, Stephen; Jacobs, David R
Higher circulating concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) can be used as markers of endothelial dysfunction. Given that the brain is highly vascularized, we assessed whether endothelial function is associated with cognitive performance. Within the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, excluding N = 54 with stroke before year 25, we studied CAMs among N = 2,690 black and white men and women in CARDIA year 7 (1992-1993, ages 25-37) and N = 2,848 in CARDIA year 15 (2000-2001, ages 33-45). We included subjects with levels of circulating soluble CAMs measured in year 7 or 15 and cognitive function testing in year 25 (2010-2011, ages 43-55). Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the association between CAMs and year 25 cognitive test scores: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, memory), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, speed of processing), and the Stroop Test (executive function). All CAM concentrations were greater in year 15 vs. year 7. Adjusting for age, race, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity, participants in the fourth vs. the first quartile of CARDIA year 7 of circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) scored worse on RAVLT, DSST, and Stroop Test ( p ≤ 0.05) in CARDIA year 25. Other CAMs showed little association with cognitive test scores. Findings were similar for ICAM-1 assessed at year 15. Adjustment for possibly mediating physical factors attenuated the findings. Higher circulating ICAM-1 at average ages 32 and 40 was associated with lower cognitive skills at average age 50. The study is consistent with the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction is associated with worse short-term memory, speed of processing, and executive function.
Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Kershaw, Trace S; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; Lin, Haiqun; Ickovics, Jeannette R
There is evidence that pregnancy-specific stress is associated with preterm birth. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between change in pregnancy-specific stress over the course of pregnancy and birth outcomes (i.e., preterm birth and gestational age) in an understudied but vulnerable group using a theoretically derived model. Multivariate linear and logistic regression techniques were used to examine the association between pregnancy-specific stress (measured in second and third trimester) and length of gestation (i.e., preterm birth and gestational age) among a sample of 920 Black and/or Latina adolescent and young women. Second trimester pregnancy-specific stress was not associated with preterm birth or gestational age. Third trimester pregnancy-specific stress was associated with preterm birth but not with gestational age. Change in pregnancy-specific stress between second and third trimester was significantly associated with increased likelihood of preterm delivery and shortened gestational age, even after controlling for important biological, behavioral, psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural risk factors. Findings emphasize the importance of measuring pregnancy-specific stress across pregnancy, as the longitudinal change from second to third trimester was significantly associated with length of gestation measured both as a dichotomous variable (preterm birth) and a continuous variable (gestational age). Furthermore, this is the first study to observe the association of pregnancy-specific stress with length of gestation in this understudied population-unique in age, race, and ethnicity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Kozakova, Michaela; Palombo, Carlo; Mhamdi, Leila
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Regular endurance exercise has been shown to reduce the age-related increase in arterial stiffness that is thought to contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and habitual physical activity on carotid artery wall thickness...... physical activity was negatively related to indices of carotid stiffness (r from -0.20 to -0.25, Page...... and physical activity were independently related to carotid stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides cross-sectional evidence that habitual physical activity is inversely related to the age-dependent increase in carotid wall stiffness in a young to middle-age population at low risk...
Full Text Available Demographics questionnaires, and fitness tests were utilized to identify the risk factors of hypertension among younger adults in the years 2005, 2010, and 2014 in China’s southwest province of Hubei. The results demonstrated that the prevalence of hypertension was higher between 2011 and 2014 among the young people in this area. The main risk factors of developing hypertension were found to be sex (as man, individuals over 40 years old, blue collar employees who worked in rural areas, overweight/obesity, and those with the low CRF.
Osler, Merete; Christensen, Gunhild T; Garde, Ellen
INTRODUCTION: We examined the association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and dementia in Danish men, brothers, and male twins. METHODS: In total, 666,986 men born between 1939 and 1959 were identified for dementia diagnosis in national registries from 1969 to 2016. The association.......03-1.13]). The intrabrother and twin analyses (taking shared family factors into account) showed attenuated risk estimates but with wide CIs. DISCUSSION: Low early-life cognitive ability increases the risk of dementia before the age of 78 years. The association is partly explained by shared family factors....
Paulo Delgado Ferreira
Full Text Available This study aims to better understand what influences and determines decisions in contexts characterized by complexity and uncertainty, and contributes to the development of recommendations for practice. Based on the work of Davidson-Arad and Benbenishty (2008, 2010, we intended to understand how students from higher education, in scientific areas related to professions involved in decision making processes of children and young people at risk individual care plan, would decide in the presence of a specific case with different scenarios. Participated in the study 200 university students from different regions of Portugal. We used a factorial design (2×2 that involved a questionnaire vignette with four versions. The questionnaire describes the case of a child suspected of being a victim of violence and requires the students to make a decision about the kind of intervention that should be applied in that moment. In addition they must also decide, if the child was removed from her home, whether or not the child should be reunited with the biological family after two years. Among the key findings we highlight the fact that students recognized the risk posed to the child as suffering significant physical and emotional harm. Nevertheless, most decided in favour of an intervention with the biological family, avoiding the removal of the child from their life context. However, in the case of a decision favouring foster care, the majority of the students considered that the child should remain with the foster family when they were asked to reassess the case after two years. It is noted, with statistical significance, that the decision was influenced at first by the agreement or not of the mother to withdrawal and secondly by the child’s desire to be reunited or not with the birth family. We concluded that the development of professional evaluation criteria and decision making should be addressed by including in the curriculum of higher education
Lu, Hai-Xia; Wong, May Chun Mei; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman
Limited information on oral health status for